Kickstarter

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pages: 163 words: 46,523

The Kickstarter Handbook: Real-Life Success Stories of Artists, Inventors, and Entrepreneurs by Steinberg, Don

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3D printing, crowdsourcing, Kickstarter, Skype, Y Combinator

We also use distinctive terminology that has become standard on Kickstarter. For example, by posting a creative project on Kickstarter to raise funding, and setting it up to run for a certain number of days, you are starting a “campaign.” Someone who launches a Kickstarter campaign may be referred to as a “creator.” People who donate money are called “backers,” and what they give is a “pledge.” When a project reaches its financial target, it is considered “funded.” The items that backers receive as thanks for their pledges are always called “rewards.” People who are hip about all things Kickstarter occasionally refer to a campaign as, simply, “a Kickstarter.” A person who launches a campaign may also be called “a Kickstarter.” So, yeah, a Kickstarter can launch a Kickstarter on Kickstarter. Hey, it’s a flexible word, and the author and publisher of this book don’t have to pay a royalty every time we use it, so there you go.

A lot of things like gadgets or software that has a sort of niche audience, you can see why they’re not being manufactured en masse, but there is a global audience. If someone’s trying to offer it and they’ve got a good design, a good team, a good pedigree, that’s a good example of what Kickstarter is for. Is there a good way for someone to pitch a Kickstarter campaign to you? Coldewey: It depends a lot on the quality of the product. The best way to pitch it is to make it seem most like a Kickstarter project. In what way? Coldewey: Not just, we’re using Kickstarter, but, this is a project that’s suitable for Kickstarter. Where it’s like, we’ve got a cool idea and we want to make it, but we have no ability to make it, and all it takes is $20,000. That’s the purpose of Kickstarter. If you can’t convince me that Kickstarter is the right way to connect with people for your product, then it seems wrong. If you’re trying to make a hundred hand-quilted iPad cases or whatever, why don’t you put it on Etsy and make them on demand?

Born as a so-crazy-it-just-might-work notion, Kickstarter was quickly becoming a breeding ground to nurture more such outlandish ideas. But even then, Kickstarter had barely shifted into second gear. By 2011, Publishers Weekly magazine calculated that Kickstarter had become the No. 3 publisher of indie graphic novels in the United States, in terms of the number of book projects it funded. The 2012 Sundance Film Festival, a major showcase for independent films, featured seventeen movies that had received Kickstarter funding, amounting to 10 percent of the festival’s lineup. Early in 2012, Kickstarter announced that it expected to fund creative projects to the tune of $150 million for the year, a slightly larger sum than the 2012 fiscal year budget for the National Endowment for the Arts. (Kickstarter keeps 5 percent of all project funding, so the company and its early backers are clearly doing fine financially.)


pages: 310 words: 34,482

Makers at Work: Folks Reinventing the World One Object or Idea at a Time by Steven Osborn

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3D printing, A Pattern Language, additive manufacturing, air freight, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, c2.com, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mason jar, means of production, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, Oculus Rift, patent troll, popular electronics, Rodney Brooks, Shenzhen was a fishing village, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software as a service, special economic zone, speech recognition, subscription business, telerobotics, urban planning, web application, Y Combinator

Osborn: I just have one more question about Kickstarter. I mean, everybody and their dog is launching Kickstarter projects it seems, and I just want to know about your experiences with it and maybe any hiccups you had or challenges dealing with the Kickstarter model. It sounds like you’re thinking about doing it again already, so I’m guessing you had a pretty good experience. Is there anything you can say there or any advice you have for anybody considering using Kickstarter? Kettenburg: Yes. So we had a couple of bumps in the road with Kickstarter directly, actually. Kickstarter pulled our project when it was around the $200,000 mark. It still worked as a project page, and it was still taking pledges, but you couldn’t find it from any of the Kickstarter pages.You could only come in from a direct link.

When you’re building software that needs that work one hundred percent of the time in the field, there’s a lot of work and a certain amount of finger crossing that goes into it. So the first time that we did a firmware update was a bit exciting. Osborn: Tell me a bit about how you guys launched on Kickstarter—what the Kickstarter experience was like. How did you make the decision to do Makers at Work Kickstarter? You guys are still the most successful Kickstarter campaign, but I think you’re also a really early hardware device on Kickstarter. Like you said, it’s kind of gotten to the point where hardware start-ups are a sexy thing to do now, but you started well before that. Migicovsky: We decided to go on Kickstarter mainly because we were unable to raise money from standard, more typical investment sources. We joined a program called Y Combinator, which is an incubator in Silicon Valley. That was our first connection to the Valley.

We even have an example of that in a video. So there are so many, so many different examples of what you can do with this. Osborn: You launched the Form I on Kickstarter. It had a lot of success there. I know there are a lot of makers right now interested in Kickstarter. It is possible to test the feasibility of something, the commercial viability of something right out the gate, without having to ship it first and take a huge risk or liability up front. I was wondering if you had any advice about Kickstarter or had any interesting experiences with them, or anything you could share? Linder: As you know, our Kickstarter experience was pretty amazing. Above all, it was pretty humbling because what Kickstarter does—it is this amplifier for early adopters, for lack of a better description—and sorry it’s a little bit clichéd, but it’s true.


pages: 184 words: 53,625

Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age by Steven Johnson

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airport security, algorithmic trading, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, future of journalism, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, Jane Jacobs, John Gruber, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, packet switching, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, pre–internet, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, WikiLeaks, working poor, X Prize

But Krupnick was facing this dilemma in 2010, which meant that he had another option: a website named Kickstarter. Founded in April 2009 by Perry Chen, Charles Adler, and Yancey Strickler, Kickstarter is perhaps the most successful of a new generation of “crowdfunding” sites that organize financial support for creative or charitable causes through distributed networks of small donors. On Kickstarter, artists upload short descriptions of their projects: a book of poetry that’s only half completed, a song cycle that has yet to be recorded, a script for a short film that needs a crew to get produced. Kickstarter’s founders defined “creative” quite broadly: technological creativity is welcome, as are innovations in such fields as food or design. More than a few microbreweries have been launched on Kickstarter, and one of the most successful early projects (in terms of funds raised) involved turning the iPod Nano into a wristwatch.

But as Jacob Krupnick discovered, Kickstarter is no pipe dream. Two and a half years after Chen, Adler, and Strickler launched the site, they announced that Kickstarter was on track to raise roughly $200 million for artists in a single fiscal year. The entire annual budget for the National Endowment for the Arts is $154 million. The question with Kickstarter, given its growth rate, is not whether it could ever rival the NEA in its support of the creative arts. The new question is whether it will grow to be ten times the size of the NEA. The peer-network approach to funding worthy causes is hardly limited to Kickstarter alone. Over the past few years, dozens of services have emerged, targeting different problems with similar crowdfunding techniques. Some, such as the Australian service Pozible, share Kickstarter’s focus on creative ideas; others tap into large networks of patrons to support nonprofit charities, such as the site Causes.com, cofounded by Sean Parker, of Napster and Facebook fame.

And that’s not including the political campaigns that have been revolutionized by crowdfunding techniques over the past decade. — Kickstarter and its fellow crowdfunding sites work because the services are built on peer-progressive values. Kickstarter, for instance, took on an existing problem that markets had traditionally fumbled—how do we find and support interesting new creative forms—and radically increased both the density and diversity of the participants. It gave thousands of creative people direct access to the wallets of millions of potential patrons. Before Kickstarter, if you were the sort of person who was interested in supporting fledgling artists, it was actually quite hard to meet fledgling artists, and almost impossible to meet them in bulk. Kickstarter changed all that. It increased the density of links connecting artists and their would-be supporters, and it increased the diversity of those groups.


pages: 238 words: 73,824

Makers by Chris Anderson

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3D printing, Airbnb, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, business process, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, factory automation, Firefox, future of work, global supply chain, global village, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, South of Market, San Francisco, spinning jenny, Startup school, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize, Y Combinator

And then, thanks to Kickstarter, they got ready to out-sell Sony, too. The Pebble team set a Kickstarter target of $100,000. It reached that in just two hours (I was one of those early backers). And then it kept on going. By the end of the first day, it had passed $1 million. By the end of the first week, it had broken the previous Kickstarter record of $3.34 million. After a little more than three weeks, Pebble had already passed $10 million in backing and had pre-sold 85,000 watches. At that point, the team declared the product sold out and got on a plane to Hong Kong to figure out how to actually make such a huge batch of electronics (although they had made smartwatches before, the most successful of them had sold only 1,500 units). Before Pebble’s monthlong Kickstarter fund-raising period was over, it had already achieved the most successful smartwatch launch of all time—and all before actually shipping a single watch.

The biggest projects on Kickstarter, like it or not, are consumer goods. It simply fills a market need that was there all along, waiting for someone to tap it. Voting capital For all Kickstarter’s egalitarian charms, once projects are funded, creators are pretty much on their own to get them actually made. As they’ll quickly discover, the idea is the easy part. Supply-chain management and manufacturing are much harder, to say nothing of just running a small business. What if a community could help decide which user-submitted product ideas get made, just like Kickstarter, but then a team of product-development professionals helps steer the project, handling all the tricky factory issues? That, in a nutshell, is the model of Quirky, which launched around the same time as Kickstarter in 2009 and is growing just as fast.

And all this without giving up any of the company, getting into debt, or even doing much more than posting a video and project description on a website. Underground VC Kickstarter solves three huge problems for entrepreneurs. First, it simply moves revenues forward in time, to right when they’re needed. One of the reasons startups traditionally have to raise money at the start is to pay for product development, tooling, purchasing components, and manufacturing, all of which they’ll presumably get back later when they sell the products. But if they can turn those sales into presales, which is essentially what Kickstarter does, they’ll have the money when they need it and won’t have to raise venture capital or take out a loan. Second, Kickstarter turns customers into a community. By backing a project, you’re doing more than pre-buying a product. You’re also betting on a team, and in turn they update you with progress reports and respond to suggestions in comments and discussion forums during the product’s genesis.


pages: 385 words: 101,761

Creative Intelligence: Harnessing the Power to Create, Connect, and Inspire by Bruce Nussbaum

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3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, declining real wages, demographic dividend, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, follow your passion, game design, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, invisible hand, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Gruber, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, new economy, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, race to the bottom, reshoring, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, Tesla Model S, The Chicago School, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The Myth of the Rational Market, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, tulip mania, We are the 99%, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar

Charles Adler presentation in the author’s Parsons course Design at the Edge, spring 2012. 87 The first Kickstarter projects: Ibid. 87 Between its launch in 2009 and October 2012: http://www.kickstarter.com/help/stats, accessed October 4, 2012. 87 which had an operating budget: http://www.arts.gov/about/budget/ appropriationshistory.html, accessed October 19, 2012. 87 A campaign for new watches: “Transform Your iPod Nano into the World’s Coolest Multi-Touch Watches with TikTok + LunaTik by Scott Wilson and MINIMAL,” Kickstarter campaign site, http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/ 1104350651/tiktok-lunatik-multi-touch-watch-kits. 87 San Francisco–based studio raised: “Doublefine Adventure,” Kickstarter campaign page, accessed September 11, 2012, http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/doublefine/ double-fine-adventure?ref=live. 88 JOBS Act, new legislation: Mark Landler, “Obama Signs Bill to Promote Start-Up Investments,” New York Times, April 5, 2012, accessed September 11, 2012, hhtp://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/06/us/politics/obama-signs-bill-to-ease-investing-in-start-ups.html; Ryan Caldbeck, “How the JOBS Act Could Change Startup Investing Forever,” TechCrunch, March 16, 2012, accessed September 11, 2012, http://techcrunch.com/2012/03/16/ crowdfundingstartups/. 88 We all hold a number: I am deeply indebted to my wife, Leslie M.

CHAPTER 4 85 Charles Adler loved music: I first met Charles in Chicago at the Design Research Conference put on by the IIT Institute of Design from October 24 to 26, 2011. He gave a presentation at that conference about the origins of Kickstarter. I interviewed him November 9, 2011, and he gave a talk in my Parsons course Design at the Edge the following spring (2012). 86 Chen was living in New York: Charles Adler, personal interviews with the author. Charles Adler presentation in the author’s Parsons course Design at the Edge, spring 2012; Carlye Adler, “How Kickstarter Became a Lab for Daring Prototypes and Ingenious Products, Wired, March 18, 2011, accessed September 11, 2012, http://www.wired.com/magazine/2011/03/ ff_kickstarter/2/. 86 All transactions are handled: Yancey Strickler, “Amazon Payments and US-Only” Kickstarter Blog post, October 3, 2009, http://www.kickstarter.com/blog/amazon-payments-and-us-only, accessed September 11, 2012. 86 On one level Chen, Strickler: Charles Adler: personal interviews with the author.

Investors, or “patrons,” help create something new and perhaps important. The experience is not a simple transaction like buying a work of art at a gallery or an album off iTunes. It’s deeper and richer. The first Kickstarter projects raised $1,000, $5,000, even $25,000. But the audience for participating in the creative process proved both larger and more willing to invest than the founders had imagined. Between its launch in 2009 and October 2012, successful Kickstarter projects raised a total of $316 million, mostly for art and music. If Kickstarter continues to grow at this rate, it will soon rival the National Endowment for the Arts, which had an operating budget of $146 million for 2012. But Kickstarter doesn’t finance just art and music. A campaign for new watches based on the iPod nano music player (you snap it into a special wrist band) raised nearly $1 million; the resulting products, TikTok and LunaTik, sold tens of thousands for their designer, Scott Wilson, at his company Minimal in Chicago.


pages: 216 words: 61,061

Without Their Permission: How the 21st Century Will Be Made, Not Managed by Alexis Ohanian

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Airbnb, barriers to entry, carbon-based life, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Hans Rosling, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, Occupy movement, Paul Graham, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, software is eating the world, Startup school, Tony Hsieh, unpaid internship, Y Combinator

Actually, most investments are done via duffel bags full of cash—or via wire transfer. 5. Okay, I have to confess. I didn’t eat any ramen during reddit. My low-cost staple was hummus. The Armenian way. 6. Note to Mark: If you’re reading this, it’d better not count as billable time. 7. That would be the aforementioned Kiko.com, undone by Gmail’s web calendar. 8. http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/597507018/pebble-e-paper-watch-for-iphone-and-android 9. http://www.wired.com/gadgetlab/2012/04/pebble-smartwatch-breaks-kickstarter-record-in-five-days/ 10. http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1610300135/brooklyns-cool-colonie-restaurant-coming-soon-to-b?ref=search 11. Yoda, in Star Wars: Episode V—The Empire Strikes Back (1980). There’s a good chance, based on my reader demographic, that you may not know this movie very well. If you do, you may not even think it’s the best one of the series.

A friend and fellow startup dude, Chris Dixon, describes the extreme version of this by saying, “The next big thing will start out looking like a toy.”3 One example of this would be Kickstarter. Their first project, Drawing for Dollars, surpassed its humble twenty-dollar goal by raising thirty-five dollars, which came from three backers who bought artwork from an artist in Long Island City.4 Less than three years later, a team using the same platform raised ten million dollars in preorders for a futuristic watch called Pebble.5 The idea of a group of people pitching in to make something come to fruition is hardly novel, but the way the Kickstarter team leveraged the Internet to pitch to millions of people simultaneously (as opposed to a coterie of traditional investors) certainly was. Know What You’re Doing Once you’ve identified a problem, you might be tempted to dive right in and start trying to solve it.

Pebble had trouble, even after graduating from Y Combinator and after a dogged effort at raising awareness on AngelList—too many investors were worried about hardware startups, reflecting the fact that most investors prefer software, which scales, over anything else. So Pebble began a Kickstarter campaign to fund production of their first batch of watches, aiming to raise one hundred thousand dollars in preorders. They raised that in mere hours. Once potential customers got a look at their product, everything changed. Granted, these watches look awesome, and the “dream team” they’d assembled was a bright group of Canadians from the University of Waterloo, but even founder Eric Migicovsky was surprised when the campaign raised more than ten million dollars from about sixty-eight thousand people worldwide ($10,266,845, to be exact).8 They actually capped preorder requests in order to satisfy expectations, but not before nearly every publication that covers tech or gadgets gushed about their unprecedented Kickstarter campaign. I know this team well, not only because I was there in the room for their Y Combinator interview but also because I ended up managing the team that does their social media.


pages: 368 words: 96,825

Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator

Census Bureau.” 3 Devin Thorpe, “Why Crowdfunding Will Explode in 2013,” Forbes, October 15, 2012, http://www.forbes.com/sites/devinthorpe/2012/10/15/get-ready-here-it-comes-crowdfunding-will-explode-in-2013/. 4 Victoria Silchenko, “Why Crowdfunding Is The Next Big Thing: Let’s Talk Numbers,” Huffington Post, October 22, 2012, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/victoria-silchenko/why-crowdfunding-is-the-n_b_1990230.html. 5 Laurie Kulikowski, “How Equity Crowdfunding Can Swell to a $300 Billion Industry,” The Street, January 14, 2013, http://www.thestreet.com/story/11811196/1/how-equity-crowdfunding-can-swell-to-a-300-billion-industry.html. 6 “Floating Pool Project Is Fully Funded And New Yorkers Everywhere Should Celebrate,” Huffington Post, July 12, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/07/12/floating-pool-project-is-fully-funded_n_3587814.html. 7 AI with Joshua Klein, 2013. 8 Dan Leone, “Planetary Resources Raises $1.5M for Crowdfunded Space Telescope,” Space.com, July 14, 2013, http://www.space.com/21953-planetary-resources-crowdfunded-space-telescope.html. 9 For a good breakdown of these rules, please see http://www.cfira.org. 10 AI with Chance Barnett, 2013. 11 This information sits on a banner across the top of their landing page: https://www.crowdfunder.com, our numbers were gathered in June 2014. 12 See http://blog.angel.co/post/59121578519/wow-uber. 13 Tomio Geron, “AngelList, With SecondMarket, Opens Deals to Small Investors for as Little as $1K,” Forbes, December 19, 2012, http://www.forbes.com/sites/tomiogeron/2012/12/19/angellist-with-secondmarket-opens-deals-to-small-investors-for-as-little-as-1k/. 14 John McDermott, “Pebble ‘Smartwatch’ Funding Soars on Kickstarter,” Inc., April 20, 2012, http://www.inc.com/john-mcdermott/pebble-smartwatch-funding-sets-kickstarter-record.html. 15 Dara Kerr, “World’s first public space telescope gets Kickstarter goal,” CNET, July 1, 2013, http://www.cnet.com/news/worlds-first-public-space-telescope-gets-kickstarter-goal/. 16 McDermott, “Pebble ‘Smartwatch’ Funding Soars on Kickstarter.” 17 See https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/let-s-build-a-goddamn-tesla-museum--5. 18 Kerr, “World’s first public space telescope gets Kickstarter goal.” 19 Cade Metz, “Facebook Buys VR Startup Oculus for $2 Billion,” Wired, March 25, 2014, http://www.wired.com/2014/03/facebook-acquires-oculus/. 20 All Indiegogo stats come from AIs with founders Danae Ringelmann and Slava Rubin, conducted in 2013. 21 Ibid. 22 Ibid. 23 AI with Eric Migicovsky, 2013. 24 See www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/abrahamlin109275.html. 25 Eric Gilbert and Tanushree Mitra, “The Language that Gets People to Give: Phrases that Predict Success on Kickstarter,” CSCW’14, February 15, 2014, http://comp.social.gatech.edu/papers/cscw14.crowdfunding.mitra.pdf. 26 AI with Ringelmann and Rubin, 2013. 27 AI with Migicovsky. 28 AI with Ringelmann and Rubin. 29 AI with Migicovsky.

PART THREE: THE BOLD CROWD Chapter Seven: Crowdsourcing: Marketplace of the Rising Billion 1 Netcraft Web Server Survey, Netcraft, Accessed June 2014, http://news.netcraft.com/archives/category/web-server-survey/. 2 AI with Jake Nickell and Jacob DeHart. 3 Jeff Howe, “The Rise of Crowdfunding,” Wired, 2006, http://archive.wired.com/wired/archive/14.06/crowds_pr.html. 4 Rob Hof, “Second Life’s First Millionaire,” Bloomberg Businessweek, November 26, 2006, http://www.businessweek.com/the_thread/techbeat/archives/2006/11/second_lifes_fi.html. 5 Jeff Howe, “Crowdsourcing: A Definition,” Crowdsourcing, http://crowdsourcing.typepad.com/cs/2006/06/crowdsourcing_a.html. 6 “Statistics,” Kiva, http://www.kiva.org/about/stats. 7 Rob Walker, “The Trivialities and Transcendence of Kickstarter,” New York Times, August 5, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/07/magazine/the-trivialities-and-transcendence-of-kickstarter.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. 8 “Stats,” Kickstarter, https://www.kickstarter.com/help/stats. 9 Doug Gross, “Google boss: Entire world will be online by 2020,” CNN, April 15, 2013, http://www.cnn.com/2013/04/15/tech/web/eric-schmidt-internet/. 10 “Global entertainment and media outlook 2013–2017,” PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2013, https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/global-entertainment-media-outlook/. 11 Freelancer Case Study based on a series of AIs. 12 Quoted from AI: Matt Barrie. 13 Tongal Case Study based on a series of AIs with James DeJulio. 14 reCAPTCHA and Duolingo Case Study based on a series of AIs with Luis von Ahn. 15 During the completion of this book, a Bay Area startup called Vicarious wrote an AI program able to solve (i.e., read) CAPTCHAs with an accuracy of 90 percent.

By 2013 that number had jumped to $526,460,675 in loans from 1,047,653 Kiva lenders while maintaining a 98.96 percent repayment rate.6 This was also the same time when crowdfunding sites like Indiegogo and Kickstarter came into being, giving birth to a new way to raise money for creative projects. Want to make a movie? Cut a new CD? Design a new kind of watch? Just put a video up on either of these sites and ask the crowd for the money. It didn’t take long before theNew York Times started calling Kickstarter “the people’s NEA [National Endowment for the Arts],” and well, they weren’t kidding.7 In 2010, the site raised over $27 million and funded 3,910 projects. The following year, the amount raised jumped to $99 million, funding 11,836 projects. In 2013, these figures were north of $480 million and some 19,911 projects.8 And Kickstarter is only one example. While Indiegogo has not released its growth numbers, in early 2014, its success was impressive enough to command a $40 million equity investment, the largest venture investment yet for a crowdfunding start-up.


pages: 260 words: 76,223

Ctrl Alt Delete: Reboot Your Business. Reboot Your Life. Your Future Depends on It. by Mitch Joel

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3D printing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, call centre, clockwatching, cloud computing, Firefox, future of work, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, place-making, prediction markets, pre–internet, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, WikiLeaks

That sounds like a solid first year of sales considering the product doesn’t even exist yet—not to mention the four thousand strong and loyal direct relationships that have been created. Is this all new media hyperbole? Does this truly have an effect on business? Consider this last piece of data from the Kickstarter world: In February 2012, Yancey Strickler (one of Kickstarter’s co-founders) said in an interview with Talking Points Memo that Kickstarter was on course to disburse over $150 million to its various projects in 2012. To put this into perspective, the National Endowment for the Arts had a fiscal 2012 budget of $146 million. On top of that, several Kickstarter projects have topped $1 million in funding from backers. As Kickstarter’s popularity continues to grow and inspires new and exciting entrepreneurs, we’re starting to see that businesses that create powerful direct relationships based on value can achieve staggering financial results.

Without knowing if there would be a market for Pen Type-A and not having the resources to turn this design concept into any semblance of a serious business model, they turned to one of the hottest online destinations, Kickstarter, to get a feel for the potential market. If you don’t know about Kickstarter, well, now’s the time for you to find out: Kickstarter is a simple crowdfunding platform that allows individuals to post their creative projects (everything from music and film to technology and journalism) and to start an online threshold-pledge system for the funding of the project. It is, without question, the most interesting thing happening online right now. In short: If you can’t get a movie deal, you can post your project to Kickstarter, define the budget, and invite anybody and everybody who thinks it’s a good idea to become a backer. This doesn’t mean that a backer is an investor in the actual company; rather, backers are pre-paying for a product that has yet to be developed (creators establish different levels for backing a project and what those levels receive in terms of products and services).

Many people have great ideas that can be explained in simple three-minute online videos, but very few people have the skills to then execute the ideas successfully. Kickstarter has reduced the mountain between ideation and execution into the proverbial molehill. Now, by posting their ideas with a clear financial structure on Kickstarter, businesses can find out—in short order—if there really is a market for their wares. Kickstarter is a New York startup that was founded in April 2009. According to Wikipedia, the company has raised more than $275 million for more than sixty-five thousand projects since it got started. Even more impressive, Kickstarter has a project success rate of close to 45 percent. (Success is defined by whether the project met or surpassed the threshold set by the project organizers or creators.)


pages: 215 words: 55,212

The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, Google Earth, Internet of things, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar

For Mesh businesses, it is an ongoing imperative to understand the community, what its members consider valuable, and how to deliver that value. If you do, they’ll love you for it. And think you’re cool, too. CASE STUDY: Kickstarter In April 2009, a new way to fund creative ideas and projects made a splash on the Internet. Designers, filmmakers, journalists, inventors, artists, and other creatives flocked to Kickstarter, a platform for soliciting small yet consequential monetary contributions from donors. Kickstarter is powered by a unique funding method that is not about personal investing: project creators maintain 100 percent ownership of their intellectual property. Starting a project on Kickstarter is free, but currently projects are posted by invitation only, and must be based in the United States. Founder Perry Chen says Kickstarter plans to assist international project creators in the future. To initiate a project, creators set a funding goal and a deadline of up to ninety days after the project’s posting date.

With viral support, donations can pile up quickly: one $8,900 book project was 200 percent funded within the first forty-eight hours. Even if the funding goal is surpassed, projects can accept pledges until the funding deadline arrives. Kickstarter applies a fee of 5 percent to the amount raised. The caveat: if a funding goal isn’t achieved, all pledges are canceled, and no money changes hands. As donors and artists bring their own social networks to the site, the potential for donors to find new interesting projects, and for artists to reach more donors, naturally builds. Perry reports that Kickstarter is increasing the number of projects and the volume of its transactions at a rate of about 20 percent a month. Kickstarter has momentum, a growing following, angel investors, and a big idea—perfect ingredients for success in the Mesh. A similar service is off and running in France called Kisskissbankbank. 3 Mesh Design WHAT’S HERE: heirloom design, or the half-life of crap; the welcome return of Mr.

With the book and the Mesh directory, she’s empowering people to connect with each other and build profitable, sustainable businesses together. How very meshy of her!” —DENISE CARUSO, former New York Times technology columnist; senior research scholar, Carnegie Mellon University “Gansky lucidly describes how a new generation of companies make their community’s passion, intelligence, and resources a core part of the business itself. Kickstarter is honored to be included as part of this new movement.” —PERRY CHEN, cofounder and CEO, Kickstarter “At ThredUP, we fully embrace what Gansky calls the Mesh and are rapidly growing our service, community base, brand, and ecosystem around a new business model dedicated to extending the life of kids’ clothing and making parents very happy!” —JAMES REINHART, cofounder and CEO, ThredUp “Crushpad is a true Mesh business. Equal parts winemaking, Internet, and community involvement, Crushpad enables anyone with a true passion for wine to create their very own at the highest level.


pages: 302 words: 73,581

Platform Scale: How an Emerging Business Model Helps Startups Build Large Empires With Minimum Investment by Sangeet Paul Choudary

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, frictionless, game design, hive mind, Internet of things, invisible hand, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, Paul Graham, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, social software, software as a service, software is eating the world, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, TaskRabbit, the payments system, too big to fail, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Wave and Pay

Ironically, while MySpace remains a mere footnote in the history of social networking, YouTube, meanwhile, has grown to become one of the most relevant platforms of our time. 2.It plays on the producer-as-sender dynamic. Encouraging producers to spread their creation at the point of production drives growth for many content platforms. Some platforms like Instagram, Kickstarter and SurveyMonkey actively encourage this as part of the user workflow. 3.The spread of the unit helps to complete an incomplete interaction. An unanswered question on Quora is a spreadable unit demanding social feedback in the form of an answer. A fresh survey on SurveyMonkey needs responses. A Kickstarter project is a bid to potential funders to come over to Kickstarter and fund the project. While not necessarily a requirement for all spreadable units, the incompleteness of the interaction creates an active call to action for the recipient, prompting them to act. Spreadable units remain the most important, yet least understood, element of designing for viral adoption.

This strategy works when the following design considerations are satisfied by the platform: 1.The platform offers a compelling organic incentive for producers to bring consumers onto the platform. 2.The ‘off-platform’ influence and following of the average individual producer is significant enough to attract a large number of consumers to the platform. 3.The platform allows producers to interact with their followers (consumers) in a much more efficient way than currently allowed by alternative channels. TOOLS TO HARVEST FOLLOWERS One of the most common manifestations of this strategy is seen in the launch of platforms like Kickstarter and Udemy. These platforms allow producers to ‘harvest’ their existing connections and followers on other networks like email, social networks, and blogs. Kickstarter allows project creators to raise funding from their connections and followers. Skillshare allows teachers to teach a course to their followers (and subsequently others). These ‘follower harvesting’ use cases offer compelling incentives for producers to bring in their following. Over time, as different producers bring in their followers, the platform builds out a network of all producers and consumers, allowing followers of producer A to consume from producer B, and so on.

These startups do not divorce the act of scaling from the actual usage of the offering. As more users use the offering, the offering’s growth rate increases. More pictures created and shared from Instagram expose Instagram to even more users. As users create and send out surveys from SurveyMonkey, survey recipients get exposed to the platform and come on board to create their own surveys. Kickstarter’s project creators spread the word about Kickstarter every time they promote their project. All these offerings are designed to get greater exposure through usage, and that is a common design pattern that we see repeated across scalable startups. As more users use the offering, it gets exposed to new users, leading to greater growth. These startups implement growth within the offering, much like an engine sits within a car and powers the car forward.


pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

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3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

The book is available for purchase at http://www.bulldozingtheway.com/. 16. https://buy.louisck.net/news/a-statement-from-louis-c-k 17. https://buy.louisck.net/purchase/live-at-the-beacon-theater 18. http://www.gq.com/entertainment/tv/blogs/the-stream/2012/03/aziz-ansari-dangerously-delicious-standup-online.html 19. http://bigthink.com/ideas/42326 20. Kickstarter statistics are constantly updated at http://www.kickstarter.com/help/stats. 21. http://www.kickstarter.com/blog/10000-successful-projects 22. http://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/01/30/at-sundance-kickstarter-resembled-a-movie-studio-but-without-the-egos/ 23. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/06/22/magazine/22madmen-t.html 24. Levine, Free Ride, 141. 25. http://www.slate.com/articles/business/moneybox/2012/02/i_paid_4_million_for_this_.html 26. http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/164/major-league-baseball-advanced-media-bam 27.

Self-financing and hitting up friends is probably what bands have always done when they want to record something but don’t have a record deal; what has changed is that Kickstarter (like other Web resources) reduces the search and transaction costs for hitting up friends (and in some cases others who find out about it), including the cost of distributing the rewards that incentivize the donors or investors. And it’s hardly a unique story. Among the over 26,000 projects successfully funded on Kickstarter since its inception in 2008, a third have been music albums, another third film or video, and about a tenth writing and publishing projects.20 Not one of these projects needed a big studio, big record label, or big publisher to back them.21 Approximately one-tenth of the films premiering at Sundance Film Festival in 2012 were at least partially funded on Kickstarter, leading David Carr to remark in the New York Times that “at Sundance Kickstarter resembled a movie studio, but without the egos.”22 And Kickstarter is just one of several crowd-sourced funding sites.

Among the over 26,000 projects successfully funded on Kickstarter since its inception in 2008, a third have been music albums, another third film or video, and about a tenth writing and publishing projects.20 Not one of these projects needed a big studio, big record label, or big publisher to back them.21 Approximately one-tenth of the films premiering at Sundance Film Festival in 2012 were at least partially funded on Kickstarter, leading David Carr to remark in the New York Times that “at Sundance Kickstarter resembled a movie studio, but without the egos.”22 And Kickstarter is just one of several crowd-sourced funding sites. Others include Indiegogo.com, focused on funding indie films, and PledgeMusic.com, for musicians. After the Great Unknowns’ second album, Andy went back to academia. Kickstarter had given them enough funding to make another album but not enough to cover the marketing and touring expenses the band would accrue when promoting the album professionally. All the band members have day jobs but play music seriously. Without the support of big labels, they and others of their generation are building small audiences and scraping together the money to pursue their careers. The nature of commercial music making has changed, clearly, and with it traditional artistic career paths.


pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

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3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

Take just one example: Johnson thinks that a site like Kickstarter offers a much better model of funding arts than, say, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA); in fact, he thinks it’s just a matter of time before Kickstarter overtakes the NEA. “The question with Kickstarter, given its growth rate, is not whether it could rival the NEA in its support of the creative arts. The new question is whether it will grow to be ten times the size of the NEA.” Elsewhere in the book, Johnson writes that he doesn’t want to scrap the NEA, only to make it work more like Kickstarter; what’s most interesting about his argument, however, is that he doesn’t spell out why the NEA should become like Kickstarter and what makes the latter’s model superior. Perhaps, Johnson simply doesn’t have to, as his audience can anticipate the argument that is implied: the Kickstarter approach is simply better because it comes from “the Internet.” This odd and shortsighted claim focuses on the mechanics of the platform rather than on the substance of what institutions like the NEA actually do.

Now, this is a very different model from the top-down hierarchical model of the NEA, in which a bunch of artsy bureaucrats make all the decisions as to what art to fund. But the fact that Kickstarter offers a more efficient platform for some projects to raise more money more effectively—bypassing the bureaucrats and increasing participation—does not mean it will yield better, more innovative art or support art that, in our age of cat videos, might seem old-fashioned and unnecessary. Sites like Kickstarter tend to favor populist projects, which may or may not be good for the arts overall. The same logic applies to other governmental and quasi-governmental institutions as well: if the National Endowment for Democracy worked like Kickstarter, it would have to spend all its money on funding projects like the highly viral Kony 2012 campaign, which, all things considered, may only be of secondary importance to both democracy promotion and US foreign policy as a whole.

When you have the BBC’s lawyers backing you up, you’ll probably take many more risks than if you are relying on crowdfunding. But if Kickstarter is your platform of choice, you’ll probably forgo venturing into the thorny legal issues altogether. Both of these arguments show the danger of viewing the nimble and crowd-powered Kickstarter as an alternative (rather than a supplement!) to the behemoth that is the BBC, or in the American context, the NEA. This might fit quite nicely with David Cameron’s rhetoric of the “Big Society”—whereby individuals take on the roles formerly performed by public institutions—but it would be a mistake to treat the two approaches as producing the same content through different means. Some content is simply unlikely to get crowdfunded. Johnson, however, does not want to make his case for reforming the NEA on aesthetic grounds; for him, Kickstarter is better because it’s more Internet-like and more participatory.


pages: 56 words: 16,788

The New Kingmakers by Stephen O'Grady

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Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, cloud computing, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, DevOps, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Netflix Prize, Paul Graham, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, software is eating the world, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, Y Combinator

Businesses like Dropbox, which turned down a nine-digit offer from Steve Jobs and subsequently raised money at a four-billion-dollar valuation. For developers that don’t wish to surrender any control, Kickstarter represents yet another funding option. Founded in 2008, Kickstarter is a crowd source funding platform that had attracted $175 million in contributions as of April 2012. The model is simple: for a commission of 5% on each project—and a few additional percentage points due Amazon for usage of their payments network—Kickstarter provides artists, filmmakers, developers, and others with a direct line to potential individual investors. Unlike traditional venture capital, however, Kickstarter claims no ownership stake in funded projects—all rights are retained by the project owners. Though Kickstarter is by no means focused strictly on developers, they have been among the most impressive beneficiaries.

Though Kickstarter is by no means focused strictly on developers, they have been among the most impressive beneficiaries. Of the top projects by funds raised, the first three are video games. In March 2012, Double Fine Adventure set the record for Kickstarter projects, attracting $3.3 million in crowd-sourced financing. Number two on the list, Wasteland 2, raised just under $3 million, with third place Shadowrun Returns receiving $1.8 million. The Kickstarter model is less established than even seed-stage venture dollars, but it shows every sign of being a powerful funding option for developers moving forward. In little more than a decade, developers had gained access to free software, affordable hardware, powerful networking tools, and more entrepreneur-friendly financing options. Things would never be the same again. Chapter 4. The Evidence What Would a Developer’s World Look Like? If members of the newly empowered developer class really are the New Kingmakers, shaping their own destiny and increasingly setting the technical agenda, how could we tell?


pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review

Korean pop dance video “Gangnam Style”: Officialpsy, “Psy—Gangnam Style M/V,” YouTube, July 15, 2012, accessed August 19, 2015, https://goo.gl/LoetL. 9 million fans to fund 88,000 projects: “Stats,” Kickstarter, accessed June 25, 2015. raise more than $34 billion each year: “Global Crowdfunding Market to Reach $34.4B in 2015, Predicts Massolution’s 2015 CF Industry Report,” Crowdsourcing.org, April 7, 2015. about 20,000 people who raised: “The Year in Kickstarter 2013,” Kickstarter, January 9, 2014. unless the total amount is raised: “Creator Handbook: Funding,” Kickstarter, accessed July 31, 2015. highest grossing Kickstarter campaign: Pebble Time is currently the most funded Kickstarter, with $20,338,986 to date. “Most Funded,” Kickstarter, accessed August 18, 2015. 40 percent of all projects succeed: “Stats: Projects and Dollars Success Rate,” Kickstarter, accessed July 31, 2015. SeedInvest and FundersClub: Marianne Hudson, “Understanding Crowdfunding and Emerging Trends,” Forbes, April 9, 2015.

The technology of sharing enables the power of one fan who is willing to prepay an artist or author to be aggregated (with little effort) together with hundreds of other fans into a significant pool of money. The most renowned crowdfunder is Kickstarter, which in the seven years since it was launched has enabled 9 million fans to fund 88,000 projects. Kickstarter is one of about 450 crowdfunding platforms worldwide; others, such as Indiegogo, are almost as prolific. Altogether, crowdfunding platforms raise more than $34 billion each year for projects that would not have been funded in any other way. In 2013, I was one of about 20,000 people who raised money from fans on Kickstarter. A few friends and I created a full-color graphic novel—or what used to be called a comic book for grown-ups. We calculated we needed $40,000 to pay writers and artists to create and print the second volume of our story, called The Silver Cord. So we went onto Kickstarter and made a short video pitch for what we wanted the money for.

So we went onto Kickstarter and made a short video pitch for what we wanted the money for. Kickstarter runs an ingenious escrow service so that the full grant (in our case $40,000) is not handed over to the creators until and unless the total amount is raised. If the drive is even a dollar short at the end of 30 days, the money is returned immediately to the funders and the fund-raisers (us) get nothing. This protects the fans, since an insufficiently funded project is doomed to fail; it also employs the classic network economics of turning your fans into your chief marketers, since once they contribute they become motivated to make sure you reach your goal by recruiting their friends to your campaign. Occasionally, unexpectedly popular fan-financed Kickstarter projects may pile on an additional $1 million above the goal. The highest grossing Kickstarter campaign raised $20 million for a digital watch from its future fans.


pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar

Michael Porter and Mark Kramer, “Creating Shared Value: Redefining Capitalism and the Role of the Corporation in Society,” Harvard Business Review, January 2011. 6. Trade School, “About,” http://tradeschool.coop/about. 7. Ibid. 8. Kickstarter, “Stats,” www.kickstarter.com/help/stats. 9. Accenture, “The ‘Greater’ Wealth Transfer: Capitalizing on the Intergenerational Shift in Wealth,” 2012, www.accenture.com/us-en/Pages/insight-capitalizing-intergenerational-shift-wealth-capital-markets-summary.aspx. 10. Adrianne Jeffries, “If You Back a Kickstarter Project That Sells for $2 Billion, Do You Deserve to Get Rich?” TheVerge.com, March 28, 2014, www.theverge.com/2014/3/28/5557120/what-if-oculus-rift-kickstarter-backers-had-gotten-equity. 11. Greg Belote, “What If Oculus Crowdfunded for Equity? A 145x Return,” WeFunder, March 26, 2014, https://wefunder.me/post/42-what-if-oculus-crowdfunded-for-equity. 12.

In exchange for instruction, teachers received everything from running shoes to mixed CDs, from letters to a stranger to cheddar cheese.”6 A year later, the Trade School decided to turn to Kickstarter again to raise $9,000 to repeat the experiment for a longer period of time and to pay for some materials and a staff coordinator. Successful for a second time, the idea attracted attention from cities around the world. Trade Schools were opening in Oakland, Singapore, London, New Delhi, Sherbrooke, Jamaica, Purchase, Guadalajara, Cardiff, San Francisco, Bangkok, Paris, San Francisco, New Haven, and Milan, and all of them were seeking advice and support of the original group in Brooklyn. So the team turned back to Kickstarter to raise $10,000 to reimburse the freelance engineers and designers building an open-source Web platform that would make the lives of volunteers in all those cities much easier.7 Since 2009 Kickstarter has funneled nearly $1.4 billion to more than 70,000 projects, which are usually small, one-of-a-kind efforts.8 It’s great for pilots or small projects, but not enough to get a platform through the controlled kernel phase.

GIFT CROWDFUNDING AND EQUITY CROWDFUNDING The Peers Inc structure has enabled a new class of crowdfunding for all kinds of efforts, unleashing, organizing, and empowering small-scale funders. We’ll follow Caroline Woolard, a Brooklyn-based artist and organizer who founded the Trade School, a platform for participation in which anyone in the New York community could sign up to teach a one-session class, which was offered free to anyone who showed up to attend. She successfully raised money using Kickstarter several times. Kickstarter and Indiegogo (among others) let people contribute money to projects of all kinds without taking any equity. Instead of equity, donors are given a range of thank-you gifts depending on how much they’ve contributed. In 2010, Caroline co-founded a community experiment in a small storefront in Brooklyn, where people took classes in exchange for barter. Over the course of thirty-five days, eight hundred people participated in seventy-six single-session classes.


pages: 510 words: 120,048

Who Owns the Future? by Jaron Lanier

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3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, automated trading system, barriers to entry, bitcoin, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, delayed gratification, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, packet switching, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

The Kicker Since I have long been concerned that the Internet has killed more jobs than it has created, I have been keenly interested in ventures that might reverse the trend. Kickstarter is a relevant experiment. Its original motivation was to make philanthropy more efficient, but here the focus will be on the way Kickstarter facilitates finance for new business ventures. Entrepreneurs raise money from the multitudes in advance of doing something they propose to do, but in a way that bypasses traditional ideas about finance.* Early supporters don’t get equity, but they do often get something concrete, like a “first edition” of a new product. Is this not a sterling example of how the ’net can make capital available to unconventional innovators in nontraditional ways? What’s not to like? *Kickstarter is just one example of many. The idea is trendy, and is promoted in recent legislation such the 2012 JOBS act.

Indeed I like it, and I especially like that my friend Keith McMillen was able to launch an innovative music controller using it. Keith has been a celebrated musical instrument designer for years, and he had an idea for a new kind of digital musical device called the QuNeo. Instead of going the usual route of pitching investors, he used Kickstarter to pitch his future customers directly. They loved the idea, and his QuNeo controller became one of Kickstarter’s fine early success stories. Hordes of customers lined up and prepaid for a device that didn’t exist yet, turning into pseudo-investors and customers at the same time. Kickstarter as a tool for funding product development isn’t perfect. It would be even better if it supported the creation of risk pools for multiple projects, and an insurance or risk management system for customers. Siren Servers suffer the delusion that someone else can always take all the risk, that ignored risk will never come around to bite you.

Can an innovation hub really radiate all risk away from itself? Kickstarter has experimented with changing the rules to reduce the risks taken by supporters of projects. For instance, inventors were at one point suddenly forbidden from showing realistic renderings of what an end product might look like. That rule supposedly reduced the risk that a supporter would perceive a project to be closer to fruition than it really was. Even if the rule had the desired effect, is it not absurd to deny inventors the ability to show pictures of what they intend to create? But it’s the sort of strategy a Siren Server must resort to in order to retain an arm’s-length, risk-free state of being. Here is the question and answer about the policy from the Kickstarter website: How will Kickstarter know whether something is a simulation or rendering [ . . . instead of a photograph of a physical prototype]?


pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar

In fact, late in 2015, the company reaffirmed its position by becoming a benefit corporation, renewing its longstanding commitment to supporting the arts and culture, and articulating other values and commitments it intended to live by.43 If one looks at the composition of projects funded on Kickstarter, some of the “gift” motivations become clearer. A large percentage of Kickstarter projects are those that would have traditionally been funded by a foundation or a wealthy local business looking to support the arts, or through a charity walk, or by a group of friends. As Brian Meece, the founder and CEO of Kickstarter competitor RocketHub told me in 2013, crowdfunding is a social event, and a successful project is one that is curated in the same way you would a good party. In many ways, thus, the psychology of funding projects on Kickstarter is much more social than commercial. It is much more a gift economy than a market economy, with the norms associated with philanthropic giving.

If the funding goal is reached, the creative entrepreneur receives their money. Between 2009 and 2015, close to nine million people pledged close to $2 billion for hundreds of thousands of projects on Kickstarter, and the word has entered the lexicon of popular culture. Every day, hundreds of people decide they are going to “Kickstart” their projects. What’s in it for the funders? Part of it is the pure joy of seeing a cool idea receive the funding it needs to get off the ground. Part of it has to do with getting early access to cool new things. However, even if the project is a commercial venture, investing in a Kickstarter gives you no ownership stake. I spoke to Kickstarter’s founder and CEO Yancey Strickler about this in spring 2014, and at the time he asserted that he had no intention of taking the platform into the “capital for equity” realm.

The platform ensures that the well-heeled OneFineStay guests will enjoy all the amenities they might expect from a high-end hotel, including cleaning, fresh linens (on a daily basis if needed) and 24/7 guest services. In other words, while the space may be supplied by crowd, the hospitality is not provided by the homeowners but rather by the platform itself. Funding: Kickstarter, Kiva, Funding Circle, AngelList The peer-to-peer financing arena provides additional examples along the gift-market spectrum. The quintessential crowdfunding platform Kickstarter, for example, provides a way for people to fund a wide variety of projects, be it a new film or performance, the development of a new app, or a new product. A typical sequence of funding works like this. First, creative entrepreneurs launch their project with a funding goal. Second, people on the platform who feel strongly about the project contribute an amount they can afford.


pages: 669 words: 210,153

Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss

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Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, post scarcity, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

Here are just a few of the non-obvious keys we learned. Find the MED for Kickstarter Traffic If you want to raise a lot of money on Kickstarter, you need to drive a lot of traffic to your project. And you want that traffic to be comprised of prospective backers of your project. Applying the concept of MED (“minimum effective dose” from The 4-Hour Body), we knew we needed to discover and focus on the best traffic sources. My friend Clay Hebert is a Kickstarter expert. One of the things he taught me is a simple trick using bit.ly tracking. Bit.ly is a link shortening service used by millions of people . . . and Kickstarter. If you add a + to the end of any bit.ly URL, you can see stats related to that link. For example: Here are stats for the shortlink Kickstarter generated for our campaign: http://kck.st/VjAFva+ [TF: This will blow your mind.

For example: Here are stats for the shortlink Kickstarter generated for our campaign: http://kck.st/VjAFva+ [TF: This will blow your mind. Go to any Kickstarter project, click on Share, and pick a social network, like Twitter. A pre-populated tweet will appear with a shortlink. Copy and paste the link alone into a new tab, add + to the end, and hit Return. Voilà.] To discover the top referral sources, we gave our VA a list of Kickstarter projects similar to ours and asked her to list the referrers for each project. Based on this data, we decided to focus all of our attention on just two goals: Getting coverage on the right blogs Activating our networks to create buzz on Facebook, Twitter, and email We knew that if we did this, we would be listed in Kickstarter’s Popular Projects sections, which is how you get people who are browsing Kickstarter to check out and back your project.

Some platforms require “all-or-nothing” funding goals; others permit partial funding; some raise money for completed projects; some, like Patreon, fund ongoing projects. Patreon supporters might fund a monthly magazine, or a video series, or an artist’s salary. The most famous and largest crowdfunder is Kickstarter, which has raised $2.5 billion for more than 100,000 projects. The average number of supporters for a successful Kickstarter project is 241 funders—far less than 1,000. That means if you have 1,000 true fans, you can do a crowdfunding campaign, because by definition a true fan will become a Kickstarter funder. (Although the success of your campaign is dependent on what you ask of your fans). The truth is that cultivating 1,000 true fans is time-consuming, sometimes nerve-wracking, and not for everyone. Done well (and why not do it well?) it can become another full-time job.


pages: 188 words: 9,226

Collaborative Futures by Mike Linksvayer, Michael Mandiberg, Mushon Zer-Aviv

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

4chan, Benjamin Mako Hill, British Empire, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative economy, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, informal economy, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, late capitalism, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, Network effects, optical character recognition, packet switching, postnationalism / post nation state, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, stealth mode startup, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application

While crowdfunding need not limited in topic, Kickstarter is focused almost exclusively on funding creative and community focused projects. Part of their goal is to create a lively community of makers who support each other. At the end of their first year, they gave out a number of awards including the project with the most contributors, the project that raised the most money, and the project that reached their goal the fastest, but the award that might be most telling is for the “Most Prolific Backer”: 93 “Jonas Landin, Kickstarter ’s Most Prolific Backer, has pledged to an amazing 56 projects. What motivates him? “It feels really nice to be able to partially fund some one who has an idea they want to realize.” <blog.kickstarter.com/post/318287579/the-kickstarter-awards-by-the-numbers> One curious conundrum arose when Diaspora sought only to raise $10,000 to develop an open source social networking platform ended their campaign with $200,642.

There was a total breakdown in communication, trust, transparency, etc <www.maryrobine ekowal.com/journal/my-very-bad-experience-with-fundablecom/> <boingboing.net/2009/08/22/fundable-rips-off-hu.html>. Kickstarter Kickstarter.com has taken up this concept of crowdfunding with what seems to be significant initial success. The premise is simple: an individual defines a project that needs funding, defines rewards for different levels of contribution, and sets a funding goal. If that pledges meet the funding goal, the money is collected from pledgers, distributed to the project creator, who uses the funding to make the project. If the project does not reach the funding goal by the deadline, no money is transferred. Most projects aim for between $2,000 and $10,000. Kickstarter pledges are not donations, as most of the contributions are associated with tangible rewards, nor are they a form of micro-venture capital, as funders retain no equity in the funded project.

<blog.kickstarter.com/post/318287579/the-kickstarter-awards-by-the-numbers> One curious conundrum arose when Diaspora sought only to raise $10,000 to develop an open source social networking platform ended their campaign with $200,642. <www.kickstarter.com/projects/196017994/diaspora-thepersonally-controlled-do-it-all-distr> Their fundraiser came at the same time as a wave of Facebook privacy roll-backs, perfectly matching the simmering discontent with Facebook to their privacy focused project. This enormous success has created a high level of public scrutiny that has led to public complaints about a number of aspects of the project, including the openness of their development process. <identi.ca/conversation/32668503> Though this is not the place to discuss the relative merits of these process-based critiques, it is worth noting that this might be an example of too much of a good thing.


pages: 329 words: 95,309

Digital Bank: Strategies for Launching or Becoming a Digital Bank by Chris Skinner

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algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, bank run, Basel III, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, demand response, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Google Glasses, high net worth, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, margin call, mass affluent, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, quantitative easing, ransomware, reserve currency, RFID, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Stuxnet, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, web application, Y2K

Much of the focus of crowdfunding has been around Kickstarter, the American leader in this space. Kickstarter provides a platform for funding by pre-selling your idea, rather than providing equity in the business. For example, you have a conceptual music idea, and you pre-sell the idea through Kickstarter with the hope of getting enough monies to fund the implementation of the idea (unlike other sites where you get an equity stake in the business). Kickstarter kicked off in business in April 2009 and, three years later, had seeded $200 million in funds across 50,000 projects. Most of these projects are related to entertainment and the arts (about sixty percent of all projects), although some are technology and related fields. For example, in their most recent success, Kickstarter generated $10 million in funding for a new venture called Pebble.

In addition, social media is creating new business models, some of which have already been mentioned such as SmartyPig. In this section, we look at some of these new financial service models and, in each section, pick a leader to focus upon in depth. There are many new financial service operations emerging using social media covering Capital Markets (Etoro, Stocktwits, etc), Corporate Banking (Funding Circle, Kickstarter, Market Invoice, Platform Black, The Receivables Exchange, etc), Retail Banking (Zopa, Moven, Simple, Bitcoin, etc), Payments (Currency Cloud, Square, mPowa, etc) and Insurance (Friendsurance). These sites are all newly launched in the past decade and are firmly based upon proven social models of finance. In general, the services fall into four categories of social finance: Social money and payments; Virtual currencies; Social lending and saving; and Social funding and investing.

For example, in their most recent success, Kickstarter generated $10 million in funding for a new venture called Pebble. Pebble is a smartwatch that will connect to a smartphone. According to the Wall Street Journal, it raised more than $1 million in its first day on Kickstarter (April 17 2012) based upon an offer to pledge $115 to pre-order the watch. By mid-May 2012, Pebble had achieved its goal of raising $10.27 million. The funds were gained from 68,929 people, making it the most crowdfunded start-up ever in dollar terms at that time. There is nothing like a cool gadget to get people excited. Nevertheless, as mentioned, most of the projects are related to music, film, art, theatre, design and publishing, and these provide some interesting stats. For example, of the platform’s 7,388 successful music projects in June 2012, 6,446 of them (87.3%) had raised $10,000 or less; 238 of them raised more than $20,000; 8 raised more than $100,000; and one (Amanda Palmer) raised more than $1 million (stats from Billboard).


pages: 366 words: 94,209

Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff

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3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar

Delaney and Robin Sidel, “How Miscalculations and Hubris Hobbled Celebrated Google IPO,” wsj.com, August 19, 2004. 52. Interview with Scott Heiferman, conducted by e-mail, September 2014. 53. Sarah Lacy, “Pando in 2014: Looking Back on an Exhausting, Transformational Year,” pando.com, December 25, 2014. 54. Max Chafkin, “True to Its Roots: Why Kickstarter Won’t Sell,” fastcompany.com, March 18, 2013. 55. “Kickstarter Is a Benefit Corporation,” kickstarter.com, September 21, 2015. 56. J. D. Alois, “Neil Young’s Pono Music Is Now Equity Crowdfunding Following $6.2 Million Kickstarter Hit,” crowdfundinsider.com, August 13, 2014. 57. Mike Masnick, “Larry Lessig Launches Crowdfunded SuperPAC to Try to End SuperPACs,” techdirt.com, May 1, 2014. 58. Jeremy Parish, “How Star Citizen Became the Most Successful Crowd Funded Game of All Time,” wdc.com, January 13, 2015. 59.

“In the Internet industry, you’re basically a custodian of your own idea for maybe three to five years and then you’re supposed to sell. That’s insanity,”54 Kickstarter cofounder Perry Chen told Fast Company when he was trying to explain his platform’s approach to venture funding. He and Yancey Strickler started the now-famous crowdfunding site with $10 million in 2009 but made investors agree up front never to sell their shares. “We hope that we can return some of these funds to shareholders through some kind of profit sharing or dividend,” Chen explained, “and that’s it.” Six years later, in 2015, Strickler still enjoyed enough authority over the direction of the company to turn Kickstarter into a benefit corporation.55 None of his shareholders objected. He’s offering his investors something that’s anathema to conventional thinking: a way of participating in living commerce, a sustainable mission, and a continual flow of dividends.

He’s offering his investors something that’s anathema to conventional thinking: a way of participating in living commerce, a sustainable mission, and a continual flow of dividends. It treats money less like ice than like water. Besides, if the Kickstarter platform works as planned, there will be a whole lot less need for venture capital at all. Kickstarter, and other crowdfunding sites such as IndieGogo and Quirky, seek to democratize fund-raising. They give small businesses and independent creators a way to bypass investment by instead seeking funding in advance from their future customers. It’s how a musician like Amanda Palmer funds her tours and albums, Neil Young funded development of his high-fidelity digital music device Pono,56 and Lawrence Lessig funded his super PAC, Mayday.57 Individuals have raised a few hundred dollars to produce products from coloring books to news articles.

Science...For Her! by Megan Amram

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Albert Einstein, blood diamonds, butterfly effect, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dmitri Mendeleev, double helix, Google Glasses, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, pez dispenser, Schrödinger's Cat, Steve Jobs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, Wall-E, wikimedia commons

It’s been in the works for many years now, and we think it could be great. Thanks to Kickstarter, we have a chance to reach individuals who will personally bail us out of this mess. How great for us! I know it’s a crazy dream, but hey—this is a country of dreamers. Dreamers and Christians. HELP US, BACKERS, YOU’RE OUR ONLY HOPE!: Just a little Star Wards humor for ya! “LOL!”: Live A Little! Give A Lot (“GOL”)! PLEASE PLEDGE!: We’ve tried pretty much everything else at this point: war, selling some cars, literally making more money (you’d think that would work!!), blaming people, blaming gay “people,” war, and debt. None of that has touched the debt. Except debt, which has made the debt worse. Also, war! If we’re able to meet our Kickstarter goal, you will have literally been part of a miracle. A miracle in the great Judeo-Christian tradition of this fair country.

• My Girlfriend Application Cover Letter • “Legitimate Rape” • Top Mis“conceptions” about Rape • Nobel Prize in Medicine • Behind the Scenes: Rosalind Franklin’s Lab Space & Technology The Big Bang • Tips for Hosting Your Own Big Bang • Planets • Internet Comments about the Moon • Stars • How to Get the Stars’ Hot Looks! • Astrobiology • Carbon Dating • E-mail • Shakespearean Spam • E-male! • Which Dating Site Is Right for You? • This Spring’s Cutest Calling Cards to Leave on Your Serial Killer Victims! • Sexual Assault . . . and Pepper! . . . Spray! • Fun Ways to Freeze Your Eggs! • What I Imagine Porn Looks Like • Economic Technology • Kickstarter: Eliminate the National Debt Project • Electronic Music Women in Science “Trading Dungeons”: How to Spruce Up Your Basement Dungeon • Women in Science • How to Tell if You’re Upset Because You’re PMS-ing or Because You’re Caught in a Basement Dungeon • Hot or Not?! • Famous Women Scientists . . . Without Makeup! • Men in Women in Science • Women with Jobs?! * * * Kale!!!! Conclusion (including a big picture of me with all my girlfriends) Final Exam Test your comprehension of Science . . . for Her!

It’s how an entire country balances its checkbook after going on a shopping spree (which is one of my top two types of sprees, right before “killing”!). The United States of America has to handle the economics of 314 million people (aka 157 million eligible bachelors, that’s what I’m talking about, babes! Plenty of fish in the sea!). It’s not easy to finagle, especially since America has been hemorrhaging money in the twenty-first century. That’s why the United States has turned to the crowd-sourcing fund-raising site Kickstarter to fill in the cracks! * * * National Debt by the United States Government * * * ABOUT THIS PROJECT: Hi you guys! Joe Biden and the rest of the gang here! :) We’re looking for some awesome people to help us Kickstart our dream project of having a functioning federal government! That’s where you come in: all we’re asking for is a little help. And twenty trillion dollars. As you may know, we (the United States government) are a little strapped for cash.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, Zipcar

“Peer-to-Peer Lending: How Zopa Works,” Zopa, http://uk.zopa.com/about-zopa/peer-to-peer -lending (accessed June 11, 2013). 3. David Bornstein, “Crowdfunding Clean Energy,” New York Times, March 6, 2013, http:// opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/03/06/crowd-funding-clean-energy/ (accessed March 6, 2013). 4. “Amazon Payment Fees,” Amazon, http://www.kickstarter.com/help/amazon (accessed June 11, 2013); “What Is Kickstarter?” Kickstarter, http://www.kickstarter.com/hello?ref=nav (accessed June 11, 2013). 5. “What Is Kickstarter?” 6. “Re-imagining US Solar Financing,” Bloomberg New Energy Finance (June 4, 2012) from David Bornstein, “Crowdfunding Clean Energy,” New York Times Opinion Pages, March 6, 2013, http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/03/06/crowd-funding-clean-energy/?_r=0 (accessed November 8, 2013). 7. Ibid. 8.

Zopa, the U.K.’s first peer-to-peer lender, has processed loans of more than £414 million.2 Peer-to-peer social lenders brokered $1.8 billion in loans by the end of 2012, forcing the big banks to take notice.3 A more recent offshoot of peer-to-peer social lending is something called crowdfunding. Kickstarter, the leading crowdfunding enterprise, was launched in April 2009. Here’s how it works. Kickstarter goes around conventional investment vehicles and raises finance capital from the general public on the Internet. Originators of a project put their plan up on a site and pick a deadline by which the necessary funds have to be raised. If the goal is not reached by this deadline, no funds are collected. This provision ensures that the project has enough financing to at least make a go of the venture. The money pledged by donors is collected by Amazon payments. Kickstarter collects 5 percent of the funds raised and Amazon charges, on average, an additional 3 to 5 percent.4 Kickstarter, unlike traditional lenders, has no ownership in the ventures.

Kickstarter collects 5 percent of the funds raised and Amazon charges, on average, an additional 3 to 5 percent.4 Kickstarter, unlike traditional lenders, has no ownership in the ventures. It’s merely a facilitator. By November 2013, Kickstarter had fostered 51,000 projects with a 44 percent success rate. The projects had raised more than $871 million. Kickstarter limits the project funding to 13 categories—art, dance, design, fashion, films and video, food, games, music, photography, publishing, technology, and theater.5 Various crowdfunding platforms offer different forms of compensation. Donors can either pledge funds as gifts or receive the comparable value of the funds extended to the borrower in the form of goods or services once the project is up and running, or provide funds as a straight loan with interest, or invest in the project in return for equal shares. Although still a small player in the financial sector, crowdsourcing funders are playing an important supporting role in the creation of many of the new start-ups in the IoT infrastructure build-out.


pages: 209 words: 63,649

The Purpose Economy: How Your Desire for Impact, Personal Growth and Community Is Changing the World by Aaron Hurst

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, big-box store, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, Elon Musk, Firefox, glass ceiling, greed is good, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, Ray Oldenburg, remote working, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, underbanked, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar

While this worked as a controlled pilot project, the next step is to understand the commercial viability of offshore OMEGA systems for a variety of uses, including biofuels production, wastewater treatment, and carbon sequestration. 3. Kickstarter: Crowdsourced Investment Kickstarter, an online platform for crowdfunding independent creative projects, launched in 2009 using secure online fundraising platforms (itself a recent disruptive technology). The platform recognized and filled a gap for creative entrepreneurs, designers, and other freelancers wanting to maintain creative control over their projects. The founders like to highlight this process as being rooted in the time of Mozart or Mark Twain, who solicited money from their communities and gave that community one of their finished products. Even so, Kickstarter’s inventive use of technology to harness the power of the creative community has enabled a crowd-sourced $789 million for 53,672 different projects, and in the process, Kickstarter has become one of the most influential bright spots in and beyond the tech world. 4.

The portion of the economy connected to purpose will continue to grow as companies dedicate more of their business to creating purpose, and as more innovative organizations, such as hybrid non- and for-profit companies, are created. That was true also for the Information Economy. Leaders of that economy, like HP and IBM, started with a foot still in manufacturing, creating hardware to store and manage information. Today, we see the early Purpose Economy stars anchored in Information Economy platforms; Facebook, which enables self-expression and community on a massive scale, is a great example. Kickstarter, which now provides more funding for the arts than the National Endowment for the Arts, is another. With the rise of the Information Economy, most companies eventually adopted information-driven systems and tools into their operations and products, such as GPS in cars and robotics in manufacturing. It wasn’t until the auto industry in Detroit really embraced the Information Economy that they were able to turn their fortunes around.

For years, she had been connecting with her audience and exchanging her music for their support in the form of sofas to sleep on and home-cooked meals. As so many of Amanda’s fans offered up their homes and food freely, she realized that people felt her music was helping them, and that they wanted to help her in return. After her fan volunteered to pay her for the free album he’d burned, she decided to make her music free and to open up to her community, asking them to support her directly. She launched a Kickstarter campaign to support the making of her next album, and it generated nearly $1.2 million in contributions from 25 thousand people—the same number that her record label had considered so shabby. Amanda’s story perfectly expresses how people are looking for more personal domain in their lives, which she has achieved. It also demonstrates that people are looking to contribute their time, energy, and money to things that matter to them, and they find meaning in doing so.


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

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23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

Overstock CEO Patrick Byrne and Counterparty created a new venture, Medici, announced in October 2014, to provide a decentralized stock market for equity securities in the blockchain model.42 Crowdfunding Another prime example of how financial services are being reinvented with blockchain-based decentralized models is crowdfunding. The idea is that peer-to-peer fundraising models such as Kickstarter can supplant the need for traditional venture capital funding for startups. Where previously a centralized service like Kickstarter or Indiegogo was needed to enable a crowdfunding campaign, crowdfunding platforms powered by blockchain technology remove the need for an intermediary third party. Blockchain-based crowdfunding platforms make it possible for startups to raise funds by creating their own digital currencies and selling “cryptographic shares” to early backers.

Another use case for smart contracts is setting up automatic payments for betting (like limit orders in financial markets). A program or smart contract can be written that releases a payment when a specific value of a certain exchange good is triggered or when something transpires in the real world (e.g., a news event of some sort, or the winner of a sports match). Smart contracts could also be deployed in pledge systems like Kickstarter. Individuals make online pledges that are encoded in a blockchain, and if the entrepreneur’s fundraising goal is reached, only then will the Bitcoin funds be released from the investor wallets. No transaction is released until all funds are received. Further, the entrepreneur’s budget, spending, and burn rate could be tracked by the subsequent outflow transactions from the blockchain address that received the fundraising.

Sample list of Dapps Project name and URL Activity Centralized equivalent OpenBazaar https://openbazaar.org/ Buy/sell items in local physical world Craigslist LaZooz http://lazooz.org/ Ridesharing, including Zooz, a proof-of-movement coin Uber Twister http://twister.net.co/ Social networking, peer-to-peer microblogging 66 Twitter/Facebook Gems http://getgems.org/ Social networking, token-based social messaging Twitter/SMS Bitmessage https://bitmessage.org Secure messaging (individual or broadcast) SMS services Storj http://storj.io/ File storage Dropbox Swarm https://www.swarm.co/ Koinify https://koinify.com/ bitFlyer http://fundflyer.bitflyer.jp/ Cryptocurrency crowdfunding platforms Kickstarter, Indiegogo venture capital funding In a collaborative white paper, another group offers a stronger-form definition of a Dapp.67 In their view, the Dapp must have three features. First, the application must be completely open source, operate autonomously with no entity controlling the majority of its tokens, and its data and records of operation must be cryptographically stored in a public, decentralized blockchain.


pages: 170 words: 51,205

Information Doesn't Want to Be Free: Laws for the Internet Age by Cory Doctorow, Amanda Palmer, Neil Gaiman

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Airbnb, barriers to entry, Brewster Kahle, cloud computing, Dean Kamen, Edward Snowden, game design, Internet Archive, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, optical character recognition, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit maximization, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Saturday Night Live, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, transfer pricing, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy

San Franciscans are ranked eighty-seventh in global payers; below Oslo, ranked eighty-sixth, where the average payment is $58.” Humble isn’t the only innovative collector of donations. Kickstarter uses “crowdfunding” to raise money for creators—people solicit funds to complete a project, and make a pitch (text and video) explaining why donors should trust them to use the money wisely. Then they specify premiums and gifts to be given to exceptional donors—give ten dollars and I’ll send you a postcard with a custom sketch; a hundred dollars gets you a custom portrait; ten thousand dollars gets you an original comic book starring you and your friends. Kickstarter has also been used as an effective means of collecting preorders before a production run: Give me fifteen dollars, and I’ll send you a book. Once I have enough fifteen-dollar commitments in hand, I can have the books printed and ship them out.

In 2011, she launched her “Week in Hell” project, where she locked herself in a hotel room for five days, papering the walls with poster-paper and then decorating every inch of the paper with illustration. The event was meant to commemorate her twenty-eighth birthday, and she sought to raise $4,500 on Kickstarter from fans who got to watch her draw on a live video feed and received pieces of illustrated paper. She raised $25,805. In 2012, she sought $30,000 from her fans to rent a New York City storefront and paint nine giant paintings inspired by the Occupy Wall Street movement. Within a week, she had $55,000. By the time the project ended, she had $64,799 (including the $8,000 per painting she took in for the seven canvases she sold as part of the highest-level Kickstarter reward). Like many painters through history, Crabapple relies on patrons to pay her bills—but her patrons number in the thousands, and she needn’t worry about the caprice or high-handedness of a few fat cats as she paints her way into history. 2.6 Does This Mean You Should Ditch Your Investor and Go Indie?

You take control out of the hands of the content creator, and out of the hands of the public, who can no longer decide whether or not they want to offer their support. Two years ago, I conducted a crowdfunding campaign that raised over a million dollars in capital so that I could put out a record without a major label. People scratched their heads—why would this happen? How did she do it? The newspapers, the journalists, the bloggerati all weighed in. Was this the future of music? Was my Kickstarter “repeatable”? Am I a freak, an outlier, a strange charity case that an outlying public accidentally raised above the norm? Not from where I’m standing. There are many more of me—there already have been, and we are legion. It’s repeating as we speak. We are a new generation of artists, makers, supporters, and consumers who believe that the old system through which we exchanged content and money is dead.


pages: 52 words: 14,333

Growth Hacker Marketing: A Primer on the Future of PR, Marketing, and Advertising by Ryan Holiday

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Airbnb, iterative process, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, market design, minimum viable product, Paul Graham, pets.com, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Wozniak

While their marketing brethren chase vague notions like “branding” and “mind share,” growth hackers relentlessly pursue users and growth—and when they do it right, those users beget more users, who beget more users. They are the inventors, operators, and mechanics of their own self-sustaining and self-propagating growth machine that can take a start-up from nothing to something. But don’t worry, I’m not going to belabor definitions in this book. What’s important is we’re all trying to grow our business, launch our website, sell tickets for our event, or fund our Kickstarter project. And the way we do it, today, is fundamentally different from how it used to be done. Instead of launching products with multimillion-dollar marketing budgets, the growth hackers we will follow in this book began their work at start-ups with little to no resources. Forced to innovate and motivated to try new things, growth hackers like these have built some of these companies into billion-dollar brands.

With the collapse or crumbling of some of the behemoth companies and the rapid rise of start-ups, apps, and websites, marketing will need to get smaller—it will need to change its priorities. When you get right down to it, the real skill for marketers today isn’t going to be helping some big boring company grow 1 percent a year but to create a totally new brand from nothing using next to no resources. Whether that’s a Kickstarter project you’re trying to fund or a new app, the thinking is the same: how do you get, maintain, and multiply attention in a scalable and efficient way? Thankfully, growth hacking isn’t some proprietary technical process shrouded in secrecy. In fact, it has grown and developed in the course of very public conversations. There are no trade secrets to guard. Aaron Ginn, the growth hacker tasked with rapidly updating the technology behind Mitt Romney’s presidential campaign and now director of growth at StumbleUpon, put it best: growth hacking is more of a mind-set than a tool kit.

To kick off and reach your first group of users, you have many options: 1. You can reach out to the sites you know your potential customers read with a pitch e-mail: “This is who we are, this is what we’re doing, and this is why you should write about us.”* 2. You can upload a post to Hacker News, Quora, or Reddit yourself. 3. You can start writing blog posts about popular topics that get traffic and indirectly pimp your product. 4. You can use the Kickstarter platform for exposure and bribe your first users with cool prizes (and get some online chatter at the same time). 5. You can use a service like Help a Reporter Out (www.helpareporter.com) to find reporters who are looking for people to include in stories they are already writing about your space. 6. You can literally find your potential customers one by one and invite them to your service for free or with some special incentive (that’s how small we’re talking).


pages: 248 words: 72,174

The $100 Startup: Reinvent the Way You Make a Living, Do What You Love, and Create a New Future by Chris Guillebeau

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big-box store, clean water, follow your passion, if you build it, they will come, index card, informal economy, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, late fees, price anchoring, Ralph Waldo Emerson, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, web application

It’s also the whole point: Since it’s so much easier to start a microbusiness, why do something different unless or until you know what you’re doing? Small is beautiful, and all things considered, small is often better. Unconventional Fundraising from Kickstarter to Car Loans What if you’ve thought it through and you do need to raise money somehow? Whenever possible, the best option is your own savings. You’ll be highly invested in the success of the project, and you won’t be in debt to anyone else. But if this isn’t possible, you can also consider “crowdraising” funds for your project through a service such as Kickstarter.com. Shannon Okey did this with a project to boost her craft publishing business. She asked for $5,000 and received $12,480 in twenty days thanks to a nice video and well-written copy. Before going to the masses, Shannon went to her bank for a small loan.

Unfortunately, when she mentioned “craft publishing,” she was dead in the water. “They looked at me like I was a silly, silly woman who couldn’t possibly know anything about running a business,” she said. The rejection turned into an opportunity. Taking the project on Kickstarter generated both funds and widespread interest in the project. Nearly three hundred backers came through with donations ranging from $10 to $500, leaving the project fully funded with capital to spare. Oh, and Shannon was not one for going quietly. After she reached the $10,000 level in her Kickstarter campaign, she printed out the front page of the site, wrapped the page around a lollipop, and sent it off to the bank’s underwriters. “I think they got the message,” she says. As I collected stories for the book, I was mostly interested in people who avoided debt completely.

The One-Page Business Plan If your mission statement is much longer than this sentence, it could be too long. 7. An Offer You Can’t Refuse The step-by-step guide to creating a killer offer. 8. Launch! A trip to Hollywood from your living room or the corner coffee shop. 9. Hustling: The Gentle Art of Self-Promotion Advertising is like sex: Only losers pay for it. 10. Show Me the Money Unconventional fundraising from Kickstarter to unlikely car loans. PART III LEVERAGE AND NEXT STEPS 11. Moving On Up Tweaking your way to the bank: How small actions create big increases in income. 12. How to Franchise Yourself Instructions on cloning yourself for fun and profit. 13. Going Long Become as big as you want to be (and no bigger). 14. But What If I Fail? How to succeed even if your roof caves in on you. CODA DISCLOSURES AND INTERESTING FACTS BUT WAIT, THERE’S MORE!


pages: 411 words: 80,925

What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers

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Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Pastor Jerry Falwell railed against video games, the Internet, and “godless” movies, and former vice president Dan Quayle’s and the media’s rant against Murphy Brown turned into a political circus. But today it is this generation of “valueless” children that is changing the world with sophisticated inventions such as Meraki (a low-cost Internet service for poor communities), new funding models such as Kickstarter (a “crowdfunding” model for creative projects), powerful online networks such as Meetup (an online platform that makes it easy for anyone with shared interests to organize local face-to-face groups), and community tools such as WordPress (an open-source blogging software). All these ventures were founded by entrepreneurs under thirty. Regardless of what term you use to describe them (Generation Y, Generation We, or Millennials), one consistent trait connects them: They are coming of age in an increasingly collaborative world.

More than 2.5 million people around the world respond to some kind of Meetup invitation every month and more than two thousand local groups, from stay-at-home moms to small business owners to walking clubs, get together face-to-face each day.42 “We are using the Internet to get off the Internet and form a twenty-first-century civil society,” Heiferman commented.43 In 2006, a couple of years after leaving BBH, Gallop found herself thinking, “How could I take all the good intentions most of us have on a daily basis, our single biggest pool of untapped natural resource, and transform them into shared actions?” Like Chris Hughes on Obama’s campaign, Gallop also knew she had to make her initiative fun and avoid the “yawn factor” by adding a healthy dose of what she refers to as “competitive collaboration.” She launched IfWeRanTheWorld.com early in 2010. It’s essentially a crowdsourcing project based on the similar principles of microfunding sites such as Kiva or Kickstarter. People are motivated to do big things by taking all easy steps, microactions that in Gallop’s words “can bring about great leaps.” When you arrive at the site, you are asked to complete the statement, “If I ran the world, I would___.” Gallop illustrates how it works with a simple example. “The blank would be filled with something like ‘plant a garden to feed the local homeless.’ ” On the IfWeRanTheWorld platform, the user and the community all help break down the goal into microactions that friends, family, neighbors, businesses, celebrities, or total strangers can all help complete.

“I am all about making things happen, and quite frankly, I have a low tolerance for people who whine and moan about stuff and never do anything to change it.” But even Gallop admits, “I can be just as guilty as anybody else. After reading the New York Times, I’ll go, ‘Oh my God. That’s terrible. I must do something about that. I’ll turn the page, and the moment’s gone.’ ”46 IfWeRanTheWorld is in its early days, but Gallop has already received an outpouring of support from all around the world. Like Meetup, Linux, MyBO, Clickworkers, and Kickstarter, IfWeRanTheWorld it is part of a reestablishment of community relationships not just through local activities but through the vast global infrastructure of the Internet. In this sense, the very concepts of “neighbor” and “community” are being redefined and expanded as the “Me” generation is being replaced by the “We” generation.” Reconnection Beyond Consumerism On June 29, 2009, Bernard Madoff stood in front of Judge Denny Chin of the U.S.


pages: 294 words: 82,438

Simple Rules: How to Thrive in a Complex World by Donald Sull, Kathleen M. Eisenhardt

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, Basel III, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, Checklist Manifesto, complexity theory, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, haute cuisine, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, Network effects, obamacare, Paul Graham, performance metric, price anchoring, RAND corporation, risk/return, Saturday Night Live, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Startup school, statistical model, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Wall-E, web application, Y Combinator, Zipcar

. [>] In an insightful article: Tina Fey, “Lessons from Late Night,” New Yorker, March 7, 2011. [>] Indiegogo’s rules reflect: Kathy is grateful for the superb research help of Annie Case in comparing Indiegogo and Kickstarter. Christina Farr, “Indiegogo Founder Danae Ringelmann: ‘We Will Never Lose Sight of Our Vision to Democratize Finance,’” Venture Beat, February 21, 2014, http://venturebeat.com/2014/02/21/; Dan Schawbel, “Slava Rubin on How Indiegogo Has Created Jobs,” Forbes, October 4, 2012, http://www.forbes.com/sites/danschawbel/2012/10/04/; Jessica Hullinger, “Crowdfunding Clash: How Indiegogo Wants to Kick Kickstarter’s @$$,” Fiscal Times, May 30, 2014, http://thefiscaltimes.com/Articles/2014/05/30. [>] Parenting is another domain: Diane Sonntag, “10 Golden Rules of Positive Parenting,” accessed July 31, 2014, http://www.babyzone.com/kids/positive-parenting_222185; Alyssa S.

Doctors use boundary rules to decide whether or not a patient is suffering from a particular disease. Police officers use them to determine whether a suicide note is authentic. Even female hyenas apply them when deciding on a mate. Because these rules define the boundaries of inclusion or exclusion, they sometimes take the form of negative prohibitions, like the “thou shalt nots” of the Ten Commandments. Employees at Kickstarter, the crowdfunding website, for example, had rules to screen every potential project and reject those that did not fit one of its categories, like movies, art, or books. Although they live on the wrong side of the law, professional burglars, like judges, also rely on boundary rules. The choice of which house to enter is a high-stakes decision for burglars. If they break into an occupied home, they risk capture, prison, or worse if the homeowner is also a gun owner.

Kathy is also indebted to terrific undergraduate and master’s students from Stanford’s School of Engineering. Andrew Stutz improved Kathy’s football acumen, and would not rest until she heard Shannon Turley’s story. Nick Manousos gave Kathy a quick education in screenwriting for movies and television, and connected her with Cheri Steinkellner. Annie Case diligently researched simple rules for crowdfunding at Indiegogo and Kickstarter, while Lauryn Isford and Florence Koskas clarified how simple rules work in shared-economy companies. Luke Pappas provided revealing baseball insights. Although their material did not make the final version of the book, Kathy appreciates the terrific efforts of Andrea Sy on Wikipedia and Michael Heinrich on the Lean Startup. Their work will shine somewhere—soon. Finally, successive cohorts of master’s students in Kathy’s course, Strategy in Technology-based Companies (MS&E 270), challenged and immeasurably sharpened the conceptual foundation of simple rules.


pages: 457 words: 128,838

The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

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3D printing, Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zimmermann PGP

Allan Grant is a cofounder of hired.com: Billy Gallagher, “Hired Raises $15M in Series A at Valuation Around $60M,” TechCrunch, March 24, 2014, http://techcrunch.com/2014/03/24/hired-raises-15m-series-a/. Chris Cassano, a twenty-five-year-old from Florida: Chris Cassano, interviewed by Paul Vigna, June 12, 2014. He posted a description of it on Kickstarter: Chris Cassano, “Piper: A Hardware-Based Paper Wallet Printer and More,” Kickstarter, July 10, 2013, https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/299052466/piper-a-hardware-based-paper-wallet-printer-and-mo. “Money’s great, too”: Nathan Lands, interviewed by Paul Vigna, June 13, 2014. According to surveys conducted by news site CoinDesk: “State of Bitcoin Q2 2014 Report Reveals Expanding Bitcoin Economy,” CoinDesk, July 10, 2014, http://www.coindesk.com/state-of-bitcoin-q2-2014-report-expanding-bitcoin-economy/.

After proposing to Beccy, he made a second proposal: after their honeymoon, they would conduct an experiment—they would live for ninety days on nothing but bitcoin and film the whole thing for a documentary. It was the kind of on-a-lark thing only young people could do, and to his surprise, Beccy readily accepted the challenge. As if all that wasn’t challenging enough, the Craigs added another wrinkle: they would drive across the United States, fly to Europe, fly to Asia, and then fly back to Utah. They would pay for every stage of this round-the-world trip with bitcoin. They launched a Kickstarter project to fund the film, raised $72,000, bought themselves a little publicity, and hired a film crew. While it is reasonably feasible today, in 2015, to spend nothing but bitcoin for three months, this was mid-2013—just before a parade of well-known businesses announced they would accept bitcoin, as we’ll discuss in the next chapter. At that time, the Craigs’ quest seemed quixotic at best. Few businesses took bitcoin, and most vendors hadn’t even heard of it.

With his program, the user would print out the code and store it off-line. It didn’t take him long to create a prototype-dedicated printer based on a Raspberry Pi, a tiny, inexpensive motherboard that came with in-built security protections, which were necessary to avoid the problem of inadvertently registering your code on your hard drive whenever you communicated with a less well-protected printer. He posted a description of it on Kickstarter and immediately sold twenty-five. That netted him about $4,000. In September of 2013, he got a call from Kenna, inviting him out to 20Mission. The unusual deal was that Cassano could live and work at 20Mission in exchange for a small stake in his company; Kenna would essentially act as an angel investor for Cassano. So the Floridian moved to the hacker house in December. He had housing, office space, a product, and a backer.


pages: 336 words: 90,749

How to Fix Copyright by William Patry

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, barriers to entry, big-box store, borderless world, business intelligence, citizen journalism, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, means of production, new economy, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, web application, winner-take-all economy

Both collectives are made up of individual clarinetists from around the world who pool their resources to commission new works from composers.40 The collectives encourage as many clarinetists as possible to become involved by contributing financially and by performing the works commissioned. The collectives thus break with the traditional model of passive financial donors: members are expected to do their part in spreading culture by also performing. The Kickstarter project is another example of crowd-sourced funding of creators.41 Kickstarter is the world’s largest funding platform for creative projects in the world. Kickstarter helps artists, filmmakers, musicians, designers, writers, illustrators, explorers, curators, performers, and others to bring their projects to life. Kickstarter uses Amazon.com’s Flexible Payments Service so that individuals from around the world can pledge money to specific projects detailed on the site. Creators have an incentive to make their projects as appealing as possible because they are competing against other proposals, and because they do not receive any money unless the project’s financial goals are met in full within a specified, short time frame.

Mellon Foundation, The Economic Environment of American Symphony Orchestras, March 2008, available at: http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/news/packages/pdf/Flanagan.pdf. 268 NOTES TO PAGES 28–33 40. Information about the collective may be found here: http://www. clarinetcoco.com/. The collective is part of a larger collective effort, the Fractured Atlas, which helps artists and arts organizations function more effectively as businesses by providing access to funding, healthcare, and education. See http://www.fracturedatlas.org/site/ about. 41. See www.kickstarter.com. 42. The European Union, for example, launched 2009 as a year of creativity and innovation. See http://create2009.europa.eu/. 43. This publisher is not Oxford University Press. 44. See Robert Caves, Creative Industries: Contracts Between Art and Commerce (2000, Harvard University Press). 45. Reproduced in Copyright Law Revision Part 3: Preliminary Draft for Revised U.S. Copyright Law and Discussions and Comments on the Draft 286 (September 1964). 46.

(Beatles song) 16 Holmes, Oliver Wendell Jr. 19, 20 Hootie and the Blowfish 138 Hoover, Herbert 109 Horkheimer, Max 121 I Infopaq International A/S v. Danske Dagblades 213 iTunes 8 J Jagger. Mick 31 Jay-Z 98, 101–102, 178 Johnson, Mark 135 Johnson, Samuel 15 Jones, Alex 148 Justifications for copyright 8 K Kames, Lord 85 Karakunnel, Ben 261 Karp, Irwin 30 Kaspar clarinet mouthpieces 95 Keynes, John Maynard 90 Khan, Zorna 315 n. Kickstarter program 28 Kindle 9 321 Kretschmer, Martin 302 nn., 303 Kur, Annette 314 n. Kutiel, Ophir (“Kutiman”) 101 L Lady Gaga 9 Landes, William 103, 105 Lara Croft, Tomb Raider 22 Lennon, John 16, 95–96 Leval, Pierre 168, 196, 212 Litman, Jessica 299 nn. Little Nicky (terrible movie) 28 Lobbynomics 6 Lula da Silva 259 M Macaulay, Lord Thomas 70 Madison, James 131–132 Mallet, Sir Louis 85 Mamet, David 186 Manacles 91 Manet, Édouard 19 Marcellus, Robert 95 Marley, Bob 172 McCartney, Paul 16 Melos 30–31 Military bands 28 Mises, Ludwig von 39–40, 49 M&Ms 25 Model T cars 3 Monty Python 158 Moore, Joyce 8 Moore, Sam 8 Moses (Moshe Rabbeinu) 163 Mozart, Amadeus 15, 95, 100, 245 Mt.


pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Galaxy Zoo, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator

Validation is achieved by obtaining measurable evidence that an experiment, product or service succeeds in meeting pre-determined specifications. Tools such as UserVoice, Unbounce and Google AdWords can accomplish this. Crowdfunding is a growing trend to help fund ideas using the web to assemble very large numbers of comparatively small investors—thus not only raising capital, but also reflecting the interest of the market. Two well-known examples of crowdfunding companies are Kickstarter and Indiegogo. In 2012 there was an estimated $2.8 billion raised via crowdfunding campaigns. By 2015 that number is expected to climb to $15 billion. The World Bank predicts crowdfunding to grow to $93 billion by 2025. In addition to raising enormous amounts of money for causes and startups, such platforms are also democratizing access to working capital. Gustin, a premium designer jeans company, uses crowdfunding for all of its designs.

The result has been an industry-wide transformation, allowing new entrants and hobbyists into the field, which has benefitted all players in the business, including Illumina. Though few industries have experienced such a stunning transformation as biotech, similar trends can also be seen in many other hardware arenas. Thus, while a basic 3D printer in 2007 cost nearly $40,000, the new Peachy Printer—recently funded on Kickstarter—is now available for just $100. And that’s only the start: Avi Reichental, CEO of market leader 3D Systems, sees no obstacles to bringing his company’s high-end 3D printers to market for just $399 within the next five years. Another example of this trend includes single-board computers for robotics and education, where the open sourced Raspberry Pi platform has proved transformative. The same is true of single-board controllers, where Arduino has assumed dominance.

In the software world, Salesforce.com, which operates 100 percent in the cloud, can adapt to changing market conditions much faster than can competitor SAP, given that the latter requires customized installations onsite. We’ve already discussed Airbnb, which by leveraging its users’ existing assets, is now valued at more than the Hyatt Hotels chain worldwide. While Hyatt has 45,000 employees spread out across its 549 properties, Airbnb has just 1,324, all located in a single office. Similarly, Lending Club, Bitcoin, Clinkle and Kickstarter are forcing a radical rethinking of the banking and venture capital industries, respectively. (No retail outlets are involved in these new financial tech startups.) Richard Branson’s Virgin Group is structured to maximize the benefits of a small-form factor. Its global research center is home to the company’s R&D department and a unit that spins out new businesses under the umbrella brand. The Branson group now consists of more than four hundred companies, all operating independently.


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Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, market design, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, winner-take-all economy, Zipcar

Our goal here is to provide not a comprehensive or systematic overview but simply a sketch which we hope will convey the growing scope and importance of platform companies on the world stage. INDUSTRY EXAMPLES Agriculture John Deere, Intuit Fasal Communication and Networking LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter, Tinder, Instagram, Snapchat, WeChat Consumer Goods Philips, McCormick Foods FlavorPrint Education Udemy, Skillshare, Coursera, edX, Duolingo Energy and Heavy Industry Nest, Tesla Powerwall, General Electric, EnerNOC Finance Bitcoin, Lending Club, Kickstarter Health Care Cohealo, SimplyInsured, Kaiser Permanente Gaming Xbox, Nintendo, PlayStation Labor and Professional Services Upwork, Fiverr, 99designs, Sittercity, LegalZoom Local Services Yelp, Foursquare, Groupon, Angie’s List Logistics and Delivery Munchery, Foodpanda, Haier Group Media Medium, Viki, YouTube, Wikipedia, Huffington Post, Kindle Publishing Operating Systems iOS, Android, MacOS, Microsoft Windows Retail Amazon, Alibaba, Walgreens, Burberry, Shopkick Transportation Uber, Waze, BlaBlaCar, GrabTaxi, Ola Cabs Travel Airbnb, TripAdvisor FIGURE 1.2.

As we’ve noted, every interaction starts with an exchange of information that has value to the participants. Thus, in virtually every case, the core interaction starts with the creation of a value unit by the producer. Here are a few examples. On a marketplace like eBay or Airbnb, the product/service listing information is the value unit that is created by a seller and then served to buyers based on their search query or past interests. On a platform like Kickstarter, the project details constitute the value unit that enables potential backers to make a decision whether to fund it. Videos on YouTube, tweets on Twitter, profiles of professionals on LinkedIn, and listings of available cars on Uber are all value units. In each case, users are provided with a basis for deciding whether or not they want to proceed to some further exchange. The filter. The value unit is delivered to selected consumers based on filters.

Platforms that provide businesses with tools for customer relationship management (CRM) can often solve the chicken-or-egg problem simply by attracting one set of users—producers—who then take on the task of bringing along the other set—consumers—from their own customer base. The platform helps the producers cater to their existing set of consumers, and over time, the producers benefit from data-driven cross-pollination as other consumers on the network become interested in their products and services. Crowdfunding platforms such as Indiegogo and Kickstarter thrive by targeting creators who need funding and providing them with the infrastructure to host and manage the funding campaign, making it easier for them to connect effectively with their customer base. Education platforms such as Skillshare and Udemy also grow through producer evangelism. They sign up influential teachers, allowing them to easily host online courses and prompting them to get their students on board.

Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, financial innovation, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

Crowdfunding platforms that finance new ventures Platforms like Kickstarter, Indiegogo or KissKissBankBank enable lone inventors to raise funds to start and scale up an enterprise. This is particularly appealing to the millennial generation, who no longer trust the safety of a job. For instance, 40% of young millennials say that they want to be their own boss. But most banks and venture capitalists will not risk investing in start-ups launched by these 20-somethings. This doesn’t bother the 20-somethings; they just try to emulate Eric Migicovsky who, aged 27, launched Pebble, a start-up that makes smart watches which connect to phones and notify users about e-mails, text messages, incoming calls and social-media alerts. In early 2012, Migicovsky unveiled his project on Kickstarter, hoping to raise $100,000 in seed capital.

And in the sharing economy, firms such as Airbnb (sharing homes), RelayRides (sharing cars) and ParkatmyHouse (sharing parking spaces) are taking advantage of the internet and social media to enable ordinary people to monetise their idle household assets. Many of these disruptive digital ventures are being launched by millennials (popularly known as generation recession), who can raise capital on crowdfunding sites such as Kickstarter, KissKissBankBank and MedStartr. Digital disrupters are not all young bootstrap entrepreneurs. Technology heavyweights including Apple, Google, Cisco and IBM are investing heavily in driverless cars, smart grids, connected homes and consumer medical devices. A massive shakeout in the automotive, construction, energy, health-care and other mature industries seems imminent. When asked who her company’s main competitor would be in five years’ time, a senior executive at a large US industrial firm answered: “Google.”

A large number of open-source initiatives and crowdfunded projects are drastically bringing down the cost of 3D printers, making personalised manufacturing more affordable and accessible to more people. For instance, in May 2014, in an effort to make 3D printing accessible “to billions”, Autodesk, a design software provider, released Spark, an open-software platform that aims to make 3D printing simpler and more reliable. The same month, M3D, a start-up, raised a whopping $3.4 million on Kickstarter to produce a $300 super-easy-to-use 3D printer. One particularly impressive product of 3D printers is spare parts for fighter aircraft. In December 2013, BAE Systems, a British multinational defence and aerospace company, tested Tornado jets that had several 3D printed metal components in them. The company is now developing ready-made parts for four squadrons of Tornado GR4 aircraft. BAE Systems engineers believe that some components will now cost less than £100 ($158).


pages: 210 words: 56,667

The Misfit Economy: Lessons in Creativity From Pirates, Hackers, Gangsters and Other Informal Entrepreneurs by Alexa Clay, Kyra Maya Phillips

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3D printing, Airbnb, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Burning Man, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, double helix, fear of failure, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Occupy movement, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar

Eric Rosenbaum is one of the creators of MaKey MaKey, an “invention kit” that makes it easy to turn ordinary household objects into video game controllers (turn bananas into piano keys, create a joystick out of a pencil drawing). Eric and his business partner, Jay Silver, used Kickstarter to raise funds for their project. With an initial goal of $25,000, Rosenbaum and Silver ended up raising $568,106. What makes this case study interesting is how two fringe cultures of innovation—the open-source culture and the shanzhai culture of pirated innovation—collide. Through a strange series of events, Rosenbaum and Silver discovered a clone of their idea, called DemoHour, on a Chinese Kickstarter site. And the MaKey MaKey founders didn’t like it. It wasn’t so much that the Chinese borrowed elements of their idea: MaKey MaKey is open-source, which means it is available for change and iteration.

To the many hackers and computer scientists who shared their tales of genius and mischief, particularly Sam Roberts, Nathaniel Borenstein, and DM. To all of the fellow writers at Prufrock Coffee and Café Oberholz who commiserated with us during shared episodes of writers’ block, as well as Asi Sharabi, who provided a desk to work from when it was needed. And finally, heartfelt and enormous gratitude must go to Fran Smith for her kind, wise, and compassionate guidance along the way. A big thank-you to our Kickstarter backers who helped get this project off the ground—without a committed grassroots financing campaign, we never would have made it this far. To Laura Gamse, our talented filmmaker, who traveled with us to India and China and whose father diligently emailed us misfit material throughout the journey. To the community of staff and fellows at Ashoka with whom we connected around the world. And to members of the One/Thousand network, who supported us throughout this entire journey.

., 71–72 Griffel, Mattan, 23 Groupon, 83 Guangdong, China, 81 guayusa, 182–83 Guerilla Open Access Manifesto, 113 Guerrilla Girls, 151 gun use, 133 Hacker Ethic, 37–38, 110, 125, 126 hacker movement, 110–14, 123 hackers, hacking, 19–20, 107–37, 149 access to information and, 110, 112–14 characteristics and mentality of, 122, 136–37 of culture, 205 of electronics, 108–9, 110–14 of establishments, 123–25 manipulation and, 108 mistrust of authority and, 110, 112 motivation for, 112 perception of violence and, 129–36 physical, 125–27 pirates as, 116–22 rules and principles of, 37–38 as small players, 123–24 as term, 111, 115 “white hat,” 108–9 see also specific people and organizations Hackers (Levy), 110 Hadid, Zaha, 81 Hafun, Somalia, 13 H&M, 85 Hargeisa Prison, 26 Harrelson, Woody, 190 Harvard Business Review, 124 Harvard Medical School, 187, 190 Harvard University, 199–200 Hasan, Abdi, 16, 26–27 health care industry, 23–24 see also pharmaceutical industry Hearts of Darkness, 32 Hemingway, Ernest, 211–13 Hendrix College, 140 HERO, 71 High Court of Admiralty, 117 HI-SEAS, 144 HIV/AIDS, 95, 129 Hofstra University, 63 Hoke, Catherine (“Cat”), 58–60, 62, 63–64, 207–9 Hong Kong, China, 82 Hostetler, Corlene, 3 Hostetler, Sam, 3–4, 6–7, 8, 10, 11 hotel industry, hacking of, 124 “How the Weak Win Wars” (Arreguín-Toft), 123 Hulu, 96, 97 Hulu Plus, 97 Humpback Dairies, 6–7 hustling, 51–75 community building and, 68–72 for ex-criminals, 55–56, 59–64 in informal economy, 65 while in prison, 51–54, 55, 57, 59 as term, 57–58 hypnotic regressions, 187, 189 IBM, 92 IKEA, 115 “In Cannes, Women Show Their Reels, Men, Their Films,” 152 incarceration, 51–54, 55, 57, 58–59, 173–74 entrepreneurship programs and, see Defy Ventures; Prison Entrepreneurship Program (PEP); Venturing Out hustling and, 51–54, 55, 57, 59 India, 15, 78, 94–95 indigenous tribes, 180–84, 200 Industrial Revolution, 38 informal economy, see misfits, misfit economy information, access to, 110, 112–14 Infor-Nation, 55, 56, 58 innovation, 18, 24–25, 35, 37, 85, 86, 92, 94, 96–98, 102 copying and, see copying in large corporations, 167 patents as threat to, 92 pivoting and, 169 “In Praise of Misfits,” 35 intellectual property, 92 laws for, 79 sharing of, 89 theft of, 77, 85, 93, 105 see also copying International Anti-Counterfeiting Coalition, 81 International Women’s Day, 151 Internet censorship, 113 Invisible Hook, The: The Hidden Economics of Pirates (Leeson), 118 iPhone, 169 Iraq, 133 iTunes, 96 Jackson, Jesse, 176 Jamaica, N.Y., 49, 50 Jargon File, The, 111 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 148 Jobs, Steve, 30–31, 34, 169 Johns, Adrian, 93 Johnson, Charles, 118, 119 Johnson, Steven, 98 Jolly Roger: The Story of the Great Age of Piracy (Pringle), 120 Joyce, James, 213 Kenning, Tom, 156 khat drug trade, 15 Kickstarter, 102 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 115 King Blood (Latin King leader), 171, 173, 174, 175 Knockoff Economy, The (Raustiala and Sprigman), 85 Kunstmann, Lazar, 19–20, 126, 127 La Barbe, 151–53, 154, 155, 204, 214, 216 Lackman, Jon, 19–20, 126 Lady Gaga, 90 Last Broadcast, The, 32 Latin Kings, 170–79 Latinos, 170–71 Lawrence, T. E., 187 Leadbeater, Charlie, 89 League of Intrapreneurs, 220 Lean’s Engine Reporter, 89 Lebowitz, Fran, 57 Leeson, Peter, 118, 119 Lehman Brothers, 67 Levine, Ross, 63 Levy, Stephen, 110 Lienhard, John, 87 LinkedIn, 104 Linux, 37 liquid-fueled rockets, 148 live-action role-playing (LARPs), 144–45 Ljubljana, Slovenia, 146–47 London, 157, 163 London Underground, 161 MacCombie, Daniel, 182–83 MacDonald, Alexander, 148–49 McDonald, Heidi, 205 Macedonia, 161–62, 184 Mack, John E., 187–92 Mafia, 124 MaKey MaKey, 102–3 Mariotti, Steve, 39 Mars Incorporated, 100 Mars simulation project, 144–46, 216 Martinez, Luis, 61 Mashable, 105 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 37, 110, 114 Mastercard, 85 Matthews, Gordon, 82 meditation-based learning programs, 204–5, 206 Medium, 186 Megaupload, 96 merchant ships, 116–17, 119, 120 Merck, 23 Merryman, Kelly, 98 Middle East: camel milk and, 5, 7–8 milk: cow, alternatives to, 10 raw, illegality of, 6, 7 raw vs. pasteurized, 6 see also camel milk Mimecast, 92 mining, 89 “misfit revolution,” 219–21 misfits, misfit economy, 10–13, 20 advice for, 209 in automobile industry, 40–43 copying and, see copying cultures of informality and, 214–17 in education industry, 22–23 entrepreneurship and, 30–34; see also entrepreneurship established practices challenged by, 21–22 in film industry, 32–34 five key principles of, 44 hacking and, see hackers, hacking in health care industry, 23–24 hustling and, see hustling importance of, 66 informality and self-governance of, 34–38 innovation and, 18, 24–25, 35, 37, 86 mental disorders and, 36 motivation in, 24–26 in music industry, 31 need for, 38–44 pivoting and, see pivoting power of entourages and, 211–14 provocation and, see provocation resilience of, ups and downs of, 207–10 sex and, 21 as term, 11 transforming culture, 204–6 see also specific people and industries Missouri, 3–4 Montparnasse, 213 Moody-Stuart, Mark, 163–64 moon, 149 Morning Glory, 157–58 Motherland, 145 motivation, 24–26 altruistic and justified, 25–26 financial gain as, 25 reputation and esteem as, 24 Moveable Feast, A (Hemingway), 212 Muhammad, prophet, 5 Museum of Modern Art (Ljubljana, Slovenia), 146–47 Museum of Modern Art (New York, N.Y.), 151 music industry, 90 file-sharing programs and, 96, 97, 98 hacking of, 124 misfits in, 31 Muslims, Amish and, 9 MySpace, 103, 105 Naim, Moises, 124 Napster, 96 NASA, 144, 146, 148–49 National Inventor Hall of Fame, 92 Nation of Islam, 173, 176 natural selection, 87 Netflix, 96, 97, 98 Netherlands, 98 Network for Teaching Entrepreneurship (NFTE), 39 New Hive, 186 New York, N.Y., 58, 60, 133, 151, 170, 182, 183, 187, 209 New York City police, 176 New York prison system, 173 New York Sun, 147–48 New York Times, 65 Nightingale, Florence, 115, 128 Nouwen, Henri, 185 Occupy Wall Street, 35, 214–15, 216 Odwalla, 201 Ohio, 67–69 Oliver Wyman, 158 Omar, Mohamed, 29 O’Neal, Harold, 206 One Month Rails, 23 On the Origin of Species (Darwin), 87 On the Tendency of Species to Form Varieties (Darwin & Wallace), 87 Open Library, 113 open-source, 99, 102–3, 113, 135 Operation Atalanta, 27 organized crime, 124–25, 171 gangs and, 170–79 see also pirates; specific criminal organizations Oxford University, 101 Pandora, 96, 97 Panthéon, 19, 125 Paris, France, 19, 125–26, 151, 211–13, 221 Paris Years, The (Reynolds), 212 Parks, Rosa, 143 patents, 91–93, 99 Peace Corps, 67, 68 PepsiCo, 184 Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection (Darwin & Wallace), 87 Peru, 180–81 pharmaceutical industry: copying in, 94–95 decline of, 39 research and development in, 101–2, 204 Piracy: The Intellectual Property Wars from Gutenberg to Gates (Johns), 93 Pirate Organization, The (Durand and Vergne), 94 pirates, 205 governance structures of, 118–21 as hackers, 116–22 merchant ships and, 116–17, 119, 120 principles of, 117–18 radio, 94 trade disrupted by, 121 see also Somali piracy; specific people Pirates of Somalia, The: Inside Their Hidden World (Bahadur), 28 pirating, see copying; counterfeit goods pivoting, 161–93 alien abduction and, 187–92 in development industry, 161–69 innovation and, 169 personal, 169–70, 191 rain forest marketing and, 180–84, 200, 209 resistance to, 174, 192 solitude and, 184–86 street gangs and, 170–79 Plant PET Technology Collaborative, 91 Poe, Edgar Allen, 143, 147–48, 149 porn industry, 96 Pound, Ezra, 212, 213 Prado, Sergio, 99–100 Prince of Our Disorder, A (Mack), 187 Princeton University, 141 Pringle, Patrick, 120 prison, see incarceration Prison Entrepreneurship Program (PEP), 59–60, 208 privateers, 118 Procter & Gamble, 158 Project Hieroglyph, 149 provocation, 139–60 activist pranksters and, 153–55 festivals and, 156–58 live-action role playing (LARPs) and, 144–45 Mars simulation project as, 144–46 power of, 142–44 protesters and, 151–53 space flight and, 148–49 unschooling movement and, 139–41 value of, 159–60 Puerto Rico, 170–71 Pulitzer Prize, 187 Puntland, 29 quartermasters, 119 racism, 170 radio pirates, 94 Rainbow Coalition, 176 rain forest marketing, 200, 209, 200 Ramadan, 7 Rap Tablet, The, 54 Raustiala, Kal, 85 raves, 158–59 Raymond, Eric S., 111 Reagan, Ronald, 3 Real Simple Syndication (RSS), 113 Reddit, 113 Rediker, Marcus, 117, 120, 121 Rembert, Mark, 67–70 repression, theory of, 189 Republic Square, 151 research and development, 88–89, 91, 101–2, 204 Reynolds, Michael, 212 Rheingold, Howard, 141–42 Rikers Island, 51, 52 Riley, Ronald, 92 Roberts, Bartholomew (“Black Bart”), 116, 121 Roberts, Oliver, 109 Roberts, Sam, 107–9, 112, 115, 116 Rockefeller, Laurance, 190 Rogers, Roo, 65 Rose, Alexander, 150–51 Rosenbaum, Eric, 102–3 Royal Society of Arts (RSA), 66 Rubinstein, Yona, 63 Rugby Federation, 153 Ruiz, Carlos, 49, 50–51 Ruiz, Fabian, 49–51, 64 attempted prison escape of, 52–53 hustling by, 54–57, 61 RUNA, 183–84, 200, 209 Ruwa, Zimbabwe, 188 Sage Bionetworks, 23–24 Said, Abdu, 29–30 St.


pages: 170 words: 45,121

Don't Make Me Think, Revisited: A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability by Steve Krug

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collective bargaining, game design, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, speech recognition, Steve Jobs

The temptation is to not want to use any space because (a) you can’t imagine that anybody doesn’t know what this site is, and (b) everyone’s clamoring to use the Home page space for other purposes. Take Kickstarter.com, for example. Because of their novel proposition, Kickstarter has a lot of ’splainin’ to do, so they wisely use a lot of Home page space to do it. Almost every element on the page helps explain or reinforce what the site is about. Kickstarter may not have a tagline (unless it’s “Bring creativity to life”) but they do put an admirable amount of effort into making sure people understand what they do and how it works. “What is Kickstarter?” is clearly the most prominent item in the primary navigation. ...but don’t use any more space than necessary. For most sites, there’s no need to use a lot of space to convey the basic proposition, and messages that take up the entire Home page are usually too much for people to bother absorbing anyway.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

Next time just hand them a handle of vodka and a pack of cigarettes,” one founder of an Internet startup wrote in a notorious post titled “10 Things I Hate About You: San Francisco Edition.”56 Another tech founder and CEO was even more blunt, calling San Francisco’s homeless “grotesque . . . degenerate . . . trash.”57 Equally disturbing are the technorati’s solutions to the poverty and hunger afflicting many Bay Area residents. In May 2014, the Google engineer and libertarian activist Justine Tunney, who in 2013 tried to fund a private militia on Kickstarter,58 came up with the idea of replacing food stamps with Soylent, a “food product” that claims to “provide maximum nutrition with minimum effort.” “Give poor people @soylent so they can be healthy and productive. If you’re on food stamps, maybe you’re unhealthy and need to eat better,” Tunney tweeted, without bothering to check first with people on food stamps to see if they wanted to eat what the technology critic J. R. Hennessy calls “tasteless nutrition sludge.”59 No matter. In a month, Tunney had raised $1 million on Kickstarter for a repellent social experiment that brings to mind Soylent Green, the 1974 dystopian movie about a world in which the dominant food product was made of human remains.

As Peter Goodman, the former global editor of the Huffington Post, wrote to Arianna Huffington before very publicly quitting his job in March 2014, “there is a widespread sense on the team that the HuffPost is no longer fully committed to original reporting; that in a system governed largely by metrics, deep reporting and quality writing weigh in as a lack of productivity.”26 What Goodman calls “original reporting” has, according to the media reporter Joe Pompeo, been replaced by a Buzzfeed-like focus on social and mobile platforms where “people love sharing stories about health and meditation and exercise and sleep.”27 “The unfortunate fact is that online journalism can’t survive without a wealthy benefactor,”28 mourns the GigaOm columnist Mathew Ingram. And I’m afraid the same is increasingly becoming true of many unprofitable bookstores, too, which are desperately relying on crowdfunding sites like Indiegogo or Kickstarter to raise money from benefactors.29 And, of course, there is no lack of rich benefactors from Silicon Valley who are buying up the very old media that their revolution has destroyed. The poachers are now the gamekeepers. There is Mark Zuckerberg’s Harvard roommate, Chris Hughes, a cofounder of Facebook, who bought the venerable New Republic magazine in 2012. Then there’s Amazon right-libertarian CEO Jeff Bezos, who acquired the equally venerable Washington Post newspaper in 2013, no doubt giving all its reporters a required reading list including The Innovator’s Dilemma and The Black Swan.

To put this into perspective, in 2009 all the content on the World Wide Web was estimated to have added up to about half a zettabyte of data.20 But, rather than infinite, the possibilities of most of the new electronic hardware at CES 2014 were really all the same. They were all devices greedy for the collection of networked data. These devices, some of which were being crowdfunded by networks like Indiegogo and Kickstarter, were designed to connect our dots—to know our movements, our taste, our physical fitness, our driving skills, our facial characteristics, above all where we’ve been, where we are, and where we are going. Wearable technology—what the Intel CEO Brian Krzanich in his keynote speech at the show called a “broad ecosystem of wearables”—dominated CES 2014. Sony, Samsung, and many, many startups were all demonstrating products that wouldn’t have been out of place at that old East German Ministry for State Security in Berlin.


pages: 261 words: 71,349

The Introvert Entrepreneur: Amplify Your Strengths and Create Success on Your Own Terms by Beth Buelow

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fear of failure, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, Skype, Tony Hsieh

What did you learn through the process of doing a successful Kickstarter campaign that would be useful to an introvert entrepreneur considering a similar endeavor? I was emotionally unprepared for how vulnerable I would feel with such a public “ask” as a Kickstarter campaign. I resisted reading about “how to conduct a successful campaign” and participated full out, from the heart, with my most authentic voice. After thirty years as a public figure it was a roller coaster ride asking for contributions to fulfill a double dream. Deanna and I both reached out to our shared and individual communities. I was overwhelmed with the outpouring of support and affirmation. Still am every time I think about it. And the process that Kickstarter funded is already helping me make a bigger difference in the way I am able to teach and offer processes.

See also Tribe authenticity with, 49 business expansion with, 221 FUDs and, 35 networking with, 94 Fripp, Patricia, 21 Frisch, Max, 158 FUDs, 34–43 bringing into open, 36–43 choices and, 40 identifying, 35–36 list of, 37 in marketing, 34–35 in networking, 106 in politics, 34–35 prosperity perspective and, 40–43 reality check for, 38–40 Truth and, 58 Full Circle Coaching, 36 Fund-raising, 78 moves management in, 131–32 Funnel of engagement, 132–36 Gates, Bill, 13 The Genius of Opposites (Kahnweiler), 157–58 Godin, Seth, 154, 161 Golden Circle, 99–100 Good to Great (Collins), 14, 159 Google+, 20, 157, 167 Grant, Adam, 148 Gretzky, Wayne, 231 Grow Your Own Business Expo, 27 Guillebeau, Chris, 185–87 Hamlet (Shakespeare), 87 Handwritten note, for follow up, 107 Happiness authenticity of, 67–68 of introverts, 22 The Happiness of Pursuit (Guillebeau), 185 Happy hour, 44 at conference, 109 for networking, 76–94, 111 Havel, Václav, 236 Helgoe, Laurie, 22–23 Herodotus, 103 Herron, Christian Marie, 53 Herron Media, 53 Hessler, Jim, 57–58 High-arousal positive feelings, 22 Hobbies business as, 145–46 for networking, 95 on social media, 167 Home-study courses, content from, 140 Hsieh, Tony, 61 Humor, in public speaking, 184 IBM, 34 Impatience, 10 Improvisation, 232–33 Independence, 190 Info@ email account, 138 Information processing, 8–9 by introverts, 15 Insight Selling: Surprising Research on What Sales Winners Do Differently (Doerr), 149 Intention, for networking, 98 Internal motivation, 33 Internet radio, content from, 140–41 Interviews for content, 139 for networking, 95 Introvert entrepreneur authenticity of, 49–50, 67–69 authority of, 69–70 capacity zone for, 118, 234–36 challenges of, 17–23 collaboration for, 20–21, 189–214 company culture for, 61–64 core values of, 32, 57, 62 credibility of, 69–70 energy management by, 19–20 expertise of, 114, 155 external action by, 53–54 extrovert in, 66 fear of, 25–55, 87 isolation of, 20–21, 87 kindred spirits of, 51–53 networking for, 18–19, 75–114 original thoughts of, 59 public speaking by, 173–94 purpose of, 57 risk of, 66, 71–73 sales by, 115–51 as self-effacing, 14 as self-possessed, 15 self-promotion of, 19, 122–28 self-reflection of, 15–17 as self-reliant, 14–15 strengths of, 12–17 sustainability for, 21, 236–39 transparency of, 153, 164–65 trial and error by, 74 tribe for, 153–87 values of, 73–74 voice of, 17–18, 57–74 vulnerability of, 66, 70 The Introvert Manifesto: Introverts Illuminated, Extraverts Enlightened (Vogt), 45 Introvert Power: Why Your Inner Life Is Your Hidden Strength (Helgoe), 22 Introverts communication by, 8–12 defined, 3–5 depression of, 22 happiness of, 22 improvisation and, 232–33 independence of, 190 information processing by, 8–9, 15 motivation for, 33 observation by, 23 overactive brain of, 34–35 privacy and, 51, 131 public speaking by, 49 talking to, 10–11 Truth for, 18, 57 Isolation, 20–21, 87 Janeczko, Bryan, 112–14 Jeffers, Susan, 29, 98 Jobs, Steve, 65 Jordan, Michael, 13 Jung, Carl, 3, 50 Kahnweiler, Jennifer, 157–58 Katie, Byron, 40 Kawasaki, Guy, 92 Keirsey, David, 5 Kickstarter, 213 Kindred spirits, 51–53 Kiwanis, 179 Lamott, Anne, 18, 19 Leadership for business expansion, 219–20 Level 5, 14, 15 Lead-in, for networking, 90–91, 102 Lectures, for networking, 94 Lee, Felicia, 192 Letting go, 239–40 Level 5 Leadership, 14, 15 Limiting beliefs, 38–40 Lindbergh, Anne Morrow, 67 LinkedIn, 20, 82 events on, 168 for networking, 95 tribe and, 157, 161–62 Listening leadership and, 220 in networking, 89 Live a Life You Love (Biali), 141 Love choices and, 31 fear and, 30–33, 97, 121–22 networking and, 97 sales and, 144–45 Low-arousal positive feelings, 22 Marketing.


pages: 268 words: 74,724

Who Needs the Fed?: What Taylor Swift, Uber, and Robots Tell Us About Money, Credit, and Why We Should Abolish America's Central Bank by John Tamny

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Airbnb, bank run, banks create money, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, Carmen Reinhart, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, fiat currency, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Gilder, Home mortgage interest deduction, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, liquidity trap, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, moral hazard, mortgage tax deduction, NetJets, offshore financial centre, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, Uber for X, War on Poverty, yield curve

Imagine the U.S. economy without the advances that nontraditional forms of finance provided credit for. Returning to Spike Lee, his early successes made him bankable in Hollywood. But in 2014, he turned to Kickstarter to attain $1.25 million in financing for Da Sweet Blood of Jesus. Kickstarter is a website where the creative go to find investors for their projects. They set a number they’d like to raise, and if successful they find individuals eager to “crowd-source” whatever project it is they seek funds for. The investors acquire a stake in the creative dream of others who need credit to animate their dreams. Capitalism is always and everywhere a two-way street. Explaining his utilization of Kickstarter to The Economist, Lee observed that traditional movie studios “are looking for tent-pole movies, movies that make a billion dollars, open on the same day all around the world.

See federal government Gray, Freddie, 135 Grazer, Brian, 22–23, 24–25, 26 Great Depression, 106, 141–43, 147, 168 The Greatest Trade Ever (Zuckerman), 45, 120 Greenspan, Alan, 119, 120, 164 Greider, William, 121 Griffin, Ken, 41 Guest, Christopher, 22 Guillies, Wendy, 175 Hamm, Harold, 73 Hanks, Tom, 22 Hannah, Daryl, 23 Harbaugh, Jim, 16–18, 20, 21, 79, 103, 127 hard assets, 118 Harford, Tim, 32, 64–65 Hartnett, Josh, 24 Hastert, Dennis, 52 Hawaiian Airlines, 34–35 Hawn, Goldie, 24 Hayward, Steven, 49, 50 Hazlitt, Henry, 22, 64, 74, 113, 163, 176 Heaven Can Wait (film), 23 hedge-fund managers, 48 Heller, Walter, 54 Hemingway, Ernest, 91 Hendrickson, Mark, 80 high-yield “junk bonds,” 37–40, 126 Hilsenrath, Jon, 147, 148 Hoffman, Dustin, 23 Hoke, Brady, 16, 20–21, 78–79, 103, 115, 127, 128, 148 Hollywood Shuffle (film), 109 Hoover, Herbert, 142, 168 Hoover Institution, 102 housing booms and “easy credit,” 113–22 and value of the dollar, 116–22 housing market and mortgage-backed securities, 150–52 Howard, Ron, 22–23 How We Got Here (Frum), 118 Human Action (von Mises), 20 Humphrey-Hawkins Full Employment Act, 165 hyperinflation in post-WWII Germany, 90–91 IBM, 53 Imagine Entertainment, 22–23 inflation Friedman’s view of, 136 inability of Fed to control, 159–61, 165 and value of the dollar, 43 inherited wealth, 29–30 initial public offering (IPO), 29, 124 innovation and definitions of success or failure, 29–30 and entrepreneurs, 66 and failure, 57–58 The Innovators (Isaacson), 31 insider trading, 38 Inside the Nixon Administration (Burns), 170 Intel, 143 intellectual property rights, 9–10 interest rates and the cost of credit, 1–3, 13–14, 47–48, 147 and the Fed on inflation as source of economic growth, 156–61, 165–66 housing boom and “easy credit,” 113–16, 120–22 and quantitative easing (QE) program, 149–51 Internet banking, 108, 111 Internet “bubble,” 57–58 Internet job creation, 178–79 investment banking, 123 Iron Man (films), 25 Ishtar (film), 23 Jagger, Mick, 25 James, LeBron, 137–38 Japan after World War II, 128 Bank of Japan and Nikkei index, 152, 159 job creation and robots, 176–80 Jobs, Steve, 30–31 Johnson, Lyndon B., 49, 53 Johnson, Mark, 153 Jones, Jesse, 167 “junk bonds,” 37–40, 126 Kalanick, Travis, 12, 13 Karlgaard, Rich, 160 Kashgar, 138 Kauffman Foundation, 175 Keaton, Diane, 24 Kelly, Jason, 126 Kennedy, John F., 49–50, 169 Kennedy, Robert F., 34 Keynesian economics, 78–82, 88, 93–96, 140–41 Keynes, John Maynard, 78, 147 Kickstarter, 110 Kiffin, Lane, 20 Kinski, Nastassja, 24 Knowledge and Power (Gilder), 57 Kohli, Shweta, 107 Kohn, Donald, 156 Kornbluth, Walter, 22 labor as credit, 15–21 Laffer, Arthur, 55, 137, 157, 158 Laffer curves, 50, 54–55 Lawrence, Jennifer, 37–38 Lee, Spike, 109, 110 Lending Club, 107–8 Leubsdorf, Ben, 156 Levy, Eugene, 22 Lewis, Nathan, 72, 137, 141–42, 144 LewRockwell.com website, 94 Lisa computer, 30 Lombard Street (Bagehot), 46 Luck, Andrew, 16–17 McAdams, Hall, 89–90, 104 McConnell, Mitch, 51 Mack, John J., 123, 130 Madoff, Bernard, 163 Mann, Windsor, 78 Margolis, Eric, 94, 96 market “bubbles,” 56–63 market forces and government spending, 59–60 price of goods versus price of dollars, 1–2 von Mises on, 20, 152 market intervention and the Fed, 159–61 Mazursky, Paul, 24 Medicare, 53, 78, 174 Merrill Lynch, 120 Metro public transit, 10–11 Meyer, Urban, 17–18 Microsoft, 30–31, 125, 143, 155 Milken, Michael, 38–40, 114, 126 Mill, John Stuart, 76 Mindich, Eric, 45–46 Mission Asset Fund, 107 mobile phones, 53–54 monetarism, 135–36, 138 money and Chinese economy, 135–36, 137 and economic activity, 3, 136–37, 140, 143 and gold standard, 68 and the Great Depression, 141–43, 147, 168 market monetarism, 138–39 as measure of wealth, 67–68 monetarism, 135–36, 138 “money multipliers” and “fractional lending,” 87–90 private money supplies, 144–45 and stable currency, 137, 144 Money and Foreign Exchange After 1914 (Cassel), 119 Moore, Gordon, 31 Moore, Stephen, 50–51 Morgan, J.


pages: 251 words: 76,225

The Geek Feminist Revolution by Kameron Hurley

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, clean water, desegregation, en.wikipedia.org, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, Kickstarter, means of production, Skype, women in the workforce

I am imperfect, and I am tired, and now that I’m in my midthirties I’ve been able to see the cycles of rage and erasure happen time and time again, and yes, it gets frustrating. As opportunities for women in geek spaces have risen, so too has the backlash. Anita Sarkeesian’s popular Tropes vs. Women in Video Games video education series about problematic depictions of women in video games raised nearly $160,000 on Kickstarter and simultaneously made her one of the largest targets of abuse on the internet—no small feat considering how vast the rage of the online beast can be. A single forum post by a spurned ex-boyfriend triggered an internet deluge of threats against game creator Zoe Quinn, which rapidly organized itself under the Gamergate hashtag, an online mob ostensibly about “ethics in gaming journalism” that primarily targeted women for harassment.

I made $7,000 in fiction income the year before. I’m ordering an overpriced drink that I’ll be writing off as a business expense, because I’ll likely lose 30 percent of that $7,000 to taxes in a few months. While I wait, I overhear a successful self-published author talking to a group of folks about how self-publishing can make everyone big money, and how traditional publishing is fucked. I’ve heard this a thousand times. Kickstarter is the key, he says. You can pre-fund all that work ahead of time, and generate income. He boasts about how he gave this advice to many underadvanced authors, folks paid “these seven-thousand, ten-thousand-dollar advances,” who were obviously small, silly fish. He sounds like a self-help guru. He makes writing books sound like a get-rich-quick scheme. I take my drink. I don’t pour it on his head.

I create work to move and to inspire, and half of my job in doing that is to fail at it and learn from it and fail again even better next time. Unlike novels, marketing communications like emails and web pages and direct mailings can be written rather quickly, so I know that this process of fail again, fail better can work, ultimately. The trouble is that publishing doesn’t give you twelve failures to fuel a success. Publishing gives you one shot, maybe two, and then it’s back to the self-publishing mines or Kickstarter to prove your worth. Which I am okay with doing, but really? Publishing is a broken beast, still churning along with the same payment schedules and margins and advances it had, what, a hundred years ago? I run into the same issue at large companies that insist that marketing has always been done this way, that we’ve always sent out direct marketing pieces and why do we have to change even though the people who buy our products have totally revolutionized the way they purchase goods?


pages: 89 words: 24,277

Designing for Emotion by Aarron Walter

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

big-box store, en.wikipedia.org, game design, John Gruber, Kickstarter, Skype, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, Wall-E, web application

They recognized that a craftsman leaves a bit of themselves in their work, a true gift that can be enjoyed for many years. In the present day, we can see a few parallels. In a quest for higher crop yields and lower production costs, farms have become headless corporations pitting profits against human welfare. But local farmers are finding new markets as consumers search for food produced by people for people. While big-box stores proliferate disposable mass-market goods, websites like Etsy and Kickstarter are empowering artists, craftspeople, and DIY inventors who sell goods they’ve designed and created. And their customers love the experience. When you buy from an independent craftsman, you support creative thinking and families (not corporations), and you gain the opportunity to live with an object that has a story. That feels good. We web designers find ourselves in a similar situation. There’s plenty of opportunity to build fast and cheap sites with no reverence for craft or the relationship we build with our audience.

q=%22Guess+I+could+have+waited+for+today+if+all%22&in=81&type=contents&view=posts&search=true&button_search.x=54&button_search.y=-106&button_search=true 13 http://www.alistapart.com/articles/understandingprogressiveenhancement/ 14 http://google.com/websiteoptimizer Resources 15 http://amzn.com/1592535879 16 http://getmentalnotes.com/ 17 http://amzn.com/0465051367 18 http://amzn.com/0393334775 19 http://amzn.com/014303622X 20 http://amzn.com/030746086X 21 http://amzn.com/0979777747 22 http://amzn.com/0321607376 23 http://uxmag.com/design/beyond-frustration-three-levels-of-happy-design 24 http://uxmag.com/design/the-psychologists-view-of-ux-design 25 http://uxmag.com/design/organized-approach-to-emotional-response-testing 26 http://boxesandarrows.com/view/emotional-design Index 37Signals 8-10 A Able Design 88 aesthetic-usability effect 27-28 A List Apart 90 Apple 7, 27 anticipation 54-58, 87 apathy 75 Arts and Crafts movement 2, 94 B baby-face bias 18-20, 28, 32 Basecamp 8-10, 70 Betabrand 13-16, 75 Blue Sky Resumes 88-90, 93 bible 31-33 Biological Homage to Mickey Mouse, A 19 Bowman, Doug 21, 55-56 Brain Rules 12 Breathing Status LED Indicator 27 Bringhurst, Robert 20 Brizzly 19-20 C calligraphy 31 Carbonmade 40, 42-45 Clippy 60 CoffeeCup Software 85-87, 90 Cornelius, J. 86 contrast 22-25, 28, 44 Convertbot 40-41 D Damasio, Antonio 67 Darwin, Charles 17-18 design persona 35-40, 48, 91, 92 Don’t Make Me Think 77 dot-com bubble 3 Dribbble 55-56, 59 Dropbox 72-74 E Etsy 2 Elements of Content Strategy, The 75 Elements of Typographic Style, The 20 Emotional Design 27 Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animal, The 17 F Facebook 3, 7, 54, 59, 74, 86-87 face-ism ratio design principle 46 fail whale 7 Fletcher, Louise 90 Flickr 3, 51, 54, 79-82, 93 Freddie Von Chippenheimer IV 37, 60-65 G Getting Real 8 GigaOm 56 Gmail 70 golden ratio 20-21, 27 Google Site Optimizer 93 GoToMeeting 76 Gould, Stephen Jay 19 Gorum, Dave 44 Groupon 62 Gruber, John 42 Gupta, Amit 51-52 Gutenberg, Johannes 31-33 gut instinct 67-68 H Hale, Kevin 11 Happy Cog 46 Hick’s Law 24, 28 hierarchy of needs 5-6, 35 Hipmunk 7 Hodgman, John 33, 36 Housing Works 40, 45-46, 75, 93 HTML 3 Human-Computer Interaction 29 I iPhone 40 iPod 20 industrial revolution 1 iTunes 7 Ping 7 Pink Panther 15-16 Putorti, Jason 69, 71 priming 59-65, 76 progressive enhancement 90-91 Pythagoras 20, 27 J Jobs, Steve 27 Jardine, Mark 41-42 K Kickstarter 2 Kissane, Erin 75 Krug, Steve 77 L Lindland, Chris 13-16 Long, Justin 33, 36 M Mac 33, 36 Mall, Dan 46 MailChimp 20, 36-40, 60-65, 91 Mashable 56 Maslow, Abraham 5-6 Medina, John 12 memory 11-13, 49, 82 messagefirst 33-35 Mestre, Ricardo 25-26 Microsoft Office 60 Mint 69-72, 93 N Norman, Donald 27, 82-83 O open system 54 Oprah Magazine 90 P Parthenon 20 party pooper 91 persona 33-40 Photojojo 49-52, 59, 65 Q Quicken 72 R rosy effect 82 S Scoutmob 62 Shakespeare 10 Silverback 77 Sims 54 Skype 76 Smith, Matthew 88-89 StickyBits 20 Squared Eye 88 Super Mario Brothers 54 surprise 49-54 T Tapbots 40-42 Tumblr 23-24 Trammell, Mark 55 Twitter 3, 7, 20-21, 54, 55-59, 74, 86-87 V variable rewards 62, 87 velvet rope 57, 87 Volkswagen Beetle 32 W WALL•E 41-42 Warfel, Todd Zaki 33 Weightbot 40-41 Wilson, Rainn 4 Wufoo 9-11, 13, 52-54, 93 Y YouTube 37, 60 About A Book Apart Web design is about multi-disciplinary mastery and laser focus, and that’s the thinking behind our brief books for people who make websites.


pages: 178 words: 43,631

Spoiled Brats: Short Stories by Simon Rich

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dumpster diving, immigration reform, Kickstarter, Occupy movement, pattern recognition

Dan smiled proudly and drifted off to sleep. RIP Rip reached into his minifridge and pulled out a Four Loko. The government had banned the beverage months ago, claiming its high caffeine and alcohol content caused liver damage. But he’d saved one can to drink on a special occasion. And now, for the first time since graduating, he finally had something worth celebrating. At 12:00 a.m. EST, he had officially achieved funding on Kickstarter for his jazz blog. Starting tomorrow, he’d be sticking it to the mainstream jazz media one post at a time. His parents had offered to get him an internship at Jazz Masters Monthly (they were friends with the editor in chief). But Rip wasn’t interested in working for a soulless place like that. How could a corporate-owned magazine possibly be an authority on jazz? He’d done some digging online and found out that the same company that owned Jazz Masters Monthly owned Cat Fancy.

As the curtain creaked open, Tim thought about how far the band had come. When they’d first started out, as seniors at Yale, they barely had enough songs for an EP. Now, the Fuzz had four self-released LPs under their belt. Their latest single—a reggae-inflected surf tune—had amassed more than twenty-five thousand plays on SoundCloud. And when they’d needed to raise five thousand dollars to record their latest album, they’d gotten it on Kickstarter in less than twenty days. No one had ever come to see them perform, though. At least, not anyone important. Tim tried not to stare, but it was difficult. The talent scout was tall and frighteningly thin, in a form-fitting charcoal suit. Club Trash served only beer and wine, but somehow he’d gotten hold of a martini. He sipped from his glass and smirked at the stage, his lanky legs folded at the ankles.

Sanjay shouted, bursting into laughter. “Holy crap!” “You can still stay in the band,” Tim pleaded. “You can go to Columbia and we’ll work around your schedule.” “He’s going to Yale,” Death said. Sanjay began to dance. “You can’t do this,” Tim begged his drummer. “What about our fans?” “You have no fans,” Death informed him. “Oh yeah?” Tim said. “Then how did we raise five thousand dollars on Kickstarter?” “All the money came from Pete’s mom’s bridge club.” Tim winced. He’d always wondered why they had such a large Boca Raton fan base. “Pete’s going into finance,” Death told Tim. “He’s already been through four rounds of interviews.” “I was going to tell you,” Pete said. Tim’s eyes filled with bitter tears. “What am I going to do?” he asked, his voice as small as a child’s. “You’ll work at an SAT-test-prep company,” Death said.


pages: 161 words: 44,488

The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

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Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application

They all contributed, in different ways, to my understanding of Bitcoin, cryptocurrencies, blockchains, and their (decentralized) applications, either by teaching me, showing me, debating me, or allowing me into a piece of their world where I learned. Special thanks to Wiley executive editor Bill Falloon, who believed we could do this faster than humanly possible, and to Kevin Barrett Kane at The Frontispiece who designed and produced the book in the nick of time. Finally, much appreciation to the group of friends who helped support this book's Kickstarter campaign in February 2016, which made its production feasible. I could not have done this without you, and without the support of Margot Atwell and John Dimatos from Kickstarter. One of a kind, Most Generous Supporter: Brad Feld (Foundry Group). Really GENEROUS Supporters: Jim Orlando (OMERS Ventures), Ryan Selkis (DCG), Matthew Spoke (Deloitte). Super SPECIAL Supporters: Kevin Magee, Piet Van Overbeke, Christian Gheorghe, Jon Bradford. Super BIG Supporters: David Cohen (Techstars), Matthew Roszak (Bloq), Mark Templeton, Duncan Logan (RocketSpace), Michael Dalesandro.

Most exchanges provide multiple ways to deposit or withdraw money, including wire transfers, drafts, money orders, Western Union, check, debit card, Visa, PayPal, or Virtual Visa, many of them for free. Some of these exchanges even offer foreign currency exchange services in real-time between a variety of cryptocurrencies and popular currencies, such the U.S. dollar, Canadian dollar, Euro, British pound, and Japanese yen. Already, these are more capabilities than what the average bank user can do without visiting a branch. If you are running a crowdfunding campaign (such as on Kickstarter), you are also required to link your bank account. At the completion of a successful campaign, your earnings are automatically deposited into that account. When you link your ApplePay account to checkout and pay for items in seconds, the money is actually coming directly from one of your bank or credit card accounts. When you take an Uber ride, Uber makes a pull request to charge your credit card, automatically.


pages: 167 words: 50,652

Alternatives to Capitalism by Robin Hahnel, Erik Olin Wright

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3D printing, affirmative action, crowdsourcing, inventory management, iterative process, Kickstarter, loose coupling, means of production, profit maximization, race to the bottom, transaction costs

Consider the following example: Suppose a group of people have an idea for some new product but they cannot convince the relevant council or federation to provide them the needed capital equipment and raw materials to produce it. There is just too much skepticism about the viability of the project. An alternative way of funding the project could be through a form of crowdsourcing finance along the lines of Kickstarter. The workers involved would post a description of the project online and explain their specific needs for material inputs. They appeal to people (in their role of consumers) to allocate part of their annual consumption allowances to the project. Consumers might decide, for example, to put in extra hours at work in order to acquire the extra funds needed for their contribution, or they might just decide to consume less of some discretionary part of their consumption bundle.

Such a device could be used for an experimental theater project that the relevant sector federation (which would in effect function like an arts council) thinks is a waste of resources. Or it could be used for some new manufactured product. There are a variety of motivations that might lead people to voluntarily make this allocation. They might believe in the social value of the project and therefore be willing to give the funds as an outright grant. This is currently the motivation behind a range of Kickstarter projects in the arts. Or they might be really keen on the product, and give the funds in exchange for a promise of being the first to get the product itself at an equal value to what they gave. This would, in effect, be simply a long-term pre-order of the product, although operating outside of the mechanism of the IFB. But potential contributors to the project might also only be interested in contributing if they got a positive return on their “investment”.

It is not clear to me why, for these kinds of technical regulatory matters, state institutions with field offices and extension services wouldn’t do this job more effectively. 11It is worth noting that in capitalism there is a very wide range of ways that small businesses can acquire the necessary capital for projects: There are ordinary banks, of course, but in many countries there are a wide variety of specialized banks with different criteria for making loans, including some with social and environmental mandates. Community banks are different from national banks, and state banks are different from multinational banks. There are also government agencies in many countries that give far below market-rate loans for targeted purposes and even outright grants. And there are things like Kickstarter and other unconventional ways of raising capital. I am not at all saying that this generates a fair and open access to capital. It does not in capitalism. The point is that this constitutes a heterogeneous institutional environment. I think a participatory economy is also likely to function best with qualitatively distinct devices for funding projects. 12It is worth noting that the massive reduction of the work week was basically Marx’s conception of how this problem would be dealt with in a communist society: the “realm of necessity”—the amount of work that needed to be done to satisfy needs—would be dramatically reduced and the “realm of freedom” would expand. 13As in the earlier discussion of Robin’s potential willingness, on the grounds of incentives, to accept pay differentials for innovative behavior even though this violates effort-based pay, I assume more generally that he would regard some contribution-based pay differentials as legitimate if this was the result of a robust democratic decision. 14This problem of non-comparability of effort measures across workplaces is especially important because of the way aggregate effort ratings figure in all sorts of planning processes, not just individual remuneration.


pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

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3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Generally speaking, connectivity encourages and enables altruistic behavior. People have more insight and visibility into the suffering of others, and they have more opportunities to do something about it. Some scoff at the rise of “slacktivism”—slacker activism, or engaging in social activism with little or no effort—but transnational, forward-thinking organizations like Kiva, Kickstarter and Samasource represent a vision of our connected future. Kiva and Kickstarter are both crowd-funding platforms (Kiva focuses on micro-finance, while Kickstarter focuses mostly on creative pursuits), and Samasource outsources “micro-work” from corporations to people in developing countries over simple online platforms. There are other, less quantifiable ways to contribute to a distant cause than donating money, like creating supportive content or increasing public awareness, both increasingly integral parts of the process.

Yet less than a month after the public revelations about these cyber weapons, security experts at Kaspersky Lab, a large Russian computer-security company with international credibility, concluded that the two teams that developed Stuxnet and Flame did, at an early stage, collaborate. They identified a particular module, known as Resource 207, in an early version of the Stuxnet worm that clearly shares code with Flame. “It looks like the Flame platform was a kick-starter of sorts to get the Stuxnet project going,” a senior Kaspersky researcher explained. “The operations went separate ways, maybe because Stuxnet code was mature enough to be deployed in the wild. Now we are 100 percent sure that the Stuxnet and Flame groups worked together.” Though Stuxnet, Flame and other cyber weapons linked to the United States and Israel are the most advanced known examples of state-led cyber attacks, other methods of cyber warfare have already been used by governments around the world.

Hormuud https encryption protocols Huawei human rights, 1.1, 3.1 humiliation Hussein, Saddam, itr.1, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4 Hutus Identity Cards Act identity theft identity-theft protection, 2.1, 2.2 IEDs (improvised explosive devices), 5.1, 6.1 IEEE Spectrum, 107n income inequality, 1.1, 4.1 India, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1 individuals, transfer of power to Indonesia infiltration information blackouts of exchange of free movement of see also specific information technologies Information and Communications Technologies Authority Information Awareness Office information-technology (IT) security experts infrastructure, 2.1, 7.1 Innocence of Muslims (video), 4.1, 6.1 innovation Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, n insurance, for online reputation integrated clothing machine intellectual property, 2.1, 3.1 intelligence intelligent pills internally displaced persons (IDP), 7.1, 7.2 International Criminal Court, 6.1, 7.1, 7.2 internationalized domain names (IDN) International Telecommunications Union Internet, 2.1, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 Balkanization of as becoming cheaper and changing understanding of life impact of as network of networks Internet asylum seekers Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) internet protocol (IP) activity logs internet protocol (IP) address, 3.1, 3.2, 6.1 Internet service provider (ISP), 3.1, 3.2, 6.1, 7.1 Iran, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.1 cyber warfare on “halal Internet” in Iraq, itr.1, 3.1, 4.1, 6.1, 6.2 reconstruction of, 7.1, 7.2 Ireland iRobot Islam Israel, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 iTunes Japan, 3.1, 6.1n, 246 earthquake in Jasmine Revolution JavaOne Conference Jebali, Hamadi Jibril, Mahmoud Jim’ale, Ali Ahmed Nur Join the Club: How Peer Pressure Can Transform the World (Rosenberg), 4.1 Joint Tactical Networking Center Joint Tactical Radio System Julius Caesar justice system Kabul Kagame, Paul, 7.1, 7.2 Kansas State University Karzai, Hamid Kashgari, Hamza Kaspersky Lab Kenya, 3.1, 7.1, 7.2 Khan Academy Khartoum Khodorkovsky, Mikhail Khomeini, Ayatollah Kickstarter kidnapping, 2.1, 5.1 virtual Kinect Kissinger, Henry, 4.1, 4.2 Kiva, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 Klein, Naomi, n Kony 2012, 7.1 Koran Koryolink “kosher Internet,” 187 Kosovo Kurds, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1 Kurzweil, Ray Kyrgyzstan Laârayedh, Ali Lagos language translation, 1.1, 4.1, 4.2 laptops Latin America, 3.1, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1 law enforcement Law of Accelerating Returns Lebanon, 5.1, 7.1, 7.2 Lee Hsien Loong legal options, coping strategies for privacy and security concerns legal prosecution Lenin, Vladimir Levitt, Steven D.


pages: 685 words: 203,949

The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload by Daniel J. Levitin

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airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anton Chekhov, big-box store, business process, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive bias, complexity theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Eratosthenes, Exxon Valdez, framing effect, friendly fire, fundamental attribution error, Golden Gate Park, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, impulse control, index card, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, invention of writing, iterative process, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, life extension, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, pre–internet, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, Skype, Snapchat, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing test, ultimatum game

Where’s Waldo: Matching people in images of crowds. Proceedings of the 24th IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 1793–1800. Wikipedia is an example of crowdsourcing Ayers, P., Matthews, C., & Yates, B. (2008). How Wikipedia works: And how you can be a part of it. San Francisco, CA: No Starch Press, p. 514. More than 4.5 million people Kickstarter, Inc. (2014). Seven things to know about Kickstarter. Retrieved from http://www.kickstarter.com the group average comes Surowiecki, J. (2005). The wisdom of crowds. New York, NY: Penguin. and, Treynor, J. L. (1987). Market efficiency and the bean jar experiment. Financial Analysts Journal, 43(3), 50–53. the cancer is now in remission Iaconesi, S. (2012). TED (Producer). (2013). Why I open-sourced cures to my cancer: Salvatore Iaconesi at TEDGlobal 2013 [Video file].

In the case of the DARPA balloons, it required only 4,665 people and fewer than nine hours. A large number of people—the public—can often help to solve big problems outside of traditional institutions such as public agencies. Wikipedia is an example of crowdsourcing: Anyone with information is encouraged to contribute, and through this, it has become the largest reference work in the world. What Wikipedia did for encyclopedias, Kickstarter did for venture capital: More than 4.5 million people have contributed over $750 million to fund roughly 50,000 creative projects by filmmakers, musicians, painters, designers, and other artists. Kiva applied the concept to banking, using crowdsourcing to kick-start economic independence by sponsoring microloans that help start small businesses in developing countries. In its first nine years, Kiva has given out loans totaling $500 million to one million people in seventy different countries, with crowdsourced contributions from nearly one million lenders.

So the observed effect may not be due to Internet dating per se, but to the fact that Internet daters tend to be more educated and employed, as a group, than conventional daters. As you might expect, couples who initially met via e-mail tend to be older than couples who met their spouse through social networks and virtual worlds. (Young people just don’t use e-mail very much anymore.) And like DARPA, Wikipedia, and Kickstarter, online dating sites that use crowdsourcing have cropped up. ChainDate, ReportYourEx, and the Lulu app are just three examples of a kind of Zagat-like rating system for dating partners. Once we are in a relationship, romantic or platonic, how well do we know the people we care about, and how good are we at knowing their thoughts? Surprisingly bad. We are barely better than 50/50 in assessing how our friends and coworkers feel about us, or whether they even like us.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Schwartz, “Hackers Offer Free Porn to Beat Security Checks,” Dark Reading, June 20, 2012. 42 The guard was disabled: Caroline McCarthy, “Bank Robber Hires Decoys on Craigslist, Fools Cop,” CNET, Oct. 3, 2008. 43 Soon half a dozen police cars: David Pescovitz, “Bank Robber Uses Craigslist to Hire Unsuspecting Accomplices,” Boing Boing, Oct. 1, 2008; “Armored Truck Robber Uses Craigslist to Make Getaway,” King5.​com, Sept. 21, 2009. 44 The most popular of these sites: Kickstarter, “Stats,” accessed on May 25, 2014, https:/​/​www.​kickstarter.​com/​help/​stats, indicating Kickstarter had raised $1,131,653 since launching. 45 Criminals are of course happy: Jason Del Rey, “Kickstarter Says It Was Hacked (Updated),” Re/code, Feb. 15, 2014. 46 The answer was: “Apple Fingerprint ID ‘Hacked,’ ” BBC News, Sept. 23, 2013. 47 Using elements of both: John Bowman, “iPhone 5S Fingerprint Hacking Contest Offers $20K Bounty,” Your Community (blog), CBC News, Sept. 20, 2013. 48 Finally, white wood glue: Frank, “Chaos Computer Club Breaks Apple TouchID,” Chaos Computer Club, Sept. 21, 2013. 49 Donations have been made: Andy Greenberg, “Meet the ‘Assassination Market’ Creator Who’s Crowdfunding Murder with Bitcoins,” Forbes, Nov. 18, 2013. 50 As a result, the master criminal-hackers: Marc Santora, “In Hours, Thieves Took $45 Million in A.T.M.

Not only is Crime, Inc. rapidly adopting witting and unwitting forms of crime sourcing, but it is also using another white-hot trend in the start-up community: crowdfunding. Crowdfunding is a process by which money is collected from a crowd of backers who agree to support either a new start-up company or a nonprofit project, usually described in great depth on a Web site. The most popular of these sites are Kickstarter and Indiegogo, and tens of thousands of projects have successfully been funded, raising in excess of $1 billion from the crowd. Criminals are of course happy to hack anybody raking in that much money and have already successfully compromised the Kickstarter Web site. That said, criminal hackers have much bigger and more nefarious crowdfunding plans in mind, such as hacking the iPhone in your pocket. When Apple released its iPhone 5s mobile phone, it included a feature known as Touch ID, a fingerprint-recognition scanner touted as a “convenient and highly secure way to access your phone.”


pages: 452 words: 134,502

Hacking Politics: How Geeks, Progressives, the Tea Party, Gamers, Anarchists and Suits Teamed Up to Defeat SOPA and Save the Internet by David Moon, Patrick Ruffini, David Segal, Aaron Swartz, Lawrence Lessig, Cory Doctorow, Zoe Lofgren, Jamie Laurie, Ron Paul, Mike Masnick, Kim Dotcom, Tiffiniy Cheng, Alexis Ohanian, Nicole Powers, Josh Levy

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4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, call centre, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, hive mind, immigration reform, informal economy, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, liquidity trap, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, prisoner's dilemma, rent-seeking, Silicon Valley, Skype, technoutopianism, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

My testimony, which I had assumed would be a small quixotic gesture protesting a foregone conclusion, ended up being just one more voice in a resounding global chorus, one which simultaneously defended and demonstrated the power of a free and open Internet. The defeat of SOPA was a true victory. But for those of us (un?)lucky enough to work as professional recording artists, the question that still looms is, how, or perhaps even if, we should be trying to make a living on our art. Do we forego labels and CD sales completely and take a leap of faith on Kickstarter? Do we have the kind of fan base that will support that? Is there a cloud-based model that is fair to artists? To be honest, though I consider myself both an activist and a musician, I actually find myself surprisingly UNinterested in learning the ins and outs of the music industry itself; both the one that is dying, and the new one that is being born. I want our message to get out, and I want to be able to work full time as a musician, but how exactly that happens I don’t particularly care.

•  Please email David Segal at David@ DemandProgress.org if you want to receive direct updates as action pages and tools go live This Saturday, more than seventy representatives from leading tech companies and advocacy groups from across the political spectrum participated in a meeting to coordinate action against the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA). The meeting, which included leaders from Tumblr, Foursquare, Etsy, Kickstarter and reddit was remarkable for the array of participating organizations and its focus on how to mobilize to inspire millions of Americans to take action to tell Congress that this bill is deeply flawed. Representative Zoe Lofgren opened the meeting with an overview of the current state of the legislation, emphasizing the need for Americans to call their representatives EARLY THIS WEEK to voice their strong discontent with the bill: It is slated for a vote in the House Judiciary Committee on THURSDAY. 120 N earing the P oint of N o R eturn Please read the below to find out how you can get involved.

All of a sudden, every policy decision made in Washington impacts our work. Many impinge on what I believe is a core freedom: the freedom to innovate. I want to spend a few minutes tonight sharing my view of how that happened, and what it means to our economy and our society going forward. At Union Square Ventures, we invest in networks. We were the first institutional investor in Twitter, Tumblr, Foursquare, Etsy, and Kickstarter. We have also invested in many other less familiar networks in markets like education, employment, and finance. As we spend time with these networks, we learn more and more about their extraordinary economics. They are easy to bootstrap, create remarkable efficiencies, optimize the value of scarce resources, and cost very little to promote. Like most of these networks, Foursquare was built on open source software and its services are delivered over the Internet.


pages: 527 words: 147,690

Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

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23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

., users reveal more about their interests to the company), and, eventually, more and better advertising. Memes, then, are what happens when one greedy industry meets another.” In other words, social networks play favorites, while PR companies, producers, journalists, and others have the power to influence what rises to the top. A video featured on YouTube’s home page will accrue tens or hundreds of thousands of views simply by virtue of being placed there. Kickstarter, an ostensibly meritocratic crowdfunding platform, regularly features selected projects in its newsletter and on its home page. Such a distinction can bring thousands of dollars into a project’s coffers, which is often the difference between achieving a fund-raising goal—and being seen as a success—and walking away with nothing. In the same way, when Twitter shows “related headlines” below tweets about news events, the site is making deliberate choices—choices made in the design of an algorithm, rather than by an editor working on the fly—about which news outlets to privilege above others.

Supposedly started by a young man whose girlfriend, Holly, had promised him a sexual bounty if only he could achieve some dubious (and perhaps, she thought, impossible) Internet milestone, the group quickly drew interest. Within three days, its membership swelled to more than 100,000 people. It was then that Ruckus—who, in his initial post, said that a threesome was “perhaps one of the greatest things imaginable (right behind midget tossing)”—said that he would institute a mechanism to allow the group members to vote on who would complete the threesome. Ruckus threw in some sweeteners (today, on Kickstarter, this would be known as adding a “stretch goal”). If the group reached 300,000 members, his girlfriend would let him take and share pictures of the event. And if the group became the largest on Facebook—surpassing the 850,000-member group that at the time was the site’s largest—then, there’d be a video in it for all of Ruckus’s new fans. Ruckus also offered links to a site he had made selling T-shirts and other merchandise promoting himself and his sexual odyssey.

The first act of rating comes when we decide to follow someone on any one of a number of social networks. Then we sit in judgment, parsing their tweets or postings, moving them up or down in a mental hierarchy, deciding if they’re still worthy of following. We decide whether to heart Tumblr posts or repin their image, with each decision point serving as a critical judgment, a de facto review, one that might improve their ranking on Klout or Favstar. We rate their ideas on Kickstarter, and if we deem them worthy, we donate and share the listing. We endorse colleagues on LinkedIn and request endorsements from others. On dating apps such as Tinder, we rate on a simple binary, swiping away those we don’t want to meet and hearting those we do. On many commenting platforms, we rate other comments and give stars or other plaudits to individual commenters. Lulu, a smartphone app, and ReportYourEx.com allow women to warn others about deadbeat ex-boyfriends.


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Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

In the final days of Burma’s military junta, they happened there, too. What is common is a rising level of innovation in protest strategy. Russia’s Pussy Riot does aggressive culture jamming. In Ukraine, the Femen network of young women bare their breasts in public but then talk about pension reform. The Russian art collective Voina painted a two hundred–foot penis on a Saint Petersburg drawbridge to protest heightened security. Ukrainian activists launched a Kickstarter campaign to buy themselves a “people’s drone” that would let them watch Russian troop movements in their country.14 The internet of things is putting tough regimes into digital dilemmas on a regular basis, because leaders have to choose between two equally distasteful actions. Should they keep the internet on for the sake of the economy? Letting people have mobile phones runs the risk that they will coordinate themselves in some way to talk politics rather than business.

And these days, when individuals feel that their government is not providing the governance goods needed in specific domains, digital media provides the workaround. Average Americans who felt that the U.S. government was not doing enough to support the Green Movement in Iran in 2009 could dedicate their own computational resources to democracy activists. Citizens unhappy with government efforts at overseas development assistance turn to Kickstarter.com to advance their own aid priorities. The next cyberwar might be started by Bulgarian hackers, the Syrian Electronic Army, or Iranian Basiji militias, but it might also be started by Westerners using basic online tools to launch their own Twitter bots.14 Even when state failure is partial, or perhaps especially when state failure is partial, people increasingly organize to provide their own governance goods through the internet.

See also internet of things; political internet internet exchange point, 2, 296 Internet Governance Forum, 33 internet interregnum, xxiv, 42, 66, 110, 220, 229 internet of things, xi, xix, 297; affecting current events, 142; bot usage easier in, 205; civic strategy for, xvii, 234–35, 243; civil society groups and, 202; collective action and, 111–12, 136–39; conflict in, dynamics of, 155; connective action and, 168–73; consequences of, 148–49, 219; control of, 224, 226–27; defined by communication between devices, xiv; design of, 228–29; diffusion of, 34–35; encoding with democratic virtues, 232–33; evolution of, 45–46, 65–66; expression and experimentation in, 243; governance and, 110, 119–23, 148, 157–61; growing the size of big data, 140; human security and, 65; ideological package of, 125–26; market for, 57; numbers of devices in, xi–xii; openness of, 111, 226–27; open sharing of data from, 244–46; opting out of, 246–48; political culture in, 230, 232, 233; political impact of, xiv, xxi, 65, 66, 68, 99, 174–75; as political tool, 224; preparing for, xxiii–xxiv; stability and, 68, 88, 112, 158, 253; structural threats to, 183; surveillance and censorship tasks, 223; taking on dirty networks, 99; tithing for the public good, 243–46; weakening radical ideology, 111, 123–24, 126, 133; weaponizing of, 110, 112–19 internet revolution, 60 Internet Society, 13 interoperable networks, 162 I Paid a Bribe project, 170–71 IRA (Northern Ireland), 83 Iran, 115; bots in, 205–7; developing network infrastructure, 183; doctoring images, 123–24; fighting piracy, 98; Green Movement in, 105, 115, 161, 221–22; hacking by, 40; nuclear program of, cyberattack on, 115–16; protests in, 136–37; social media of, 31, 43, 201, 220 Iraq War, 20 Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS), 81, 82, 118, 217 Islamists, moderating positions of, 131–32 Israel: cyberwarfare by, 40, 41, 154–55; Pillar of Defense assault, 59 Israeli Defense Forces, 59 Israel Security Agency, 114 ITU. See International Telecommunications Union Japan, fighting piracy, 98 Joint Threat Intelligence Group, 31 Jordan, Arab Spring in, 156 Jubilee 2000, 49–50 Karber, Phillip, 193 Kenya: Map Kibera project in, 88–91; money transfer in, 159–60; slums in, 83 Kiberia mapping project, 120 Kickstarter.com, 86, 105, 161 Kiirti platform, 171 Kissinger, Henry, 12 Kolena Laila, 76–78, 79 Kony, Joseph, 81 Kony 2012, 81 Kosovo Liberation Army, 83 Kovačič, Primož, 88, 89–91, 100 Kraken Botner, 32 Kyrgyzstan, 20 Latin America, drug wars in, 216 Lavabit, 26 Lawful Interception Gateway device, 115 Lee Hoi-chang, 128 LG televisions, 212–13 liberation technologies, 256–57 Li Chengpeng, 192–93 life expectancy, in failing and failed states, 95 Lim, Merlyna, 121 Liu Ya-Zhou, 129 Liza Alert, 170 Logic of Collective Action (Olson), 137 Lonely Planet Guide, 75 Lord’s Resistance Army, 178 Los Zetas, 216 Louis Philippe, 108 machine learning, 141 MacKinnon, Rebecca, 234 Maduro, Nicolas, 93 mafia states, 96–97 Maher, Ahmed, 136, 139, 168, 173 Malaysia: digital dilemma in, 87; elections in, 128–29; Islamists moderating message in, 132 Malaysian Airlines Flight 370, 211–12 Maldives, revolution in, 238 Mali, rebel groups in, 80–81 Maluf, Paulo, 253 malware, 30, 113–14, 115–16 Mandela, Nelson, 52 Mandiant, 38, 39 Manning, Chelsea, xxii, 235, 238 Map Kibera, 88–91 mapping, 70–71, 88–91, 101; of dirty networks, 98; refuting government claims, 176–77; social-media, 157–58 maps: disconnection with, 67; of nations, 67; political power and, 67, 101–2, 120, 160 Marco Civil, 165 marquee slums, 89 Marx, Karl, 241 McLuhan, Marshall, 16 media monopolies, 228 media use, political change and, 167 media-watchdog organizations, 56–57 Meier, Patrick, 70, 100, 239 metadata, 24, 189, 297 Mexico: bots as political tool in, 31; drug wars in, 17–22, 94, 161 Miami Herald, 181 Microsoft, xiv, 8, 248, 249; commitment to, 63–64; partnering with Egypt, 74–75; sovereignty of, 64 military: defining periods of political history, 153; losing control over technology, 118–19; media strategies of, 117 Milošević, Slobodan, 238 Mirim College, 40 mobile money, 55, 56 mobile phones: company ownership, xxiv; production of, 58; providing new political structure, 73; surveillance of, 133 Mobilization Lab, 119 modernity, 125–26 money-transfer systems, 159 Montenegro, 97 Monterrey (MX), 161; public alert system in, 120; social media in, 17–22 MOOC (massive open online course), 252 Morocco, Arab Spring in, 156 Morozov, Evgeny, 44 M-Pesa, 102–3, 105, 159–60 MS-13, 216 Mubarak, Hosni, 45, 74, 121, 221, 252 Mugabe, Robert, 92 Muhammad, Feiz, 217 Mukuru kwa Reuben, 83 Muslim Brotherhood, 131–32 Myanmar, 45; digital dilemma in, 87; organized crime in, 97.


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The Bitcoin Guidebook: How to Obtain, Invest, and Spend the World's First Decentralized Cryptocurrency by Ian Demartino

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3D printing, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buy low sell high, capital controls, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, forensic accounting, global village, GnuPG, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Jacob Appelbaum, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, ransomware, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, Steven Levy, the medium is the message, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

It is only when they want to move that Bitcoin out of their ChangeTip account and turn it into fiat that they have to start learning about wallets, private keys, and various other aspects of the Bitcoin ecosystem. ChangeTip isn’t the only service enabling users to contribute to their favorite content creators. Another service, ProTip, was created by Christopher Ellis and crowdfunded through Kickstarter. It intends to make accepting Bitcoin donations as simple as putting a Bitcoin address anywhere on a website. This goal is worthwhile, because one of ChangeTip’s problems is that it isn’t easy for content creators to integrate. ChangeTip is best used in environments like Reddit or Twitter where everything is set up for the user. But for websites or YouTube channels, things become more difficult.

That doesn’t mean quit your job and jump into your idea 100 percent from day one, but there’s always small progress that can be made to start the movement. —Kevin Systrom, cofounder of Instagram One of the most interesting developments in Bitcoin has been start-up funding. Crowdfunding has taken the world by storm. It is full of success stories and industry-creating giants. Oculus, which was eventually purchased by Facebook for $2 billion and has singlehandedly resurrected the virtual reality industry, got its start on Kickstarter. Likewise, smartwatch company Pebble was so successful that companies ranging from LG to Samsung to Google and Apple got into the industry. There is also equity-based crowdfunding, which is like normal crowdfunding except the funders receive shares of the company rather than a product or one of the rewards typical in crowdfunding campaigns. Although not feasible in the US due to stringent regulations, companies elsewhere have been crowdfunding projects and companies by selling off parts of the company to the crowdfunders.

Although I would advise you to speak to a lawyer before making any commitments to the cryptocommunity you might not legally be able to keep, I doubt the SEC is going to be too concerned with legitimate businesses raising money in a transparent and open way, especially with so many illegitimate businesses doing the same thing. However, it is definitely illegal to sell ownership of your company in any form of share or stock. For business owners in the US, offering voting rights is a viable alternative. Another alternative is to give away rewards similar to Kickstarter. The SEC doesn’t care if you give away free pizza, or whatever product you sell, to “token” holders. One of the many names Bitcoin has been given is “programmable money” and this describes a critical feature of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. They are more often called “the currency of the Internet.” This means something more profound than when we say a country has its own currency. The Internet is wholly digital; it doesn’t exist anywhere and it also exists everywhere.


pages: 168 words: 50,647

The End of Jobs: Money, Meaning and Freedom Without the 9-To-5 by Taylor Pearson

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Airbnb, barriers to entry, Black Swan, call centre, cloud computing, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Google Hangouts, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, means of production, Oculus Rift, passive income, passive investing, Peter Thiel, remote working, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, software is eating the world, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, Thomas Malthus, Uber and Lyft, unpaid internship, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog

I had grown the eCommerce business, which sold fold up, portable bars to caterers and hotels, by 527% over the same two-year period that wages for jobs in the U.S. were growing 0.5% per year. Jimmy was back, and Doug had quit his job in New Zealand. The travel shirt idea had been put on hold—getting shirts custom tailored in the Philippines is easier said than done. Instead, they had raised $341,393 through a Kickstarter campaign for their Minaal travel backpack at the end of 2013 in just thirty days, so they’d shifted focus to the faster growing product line. Jesse Lawler was back. His freelance software development had grown from a one-man show into a software development agency for iPhone Apps, run from his house in Vietnam. In between drinking coconuts, he was funneling the profits from his agency into building his own product suite and hosting a podcast about smart drugs used for cognitive enhancement.

They have their own websites, so you can choose from thousands of options and find the one or two factories that have a track record doing projects similar to what you’re looking for. Jimmy and Doug from Minaal wanted to make a stylish travel bag specifically for entrepreneurs, something that was both practical and would look good in a board room. They were able to find one of the best bag factories in the world, have their prototypes made for free, and then pre-sell the product using Kickstarter, a crowdfunding platform. Ten years ago, companies that sold products in the U.S. would never announce who their suppliers were overseas for fear that competitors would use them. That’s starting to break down. Most suppliers are listed on the internet on sites like Alibaba.com and easy to find. The other major drive facilitating physical product manufacturing has been advances in communication technology and education.


pages: 55 words: 17,493

Show Your Work!: 10 Ways to Share Your Creativity and Get Discovered by Austin Kleon

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dumpster diving, Golden Gate Park, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lone genius, side project, Wunderkammern

The easiest way to do this is to simply ask for donations: Put a little virtual tip jar or a donate now button on your website. These links do well with a little bit of human copy, such as “Like this? Buy me a coffee.” This is a very simple transaction, which is the equivalent of a band passing a hat during a gig—if people are digging what you do, they’ll throw a few bucks your way. If you have work you want to attempt that requires some up-front capital, platforms like Kickstarter and Indiegogo make it easy to run fund-raising campaigns with tiered rewards for donors. It’s important to note that these platforms work best when you’ve already gathered a group of people who are into what you do. The musician Amanda Palmer has had wild success turning her audience into patrons: After showing her work, sharing her music freely, and cultivating relationships with her fans, she asked for $100,000 from them to help record her next album.


pages: 280 words: 79,029

Smart Money: How High-Stakes Financial Innovation Is Reshaping Our WorldÑFor the Better by Andrew Palmer

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, availability heuristic, bank run, banking crisis, Black-Scholes formula, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edmond Halley, Edward Glaeser, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, family office, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, implied volatility, income inequality, index fund, Innovator's Dilemma, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, Northern Rock, obamacare, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, railway mania, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, transaction costs, Tunguska event, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, Vanguard fund, web application

“These plans would help all students get the financing they need—including students from disadvantaged backgrounds—but without the anxiety that comes with traditional loans,” said Petri in a statement at the time. *** AT THE SAME TIME that policy makers are becoming more intrigued by the idea of income-share agreements, the technological landscape is shifting. The example of firms like Kickstarter, Crowdcube, Lending Club (discussed in the next chapter), and others is habituating people to the idea of funding strangers over an online platform. And the availability of data online means that firms like Upstart can analyze the likely earnings power of youngsters in more sophisticated ways than ever before. The first thing Paul Gu did when he had the idea for equity-funded education was crunch some numbers.

Flowers, 69, 81 Japan, banking crisis in, 75 Japan, financial innovation in, 27, 29, 39–40 Jha, Saumitra, 27 Jiménez-Martín, Sergi, 73 Job creation, young small firms and, 147–148 Joint-stock firms, 23 JPMorgan, 77, 169 Jump-to-default risk, 238 Käärmann, Kristo, 190 Kabbage, 218 Kahneman, Daniel, 47, 137 Kanjorski, Paul, 145 Kauffman Foundation, 158 Kennedy, John F., 32 Keys, Benjamin, 48 Kharroubi, Enisse, 79 Kickstarter, 172 King, Stephen, 99 Klein, David, 182 Krugman, Paul, xv Lahoud, Sal, 166 Lang, Luke, 153, 161–162 Laplanche, Renaud, 179, 184, 188, 190, 193–194, 196–197 Latency, 53 Law of large numbers, 17 Layering, 57 Left-digit bias, 46 Lehman Brothers, x, 44, 65 Lending direct, 84 marketplace, 184 payday, 200 relationship-based, 11, 151, 206–208 secured, xiv, 76 unsecured, 206 See also Loans; Peer-to-peer lending Lending Club, 172, 179–180, 182–184, 187, 189, 194–195, 197 Leonardo of Pisa (Fibonacci), 19 Lerner, Josh, 59 Lethal pandemic, risk-modeling for demographic profile, 230 exceedance-probability curve, 231–232, 232 figure 3 historical data, 228–229 infectiousness and virulence, 229–230 location of outbreak, 230–231 Leverage, 51, 70–71, 80, 186, 188 Leverage ratio, 76–77 Lewis, Michael, 57 Liber Abaci or Book of Calculation (Fibonacci), 19 LIBOR (London Interbank Offered Rate), 41 Liebman, Jeffrey, 98 Life expectancy government reaction to, 128–129 projections of, 124–127, 126 figure 2 ratio of young to older people, 127–128 Life-insurance policies, 142 Life-settlements industry, 142–143 Life table, 20 Limited liability, 212 Liquidity, 12–14, 39, 185–186 List, John, 109 The Little Book of Behavioral Investing (Montier), 156 Lo, Andrew, 113–115, 117–123 Loans low-documentation, 48–49 secured, 76 small business, 181, 216 student, 164, 166–167, 169–171, 182 syndicated, 41 Victory Loans, 28 See also Lending; Peer-to-Peer lending Logistic regression, 201 London, early fire insurance in, 16–17 London, Great Fire of, 16 London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR), 41 Long-Term Capital Management, 123 Longevity, betting on, 143–144 Loss aversion, 136 Lotteries, 212, 213 Low-documentation loans, 48–49 Lumni, 165, 168, 175 Lustgarten, Anders, 111 Lynn, Jeff, 160–161 Mack, John, 180 Mahwah, New Jersey, 52, 53 Marginal borrowers assessment of, 216–217 behavioral finance and, 208–214 industrialization of credit, 206 microfinance and, 203 savings schemes, 209–214 small businesses, 215–219 unsecured lending to, 206 Wonga, 203, 205, 208 Marginal borrowers (continued) ZestFinance, 199, 202, 205–206 Maritime piracy, solutions to, 151–152 Maritime trade, role of in history of finance, 3, 7–8, 14, 17, 23 Market makers, 15–16, 55 MarketInvoice, 195, 207, 217–218 Marketplace lending, 184 Markowitz, Harry, 118 Massachusetts, use of inflation-protected bonds in, 26 Massachusetts, use of social-impact bonds in, 98 Matching engine, 52 Maturity transformation, 12–13, 187–188, 193 McKinsey & Company, ix, 42 Mercator Advisory Group, 203 Merrill, Charles, 28 Merrill, Douglas, 199, 201 Merrill Lynch, 28 Merton, Robert, 31, 113–114, 123–124, 129–132, 142, 145 Mian, Atif, 204 Michigan, University of, financial survey by, 134–135 Microfinance, 203 Micropayment model, 217 Microwave technology, 53 The Million Adventure, 213–214 Minsky, Hyman, 42 Minsky moment, 42 Mississippi scheme, 36 Mitchell, Justin, 166–167 Momentum Ignition, 57 Monaco, modeling risk of earthquake in, 227 Money, history of, 4–5 Money illusion, 73–74 Money laundering, 192 Money-market funds, 43, 44 Monkeys, Yale University study of loss aversion with, 136 Montier, James, 156–157 Moody, John, 24 Moody’s, 24, 235 Moore’s law, 114 Morgan Stanley, 188 Mortgage-backed securities, 49, 233 Mortgage credit by ZIP code, study of, 204 Mortgage debt, role of in 2007–2008 crisis, 69–70 Mortgage products, unsound, 36–37 Mortgage securitization, 47 Multisystemic therapy, 96 Munnell, Alicia, 129 Naked credit-default swaps, 143 Nature Biotechnology, on drug-development megafunds, 118 “Neglected Risks, Financial Innovation and Financial Fragility” (Gennaioli, Shleifer, and Vishny), 42 Network effects, 181 New York, skyscraper craze in, 74–75 New York City, prisoner-rehabilitation program in, 108 New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), 31, 52, 53, 61, 64 New York Times, Merrill Lynch ad in, 28 Noncorrelated assets, 122 Nonprofits, growth of in United States, 105–106 Northern Rock, x NYMEX, 60 NYSE Euronext, 52 NYSE (New York Stock Exchange), 31, 52, 53, 61, 64 OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development), 128, 147 Oldfield, Sean, 67–68, 80–84 OnDeck, 216–218 One Service, 94–95, 105, 112 Operating expense ratio, 188–189 Options, 15, 124 Order-to-trade ratios, 63 Oregon, interest in income-share agreements, 172, 176 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 128, 147 Overtrading, 24 Packard, Norman, 60 Pandit, Vikram, 184 Park, Sun Young, 233 Partnership mortgage, 81 Pasion, 11 Pave, 166–168, 173, 175, 182 Payday lending Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, survey on, 200 information on applicants, acquisition of, 202 underwriting of, 201 PayPal, 219 Peak child, 127 Peak risk, 228 Peer-to-peer lending advantages of, 187–189 auction system, 195 big investors in, 183 borrowers, assessment of, 197 in Britain, 181 commercial mortgages, 181 CommonBond, 182, 184, 197 consumer credit, 181 diversification, 196 explained, 180 Funding Circle, 181–182, 189, 197 investors in, 195 Lending Club, 179–180, 182–184, 187, 189, 194–195, 197 network effects, 181 ordinary savers and, 184 Prosper, 181, 187, 195 RateSetter, 181, 187, 196 Relendex, 181 risk management, 195–197 securitization, 183–184, 196 Peer-to-peer lending (continued) small business loans, 181 SoFi, 184 student loans, 182 Zopa, 181, 187, 188, 195 Pensions, cost of, 125–126 Perry, Rick, 142–143 Peterborough, England, social-impact bond pilot in, 90–92, 94–95, 104–105, 112 Petri, Tom, 172 Pharmaceuticals, decline of investment in, 114–115 Piracy Reporting Centre, International Maritime Bureau, 151 Polese, Kim, 210 Poor, Henry Varnum, 24 “Portfolio Selection” (Markowitz), 118 Prediction Company, 60–61 Preferred shares, 25 Prepaid cards, 203 Present value of cash flows, 19 Prime borrowers, 197 Prince, Chuck, 50–51, 62 Principal-agent problem, 8 Prisoner rehabilitation programs, 90–91, 94–95, 98, 108, 112 Private-equity firms, 69, 85, 91, 105, 107 Projection bias, 72–73 Property banking crises and, xiv, 69 banking mistakes involving, 75–80 behavioral biases and, 72–75 dangerous characteristics of, 70–72 fresh thinking, need for, xvii, 80 investors’ systematic errors in, 74–75 perception of as safe investment, 76, 80 Prosper, 181, 187, 195 Provisioning funds, 187 Put options, 9, 82 Quants, 19, 63, 113 QuickBooks, 218 Quote stuffing, 57 Raffray, André-François, 144 Railways, affect of on finance, 23–25 Randomized control trials (RCTs), 101 Raphoen, Christoffel, 15–16 Raphoen, Jan, 15–16 RateSetter, 181, 187, 196 RCTs (randomized control trials), 101 Ready for Zero, 210–211 Rectangularization, 125, 126 figure 2 Regulation NMS, 61 Reinhart, Carmen, 35 Reinsurance, 224 Relendex, 181 Rentes viagères, 20 Repurchase “repo” transactions, 15, 185 Research-backed obligations, 119 Reserve Primary Fund, 44 Retirement, funding for anchoring effect, 137–138 annuities, 139 auto-enrollment in pension schemes, 135 auto-escalation, 135–136 conventional funding, 127–128 decumulation, 138–139 government reaction to increased longevity, 128–129 home equity, 139–140 life expectancy, projections of, 124–127, 126 figure 2 life insurance policies, cash-surrender value of, 142 personal retirement savings, 128–129, 132–133 replacement rate, 125 reverse mortgage, 140–142 savings cues, experiment with, 137 SmartNest, 129–131 Reverse mortgages, 140–142 Risk-adjusted returns, 118 Risk appetite, 116 Risk assessment, 24, 45, 77–78, 208 Risk aversion, 116, 215 Risk-based capital, 77 Risk-based pricing model, 176 Risk management, 55, 117–118, 123, 195–197 Risk Management Solutions, 222 Risk sharing, 8, 82 Risk-transfer instrument, 226 Risk weights, 77–78 Rogoff, Kenneth, 35 “The Role of Government in Education” (Friedman), 165 Roman Empire business corporation in, 7 financial crisis in, 36 forerunners of banks in, 11 maritime insurance in, 8 Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCAs), 209–210 Roulette wheel, use of in experiment on anchoring, 138 Royal Bank of Scotland, 186 Rubio, Marco, 172 Russia, mortgage market in, 67 S-curve, in diffusion of innovations, 45 Salmon, Felix, 155 Samurai bonds, 27 Satsuma Rebellion (1877), 27 Sauter, George, 58 Save to Win, 214 Savings-and-loan crisis in US (1990s), 30 Savings cues, experiment with, 137 Scared Straight social program, 101 Scholes, Myron, 31, 123–124 Science, Technology, and Industry Scoreboard of OECD, 147 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 54, 56, 57, 58, 64 Securities markets, 14 Securitization, xi, 20, 37–38, 117–122, 183–184, 196, 236 Seedrs, 160–161 Sellaband, 159 Shared equity, 80–84 Shared-equity mortgage, 84 Shepard, Chris, xii–xiii Shiller, Robert, xv–xvi, 242 Shleifer, Andrei, 42, 44 Short termism, 58 SIBs.


pages: 270 words: 64,235

Effective Programming: More Than Writing Code by Jeff Atwood

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AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, cloud computing, endowment effect, Firefox, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, gravity well, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Merlin Mann, Minecraft, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, price anchoring, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, science of happiness, Skype, social software, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator

Sivers article when this email made the rounds earlier this month: I feel that this story is important to tell you because Kickstarter.com copied us. I tried for 4 years to get people to take Fundable seriously, traveling across the country, even giving a presentation to FBFund, Facebook’s fund to stimulate development of new apps. It was a series of rejections for 4 years. I really felt that I presented myself professionally in every business situation and I dressed appropriately and practiced my presentations. That was not enough. The idiots wanted us to show them charts with massive profits and widespread public acceptance so that they didn’t have to take any risks. All it took was 5 super-connected people at Kickstarter (especially Andy Baio) to take a concept we worked hard to refine, tweak it with Amazon Payments, and then take credit.


pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee

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4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

This diversity, this range of small and neighborhood-focused organizations, is why the Sharing Economy has appealed to the ecologically minded and to those who identify with artisans. It’s why author Rachel Botsman can describe the Sharing Economy this way in a TED talk: At its core, it’s about empowerment. It’s about empowering people to make meaningful connections, connections that are enabling us to rediscover a humanness that we’ve lost somewhere along the way, by engaging in marketplaces like Airbnb, like Kickstarter, like Etsy, that are built on personal relationships versus empty transaction.1 It’s also why stories in the mainstream press tended to start off with the quirky and personal. Here is the Wall Street Journal: The hottest technology trend is apps that let anyone share anything, which is why Grace Lichaa recently found a group of strangers eating her home-cooked macaroni. About a dozen people she met through the Internet arrived, mostly on time, at her Washington, D.C., house in November for three flavors of macaroni and cheese: garlic-crusted, goat cheese tomato, and curried.

And so it goes with WeWork.7 Botsman and Owyang both extend the definition of the sharing economy to include companies largely outside the scope of this book. Coursera and others are challenging university education by providing massively open online courses (MOOCs), online marketplaces for products—such as eBay and Etsy—predate the rise of the Sharing Economy and its focus on “real-world” exchanges, and crowdfunding platforms such as Kickstarter can be seen as an extension of the peer-to-peer finance platforms. The Sharing Economy landscape is defined not only by what it includes, but by what kind of sharing organizations are missing. Sociologist Juliet Schor sums up the situation: There is great diversity among activities as well as baffling boundaries drawn by participants. TaskRabbit, an “errands” site, is often included, but Mechanical Turk (Amazon’s online labor market) is not.


pages: 72 words: 21,361

Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution Is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy by Erik Brynjolfsson

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Amazon Mechanical Turk, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, business process, call centre, combinatorial explosion, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, hiring and firing, income inequality, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, patent troll, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, shareholder value, Skype, too big to fail, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy

The Long Tail of new products offered enormous consumer value and is a rapidly growing segment of the economy. Apple’s App Store and Google’s Android Marketplace make it easy for people with ideas for mobile applications to create and distribute them. Threadless lets people create and sell designs for t-shirts. Amazon’s Mechanical Turk makes it easy to find cheap labor to do a breathtaking array of simple, well-defined tasks. Kickstarter flips this model on its head and helps designers and creative artists find sponsors for their projects. Heartland Robotics provides cheap robots-in-a-box that make it possible for small business people to quickly set up their own highly automated factory, dramatically reducing the costs and increasing the flexibility of manufacturing. Collectively, these new businesses directly create millions of new jobs.7 Some of them also create platforms for thousands of other entrepreneurs.


pages: 349 words: 114,038

Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens

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4chan, airport security, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, union organizing, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law

Products have gone digital in many domains, eliminating manufacturing costs, and sharply reducing the costs of packaging and marketing. When physical products need to be built, there are many "assembly" firms that will make these; dedicated manufacturing is a thing of the past. Funding, which used to be sought from a few significant investors, can now be sought directly from prospective buyers through crowdfunding platforms like Indiegogo and Kickstarter. And of course, as I've explained before, the costs of communications, both internal and external -- the biggest cost of the classic firm -- have been reduced to near zero. Let me take a concrete example of a young business that wants to develop and sell a new high-tech product. The core design and engineering team consists of perhaps 10 people. This hasn't changed. In the classic firm, this team would need about 100 further people to help develop, package, market, sell, and support a product.

All of this is possible today, in software, and could take advantage of improvements in hardware and firmware, such as real mesh networking and better batteries. We could build cheap dedicated devices that run the Cellnet: a pocket-sized box that is all battery, with powerful radios, and a couple of blinking lights just because. No screen, no fancy UI software, just a pocket-sized Cellnet node. It could double as a battery recharger for smartphones, which gives plausible deniability to anyone arrested with one, when they are banned. Kickstarter, anyone? The Cellnet would be extremely hard to spy on or disrupt. It is possible to capture WiFi traffic by being physically very close. However it's also quite easy to secure traffic between two peers to the extent that it cannot be read or modified or faked. The only way to get information is then to seize the phone itself. While physical seizures (including the old "beat them until they talk" technique) are always an option, they do not scale to billions of people.


pages: 353 words: 91,520

Most Likely to Succeed: Preparing Our Kids for the Innovation Era by Tony Wagner, Ted Dintersmith

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affirmative action, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, immigration reform, income inequality, index card, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, school choice, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, the scientific method, unpaid internship, Y Combinator

* * * For a good example of how the innovation economy is upending traditional models, check out Elance, a rapidly growing online service that enables entrepreneurial freelancers to earn income in hundreds of ways, including as editors, graphic designers, creative writers, software developers, and researchers. Need your logo designed? Go to Elance. Need careful research about an article? Go to Elance. Elance is hardly unique. Millions of people are generating income through the online microeconomies of sites like Care.com, Freelance.com, eBay, oDesk, TaskRabbit, Uber, Airbnb, Lyft, Teachers Pay Teachers, iTunes, Kickstarter, and on and on. These marketplaces represent the wave of the future, where anyone can: • reach lots of customers readily. • build an online reputation through customer feedback and examples of work. • succeed in a world where customers don’t care about education credentials or standardized test scores. • thrive in an economy that values skills (liberal arts as well as STEM) that matter. * * * It turns out that even our military now needs innovators.

Ito didn’t graduate from college. He dropped out. Twice. He started at Tufts, and concluded that the way computer science was taught made no sense. He rebooted at the University of Chicago, studied physics, but concluded that the coursework was largely about memorizing formulas. Ito hasn’t done all that poorly in life. He was an early investor in several spectacular start-ups, including Flickr, Kickstarter, and Twitter. He currently sits on the boards of the Sony Corporation, the New York Times, the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, and the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. And he directs one of the world’s most innovative research labs. Recently, Ito recruited a student volunteer to spend a week with sensors monitoring her brain activity. Ito found peaks of activity and troughs of passivity.


pages: 370 words: 97,138

Beyond: Our Future in Space by Chris Impey

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3D printing, Admiral Zheng, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, butterfly effect, California gold rush, carbon-based life, Colonization of Mars, cosmic abundance, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, Haight Ashbury, Hyperloop, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, mutually assured destruction, Oculus Rift, operation paperclip, out of africa, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, phenotype, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Searching for Interstellar Communications, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, supervolcano, technological singularity, telepresence, telerobotics, the medium is the message, the scientific method, theory of mind, V2 rocket, wikimedia commons, X Prize, Yogi Berra

CubeSat is a miniaturized satellite designed to spur space research by using standard components and off-the-shelf electronics. A CubeSat is a bit bigger than a Rubik’s Cube—10 centimeters on a side and weighing less than 1.3 kilograms. Most CubeSat launches have come from academia, but companies such as Boeing have built CubeSats, and amateur satellite builders have gotten their projects off the ground using crowdfunding campaigns on websites such as Kickstarter. NASA’s NanoSail-D was designed to use three CubeSats to de- ploy triangular sails totaling 10 square meters. Unfortunately, it too was scuppered by the launch vehicle when its Falcon rocket malfunctioned in 2008. But NASA persisted, and a twin was successfully launched in 2011 (Figure 43). NanoSail-D was never intended to be more than a test of solar-sail deployment, and it burned up after 240 days in low Earth orbit.

., US Space and Rocket Center in, 48 Huygens, Christiaan, 163 Huygens probe, 53 hybrid cars, 96 hydrogen, 110, 156, 159, 161, 187, 219, 222 hydrogen bomb, 36 hydrosphere, 173 hyperloop aviation concept, 95 hypothermia, 251 hypothetical scenarios, 15–16 IBM, 213 Icarus Interstellar, 224 ice: on Europa, 125 on Mars, 163–65, 227 on Moon, 159–60 ice ages, 7–8 ice-penetrating robot, 98 IKAROS spacecraft, 184 imagination, 10, 14, 20 exploration and, 261–63 immortality, 259 implants, 206–7 inbreeding, 201–3 India, 159, 161 inflatable modules, 101–2 inflation theory, 255–57, 255 information, processing and storage of, 257–60 infrared telescopes, 190 Inspiration Mars, 170–71 Institute for Advanced Concepts, 280 insurance, for space travel, 106–7 International Academy of Astronautics, 152 International Geophysical Year (1957–1958), 37 International Institute of Air and Space Law, 199 International MicroSpace, 90 International Scientific Lunar Observatory, 157 International Space Station, 55, 64–65, 64, 71, 75, 91, 96, 100, 102, 142, 143, 144, 151, 153, 154, 159, 178–79, 179, 185, 272, 275 living conditions on, 116–17 as staging point, 148 supply runs to, 100–101, 104 International Space University, 90 International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR), 105–6, 144 Internet: Congressional legislation on, 78, 144 development of, 76–77, 77, 94, 95, 271 erroneous predictions about, 213–14 limitations of, 66–67 robotics and, 206 space travel compared to, 76–80, 77, 80 Internet Service Providers (ISPs), 78 interstellar travel, 215–18 energy technology for, 219–24 four approaches to, 251–52 scale model for, 219 Intrepid rovers, 165 Inuit people, 120 Io, 53, 177 property rights on, 145 “iron curtain,” 35 Iron Man, 95 isolation, psychological impact of, 169–70 Jacob’s Ladder, 149 Jade Rabbit (“Yutu”), 139, 143, 161 Japan, 161, 273 Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 184 Jefferson, Thomas, 224 Jemison, Mae, 224 jet engines, 69–70 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 141 Johnson, Lyndon, 38, 42, 45, 158, 269 Johnson Space Center, 76, 104, 179, 206, 229, 269 see also Mission Control Jones, Stephanie Tubbs, 74 Joules per kilogram (MJ/kg), 219–20, 222 Journalist in Space program, 74 “junk” DNA, 10, 266 Juno probe, 228 Jupiter, 126, 127, 177, 217, 270 distance from Earth to, 50 moons of, 97, 125, 125 probes to, 51–52, 228 as uninhabitable, 125 Justin (robot), 178 Kaku, Michio, 253 Karash, Yuri, 65 Kardashev, Nikolai, 253 Kardashev scale, 253, 254, 258 Kármán line, 70, 70, 101 Kennedy, John F., 41–43, 45 Kepler, Johannes, 183 Kepler’s law, 127 Kepler spacecraft and telescope, 128, 128, 129–31, 218, 278 Khrushchev, Nikita, 42, 47 Kickstarter, 184 Killian, James, 38 Kline, Nathan, 205 Knight, Pete, 71 Komarov, Vladimir, 43, 108 Korean War, 141 Korolev, Sergei, 35, 37 Kraft, Norbert, 200 Krikalev, Sergei, 115 Kunza language, 119 Kurzweil, Ray, 94, 207, 259 Laika (dog), 47, 65, 269 Laliberté, Guy, 75 landings, challenges of, 51, 84–85, 170 Lang, Fritz, 28, 268 language: of cryptography, 291 emergence of, 15, 16 of Orcas, 190 in reasoning, 13 Lansdorp, Bas, 170–71, 198–99, 282 lasers, 223, 224, 225–26, 239 pulsed, 190, 243 last common ancestor, 6, 123, 265 Late Heavy Bombardment, 172 latency, 178 lava tubes, 160 legislation, on space, 39, 78, 90, 144, 145–47, 198–200 Le Guin, Ursula K., 236–37 Leonov, Alexey, 55 L’Garde Inc., 284 Licancabur volcano, 119 Licklider, Joseph Carl Robnett “Lick,” 76–78 life: appearance and evolution on Earth of, 172 artificial, 258 detection of, 216–18 extension of, 26, 207–8, 250–51, 259 extraterrestrial, see aliens, extraterrestrial intelligent, 190, 235, 241, 243, 258 requirements of habitability for, 122–26, 125, 129, 131–33, 241, 256–57 lifetime factor (L), 234–335 lift, in flight, 68–70, 83 lift-to-drag ratio, 83 light: from binary stars, 126 as biomarker, 217 Doppler shift of, 127 momentum and energy from, 183 speed of, 178, 228–29, 250, 251 waves, 66 Lindbergh, Charles, 30, 81–82, 90–91, 268 “living off the land,” 166, 200 logic, 14, 18 Long March, 141 Long March rockets, 113, 142, 143 Long Now Foundation, 293 Los Alamos, N.


pages: 319 words: 90,965

The End of College: Creating the Future of Learning and the University of Everywhere by Kevin Carey

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Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business intelligence, carbon-based life, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, declining real wages, deliberate practice, discrete time, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Downton Abbey, Drosophila, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google X / Alphabet X, informal economy, invention of the printing press, inventory management, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, Network effects, open borders, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, transcontinental railway, Vannevar Bush

A four-person start-up called USEED was trying to change the way universities raise money. Instead of script-reading undergraduates interrupting your dinner to beg for donations to the university general fund, USEED was helping individual students create specific experiential learning projects that alumni can choose to support, in the same way that people fund new comic books and food trucks through Kickstarter, or lend money to impoverished Kenyan farmers through Kiva. A company called Course Hero had amassed a seven-million-document archive of study materials from thousands of college courses by creating a way for undergraduates to upload and share materials online. Quizlet, which was created by a high school student in his bedroom, had millions of users creating and sharing flash cards and learning games—all for free.

Press stores, 163 James, Henry, 32 James, William, 32–33, 45, 47, 250 Jefferson, Thomas, 23, 193 Jews, 46, 53 Jobs, Steve, 126 Johns Hopkins University, 27, 29 Johnson, Lyndon, 55, 56, 61 Jones, Tommy Lee, 165 Jordan, David Starr, 26 Junior college, 55 (see also Community colleges) Kamlet, Mark, 72–73, 251 Kantian philosophy, 251 Kennedy, John F., 165 Kerr, Clark, 53–56 Khan, Salman, 148–49 Khan Academy, 149, 155 Kickstarter, 133 King, Danny, 216, 218 King’s College, 23 Kiva, 133 Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, 153 Knapp, Steven, 43 Koller, Daphne, 153–58, 171 Kosslyn, Stephen, 136–37 Kyoto University, 204 Lancet, 222 Lander, Eric, 1–4, 38–39, 44, 177–78, 221 MIT freshman biology course taught by, 11 (see also Introduction to Biology—The Secret of Life [7.00x]) Land-grant universities, 25–27, 35, 51, 53, 55, 95, 108, 122–23, 168 Learn Capital, 130, 156–57 Leckart, Steven, 149 Legally Blonde (film), 166 Levin, Richard C., 157 Lewin, Walter, 190–91 Liberal arts, 16, 27–31, 237, 241, 244–45 in accreditation standards, 50 core curriculum for, 49 at elite universities, 179 online courses in, 158, 244 PhDs and, 35 rankings and, 59 teaching mission in, 253 training, research, and, 29, 33, 261n (see also Hybrid universities) Lincoln, Abraham, 25 LinkedIn, 66, 217 Litton Industries, 75 Livy, 25 London, University of, 23 Lue, Robert, 178–81, 211, 231 Lyft ride-sharing service, 122 MacArthur, General Douglas, 51, 90 MacArthur “Genius” awards, 2 MacBooks, 132, 144 Madison, James, 23 Manitoba, University of, 150 Maples, Mike, Jr., 128–30, 132 Marine Corps, U.S., 140 Marx, Karl, 45 Massachusetts Bay Colony, Great and General Court of, 22 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 37–38, 59, 116, 132, 148, 153, 167–79, 245 admissions to, 39, 161, 212, 214–15, 245 Brain and Cognitive Sciences Complex, 1–4, 143, 173–74 Bush at, 51–52, 79, 125, 168 computer science sequence offered online by, 231, 233 founding of, 29, 167 General Institute Requirements, 14, 190, 241 graduation rate at, 8 hacks as source of pride at, 168–69 joint online course effort of Harvard and, see edX MITx, 169, 173, 203 OpenCourseWare, 107–8, 150, 169, 185, 191 prestige of brand of, 163, 181 Saylor at, 176–90 Secret of Life (7.00x) online offering of, see Introduction to Biology—The Secret of Life (7.00x) tour of campus of, 168, 174 wormhole connecting Stanford and cafeteria at, 174–75, 179, 235 Massive open online courses (MOOCs), 150, 154, 156, 158, 159, 185, 204, 255 global demand for, 225 initial audience for, 214–15 providers of, see names of specific companies and universities Master Plans, 35, 60, 64–65 Master’s degrees, 117, 193, 195–96 Mayo Clinic, 242 Mazur, Eric, 137 “M-Badge” system, 208–9 McGill University, 204 Mellon Institute of Science, 75, 76, 229 Memex, 79, 80 Mendelian genetics, 3, 103–4 Miami-Dade Community College, 64 Microsoft, 128, 139, 145, 146, 188, 204 MicroStrategy, 187–91, 199 Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 50 Minerva Project, 133–38, 141, 215, 235, 236, 243 Minnesota, University of, Rochester (UMR), 242–43 Missouri, University of, 208 Moore’s law, 176 Morrill, Justin Smith, 25–26 Morrill Land-Grant Act (1862), 25, 168 Mosaic software program, 126 Mozilla Foundation, 205–8, 218, 248 MS-DOS, 87 Myanganbayar, Battushig, 214, 215 NASDAQ, 177, 188 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 208 National Broadcasting Company (NBC), 96 National Bureau of Economic Research, 10 National Institutes of Health, 52 National Instruments, 216 National Manufacturing Institute, 208 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 208 National Science Foundation, 52 National Survey of Student Engagement, 243 Navy, U.S., 53, 123 Nebraska, University of, 26 Nelson, Ben, 133–35, 139, 181 Netflix, 131, 145 Netscape, 115, 126, 128, 129, 204–5 Newell, Albert, 79, 105 New Jersey, College of, 23 Newman, John Henry, 27–29, 47, 49, 244 Newman Report (1971), 56 Newton, Isaac, 190 New York, State University of, Binghamton, 183–84 New York City public schools, 1, 44 New York Times, 9, 44, 56–57, 107–8, 149, 170 New York University (NYU), 9, 64, 96, 250 Ng, Andrew, 153, 158 Nicomachean Ethics (Aristotle), 17 Nimitz, Admiral Chester W., 90 NLS/Augment, 125 Nobel Prize, 3, 45, 59, 78, 80, 176 Northeastern University, 64 Northern Arizona University, 229–30 Health and Learning Center, 230 Northern Iowa, University of, 55 Norvig, Peter, 149, 170, 227–28, 232 Notre Dame (Paris), cathedral school at, 18 Nurkiewicz, Tomasz, 218 Obama, Barack, 2 Oberlin College, 46 O’Brien, Conan, 166 Oklahoma, University of, 90 Omdurman Islamic University, 88 oNLine system, 125–26 Open Badges, 207 Open source materials and software, 177, 205–6, 215, 223, 232 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 9, 224 Overeducated American, The (Freeman), 56 Oxford University, 19, 21, 23, 24, 92, 135 Packard, David, 123 Parkinson’s disease, 70 Paris, University of, 18–19, 21, 137 Pauli, Wolfgang, 176 Pauling, Linus, 70 Pausch, Randy, 71–72 Peace Corps, 125 Pellar, Ronald (“Doctor Dante”), 208 Pell Grant Program, 56 Penguin Random House, 146 Pennsylvania, University of, 23, 24, 31 Wharton Business School, 155 Pennsylvania State University, 53 People magazine, 57 Pez dispensers, 146 Phaedrus (Socrates), 20, 98 PhDs, 7, 55, 117, 141, 193, 237, 250, 254 adjunct faculty replacing, 252 college rankings based on number of scholars with, 59 regional universities and community colleges and, 60, 64, 253 as requirement for teaching in hybrid universities, 31–33, 35, 50, 60, 224 Silicon Valley attitude toward, 66 Philadelphia, College of, 23 Philip of Macedon, 92 Phoenix, University of, 114 Piaget, Jean, 84, 227 Piazza, 132 Pittsburgh, University of, 73–76 Pixar, 146 Planck, Max, 45 Plato, 16, 17, 21, 31, 44, 250–51 Portman, Natalie, 165 Powell, Walter, 50, 117 Princeton University, 1–2, 23, 112, 134, 161, 245 Principia (Newton), 190 Protestantism, 24 Public universities, 7, 55, 177, 224, 253 Purdue University, 96, 208 Puritans, 22–24 Queens College, 23 Quizlet, 133 Rafter, 131–32 Raphael, 16, 17 Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature, 87 Reagan, Ronald, 56 Regional universities, 55, 60, 64 Reid, Harry, 42 Renaissance, 19 Rhode Island, College of, 23 Rhodes Scholarships, 2 Rice University, 204 RNA, 3 Rockstar Games, 230 Roksa, Josipa, 9, 36, 85, 244 Romans, ancient, 16 Roosevelt, Theodore, 165 Ruby on Rails Web development framework, 144 Rutgers University, 23 Sample, Steven, 64 Samsung, 146 San Jose State University, 177 Sandel, Michael, 177 SAT scores, 63, 136–37, 171, 195, 213 Saylor, Michael, 186–93, 199, 201 Saylor.org, 191, 223, 231 Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph, 45 School of Athens, The (Raphael), 16 Schopenhauer, Arthur, 45 Science: The Endless Frontier (Bush), 51 Scientific American, 92, 155 Scientific Research and Development, U.S.


pages: 346 words: 92,984

The Lucky Years: How to Thrive in the Brave New World of Health by David B. Agus

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3D printing, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, butterfly effect, clean water, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, Drosophila, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Kickstarter, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, microcredit, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, New Journalism, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, publish or perish, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Thomas Malthus, wikimedia commons

This means every object has a different spot on the electromagnetic spectrum, based on the chemicals that make it up; the electromagnetic profile of any given thing is the characteristic range of electromagnetic radiation it emits or absorbs. An apple, for example, has a different profile than an apricot or an aspirin. So imagine taking a handy little device and putting it up against an object and getting an immediate readout of all the chemicals in that item. That’s what you could do if you had a database of all the possible profiles. An Israeli company has done just that, funded by a Kickstarter campaign. Their low-cost handheld tool can study a pill, for example, compare the pill’s profile against a cloud database, and come back with “ibuprofen, brand Advil.” Besides eliminating fake drugs, it will bring peace of mind to patients by preventing pill mix-ups. This technology could also be used to point at a plate of food and characterize how much protein, fat, and carbohydrates are in a snack or meal.

., 84 emotions, touch and, 214 emulsifiers, microbiome and, 121–22 “end of history illusion,” 38–40, 39 End of Illness, The (Agus), 18 endoplasmic reticulum, 40 endorphins, 211 energy levels, 149 England, see Great Britain environment, see context epidemics: global spread of, 103 prediction of, 103–4 epigenetics, 20–21 esomeprazole (Nexium), 86 esophageal cancer, 217 estrogen, 64 ethics: genome editing and, 24–25 medical advances and, 10, 24 technology and, 25–26 Europe, 77 European Journal of Immunology, 34 exercise, 21, 114, 140, 185–201 chemotherapy and, 191, 192 honesty about, 133–34 ideal amount of, 196–200 intensity of, 197–98 life expectancy and, 189–90 mortality rates and, 148 Exeter, University of, 157 “Experimental Prolongation of the Life Span” (McCay, Lunsford, and Pope), 2 experimental treatments, quicker access to, 56 Facebook, 27 fasting lipid profile, 150 feebleness, aging and, 43 fertility, aging and, 43 Field, Tiffany, 214 financial industry, information technology and, 89 Finland, 220 fish oil, 182–83 Florida, 103 flu vaccine: misinformation about, 157–58 public distrust of, 160 FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-di-monosaccharides and polyols), 164 Fodor, George, 183 food, safety of, 11 Food and Drug Administration, US (FDA), 2, 18, 51, 55, 56, 86, 111, 112, 127–28, 146, 182, 201 Accelerated Approval provisions of, 128 Foundation Medicine, 50 Framingham Heart Study, 47, 118 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 169 free radicals, 208 fruit flies, eating pattern studies with, 138–40 fungi, 119 gait, 45 galvanic skin response (GSR), 230–31 gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), 86 Gates, Bill, 2 Genentech, 56 genes, genome, 45, 83–84 aging and, 20, 41 bacterial, 107, 119 context and, 14, 20–21, 118 DNA mismatch repair and, 32 expression of, 20–21, 125, 139 mitochondrial, see mitochondrial DNA sequencing of, 20, 23, 49–52, 112 SNPs in, 113–14 as switches, 41 viruses and, 119–20 genes, genome, editing of, 24–25, 45 ethics of, 102–5 genetically modified foods (GMOs), 18 genetic markers, 22, 113–14, 127 genetic mutations: aging and, 41 cancer and, 14, 21–22, 50 disease risk and, 9, 12 genetic screening, 103, 117, 137 flawed results in, 8–10 of newborns, 11–12 Georgia State University, 121 Gewirtz, Andrew, 121 Gibson, Peter, 164 Gilbert, Daniel, 38, 39, 40 Gillray, James, 161 Gladwell, Malcolm, 225, 227, 228 Gleevec (imatinib), 55 glial cells, 209 glioblastoma, 30 “Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health” (WHO), 187 gluten, debate over, 163–65 Goldstein, Irwin, 211 Google, 87, 88, 101 Google Flu Trends, 101 Grameen Bank, 232, 233–34, 235 Grameen Danone, 235 Graunt, John, 100 Great Britain, 96, 97, 100, 110, 155 Black Death in, 95–101, 98, 99, 100 Greatist.com, 200 Greenland, 182 Grove, Andy, 7, 7 growth factors, 59 gun violence, 91 gut: inflammation of, 120, 122 microbiome of, see microbiome H2 blockers, 86 habits and routines, 136, 137–41, 228, 237–38 see also diet; lifestyle choices Harlow, Harry, 213 Harvard Medical School, 84 Harvard School of Public Health, 142–43 Harvard University, 3, 23, 24, 37, 178, 186, 196, 212, 213, 216 hash tables, health care and, 87–88 Hawaii, 47 HDL cholesterol, 150 health: biological age and, 47 context and, 48, 76–78, 84, 89–90, 91–94, 101, 113, 114–15, 117, 124–25 family history of, 136–37 honesty about, 131–34 inflection point in, 8 lifestyle and, see lifestyle choices optimism and, 65–69 personal baselines for, 150 retirement and, 91–92 technology and, 37–70 health and fitness apps, 200 Health and Human Services Department, US, 103 health care: Affordable Care Act and, 69–70 hash tables and, 87–88 individual’s responsibility in, 12–13, 26, 70, 75, 78, 131–32 misinformation about, 14–15, 18, 19, 154, 157–58 politics and, 11–12 portable electronic devices and, 79, 90–91 Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 142–43, 217 health threats, prediction of, 103–4 heart: biological age of, 47–48 health of, 48 heart attacks, 76, 86, 182, 217, 218 heart disease, 59, 128, 150, 166, 175, 183, 186, 187, 215, 217, 221 context and, 22 diet and, 163 eating patterns and, 138–40 lifestyle choices and, 22 muscle mass and, 195 heart rates, 231 heart rate variability (HRV), 230 Heathrow Airport, 92 “hedonic reactions,” 38–40 heel sticks, 11–12 hemoglobin A1C test, 151 hepatitis B, 175 hepatitis C, 175 Herceptin (trastuzumab), 55 high blood pressure, 22, 188, 195 high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) test, 151 hippocampus, 214 Hippocrates, 71, 113, 122, 216 HIV/AIDS, 18, 24, 25, 59, 84, 127–28, 131, 159 Hoffmann, Felix, 215, 216 Holland, 41 Homeland Security Department, US, 103 homeostasis, 137–38, 140 Homo sapiens, evolution of, 107 honesty: about health, 131–34 nutritional studies and, 162 hormones, 219 hormone therapy, 201 Horton, Richard, 178 Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled (Hospital for Special Surgery), 28 house calls, 80 Houston Methodist, 86 “how do you feel” question, 231 hugs, 214 Human Genome Project, 113, 120 human growth hormone, 200 Human Molecular Genetics, 65 human papilloma virus (HPV), 161, 175 Hurricane Sandy, 84 Huxley, Aldous, viii, 6, 159, 238 Hydra magnipapillata, 42, 42 hyperglycemia, 122 hypertension, 125, 195, 203 IBM, 88–89 imatinib (Gleevec), 55 immune reactions, 5 immune system, 175, 190, 209, 211 aging and, 44 impact of hugs on, 214 immunotherapy, 28–33 polio virus and, 30, 31 incentives, 235–36 Indiana University Bloomington School of Informatics and Computing’s Center for Complex Networks and Systems Research, 94–95 infant mortality, 87, 97 infants: genetic screening of, 11–12 premature, 87 infections, 175–76 infectious diseases, 129 antibiotic-resistant, 67–69, 68 data mining and, 100–101 inflammation, 34, 151, 174–77, 181, 187, 190, 195, 215–22 inflammatory bowel disease, 121 inflection points, 7–8, 7 influenza, 161 risks from, 157 vaccine for, see flu vaccine information, sorting good from bad, 19–20 information technology, financial industry and, 89 inherited disorders, newborn genetic screening and, 12 insomnia, 122 Institute for Sexual Medicine, 211 insulin, 56, 190 insulin sensitivity, 5, 87, 120, 122, 151, 195 insurance companies, off-label drugs and, 55 Intel, 7 International Agency for Research on Cancer, 170 International Prevention Research Institute, 180 intuition, 224–29 Inuits, 182–83 in vitro fertilization (IVF), three-person, 109–12, 110 Ioannidis, John, 178 IRBs (institutional review boards), 52 iron deficiency, 231 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 164 Islam, 234 Italy, 183 ivacaftor (Kalydeco), 115–16 JAMA Internal Medicine, 142, 143, 192, 196 Jenner, Edward, 160, 161 Jobs, Steve, 2, 23–24, 26, 49 Johns Hopkins Hospital, 71, 72, 128 Hurd Hall at, 74 Osler Medical Housestaff Training Program at, 73–75, 74 Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, 32 Johns Hopkins University, 23, 169, 170, 171, 173, 174, 175, 176, 215 Jolie, Angelina, 21 Jones, Owen, 43 Journal of Sexual Medicine, 211 Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 72, 114–15, 173, 201, 220, 221 Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 154 Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 169 Journal of Urology, 168 journals, medical, misinformation in, 154, 179 J. Paul Getty Museum, 225–27, 226 Kahan, Dan, 159 Kalydeco (ivacaftor), 115–16 Kennedy, Eugene, 107 Kentucky, 47 Kenya, 163 Kickstarter, 66 kouros, 225–27, 226 Kutscher, Scott, 204 lactic acidosis, 104 Lactobacillus bacteria, 33–34 Lancet, The, 155, 178, 181, 186, 216 Lander, Eric, 24–25 lansoprazole (Prevacid), 86 Latin America, 77 LDL cholesterol, 150, 195 lean paradox, 193–94 Lechuguilla Cave, 68 lecithin, 121, 122 LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), 193 Lehninger, Albert, 107 Leigh’s disease, 105, 108 “Let Food Be Thy Medicine” (World Economic Forum panel), 161–62, 166 life expectancy, 126 exercise and, 189–90 lifestyle choices and, 126–27 life span, red meat and, 142–44 lifestyle choices, 20, 37, 114 cancer and, 153 “end of history” illusion and, 39–40 heart disease and, 22 life expectancy and, 126–27 see also diet; habits and routines lifestyle medicine, 165 Li-Fraumeni syndrome, 58 Lily Lake, 103 Linden, David, 215 lipid phosphate phosphatase 1 (LPP1), 187 liver cancer, statin use and, 219 livestock, overuse of antibiotics in, 67, 69 Livingston, N.J., 111, 112 loan sharking, 233 London, 92 Black Death in, 97–101, 98, 99, 100 longevity, exercise and, 197–98 Lorenz, Edward, 236 Lou Gehrig’s disease (ALS), 119–20 Louisiana, 47, 192 lung cancer, 10, 50, 50, 51, 53–54, 65, 118, 176, 190 statin use and, 219 Lung Cancer Master Protocol for Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Lung-MAP), 118 Lunsford, Wanda Ruth, 1–2, 3, 4, 21, 27 lymphoma, 55 lymph system, 209 Lyon, 180 McCarthy, Matt, 202 McCay, Clive, 2 McGill University, Osler Library of Medicine at, 73 Maimonides, 163 Maine, 68 Major League Baseball, 202, 204–5 malaria, 77 malnutrition, 234–35 Malthus, Thomas Robert, 27, 160 Malthusian catastrophe, 27 Massachusetts, 47 Massagué Solé, Joan, 58–62 Massai people, 163 mastectomies, 21–22 MasterCard, 89 Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, 41 Mayo Clinic, 145 measles, 160 media, medical misinformation in, 15, 153–54 medical education: context and, 75 Osler’s revolutionizing of, 71–75 medical journals, misinformation in, 154, 179 medical research, 177–84 newborn genetic screening and, 11–12 rigorously controlled studies in, 155 Medicare, 92, 192 medications, 144–46 antiaging, 201 antidepressant, 145 consistent schedules for, 140 counterfeit, 10–11, 66 off-label use of, 55 over-the-counter, 145 in preventative medicine, 76–78 pricing of, 56–57, 115–17 quicker access to, 56 3-D printing and, 66–67 medicine: coarse graining in, 229–32, 230 personalized, see precision medicine science vs. art in, 26, 112, 118 Mediterranean diet, 141–42, 163 melatonin, 205 Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 28, 60, 62, 116–17 Cancer Biology and Genetics Program at, 58 memory, 214 Mencken, H.


pages: 924 words: 241,081

The Art of Community by Jono Bacon

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barriers to entry, collaborative editing, crowdsourcing, Debian, DevOps, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Jono Bacon, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, openstreetmap, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, software as a service, telemarketer, union organizing, VA Linux, web application

Lots of communities have started donation drives of this kind, and many have been successful. Unfortunately, many others have been unsuccessful. Here are some tips that might help you improve your chances of success: Make donating easy Be sure to make donating a piece of cake. Most people will want to donate online with a credit or debit card or with PayPal. For Severed Fifth we used PayPal to gather the donations, but you can also use a service such as KickStarter, which rallies prospective donors around a target figure. Regardless of the service you choose, make sure that donating is a breeze and only takes a few minutes. Pick a goal A donation drive should have a target and focus and not just be a case of “give us money, please!” Whether it is a target outcome (e.g., the recording in the previous Severed Fifth example), a target amount, or anything else, be sure to have a goal that people feel passionate about supporting with their wallet.

And as I tried to make clear in my original advocacy about Web 2.0, “collective intelligence”—which is another face of social media—has been a driver of every major advance on the Web. This idea of collaborative value creation is obviously central to something like Wikipedia, but it’s also at work in Google. It is our collective activity of creating and linking to web pages that Google mines to create its search engine. And of course, it’s central to software development tools like Github. I’m also fascinated by tools like Kickstarter, which allow for collaboration in funding of projects, and even Storify, which allows someone to build a more lasting product out of a stream of tweets. With an increasingly social world, how do we balance visibility and privacy? We balance visibility and privacy in the same way we’ve always done, with social norms. We don’t keep people from peering into our homes at night by living in windowless buildings.

., Building Belonging into the Social Economy hashtags, Getting more eyeballs, Where to look, Asking for feedback, The buildup, At the event Hawthorn, Leslie, Step 4: Make Time, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes health of community, tracking, Tracking Health, Tracking Health, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns by calls to team leaders, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals overview, Tracking Health, Tracking Health promoting feedback culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture responding to concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns hiring community manager, Risk, Risk Holbach, Daniel, Planning, Hooks ’n’ Data, Visibility Is Key, Visibility Is Key hooks and data, Hooks ’n’ Data, Hooks ’n’ Data, Statistics and Automated Data, Plugging your stats into graphs, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Showing off your survey reports, Observational Tests, Observational Tests, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics, Gathering General Perceptions, Perception of you, Part 2: Get the facts, Part 2: Get the facts gathering general perceptions, Gathering General Perceptions, Perception of you in conflict resolution, Part 2: Get the facts, Part 2: Get the facts measuring mechanics, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics observational tests, Observational Tests, Observational Tests overview, Hooks ’n’ Data, Hooks ’n’ Data statistics and automated data, Statistics and Automated Data, Plugging your stats into graphs surveys, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Showing off your survey reports hotels, for event accommodation, Accommodation, Accommodation Hudson, Paul, The Professional Press, The Professional Press Humble Indie Bundle, Richard Esguerra, Humble Indie Bundle, Richard Esguerra, Humble Indie Bundle humor, Setting tone Hybrid Theory (album), Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park I identi.ca, Reporting, Reporting, Getting started with Facebook reporting with, Reporting, Reporting users of, Getting started with Facebook implementation plan, Structuring the plan incentives, for donations, Donations Innovate Developer Conference, Carolyn Mellor, X.commerce, PayPal, and eBay inspiring others, Inspiring your community, Inspiring your community, Inspired Words, Inspired Words, Aspire to Inspire, Aspire to Inspire as goal of governing body, Aspire to Inspire, Aspire to Inspire through writing, Inspiring your community, Inspiring your community, Inspired Words, Inspired Words insurance, for physical events, Insurance/unions, Insurance/unions Internet Relay Chat, The Art of Community (see IRC) interviews, building buzz with, Attracting Contributors IRC (Internet Relay Chat), IRC, IRC, Communications, Observational Tests, Privacy, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), Preparing for a session, Running a session features and benefits of, IRC, IRC logging, Communications privacy issues, Privacy usability testing over, Observational Tests use with online events, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), Preparing for a session, Running a session issues, communication between teams about, The Art of Community, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively (see also conflict) J Johnson & Johnson conflict resolution approach, Part 1: Calm and reassure, The fantastical user group debacle, Part 2: Get the facts, The fantastical user group debacle, Part 3: Discuss, The fantastical user group debacle, Part 4: Document, The fantastical user group debacle, Part 5: Reflect and maintain, The fantastical user group debacle calm and reassure, Part 1: Calm and reassure, The fantastical user group debacle discuss, Part 3: Discuss, The fantastical user group debacle document, Part 4: Document, The fantastical user group debacle get the facts, Part 2: Get the facts, The fantastical user group debacle reflect and maintain, Part 5: Reflect and maintain, The fantastical user group debacle Jokosher project, Planning Your Community, Planning Your Community, Communication fetishism, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Bug reporting, Regular Workflow Assessment, Regular Workflow Assessment bug tracking, Bug reporting communication channels used for, Communication fetishism contributions of Laszlo Pandy, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Reviewing new developers: In depth workflow assessment during, Regular Workflow Assessment, Regular Workflow Assessment justice, lack of, Lack of Justice, Lack of Justice K KDE project, Enlightened Dictatorship, Enlightened Dictatorship, Creating and Running Events, Creating and Running Events keynotes, at events, Opening keynotes, Opening keynotes KGRUBEditor, Observational Tests KHTML technology, Enlightened Dictatorship, Enlightened Dictatorship KickStarter, Donations Kiss, Tom, James Spafford, Media Molecule L Langridge, Stuart (Aq), Planning Your Community Laporte, Leo, Foreword from the First Edition Launchpad (software collaboration platform), An Example: Ubuntu Bug Workflow, Getting to know the problem, Hooks ’n’ Data, Hooks ’n’ Data leadership, The Art of Community, The Art of Community (see community managers) (see governance) Lessig, Lawrence, Untwisting the tail, Announcing Your Community licensing, Untwisting the tail, Untwisting the tail, Videos, Mike Linksvayer, Creative Commons, Mike Linksvayer, Creative Commons Liebling, Alison, Gathering General Perceptions lightning talks, Lightning talks, Lightning talks Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park Linksvayer, Mike, Mike Linksvayer, Creative Commons, Mike Linksvayer, Creative Commons Linspire (formerly Lindows), Blog wars, Blog wars Linux community, The Art of Community, The Art of Community, Write-centered communities, Diversity, Diversity, Linus Torvalds, Linux, Linus Torvalds, Linux (see also Ubuntu community) (see also Xubuntu community) Linux Demo Day, Building Buzz, Building Buzz Linux Format magazine, The Professional Press, The Professional Press listening to others, The Value of Listening, The Value of Listening, Membership, Barriers to Input, Barriers to Input LittleBigPlanet community, James Spafford, Media Molecule, James Spafford, Media Molecule live streaming, Videos, Videos LoCo (Ubuntu Local Community), Observational Tests, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals, Responsibilities, Team councils, Team councils LUGFests, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo LugRadio community, The Essence of Community, The Essence of Community, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Becoming Yourself, Becoming Yourself, Communication fetishism, Communication fetishism, Discussion forums, Podcasts, Podcasts, Location/venue, Cost, Setting expectations, Setting expectations belief in, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity effect of unedited productions, Becoming Yourself, Becoming Yourself events of, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Location/venue, Cost forums of, Communication fetishism, Communication fetishism, Discussion forums origin of, The Essence of Community, The Essence of Community podcast, Podcasts, Podcasts response to rail strike, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity sponsorship of, Setting expectations, Setting expectations stories in, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication M MacQueue bulletion board, Foreword from the First Edition Macromedia Flash plug-in, Videos mailing lists, The Mediums, Mailing lists, Mailing lists, Netiquette, Netiquette, Gathering feedback, Gathering feedback, Privacy, Communicating Between Councils effect on how people behave, The Mediums for communication between councils, Communicating Between Councils for gathering feedback, Gathering feedback, Gathering feedback overview of, Mailing lists, Mailing lists privacy concerns, Privacy top posting to, Netiquette, Netiquette Major, John, Uniting Together managers, The Art of Community, The Art of Community (see community managers) (see governance) marketing, The Art of Community (see buzz, creating) maturing of members, Profiling the polemical, Profiling the polemical McMillan, John, Building Belonging into the Social Economy measuring community, Measuring Community, Community Self-Reflection, The Foundations of Feedback, The Foundations of Feedback, Defining Purpose, Defining Purpose, Hooks ’n’ Data, Hooks ’n’ Data, Statistics and Automated Data, Plugging your stats into graphs, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Showing off your survey reports, Observational Tests, Observational Tests, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics, Gathering General Perceptions, Perception of you, Anonymity, Anonymity, Privacy, Privacy anonymity and, Anonymity, Anonymity establishing goals of, Defining Purpose, Defining Purpose meaning in measurements, The Foundations of Feedback, The Foundations of Feedback overview of, Measuring Community, Community Self-Reflection privacy issues, Privacy, Privacy use of hooks and data, Hooks ’n’ Data, Hooks ’n’ Data, Statistics and Automated Data, Plugging your stats into graphs, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Showing off your survey reports, Observational Tests, Observational Tests, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics, Gathering General Perceptions, Perception of you gathering general perceptions, Gathering General Perceptions, Perception of you measuring mechanics, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics observational tests, Observational Tests, Observational Tests overview, Hooks ’n’ Data, Hooks ’n’ Data statistics and automated data, Statistics and Automated Data, Plugging your stats into graphs surveys, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Showing off your survey reports Measuring the Quality of Prison Life study, Gathering General Perceptions mechanics of collaboration, The Mechanics of Collaboration, The Mechanics of Collaboration, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics Media Molecule, James Spafford, Media Molecule, James Spafford, Media Molecule mediator, of conflict resolution, The Role of a Facilitator, Be clear meetings, The Art of Community, Attracting Contributors, Step 2: Find Help, Step 2: Find Help, Online Discussion Meetings, Running the meeting, Management and Communications, Weekly engagements (see also events) between company and community manager, Management and Communications, Weekly engagements building buzz with, Attracting Contributors for organizing events, Step 2: Find Help, Step 2: Find Help online discussion meetings, Online Discussion Meetings, Running the meeting Mellor, Carolyn, Carolyn Mellor, X.commerce, PayPal, and eBay, Carolyn Mellor, X.commerce, PayPal, and eBay members, The Art of Community, Responsibilities, Membership, Nominating and Electing Council Members, Forming a new council (see also contributers) approval of, Responsibilities of Community Council, Membership, Nominating and Electing Council Members, Forming a new council meritocracy, Meritocracy, Meritocracy, Enlightened Dictatorship Messina, Chris, Attracting Contributors, Organizing an Unconference, Organizing an Unconference, Organizing an Unconference, Organizing an Unconference Mickos, Mårten, The Role of a Community Manager in the Corporation, Mårten Mickos, MySQL and Eucalyptus, Mårten Mickos, MySQL and Eucalyptus microphones, at events, Room Layout mindcasting, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media mindshare, Mindshare, The Mindshare Opportunity, Defining Purpose, Gathering General Perceptions mission statement, Designing Your Community, Building a Mission Statement, Building a Mission Statement, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, The Mission, The Mission and buzz, The Mission, The Mission for each team, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope overview of, Designing Your Community writing, Building a Mission Statement, Building a Mission Statement money from sponsors, The Art of Community, The Art of Community, Handling the Money, Handling the Money (see also costs) (see also finances) Mozilla, Attracting Contributors, Attracting Contributors, Mary Colvig, Mozilla, Mary Colvig, Mozilla mrben (Ben Thorp), The Essence of Community, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication multimedia, use when announcing community, Announcing Your Community music industry, and community, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park N negative energy, Honesty, Honesty netiquette, Netiquette, Netiquette news, on website, Staying Current, Staying Current Nielsen, Jakob, Announce, Announce Nielsen, Michael, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media nominating council members, Nominating and Electing Council Members, Forming a new council North, Gail, Dealing with Burnout notetakers, at summits, Inside a session O O'Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media O'Reilly's Radar site, Staying Current O'Reilly, Tim, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Staying Current, Privacy, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media Obama, Barack, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Aspire to Inspire, Aspire to Inspire as inspirational orator, Aspire to Inspire, Aspire to Inspire election of, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity objectives, in strategic plan, Structuring the plan, Pulling Together the Threads, Financially Supporting Your Community objectivity, in conflict resolution, Be objective, Be objective, Be objective Ogg Theora, Videos Oliver, Jamie, The Mindshare Opportunity, The Mindshare Opportunity On Writing Well (Zinsser), Don’t write like an institution on-ramp, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, Identifying the On-Ramp, Identifying the On-Ramp, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge, Determining Contributions, Determining Contributions, Growing Kudos, Growing Kudos defined, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes determining contributions, Determining Contributions, Determining Contributions identifying, Identifying the On-Ramp, Identifying the On-Ramp showing appreciation, Growing Kudos, Growing Kudos skills acquisition, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge steps in, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes one-on-one discussion, for gathering feedback, Gathering feedback, Gathering feedback online events, Organizing Online Events, Organizing Online Events, Organizing Online Events, Medium, Virtual worlds, Date/time, Date/time, Online Discussion Meetings, Running the meeting, Organizing Online Tutorials, Event-specific notes date and time of, Date/time, Date/time discussion meetings, Online Discussion Meetings, Running the meeting medium for hosting, Medium, Virtual worlds overview of, Organizing Online Events, Organizing Online Events tutorials, Organizing Online Events, Organizing Online Tutorials, Event-specific notes open days, building buzz with, Attracting Contributors Open Source Conference (OSCON), Long versus short presentations, Long versus short presentations open source development, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Planning Your Community, Planning Your Community, Building a Strategic Plan, Building a Strategic Plan, Tool Access, Tool Access, Observational Tests, Observational Tests, Observational Tests, Why Community Building Has Become a Big Business, Why Community Building Has Become a Big Business, Linus Torvalds, Linux, Linus Torvalds, Linux access to tools, Tool Access, Tool Access and community, Why Community Building Has Become a Big Business, Why Community Building Has Become a Big Business differing motives for contributing to, Linus Torvalds, Linux, Linus Torvalds, Linux fixed release cycles, Building a Strategic Plan, Building a Strategic Plan in business, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy Jokosher audio editor example, Planning Your Community, Planning Your Community usability testing, Observational Tests, Observational Tests, Observational Tests OpenAdvantage, Becoming the Advocate, Becoming the Advocate openess, The Art of Community (see also transparency) openness, Barriers to Input, Be open, Be open OpenSuSE Board, Commercial sponsorship opportunities, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community and early days of Linux, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity and Obama election, Unwrapping Opportunity documenting, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community Oram, Andy, Preface, Simplicity is key Organizational Vision, Values and Mission (Scott), Building a Mission Statement OSCON (Open Source Conference), Long versus short presentations, Long versus short presentations outside the box thinking, Technique 2: Think outside the box, Technique 2: Think outside the box owner of goals, Structuring the plan P Packard, Keith, Transparency Pages, in Google+, Getting started with Google+ Pandy, Laszlo, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Reviewing new developers: In depth patience, The Value of Listening patterns, in burndown charts, Observing burndown patterns, Observing burndown patterns Paul, Celeste Lyn, Observational Tests, Observational Tests PayPal, Donations, Carolyn Mellor, X.commerce, PayPal, and eBay, Carolyn Mellor, X.commerce, PayPal, and eBay, Carolyn Mellor, X.commerce, PayPal, and eBay peer review, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Reviewing new developers: In depth performance reviews, Technique 1: Question assumptions personality issues, The Art of Community, Profiling the polemical, Profiling the polemical, Profiling the polemical, Profiling the polemical, Sharing feedback about personality issues, Sharing feedback about personality issues, Poisonous people, Poisonous people (see also conflict) attributes causing conflict, Profiling the polemical, Profiling the polemical maturity, Profiling the polemical, Profiling the polemical poisonous people, Poisonous people, Poisonous people sharing feedback about, Sharing feedback about personality issues, Sharing feedback about personality issues Persse, James, Building Great Processes phone calls, privacy during, Privacy physical events, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing Physical Events, Location/venue, Location/venue, Location/venue, Location/venue, Accommodation, Accommodation, Equipment, Equipment, Date/time, Date/time, Cost, Cost, Registering attendance, Registering attendance, Catering, Catering, Insurance/unions, Insurance/unions, Insurance/unions, Insurance/unions, Organizing a Sprint, Additional notes, Additional notes, Additional notes, Additional notes, Additional notes, Additional notes, Organizing a Summit, Inside a session, Inside a session, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Organizing an Unconference, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes accommodations for, Accommodation, Accommodation catering for, Catering, Catering, Additional notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes conferences, Organizing Physical Events cost of, Cost, Cost, Additional notes, Event-specific notes date and time for, Date/time, Date/time, Additional notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes equipment at, Equipment, Equipment, Additional notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes insurance needs, Insurance/unions, Insurance/unions location of, Location/venue, Location/venue registering attendance, Registering attendance, Registering attendance, Additional notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes remote participation in, Inside a session, Inside a session sprints, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing a Sprint, Additional notes summits, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing a Summit, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes types of, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing Physical Events unconferences, Organizing an Unconference, Event-specific notes union requirements, Insurance/unions, Insurance/unions venue, Location/venue, Location/venue piracy, Foreword, Foreword planets, Syndication planning phase, of buzz cycle, Planning, Planning, Planning, Applying the buzz cycle, Applying the buzz cycle plenaries, at events, Plenaries, Plenaries podcasts, Podcasts, Podcasts politics, creating buzz compared to, Uniting Together, Uniting Together Pope, Alan, Social Media, Social Media positiveness, in conflict resolution, Be positive, Be positive postmortems, Review, Review presentations at events, Submitting your paper, Submitting your paper, Promoting your talk, Promoting your talk, Delivering Presentations, Long versus short presentations, Creating attractive slides, Long versus short presentations, Long versus short presentations, Long versus short presentations, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo attracting presenters, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo delivering, Delivering Presentations, Long versus short presentations long vs. short, Long versus short presentations, Long versus short presentations promoting, Promoting your talk, Promoting your talk slides in, Creating attractive slides, Long versus short presentations submitting proposal for, Submitting your paper, Submitting your paper press, as target of buzz campaign, The Professional Press, The Professional Press, The Amateur Press, The Amateur Press amateur, The Amateur Press, The Amateur Press professional, The Professional Press, The Professional Press pride, Avoid Ego, or Others Will Avoid You, Avoid Ego, or Others Will Avoid You privacy, Privacy, Privacy, Privacy, Part 2: Get the facts, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media balancing with visibility, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media during conflict resolution, Part 2: Get the facts during phone calls, Privacy when gathering feedback, Privacy, Privacy Process Improvement Essentials (Persse), Building Great Processes processes, Building Great Processes, Building Great Processes, Breaking Up the Puzzle, Building a process, Building a process, Simplicity is key, Simplicity is key, Avoiding bureaucracy, Avoiding bureaucracy, Transparency, Transparency, Assessing Needs, Assessing Needs, Community Cycles, Leading by example: Ubuntu, The Gates of Your Community, The Gates of Your Community, Assessing Contributors, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Managing Feedback, Gathering feedback, Document Them, Make Them Easy to Find, Make Them Easy to Find, Make Them Easy to Find, Make Them Easy to Find, Using Your Processes, Using Your Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, Growing Kudos, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, Identifying the On-Ramp, Identifying the On-Ramp, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge, Determining Contributions, Determining Contributions, Growing Kudos, Growing Kudos, Process Reassessment, Building Regularity, Responsibilities and community cycles, Community Cycles, Leading by example: Ubuntu announcing, Make Them Easy to Find, Make Them Easy to Find avoiding bureaucracy, Avoiding bureaucracy, Avoiding bureaucracy building, Building a process, Building a process categories of, Assessing Needs, Assessing Needs changes in, Responsibilities documentation of, Document Them, Make Them Easy to Find, Make Them Easy to Find encouraging use of, Using Your Processes, Using Your Processes for assessing contributors, Assessing Contributors, Reviewing new developers: In depth for attracting contributors, The Gates of Your Community, The Gates of Your Community for managing feedback, Managing Feedback, Gathering feedback good vs. bad, Building Great Processes, Building Great Processes in getting participation (the on-ramp), The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, Growing Kudos, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, Identifying the On-Ramp, Identifying the On-Ramp, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge, Determining Contributions, Determining Contributions, Growing Kudos, Growing Kudos defined, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes determining contributions, Determining Contributions, Determining Contributions identifying, Identifying the On-Ramp, Identifying the On-Ramp showing appreciation, Growing Kudos, Growing Kudos skills acquisition, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge steps in, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes reassessing, Process Reassessment, Building Regularity simplicity as foundation of, Breaking Up the Puzzle, Simplicity is key, Simplicity is key transparency in, Transparency, Transparency product recalls, Building Great Processes, Building Great Processes professional press, as target of buzz campaign, The Professional Press, The Professional Press Project level, of projects, Tracking Projects projectors, using at events, The Ethos of the UDS, Room Layout, Room Layout, Room Layout projects, tracking, Tracking Projects, Tracking Projects, Structuring Your Projects, Structuring Your Projects, Managing Work Items, Documenting work items, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts, Using burndown charts, Using burndown charts, Using burndown charts, Generating additional information, Using burndown charts, Using burndown charts, Observing burndown patterns, Observing burndown patterns, Building burndown charts into your workflow, Building burndown charts into your workflow managing work items, Managing Work Items, Documenting work items providing different levels of visibility, Tracking Projects, Tracking Projects using blueprints, Structuring Your Projects, Structuring Your Projects using burndown charts, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts, Using burndown charts, Using burndown charts, Using burndown charts, Generating additional information, Using burndown charts, Using burndown charts, Observing burndown patterns, Observing burndown patterns, Building burndown charts into your workflow, Building burndown charts into your workflow benefits of, Using burndown charts, Using burndown charts building into workflow, Building burndown charts into your workflow, Building burndown charts into your workflow generating charts, Using burndown charts, Generating additional information overview, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts patterns in charts, Observing burndown patterns, Observing burndown patterns reading charts, Using burndown charts, Using burndown charts Putnam, Robert, Building Belonging into the Social Economy Q quantity vs. quality, The risks of interpretation R Rabinovitch, Ilan, Location/venue, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo Raymond, Eric, Bug Tracking read-mostly communities, Read-mostly communities, Read-mostly communities Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds, Syndication, Syndication recordMyDesktop, Videos Regional Membership Boards, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member Reinventing Discovery (Nielsen), Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media Reinventing the Bazaar (McMillan), Building Belonging into the Social Economy release cycles, Ubuntu community, Leading by example: Ubuntu, Leading by example: Ubuntu release parties, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing Online Events defined, Organizing Physical Events online, Organizing Online Events remote participation, in Ubuntu Developer Summit, Infrastructure, Infrastructure, Room Layout reporting, Bug reporting, Bug reporting, Reporting, Reporting, Reporting, Reporting, Showing off your survey reports, Showing off your survey reports, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics bugs, Bug reporting, Bug reporting, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics examples of, Reporting, Reporting making easy, Reporting, Reporting survey data, Showing off your survey reports, Showing off your survey reports reputation of community manager, Internal reputation, Community reputation resources, and governance, The Case for Governance respect for others, in Ubuntu Code of Conduct, Diversity responsibility, problems with, Problems with Responsibility, Problems with Responsibility revenue opportunities, Revenue Opportunities, Donations ReverbNation, The preparation review phase, of buzz cycle, Review, Review, Applying the buzz cycle, Applying the buzz cycle roles, Roles, Roles room layout, at events, Room Layout, Room Layout Ross, Blake, Attracting Contributors, Mary Colvig, Mozilla routine, breaking, Events, Events, Events RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds, Syndication, Syndication S SaaS (Software as a Service), Software As a Service, Software As a Service Safari® Books Online, Safari® Books Online salary of community manager, Salary, Salary Saxena, Deepak, Building Buzz, Building Buzz SCALE (Southern California Linux Expo), Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo Schaller, Christian, The Structure of Strife, The Structure of Strife scope of teams, Units of Belonging, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope Scott, Cynthia D., Building a Mission Statement screen-scraping, Plugging your stats into graphs Screencast-O-Matic, Videos search engine optimization (SEO), Syndication, Syndication Second Life, Virtual worlds, Virtual worlds selling items, to generate revenue, Selling, Selling SEO (search engine optimization), Syndication, Syndication seriousness, Setting tone sessions, at events, Sessions, Sessions Severed Fifth project, Donations, Donations Sheen, Martin, Inspiring your community Shigeru Miyamoto, Technique 2: Think outside the box Shinoda, Mike, A Community Manager: Becoming the Community, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park Shuttleworth, Mark, Hooks ’n’ Data, Commercial sponsorship, In the Beginning..., In the Beginning..., Scheduling signs, using at events, Assets simplicity as foundation of processes, Breaking Up the Puzzle, Simplicity is key, Simplicity is key size of community, The Case for Governance skills, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge, Knowing When It Is Time acquisition of, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge and formation of additional councils, Knowing When It Is Time mapping to teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams required, documenting, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community Skype, Voice over IP (VoIP), Voice over IP (VoIP) slides in presentations, Creating attractive slides, Long versus short presentations Smanis, Konstantinos, Observational Tests social capital, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication building through storytelling, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication defined, Building Belonging into the Social Economy social economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication building belonging into, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy communication in, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication comparison with financial economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy social media, The Art of Community, The Art of Community, The Art of Community, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Being Social, Being Social, Being Social, Being Social, Being Social, Harnessing Social Media, Broadcasting, Broadcasting, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages, Avoiding social media overkill, Avoiding social media overkill, Feedback, Feedback, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, Debates, Debates, Asking for feedback, Asking for feedback, Collaboration, Collaboration, Campaigns and awareness, Events, Events, Controlling the Fire Hose, Controlling the Fire Hose, Optimizing How You Post, Optimizing How You Post, Being Socially Responsible, Being Socially Responsible, Organizing a Community Event, At the event, Running a Campaign, The buildup, Providing Community Updates, Providing Community Updates, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media (see also Facebook) (see also Google+) (see also Twitter) broadcasting with, Being Social, Broadcasting, Broadcasting, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages, Avoiding social media overkill, Avoiding social media overkill balanced use of, Avoiding social media overkill, Avoiding social media overkill content of broadcasts, Broadcasting, Broadcasting overview, Being Social using Twitter, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages collaboration using, Being Social, Collaboration, Collaboration, Campaigns and awareness, Events, Events, Running a Campaign, The buildup coordinating events, Events, Events for campaigns and awareness, Campaigns and awareness, Running a Campaign, The buildup overview of, Being Social party-planning example, Collaboration, Collaboration controlling time using, Harnessing Social Media, Controlling the Fire Hose, Controlling the Fire Hose getting feedback using, Being Social, Feedback, Feedback, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, Debates, Debates, Asking for feedback, Asking for feedback by asking for, Asking for feedback, Asking for feedback overview, Being Social Ubuntu 11.04 release example, Feedback, Feedback using Twitter, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look via debates, Debates, Debates most common networks, Being Social, Being Social optimizing posts to, Optimizing How You Post, Optimizing How You Post organizing community event using, Organizing a Community Event, At the event providing community updates with, Providing Community Updates, Providing Community Updates realistic expectations of, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl responsible use of, Being Socially Responsible, Being Socially Responsible use by community leaders, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media Mike Shinoda (Linkin Park), Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park Tim O'Reilly, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media Software as a Service (SaaS), Software As a Service, Software As a Service software cycles, fixed release, Building a Strategic Plan, Building a Strategic Plan Somerville, Cody, Baking in Openness Sorkin, Aaron, Inspiring your community source control, Source Control, Source Control Southern California Linux Expo (SCALE), Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo Spafford, James, The Second Edition, James Spafford, Media Molecule, James Spafford, Media Molecule spam, Getting It Right by Not Getting It Wrong, Getting It Right by Not Getting It Wrong speaking at events, The Art of Community (see presentations at events) Spencer, Rick, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts sponsored communities, The Case for Governance, Commercial sponsorship, Commercial sponsorship, Barriers to Input, Barriers to Input and governance, The Case for Governance conflict within, Barriers to Input, Barriers to Input councils of, Commercial sponsorship, Commercial sponsorship sponsors, Understanding Your Needs, Understanding Your Needs, Finding and Handling Sponsors, Finding and Handling Sponsors, Setting expectations, Setting expectations, The pitch, The pitch, Handling the Money, Handling the Money, Scheduling, Scheduling determining, Finding and Handling Sponsors, Finding and Handling Sponsors examining needs before approaching, Understanding Your Needs, Understanding Your Needs giving back to, Setting expectations, Setting expectations managing money from, Handling the Money, Handling the Money of Ubuntu Developer Summit, Scheduling, Scheduling pitching to, The pitch, The pitch Spread Firefox campaign, Attracting Contributors, Attracting Contributors, Mary Colvig, Mozilla, Mary Colvig, Mozilla Spreadshirt, Selling sprints, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing a Sprint, Additional notes Stallman, Richard, Dictatorial Charismatic Leadership stories, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, Attracting Contributors, Attracting Contributors, Delivering Presentations as mechanism behind communication, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication as viral marketing assets, Attracting Contributors, Attracting Contributors building social capital through, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication in presentations, Delivering Presentations strategic planning, The Art of Community, Planning Your Community, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Building a Mission Statement, Building a Mission Statement, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Brainstorming Ideas, Technique 3: Let’s make it suck, Pulling Together the Threads, Financially Supporting Your Community, Documenting Your Strategy, Documenting Your Strategy, Financially Supporting Your Community, Financially Supporting Your Community, Revenue Opportunities, Sponsorship, Strategy, Strategy (see also teams) brainstorming, Brainstorming Ideas, Technique 3: Let’s make it suck building positive environment, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View contribute growth, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View difference from business strategic planning, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan documenting, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Building a Mission Statement, Building a Mission Statement, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Pulling Together the Threads, Financially Supporting Your Community, Documenting Your Strategy, Documenting Your Strategy defining objectives, Structuring the plan, Pulling Together the Threads, Financially Supporting Your Community ingredients of, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community mission statement, Designing Your Community, Building a Mission Statement, Building a Mission Statement structure of documentation, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan transparency/openess when, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness finances, Financially Supporting Your Community, Financially Supporting Your Community, Revenue Opportunities, Sponsorship required resources, Financially Supporting Your Community, Financially Supporting Your Community revenue opportunities, Revenue Opportunities, Sponsorship for openess/transparency, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness need for, Planning Your Community of company, conveying to community managers, Strategy, Strategy streaming, live, Videos, Videos stress, The Art of Community (see burnout) subcouncils, Responsibilities success criteria, in strategic plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan summits, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing a Summit, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes surface-level diversity, Diversity, Diversity surveys, Gathering feedback, Gathering Structured Feedback, Gathering Structured Feedback, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Choosing questions, Choosing questions, Showing off your survey reports, Showing off your survey reports, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns choosing questions for, Choosing questions, Choosing questions for finding causes of bottlenecks, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes for gathering feedback, Gathering feedback, Gathering Structured Feedback, Gathering Structured Feedback for learning about community concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns purpose of, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Surveys and Structured Feedback reports from, Showing off your survey reports, Showing off your survey reports Sweet, Adam, Finding Your Place, Finding Your Place syndication of content, Syndication, Syndication T T-shirts, for events, Assets, Assets tales, The Basis of Communication tasks, communication between teams about, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively teams, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Units of Belonging, Units of Belonging, Units of Belonging, Write-centered communities, Write-centered communities, Diversity, Diversity, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals, Setting Up a Community Council, Setting Up a Community Council, Responsibilities and Community Council, Responsibilities as units of belonging, Units of Belonging, Units of Belonging building, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View collaboration between, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams communication between, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively diversity within, Diversity, Diversity dividing community into, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams leaders of, tracking community health through, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals mission statement for, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope of Ubuntu community, Write-centered communities, Write-centered communities scope of, Units of Belonging, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope vs. councils, Setting Up a Community Council, Setting Up a Community Council Technical Board, of Ubuntu community, Technical Board, Technical Board Technorati, The Amateur Press testing usability, Observational Tests, Observational Tests, Observational Tests Texas Linux Fest, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo The Art of Community, community of, Social Media, Social Media The West Wing (TV program), Inspiring your community, Inspiring your community theory versus action, Theory Versus Action: Action Wins, Theory Versus Action: Action Wins Thorp, Ben (mrben), The Essence of Community, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication threats on community, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity effect on sense of belonging, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication LugRadio response to rail strike, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity time zones, and online events, Date/time, Date/time tone, of writing, Avoiding bikeshedding, Setting tone tools, Building Great Infrastructure, Building Great Infrastructure, Software As a Service, Software As a Service, Avoiding Resource Fetishism, Avoiding Resource Fetishism, Tool Access, Tool Access, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Controlling the Fire Hose, Controlling the Fire Hose access to, Tool Access, Tool Access and workflow, Building Great Infrastructure, Building Great Infrastructure debates over, Avoiding Resource Fetishism, Avoiding Resource Fetishism for managing social media, Controlling the Fire Hose, Controlling the Fire Hose social media as tool, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl Software as a Service (SaaS), Software As a Service, Software As a Service top posting, Netiquette, Netiquette Torvalds, Linus, Dictatorial Charismatic Leadership, Linus Torvalds, Linux, Linus Torvalds, Linux Trac (software), Building Great Infrastructure tracking, The Art of Community, Bug Tracking, Bug triage, Bug reporting, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics, Credibility and the Need to Track Progress, Credibility and the Need to Track Progress, The Importance of Tracking Our Work, The Importance of Tracking Our Work, Tracking the Right Things, Tracking the Right Things, Within the Context of a Company, Communicating up and down, Tracking Growth and Decline, Using burndown charts, Tracking Growth and Decline, Tracking Growth and Decline, Visibility Is Key, Visibility Is Key, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes, Tracking Health, Tracking Health, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns (see also projects, tracking) bugs, Bug Tracking, Bug triage, Bug reporting, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics determining what to track, Tracking the Right Things, Tracking the Right Things effect on building credibility, Credibility and the Need to Track Progress, Credibility and the Need to Track Progress growth and decline, Tracking Growth and Decline, Using burndown charts, Tracking Growth and Decline, Tracking Growth and Decline, Visibility Is Key, Visibility Is Key, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes areas of, Tracking Growth and Decline, Tracking Growth and Decline data visibility, Visibility Is Key, Visibility Is Key finding causes of, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes overview, Tracking Growth and Decline, Using burndown charts health of community, Tracking Health, Tracking Health, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns by calls to team leaders, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals overview, Tracking Health, Tracking Health promoting feedback culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture responding to concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns importance of, The Importance of Tracking Our Work, The Importance of Tracking Our Work within a company, Within the Context of a Company, Communicating up and down transparency, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Striving for Clarity, Striving for Clarity, Transparency, Transparency, Bug Tracking, Bug Tracking, Building and Maintaining Transparency, Building and Maintaining Transparency, Communications, Communications, Perception of you, Perception of you, Dictatorial Charismatic Leadership and dictatorial communities, Dictatorial Charismatic Leadership in bug tracking, Bug Tracking, Bug Tracking in communication, Striving for Clarity, Striving for Clarity, Communications, Communications in personal feedback, Perception of you, Perception of you in processes, Transparency, Transparency in strategic plan, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness in workflow, Building and Maintaining Transparency, Building and Maintaining Transparency trend line, Using burndown charts trending topics, Getting more eyeballs triaging, Bug triage, Bug triage, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics Troy, Ryan, Codifying Your Council trust, Trust Is Everything, Trust Is Everything tutorials, online, Organizing Online Events, Organizing Online Tutorials, Event-specific notes Twitter, Reporting, Reporting, Being Social, Being Social, Twitter, Twitter, Getting started with Twitter, Getting started with Twitter, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages, Tuning up your messages, Tuning up your messages, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, The buildup, At the event, At the event, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media broadcasting with, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages, The buildup, At the event, At the event, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media about events, The buildup, At the event, At the event mindcasting, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media getting feedback using, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look getting started with, Getting started with Twitter, Getting started with Twitter history of, Twitter, Twitter overview of, Being Social, Being Social reporting with, Reporting, Reporting searching tweets, Where to look, Where to look use by Tim O'Reilly, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media writing messages, Tuning up your messages, Tuning up your messages U Ubuntu Code of Conduct, Diversity, Diversity Ubuntu community, Write-centered communities, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams, Striving for Clarity, Inspiring your community, Leading by example: Ubuntu, Leading by example: Ubuntu, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge, Process Reassessment, Process Reassessment, An Example: Ubuntu Bug Workflow, Lessons learned, Feedback, Feedback, Providing Community Updates, Providing Community Updates, Videos, Videos, Hooks ’n’ Data, Hooks ’n’ Data, Plugging your stats into graphs, Visibility Is Key, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes, In the Beginning..., In the Beginning..., Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Shuttleworth, Community Council, Community Council, Technical Board, Technical Board, Team councils, Team councils, Membership, Membership, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Developer, Developer, Council or Board Member, Council or Board Member, Escalation, Escalation bug workflow example, An Example: Ubuntu Bug Workflow, Lessons learned bug-squashing parties, Plugging your stats into graphs contributor access to repositories, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Reviewing new developers: In depth developer mentoring campaign, Visibility Is Key history of, In the Beginning..., In the Beginning...


pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

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Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social software, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

Amid the carnage, an enterprise called Augur launched one of the most successful crowdfunding campaigns in history. In the first week, more than 3,500 people from the United States, China, Japan, France, Germany, Spain, the United Kingdom, Korea, Brazil, South Africa, Kenya, and Uganda contributed a total of $4 million. There was no brokerage, no investment bank, no stock exchange, no mandatory filings, no regulator, and no lawyers. There wasn’t even a Kickstarter or Indiegogo. Ladies and gentlemen, welcome to the blockchain IPO. Matching investors with entrepreneurs is one of the eight functions of the financial services industry most likely to be disrupted. The process of raising equity capital—through private placements, initial public offerings, secondary offerings, and private investments in public equities (PIPEs)—has not changed significantly since the 1930s.78 Thanks to new crowdfunding platforms, small companies can access capital using the Internet.

The process of raising equity capital—through private placements, initial public offerings, secondary offerings, and private investments in public equities (PIPEs)—has not changed significantly since the 1930s.78 Thanks to new crowdfunding platforms, small companies can access capital using the Internet. The Oculus Rift and the Pebble Watch were early successes of this model. Still, participants couldn’t buy equity directly. Today, the U.S. Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act allows small investors to make direct investments in crowdfunding campaigns, but investors and entrepreneurs still need intermediaries such as Kickstarter or Indiegogo, and a conventional payment method, typically credit cards and PayPal, to participate. The intermediary is the ultimate arbiter of everything, including who owns what. The blockchain IPO takes the concept further. Now, companies can raise funds “on the blockchain” by issuing tokens, or cryptosecurities, of some value in the company. They can represent equity, bonds, or, in the case of Augur, market-maker seats on the platform, granting owners the right to decide which prediction markets the company will open.

The End of Power: From Boardrooms to Battlefields and Churches to States, Why Being in Charge Isn’t What It Used to Be by Moises Naim

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additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey

Still, the model allows anyone with an Internet connection and a few spare dollars to support, say, the conversion of taxis in Bolivia to natural gas, student loans in Paraguay, or a garment business in Cambodia (to cite some recent examples from Kiva). Short-route philanthropy has yet to reach the volumes of money that large foundations or, for that matter, government agencies churn out, but it has become a new paradigm for giving. Individual fundraising for projects of all sorts is possible through services like Kickstarter, which enables would-be recipients to promote their project for a period and receive funds only if they raise the target amount of commitments during that time. A measure of the appeal of this approach is its adoption—and use as a marketing tool—by corporate philanthropy, as firms like American Express, Target, JPMorgan Chase, and Pepsico hold contests where Internet voters decide which among competing projects the company will support.

., 124 Johnson, Simon, 49 Joint IED Defeat Organization, 120 Jolie, Angelina, 8 Jordan, 147 JPMorgan Chase, 161–162, 191, 209, 219 Judaism, 199 Judiciaries, 77, 98, 99–100, 244 K Pop, 149 Kagan, Robert, 140 Kahn, Jeremy, 161 Kane, Paul, 95 Kaplan, Robert, 121, 122 Kaplan, Steven, 6 Karlsson, Per-Ola, 164 Karman, Tawakkol, 80 Kay, John, 166 Kaza, Greg 33 Kazakhstan, 131 Kenig, Ofer, 93 Kennedy, Joe, 154 Kennedy, John F., 45 Kennedy, Paul, 139 Kenny, Charles, 54–55 245 Kenya, 9, 100, 195 Kharas, Homi, 56, 210, 211 Kickstarter, 209 Kidnappings, 126 Kim Jong-Un, 154 Kim, Rose, 166 Kindleberger, Charles, 136 Kinsley, Michael, 214 Kiva, 209, 210 Kleenex, 169 Klein, Naomi, 49 Knee, Jonathan A. 213 Knights of Labor 201 Koch, David and Charles, 92 Kodak, 159, 162, 165, 169 Kohlberg Kravis Roberts, 189 Kony 2012 video, 134 Korbel, Joseph, 153 Kosovo, 189 Kraus, Clifford, 187 Kroc, Joan, 210 Krupp, 37 Kuala Lumpur, 12 Kupchan, Charles, 235 Kurlantzick, Joshua, 148 Kuwait, 65 Kwak, James, 49 Kyoto Protocol, 156 Labor, 9, 39, 47, 59, 60, 193, 194, 200–205.


pages: 202 words: 59,883

Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel

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Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, Kickstarter, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, Zipcar

For example, if it sees you have gone to bed, SmartThings makes sure your doors are locked and the lights are off. It is an open platform—the company hopes growth will come from adding not only its own apps, but new functionality from third-party sources. Austin-based WigWag, a similar household PCA, is even younger than SmartThings. When we talked with founder-CEO Ed Hemphill in July 2013, he was raising funds on Kickstarter, the popular crowd-funding site. WigWag is also an open platform that performs tasks similar to those done by SmartThings. What differentiates WigWag are the sensor packs that you set up in each room. The sensors detect unexpected changes, such as patio motion or garden frost, and alert you via text message. They also tell your mobile app when to remotely adjust lights and appliances. Hemphill argues that WigWag has the edge in ease of use: Any family member (even children) or weekend guests can use WigWag without special instruction, he asserted.


pages: 169 words: 56,250

Startup Communities: Building an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in Your City by Brad Feld

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barriers to entry, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, Grace Hopper, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, labour mobility, Lean Startup, minimum viable product, Network effects, Peter Thiel, place-making, pre–internet, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, text mining, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Pretending otherwise is reversing the causality in a dangerous way. Venture capital need not be located in your city for it to find opportunities to invest in. We operate in an increasingly flat and mobile world, one where investors quickly hear about interesting opportunities, no matter where they are located. They can find and even invest in deals online and from afar, through services like Angellist (http://startuprev.com/b3) and Kickstarter (http://startuprev.com/e1). Even if venture capitalists miss a good deal, there is nothing like having missed one to convince investors to pay more attention in the future. Communities should spend more time showing investors what they’ve missed, and less time complaining that investors won’t buy into promises of future gains. Finally, venture capital simply isn’t that important to startups.


pages: 137 words: 44,363

Design Is a Job by Mike Monteiro

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4chan, crowdsourcing, index card, iterative process, John Gruber, Kickstarter, late fees, Steve Jobs

The more demand there is for a particular service, the more suppliers of that service can charge. You’ll find that your rates will fluctuate as the market for design ebbs and flows. But if you are not confident in the value of your work, there’s no way you’ll be comfortable charging a fair price. Approaching Pricing A few years ago I was fortunate enough to work with a company called Kickstart (not to be confused with Kickstarter, the excellent crowd-sourcing project funding service). Kickstart is an NGO (non-governmental organization) that designs and manufactures low-cost water pumps for use in impoverished agricultural areas of the world, mainly in Eastern Africa. They have an amazing track record of helping people lift themselves out of poverty by using these simple, easy-to-fix water pumps to irrigate crops. They create jobs.


pages: 200 words: 60,314

Beer Money: A Memoir of Privilege and Loss by Frances Stroh

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cognitive dissonance, Golden Gate Park, Kickstarter, new economy, nuclear winter, South of Market, San Francisco, urban renewal

I wanted, too, to know this Trevor Atkins, to absorb his influence, and sought out conversations with him whenever possible, even arranging studio visits with him for all the MAs. Then Trevor and I arranged a theory seminar for the MA program, inviting all the top theorists in London. Suddenly I had access to people I’d only read about in the States. These luminaries came out to the pub with us after class and, later, to my dinner parties. I had finally landed exactly where I needed to be, it seemed. The change of longitude acted as a kick-starter for my art. I worked feverishly day and night to keep up with the intense flow of ideas, making small installations in my studio as sketches for larger pieces. I spent hours each day slicing up Dennis Cooper’s Frisk, line by line, just as Cooper’s protagonist sliced up his victims’ bodies. I relabeled beer bottles with the dismembered text and sold them as art objects at a pub on the King’s Road.


pages: 231 words: 71,248

Shipping Greatness by Chris Vander Mey

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don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fudge factor, Google Chrome, Google Hangouts, Gordon Gekko, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, minimum viable product, performance metric, recommendation engine, Skype, slashdot, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, web application

Transitions are also challenging because you’re trying to do two jobs. The first job is maintaining the software that’s in production and is almost certainly experiencing some kind of growing pains. The second job is spinning up the new project, and if it’s like most projects, it requires a huge amount of activation energy to kick-start and substantial mental toughness to survive the inevitable shin bashing as that kick-starter smacks you. Being in transition is a tough place to be, so make the transition short. Make it shorter than you think it should be. If you’ve ever noticed that things at the office go better than you’d expect when you take a long vacation, you’ll find that the same is true when you walk away from your old project. The team will probably slow down for a bit. They’ll probably do things that make you slap your forehead or make decisions that cause you to groan horribly as you pour your coffee—but it’s not your problem anymore.


pages: 247 words: 81,135

The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market design, Metcalfe's law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, web application

It always has been and always will be, whether in cash deposits, government tax revenue funding or via our superannuation funds. It’s our money they play with. It’s just that the displaced, industrialised nature of our lives allowed us to forget this fact. While there are still many jurisdictions with outdated legal restrictions to crowdfunding, we’re already seeing it being employed in every arena in which money-raising is required. It’s not just something that exists in the ‘money for goods’ realm (think Kickstarter, Indiegogo and Pozible); it’s also a fixture in the money-for-business world. Let’s take a look at a couple of crowdfunding models. Money for goods and services In this model, the people funding the project are essentially placing an early order for some kind of output (product or service) that’s to be delivered at a later date. The format of this yet-to-be-created project becomes the topic of the pitch for funding.


pages: 302 words: 74,878

A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life by Brian Grazer, Charles Fishman

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4chan, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Apple II, Asperger Syndrome, Bonfire of the Vanities, en.wikipedia.org, game design, Google Chrome, Howard Zinn, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, out of africa, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple

Rick Smolan: cocreator of the Day in the Life book series, former photographer for National Geographic, Time and Life magazines Frank Snepp: journalist, former CIA agent and analyst during the Vietnam War Scott Snyder: comic book and short-story writer Scott Andrew Snyder and Tracy Forman-Snyder: design and art direction, Arkitip Johnny Spain: one of the “San Quentin Six,” who attempted to escape from San Quentin State Prison in 1971 Gerry Spence: famed trial lawyer, never lost a criminal case as a prosecutor or a defense attorney Art Spiegelman: cartoonist, illustrator, author of Maus, winner of the Pulitzer Prize Eliot Spitzer: governor of New York, 2007–2008, former attorney general of New York Peter Stan: analyst and economic theorist at RAND Corporation Gwen Stefani: musician, fashion designer Howard Stern: radio and TV personality Cyndi Stivers: journalist, former editor in chief of Time Out New York Biz Stone: cofounder of Twitter Neil Strauss: author of The Game: Penetrating the Secret Society of Pickup Artists Yancey Strickler: cofounder and CEO of Kickstarter James Surowiecki: journalist, business and financial columnist for the New Yorker Eric Sussman: senior lecturer at UCLA School of Management, president of Amber Capital t.A.T.u.: Russian music duo André Leon Talley: contributor and former editor at large for Vogue Amy Tan: author of The Joy Luck Club Gerald Tarlow: clinical psychologist and therapist Ron Teeguarden: herbalist, explores Asian healing techniques Edward Teller: theoretical physicist, father of the hydrogen bomb Ed Templeton: professional skateboarder, founder of skateboard company Toy Machine Margaret Thatcher: prime minister of the United Kingdom, 1979–1990 Lynn Tilton: investor, businesswoman, founder and CEO of Patriarch Partners Justin Timberlake: musician, actor Jeffrey Toobin: journalist, author, lawyer, staff writer for the New Yorker, senior legal analyst for CNN Abdullah Toukan: CEO of Strategic Analysis and Global Risk Assessment (SAGRA) Center, Jordan Robert Trivers: evolutionary biologist, professor at Rutgers University Richard Turco: atmospheric scientist, professor emeritus at UCLA, MacArthur Fellowship recipient Ted Turner: media mogul, founder of CNN Richard Tyler: fashion designer Tim Uyeki: epidemiologist at U.S.


pages: 235 words: 62,862

Utopia for Realists: The Case for a Universal Basic Income, Open Borders, and a 15-Hour Workweek by Rutger Bregman

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autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Branko Milanovic, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Graeber, Diane Coyle, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Gilder, happiness index / gross national happiness, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, income inequality, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, precariat, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wage slave, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey

.” – Richard Wilkinson, co-author of The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better “Rutger Bregman makes a compelling case for Universal Basic Income with a wealth of data and rooted in a keen understanding of the political and intellectual history of capitalism. He shows the many ways in which human progress has turned a Utopia into a Eutopia – a positive future that we can achieve with the right policies.” – Albert Wenger, entrepreneur and partner at Union Square Ventures, early backers of Twitter, Tumblr, Foursquare, Etsy, and Kickstarter “Learning from history and from up-to-date social science can shatter crippling illusions. It can turn allegedly utopian proposals into plain common sense. It can enable us to face the future with unprecedented enthusiasm. To see how, read this superbly written, upbeat, insightful book.” – Philippe van Parijs, Harvard University professor and cofounder of the Basic Income Earth Network “A wonderful call to utopian thinking around incomes and the workweek, and a welcome antidote to the pessimism surrounding robots taking our jobs.” – Charles Kenny, senior fellow at the Center for Global Development and author of The Upside of Down: Why the Rise of the Rest is Great for the West “A bold call for utopian thinking and a world without work – something needed more than ever in an era of defeatism and lack of ambition.


pages: 366 words: 87,916

Fluent Forever: How to Learn Any Language Fast and Never Forget It by Gabriel Wyner

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card file, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, index card, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Skype, spaced repetition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Yogi Berra

Without his brutal honesty, this book would be terrible. Seriously. Andrea Henley Heyn is the best first reader I could have hoped for. Her patience and keen sense of structure made this book a lot more sensible to people who don’t live inside of my head. Additional thanks to Colette Ballew and Meghen Miles Tuttle. Your input was invaluable. Last but not least, to friend and video editor extraordinaire Nick Martin, and to my dear Kickstarter backers: I love you all. I’d like to especially thank Joel Mullins, Marc Levin, Mike Forster, Mike Wells, Nikhil Srinivasan, and Xavier Mercier for their extraordinary support. Together, you’ve allowed me to take a book and a few ideas, and turn them into a system with all the bells and whistles I could have hoped for. Thank you. INDEX Bold numbers refer to a detailed description of a tool or concept.


pages: 374 words: 89,725

A More Beautiful Question: The Power of Inquiry to Spark Breakthrough Ideas by Warren Berger

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3D printing, Airbnb, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, clean water, fear of failure, Google X / Alphabet X, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, new economy, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Thomas L Friedman, Toyota Production System, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator, Zipcar

How do I begin to test that idea, to see what works and what doesn’t? And if/when I find it’s not working, how do I figure out what’s wrong and fix it? Today, most of us are in a better position to build on our ideas and questions than ever before. We can use computer sketch programs, create YouTube videos of what we’re doing, set up beta websites, tap into social networks for help—or even launch a Kickstarter project to fund our efforts to solve a problem or create something new. Phillips didn’t have any of those resources at the time he was working on his foot. He sketched by hand, then built clay prototypes in his basement lab. He would trek up to the kitchen to bake in his oven the ingredients that would go into his superfoot. “I was curing parts between fifty-pound hot plates in my oven, burning myself a lot,” he told me.


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Public media policy will need to address infrastructure and information, conduit and content, thus spanning a broad array of issues including Net neutrality, antitrust, user privacy, copyright reform, software production, the development of new platforms for engagement and discovery, and subsidy and promotion of cultural products, whether they are classically crafted novels or avant-garde apps. While some have suggested that crowdfunding sites like Kickstarter can replace government agencies to do much of this work, such a view is shortsighted. Crowdfunding allows individual creators to raise money from their contacts, which gives well-known and often well-resourced individuals a significant advantage. In contrast, a government agency must concern itself with the larger public good, paying special attention to underserved geographic regions and communities (taxation, in a sense, is a form of crowdfunding, but with far wider obligations).20 Public agencies, in other words, have to consider the whole cultural ecology.


pages: 297 words: 83,563

The Bad-Ass Librarians of Timbuktu: And Their Race to Save the World's Most Precious Manuscripts by Joshua Hammer

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crowdsourcing, illegal immigration, Kickstarter, pre–internet, trade route, unemployed young men

After hesitating in the initial stage of the rescue, donors had seen what the jihadis were capable of doing and many rushed to contribute. Haidara secured $100,000 from one of his most generous benefactors: Dubai’s Juma Al Majid Center. The rescuers appealed to other longtime supporters, including the Prince Claus Fund in the Netherlands. “We’re desperate,” Brady said. A grant of $135,000 came through. A Kickstarter campaign raised another $60,000. The Dutch National Lottery, one of the richest cultural foundations in the Netherlands, wired $255,000 to Bamako. Brady turned next to the director of a Dutch government development agency in Bamako. European missions in Mali had plenty of unspent money in their coffers, because of a European Union embargo on bilateral aid to the Mali government since the military coup; the Dutch came up with another $100,000.


pages: 276 words: 93,430

Animal: The Autobiography of a Female Body by Sara Pascoe

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, meta analysis, meta-analysis, presumed consent, rolodex, WikiLeaks

Is that because of how it reflects on our species or because the original theorists were not very well respected? I don’t know. This is the difficulty with being an interested person with only secondary sources to rely upon; you can read one book and believe one thing and then read another that entirely contradicts the first. I need my own lab, a pipette and a gallon of fresh semen in order to find the truth – I’ll set up a Kickstarter page. Lots of animals do demonstrate versions of sperm competition. Sometimes this involves speedy sperm or congealing fluid or even the volume of sperm produced. It does seem that human males ejaculate more sperm into partners they really like. (Sara fans her face and acts coy: ‘Oh my, with that extra 0.2 of a millilitre you’re spoiling me.’) Apparently men’s bodies do a subconscious calculation of how many sperm to ejaculate into their partner based on the likelihood of needing to compete with other sperm.


pages: 561 words: 114,843

Startup CEO: A Field Guide to Scaling Up Your Business, + Website by Matt Blumberg

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airport security, Albert Einstein, bank run, Broken windows theory, crowdsourcing, deskilling, fear of failure, high batting average, high net worth, hiring and firing, Inbox Zero, James Hargreaves, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, pattern recognition, performance metric, pets.com, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype

The other option is “bootstrapping”: funding a company from your personal finances and your initial operating revenues. The two most common types of bootstrapping are customer financing and your company’s cash flow. Customer Financing Customers don’t lend you money; they pay for your services. Some are even willing to do so in advance. That’s called customer financing. If you can pull it off, it’s great. The Good: If customers will pay for your products and services in advance (think Kickstarter or Indiegogo for business-to-consumer [B2C] and you can also sell something to a big enterprise customer ahead of delivery), it’s incredible validation of the market value of your idea. The Bad: Customers can react very badly when startups fail to meet milestones. VCs expect this but customers may never come back. The Ugly: As diverse a group as “customers” may sound, the consumer end of this entire category may be eliminated by the failure of a few prominent, crowdsourced projects.


pages: 468 words: 124,573

How to Build a Billion Dollar App: Discover the Secrets of the Most Successful Entrepreneurs of Our Time by George Berkowski

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Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Black Swan, business intelligence, call centre, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, loose coupling, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, Paul Graham, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Y Combinator

While Google Glass has received a lot of attention because of Google’s profile, another equally fascinating, and potentially even more disruptive, technology company has captured headline. It is called Oculus VR and it might just be the first company to bring virtual reality to the masses. The company’s founder Palmer Luckey is a self-proclaimed virtual reality enthusiast and hardware geek. He launched a campaign on crowd-funding website kickstarter back in 2012 to build the Oculus Rift – a groundbreaking virtual reality headset for immersive gaming. The campaign was beyond successful and raised not only $2.4 million in funding, but also won the support of three huge gaming companies: Valve, Epic Games and Unity. That success attracted some of the gaming world’s best talent, almost $100 million in venture capital funding and the acquisition of the company by Facebook in March 2014 for $2 billion.


pages: 387 words: 112,868

Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money by Nathaniel Popper

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4chan, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, capital controls, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, life extension, litecoin, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Startup school, stealth mode startup, the payments system, transaction costs, tulip mania, WikiLeaks

Many bankers had begun to understand what Gavin Andresen had seen back in 2010 when he first became entranced by the idea of a financial network with no single point of failure. For banks that were terrified of cyber attacks, the idea of a payment network that could keep running even if one player, or one set of servers, got taken out was incredibly attractive. More broadly, the banks were waking up to several increasingly viable efforts to decentralize finance and take business that had belonged to the big banks. Crowdfunding companies like Kickstarter, and peer-to-peer lending services like Lending Club, were trying to directly connect borrowers and savers, so that a bank was not necessary. The blockchain seemed to present a decentralized alternative to an even more basic part of the banking industry’s business—payments. The banks were notably not becoming any more friendly toward working with Bitcoin the currency. JPMorgan’s operating committee, led by Jamie Dimon, decided in the spring of 2014 that it would not work with any Bitcoin companies.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Furthermore, countries that export lucrative services such as computer programming, back-office research, and medical X-ray consultation get the double bonus of attracting far more foreign investment into these sectors: more investment in, more exports out. The cost of financing technology companies has also plummeted. Venture capitalists and Wall Street banks now coexist in a much larger funding ecosystem alongside family offices, angel investors, and crowd-funding platforms such as Kickstarter, collectively delivering more capital more effectively than cumbersome public markets did in the past. But the new economy needs the old economy: Digital services advance through modernized infrastructure. It is the combination of improved physical infrastructure and e-commerce that makes the supply chain world an increasingly seamless physical-virtual hybrid marketplace of goods, services, payments, and delivery.


pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

In the last Renaissance, people went to the town square to find each other; in the New Renaissance, the town square is always with us, in the form of real-time, location-based data on our identities, choices and behaviors. We go to it anytime to fulfill an ever-widening range of needs—to shop, eat, exercise, travel and meet with one another. We can match partners for love or sex (Match.com, Tinder), match entrepreneurs with investors (kickstarter.com, indiegogo.com), drivers with riders (Uber, Lyft), spare rooms with travelers (Airbnb), public stewards with street-level concerns (SeeClickFix.com), people in need with good Samaritans (causes.com, fundly.com), problems with the talents to solve them (hackathons, InnoCentive.com) and victims with aid-givers and watchdogs (ushahidi.com), to name a few. None of these feats or forums were possible even 10 years ago.


pages: 424 words: 121,425

How the Other Half Banks: Exclusion, Exploitation, and the Threat to Democracy by Mehrsa Baradaran

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access to a mobile phone, affirmative action, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, credit crunch, David Graeber, disintermediation, diversification, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, income inequality, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, McMansion, microcredit, mobile money, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Own Your Own Home, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, savings glut, the built environment, the payments system, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, union organizing, white flight, working poor

When enough money has been put in to cover the loan, the loan is disbursed directly thru PayPal. These loans are not designed to cover emergencies or living expenses but are geared toward entrepreneurs who cannot get traditional loans.84 P2P lending is often confused with crowdfunding, but in P2P lending, the lender receives interest and eventual repayment of the loan. In a crowdfunding project, like Kickstarter, supporters of a particular project do not get their money back, but depending on the venture, receive some form of a prize, such as a CD or even a sample of potato salad. In essence, a P2P lending company is a financial intermediary. It links a source of credit to a demand for credit. Some companies even screen or rate borrowers, offering true intermediary functions. Basically, they operate like a bank but without customer deposits.


pages: 483 words: 134,062

The Long Way to a Small, Angry Planet (Wayfarers) by Becky Chambers

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Kickstarter, Kuiper Belt

Two-thirds of the way through the first draft of this book, the freelance work I relied on to support myself dried up. I was faced with a two-month lull between paying gigs, and it was starting to look like finishing my book and keeping a roof over my head were mutually exclusive. I had two options: set the book aside and use the time to search for work, or find a way to keep the book (and myself) going. I went with option B, and turned to Kickstarter. I told myself that if the campaign wasn’t successful, it was time for me to focus my efforts elsewhere. Fifty-three people (mostly strangers) convinced me to stick with it. The Long Way exists thanks to their generosity and their encouragement. I am more grateful for that than I can put into words. Since then, this book has continued to be something of a community effort. I owe much to my posse of beta readers, who donated their brainpower toward helping me unravel the messy bits.


pages: 387 words: 120,155

Inside the Nudge Unit: How Small Changes Can Make a Big Difference by David Halpern

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, availability heuristic, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, collaborative consumption, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, endowment effect, happiness index / gross national happiness, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, libertarian paternalism, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, nudge unit, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, presumed consent, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, the built environment, theory of mind, traffic fines, World Values Survey

Central to this platform will be a set of toolkits like that of the EEF we saw above (see Figure 44), but with an important extra column that shows the range of countries and places where the intervention was found to be effective (or not). A policymaker – or public service provider – can be much more confident about importing an intervention that has been replicated in five or six countries than one that has only been shown to work in one place alone. Another key element of this clearing house or platform should be that it will capture and highlight gaps. In this respect, it should work more like a ‘kick-starter’ for systematic reviews and intervention studies. After five or six countries, states or professional bodies have searched for an answer or review and not been able to find what they are looking for, this needs to be picked up so that a What Works centre or some other body can step forward to plug the gap. The commissioners will get a better review or study, and at a much lower cost since the charge for the work can be spread between them.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra

Although trade in physical goods and financial products and services—the hallmarks of the twentieth-century global economy—has actually flattened or declined in recent years, globalization as measured by flows is “soaring—transmitting information, ideas, and innovation around the world and broadening participation in the global economy” more than ever, concluded a pioneering study on this subject in March 2016 by the McKinsey Global Institute, Digital Globalization: The New Era of Global Flows: “The world is more interconnected than ever.” Think of the flow of friends through Facebook, the flow of renters through Airbnb, the flow of opinions through Twitter, the flow of e-commerce through Amazon, Tencent, and Alibaba, the flow of crowdfunding through Kickstarter, Indiegogo, and GoFundMe, the flow of ideas and instant messages through WhatsApp and WeChat, the flow of peer-to-peer payments and credit through PayPal and Venmo, the flow of pictures through Instagram, the flow of education through Khan Academy, the flow of college courses through MOOCs, the flow of design tools through Autodesk, the flow of music through Apple, Pandora, and Spotify, the flow of video through Netflix, the flow of news through NYTimes.com or BuzzFeed.com, the flow of cloud-based tools through Salesforce, the flow of searches for knowledge through Google, and the flow of raw video through Periscope and Facebook.