Internet Archive

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pages: 297 words: 103,910

Free culture: how big media uses technology and the law to lock down culture and control creativity by Lawrence Lessig

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Brewster Kahle, Cass Sunstein, future of journalism, George Akerlof, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the printing press, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Louis Daguerre, new economy, prediction markets, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, software patent, transaction costs

Until the Internet Archive, there was no way to go back. The Internet was the quintessentially transitory medium. And yet, as it becomes more important in forming and reforming society, it becomes more and more important to maintain in some historical form. It's just bizarre to think that we have scads of archives of newspapers from tiny towns around the world, yet there is but one copy of the Internet—the one kept by the Internet Archive. Brewster Kahle is the founder of the Internet Archive. He was a very successful Internet entrepreneur after he was a successful computer researcher. In the 1990s, Kahle decided he had had enough business success. It was time to become a different kind of success. So he launched a series of projects designed to archive human knowledge. The Internet Archive was just the first of the projects of this Andrew Carnegie of the Internet.

So we're at a turning point in our history. Universal access is the goal. And the opportunity of leading a different life, based on this, is … thrilling. It could be one of the things humankind would be most proud of. Up there with the Library of Alexandria, putting a man on the moon, and the invention of the printing press. Kahle is not the only librarian. The Internet Archive is not the only archive. But Kahle and the Internet Archive suggest what the future of libraries or archives could be. When the commercial life of creative property ends, I don't know. But it does. And whenever it does, Kahle and his archive hint at a world where this knowledge, and culture, remains perpetually available. Some will draw upon it to understand it; some to criticize it. Some will use it, as Walt Disney did, to re-create the past for the future.

Page by page, these bots copied Internet-based information onto a small set of computers located in a basement in San Francisco's Presidio. Once the bots finished the whole of the Internet, they started again. Over and over again, once every two months, these bits of code took copies of the Internet and stored them. By October 2001, the bots had collected more than five years of copies. And at a small announcement in Berkeley, California, the archive that these copies created, the Internet Archive, was opened to the world. Using a technology called "the Way Back Machine," you could enter a Web page, and see all of its copies going back to 1996, as well as when those pages changed. This is the thing about the Internet that Orwell would have appreciated. In the dystopia described in 1984, old newspapers were constantly updated to assure that the current view of the world, approved of by the government, was not contradicted by previous news reports.


pages: 397 words: 102,910

The Idealist: Aaron Swartz and the Rise of Free Culture on the Internet by Justin Peters

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4chan, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Brewster Kahle, buy low sell high, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, don't be evil, global village, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Lean Startup, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, profit motive, RAND corporation, Republic of Letters, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

In 1999, he sold his company, Alexa Internet—an homage to his beloved Library of Alexandria—to Amazon for $250 million in stock, and then turned his attentions to building and maintaining the Internet Archive, which he founded in 1996. The nonprofit Internet Archive is dedicated to the overwhelming task of archiving the entire World Wide Web. It sends little “spiders” spinning across the Web to “crawl” through every website they can find and to memorize what those sites looked like on any given day. Those snapshots are then stored on the Internet Archive’s servers, where they serve as a massive, functional photo album of the World Wide Web past and present. For Kahle, however, archiving websites for posterity had always been a prelude to the archiving of books. In late summer 2002, Kahle began uploading public-domain books onto the Internet Archive servers. Then he purchased an old Ford minivan and christened it the Internet Bookmobile.

., 246. 64 Ibid., 245. 65 “American Censorship Day,” November 17, 2011, https://web.archive.org/web/20111117023831/http://americancensorship.org/. 66 Ibid., November 18, 2011, https://web.archive.org/web/20111118014748/http://americancensorship.org/. 67 Moon, Ruffini, and Segal, Hacking Politics, 117. 68 Brewster Kahle, “12 Hours Dark: Internet Archive vs. Censorship,” Internet Archive Blogs, January 17, 2012, https://blog.archive.org/2012/01/17/12-hours-dark-internet-archive-vs-censorship/. 69 Senator Bob Menendez, Twitter post, January 17, 2012, 3:17 p.m., https://twitter.com/SenatorMenendez. 70 Senator Jeff Merkley, Twitter post, January 18, 2012, 8:47 a.m., https://twitter.com/SenJeffMerkley. 71 Senator Mark Kirk, “Kirk Announces Opposition to PROTECT IP Act,” news release, January 18, 2012, http://kirk-press.enews.senate.gov/mail/util.cfm?

Then he purchased an old Ford minivan and christened it the Internet Bookmobile. On the side of the bookmobile, written in the Comic Sans typeface, was the phrase 1,000,000 Books Inside (soon). Inside the bookmobile were a couple of laptop computers, a high-speed color printer, and a bookbinding machine; on its roof sat a satellite dish connected to the Internet Archive’s servers in California. That fall, Kahle packed his eight-year-old son, a couple of friends, and a freelance journalist named Richard Koman into the bookmobile, and drove it cross-country in a mobile demonstration of the good things that can happen when the public domain meets an eccentric, civic-minded multimillionaire. Kahle made stops in Salt Lake City, Columbus (Ohio), Akron, Pittsburgh, and Baltimore. He also stopped in Urbana, Illinois, to surprise Michael Hart, but Hart was loath to leave his house.

Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy by Lawrence Lessig

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Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Benjamin Mako Hill, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Cass Sunstein, collaborative editing, disintermediation, don't be evil, Erik Brynjolfsson, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, late fees, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, optical character recognition, PageRank, recommendation engine, revision control, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Saturday Night Live, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, transaction costs, VA Linux

It uses the power of volunteer-driven distributed computing in solving the computationally intensive problem of analyzing a large volume of data. . . . As of June 3, 2006, over 120,000 volunteers in 186 countries have participated in the project.64 The contributions to these distributed-computing projects are voluntary. Price does not meter access either to the projects or to their results. • The Internet Archive is a sharing economy. Launched in 1996 by serial technology entrepreneur (and one of the successful ones) Brewster Kahle, the Internet Archive seeks to offer “permanent access for researchers, historians, and scholars to historical collections that exist in digital format.”65 But to do this, Kahle depends upon more than the extraordinarily generous financial support that he provides to the project. He depends as well upon a massive volunteer effort to identify and upload content that should be in the archive.

In some cases, the response is more thee-regarding: Some part of the motivation to write for Wikipedia is to help Wikipedia fulfill its mission: “Wikipedia is a project to build free encyclopedias in all languages of the world. Virtually anyone with Internet access is free to contribute, by contributing neutral, cited information.” People contribute because they want to feel that they’re helping others. Some people help the Internet Archive or Project Gutenberg because they want to be part of their mission: to offer “permanent access for researchers, historians, and scholars to historical collections that exist in digital format” (Internet Archive) or to “encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks” (Project Gutenberg). But again, even the thee-regarding motivations need not be descriptions of self-sacrifice. I suspect that no one contributes to Wikipedia despite hating what he does, solely because he believes 80706 i-xxiv 001-328 r4nk.indd 175 8/12/08 1:55:34 AM 176 REMI X he ought to help create free knowledge.

“Beginning Proofreaders’ Frequently Asked Questions,” Distributed Proofreaders, available at link #77 (last visited July 31, 2007). 63. Wikpedia contributors, “SETI@home,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, available at link #78 (last visited August 20, 2007). See also Benkler, “Sharing Nicely,” 275. 64. Wikpedia contributors, “Einstein@Home,” Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, available at link #79 (last visited August 20, 2007). 65. “About the Internet Archive,” Internet Archive, available at link #80 (last visited July 31, 2007). 66. All quotes from Brewster Kahle taken from an interview conducted January 24, 2007, by telephone. 67. NASA Ames, “Welcome to the Clickworkers Study,” Clickworkers, available at link #81 (last visited July 31, 2007). 68. B. Kanefsky, N. G. Barlow, and V. C. Gulick, “Can Distributed Volunteers Accomplish Massive Data Analysis Tasks,” Thirty-second Annual Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 1272 (2001), available at link #82. 69.


pages: 144 words: 55,142

Interlibrary Loan Practices Handbook by Cherie L. Weible, Karen L. Janke

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Firefox, information retrieval, Internet Archive, late fees, optical character recognition, pull request, transaction costs, Works Progress Administration

Following are some of the important sources of free full text: •â•‡ arXiv (580,000 e-prints), http://arxiv.org •â•‡ Directory of Open Access Journals (5,513 journals; 459,876 articles), www .doaj.org •â•‡ Electronic Theses Online Service (250,000+ theses), www.ethos.ac.uk •â•‡ E-PRINT Network (5.5 million e-prints), www.osti.gov/eprints/ •â•‡ Google Books (millions of full-view books), http://books.google.com •â•‡ HathiTrust (5.2 million volumes), www.hathitrust.org •â•‡ Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (793,000 works), www.ndltd.org •â•‡ Open Content Alliance, volumes available at www.archive.org/details/texts/ •â•‡ OpenDOAR (1,650 repositories), www.opendoar.org •â•‡ Project Gutenberg (30,000 books), www.gutenberg.org •â•‡ Web archiving: •â•‡ Internet Archive (150 billion pages), www.archive.org •â•‡ Internet Archive’s Text Archive (1.8 million works), www.archive.org/ details/texts/ •â•‡ Pandora, Australia’s web archive, http://pandora.nla.gov.au •â•‡ UK Web Archive (127.9 million files), www.webarchive.org.uk/ukwa/info/ about/ Looking more specifically at Google Books, a 2006 study of ILL requests at the University of Virginia found 2.6 percent of pre-1923 ILL loan requests could have been filled by Google Books.

The HathiTrust is a shared digital repository in which major U.S. academic libraries archive their digitized collections. The content of the repository is searchable, and the full-text of public domain items is freely available on the Internet. Though originally a collaboration between the thirteen member universities of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) and the University of California system, membership in the HathiTrust is open to all. The Internet Archive hosts the Wayback Machine, an archive of the World Wide Web. It is also home to extensive archives of moving images, audio, software, educational resources, and text. In addition to housing public domain documents, the Text Archive contains a collection of open access documents, many of which are licensed using Creative Commons licenses. It can be a useful place to find conference papers or reports.

By working together as a community, we can harness technology to provide new and improved services to our users and affect positive change in ILL practices. web resources • Ariel Information Center, www4.infotrieve.com/ariel/ricari.html • Atlas Systems, www.atlas-sys.com • British Library, EThOS (Electronic Theses Online Service), http://ethos.bl.uk • DOCLINE, www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/factsheets/docline.html • EFTS, https://efts.uchc.edu • Europeana, http://europeana.eu • Gallica, http://gallica.bnf.fr • Google, www.google.com • Google Books, http://books.google.com • HathiTrust, www.hathitrust.org • IDS Project Workflow Toolkit, http://workflowtoolkit.wordpress.com • Internet Archive, www.archive.org technology and web 2.0 • Library of Congress, American Memory Historical Collections, http://memory.loc.gov • Library of Congress, THOMAS, http://thomas.loc.gov • National Archives and Records Administration, www.nara.gov • Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD), www.ndltd.org •â•›OCLC ILLiad 8.0 Documentation, https://prometheus.atlas-sys.com/display/illiad8/ ILLiad+8.0+Documentation • Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org • RapidILL, www.rapidill.org • ShareILL, www.shareill.org • Theses Canada Portal, www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/thesescanada/index-e.html • United States National Library of Medicine, DocMorph: Electronic Document Conversion, http://docmorph.nlm.nih.gov/docmorph/ notes 1.


pages: 223 words: 52,808

Intertwingled: The Work and Influence of Ted Nelson (History of Computing) by Douglas R. Dechow

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3D printing, Apple II, Bill Duvall, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, game design, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, linked data, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, pre–internet, RAND corporation, semantic web, Silicon Valley, software studies, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the medium is the message, Vannevar Bush, Wall-E, Whole Earth Catalog

AkscynKnowledge Systems, Las Vegas, NV, USA Belinda BarnetMedia and Communications, Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, School of Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities, Department of Media and Communication, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Australia Christine L. BorgmanDepartment of Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Douglas R. DechowChapman University, Orange, CA, USA Wendy HallWeb Science Institute, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK Frode HeglandLondon, UK Dick HeiserLos Angeles, CA, USA Brewster KahleInternet Archive, San Francisco, CA, USA Alan KayViewpoints Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA Ken KnowltonBell Laboratories’ Inc., Sarasota, FL, USA Henry LowoodStanford University Libraries, Stanford, CA, USA Theodor Holm NelsonProject Xanadu, Sausalito, CA, USA Andrew PamProject Xanadu, Croydon, VIC, Australia Daniel RosenbergClark Honors College, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA Peter Schmideg Ben ShneidermanDepartment of Computer Science, A.

The website for Ken Knowlton. http://​kenknowlton.​com/​pages/​35manifesto.​htm. Accessed 4 Jan 2015 Footnotes 1System builders will be still on the scene because their job will never be finished. 2See in this volume, Laurie Spiegel, Chap. 6: Riffing on Ted Nelson. © The Author(s) 2015 Douglas R. Dechow and Daniele C. Struppa (eds.)IntertwingledHistory of Computing10.1007/978-3-319-16925-5_5 5. Hanging Out with Ted Nelson Brewster Kahle1 (1)Internet Archive, 300 Funston Ave, 94118 San Francisco, CA, USA Brewster Kahle Email: brewster@archive.org It’s a great honor to honor a great man like Ted Nelson. I have very much enjoyed my whole relationship with him. That’s why I’ve titled my short piece “Hanging Out with Ted Nelson” so that I can discuss what it is it like to sort of bum around and hitch rides and just play around with Ted.

We had talked past each other, but I realized we’d built a reading machine, which I’d say is what the World Wide Web with search engines has become. We really need a writers’ machine, one that would be worthy of the vision of Ted. I could have been crushed, but the conversation was an inspiration to keep moving forward. We should not say, “Hurray! We’ve already done it. Look at all these users.” Ted doesn’t say that. Ted started hanging around at the Internet Archive because he lives in Sausalito on a cute little houseboat with wonderful Marlene. We would be hanging out and he’d be yearning to try and get more of his ideas built. He was never comfortable with saying, “Oh yes, I’ve achieved great things. Aren’t I terrific? Now it’s time for me to hang out on my houseboat.” He wanted more things done. There’s this concept of these hack days or hacker-fests where people would work for a couple days, and the lore is that great things would come out of these 2-day sessions.


pages: 383 words: 81,118

Matchmakers: The New Economics of Multisided Platforms by David S. Evans, Richard Schmalensee

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Airbnb, big-box store, business process, cashless society, Deng Xiaoping, if you build it, they will come, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Jean Tirole, Lyft, M-Pesa, market friction, market microstructure, mobile money, multi-sided market, Network effects, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber for X, Victor Gruen, winner-take-all economy

E-mail from Karim Jawed, quoted in Randall Stross, Planet Google: One Company’s Audacious Plan to Organize Everything We Know (New York: Free Press, 2009), 116. 8. As of April 28, 2005. This does not appear in Wayback Machine screenshots after this date. YouTube home page (archived April 28, 2005), Internet Archive Wayback Machine, https://web.archive.org/web/20050428014715/ http://www.youtube.com/. 9. Karim, “YouTube: From Concept to Hypergrowth.” 10. Stross, Planet Google, 116. 11. YouTube home page (archived September 1, 2005), Internet Archive Wayback Machine. 12. Under US copyright law, a site is supposed to take down copyrighted material when it is notified. YouTube was eventually sued over whether it complied. It ultimately prevailed in lower courts, and the case was settled. Jonathan Stempel, “Google, Viacom Settle Landmark YouTube Lawsuit,” Reuters, March 28, 2014, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/03/18/us-google-viacom-lawsuit-idUSBREA2H11220140318. 13.

Erisman, Alibaba’s World; Crocodile in the Yangtze. 13. Donny Kwok, “Alibaba.com Says Asia Needs E-Business,” Reuters News, October 7, 1999. 14. Winter Nie, “A Leap of Faith with Alibaba,” June 2014, http://www.imd.org/research/challenges/TC046-14-leap-of-faith-with-alibaba-winter-nie.cfm. 15. Kwok, “Alibaba.com Says Asia Needs E-Business” 16. Alibaba.com’s home page (archived February 8, 2000), Internet Archive Wayback Machine, https://web.archive.org/web/20000208125348/ http://www.alibaba.com/. 17. Alibaba Group, “Alibaba.com Celebrates 1,000,000th Member,” December 27, 2001, http://www.alibabagroup.com/en/news/press_pdf/p011227.pdf. 18. Shiying Liu and Martha Avery, alibaba (New York: HarperCollins e-books, 2009), 69. 19. Alibaba Group, “Alibaba.com Brings Trust to Online B2B Commerce for SMEs,” September 10, 2001, http://www.alibabagroup.com/en/news/press_pdf/p010910.pdf. 20.

The importance of the development of enabling technologies is stressed by Jawed Karim, “YouTube: From Concept to Hypergrowth,” University of Illinois seminar, October 21, 2006, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XA-JEXUNmP5M. This talk provides an interesting and entertaining look at the early history of YouTube. 2. And maybe find a date. Right underneath the sign-in, users were prompted for “I’m a [blank] seeking [a blank] between [the age of blank] and [the age of blank].” YouTube home page (archived April 28, 2005), Internet Archive Wayback Machine, https://web.archive.Org/web/20050428014715/ http://www.youtube.com/. 3. This chapter focuses on situations like that faced by YouTube, in which more participation on any one side attracts more participation on the other side(s). This is true for many but not all multisided platforms. As we noted in chapter 2, for instance, radio advertisers are attracted by listeners, but listeners are not generally attracted by advertisers.


pages: 468 words: 233,091

Founders at Work: Stories of Startups' Early Days by Jessica Livingston

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8-hour work day, affirmative action, AltaVista, Apple II, Brewster Kahle, business process, Byte Shop, Danny Hillis, don't be evil, fear of failure, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, game design, Googley, HyperCard, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, nuclear winter, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, software patent, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, web application, Y Combinator

C H A P T E 20 R Brewster Kahle Founder,WAIS, Internet Archive, Alexa Internet Brewster Kahle started WAIS (Wide Area Information Servers) in the late ’80s while an employee of Thinking Machines. He left in 1993 to found WAIS, Inc. WAIS was one of the earliest forms of Internet search software. Developed before the Web, it was in some ways a predecessor to web search engines. Kahle sold WAIS to AOL in 1995. The next year, Kahle founded Alexa Internet with Bruce Gilliat. The Alexa toolbar tracked user browsing behavior and suggested related links using collaborative filtering. Once captured, pages visited by users would then be “donated” to the related nonprofit Internet Archive, to help build a history of the Web. Alexa was acquired by Amazon in 1999. Kahle continues to run the Internet Archive. Livingston: You were one of the first members of the Thinking Machines team.

One was called Alexa Internet (short for the Library of Alexandria), and the other was the Internet Archive, to archive everything that was in the library. Alexa was a for-profit, and the Internet Archive was nonprofit. I didn’t make enough money to go and make a nonprofit and fund it myself, and I didn’t know how to ask for money in a nonprofit, but I knew how to build products. Alexa Internet was a navigation system for the Internet. Bruce Gilliat and I started it out here in San Francisco, in a house in the middle of a park—in the Presidio. We’re in a 1500-acre park in the middle of San Francisco. We’re the second lease-holder here. Livingston: You started both companies simultaneously? Did you have different people running each one? Kahle: Everybody worked at Alexa. The idea was that everything that Alexa ever collected would be donated to the Internet Archive. Over the long term, companies come and go.

I said, “Well, it has a board, and I meet with the board once a month and they give general direction and I run the place.” And he said, “OK, let’s do it that way.” So we got acquired, and we ran as a separate company. The company is still running. It’s about 200 yards away from the Internet Archive, which is where I am now. I stayed for 3 years and then moved over to build the Internet Archive—which had nobody working here—into a real organization. Because once we had enough materials, then we could build the library. So Alexa was about the cataloging of the library, and the Internet Archive is trying to build the stuff. Livingston: This was your dream? Kahle: Yes. One thing I learned from Marvin Minsky (one of the founders of AI) was, “Pick a big enough project, something that’s really hard, something that over the years you can work on.”


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

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23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

IPFS, then, is a global, versioned, peer-to-peer filesystem, a system for requesting and serving a file from any of the multiple places it might exist on the Web (versus having to rely on a central repository) per a hash (unique code) that confirms the file’s integrity by checking that spam and viruses are not in the file.60 IPFS is congruent with the Bitcoin technical architecture and ethos, rewarding file-sharing nodes with Filecoin. Third, in the area of archiving, a full ecosystem would also necessarily include longevity provisioning and end-of-product-life planning for blockchains. It cannot be assumed that blockchains will exist over time, and their preservation and accessibility is not trivial. A blockchain archival system like the Internet Archive and the Wayback Machine to store blockchains is needed. Not only must blockchain ledger transactions be preserved, but we also need a means of recovering and controlling previously recorded blockchain assets at later dates (that might have been hashed with proprietary algorithms) because it is likely that certain blockchains will go out of business. For example, it is great that someone established proof-of-existence of her will on the Bitcoin blockchain in 2014, but how can we know that the will can be rehashed and authenticated in 60 years when it needs to be verified?

Similarly, personal thinking blockchains could be easily and securely recorded (assuming all of the usual privacy concerns with blockchain technology are addressed) and mental performance recommendations made to individuals through services such as Siri or Amazon’s Alexa voice assistant, perhaps piped seamlessly through personal brain/computer interfaces and delivered as both conscious and unconscious suggestions. Again perhaps speculatively verging on science fiction, ultimately the whole of a society’s history might include not just a public records and document repository, and an Internet archive of all digital activity, but also the mindfiles of individuals. Mindfiles could include the recording of every “transaction” in the sense of capturing every thought and emotion of every entity, human and machine, encoding and archiving this activity into life-logging blockchains. Blockchain Government Another important application developing as part of Blockchain 3.0 is blockchain government; that is, the idea of using blockchain technology to provide services traditionally provided by nation-states in a decentralized, cheaper, more efficient, personalized manner.

-M2M/IoT Bitcoin Payment Network to Enable the Machine Economy and consensus models, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe extensibility of, Extensibility of Blockchain Technology Concepts for facilitating big data predictive task automation, Blockchain Layer Could Facilitate Big Data’s Predictive Task Automation future applications, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe limitations of (see limitations) organizational capabilities, Blockchain Technology Is a New and Highly Effective Model for Organizing Activity tracking capabilities, Fundamental Economic Principles: Discovery, Value Attribution, and Exchange-Fundamental Economic Principles: Discovery, Value Attribution, and Exchange blockchain-recorded marriage, Decentralized Governance Services BlockCypher, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs BOINC, DAOs and DACs bond deposit postings, Technical Challenges Brin, David, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel BTCjam, Financial Services business model challenges, Business Model Challenges Buttercoin, Financial Services Byrne, Patrick, Financial Services C Campus Cryptocurrency Network, Campuscoin Campuscoin, Campuscoin-Campuscoin censorship, Internet (see decentralized DNS system) Chain, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs challenges (see see limitations) charity donations, Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost China, Relation to Fiat Currency ChromaWallet, Wallet Development Projects Chronobit, Virtual Notary, Bitnotar, and Chronobit Circle Internet Financial, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Codius, Financial Services coin drops, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption coin mixing, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity coin, defining, Terminology and Concepts, Currency, Token, Tokenizing Coinapult, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief Coinapult LOCKS, Relation to Fiat Currency Coinbase, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin, Financial Services CoinBeyond, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin Coinffeine, Financial Services Coinify, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin Coinprism, Wallet Development Projects Coinspace, Crowdfunding CoinSpark, Wallet Development Projects colored coins, Smart Property, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects community supercomputing, Community Supercomputing Communitycoin, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention complementary currency systems, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable concepts, redefining, Terminology and Concepts-Terminology and Concepts consensus models, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe consensus-derived information, Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe contagious disease relief, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief contracts, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts-The Blockchain as a Path to Artificial Intelligence (see also smart contracts) crowdfunding, Crowdfunding-Crowdfunding financial services, Financial Services-Financial Services marriage, Decentralized Governance Services prediction markets, Bitcoin Prediction Markets smart property, Smart Property-Smart Property wallet development projects, Wallet Development Projects copyright protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Counterparty, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform Counterparty currency (XCP), Currency, Token, Tokenizing Counterwallet, Wallet Development Projects crowdfunding, Crowdfunding-Crowdfunding cryptocurrencies benefits of, Currency, Token, Tokenizing cryptosecurity, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity eWallet services, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity mechanics of, How a Cryptocurrency Works-Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin merchant acceptance, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin cryptosecurity challenges, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity cryptowallet, Blockchain Neutrality currency, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency-Regulatory Status, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Campuscoin, Campuscoin-Campuscoin coin drops, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption Communitycoin, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention-Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention cryptocurrencies, How a Cryptocurrency Works-Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin decentralizing, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention defining, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Currency, Token, Tokenizing, Currency: New Meanings demurrage, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features double-spend problem, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems fiat currency, Relation to Fiat Currency-Relation to Fiat Currency monetary and nonmonetary, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies-Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies new meanings, Currency: New Meanings technology stack, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency-Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency currency mulitplicity, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies-Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies D DAOs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs DAOs/DACs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure, Blockchain Government Dapps, Dapps-Dapps, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Dark Coin, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity dark pools, Technical Challenges Dark Wallet, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity DASs, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations DDP, Crowdfunding decentralization, Smart Contracts, Centralization-Decentralization Tension and Equilibrium decentralized applications (Dapps), Dapps-Dapps decentralized autonomous organization/corporation (DAO) (see DAOs/DACs) decentralized autonomous societies (DASs), DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations decentralized autonomy, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity decentralized DNS, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity challenges of, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services and digital identity, Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity DotP2P, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services decentralized file storage, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation decentralized secure file serving, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation deeds, Decentralized Governance Services demurrage currencies, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features action-incitory features, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features limitations of, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable digital art, Digital Art: Blockchain Attestation Services (Notary, Intellectual Property Protection)-Personal Thinking Blockchains (see also blockchain attestation services) hashing and timestamping, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations online graphics protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection digital cryptography, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine, Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101 digital divide, defining, Digital Divide of Bitcoin digital identity verification, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records dispute resolution, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution DIYweathermodeling, Community Supercomputing DNAnexus, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Dogecoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies, Scandals and Public Perception DotP2P, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services double-spend problem, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems DriveShare, DAOs and DACs dynamic redistribution of currency (see demurrage currency) E education (see learning and literacy) Electronic Freedom Foundation (EFF), Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models EMR (electronic medical record) system, EMRs on the Blockchain: Personal Health Record Storage Ethereum, Crowdfunding, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine-Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform eWallet services, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity ExperimentalResultscoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin F Fairlay, Bitcoin Prediction Markets fiat currency, Relation to Fiat Currency-Relation to Fiat Currency file serving, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine file storage, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation financial services, Regulatory Status, Financial Services-Financial Services, Blockchain Technology Is a New and Highly Effective Model for Organizing Activity, Government Regulation Fitbit, Personal Thinking Blockchains, Blockchain Health Research Commons, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Florincoin, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel Folding@Home, DAOs and DACs, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin, Community Supercomputing franculates, Blockchain Government freedom of speech, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel (see also decentralized DNS system) Freicoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable fundraising (see crowdfunding) futarchy, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets G GBIcoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable GBIs (Guaranteed Basic Income initiatives), Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable Gems, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs, Dapps Genecoin, Blockchain Genomics Genomecoin, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Genomic Data Commons, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin genomic sequencing, Blockchain Genomics 2.0: Industrialized All-Human-Scale Sequencing Solution-Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin GenomicResearchcoin, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin genomics, consumer, Blockchain Genomics-Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Git, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation GitHub, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies global public health, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief GoCoin, Financial Services GoToLunchcoin, Terminology and Concepts governance, Blockchain Government-Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance decentralized services, Decentralized Governance Services-Decentralized Governance Services dispute resolution, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution futarchy, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Liquid Democracy system, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections-Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections personalized governance services, Blockchain Government random-sample elections, Random-Sample Elections societal maturity impact of blockchain governance, Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance government regulation, Regulatory Status, Government Regulation-Government Regulation Gridcoin, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin-Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin H hashing, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure, Technical Challenges Hayek, Friedrich, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable, Conclusion, The Blockchain Is an Information Technology health, Blockchain Health-Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup as demurrage currency, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features doctor vendor RFP services, Doctor Vendor RFP Services and Assurance Contracts health notary services, Blockchain Health Notary health research commons , Blockchain Health Research Commons health spending, Healthcoin healthcare decision making and advocacy, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections personal health record storage, EMRs on the Blockchain: Personal Health Record Storage virus bank and seed vault backup, Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup Healthcoin, Healthcoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable I identity authentication, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records Indiegogo, Crowdfunding, Dapps industry scandals, Scandals and Public Perception infrastructure needs and issues, Technical Challenges inheritance gifts, Smart Contracts intellectual property, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection (see also digital art) Internet administration, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models Internet Archive, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Personal Thinking Blockchains Internet censorship prevention (see Decentralized DNS system) Intuit Quickbooks, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin IP protection, Hashing Plus Timestamping IPFS project, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation J Johnston, David, Blockchain Technology Could Be Used in the Administration of All Quanta Journalcoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin Judobaby, Crowdfunding justice applications for censorship-resistant organizational models, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models-Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models digital art, Digital Art: Blockchain Attestation Services (Notary, Intellectual Property Protection)-Personal Thinking Blockchains (see also digital art, blockchain attestation services) digital identity verification, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records freedom of speech/anti-censorship, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel governance, Blockchain Government-Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance (see also governance) Namecoin, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection (see also decentralized DNS) K Kickstarter, Crowdfunding, Community Supercomputing Kipochi, Blockchain Neutrality, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy Koinify, Crowdfunding, Dapps Kraken, Financial Services L latency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Technical Challenges, Technical Challenges, Scandals and Public Perception LaZooz, Dapps, Campuscoin, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Learncoin, Learncoin learning and literacy, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy-Learning Contract Exchanges learning contract exchanges, Learning Contract Exchanges Ledra Capital, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List legal implications crowdfunding, Crowdfunding smart contracts, Smart Contracts lending, trustless, Smart Property Lighthouse, Crowdfunding limitations, Limitations-Overall: Decentralization Trends Likely to Persist business model challenges, Business Model Challenges government regulation, Government Regulation-Government Regulation personal records privacy challenges, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records scandals and public perception, Scandals and Public Perception-Scandals and Public Perception technical challenges, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges Liquid Democracy system, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections-Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections Litecoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies, Technical Challenges literacy (see learning and literacy) LTBcoin, Wallet Development Projects, Currency, Token, Tokenizing M M2M/IoT infrastructure, M2M/IoT Bitcoin Payment Network to Enable the Machine Economy, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin-The Blockchain Is Not for Every Situation, The Blockchain Is an Information Technology Maidsafe, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Technical Challenges Manna, Crowdfunding marriage, blockchain recorded, Decentralized Governance Services Mastercoin, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects mechanics of cryptocurrencies, How a Cryptocurrency Works Medici, Financial Services mega master blockchain list, Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List-Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List Melotic, Crowdfunding, Wallet Development Projects merchant acceptance, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin merchant payment fees, Summary: Blockchain 1.0 in Practical Use messaging, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine, Dapps, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services, Technical Challenges MetaDisk, DAOs and DACs mindfiles, Personal Thinking Blockchains MIT Bitcoin Project, Campuscoin Monegraph, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection money (see currency) MOOCs (massive open online courses), Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy Moroz, Tatiana, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention multicurrency systems, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable N Nakamoto, Satoshi, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts Namecoin, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Nationcoin, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable notary chains, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure notary services, Hashing Plus Timestamping, Blockchain Health Notary NSA surveillance, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel NXT, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects O offline wallets, Technical Challenges OneName, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Identity Verification OneWallet, Wallet Development Projects online graphics protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection-Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Open Assets, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects Open Transactions, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects OpenBazaar, Dapps, Government Regulation Ostel, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel P passports, Decentralized Governance Services PayPal, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems, Financial Services, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models peer-to-peer lending, Financial Services Peercoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency personal cryptosecurity, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity personal data rights, Blockchain Genomics personal mindfile blockchains, Personal Thinking Blockchains personal thinking chains, Personal Thinking Blockchains-Personal Thinking Blockchains physical asset keys, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property plagiarism detection/avoidance, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin Precedent, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Terminology and Concepts prediction markets, Bitcoin Prediction Markets, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations, Decentralized Governance Services, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Predictious, Bitcoin Prediction Markets predictive task automation, Blockchain Layer Could Facilitate Big Data’s Predictive Task Automation privacy challenges, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records private key, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Proof of Existence, Proof of Existence-Proof of Existence proof of stake, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Technical Challenges proof of work, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges property ownership, Smart Property property registration, Decentralized Governance Services public documents registries, Decentralized Governance Services public health, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief public perception, Scandals and Public Perception-Scandals and Public Perception public/private key cryptography, Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101-Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101 publishing, academic, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin-Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin pull technology, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity push technology, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity R random-sample elections, Random-Sample Elections Realcoin, Relation to Fiat Currency redistribution of currency (see demurrage currency) regulation, Government Regulation-Government Regulation regulatory status, Regulatory Status reputation vouching, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Researchcoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin REST APIs, Technical Challenges Ripple, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Relation to Fiat Currency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects Ripple Labs, Financial Services Roadcoin, Blockchain Government S Saldo.mx, Blockchain Neutrality scandals, Scandals and Public Perception science, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin-Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost community supercomputing, Community Supercomputing global public health, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief Sean's Outpost, Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost secret messaging, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine security issues, Technical Challenges self-bootstrapped organizations, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations self-directing assets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets self-enforced code, Smart Property self-sufficiency, Smart Contracts SETI@home, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin, Community Supercomputing size and bandwidth, Technical Challenges smart contracts, Smart Contracts-Smart Contracts, Smart Contract Advocates on Behalf of Digital Intelligence automatic markets and tradenets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets Counterparty, Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform DAOs/DACs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs Dapps, Dapps-Dapps DASs, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations Ethereum, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine increasingly autonomous, Dapps, DAOs, DACs, and DASs: Increasingly Autonomous Smart Contracts-Automatic Markets and Tradenets smart literacy contracts, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy-Learning Contract Exchanges smart property, Smart Property-Smart Property, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection smartwatch, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Snowden, Edward, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models social contracts, Smart Contracts social network currencies, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies Stellar, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs stock market, Financial Services Storj, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Dapps, Technical Challenges Stripe, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs supercomputing, Community Supercomputing Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup Swancoin, Smart Property swaps exchange, Financial Services Swarm, Crowdfunding, Dapps Swarm (Ethereum), Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Swarmops, Crowdfunding T Tatianacoin, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention technical challenges, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges Tendermint, Technical Challenges Tera Exchange, Financial Services terminology, Terminology and Concepts-Terminology and Concepts 37Coins, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief throughput, Technical Challenges timestamping, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations titling, Decentralized Governance Services tradenets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets transaction fees, Summary: Blockchain 1.0 in Practical Use Tribecoin, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption trustless lending, Smart Property Truthcoin, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Turing completeness, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Twister, Dapps Twitter, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection U Uber, Government Regulation unbanked/underbanked markets, Blockchain Neutrality usability issues, Technical Challenges V value chain composition, How a Cryptocurrency Works versioning issues, Technical Challenges Virtual Notary, Virtual Notary, Bitnotar, and Chronobit voting and prediction, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets W wallet APIs, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs wallet companies, Wallet Development Projects wallet software, How a Cryptocurrency Works wasted resources, Technical Challenges Wayback Machine, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation Wedbush Securities, Financial Services Whatevercoin, Terminology and Concepts WikiLeaks, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models Wikinomics, Community Supercomputing World Citizen project, Decentralized Governance Services X Xapo, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Z Zennet Supercomputer, Community Supercomputing Zooko's Triangle, Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity About the Author Melanie Swan is the Founder of the Institute for Blockchain Studies and a Contemporary Philosophy MA candidate at Kingston University London and Université Paris VIII.


pages: 194 words: 49,310

Clock of the Long Now by Stewart Brand

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Albert Einstein, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, Danny Hillis, Eratosthenes, Extropian, fault tolerance, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, life extension, nuclear winter, pensions crisis, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, Thomas Malthus, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog

In 1998 a major (but unheralded) milestone occurred: Available digital data storage capacity surpassed the total of information in the world. We now have more room to store stuff than there is stuff to store. In other words, concludes Lesk, “We will be able to save everything—no information will have to be thrown out—and the typical piece of information will never be looked at by a human being.” Most information will simply be exchanged among computers. Brewster Kahle’s Internet Archive is attempting to download and preserve the entire World Wide Web. The easy part of that Herculean endeavor is the digital storage. Such a deluge of data, accelerating every month, does bring its own problems. The vast archives of digitized NASA satellite imagery of the Earth in the 1960s and 1970s—priceless to scientists studying change over time—now reside in obsolete, unreadable formats on magnetic tape.

Metcalfe’s Law of exponential growth of the Net is proving to be even more significant than Moore’s Law of exponential growth of microchip capability. The chip is an individual’s tool; the Net is society’s tool. It may even become its own tool. As the science-fiction writer Vernor Vinge has suggested, the Net is supplied with so much computer power and is gaining so much massively parallel amplification of that power by its burgeoning connectivity that it might one day “wake up.” Brewster Kahle, of the Internet Archive, asks, “What happens when the library of human knowledge can process what it knows and provide advice?” At the same time Long Now is contemplating a timeless desert retreat it has to explore how it can foster on the Net the types of services monasteries provided to deurbanized Europe after the fall of Rome and that universities provided to cities after the twelfth century. Every potential service of the Library therefore should be examined in terms of how it might develop at Net velocity and how it might be something timelessly physical—and how both forms might enhance one another.

Holmes, George Holocene Holy Fire Hoyle, Fred “Human Domination of Earth’s Ecosystems” Ibn al-Kifti Idea of Decline in Western History, The Iliad, The Indian culture and time Individual time Infinite games Inflation Information endangered quantity of quantity of worldwide Infrastructure natural systems as Institute for the Future Intel Corporation Internet as dominant event of our time and information preservation and universal virtual-reality world See also World Wide Web Internet Archive Ise Shrine Islam and the Messiah I Told You So! services Jain account of time Java programming language Johnson, Samuel Joy, Bill Judaism and history and the Messiah Kaczynski, Ted Kahle, Brewster Kahn, Herman Kairos Kairos-chronos dialogue Kanter, Rosabeth Moss Kaplan, Robert D. Kapor, Mitchell Karma vertigo Kay, Alan Keeling, Charles Kelly, Kevin and the future and science fiction and time capsules Kennedy School of Government Kerr, David Kesey, Ken Landmarks of Tomorrow, The Lanier, Jaron and karma vertigo Lawes, John Bennett Leakey, Mary Legacy systems LeGuin, Ursula Lesk, Michael Libraries, burning of Library, 10,000-Year categories of the collection in and Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence programs ideas for as information time as insurance provider and the Internet and “I-Told-You-So!”


pages: 648 words: 108,814

Solr 1.4 Enterprise Search Server by David Smiley, Eric Pugh

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Amazon Web Services, bioinformatics, cloud computing, continuous integration, database schema, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, information retrieval, Internet Archive, web application, Y Combinator

The consensus is that Nutch is much stronger in providing good search results once the web pages have been downloaded and indexed into Nutch. To address this hole is the NutchWAX (Nutch + Web Archive eXtensions) project. NutchWAX allows you to index archived web content in the standard ARC format used by the InternetArchive. ARC is a very compact format for storing web pages in an archived format produced by Heritrix. It has been used to build full text Nutch indexes with over 500 million web pages in them by running on top of the Hadoop distributed computing framework. The InternetArchive has published some good practices for indexing with NutchWAX and Hadoop at http:// archive-access.sourceforge.net/projects/nutch/best- practices.pdf. Both Nutch and Heritrix are constantly evolving projects, so keep an eye on both to see if one suits your needs better than the other

Both Nutch and Heritrix are constantly evolving projects, so keep an eye on both to see if one suits your needs better than the other. [ 225 ] Download at Boykma.Com This material is copyright and is licensed for the sole use by William Anderson on 26th August 2009 4310 E Conway Dr. NW, , Atlanta, , 30327 Integrating Solr Using Heritrix to download artist pages Heritrix is an extremely full featured and extensible web crawler used by the InternetArchive for archiving the contents of the Internet. The InternetArchive is a non-profit organization established to preserve web sites by taking regular snapshots of them. You may be more familiar with the site under the name The Wayback Machine. By looking back at the original indexed version of the Solr homepage taken on January 19th, 2007 at http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://lucene. apache.org/solr, we learn that Solr had just graduated from the Apache Incubator program!

See hl.fl fq, query parameter 95 highlighting component, search function argument components limitations 120 about 161 function queries configuring 163 _val_ pseudo-field hack 117 example 161, 163 about 117 hl 164 bf parameter 117 hl.fl 164 Daydreaming search example 119 hl.fragsize 164 example 118 hl.highlightMultiTerm 164 field references 120 hl.mergeContiguous 165 function references 120 hl.requireFieldMatch 164 incorporating, to searches 117 hl.snippets 164 t_trm_lookups 118 hl.usePhraseHighlighter 164 function query, tips 128 hl alternateField 165 function references hl formatter 165 mathematical primitives 121 hl fragmenter 165 function references, function queries 120 hl maxAnalyzedChars 165 parameters 164 G hl, highlighting component 164 hl.fl 161 g, query parameter 95 hl.fl, highlighting component 164 g.op, query parameter 95 hl.fragsize, highlighting component 164 generic XML data structure hl.highlightMultiTerm, highlighting about 92 component 164 appends 111 hl.increment, regex fragmenter 166 arr, XML element 92 hl.mergeContiguous, highlighting bool element 92 component 165 components 111 hl.regex.maxAnalyzedChars, regex date element 93 fragmenter 166 defaults 111 hl.regex.pattern, regex fragmenter 166 double element 92 hl.regex.slop, regex fragmenter 166 first-components 111 hl.requireFieldMatch, highlighting float element 92 component 164 int element 92 hl.snippets, highlighting component 164 invariants 111 hl.usePhraseHighlighter, highlighting last-components 111 component 164 long element 92 hl alternateField, highlighting component lst, XML element 92 165 str element 92 hl formatter, highlighting component Git about 165 URL 11 hl.simple.pre and hl.simple.post 165 [ 306 ] Download at Boykma.Com This material is copyright and is licensed for the sole use by William Anderson on 26th August 2009 4310 E Conway Dr. NW, , Atlanta, , 30327 hl fragmenter, highlighting component 165 factors, committing 285 hl maxAlternateFieldLength, highlighting factors, optimizing 285 component 165 unique document checking, disabling 285 hl maxAnalyzedChars, highlighting Index Searchers 280 component 165 Information Retrieval. S ee IR home directory, Solr int element 92 bin 15 InternetArchive 226 conf 15 invariants 111 conf/schema.xml 15 Inverse Document Frequency. S ee IDF conf/solrconfig.xml 15 inverse reciprocals 125 conf/xslt 15 IR 8 data 15 ISOLatin1AccentFilterFactory filter 62 lib 15 issue tracker, Solr 27 HTML, indexing in Solr 227 HTMLStripStandardTokenizerFactory 52 J HTMLStripStandardTokenizerFactory tokenizer 227 J2SE HTMLStripWhitespaceTokenizerFactory 52 with JConsole 212 HTTP caching 277-279 JARmageddon 205 HTTP server request access logs, logging jarowinkler, spellchecker 172 about 201, 202 java.util.logging package 203 log directory, creating 201 Java class names Tailing 202 abbreviated 40 org.apache.solr.schema.BoolField 40 I Java Development Kit (JDK) URL 11 IDF 33 JavaDoc tags 234 idf 112 Java Management Extensions.

From Satori to Silicon Valley: San Francisco and the American Counterculture by Theodore Roszak

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Buckminster Fuller, germ theory of disease, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet Archive, Marshall McLuhan, megastructure, Menlo Park, Norbert Wiener, Silicon Valley, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog

FROM SATORI TO SILICON VALLEY o ® Theodore Roszak Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2012 http://archive.org/details/fromsatoritosiliOOrosz OTHER BOOKS BY THEODORE ROSZAK Nonfiction Person/Planet Unfinished Animal The Cult of Information Where the Wasteland The Making of Editor Ends a Counter Culture and contributor The Dissenting Academy Masculine/Feminine (with coeditor Betty Roszak) Sources Fiction Dreamwatcher Bugs Pontifex FROM SATORI TO SILICON VALLEY San Francisco and the American Counterculture Theodore Roszak Don't Call It Frisco Press Publisher & Distributor 4079 19th Avenue San Francisco California 94132 DON'T CALL FRISCO PRESS IT 4079 19th Avenue San Francisco, CA 94132 Copyright 1986 by Theodore Roszak. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.


pages: 829 words: 229,566

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein

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1960s counterculture, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

The Economist, September 7, 2013; “INCREASINGLY CLEAR”: personal email communication with Richard Branson, May 6, 2014; FOOTNOTE: National Research Council, Renewable Fuel Standard: Potential Economic and Environmental Effects of U.S. Biofuel Policy (Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2011), 130–34. 27. “Our Companies: Gevo,” Virgin Green Fund, version saved by the Internet Archive Wayback Machine on September 28, 2013, http://web.archive.org; “Our Companies: Seven Seas Water,” Virgin Green Fund, version saved by the Internet Archive Wayback Machine on April 4, 2014, http://web.archive.org; “Our Companies: Metrolight,” Virgin Green Fund, version saved by the Internet Archive Wayback Machine on October 30, 2013, http://web.archive.org; “Our Companies: GreenRoad,” Virgin Green Fund, version saved by the Internet Archive Wayback Machine on November 29, 2013, http://web.archive.org; personal interview with Evan Lovell, September 3, 2013. 28. Personal interview with Jigar Shah, September 9, 2013. 29.

Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior, 1941, pp. 6–7; “Attwater’s Prairie-Chicken Recovery Plan,” Second Revision, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010, p. 5. 4. “Texas Milestones,” The Nature Conservancy, http://www.nature.org. 5. Joe Stephens and David B. Ottaway, “How a Bid to Save a Species Came to Grief,” Washington Post, May 5, 2003; “Texas City Prairie Preserve,” Nature Conservancy, http://www.nature.org, version saved by the Internet Archive Wayback Machine on February 8, 2013, http://web.archive.org. 6. Richard C. Haut et al., “Living in Harmony—Gas Production and the Attwater’s Prairie Chicken,” prepared for presentation at the Society of Petroleum Engineers Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, September 19–22, 2010, pp. 5, 10; Oil and Gas Lease, Nature Conservancy of Texas, Inc. to Galveston Bay Resources, Inc., March 11, 1999, South 1,057 Acres; Stephens and Ottaway, “How a Bid to Save a Species Came to Grief”; personal interview with Aaron Tjelmeland, April 15, 2013. 7.

“Principles of Environmental Justice,” First National People of Color Environmental Leadership Summit, October 1991, http://www.ejnet.org. 31. Gus Speth, “American Environmentalism at the Crossroads,” speech, Climate Ethics and Climate Equity series, Wayne Morse Center for Law and Politics, University of Oregon, April 5, 2011. 32. “Corporations,” Conservation Fund, http://www.conservationfund.org; “History,” Conservation International, http://www.conservation.org, version saved by the Internet Archive Wayback Machine on December 3, 2013, http:// web.archive.org. 33. Ottaway and Stephens, “Nonprofit Land Bank Amasses Billions”; Joe Stephens and David B. Ottaway, “Nonprofit Sells Scenic Acreage to Allies at a Loss,” Washington Post, May 6, 2003; Monte Burke, “Eco-Pragmatists; The Nature Conservancy Gets in Bed with Developers, Loggers and Oil Drillers,” Forbes, September 3, 2001. 34. “Environmentalists Disrupt Financial Districts in NYC, San Francisco,” Associated Press, April 23, 1990; Donatella Lorch, “Protesters on the Environment Tie Up Wall Street,” New York Times, April 24, 1990; Martin Mittelstaedt, “Protesters to Tackle Wall Street,” Globe and Mail, April 23, 1990. 35.


pages: 402 words: 110,972

Nerds on Wall Street: Math, Machines and Wired Markets by David J. Leinweber

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AI winter, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, butterfly effect, buttonwood tree, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, citizen journalism, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Danny Hillis, demand response, disintermediation, distributed generation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, financial innovation, Gordon Gekko, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, information retrieval, Internet Archive, John Nash: game theory, Khan Academy, load shedding, Long Term Capital Management, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, market fragmentation, market microstructure, Mars Rover, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, paper trading, passive investing, pez dispenser, phenotype, prediction markets, quantitative hedge fund, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, smart grid, smart meter, social web, South Sea Bubble, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing machine, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Vernor Vinge, yield curve, Yogi Berra

How these firms have achieved their success is not something you read in the library or on the Web. Company web sites are short and cryptic. Renaissance Technologies, for example, has removed almost everything except the address from its site, www.rentec.com. However, we can tell by its appearance at the top of electronic trade volume lists that Renaissance is keeping its machinery very active in the market. Using the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine,10 a digital time capsule named after Mr. Peabody’s Rocky and Bullwinkle Show time travel machine, we can see what Renaissance and other companies were saying when they were more forthcoming with information. The picture that emerges is actually not all that surprising. The technologically innovative firms describe increasingly sophisticated trading strategies. They show expansion into ever more markets.

There were $25,000 monthly prizes for the best stock picks, which was supposed to keep everyone honest. The Epinions.com rating site for social web sites gave iExchange four stars, “a good place to make money.” The anonymous successful investors on the right are minting money. Surely they will be willing to pay the insightful analysts who let them reap these rewards? What could go wrong? Plenty. Perhaps you noticed that the screen grab is from the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine,6 the elephant graveyard of the Internet. Either those 1,200 percent returns weren’t enough to keep people happy or something went awry. The party ended, fittingly enough, just before April Fools’ Day in 2001, with the following signoff, comprising the entirety of the iExchange site: To the iExchange Members & Analysts: We regret to inform you that the iExchange community web site has been permanently shut down, effective March 29, 2001.

The party ended, fittingly enough, just before April Fools’ Day in 2001, with the following signoff, comprising the entirety of the iExchange site: To the iExchange Members & Analysts: We regret to inform you that the iExchange community web site has been permanently shut down, effective March 29, 2001. While iExchange has been a great success at providing a new source of stock market intelligence, market conditions have Collective Intelligence, Social Media, and Web Market Monitors 231 Figure 10.1 A profit of 1,200 percent in four months! Pretty soon these anonymous investment wizards will have all the money. Source:The Wayback Machine (iexchange.com, on the Internet Archive site at www. archive.org). hurt the firm’s ability to develop sustainable revenue streams from the community. Payments for the March 2001 $25,000 incentive promotion program will be paid out in accordance with the contest rules. We appreciate your patronage and wish you the best of luck in your personal investing.7 If I sound a tad cynical about this kind of site, it is because the grizzled old side of me that has seen the relentless search for profits on greater 232 Nerds on Wall Str eet Wall Street has pounded down the “peace, love, and understanding— three days of fun and music” side.

Data Mining the Web: Uncovering Patterns in Web Content, Structure, and Usage by Zdravko Markov, Daniel T. Larose

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Firefox, information retrieval, Internet Archive, iterative process, natural language processing, pattern recognition, random walk, recommendation engine, semantic web, speech recognition, statistical model, William of Occam

The content of each text file should appear on a single line (remove all CR and LF characters) and must be enclosed in quotation marks (“ ”). Add the page title at the beginning of the line and the page category at the end. Then create a file header as follows: @relation web pages in string format @attribute web page name string @attribute web page content string @attribute web page class string @data "Internet Archive", "internet archive web moving...", info ... The data section (the lines after @data) includes the actual web page text: one (long) line per page. A Weka data file created as explained above is available from the book series Web site www.dataminingconsultant.com. The file name is “Top-100-websites.arff” and contains 100 top-ranked web pages returned by Google search “web” on April 18, 2006. The class is assigned (manually) as “prof” for web pages intended for IT professionals, and “info” for web pages that provide various types of information or direct web services. 2.

Having in mind the huge capacity of the text repository, the need for regular updates poses another challenge for the web crawler designers. The problem is the high cost of updating indices. A common solution is to append the new versions of web pages without deleting the old ones. This increases the storage requirements but also allows the crawler repository to be used for archival purposes. In fact, there are crawlers that are used just for the purposes of archiving the web. The most popular web archive is the Internet Archive at http://www.archive.org/. r The Web is a live system, it is constantly changing—new features emerge and new services are offered. In many cases they are not known in advance, or even worse, web pages and servers may behave unpredictably as a result of bugs or malicious design. Thus, the web crawler should be a very robust system that is updated constantly in order to respond to the ever-changing Web. r Crawling of the Web also involves interaction of web page developers.


pages: 315 words: 93,522

How Music Got Free: The End of an Industry, the Turn of the Century, and the Patient Zero of Piracy by Stephen Witt

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4chan, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, cloud computing, collaborative economy, crowdsourcing, game design, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, inventory management, iterative process, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, job automation, late fees, mental accounting, packet switching, pattern recognition, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, security theater, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, software patent, Steve Jobs, zero day

an engineer to jerry-rig . . . the world’s first handheld mp3 player Robert Friedrich, a Fraunhofer hardware expert, built the device. in late 1995 . . . a spiky red starburst shouted, NEU! The earliest snapshot of this website on the Internet Archive is dated to August 1996. Grill believes that earlier pages looked similar. please send 85 deutsche marks From the readme.txt file accompanying early versions of L3Enc. CHAPTER 5 Hughes Network Systems Today known as Hughes Communications. a cluttered blue-on-white color scheme This description is based on the Internet Archive’s earliest Yahoo! snapshot, from October 17, 1996. “AFT: Please tell us about this new concept in releasing . . .” These quotes are copied verbatim from Affinity #3, “Spot Light.” “NetFraCk” is interviewed by “Mr. Mister” and the interview is dated August 19, 1996.

The documentary record of the official court system was matched—and sometimes exceeded—by the shadow bureaucracy of the Scene itself. Various dupecheck sites and leaked databases provided millions of NFO files, but it wasn’t until Tony Söderberg’s creation of Srrdb.com that these found a centralized home. The tireless work of other Internet historians proved invaluable as well, particularly that of Jason Scott and the rest of the team at the Internet Archive. Reporting on the life and history of Dell Glover comes from a series of ten interviews I conducted with him, on the phone and in person, over the course of nearly three years. I corroborated the details of his story with historical photographs, court testimony, DOJ evidence, clemency letters written by his friends, family, and neighbors, Facebook posts, corporate records from Vivendi Universal and Glenayre, arrest records from the Cleveland County Sheriff’s Office, and on-site visits to the Kings Mountain plant.


pages: 391 words: 105,382

Utopia Is Creepy: And Other Provocations by Nicholas Carr

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Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, centralized clearinghouse, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, computer age, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, deskilling, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, factory automation, failed state, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, game design, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, hive mind, impulse control, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Kevin Kelly, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, mental accounting, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shale / tar sands, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, Snapchat, social graph, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

It announced late in 2010 that it would lead an effort to build the DPLA and turn the Enlightenment dream into an Information Age reality. The project garnered seed money from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and attracted a steering committee that included a host of luminaries, including both Darnton and Courant as well as the chief librarian of Stanford University, Michael Keller, and the founder of the Internet Archive, Brewster Kahle. Named to chair the committee was John Palfrey, a young Harvard law professor who had written influential books about the internet. The Berkman Center set an ambitious goal of having the digital library begin operating, at least in some rudimentary form, by April of 2013. Over the past year and a half, the project has moved quickly on several fronts. It has held public meetings to promote the library, solicit ideas, and recruit volunteers.

If it can’t find a way around current legal constraints, whether through negotiation or legislation, it will have to limit its scope to books that are already in the public domain. And in that case, it’s hard to see how it would be able to distinguish itself. After all, the web already offers plenty of sources for public-domain books. Google still provides full-text, searchable copies of millions of volumes published before 1923. So do the HathiTrust, a big book database run by a consortium of libraries, and Brewster Kahle’s Internet Archive. Amazon’s Kindle Store offers thousands of classic books free. And there’s the venerable Project Gutenberg, which has been transcribing public-domain texts and putting them online since 1971 (when the project’s founder, Michael Hart, typed the Declaration of Independence into a mainframe at the University of Illinois). Although the DPLA may be able to offer some valuable features of its own, including the ability to search collections of rare documents held by research libraries, those features would probably interest only a small group of scholars.

., 292 obstacles to, 278 shift in focus of, 116–20 In Pursuit of Silence (Prochnik), 243–44 Instagram, 166, 186, 224, 314, 320 instant gratification, 206 Instant Messaging, 34 intellectual technologies, 235–36 intelligence, effect of internet on, 231–42 interactivity, 106, 223 of e-readers, 252–53 interface, 216–19 internal clocks, 203–4 internet: beneficial aspects of, 231–32 biases reinforced by, 319–20 centralization of, 66–68 commercial aspects of, xvi–xxi, 3, 9, 83–85, 150, 240, 257–58, 320 control of, xx criminal use of, 55, 257–58 in education, 134 effect on paper consumption of, 286 evolution of, 3–4, 225 as free, 8–9 human beings reprogrammed by, 237 idealistic prediction for, 3–4, 9 in illusion of knowledge, 199–200 intellectual technologies subsumed into, 236–37 liberation mythology of, 41–42 manipulation of memory on, 47–48 personal data collected and monitored on, see data-mining political uses of, 314–20 regulation of, 190–94 as restrictive vs. expansive, 8 technical glitches of, 66–67 traffic analysis of, 30 see also Web 2.0, Web 1.0; specific platforms Internet Archive, 272, 277 Introduction to Karl Marx, An (Elster), 64 intuition, 322 inventions, 116–17, 229–30, 287, 301, 305–6 iPad, 74, 142, 289 closed nature of, 76–78 iPhone, 113, 149 children’s apps on, 74 closed nature of, 76 introduction of, 32–33 iPod, 33, 125, 197, 217, 245, 287 Ireland, Google and, 284 “IRL Fetish, The” (Jurgenson), 127 Iron Man suits, 331 Isaacson, Walter, 121 isolation, paradox of connection and, 35–36, 159, 184, 255 iTunes, 41, 42, 125 Jacobs, Alan, 14 Jagger, Mick, 42, 292 James, LeBron, 336–37, 340 James, Rick, 126 James, William, 203 Jampol, Jeff, 126 Jarvis, Jeff, 252 Jefferson, Thomas, xvii, 271, 306, 325 Jenner, Caitlyn, 338 Jennings, Leslie, 16 Jensen, Brennen, 72 Jobs, Steve, 32–33, 76, 113, 115, 121, 162 Johnson, Steven, 13–15, 83–84, 93–94 Jones, Brian, 42 Jones, Mick, 63 Joplin, Janis, 126 Joyce, James, 106 Jurgenson, Nathan, 127–29 Justice Court, European Union, online privacy case in, 191–92 Justice Department, U.S., 269 Kahle, Brewster, 272, 277 Karp, Scott, 10–11, 232 Katriel, Tamar, 186 Keller, Michael, 272 Kelly, Kevin, 4, 5, 8–9 Kennedy, John, 315, 317 Kesey, Ken, 170–71, 173 Keynes, John Maynard, 306, 310 Kidd, David Comer, 252 Kindle, 122, 142–43, 257, 277, 288 Kindle Fire, 142 Kirsch, Adam, 86–87, 89 Kittler, Friedrich A., 235 “Kitty Hawk” (Frost), 299 Knight Capital, 187–88 knowledge: desire vs., 313 illusion of, 199–200, 224 for its own sake, 253 through action, 297–304, 313 wisdom vs., 240 knowledge work, 176, 238 Koch, Christof, 333 Korzybski, Alfred, 303 Kostelanetz, Richard, 184 Kraus, Allen, 47 Kubrick, Stanley, 108, 231, 242 Kurzweil, Fredric, 69–70 Kurzweil, Ray, 49, 69–70, 145 “Lady with the Dog, The” (Chekhov), 250 Lamartine, Alphonse de, 79 language, natural, displaced by digital, 201–2, 214–15 Larkin, Philip, 159, 186 Latour, Bruno, 179–80 Lawrence, D.


pages: 189 words: 57,632

Content: Selected Essays on Technology, Creativity, Copyright, and the Future of the Future by Cory Doctorow

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book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, en.wikipedia.org, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Law of Accelerating Returns, Metcalfe's law, mutually assured destruction, new economy, optical character recognition, patent troll, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Skype, slashdot, social software, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Turing test, Vernor Vinge

Rather, the company wants YouTube to just figure it out, determine a priori which video clips are being presented with permission and which ones are not. After all, Viacom does the very same thing: it won't air clips until a battalion of lawyers have investigated them and determined whether they are lawful. But the Internet is not cable television. Net-based hosting outfits — including YouTube, Flickr, Blogger, Scribd, and the Internet Archive — offer free publication venues to all comers, enabling anyone to publish anything. In 1998's Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Congress considered the question of liability for these companies and decided to offer them a mixed deal: hosting companies don't need to hire a million lawyers to review every blog-post before it goes live, but rightsholders can order them to remove any infringing material from the net just by sending them a notice that the material infringes.

These projects — Everything2, H2G2 (which was overseen by Adams himself), and others — are like a barn-raising in which a team of dedicated volunteers organize the labors of casual contributors, piecing together a free and open user-generated encyclopedia. These encyclopedias have one up on Adams's Guide: they have no shortage of space on their "microprocessors" (the first volume of the Guide was clearly written before Adams became conversant with PCs!). The ability of humans to generate verbiage is far outstripped by the ability of technologists to generate low-cost, reliable storage to contain it. For example, Brewster Kahle's Internet Archive project (archive.org) has been making a copy of the Web — the whole Web, give or take — every couple of days since 1996. Using the Archive's Wayback Machine, you can now go and see what any page looked like on a given day. The Archive doesn't even bother throwing away copies of pages that haven't changed since the last time they were scraped: with storage as cheap as it is — and it is very cheap for the Archive, which runs the largest database in the history of the universe off of a collection of white-box commodity PCs stacked up on packing skids in the basement of a disused armory in San Francisco's Presidio — there's no reason not to just keep them around.


pages: 170 words: 51,205

Information Doesn't Want to Be Free: Laws for the Internet Age by Cory Doctorow, Amanda Palmer, Neil Gaiman

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Airbnb, barriers to entry, Brewster Kahle, cloud computing, Dean Kamen, Edward Snowden, game design, Internet Archive, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, optical character recognition, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit maximization, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Saturday Night Live, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, transfer pricing, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy

But under the DMCA, only Amazon can authorize the conversion of Kindle books to read on non-Kindle platforms. Good luck with that, Hachette. Platform as roach motel Brewster Kahle is a bit of a software legend. He created the first search engine, the Wide Area Information Server (WAIS), sold it, founded another search company, Alexa, sold it, and then decided to spend the rest of his life running the Internet Archive (archive. org), an amazing public library for the Internet. Brewster tells a famous story about life in the shadow of Microsoft during the heyday of the packaged-software industry, when all software was sold in boxes hanging from pegs in software stores. Back in those days, Microsoft owned 95 percent of the operating-system market, and spent a lot of time extolling the virtues of its “platform” (Windows) to its “partners”—the software creators who wrote Windows programs.

Funny story: the Industry Standard spiked the story on blogging on the grounds that it was just a passing fad. 2.8 The New Intermediaries HOWEVER YOU DECIDE to handle the independence question, unless you’re also up for being an ISP, a payment processor, a retailer, a wholesaler, and a marketing company, you’re going to have to sell your works through one or more intermediaries. Intermediaries are vital to creative business, making it easier for ever-larger pools of creators to get paid for their work. If the only way to get your videos out there is to host them yourself, then the pool of successful video creators will be limited to those people who can make great movies and great video-hosting tools. Thankfully, we have YouTube (and Vimeo, and the Internet Archive, and VODO, and Netflix…). However, when competition is scarce among intermediaries—when there are only a few ways to get your payments processed or your e-books sold—the companies that control those channels will turn them into bottlenecks, and will use their power to extract as much money as they can from the creators who depend on them. For as long as there have been middlemen who sit between a supplier and a customer, there have been debates over how much responsibility the middleman owed to both, and to the wider society.


pages: 435 words: 62,013

HTML5 Cookbook by Christopher Schmitt, Kyle Simpson

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Firefox, Internet Archive, security theater, web application, WebSocket

Browser support Aside from the challenges of dealing with multiple codecs and format containers, video has full support in all of the latest browsers. However, video is not supported in Internet Explorer 8 and below. For these earlier versions, you’ll need to rely on fallback content. See Also For some open source videos on developing and experimenting with HTML5 video support, search the Internet Archive (see http://www.archive.org/details/movies). 5.2. Ensuring Multi-Browser Video Support Problem You want to make sure your native video plays on the broadest range of browsers possible. Solution Use the source child element of video to specify each of your video formats: <video controls> <source src="video.mp4" /> <source src="video.ogv" /> Your device does not support HTML5 video.

, Discussion I i element, Redefining <i>, Discussion images, Solution, Solution, Problem, See Also, Multiple images, Null alt attribute, Null alt attribute, Problem, See Also associating with custom classes, Null alt attribute associating with elements, Null alt attribute multiple, Multiple images placeholder, Solution poster, Solution pulling into drawings, Problem, See Also text alternatives for, Problem, See Also img element, Discussion, Discussion, Introduction, Accessible alternatives, Solution, See Also, Multiple images, Multiple images, Write out required, Using ARIA alt attribute, Accessible alternatives, Solution, See Also, Write out required aria-describedby attribute, Multiple images aria-labelledby attribute, Multiple images draggable support, Discussion marking up figures, Discussion presentation role, Using ARIA src attribute, Introduction implicit sectioning, defined, Implicit sectioning importScripts() function, Discussion input element, Solution, See Also, Testing browser support, Solution, See Also, Solution, See Also, Solution, See Also, Customizing the default error message, Solution, Solution, Solution, Discussion, Discussion, Discussion, Discussion, Discussion, Discussion, Additional features, Additional features, Solution, See Also, Additional features, Additional features, Additional features, Solution, See Also, Additional features, Additional features, Solution, See Also, Solution, Discussion, Example 3: Supporting the date input type, Discussion, Solution, See Also border-radius property, Testing browser support list attribute, Solution, Discussion max attribute, Additional features, Additional features, Additional features min attribute, Additional features, Additional features, Additional features required attribute, Discussion step attribute, Additional features title attribute, Customizing the default error message type attribute, Solution, See Also, Solution, See Also, Solution, See Also, Solution, See Also, Solution, Solution, Solution, Discussion, Discussion, Discussion, Discussion, Discussion, Discussion, Solution, See Also, Solution, See Also, Solution, See Also, Example 3: Supporting the date input type, Solution, See Also color value, Solution, See Also date value, Solution, Discussion, Example 3: Supporting the date input type datetime value, Solution, Discussion datetime-local value, Discussion email value, Solution, See Also file value, Solution, See Also month value, Discussion number value, Solution, See Also range value, Solution, See Also search value, Solution, See Also tel value, Solution, See Also time value, Solution, Discussion url value, Solution, See Also week value, Discussion input fields, Problem (see form fields) intellectual property rights, Intellectual property rights Internet Archive, See Also Irish, Paul, Solution itemprop attribute, Solution, See Also, Discussion, See Also about, Solution additional information, See Also, See Also usage example, Discussion itemscope attribute, Solution, Discussion itemtype attribute, Solution, See Also J JavaScript, Enter JavaScript, Discussion, Problem, See Also, Problem, See Also, Problem, JavaScript API, CSS for style, See Also, Generate preview, Introduction, Introduction, Discussion, Discussion, Problem, See Also, Discussion, Solution, Accessibility Guidelines, Solution, Discussion, Problem, See Also, Problem, See Also, Problem, See Also, Problem, See Also, Problem, See Also, Problem, See Also, Problem, See Also (see also Geolocation API; Google Maps API) accessing custom data attributes, Introduction, Problem, See Also accessing microdata, Introduction application caching, Problem, See Also custom audio player example, JavaScript API, CSS for style detecting HTML5 features with, Problem, See Also drag-and-drop functionality, Problem, See Also editing content in browsers, Discussion generating audio with, Problem getAttribute() method, Discussion, Discussion HTML5 support, Enter JavaScript local files, Problem, See Also local storage, Problem, See Also looping video playback, See Also managing history queue, Problem, See Also manipulating video with canvas element example, Generate preview pervasiveness of, Accessibility Guidelines setAttribute() method, Discussion, Solution, Discussion validating form data in older browsers, Problem, See Also Web Sockets, Problem, See Also Web Workers, Problem, See Also jPlayer jQuery plug-in, Discussion jQuery library (JavaScript), Solution, Example: The jQuery data() method, Introduction, Solution, Solution about, Solution data() method, Example: The jQuery data() method flot library and, Solution geolocation support, Introduction, Solution jQuery UI library, Solution JSON.stringify() function, Solution Juicy Studio Accessibility toolbar (browsers), See Also K Karns, Jason, See Also Keith, Jeremy, A datalist workaround, See Also L label element, Solution, See Also, Write out required about, Solution additional information, See Also identifying required form fields, Write out required labels, associating form fields with, Problem landmark roles (ARIA), Problem, See Also, Problem (see also specific roles) language, specifying for web pages, Problem latitude, Problem, Discussion, Problem, See Also geocoding addresses into, Problem, See Also reverse geocoding addresses, Problem, Discussion legend element, Solution, See Also, Solution enabling fieldset dynamically, Solution grouping form fields logically, Solution, See Also Lewis, Emily, Introduction, See Also, See Also, Introduction, See Also, Introduction, See Also on fundamental syntax and semantics, Introduction, See Also on headings, See Also on native audio, Introduction, See Also on native video, Introduction, See Also li element, Solution, Value Attribute about, Solution value attribute, Value Attribute link element, Problem, Discussion links, Problem, Discussion, Discussion, Solution, See Also, Purpose of skipping links adding to block-level content, Problem footer element and, Discussion nav element and, Discussion, Solution, See Also skip, Purpose of skipping links lists, Problem, See Also, Discussion controlling numbering of, Problem, See Also for navigational links, Discussion loadScripts() function, Discussion local filesystem, reading image files from, Problem, See Also localStorage API, Discussion, Problem, See Also, Discussion, Discussion, Discussion, Discussion, Discussion, Discussion about, Discussion, Problem, See Also clear() method, Discussion getItem() method, Discussion key() method, Discussion length property, Discussion removeItem() method, Discussion setItem() method, Discussion log role (ARIA), Solution longdesc attribute, Null alt attribute longitude, Problem, Discussion, Problem, See Also gecoding addresses into, Problem, See Also reverse geocoding addresses, Problem, Discussion looping, Solution, Problem audio playback, Solution video playback, Problem M main role (ARIA), Roles for web apps, Roles for web apps map application example, Problem, See Also mapping elements to ID and class names, Problem, See Also mark element, Solution, Discussion markup, Problem, Problem, Problem, Problem, See Also, Problem, See Also, Problem, See Also, Problem, See Also, Introduction, Problem, Problem adding custom data to, Problem adding microdata to, Problem additional information, See Also for captions, Problem for dates, Problem, See Also for figures, Problem picking syntax coding styles, Problem semantic, Problem, See Also, Introduction for small print, Problem for times, Problem, See Also marquee role (ARIA), Solution MaxMind GeoIP JavaScript Web Service, Coding the solution, Discussion Media Loop add-on (browsers), Discussion message event, Solution, Discussion meta element, Solution microdata, Introduction, Introduction, When to Use Microdata Versus Custom Data, When to Use Microdata Versus Custom Data, Problem, Problem, See Also, See Also, See Also about, Introduction adding to markup, Problem additional information, When to Use Microdata Versus Custom Data, See Also applications utilizing, See Also JavaScript and, Introduction Schema.org and, Problem, See Also versus custom data usage, When to Use Microdata Versus Custom Data microformats, What about microformats?

Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World by Cal Newport

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8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, business climate, Cal Newport, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, David Brooks, deliberate practice, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Merlin Mann, Nate Silver, new economy, Nicholas Carr, popular electronics, remote working, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, statistical model, the medium is the message, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, winner-take-all economy

Trying to pitch Knuth on the intangible returns of building an audience on Twitter, or the unexpected opportunities that might come through a more liberal use of e-mail, will fail, as these behaviors don’t directly aid his goal to exhaustively understand specific corners of computer science and then write about them in an accessible manner. Another person committed to monastic deep work is the acclaimed science fiction writer Neal Stephenson. If you visit Stephenson’s author website, you’ll notice a lack of e-mail or mailing address. We can gain insight into this omission from a pair of essays that Stephenson posted on his early website (hosted on The Well) back in the early 2000s, and which have been preserved by the Internet Archive. In one such essay, archived in 2003, Stephenson summarizes his communication policy as follows: Persons who wish to interfere with my concentration are politely requested not to do so, and warned that I don’t answer e-mail… lest [my communication policy’s] key message get lost in the verbiage, I will put it here succinctly: All of my time and attention are spoken for—several times over.

Rowling information comes from: https://twitter.com/jk_rowling. • Bill Gates information comes from: Guth, Robert. “In Secret Hideaway, Bill Gates Ponders Microsoft’s Future.” Wall Street Journal, March 28, 2005, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB111196625830690477. • Neal Stephenson information comes from an older version of Stephenson’s website, which has been preserved in a December 2003 snapshot by The Internet Archive: http://web.archive.org/web/20031207060405/http://www.well.com/~neal/badcorrespondent.html. “A 2012 McKinsey study found that”: Chui, Michael, et al. “The Social Economy: Unlocking Value and Productivity Through Social Technologies.” McKinsey Global Institute. July 2012. http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/high_tech_telecoms_internet/the_social_economy. “What the Net seems to be doing is” and “I’m not the only one”: Carr, Nicholas.


pages: 193 words: 19,478

Memory Machines: The Evolution of Hypertext by Belinda Barnet

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augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Duvall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, game design, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, linked data, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, publish or perish, semantic web, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons

By the late 1970s, ‘having offended anyone in the academy who could help him’ (Rheingold 1985, 302), Nelson found a few like-minded friends and THE MAGICAL PLACE OF LITERARY MEMORY: XANADU 81 programmers and attempted to direct the development of Xanadu himself.17 One of the most important collaborators was Roger Gregory, then a science fiction fan working in a used-computer store in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Gregory had technical skills that Nelson wanted: training in computer programming and an ability to make computers work. Gregory began to write shells of Xanadu code with Nelson full-time in 1979 (they’d known each other since 1976) and continued for the next decade. In an interview with the Internet Archive, Gregory says he got a group together at Swarthmore and designed a system that he ‘almost had working’ by 1988, when he organized funding through Autodesk, an American software corporation (Gregory 2010). He’d been running the group as a volunteer organization for ten years prior to this. Gregory seems to sigh and shake his head a lot in this interview; he clearly has some regrets. By 1983 Gregory claims that he wanted to ‘get some work done’ on Xanadu without Nelson interfering (‘Ted can be very distracting.

INDEX abstraction 94 ACM SICGRAPH 94, 145n4 ACM SIGGRAPH 94, 145n4 acquired knowledge 34, 38, 40–41; see also human knowledge active applications xii Active Navigation (formerly Microcosm) xxii–xxiii adapting to mechanization 30 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) 17, 49–50, 62 ‘A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing and the Indeterminate’ 73–4 afternoon (Joyce, M.) 115–16, 123, 125–6, 128–34, 133, 137 Amazon 8 analogue computers 14, 16 the Analyzer 8, 12–18, 21–2, 25–6 anchor tags 144n9 Andreessen, Mark 107 Annenberg/CPB project, as Intermedia sponsor 111 Apple Computer, Inc. 112–13, 129 Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) 135 Aristotle 8 ARPANET 113 artificial intelligence (AI): beginnings of 24, 95; Bolter and Joyce influenced by 118, 141; computer use in study of 119; ‘expert systems’ program 118, 146n7 (chap. 6); influences on 12; Moulthrop on hypertext and 147n9; TALE-SPIN using 119; Turing’s Man illuminating 120, 147n10 association 6–7, 42 associative memory models: Bush’s 42; comparison of 96; computers having 120; electromechanical 12; hypertext pioneer’s use of 94, 95; metaphor between AI models of and hypertext 95; see also memory associative organization 8, 41; Joyce on 116; as new media’s goal 11; of NLS linking structure 43; supporters of 88 associative retrieval systems and human thought analogy 22 associative thought, MULTILIST & MULTILANG as attempting to model 95 ‘As We May Think’ 11, 13, 41, 44, 78 Atlantic Monthly on Memex 11 Augmentation Research Centre (ARC) 9, 50, 52, 54 augmentation tools altering experience xii–xiii Augmenting the intellect 37–8, 41, 48, 78 ‘Augment’ system 62–3 authorship, concept of 80 Autodesk 81 A/UX 112–13 Babbage, Charles xv–xvii back buttons 104 backtracking 75, 85, 108 Ballistic Research Laboratory 16 Bardini, Thierry xix, 38, 39, 42, 144n4 (chap. 3) Barnet, Belinda xii, xviii, 83 batch-processing machines 50 Beard, David 127 behavioural science 55 Bell, Alice 134 158 Memory Machines Beniger, James R. 32 Berners-Lee, Sir Tim xvii, xxiii, 57, 88–9, 107 Bernstein, Mark 7, 130–33, 135, 143n4 (chap. 1), 147n26, 147n28 bilogical-mechanical analogues and human associative memory 22–5 Bolter, Jay: AI project involvement 95; background of 117, 118, 136, 146n3 (chap. 6), 146n5 (chap. 6); interconnectivity model of 116, 117; on networked literature 135; relationship of with Joyce 122; Remediation: Understanding New Media (Bolter & Grusin) 122; Riverrun Ltd started by 131; structure editor development by 128; in Textlab 126–7; topographic metaphor of 121, 128; on the Web xxi; WE paper coauthor 127; work with IBYCUS 117–18; Writing Space 120–22; see also Turing’s Man Bootstrapping (Bardini) 38 bootstrapping technique 38, 40, 56; see also Engelbart, Douglas C. brain, analogies for 18, 24; see also mind branches as connectors in HES 104 Brand, Stewart 76 ‘breadcrumbs’ 133 ‘bridge,’ from research engineers to military 17 Brøderbund Software 131, 134 Brown, Peter J. 7 Brown University 91, 111–13, 145n3; see also Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship (IRIS) Bush, Vannevar 16; ARPA relationship started by 17; assets of 26; ‘As We May Think’ 11, 13, 41, 44, 78; ‘co-evolution’ concept of 29–30; cognitive and associative processing vision of 43; Comparator developed by 18–19; concept of ‘mechanical calculus’ developed by 15–16; on creativity 30; demarcating ‘human’ realm of thought 30; on digital machine trend 33; Engelbart parallel 41; externalizing technology 26; human ‘augmentation system’ idea of 29–30; ‘Immortality in a Machine’ 35; on information organization 22–3; late career of 33; mental association model of 23–4; on the mental revolution 22; methodologies of 24–5; perspective of machines 30; prototypes developed by 8; roles of 143n3 (chap. 2); ; seeking symbiosis of man and machine 29, 139; success of Analyzer 13; on technological prediction 26–7; ‘The Inscrutable Thirties’ 26; vision of 11; see also associative organization; Memex; the Selector Caldwell, Samuel 32 Canonizing Hypertext (Ensslin) 134 ‘capability infrastructure’ 38 Carson equation 14 Center of Analysis for Calculating Machines 17 Ceruzzi, Paul E. 31, 32 cipher machines 18–19 Citizen Kane 76 Codex Culture 137 ‘co-evolution’ concept 29–30, 39 cognitive psychology 127 cognitive science beginnings 24 Coleridge, Samuel Taylor 65–6 collaboration, facilitation of 43 commercial provision of network access 83 communication technologies development 14 Comparator 18–19, 26 complexity xx, 41, 66, 84 composition theory 127 Computer-Assisted Instruction 71 computer graphics 91, 94, 95, 111 Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice (van Dam et al.) 91, 97 computer-human interaction paradigm 31 computer languages 2, 58, 95, 123, 135, 147n16 Computer Lib 78 Computer Lib/Dream Machines (Nelson) 6–7 computers 50, 97, 146n6 (chap. 6) INDEX ‘Computers, Creativity and the Nature of the Written Word’ 73, 73 computer science 48, 49, 94, 101 computer screens 45–7, 52, 53 computer world falling short xi–xii computing paradigm shift 22, 97 ‘Conceptual Framework for Augmenting Man’s Intellect’ 41, 48–9 connectionism 118 connections, importance of xx ‘context’ editors 98 Coombs, John 21 Coover, Robert 135–6 copyright law 80, 87–8 Coulton, Jonathan ix, xiii, xiv ‘creativity’ as beyond technology 30 crystals as means to record data 33 cultural anthropology perspective on evolution 2 cultural watershed caused by Engelbart 49 cybernetics 12, 24, 39, 50, 95 cybertext, cultural logic of xiv cyborgs 29 ‘The Dark Brown Years’ 92, 99–103, 108, 145nn1–2 ‘database aesthetics’ 121 Davis, Hugh xxiii Dead Media List 21, 137 Dehn, Natalie 119 De Landa, Manuel 17 ‘Delay Lines’ 31–2 ‘deliverables’ 15 dependent conditions xiii Derrida, Jacques 67 device independence 107 the Differential Analyzer: see the Analyzer differential equations 15–16 digital computing 25, 31, 32, 47 digital electronics emergence 18 Digital media, ‘operations and processes’ behind 6 ‘Digital Media Archeology’ 6 disagreement, as Nelson’s world view 43 Document Examiner 129 Doug Engelbart Institute 63, 114; see also Engelbart, Douglas C. 159 Douglas, Jane Yellowlees 126, 130 Dream Machines 83 drum memory replacement 32 Duvall, Bill 9, 42–3, 51, 57, 61–2 Dynamic Memory (Schank) 118–19 Dynatext 107 Eastgate 131–4, 147n27–8 Eastman Kodak Company 20 economic infrastructure, Nelson’s 88 Economist on Nelson 67 Edwards, Paul N. 32 Eldredge, Niles xx, 3–5; see also technical evolution Electronic Book Review on Storyspace fiction 134 electronic component dimensional scaling 48 Electronic Document System (EDS) 91, 111–13 e-literature 121; see also specific works ‘Embedded Markup Considered Harmful’ 86 Engelbart, Douglas C. 53; associative memory model of 96; Bush parallel 41; Bush’s ideas incorporated by 29, 43, 45, 46, 139; ‘Conceptual Framework for Augmenting Man’s Intellect’ 41, 48–9; cybernetics and AI influencing 12, 95; framework of 40–43, 45–6, 144n2 (chap. 3); generalized organizational structure design of 44; on humans as first computers 13; ‘integrated manmachine relationship’ perspective of 39; intellectual augmentation concept of 37–8, 41, 48, 52, 61, 146n6 (chap. 6); on language 38; legendary story of 44; Lindgren on 37; link concept co-credited to Nelson 77; misunderstood 48–9, 51; mouse developed by 21, 53; multidisciplinary perspective of 44, 48; NLS demonstration 9; over view of xii–xvii; symbiotic vision of 29, 49, 139; on technical acceleration 2; technical evolution concerns of xix, 39–40; vision of 37, 62, 63, 139; 160 Memory Machines Whorf as influence on 38, 143n1 (chap. 3); see also NLS engineering community, limited perspective of 77 engineering culture 17–18, 22 English, Bill 44, 51–2, 57, 61–2 Ensslin, Astrid 132–3 evolutionary biology 2 Evolutionary List File (ELF) 72, 74, 100 externalization 26, 38, 42, 44 external limits 22 failure xi, xiv–xv Fall Joint Computer Conference 59, 60, 76–7, 105 feedback 28, 50 Feiner, Steven 111 Ferguson, Gordon 127 Fifth Generation Computer Project, Japan 146n7 (chap.6) File Retrieval and Editing System: see FRESS Finnegans Wake (Joyce, J.) 146n2 FRESS (File Retrieval and Editing System): capabilities of 92, 107–10, 140; comparison of to NLS 109; data structure of 146n8 (chap. 5); development of 91, 106; inspiration behind 9, 109; life span of 131; links in 146n6 (chap. 5); NLS capabilities transferred to 61, 92, 109; reception of at Brown 110; university use of 110; see also van Dam, Andries From Memex to Hypertext (Nyce & Kahn) 13, 25–6 ‘frozen state’ addressing scheme (NLS) 57 Galloway, Alexander xii games (video) xiii–xiv Gannon, John 102 Gates, Bill 145n17 general-purpose concept structure 41–2, 44; see also Engelbart, Douglas C. genius ix–xi GLOSSA 123, 125 graph theory 147n13 Gray, Josh 94 Greco, Diane 29 Gregory, Roger 81–2 guard fields 125–6, 135, 141 Guide, commercial hypertext system 7 Guttag, John 102 Hall, Wendy xviii, xxii–xxiii, 145n3 Haraway, Donna 29 Hatt, Harold 24 Hayles, Katherine 39, 40–41, 134–5, 148n29 Hazen, Harold 17 Hegirascope on HTML xxi Hertzfeld, Andy 94 HES (Hypertext Editing System) 32, 76, 106; capabilities of 92–3, 96–7, 101–4, 107, 140; comparison to NLS 103–4; design of 97–110; development of 91–3; IBM research contract for 103; ‘Implementation Notes’ by Nelson 100; inspiration behind 9; naming of 102–3; Nelson on legacy of 107; resistance to 92; shortcomings of 107–8; text links in 93, 104, 109, 140; used by NASA 106; see also van Dam, Andries hierarchical structures 8, 123–4, 139; see also oN-Line System (NLS) Hill, Gary xxii–xxiii historical backtracking 75, 85 history xv, 1–2 Hooper, Kristine 128, 147n24 Hopfield, John 146n7 (chap. 6) Hopscotch 6 Howard, John 21 HTML xxi, xxiii, 85 human associative memory and bilogicalmechanical analogues 22–5 human-computer interaction paradigm 31 human computer studies 127 human knowledge: Bush’s prediction of growth of 44–5; collective IQ of 63; complexity of xx, 41; Nelson’s theory of 66–7, 137; recurrent dream about 64; technical solution to problem of 39; see also acquired knowledge human mind 21–2, 24, 25, 29 human neuronal circuit, MIT model of 24 humans, relationship between tools and 1 INDEX ‘human system’ in capability infrastructure 38–40 Hypercard xxii, 129, 131 hyperfilm 74 Hypergate 133 hypermedia 74, 98, 111 hypermedia theory 67 hypertext: articulating to cultural logic xiv; automated option of 6; Bolter on 120; at Brown 111–13; chunk-style 7; coming-out party of 128; concept of 74; connection as theme song of xx; contemporary link function in 43; as a critical discourse 132; and the early Internet 113–14; first fiction work in 115; ‘first generation’ systems of xxii; as ideological overhaul 80; interconnectedness of history xix; interconnectivity as dream of 12; linked lists in 94–5; ‘literary communities’ definition of 7; metaphor between AI models of associative memory and 95; metaphor of associative models of mind and memory 12; Moulthrop on AI and 146n9; nature of xviii; Nelson’s conception of 71–2; Nelson’s definition of xxi, 6, 143n3 (chap. 1); NLS as having first digital system of 58; ‘one-way’ 85; and poststructuralism similarities 137, 148n1; potential of xxi–xxii; representing complexity as a vision of 8; ‘research-oriented’ systems xxii; selling 132, 135; as teaching tool 110; traceable to ‘As We May Think’ 11; Web as implementation of xx, 141 Hypertext ’87 (conference) 128–9 ‘The Hypertext’ (Nelson) 73 Hypertext Editing System see HES; see also van Dam, Andries hypertext theory 120–21, 133, 137–8 IBM 103, 107, 111–12 IBM SHARE program library 106 IBYCUS 117–18, 146n4 ideological revolution, links as essence of 79 161 I Have Said Nothing (Douglas) 134 ‘images of potentiality’ 5–6, 12, 68, 117; see also Memex ‘Immortality in a Machine’ 35 indexing, associative vs. conventional 23 Information: A History, a Theory, a Flood (Gleick) xv–xvi information, connective aspect of 89 informational resources xvii information loss, defending against 74 information management 20, 25, 70 Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) 50 ‘information space’ 61 information theory 18, 31 innovation, Duvall on 9 ‘installation’ of augmentation systems 38 Institute for Research in Information and Scholarship (IRIS) 91, 111; see also Brown University ‘integrated man-machine relationship’ perspective: of Engelbart 39 ‘integrators’ 14–15 intellectual property, approaching problem of xi intelligent ‘agents’ 28 Interactive Graphical Documents system (IGD) 111 interconnectedness xix, 6, 8, 12 Intermedia xxii, 91, 111–12, 131, 140 Internet, hypertext and the 113–14 Internet Archive, Gregory interviewed by 81 intertwingularity 66, 137, 141; see also Nelson, Theodor Holm invention 58, 138 Jackson, Shelley (Patchwork Girl) 129, 130, 131 Jobs, Steve 145n17 Journal feature of NLS 56, 60, 139 Joyce, Michael 124; afternoon (fiction) by 115, 123, 125–6, 128–34, 133, 137; AI work of 95, 118; Bolter’s relationship with 122; computers used by 123; connectivity and associative ideas of 116; image of potentiality of 117; Markle Report by 116, 118, 119, 121–4, 126, 128, 146n5 (chap. 6); Moulthrop on 117, 146n2; 162 Memory Machines Othermindedness 117; ‘pseudocode’ of 125; recurrence as rhetorical strategy of 117, 125; ‘Re:mindings’ by 116, 122; Riverrun Ltd started by 131; structure editor development by 128; Of Two Minds 119, 125; ‘What I Really Wanted to Do I Thought’ 115; writing career of 115–16, 146n1, 147n18; see also Storyspace Kahn, P. 17, 22, 25–6, 29 Kay, Alan 76 King, Augusta Ada xvi–xviii Kirschenbaum, Matthew 123, 131–2, 147n28 Kitzmann, Andreas 91, 112 ‘Kubla Khan’ (poem) 65–6, 76 Landow, George 7, 79, 112–13, 137 language 38, 40–41, 44 Lansman, Marcy 126–7 Lazowska, Ed 102 Lesk, Michael x Lessig, Lawrence xi liberal human perspective 39, 40 Licklider, J.


pages: 263 words: 75,610

Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age by Viktor Mayer-Schönberger

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en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, full text search, George Akerlof, information retrieval, information trail, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, moveable type in China, Network effects, packet switching, pattern recognition, RFID, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Market for Lemons, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Vannevar Bush

For Feldmar, it was a time in his life that was long past, an offense that he thought had long been forgotten by society as irrelevant to the person he had become. But because of digital technology, society’s ability to forget has become suspended, replaced by perfect memory.8 Much of Stacy Snyder’s pain, some say, is self-inflicted. She put her photo on her web page and added an ambiguous caption. Perhaps she did not realize that the whole world could find her web page, and that her photo might remain accessible through Internet archives long after she had taken it offline. As part of the Internet generation, though, maybe she could have been more judicious about what she disclosed on the Internet. This was different for Andrew Feldmar, however. Approaching seventy, he was no teenage Internet nerd, and likely never foresaw that his article in a relatively obscure journal would become so easily accessible on the worldwide Net.

See information: retrieval of information sharing: default of, 88 information storage: capacity, 66 cheap, 62–72 corporate, 68–69 density of, 71 economics of, 68 increase in, 71–72 magnetic, 62–64 optical, 64–65 relative cost of, 65–66 sequential nature of analog, 75 informational self-determination, 137 relational dimension of, 170 intellectual property (IP), 144, 146, 150, 174 Internet, 79 “future proof,” 59–60 peer-production and, 131–32 Internet archives, 4 Islam: printing in, 40 Ito, Joi, 126 Johnson, Deborah, 14 Keohane, Robert, 98 Kodak, Eastman, 45–46 Korea: printing in, 40 language, 23–28 Lasica, J. D., 14 Laudon, Kenneth, 145–46 law enforcement, 9 Lazer, David, 159 Lessig, Lawrence, 145–46 library, 33, 36, 74, 190 of Ashurbanipal, 33, 36 of Ptolemy, 33 literacy, 40, 41–42, 45 Luddites, 129 Luther, Martin, 38–39, 98 MAD megadisco, 5–6 markets, 10 mass media, 43–44 McNeill, J.


pages: 240 words: 65,363

Think Like a Freak by Steven D. Levitt, Stephen J. Dubner

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Albert Einstein, Anton Chekhov, autonomous vehicles, Barry Marshall: ulcers, call centre, Cass Sunstein, colonial rule, Edward Glaeser, food miles, Gary Taubes, income inequality, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, medical residency, microbiome, prediction markets, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Tony Hsieh, transatlantic slave trade, éminence grise

For economic predictions, see Jerker Denrell and Christina Fang, “Predicting the Next Big Thing: Success as a Signal of Poor Judgment,” Management Science 56, no. 10 (2010); for NFL predictions, see Christopher Avery and Judith Chevalier, “Identifying Investor Sentiment From Price Paths: The Case of Football Betting,” Journal of Business 72, no. 4 (1999). / 24 A similar study by a firm called CXO Advisory Group: See “Guru Grades,” CXO Advisory Group / 25 Smart people love to make smart-sounding predictions: See Paul Krugman, “Why Most Economists’ Predictions Are Wrong,” Red Herring, June 1998. (Thanks to the Internet Archive Wayback Machine.) / 26 More than the GDP of all but eighteen countries: market caps of Google, Amazon, Facebook, and Apple are based on stock prices as of February 11, 2014; the eighteen countries are: Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, South Korea, Spain, the Netherlands, the U.K., the U.S., and Turkey (see CIA World Factbook). 27 WE DON’T EVEN KNOW OURSELVES ALL THAT WELL: See Clayton R.

Bilmes, “The Financial Legacy of Iraq and Afghanistan: How Wartime Spending Decisions Will Constrain Future National Security Budgets,” Harvard Kennedy School Faculty Research Working Paper Series RWP13-006 (March 2013); Amy Belasco, “The Cost of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Other Global War on Terror Operations Since 9/11,” Congressional Research Service, March 29, 2011. 30 AN ELDERLY CHRISTIAN RADIO PREACHER NAMED HAROLD CAMPING: See Robert D. McFadden, “Harold Camping, Dogged Forecaster of the End of the World, Dies at 92,” New York Times, December 17, 2013; Dan Amira, “A Conversation with Harold Camping, Prophesier of Judgment Day,” Daily Intelligencer blog, New York Magazine, May 11, 2011; Harold Camping, “We Are Almost There!,” Familyradio.com. (Thanks to the Internet Archive Wayback Machine.) 30 ROMANIAN WITCHES: See Stephen J. Dubner, “The Folly of Prediction,” Freakonomics Radio, September 14, 2011; “Witches Threaten Romanian Taxman After New Labor Law,” BBC, January 6, 2011; Alison Mutler, “Romania’s Witches May Be Fined If Predictions Don’t Come True,” Associated Press, February 8, 2011. 32 SHIP’S COMPASSES AND METAL INTERFERENCE: See A. R. T. Jonkers, Earth’s Magnetism in the Age of Sail (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003); T.


pages: 481 words: 121,669

The Invisible Web: Uncovering Information Sources Search Engines Can't See by Gary Price, Chris Sherman, Danny Sullivan

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AltaVista, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, business intelligence, dark matter, Douglas Engelbart, full text search, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, joint-stock company, knowledge worker, natural language processing, pre–internet, profit motive, publish or perish, search engine result page, side project, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Ted Nelson, Vannevar Bush, web application

The first true search tool for files stored on FTP servers was called Archie, created in 1990 by a small team of systems administrators and The Internet and the Visible Web 5 graduate students at McGill University in Montreal. Archie was the prototype of today’s search engines, but it was primitive and extremely limited compared to what we have today. Archie roamed the Internet searching for files available on anonymous FTP servers, downloading directory listings of every anonymous FTP server it could find. These listings were stored in a central, searchable database called the Internet Archives Database at McGill University, and were updated monthly. Although it represented a major step forward, the Archie database was still extremely primitive, limiting searches to a specific file name, or for computer programs that performed specific functions. Nonetheless, it proved extremely popular—nearly 50 percent of Internet traffic to Montreal in the early ’90s was Archie related, according to Peter Deutsch, who headed up the McGill University Archie team.

Remember, tools like Moreover can be of added value because of the “time lag” involved in the general search engines’ crawling material. Search Form URL: http://www.moreover.com/news/index.html Related Resources: Search.Com News Search http://www.search.com/search?channel=5 TotalNews http://www.totalnews.com Special Libraries Association News Division—Directory of News Archives on the Web http://www.ibiblio.org/slanews/internet/archives.html News and Current Events 287 Newslibrary.Com http://www.newslibrary.com Search the Newslibrary.Com archives for content from numerous papers including the Denver Post, Philadelphia Inquirer, and Miami Herald. The archive is free to search but registration is required. You will be charged for the articles you choose to download. Many newspapers offer free full-text content for a limited period, often for the first 7 to 14 days after publication.

Best ratings, 178 INTAL (Institute for the integration of Latin America and the Caribbean) External Trade Database, 174 Integrated Digital Archive of Los Angeles (IDA-LA), 159 Integrated Economic Information System, 346 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System Peer Analysis System, 209 Intellectual Property, 276–278 intellectual property resources, 84–85, 276–278 Intelliseek, ProFusion, 45, 137 Inter-American Development Bank Economic and Social Database, 174 Inter-Play, 220 Interactive Volcano Map, 353 interest rates, 190 Internal Revenue Service (IRS) Business Master File, 191 1040.com, 231 Database of Tax-Exempt Organizations, 191, 192 Section 527 Notice Search for, 302 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 354–355 Index 421 International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements (IBIDS), 253 International Boundary News Database, 237 International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health, 250 International Digest of Health Legislation, 248 International Directory of Organizations in Holocaust Education, Remembrance and Research, 270 International Directory of Testing Laboratories (ASTM), 364 International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA), 160–161 International Film and Video Festivals, The Directory of, 219 International Herald Tribune Search, 286 International Labor Organization Bureau of Statistics, 174 International Labor Organization Term Database, 326 International Monetary Fund, Global Banking Law Database, 280 International Plant Names Index, 346 International Relations and Security Network (ISN), FIRST database, 237 International Salary Calculator, 186 International Telecommunications Union Terminology Database, 326 International Tennis Federation Players Database, 338 International Trade Commission Interactive Tariff and Trade DataWeb, U.S., 195–196 International Trademark Association (INTA), 84–85 International Weather Conditions, 317 Internet Invisible Web, 56–61, 95–96, 135–137, 138–142 network protocol, 17 origins, 2–3 protocols, 7, 68–69 public access points, 203 research, 110 service providers, 203 visible Web and, 1–16 Web and, 7 Internet Anagram Server, 218 Internet Archives Database at McGill University, 5 Internet Grateful Med, 250 Internet information resources, 203–205 Internet Intelligence Index, 39–40 Internet Movie Database, (IMDB), 220 Internet protocols, 7, 68–69 Internet Public Library Online Text Collection, 159 Internet Resources Newsletter, 111 Internet Service Providers (ISPs), 203 Internet Traffic Reports, 203 Interpol Most Wanted, 273 inverted index structures, 20–21 investment information resources, 123–124, 182–185 Investment Resources, 163–197 invisibility types of, 70–75 visibility and, 77–90 Invisible Web definition, 56–61 directory FAQs, 138–142 pathfinders, 135–137 top 10 concepts, 142–143 when to use, 95–96 Invisible-Web.net, 79, 142 InvisibleWeb.com, 136 IP delivery, 68–69 IPO SuperSearch, 184 IPO Underwriter Database, 184 Is My Bank Insured?


pages: 629 words: 142,393

The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, c2.com, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, packet switching, Post-materialism, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons

See Miguel.Mora.Design, http://www.miquelmora.com/idps.html (last visited July 28, 2007). 124. TED NELSON, LITERARY MACHINES (1981); Wikipedia, Transclusion, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transclusion (as of June 1, 2007, 10:30 GMT). 125. Consider, for example, the Internet Archive. Proprietor Brewster Kahle has thus far avoided what one would think to be an inevitable copyright lawsuit as he archives and makes available historical snapshots of the Web. He has avoided such lawsuits by respecting Web owners’ wishes to be excluded as soon as he is notified. See Internet Archive FAQ, http://www.archive.org/about/faqs.php (last visited June 1, 2007). 126. Moore v. Regents of the Univ. of Cal., 793 P.2d 479 (Cal. 1990). 127. Daniel Goleman, Normal Social Restraints Are Weakened in Cyberspace, INT’L HERALD TRIB., Feb. 20, 2007, available athttp://wwwiht.com/articles/2007/02/20/business/e-mail.php 128.

L.J. 587 (2004); see also AKASH KAPUR, INTERNET GOVERNANCE: A PRIMER 13, 17—19 (2005), available athttp://www.apdip.net/publications/iespprimers/eprimer-igov.pdf (discussing the different layers and how their existence should affect Internet governance). 13. See Alexa, Global Top 500, http://www.alexa.com/site/ds/top_sites?ts_mode=global&lang=none (last visited June 1, 2007). While the sites’ rankings tend to fluctuate, Wikipedia is consistently listed within the top 10. 14. For examples of attempts to create this library, see Internet Archive, Bibliotheca Alexandrina, http://www.archive.org/about/bibalex_p_r.php (last visited June 1, 2007); Alexandria Digital Library, http://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/ (last visited June 1, 2007); Posting of Ionut Alex Chitu to Google Operating System, Google’s Digital Library of Alexandria, http://googlesystem.blogspot.com/2006/08/googles-digital-library-of-alexandria.html (Aug. 13, 2006). 15. Wikipedia, Encyclopaedia Britannica, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Encyclop%C3% A6dia_Britannica (as of June 1, 2007, 10:00 GMT). 16.


pages: 379 words: 109,612

Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

But even in its present form, the Internet has transformed how we scientists work. The Internet flattens communities of thought. Blogs, e-mail, and Internet databases put everyone in the community on the same footing. There is a premium on articulateness. You don’t need a secretary to maintain a large and varied correspondence. Since 1992, research papers in physics have been posted on an Internet archive, arXiv.org, which has a daily distribution of just-posted papers and complete search and cross-reference capabilities. It is moderated rather then refereed, and the refereed journals now play no role in spreading information. This gives a feeling of engagement and responsibility: Once you are a registered member of the community, you don’t have to ask anyone’s permission to publish your scientific results.

Consider the award in 2006 of the Fields Medal (the highest prize in mathematics) for a solution of the Poincaré Conjecture. This was remarkable in that the research being recognized was not submitted to any journal. In choosing to decline the medal, peer review, publication, and employment, the previously obscure Grigori Perelman chose to entrust the legacy of his great triumph solely to an Internet archive intended as a temporary holding tank for papers awaiting publication in established journals. In so doing, he forced the recognition of a new reality by showing that it was possible to move an indisputable intellectual achievement out of the tradition of referee-gated journals bound to the stacks of university libraries into a new and poorly charted virtual sphere of the intellect. But while markets may drive exploration, the actual settlement of the frontier at times requires the commitment of individuals questing for personal freedom, and here the New World of the Internet shines.


pages: 313 words: 95,077

Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations by Clay Shirky

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Andrew Keen, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, c2.com, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, hiring and firing, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, Kuiper Belt, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Merlin Mann, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, Picturephone, place-making, Pluto: dwarf planet, prediction markets, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Yogi Berra

Wikipedia is useful both for a basic gloss on the related concepts and because at the bottom of most Wikipedia articles (and all materially complete ones) there is a list of additional resources. One disturbing feature of Web media is their potential evanescence. Because many sites are labors of love (for reasons discussed in the book), there is no guarantee that the materials will last for years, much less decades. Many organizations are working on long-term solutions to this problem; the most fully realized effort is Brewster Kahle’s Internet Archive, at archive.org. Among the services hosted at the Internet Archive is the Wayback Machine, which contains snapshots of an enormous number of websites taken over a period of years. For instance, a search of the Wayback Machine for material relating to the story of Ivanna’s phone produces a list of archived copies of Evan’s website, available at the rather lengthy URL web.archive.org/web/*/evanwashere.com/StolenSidekick (the * is part of the URL).


pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review

backing up the entire internet: Personal correspondence with Brewster Kahle, 2006. at least 310 million books: “WorldCat Local,” WorldCat, accessed August 18, 2015. 1.4 billion articles and essays: Ibid. 180 million songs: “Introducing Gracenote Rhythm,” Gracenote, accessed May 1, 2015. 3.5 trillion images: “How Many Photos Have Ever Been Taken?,” 1,000 Memories blog, April 10, 2012, accessed via Internet Archive, May 2, 2015. 330,000 movies: “Database Statistics,” IMDb, May 2015. 1 billion hours of videos, TV shows, and short films: Inferred from “Statistics,” YouTube, accessed August 18, 2015. 60 trillion public web pages: “How Search Works,” Inside Search, Google, 2013. 50-petabyte hard disks: Private communication with Brewster Kahle, 2006. 25 million orphan works: Naomi Korn, In from the Cold: An Assessment of the Scope of ‘Orphan Works’ and Its Impact on the Delivery of Services to the Public, JISC Content, Collections Trust, Cambridge, UK, April 2009.

tracks nearly 150 wiki engines today: “Wiki Engines,” accessed June 24, 2015, http://goo.gl/5auMv6. billion instances of Creative Commons: “State of the Commons,” Creative Commons, accessed May 2, 2015. “dot-communism”: Theta Pavis, “The Rise of Dot-Communism,” Wired, October 25, 1999. “composed entirely of free agents”: Roshni Jayakar, “Interview: John Perry Barlow, Founder of the Electronic Frontier Foundation,” Business Today, December 6, 2000, accessed July 30, 2015, via Internet Archive, April 24, 2006. ranked by the increasing degree of coordination: Clay Shirky, Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations (New York: Penguin Press, 2008). 1.8 billion per day: Mary Meeker, “Internet Trends 2014—Code Conference,” Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, 2014. billions of videos served by YouTube: “Statistics,” YouTube, accessed June 24, 2015. millions of fan-created stories: Piotr Kowalczyk, “15 Most Popular Fanfiction Websites,” Ebook Friendly, January 13, 2015.


pages: 470 words: 109,589

Apache Solr 3 Enterprise Search Server by Unknown

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bioinformatics, continuous integration, database schema, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, full text search, information retrieval, Internet Archive, natural language processing, performance metric, platform as a service, web application

If you want to run Heritrix yourself, proceed to the next section. If you want to use the already downloaded ARC files in ./examples/9/crawler/heritrix-3.0.0/jobs with the SolrJ client, then skip down to the section SolrJ-based client for Indexing HTML. Using Heritrix to download artist pages Heritrix is an extremely full featured and extensible web crawler used by the InternetArchive for archiving the contents of the Internet. The InternetArchive is a non-profit organization established to preserve websites by taking regular snapshots of them. You may be more familiar with the site under the name The Wayback Machine. By looking back at the original indexed version of the Solr homepage taken on January 19th, 2007 at http://web.archive.org/web/*/http://lucene.apache.org/solr, we learn that Solr had just graduated from the Apache Incubator program!


pages: 532 words: 155,470

One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness

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active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War

See Thompson, The Tour de France, 185–189, 92–94, 205. also see Wheeler, “Organized Sport and Organized labour.” Horton, “Social Movements and the Bicycle.” Zena Steiner, for example, notes that Blatchford—the “barracks socialist”—was a “popular and passionate voice for empire, preparedness and national service.” See “views of War: Britain before the ‘Great War’—and after,” International Relations 17, no. 1 (2003): 20. Eugene v. Debs, The American Movement, 1898 (E. v. Debs internet archive, available at http://www.marxists.org/archive/debs). Horton, “Social Movements and the Bicycle.” prynn, “The Clarion Clubs, rambling and the Holiday associations in Britain since the 1890s,” 75. Horton, “Social Movements and the Bicycle”; Sheffield Guardian, March 29, 1907, quoted in prynn, “The Clarion Clubs, rambling and the Holiday associations in Britain since the 1890s,” 69. Tom Groom, quoted in pye, Fellowship Is Life, 16–17.

The Society of the Spectacle, translated by Fredy perlman and John Supak. Detroit: Black and red, 1977. ———. “Theory of the Dérive.” in Situationist International Anthology, edited by Ken Knabb, 50–54. Berkeley, Ca: Bureau of public Secrets, 1981. Originally published in Internationale Situationniste, no. 2 (December 1958). Debs, Eugene v. The American Movement. 1998. available at the E. v. Debs internet archive, http://www.marxists.org/archive/debs. Deffeyes, Kenneth S. Beyond Oil: The View from Hubbert’s Peak. new york: Hill and Wang, 2005. ———. Hubbert’s Peak: The Impending World Oil Shortage. princeton, nJ: princeton University press, 2001. Defiance, Ohio. Share What Ya Got. Friends and relatives records, 2004. lp. De Jong, rudolf. Provos and Kabouters. Buffalo, ny: Friends of Malatesta. in Anarchism Today, edited by David E. apter and James Joll, 165–168. london: Macmillan, 1971.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

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1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

The Open-Source Metropolis 1Red Burns, “Cultural Identity and Integration in the New Media World,” paper presented at University of Industrial Arts, Helsinki, Finland, November 19–21, 1991. 2“United States: Cable Television,” Museum of Broadcast Communications, n.d., http://www.museum.tv/eotvsection.php?entrycode=unitedstatesc. 3“History of Cable Television,” National Cable & Telecommunications Association, n.d., http://www.ncta.com/About/About/HistoryofCableTelevision.aspx. 4National Cable & Telecommunications Association, n.d., retrieved from Internet Archive, http://web.archive.org/web/20120103181806/http://www.ncta.com/About/About/ HistoryofCableTelevision.aspx?source=Resources. 5“History of Cable Television.” 6Jason Huff, “Technology is Not Enough: The Story of NYU’s Interactive Telecommunications Program,” Rhizome, December 15, 2011, http://rhizome.org/editorial/2011/dec/15/technology-not-enough-story-nyus-interactive-telec/. 7Red Burns, original manuscript, “Beyond Statistics,” Alternate Media Center, School of the Arts, New York University, n.d., 7.

,” The Guardian Sustainable Business Energy Efficiency Hub, blog, June 1, 2001, http://www.guardian.co.uk/sustainable-business/amsterdam-smart-cities-work. 78Blake Alcott, “Jevons’ Paradox,” Ecological Economics 45, no. 1 (2005): 9-21. 79Robert Cervero, The Transit Metropolis (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1998), 169. 80Michele Dix, “The Central London Congestion Charging Scheme—From Conception to Implementation,” 2002, http://www.imprint-eu.org/public/Papers/imprint_Dix.pdf, 2. 81Robert J. Gordon, “Does the ‘New Economy’ Measure up to the Great Inventions of the Past?” (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2000), http://www.nber.org/papers/w7833. Chapter 10. A New Civics for a Smart Century 1Oscar Wilde, The Soul of Man under Socialism (Portland, ME: Thomas B. Mosher, 1905), 39. Reprinted from The Fortnightly Review, Feburary 1, 1891, accessed through Internet Archive, http://archive.org/details/soulmanundersoc00wildgoog. 2Helen Meller, Patrick Geddes: Social Evolutionist and City Planner (New York: Routledge, 1990), 143. 3From “voices to voices, lip to lip.” Copyright 1926, 1954, © 1991 by the Trustees for the E. E. Cummings Trust. Copyright © 1985 by George James Firmage, from Complete Poems: 1904–1962 by E. E. Cummings, edited by George J. Firmage.

Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by Dariusz Jemielniak

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Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, citation needed, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Debian, deskilling, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, moral hazard, online collectivism, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons

I describe how such time-consuming conflicts can be resolved only by departing from the policy of consensus (and by resorting to mechanistic straw polls, once the participants are exhausted enough). This analysis leads to a typology of conflicts on Wikipedia and pinpoints important differences between Wikipedia policies and the rules used by the Society of Friends and the Search Conference. Feel like Danzig: The Beginning The article on Gdańsk was written in the beginnings of Wikipedia, and the earliest edits of the article have not been preserved on Wikipedia servers. The Internet Archive Wayback Machine stores a copy of the article from November 9, 2001 (see “Gdansk,” 2001a). An old backup of Wikipedia discovered in 2010 by Tim Starling shows that the article on Gdansk was written in early May 2001, as one of the first ten thousand articles, and consisted of just two sentences: “Gdansk is a city in Poland, on the Baltic Sea. Its old German name is Danzig” (see Starling, 2010).

Retrieved from http://econpapers.repec.org/paper/wpawuwpio/0312005.htm R e f e r e n c e s    2 5 1 Gatson, S. N., & Zweerink, A. (2004). Ethnography online: “Natives” practising and inscribing community. Qualitative Research, 4(2), 179–200. Gauntlett, D. (2009). Case study: Wikipedia. In G. Creeber & R. Martin (Eds.), Digital cultures: Understanding New Media (pp. 41–45). Berkshire, England: Open University Press. Gdansk. (2001a, November 11). Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Retrieved from http://web.archive.org/web/20011111155718/http://www.wikipedia.com/wiki/ Gdansk Gdańsk. (2001b, November 19). Wikipedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/ index.php?title=Gda%C5%84sk&oldid=333254700 Gdańsk: Difference between revisions. (2002a, June 28). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 7, 2013, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gda%C5%84s k&diff=prev&oldid=107671 Gdańsk: Difference between revisions. (2002b, June 29).


pages: 212 words: 49,544

WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency by Micah L. Sifry

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1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, Network effects, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Skype, social web, Stewart Brand, web application, WikiLeaks

Soon the agency capitulated, took over from Malamud, and started making this vital trove of information available to the public for free. Malamud was a pioneer in liberating taxpayer-financed public information and putting it online where everyone could get to it. He has continued to fight for expanding free access to public domain material online, convincing C-SPAN to open up its congressional video archives, digitizing old government films for the Internet Archive, and making troves of court decisions and legal documents available. And his work has been at the forefront of a wave of new efforts—from the Library of Congress’s Thomas database of congressional bills and votes, and the Center for Responsive Politics OpenSecrets.org database of campaign finance information, to the Environmental Working Group’s searchable database of individual agricultural subsidy recipients—that all sought to make public records more accessible.


pages: 214 words: 57,614

America at the Crossroads: Democracy, Power, and the Neoconservative Legacy by Francis Fukuyama

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affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Internet Archive, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

This book made available by the Internet Archive. Parts of this book were given as the Castle Lectures in Yale's Program in Ethics, Politics, and Economics, delivered by Francis Fukuyama in 2005. The Castle Lectures were endowed by Mr. John K. Castle. They honor his ancestor the Reverend James Pierpont, one of Yale's original founders. Given by established public figures, Castle Lectures are intended to promote reflection on the moral foundations of society and government and to enhance understanding of ethical issues facing individuals in our complex modern society. *<^\jiii,\,ni,o 7 A Different Kind of American Foreign Policy 181 notes 195 INDEX 217 vm Preface The subject of this book is American foreign policy since the al-Qaida attacks of September 11, 2001. This is a personal subject for me.


pages: 216 words: 61,061

Without Their Permission: How the 21st Century Will Be Made, Not Managed by Alexis Ohanian

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Airbnb, barriers to entry, carbon-based life, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Hans Rosling, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, Occupy movement, Paul Graham, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, software is eating the world, Startup school, Tony Hsieh, unpaid internship, Y Combinator

Most YC founding teams get a nickname among the partners; ours was “the muffins.” Thanks, Jessica. 7. That’s not to say these two communities are mutually exclusive. In fact, I’m a proud member of both. 8. I’d hoped people would say this to one another, but to date, I don’t think a single person has. So it goes. 9. This is from a recorded interview with Steve Huffman. 10. I found it thanks to the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine! http://web.archive.org/web/20051026085633/http://changingway.net/archives/221 11. http://www.chron.com/life/article/The-turkey-was-almost-our-national-bird-1732163.php 12. http://www.paulgraham.com/relres.html 13. Author’s note: If you’re reading this at a time when reddit.com has become even more popular, possibly even forming its own online city-state, think of the above as charmingly humble.


pages: 210 words: 62,771

Turing's Vision: The Birth of Computer Science by Chris Bernhardt

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Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, British Empire, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Conway's Game of Life, discrete time, Douglas Hofstadter, Georg Cantor, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Henri Poincaré, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, John Conway, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Norbert Wiener, Paul Erdős, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture

MENABREA of Turin, Officer of the Military Engineers With notes upon the Memoir by the Translator ADA AUGUSTA, COUNTESS OF LOVELACE. 3. David Deutsch. The Beginning of Infinity: Explanations That Transform the World. 4. This appears in the introduction to Alan Turing’s Systems of Logic: The Princeton Thesis. This introduction is also available on Appel’s website. 5. Hermann Grassmann’s book Lehrbuch der Arithmetik für höhere Lehranstalten can be found in The Internet Archive. 6. The lambda in the λ-calculus evolved from notation used by Russell and Whitehead. They used . Church felt that the symbol ^ should come before the x and should be written as ^x. This then got typeset λx. 7. The function + takes two numbers as input and gives a number as output. In the λ-calculus, + is usually written first, so instead of writing m + n, you write +(m)(n), which, though it looks strange, makes it clear that + is a function with two inputs.


pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

http://www.gsma.com/newsroom/press-release/gsma-report-forecasts-half-a-billion-mobile-subscribers-ssa-2020/ 87 “Processing Power Compared: Visualizing a 1 trillion-fold increase in computing performance”, Experts Exchange. http://pages.experts-exchange.com/processing-power-compared/ 88 “A history of storage costs”, mkomo.com, 8 September 2009 http://www.mkomo.com/cost-per-gigabyte According to the website, data was retrieved from Historical Notes about the Cost of Hard Drive Storage Space (http://ns1758.ca/winch/winchest.html). Data from 2004 to 2009 was retrieved using Internet Archive Wayback Machine (http://archive.org/web/web.php). 89 Elana Rot, “How Much Data Will You Have in 3 Years?”, Sisense, 29 July 2015. http://www.sisense.com/blog/much-data-will-3-years/ 90 Moore’s Law generally states that processor speeds, or the overall number of transistors in a central processing unit, will double every two years. 91 Kevin Mayer, Keith Ellis and Ken Taylor, “Cattle Health Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Networks”, Proceedings of the Communication and Computer Networks Conference, Cambridge, MA, USA, 2004.


pages: 230 words: 60,050

In the Flow by Boris Groys

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illegal immigration, Internet Archive, Julian Assange, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, WikiLeaks

The radical disappearance of the artist into the point zero of art makes it possible to present the context of art as a total context. Self-nullification in and through art is an illusion. But only the pursuit of this illusion makes visible the conditions of art – conditions that include the possibility of this illusion. ___________________________ 1‘Saint Max’, in ‘A Critique of the German Ideology’, Marx/Engels Internet Archive, marxists.org. 2Kazimir Malevich, ‘Sobranie sochinenii’, vol. 1, Moscow: Gilea 1995, p. 29. 3Ibid., 34. 4Max Stirner, The Ego and His Own, New York: Benjamin R. Tucker 1907, p. 3. 5Ibid., p. 309. 6Malevich, pp. 161–226. 7Kazimir Malevich, Die gegenstandslose Welt, Bauhausbuch 1927. Reprinted and distributed by Hans M. Wingler, Berlin: Gebr. Mann Verlag 1980. 8Michael Fried ‘Art and Objecthood’, Art and Objecthood: Essays and Reviews, Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press 1998. 9Carl Schmitt, The Concept of the Political, Chicago: Chicago University Press 1996. 10Ibid. 11El Lissitzky, ‘Suprematizm mirostroitel’stva’, (‘The Suprematism of World-Building’ 1920]), pp. 56–7. 12Nikolai Tarabukin, ‘From the Easel to the Machine’, Modern Art and Modernism: A Critical Anthology, eds.


pages: 226 words: 71,540

Epic Win for Anonymous: How 4chan's Army Conquered the Web by Cole Stryker

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4chan, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, crowdsourcing, Firefox, future of journalism, hive mind, informal economy, Internet Archive, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mason jar, pre–internet, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, wage slave, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

They are able to accomplish much in the aggregate that they wouldn’t alone. As philospher Pierre Lévy says, “No one knows everything. Everyone knows something.” All it takes is one person to translate a bit of dialogue, recognize a style of license plate, or pinpoint a specific mountain range in the background of a fuzzy YouTube video. These detectives use Google Maps, Flickr, Facebook, WhoIs, the Internet Archive, property records, and a host of other tools to dig up a wealth of information. The work would intimidate any single /b/tard, but together, hundreds or thousands of slackers can rival a small government’s intelligence efforts. Adam Goldstein Raid In July 2009, a disgruntled customer posted an exchange he’d had with computer repair serviceman Adam Goldstein to Something Awful, hoping to incite the wrath of the SA goons.


pages: 306 words: 78,893

After the New Economy: The Binge . . . And the Hangover That Won't Go Away by Doug Henwood

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, capital controls, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, ending welfare as we know it, feminist movement, full employment, gender pay gap, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, manufacturing employment, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, occupational segregation, pets.com, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K

This book made available by the Internet Archive. for my parents, Harold andVictorine Henwood Acknowledgments Though books usually have a single name on the cover, writing one requires lots of help from others. I'd Hke to thank, among many, Laura Stare-cheski for her excellent research w^ork; my good friend Philippa Dunne for her many forms of collaboration; CoHn Robinson for being the best publisher one could ask for; and Andre Schiffrin and the staff of The New Press for both their professional skills and their role as splendid office-mates. Thanks also to Jared Bernstein, Patrick Bond, Heather Boushey, Tom Frank, Branko Milanovic, Christian Parenti, Michael Perehnan, Kim PhiUips-Fein, Nomi Prins, Max Sawicky, Michal SeHgman, Gregg Wirth, the members of the Ibo-talk Hstserv. And, most of all, thanks to my wife, Liza Featherstone, who not only made this a better book with her comments on the manuscript, but who makes Hfe worth Hving as well.


pages: 221 words: 67,240

The Other Israel: voices of refusal and dissent by Tom Śegev, Roane Carey, Jonathan Shainin

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conceptual framework, facts on the ground, Internet Archive, open borders, Yom Kippur War

This book made available by the Internet Archive. 15 BREAK THE MIRROR NOW, llan Pappe 110 16 AFTER JENIN, Yitzhak Laor 116 PART THREE: REFUSAL 17 SAYING NO TO ISRAEL'S OCCUPATION, Ishai Menuchin 123 18 RED LINE, GREEN LINE, BLACK FLAG, Yigal Shochat 126 19 AN OPEN LETTER TO COLONEL AVIV KOHAVI, BRIGADE COMMANDER OF THE ISRAELI PARATROOPERS, Neve Gordon 133 20 AN OPEN LETTER TO BENJAMIN BEN-ELIEZER, MINISTER OF DEFENSE, Sergio Yahni 136 21 WHY? AssafOron 138 22 RULING OVER A HOSTILE POPULATION, Shamai Leibowitz 145 PART FOUR: ESCALATION: DISPATCHES FROM THE WAR OF OCCUPATION 23 THE HIDDEN WEAPONS FACTORIES, Amira Hass 153 24 THE CHECKPOINTS OF ARROGANCE, Meron Benvenisti 156 25 BALATA HAS FALLEN, Ze'ev Sternhell 159 26 ARE THE OCCUPIED PROTECTING THE OCCUPIER?, Amira Hass 162 27 A QUEUE OF BOMBERS, Uri Avnery 165 28 ON THE EVE OF THE WAR, Gideon Levy 168 29 IN RAMALLAH WE FOUNDED PALESTINE, Ze'ev Sternhell 174 30 THE PEOPLE'S WAR, Gideon Levy 177 31 LETTER FROM ARAFAT'S COMPOUND, Neta Golan and Ian Urbma 180 32 AFTER THE OUTRAGE AND TEARS, G'la Svirsky 182 33 WHAT KIND OF WAR IS THIS?


pages: 267 words: 78,857

Discardia: More Life, Less Stuff by Dinah Sanders

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Atul Gawande, big-box store, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwatching, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, credit crunch, endowment effect, Firefox, game design, Inbox Zero, income per capita, index card, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Kevin Kelly, late fees, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Merlin Mann, side project, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand

Cut expenses for things that don’t reward you. Sell the three most valuable things that you don't want to own anymore on eBay or craigslist, or go to an appraiser, have a yard sale, or whatever works best. Turn them into money, take 10–20% of it for something fun, like dinner out, and use the rest to discard some debt. Enjoy more free stuff. Visit the library. Take advantage of the great entertainment resources online, such as the Internet Archive’s Open Library and free songs offered by bands on their websites. If you do spend money on something, pay less for it. About to go shopping? Think about whether all of it really needs to be brand new. Sure, you don't want hand-me-down underwear or food, but what about a winter coat? A dining table? A bread maker? Get familiar with your local resources. What kind of things do the different thrift stores have?


pages: 224 words: 64,156

You Are Not a Gadget by Jaron Lanier

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1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, digital Maoism, Douglas Hofstadter, Extropian, follow your passion, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Conway, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Long Term Capital Management, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, social graph, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog

A huge recent step was the publication of a book on paper by John Conway, Heidi Burgiel, and Chaim Goodman-Strauss called The Symmetries of Things. This is a tour de force that fuses introductory material with cutting-edge ideas by using a brash new visual style. It is disappointing to me that pioneering work continues primarily on paper, having become muted online. The same could be said about a great many topics other than math. If you’re interested in the history of a rare musical instrument, for instance, you can delve into the internet archive and find personal sites devoted to it, though they probably were last updated around the time Wikipedia came into being. Choose a topic you know something about and take a look. Wikipedia has already been elevated into what might be a permanent niche. It might become stuck as a fixture, like MIDI or the Google ad exchange services. That makes it important to be aware of what you might be missing.


pages: 268 words: 75,850

The Formula: How Algorithms Solve All Our Problems-And Create More by Luke Dormehl

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3D printing, algorithmic trading, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, computer age, death of newspapers, deferred acceptance, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Google Earth, Google Glasses, High speed trading, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Kodak vs Instagram, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, pattern recognition, price discrimination, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, upwardly mobile, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator

.: Wadsworth, 2001). 11 Hacking, Ian. The Taming of Chance (Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990). 12 Rafter, Nicole. The Origins of Criminology: A Reader (New York: Routledge, 2009). 13 Mlodinow, Leonard. The Drunkard’s Walk: How Randomness Rules Our Lives (New York: Pantheon Books, 2008). 14 Belt, Elmer, and Louise Darling. Elmer Belt Florence Nightingale Collection (San Francisco: Internet Archive, 2009). 15 Danzigera, Shai, Jonathan Levav and Liora Avnaim-Pesso. “Extraneous Factors in Judicial Decisions.” PNAS, vol. 108, no. 17, April 26, 2011. pnas.org/content/108/17/6889.full. 16 Markoff, John. “Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software.” New York Times, March 4, 2011. nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html. 17 Lev-Ram, Michal. “Apple v. Samsung: (Patent) Trial of the Century.”


pages: 232

Planet of Slums by Mike Davis

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barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, jitney, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor

Indeed, it may be the largest non-oil sector, since most tourism investment goes into building tourist villages and vacation homes, another form of real estate. 51 47 Kwadwo Konadu-Agyemang, The Political Economy of Housing and Urban Development in Africa: Ghana's Experiencefrom Colonial Times to 1998, Westport 2001, p. 123. 48 Keyder, "The Housing Market from Informal to Global," p. 153. 49 Ozlem Diindar, "Informal Housing in Ankara," Cities 18:6 (2001), p. 393. 50 Janet Abu-Lughod, "Urbanization in the Arab World and the International System," in Gugler, Cities of the Developing World, p. 196. 51 Timothy Mitchell, " Dreamland: The Neoliberalism of Your Desires," Middle East Report (Spring 1999), np (internet archive). Even as metro Cairo has doubled its area in five years and new suburbs sprawl westward into the desert, the housing crisis remains acute: new housing is too expensive for the poor, and much of it is unoccupied because the owner is away working in Saudia Arabia or the Gulf. "Upwards of a million apartments," writes Jeffrey Nedoroscik, "stand empty ... there is no housing shortage per se.


pages: 536 words: 79,887

A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains by Isabella Lucy Bird, Daniel J. Boorstin

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Columbine, Donner party, Internet Archive

Her rare complaints have more to do with having to ride side-saddle while in town than with the conditions she faces. An awe-inspiring woman, she is also a talented writer who brings to life Colorado of more than one hundred years ago, when today's big cities were only a small collection of frame houses, and while and beautiful areas were still largely untouched. --Erica Bauermeister [Amazon] About This ePub 1st Edition 1879, John Murray, London Open Library OL7022845M Internet Archive inrockyladyslife00birdrich 1st Modern Edition 1960, University of Oklahoma Press Series: The Western Frontier Library Series (Book 14) Introduction by Daniel J. Boorstin OCLC 654948612 Revised Edition 1975-12-15, University of Oklahoma Press ISBN 0806113286 Series: The Western Frontier Library Series (Book 14) Introduction by Daniel J. Boorstin Present Electronic Edition 2007-12-28, 2010-08-27 hxa7241, no version Relation: http://www.hxa.name [from old opf] MD5 D85A4FD2590999488A3305F15F51213B N.B.


pages: 666 words: 181,495

In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy

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23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business process, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, discounted cash flows, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, El Camino Real, fault tolerance, Firefox, Gerard Salton, Google bus, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, HyperCard, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Potemkin village, prediction markets, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, search inside the book, second-price auction, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, trade route, traveling salesman, Vannevar Bush, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

For a relatively small sum—by 2008, Google garnered $10 billon dollars in annual revenue—Google had not only won the right to become the sole authorized archivist of a historic and comprehensive collection of the world’s books but had entered a new business without competition. But as people in the world of culture and digital commerce—and Google’s rivals—began to study the agreement, a swell of opposition rose. Eventually the swells became a tsunami. The objections were myriad. Some former allies of Google were incensed that it had given up the fight to legally scan books. One new foe was Brewster Kahle, the founder of the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization bent on preserving all documents on the web as well as information in general. Kahle had been involved in his own digitization process under the aegis of an organization called the Open Book Alliance. Now he claimed that Google had become an information monopolist bent on destroying efforts other than its own to make books accessible. Another former friend, Lawrence Lessig, attacked the settlement, calling it “a path to insanity.”

., 366–67 EarthLink, 95 eBay, 15, 113, 318 Edison, Thomas, 13 Edwards, Doug, 140 eGroups, 30 Elbaz, Gil, 103 Electronic Frontier Foundation, 337, 339 email, 161, 167–81 and ads, 102, 170–73, 177, 179, 180 and cloud computing, 180–81 Gmail, see Gmail and privacy, 170–78, 211, 378 and revenues, 170–73 and storage, 168–69, 172, 179–80 Emerald Sea, 382–83 employees: and austerity period, 256–57, 258–59 contract workers, 257, 269 first, 34, 36, 37 as Googley, 4, 36, 138–40, 158, 159, 162, 270, 309 numbers of, 5, 134, 158, 164, 373, 386 pampered, 58, 133–38, 259 promotions of, 260 recruitment/hiring of, 35–41, 72, 138–43, 258–59, 266, 386 and security issues, 269–70 70–20–10 balance, 162, 323 teamwork, 162 and 20 percent rule, 124 wealth of, 155–57, 259 Engelbart, Douglas, 15 Epstein, Scott, 76–77 Eustace, Alan, 145–46, 215, 271, 281, 289, 301, 303, 308 Ewing, Jessica, 174 Excite, 20, 27, 28–30, 136, 268 Facebook, 309, 322, 369–71, 373, 375–77, 379–80, 382–83 face recognition, 232 Farrell, Carrie, 139 Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 222, 223 Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 331–34, 379 Feiken, Jennifer, 242–43, 244–45 fiber optics, ownership of, 187–88, 198, 199, 261 Figueroa, Liz, 176–78 Filo, David, 28, 344 Fino, Audrey, 49–50, 52, 60 Fischer, David, 98 Fisher, Darin, 204 Flake, Gary, 98 Fleischer, Peter, 338–39 forecasting, 119–20 Foursquare, 374 Fred (video channel), 263–64 FriendFeed, 259, 370 Friendster, 371 Gaia password system, 308–9 Garcia-Molina, Hector, 14, 16, 17, 18, 23, 33 Gates, Bill, 14, 179, 204, 219, 278, 282, 283, 344, 381 GDrive, 205, 211 Gelernter, David, Mirror Worlds, 59–60 Genachowski, Julius, 322, 326 Ghemawat, Sanjay, 42, 43, 47, 100, 184, 197, 198–200 Gibson, William, 7 Gilbert, Judy, 257, 258, 259, 260 Gilbert, Roy, 272 GIMP, 31 Girouard, Dave, 180 Glazer, David, 375, 376 Gmail, 171–81, 322 and applications, 219, 227, 233, 236 as Caribou, 169–71 and cloud computing, 180–81 launch of, 161, 171–72, 206 and privacy, 170–78, 211 and security breach, 267–68 and social networking, 375, 377 and speed, 185 Goetz, Thomas, 254 Gomes, Ben, 40, 54, 58, 67–68, 100 Gonzalez, Steven, 283 Goodger, Ben, 204 Google: and access to all the world’s information, 6, 10, 58, 59, 63, 67, 75, 130, 146, 173, 198, 215, 219, 275, 335, 340, 342–43, 356, 363 ads of, see advertising and antitrust issues, 330, 331–34, 343–47, 364 APM program, 1–2, 3–5, 161–62, 259 and applications, 200–212, 239 austerity time of, 83, 86, 252–53, 255–57, 258–59, 265–66, 272, 376 BackRub renamed as, 30–31 business plan for, 72, 75, 77–78, 95, 115, 138, 152, 201 changing the world, 6, 34, 39, 52, 97, 120, 125, 126, 146, 316, 319, 329, 349, 365, 367, 369 cheap equipment bought for, 33, 129, 183–84, 189 Code Yellow in, 186 conference rooms of, 136–37 culture (Googley) of, 3, 36, 121–28, 129–42, 159, 186–87, 364, 365, 370, 385 design guidelines for, 129–30, 132, 206–7 development of, 32–34, 35–37, 45–57, 58 “Don’t be evil” motto of, 6, 11, 143, 144–46, 150, 170, 238, 276, 285, 286, 366–67, 384–85 employees, see employees engineers as top dogs in, 129, 130, 158, 160, 161, 323 failure and redundancy built into, 183–84, 189, 198, 211, 255, 372 filing for incorporation, 34 funding of, 32, 33–34, 72–75, 79, 129, 182 global scope of, 196–97, 270–72; see also China growth of, 3, 5, 6, 11, 43, 99, 127–28, 130, 131–32, 143, 164, 183, 198, 238–42, 253, 259, 271 headquarters of, 34, 36, 43, 125–26, 127–28, 130 home page of, 31, 184–85 IPO of, 2, 70, 94, 108, 134, 146–57 lawsuits against, 9–11, 56, 98, 150–51, 244, 328–29, 353, 358–67 as learning machine, 45, 47, 48, 65–68, 173, 216, 239, 383, 385 management structure, 74, 75–77, 79–82, 110, 143, 147, 157–66, 235, 254–55, 273, 373–74, 386–87 mission and vision of, 3, 6, 75, 97, 117, 124–25, 132, 169, 175, 215, 238, 363, 365 moral purity of, 6, 97, 268, 356, 360, 367 name of, 30–31, 180 no customer support from, 230–31, 376 1-800-GOOG-411 directory assistance, 219, 229 and politics, 317–19, 329–30 profitability of, 3, 69–71, 72, 77–78, 79, 99, 130, 256, 383, 386 public image of, 57, 74–75, 76, 77, 126, 144, 153–54, 173, 176, 237, 328–29, 337, 343, 364, 366, 383–84 secrecy in, 49, 52, 56–57, 69–70, 72–73, 83, 93, 106–7, 108, 146, 164–65, 191, 198, 218, 260, 261, 354, 357 security issues in, 267–70, 308–10, 313–14 shares in, 147–49, 155–57, 252 speed as focus of, 31, 37, 42, 52, 184–87, 206, 207, 208–9, 272, 372–73 TGIF meetings, 130–31, 166 20 percent rule, 124 user data amassed by, 45–48, 59, 84, 144, 173–74, 185, 333–36 user focus of, 5, 77, 241–42 values of, 6, 143–46, 147, 198, 256–58, 275–76, 300, 307, 310, 321, 323, 336, 343, 354, 364, 370, 384–85 war rooms of, 42–43, 45, 176, 186, 206, 309–10, 379, 380–81 and Yahoo, 44–45, 57, 151 and YouTube, 199, 242–52, 260–65 Google Analytics, 114–15, 205, 233, 234 Google Answers, 102 Google Book Search, 11, 347–67 Google Book Settlement, 362–67 Google Calendar, 233, 236 Google cars, 385, 386 Google Catalogs, 348 Google Checkout, 229, 242 Google China, see China Google Chrome, 208–12, 220, 221, 228, 319, 321, 354 “Google dance,” 56 Google Desktop, 205 Google Docs, 203, 210, 211 Google Earth, 239–40, 299, 340 Google Elections Team, 318, 321 Google Fellows, 49 Google Fiber for Communities, 327 Google File System, 184 Google Flu Trends, 258 Google Goes to the Movies, 265 Google Goggles, 232 Google Grants, 98 Google Help Forums, 231 Google Image Search, 382 Google Instant, 68 Google Latitude, 338–40, 374 Google Libraries, 357–58, 359 Google Maps, 219, 227, 240, 298–99, 318, 338, 340, 383 Google News, 58, 124, 239 Google.org, 241, 257 Google Pack, 205 Google Print, 356–57, 359 Google Product Client Group, 204 Google Product Strategy (GPS) meetings, 6, 135, 171 Google Quick Search Box, 78 Google Scholar, 58 Google Security Team, 267–70 Google settlement, 9–11 Google Street View, 340–43, 383, 384, 385 Google Suggest, 306–7 Google Talk, 233, 322, 375 Google Toolbar, 204–5, 233, 234 Google University, 136 Google Video, 242–47, 249, 261, 263, 429–30 Google Voice, 234, 236 Google Wave, 376–77, 379 Google Website Optimizer, 320 Google Zeitgeist, 46, 249, 253 googolplex, 31, 43 Gordon, Cathy, 195–96, 356, 359 Gore, Al, 177, 218, 237, 278, 352 GoTo, 87–89, 99, 102 Gphone, 218, 222, 226 GPS device, 229, 232, 338 Graham, Bill, 353 GrandCentral, 233–34, 236 Griffin, Denise, 130, 173–75, 231 Gross, Bill, 87–89, 95, 98, 102–3 Grove, Andy, 80, 163, 325 Gu, Xuemei, 290–92, 308, 312 Gundotra, Vic, 219–20, 232, 337, 377, 382–83 Gutenberg, Johannes, 347 Hackborn, Dianne, 217 Haiti, earthquake in, 325–26 Hamoui, Omar, 227 Hanke, John, 239 Harding, Matt, 243 Harik, Georges, 100–102, 105, 127, 139 Harvard University, 357, 358 Hassan, Scott, 17–18, 22, 28, 29, 30, 32 Haugen, Frances, 351 Heath, Taliver, 323 Heilemann, John, 356 Hendrix, Jimi, 76 Hertzfeld, Andy, 206 Hewlett-Packard, 37, 124, 181 Hölzle, Urs, 76, 100, 125, 162, 182, 257, 379 and cloud computing, 180 and data centers, 188–90, 194, 198 hired by Google, 36–37, 38 on speed, 185–87 Urs-Quake of, 381–82 Horowitz, Bradley, 211, 376–78, 379, 382 Horvath, Jane, 335, 338 HTC, 214, 226, 228, 230, 237 HTML 5, 212 Huber, Jeff, 116 Huffman, Scott, 61 Hulu, 260–61 Hurley, Chad, 243–44, 247–51, 260, 264 HyperCard, 15 hypertext connections, 15, 27 IBM, 24, 25–26, 63, 286 Idealab, 87–88, 99 indexing, 20, 21–22, 26, 41–43 checkpointing in, 43 comprehensiveness in, 52–53 in-RAM system, 43–44, 47–48 mirror worlds in, 60 updating, 45, 56 information retrieval (IR), 20, 22, 110, 239 Inktomi, 36, 44, 88, 290 innovator’s dilemma, 98–99 Intel, 163, 167, 218 intellectual property (IP), 88–89, 176, 221 Internet: bottom-up management of, 158 in China, 273, 279, 284, 285, 305, 308, 311, 313, 324 and cloud computing, 180–81 and copyright issues, 355, 367 disruptive platform of, 275 and Haiti earthquake, 325–26 net neutrality, 222, 383–84 and news, 239 open spectrum on, 15, 222–25, 329–30, 333, 334, 383–84 profitability of, 69–71 redefining commerce, 117 and social networking, 369–83 and user data, 334–36 values of, 322, 367 video, 242–52, 265 wireless service, 223 Internet Archive, 362 Ivester, Devin, 135, 141 Java, 17–18 JavaScript, 53, 105, 168, 169, 208, 209 Jen, Mark, 164–65 Jobs, Steve, 75, 80, 143, 209–10, 218–22, 237–38 Jones, Mike, 328, 340–42 JotSpot, 201 Joy, Bill, 28 Justice Department, U.S., 236, 331, 344–47, 364, 365–66 Kahle, Brewster, 362, 365 Kamangar, Salar, 71–72, 74, 233, 235 and advertising, 86, 89, 91–92, 109, 113 and business plan, 72, 75, 201 and Google motto, 143–44 and YouTube, 248, 260–65 Karen, Alana, 97–98 Karim, Jawed, 243, 247, 250 Kay, Erik, 207 Keyhole, 239–40, 340 Keyword Pricing Index, 118 Khosla, Vinod, 28, 29 Kim, Jini, 166 Klau, Rick, 312, 318 Kleinberg, Jon, 24–26, 34, 38, 292 Knol, 240 Knuth, Donald, 14 Kohl, Herb, 332 Koogle, Timothy, 44 Kordestani, Omid, 75–76, 78, 81, 96, 97, 130, 155, 242 Krane, David, 69–70, 143, 144–45, 150, 156 Kraus, Joe, 28, 136, 201, 374–75 Kundra, Vivek, 322, 326 Kurzweil, Raymond, 66 language, translations, 55, 62–65 Lantos, Tom, 285–87 Larson, Mark, 208 Leach, Jim, 286 Lee, Kai-Fu: and China office, 4, 281–83, 289–90, 291, 292, 293, 294, 296, 298, 302, 303, 305, 307–8, 313 departure of, 307–8, 312 Lee, Steve, 338–39 Lenat, Douglas, 47 Leonard, Herman, 117 Lessig, Lawrence, 359, 360, 363 Levick, Jeff, 96, 110–11, 112–13 Levinson, Arthur, 218, 237 Li, Mark, 293, 298–99 Li, Robin (Yanhong), 26–27, 278, 292, 293, 298 Library of Congress, 352, 361 Liebman, Jason, 103–5 LinkAds, 102–3 Linux, 78, 182, 210 Litvack, Sanford “Sandy,” 345, 347 Liu, John, 296 Liu, Jun, 294, 303–4 long-tail businesses, 85, 105, 107, 118, 243, 334 Lu, Qi, 380 Lucovsky, Mark, 283 Luk, Ben, 290, 302 Maarek, Yoelle, 272 MacDonald, Brian, 380 Macgillivray, Alex “AMac,” 353–55 machine learning, 64–66, 100–101, 385 Malone, Kim (Scott), 107–8, 135 Manber, Udi, 44, 45, 57–58, 68, 240, 355, 380 MapReduce, 199–200 Marconi International Fellowship Award, 278 Markoff, John, 193 Matias, Yossi, 272 Mayer, Marissa, 36, 41, 381 and advertising, 78–79 and APM program, 1, 4, 5, 161–62, 259 and books, 348–50, 358, 365 and Gmail, 170–71 and Google culture, 121, 122, 126–27, 141, 142, 163, 164, 365 and Google motto, 143–44 and Google’s look, 206–7 and management structure, 160, 235 and social networking, 371–73, 375 and stock price, 155, 156–57 McCaffrey, Cindy, 3, 76, 77, 145, 150, 153, 164 McCarthy, John, 127 McLaughlin, Andrew: and China, 276–79, 283–84, 303, 304 and Obama administration, 316, 321, 322–23, 325–26, 327 and privacy, 176–78, 379 memex, 15, 44 Merrill, Douglas, 183 Mi, James, 276 Microsoft: and antitrust issues, 331–32, 344–45 and aQuantive, 331 Bing search engine, 186, 380–81 and books, 361, 363 and browser wars, 206, 283 and China, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 304 and competition, 70, 191, 197, 200–212, 218, 220, 266, 282–83, 331, 344–47, 363, 380–81 and Danger, 214 data centers of, 190 and disclosure, 108 and email, 168, 169, 179–80 Excel, 200 and Facebook, 370 Hotmail, 30, 168, 172, 180, 209 IE 7, 209 Internet Explorer, 204–7 and mapping, 342 monopolies of, 200, 331–32, 364 Office, 200, 202, 203 Outlook, 169 PowerPoint, 200, 203 and user data, 335 and values, 144 WebTV, 217 Windows, 200, 210, 212, 219, 331 Windows Mobile, 220 Word, 200 and Yahoo, 343–44, 346, 380 of yesterday, 369 MIDAS (Mining Data at Stanford), 16 Milgrom, Paul, 90 Miner, Rich, 215, 216 Mobile Accord, 325 mobile phones, 214–17, 219–22, 251 Moderator, 323–24 Mohan, Neal, 332, 336 Monier, Louis, 19, 20, 37 Montessori, Maria, 121, 124, 166 Montessori schools, 121–25, 129, 138, 149 Moonves, Leslie, 246 Moore’s Law, 169, 180, 261 Morgan Stanley, 149, 157 Moritz, Mike, 32, 73–74, 80, 147, 247–48, 249 Morozov, Evgeny, 379 Morris, Doug, 261 Mossberg, Walt, 94 Mowani, Rajeev, 38 Mozilla Firefox, 204, 206, 207–8, 209 Murdoch, Rupert, 249, 370 MySpace, 243, 375 name detection system, 50–52 Napier’s constant, 149 National Federation of the Blind, 365–66 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 65 National Science Digital Library, 347 National Security Agency (NSA), 310 Native Client, 212 navigation, 229, 232, 338 Nelson, Ted, 15 net neutrality, 222, 326–27, 330, 383–84 Netscape, 30, 75, 78, 147, 204, 206 Nevill-Manning, Craig, 129 Newsweek, 2, 3, 20, 179 New York Public Library, 354, 357 Nexus One, 230, 231–32 95th Percentile Rule, 187 Nokia, 341, 374 Norman, Donald, 12, 106 Norvig, Peter, 47, 62, 63, 138, 142, 316 Novell, 70 Obama, Barack, 315–21, 322, 323–24, 329, 346 Obama administration, 320–28 Ocean, 350–55 Och, Franz, 63–65 Oh, Sunny, 283, 297, 298 OKR (Objectives and Key Results), 163–64, 165, 186, 209, 325 Open Book Alliance, 362 Open Handset Alliance, 221–22 OpenSocial, 375–76 operating systems, 210–12 optical character recognition (OCR), 53, 349–50 Oracle, 220 Orkut, 371–73, 375 Otellini, Paul, 218 Overture, 89, 90, 91, 95, 96, 98–99, 103, 150 Oxford University Press, 354, 357 Page, Larry, 3, 5 achievements of, 53, 383 and advertising, 84, 86–87, 90, 92, 94, 95–97, 114, 334, 336–37 ambition of, 12, 39, 73, 127–28, 139, 198, 215, 238, 362, 386–87 and applications, 205, 206, 207, 208, 210, 240–42, 340 and artificial intelligence, 62, 100, 246, 385–86 and BackRub/PageRank, 17, 18, 21–24, 26 and birth of Google, 31–34 and Book Search, 11, 347–52, 355, 357, 359, 361, 362, 364 on capturing all the web, 22–24, 52, 58, 63 on changing the world, 6, 13, 33, 39, 97, 120, 125, 146, 173, 232, 279, 316, 327, 361, 384–85 childhood and early years of, 11–13 and China, 267, 276, 277–78, 279–80, 283, 284, 305, 311 and data centers, 182–83 and eco-activism, 241 and email, 169–72, 174, 179 and Excite, 28–29 and funding, 32, 33–34, 73–75 and hiring practices, 139–40, 142, 182, 271, 386 imagination of, 14, 271 and IPO, 146–47, 149–54, 157 and machine learning, 66, 67 and management, 74, 75–77, 79–82, 110, 143, 158–60, 162–66, 228, 231, 235, 252–53, 254, 255, 260, 272, 273, 386–87 marriage of, 254 as Montessori kid, 121–25, 127–28, 149, 331, 387 and Obama, 315–16 and philanthropy, 257–58 and privacy, 174, 176–77, 337 and robots, 246, 385 and secrecy, 31–32, 70, 72–73, 106, 218 and smart phones, 214–16, 224, 225, 226–30, 234 and social networking, 372 and speed, 184–85, 207 and Stanford, 12–13, 14, 16–17, 28, 29, 34 and trust, 221, 237 values of, 127–28, 130, 132, 135, 139–40, 146, 196, 361, 364 and wealth, 157 and web links, 51 and YouTube, 248 PageRank, 3, 17, 18, 21–24, 27, 34, 38, 48–49, 53, 55, 56, 294 Palm, 216, 221 Park, Lori, 235, 258 Pashupathy, Kannan, 270–72, 277, 282 Passion Device, 230 Patel, Amit, 45–46, 82 and Google motto, 143–44, 146 patents, 27, 39, 89, 102, 221, 235, 237, 350 PayPal, 242, 243 peer-to-peer protocols, 234–35 Peters, Marybeth, 352 Phil, 99–103 Philip, Prince, 122 Picasa, 185–86, 187, 239 Pichai, Sundar, 205–6, 207–8, 209–12 Pichette, Patrick, 120, 150, 254–56 Pike, Rob, 241 Pittman, R.


pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

The carefully crafted and widely used Creative Commons licences, pioneered by Lawrence Lessig, give a clear set of rules, allowing several variants of free reproduction.42 Freespeechdebate.com uses one of them, a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence, which means that you are free to copy, distribute, display and perform the content of the site, and to make derivative works from it, provided you give credit to the original author of the content, do not use the content for commercial purposes and distribute any derivative work under the same kind of Creative Commons licence.43 Freely available digital library resources, such as the Digital Public Library of America, Europeana and the Internet Archive—to name but three—support this purpose.44 So does the scientific preprint site arXiv, which reportedly includes half of all the world’s physics papers.45 Second, open access can enhance not merely the dissemination but the production of knowledge. On occasion, crowdsourcing has generated scientific results that could not have been found by a single researcher, or only at vast expense of time and money.

Aaron Swartz, ‘Guerilla Open Access Manifesto’, http://perma.cc/CHA9-PAL2 42. see http://creativecommons.org/choose/ 43. ‘Copyright & Attribution’, Free Speech Debate, http://freespeechdebate.com/en/copyright-attribution/ 44. on the Digital Public Library, see Darnton, ‘The National Digital Public Library Is Launched!’, New York Review of Books, 25 April 2013, http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2013/apr/25/national-digital-public-library-launched/. Europeana, http://www.europeana.eu/portal/ and the Internet Archive, https://archive.org/index.php 45. see Nielsen 2012, 161–63 46. Galaxy Zoo, http://perma.cc/W5M4-PAHW 47. I take these examples from Nielsen 2012, 1–3, 133–42 48. see ‘Gottfrid Svartholm-Warg on Freedom of Speech 2007’, 20 May 2013, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FJiWuw7Qk5E 49. see Gabrielle Guillemin, ‘Does ACTA Threaten Online Freedom of Expression & Privacy?’, Free Speech Debate, http://freespeechdebate.com/en/media/acta-the-internet-freedom-of-expression-privacy/ 50. see, for example, University of Exeter, ‘Green and Gold Open Access’, http://perma.cc/A9VW-2VND 51. internet live stats, Google Search Statistics, http://www.internetlivestats.com/google-search-statistics/.


pages: 400 words: 94,847

Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science by Michael Nielsen

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Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Cass Sunstein, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dark matter, discovery of DNA, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kevin Kelly, Magellanic Cloud, means of production, medical residency, Nicholas Carr, publish or perish, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, University of East Anglia, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge

That means that tools such as Creative Commons licenses, which have been tremendously effective in moving to a more open culture, don’t directly address the principal underlying challenge in science: the fact that scientists are rewarded for publishing papers, and not for other ways of sharing knowledge. So although open science can learn a lot from the open culture movement, it also requires new thinking. Notes Some of the references that follow include webpag es whose URLs may expire after this book is published. Such webpages should be recoverable using the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine (http://www.archive.org/web/web.php). Online sources are often written informally, and I’ve reproduced spelling and other errors verbatim when quoting such sources. Chapter 1. Reinventing Discovery p 1: Gowers proposed the Polymath Project in a posting to his blog [79]. For more on the Polymath Project, see [82]. p 2: Gowers’s announcement of the probable success of the first Polymath Project: [81].


pages: 297 words: 89,820

The Perfect Thing: How the iPod Shuffles Commerce, Culture, and Coolness by Steven Levy

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Apple II, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, en.wikipedia.org, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, social web, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technology bubble, Thomas L Friedman

This book made available by the Internet Archive. To Andrew and Allie Podcast 227 Coda 255 Notes 257 Acknowledgments 271 Index 273 Contents Author's Note From following the iPod since its inception, both as a reporter and someone bound to his subject literally by the ears, I came to understand that one feature in particular was not only central to the enjoyment of this ingenious device but has come to symbolize its impact on the larger media landscape—and perhaps to embody the direction of the digital revolution in general. Shuffle. As I document in these pages, mixing one's music library in the high-tech version of fifty-two pickup is a source of constant delight and, at least for me, a stepping-stone to ruminations on computer intelligence, randomness, and the unintended effects produced by a well-designed system.


pages: 342 words: 88,736

The Big Ratchet: How Humanity Thrives in the Face of Natural Crisis by Ruth Defries

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agricultural Revolution, Columbian Exchange, demographic transition, double helix, European colonialism, food miles, Francisco Pizarro, Haber-Bosch Process, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, out of africa, planetary scale, premature optimization, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade

Jordan, W. 1996. The Great Famine: Northern Europe in the Early Fourteenth Century. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. Khan, S., R. Tariq, C. Yuanlai, and J. Blackwell. 2006. Can irrigation be sustainable? Agricultural Water Management 80:87–99. King, F. 1911. Farmers of forty centuries; or, Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea and Japan. Mrs. F. H. King, Madison, WI. Available at Internet Archive, https://archive.org/details/farmersoffortyce00kinguoft. Kuhn, O. 2004. Ancient Chinese drilling. Canadian Society of Exploration Geophysicists, CSEG Recorder, June: 39–43. Lal, R., D. Relocosky, and J. Hanson. 2007. Evolution of the plow over 10,000 years and the rationale for no-till farming. Soil and Tillage Research 93:1–12. Leigh, G. J. 2004. The World’s Greatest Fix: A History of Nitrogen and Agriculture.


pages: 398 words: 108,889

The Paypal Wars: Battles With Ebay, the Media, the Mafia, and the Rest of Planet Earth by Eric M. Jackson

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bank run, business process, call centre, disintermediation, Elon Musk, index fund, Internet Archive, iterative process, Joseph Schumpeter, market design, Menlo Park, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, telemarketer, The Chicago School, Turing test

If the intended recipient of the funds decided to create an account, he could retain the funds. However, users could only send up to $5 from this auxiliary balance to any given individual, and unlike the PayPal and X.com services the person making the referral could not earn a bonus. 12. Tim Clark, “EBay Acquires Two Firms,” News.com, May 18, 1999, http://news.com.com/2100-1017_3-226031.html. 13. Cohen, The Perfect Store, 186-187. 14. Ibid, 94-95, 191. 15. Internet Archive query of “payme.com,” http://www.archive.org. 16. Idealab.com, Web site, http://www.idealab.com/about/index.tp. 17. Troy Wolverton, “Idealab Launches Online Bill Payment Service,” News.com, Feb. 23, 2000, http://news.com.com/2100-1017-237211.html?legacy=cnet. Chapter 3 1. Mark Gimein, “Fast Track,” Salon.com, August 17, 1999, http://www.salon.com/tech/feature/1999/08/17/elon_musk/. 2.


pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

; Leon Trotsky, The Transitional Program: Death Agony of Capitalism and the Tasks of the Fourth International (London: Bolshevik Publications, 1999). 6.On the criteria of desirability, viability and achievability, see Erik Olin Wright, Envisioning Real Utopias (London: Verso, 2010), pp. 20–5. 7.For an example of the former, see the Stakhanovite movement, or Lenin’s comments on Taylorist management methods: ‘The Russian is a bad worker compared with people in advanced countries … We must organise in Russia the study and teaching of the Taylor system and systematically try it out and adapt it to our own ends.’ Vladimir Lenin, ‘The Immediate Tasks of the Soviet Government’, 1918, Marxists Internet Archive, at marxists.org; Lewis H. Siegelbaum, Stakhanovism and the Politics of Productivity in the USSR, 1935–1941 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990). For a critique of the idea of freedom without abundance, see: ‘[T]his development of productive forces … is an absolutely necessary practical premise, because without it privation, want, is merely made general’. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The German Ideology (London: Prometheus, 1976), p. 54. 8.While we do not have the space to discuss them here, there are important ethical questions surrounding machines and work – particularly in the area of artificial intelligence.

Paper Knowledge: Toward a Media History of Documents by Lisa Gitelman

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Andrew Keen, computer age, corporate governance, deskilling, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, optical character recognition, profit motive, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Turing test, Works Progress Administration

Robert Lynd, coauthor of the groundbreaking studies of the city he called Middletown, praised the Annals project in the American Sociological Review, noting that it offered a unique, “folk-­eye view” because that was the view that had greeted the “eyes of citizens of Cleveland year after year” in the pages of their own newspapers.81 He might also have added that it was a folk-­eye view because it was prepared by folks in Cleveland. To twenty-­first-­century readers this may sound like a radical vision: amateur cultural production meets progressive politics, a Wikipedia wrought in typescript, or the Open Content Alliance and Internet Archive sans Internet. But at base the hrs had a centrist or even conservative tenor, with the aim of providing a palliative for current ills rather than a remaking of the social order.82 In comparison with the highly politicized Federal Writers Project and Federal Theater Project of the wpa —both of which had attracted the attention of the House Un-­American Activities Committee, chaired at that time by Representative Martin Dies Jr.

The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences by Rob Kitchin

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business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, linked data, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs

., scanned or re-recorded), which can be expensive and time-consuming, though the process can be automated to an extent. The overheads associated with digitisation, in terms of cost, staff time and specialist equipment, have limited its employment in many older analogue archives held by museums, libraries and private collections. While such institutions have struggled to finance their digitisation activities, both philanthropic (e.g., the Internet Archive: https://archive.org/) and commercial (e.g., Google) entities are helping to undertake such activities, using their own resources and that of ‘the crowd’, making them freely available to the public (see Chapter 5). In all cases, the data within digital data holdings and archives can be easily shared and reused for a low marginal cost, though they can be restricted with respect to access and reuse by IPR policies.


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Between 1956 and 2000 there were sixty tape video formats, already a formidable number; today over three hundred video file formats exist, many of them proprietary. For files in these formats to be successfully archived, the software for playing them and machines that can run that software must be in working order. Faced with this rapid pace of change and growing stacks of outdated hard drives, Brewster Kahle, founder of the Internet Archive and leader of the open access movement, announced in 2011 that he would refocus his efforts on preserving paper books. “We’re discovering what librarians have known for centuries in this new digital world,” Kahle told NPR, confessing that he felt he had been naive. “The opportunity to live in an Orwellian or a Fahrenheit 451 type world, where things are changed out from underneath us, is very much present … Let’s make sure we put in place the long-term archives to make it so that we can check up on those that are presenting things in the future.” 3.


pages: 385 words: 133,839

The Coke Machine: The Dirty Truth Behind the World's Favorite Soft Drink by Michael Blanding

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carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, Exxon Valdez, Gordon Gekko, Internet Archive, laissez-faire capitalism, market design, Naomi Klein, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, Upton Sinclair

Page 269 “My message to you”: Videocast, The Coca-Cola Company, Annual Meeting of Stock­ holders, April 19, 2006, http://events.streamlogics.com/pmtv/coke/apr19-06/auditorium/ index.asp. Page 269 activists raised red flags: Amit Srivastava, India Resource Center press release, “Coca-Cola Funded Group Investigates Coca-Cola in India,” April 16, 2007. Page 269 listed Coca-Cola as a sponsor: Confirmed from TERI website, April 16, 2006, www .teriin.org (accessed through Internet Archive, www.archive.org). Page 269 had been paid by Coke: Confirmed by Ibrahim Rehman, Director, Social Transfor­ mation Division, The Energy and Resources Institute, in interview by the author. Page 269 most responsible companies: Confirmed by Ritu Kumar, “Human Face of Corpo­ rates,” Times of India, December 24, 2001. Page 269 student campaign had “stalled”: David Teather, “Has Coke Become the Next McDonald’s?”


pages: 398 words: 120,801

Little Brother by Cory Doctorow

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airport security, Berlin Wall, citizen journalism, Firefox, game design, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, mail merge, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, web of trust, zero day

There was an email from a kid who liked to send in funny phone-cam videos of the DHS being really crazy -- the last one had been of them disassembling a baby's stroller after a bomb-sniffing dog had shown an interest in it, taking it apart with screwdrivers right on the street in the Marina while all these rich people walked past, staring at them and marveling at how weird it was. I'd linked to the video and it had been downloaded like crazy. He'd hosted it on the Internet Archive's Alexandria mirror in Egypt, where they'd host anything for free so long as you'd put it under the Creative Commons license, which let anyone remix it and share it. The US archive -- which was down in the Presidio, only a few minutes away -- had been forced to take down all those videos in the name of national security, but the Alexandria archive had split away into its own organization and was hosting anything that embarrassed the USA.


pages: 532 words: 139,706

Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta

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23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, corporate social responsibility, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management

Was Google going to enter the online book-selling business, competing against an early investor, Amazon’s Jeff Bezos? With Microsoft dropping its book search project and no other deep-pocketed competitor jumping in, did the agreement concentrate too much informational power in the hands of a single company? Did Google have the right, as it claimed, to sell digital copies of books whose copyright had expired? If it is true—as the Internet Archive, a competitive book digitizer, claims—that the settlement grants Google immunity from copyright infringement, will the courts permit this? What of so-called orphaned books, those whose copyright owners can’t be identified—does Google, as it claims, get to own the digital rights? Will there be any regulation of the prices Google may charge libraries and colleges for access to digitized books?


pages: 586 words: 159,901

Wall Street: How It Works And for Whom by Doug Henwood

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, central bank independence, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental subject, facts on the ground, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, interest rate swap, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, labor-force participation, late capitalism, law of one price, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, London Interbank Offered Rate, Louis Bachelier, market bubble, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, oil shock, payday loans, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, random walk, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, women in the workforce, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

This book made available by the Internet Archive. The credit system, which has its focal point in the allegedly national banks and the big money-lenders and usurers that surround them, is one enormous centralization and gives this class of parasites a fabulous power not only to decimate the industrial capitalists periodically but also to interfere in actual production in the most dangerous manner — and this crew know nothing of production and have nothing at all to do with it. — Marx, Capital, vol. 3, chap. 33 I'm not a parasite. I'm an investor. — Lyonya Gulubkov, described by the New York Times as "a bumbling Russian Everyman" responding to "Soviet-style" taunts in an ad for the fraudulent MMM investment scheme which collapsed in 1994 Acknowledgments Though one name usually appears on the cover, a book is a far more collaborative project than that.


pages: 481 words: 121,300

Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij

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agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

This book made available by the Internet Archive. To Macduff, Cleo, and Barley, who are sure to chew on this. PREFACE Ten years ago I wrote a book about the state of the world from a geographic perspective, guided in part by the preferences of viewers who had watched my appearances on ABC's Good Morning America over the preceding seven years (de Blij, 1995). We had mapped on screen the collapse of the Soviet Union, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, the first Gulf War, the breakup of Yugoslavia, the economic miracle on the Pacific Rim, the apparent strides the planet was making toward a New World Order. There was still hope that global warming would be mild and temporary, that Africa's health and economic malaise would reverse, that Russia was headed for stable democracy, that incidents of terrorism would decline in number and severity.


pages: 479 words: 133,092

The Coke Machine by Michael Blanding

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carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, Exxon Valdez, Gordon Gekko, Internet Archive, laissez-faire capitalism, market design, Naomi Klein, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, Upton Sinclair

Page 269 “My message to you”: Videocast, The Coca-Cola Company, Annual Meeting of Stockholders, April 19, 2006, http://events.streamlogics.com/pmtv/coke/apr19-06/auditorium/index.asp. Page 269 activists raised red flags: Amit Srivastava, India Resource Center press release, “Coca-Cola Funded Group Investigates Coca-Cola in India,” April 16, 2007. Page 269 listed Coca-Cola as a sponsor: Confirmed from TERI website, April 16, 2006, www.teriin.org (accessed through Internet Archive, www.archive.org). Page 269 had been paid by Coke: Confirmed by Ibrahim Rehman, Director, Social Transformation Division, The Energy and Resources Institute, in interview by the author. Page 269 most responsible companies: Confirmed by Ritu Kumar, “Human Face of Corporates,” Times of India, December 24, 2001. Page 269 student campaign had “stalled”: David Teather, “Has Coke Become the Next McDonald’s?”


pages: 484 words: 120,507

The Last Lingua Franca: English Until the Return of Babel by Nicholas Ostler

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barriers to entry, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, open economy, Republic of Letters, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, trade route, upwardly mobile

Chapter 11: The Jungle Is Neutral 1 . Laitin 1989, citing Report of the Official Language Commission (Kher Report) 1956, ch. 7. 2 . Danzin et al. 1990. 3 . ixa2.si.ehu.es/saltmil/en/activities/workshops/review-by-nicholas-ostler.htm. 4 . These statistics are obtained from “Internet World Stats by Language” (at www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm) . 5 . This story was constructed by applying the Internet Archive Wayback machine at www.archive.org to the Google Language Tools site at www.google.com/language_tools. Details of the Babel Fish site are at babelfish.yahoo.com, and of Microsoft Bing Translator at www.microsofttranslator.com. Chapter 12: Under an English Sun, the Shadows Lengthen 1 . Wilson and Purushothaman 2003. 2 . Lewis 2009, 556. 3 . Horrocks 1997, 322–24. 4 . Waquet 2001, 96. 5 .


pages: 394 words: 118,929

Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software by Scott Rosenberg

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A Pattern Language, Berlin Wall, c2.com, call centre, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Howard Rheingold, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, life extension, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, software studies, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Therac-25, thinkpad, Turing test, VA Linux, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

“Moving your files from this machine”: Bill Gates, quoted in USA Today, June 29, 2003, at http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2003-06-29-gates-longhorn_x.htm. “Our head count has been fairly flat”: Mitch Kapor blog posting on August 3, 2003, at http://blogs.osafoundation.org/mitch/000313.htm# 000313. “Do you have any advice for people”: Linus Torvalds, quoted in Linux Times, June 2004. Linux Times has ceased publication. The article used to be at http://www.linuxtimes.net/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=145 and can be found via the Internet Archive’s Wayback Machine at http://web.archive.org/web/20041106193140/ http://www.linuxtimes.net/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=145. CHAPTER 7 DETAIL VIEW Simple things should be simple: This quotation is widely attributed to Alan Kay. I have been unable to trace its original source. It is also occasionally attributed to Larry Wall. Clay Shirky wrote about Christopher Alexander’s “A City Is Not a Tree” in the Many to Many blog on April 26, 2004, at http://many.corante.com/archives/2004/04/26/a_ city_is_not_a_tree.php.


pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

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23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

The UK police won’t even admit: Joseph Cox (7 Aug 2014), “UK police won’t admit they’re tracking people’s phone calls,” Vice, http://motherboard.vice.com/read/uk-police-wont-admit-theyre-tracking-peoples-phone-calls. Those who receive such a letter: This is a fascinating first-person account of what it’s like to receive a National Security Letter. It was published anonymously, but was later revealed to be the work of Internet Archive founder Brewster Kahle. Anonymous (23 Mar 2007), “My National Security Letter gag order,” Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/22/AR2007032201882.html. the reason the FBI: Kim Zetter (3 Mar 2014), “Florida cops’ secret weapon: Warrantless cellphone tracking,” Wired, http://www.wired.com/2014/03/stingray. Kim Zetter (4 Mar 2014), “Police contract with spy tool maker prohibits talking about device’s use,” Wired, http://www.wired.com/2014/03/harris-stingray-nda.


pages: 418 words: 128,965

The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires by Tim Wu

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Alfred Russel Wallace, Apple II, barriers to entry, British Empire, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Menlo Park, open economy, packet switching, PageRank, profit motive, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

Ted Turner’s full quote appears in Saul Hansell, “Media Megadeal: The Overview,” New York Times, January 11, 2000. 6. Steve Lohr, “AOL Merger Turns Tables on Microsoft,” New York Times, January 12, 2000. 7. Kramer defends the AOL–Time Warner merger in Larry Kramer, “Why the AOL–Time Warner Merger Was a Good Idea,” The Daily Beast, Blogs and Stories, May 4, 2009, available at www.thedailybeast.com/blogs-and-stories/2009-05-04/how-time-warner-blew-it/. 8. You can find the old Pathfinder site on the Internet Archive, http://archive.org. 9. On Disney’s total merchandising strategy, see “All the Movies Are Geared to Publicizing … and Making Money,” Newsweek, December 1962, 48–51. 10. This figure was at the time of the merger. Klein, Stealing TIME, 259. 11. Ken Auletta, Media Man: Ted Turner’s Improbable Empire, 96. 12. The FTC and FCC both imposed conditions on the merger, including the “open access” provision referred to in the text, as well as conditions designed to maintain an open market for instant messaging, then thought to be a crucial platform for the future.

When You and Your Mother Can't Be Friends: Resolving the Most Complicated Relationship of Your Life by Victoria Secunda

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Internet Archive

This book made available by the Internet Archive. For my grandmother Part Four: A Separate Peace 16. Breaking the Cycle 281 17. Redefining the Mother-Daughter Relationship 296 18. Friendship 309 19. Truce 327 20. Divorce 345 Part Five: Closing the Circle Epilogue: Five Generations, One Family Album 367 Notes 379 Bibliography 392 Index 397 II The more we idealize the past . . . and refuse to acknowledge our childhood sufferings, the more we pass them on unconsciously to the next generation. —Alice Miller, Ph.D. Acknowledgments Many authors say that writing is a lonely profession. In my experience, it is anything but. This book could not have been accomplished without the help and involvement—intellectually, professionally, and personally—of others. I owe an enormous intellectual debt to those researchers, social scientists, and clinicians who have studied patterns in how and why people behave as they do.


pages: 478 words: 146,480

Pirate Cinema by Cory Doctorow

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airport security, citation needed, Internet Archive, place-making, smart cities

We'll leave it to you to decide whether it applies here. In the meantime, we've shut our doors. The hundred-plus Britons who worked for us are now looking for jobs. We've set up a page here where you can review their CVs if you're hiring. We vouch for all of them. We struggled with the problem of what to do with all the video you've entrusted to us over the years. In the end, we decided to send a set of our backups to the Internet Archive, archive.org, which has a new server array in Iceland, where -- for the time being -- the laws are more sensible than they are here. The kind people at archive.org are working hard to bring it online, and once it is, you'll be able to download your creations again. Sorry to say that we're not sure when that will happen, though. And that's it. We're done. Wait. We're not quite done.


pages: 413 words: 119,587

Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots by John Markoff

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

He said his dream was to put a robot in every home. The idea resonated with Hassan. A student in computer science first at the State University of New York at Buffalo, he then entered graduate programs in computer science at both Washington University in St. Louis and Stanford, but dropped out of both programs before receiving an advanced degree. Once he was on the West Coast, he had gotten involved with Brewster Kahle’s Internet Archive Project, which sought to save a copy of every Web page on the Internet. Larry Page and Sergey Brin had given Hassan stock for programming PageRank, and Hassan also sold E-Groups, another of his information retrieval projects, to Yahoo! for almost a half-billion dollars. By then, he was a very wealthy Silicon Valley technologist looking for interesting projects. In 2006 he backed both Ng and Salisbury and hired Salisbury’s students to join Willow Garage, a laboratory he’d already created to facilitate the next generation of robotics technology—like designing driverless cars.


pages: 473 words: 132,344

The Downfall of Money: Germany's Hyperinflation and the Destruction of the Middle Class by Frederick Taylor

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, falling living standards, fiat currency, full employment, German hyperinflation, housing crisis, Internet Archive, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, mittelstand, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, quantitative easing, rent control, risk/return, strikebreaker, trade route

Parliamentary Records Verhandlungen der verfassungsgebenden Deutschen Nationalversammlung (Proceedings of the Constitutuent German National Assembly, 1919-1920) and Verhandlungen des Deutschen Reichstages (Proceedings of the German Reichstag, to 1918 and after June 1920), both available at http://www.reichstagsprotokolle.de Contemporary Newspapers and Periodicals Die Weltbühne, searchable facsimiles of all issues available online at the Internet Archive, http://archive.org/search.php?query=die%20weltb%C3%BChne%20AND%20collection%3Aopensource ProQuest Historical Newspapers, Archive of the Manchester Guardian and the Observer, accessed via the London Library website (subscription service). Sunday Times Digital Archive 1822-2006, accessed via the London Library website (subscription service). The Living Age, available online at http://www.unz.org/Pub/LivingAge Times Digital Archive 1785-1985, accessed via the London Library website (subscription service).


pages: 548 words: 147,919

How Everything Became War and the Military Became Everything: Tales From the Pentagon by Rosa Brooks

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airport security, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, Mark Zuckerberg, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, personalized medicine, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Turing test, unemployed young men, Wall-E, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

One of those soldiers—jaunty and confident in his high-necked tunic with its gleaming buttons down the front—was a relative of mine: a great-great-uncle, or maybe a cousin, named Robert George MacFarlane. On the back of the photo, the names and fates of those grinning young men are listed in my great-grandmother’s careful script: L. B. Reynolds B. T. O’Grady G. H. Revell, Killed A. Davies Tom Brown Jr. A. J. Evans, Killed L. B. North R. G. MacFarlane, Shot with a machine gun Thanks to Internet archives and a few old family stories, I know a fair amount about Robert George MacFarlane. At the time of his death he was a second lieutenant attached to the British Army’s Royal Engineers. He was born in Huntingdon, Quebec, on January 28, 1889; he had a brother named James and a sister named Elsie. He was a Presbyterian, like his Scottish emigrant forebears, and he attended McGill University, graduating in 1910 and finding work as a mining engineer in Nelson, British Columbia.


pages: 424 words: 121,425

How the Other Half Banks: Exclusion, Exploitation, and the Threat to Democracy by Mehrsa Baradaran

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access to a mobile phone, affirmative action, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, credit crunch, David Graeber, disintermediation, diversification, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, income inequality, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, McMansion, microcredit, mobile money, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Own Your Own Home, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, savings glut, the built environment, the payments system, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, union organizing, white flight, working poor

Kohn, vice chairman, board of governors of the Federal Reserve System), accessed March 12, 2015, archives.financialservices.house.gov/hearing110/htkohn042507.pdf. 187. Dodd, “Industrial Loan Banks,” 311. 188. Spong and Robbins, “Industrial Loan Companies,” 46; Federal Reserve, “Bulletin Report on the Condition of the U.S. Banking Industry: Third Quarter” 2005, accessed May 15, 2010, www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/bulletin/2006/bank_condition/default.htm. 189. FDIC, “Internet Archive of Wal-Mart Bank Federal Deposit Insurance Application,” accessed February 28, 2009, www.fdic.gov/regulations/laws/federal/06notices.html. 190. Moratorium on Certain Industrial Bank Applications and Notices, 72 Fed. Reg. 5290 (February 5, 2007); Parija B. Kavilanz, “Wal-Mart Withdraws Industrial Banking Push,” CNNMoney, March 16, 2007, accessed March 12, 2015, www.money.cnn.com/2007/03/16/news/companies/walmart/index.htm. 191.


pages: 523 words: 143,139

Algorithms to Live By: The Computer Science of Human Decisions by Brian Christian, Tom Griffiths

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4chan, Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anthropic principle, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, constrained optimization, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, Danny Hillis, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, diversification, double helix, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, first-price auction, Flash crash, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Henri Poincaré, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, Lao Tzu, linear programming, martingale, Nash equilibrium, natural language processing, NP-complete, P = NP, packet switching, prediction markets, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Robert X Cringely, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, sorting algorithm, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, stochastic process, Thomas Malthus, traveling salesman, Turing machine, urban planning, Vickrey auction, Walter Mischel, Y Combinator

“a very fundamental principle in my method”: Yukio Noguchi, personal interview, December 17, 2013. the “super” filing system was born: Noguchi’s filing system is described in his book Super Organized Method, and was initially presented in English by the translator William Lise. The blog article describing the system is no longer available on Lise’s site, but it can still be visited via the Internet Archive at https://web.archive.org/web/20031223072329/http://www.lise.jp/honyaku/noguchi.html. Further information comes from Yukio Noguchi, personal interview, December 17, 2013. The definitive paper on self-organizing lists: Sleator and Tarjan, “Amortized Efficiency of List Update and Paging Rules,” which also provided the clearest results on the theoretical properties of the LRU principle. “God’s algorithm if you will”: Robert Tarjan, personal interview, December 17, 2013.


pages: 624 words: 180,416

For the Win by Cory Doctorow

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barriers to entry, Burning Man, double helix, Internet Archive, inventory management, loose coupling, Maui Hawaii, microcredit, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, Post-materialism, post-materialism, random walk, RFID, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave

She fished in her pocket for her earbuds and dropped them on the table where they clattered like M&Ms. “I think I’ve got about 40,000 songs on those. Haven’t run out of space yet, either.” He rolled the buds around in his palm like a pair of dice. “You won’t—I stopped keeping track of mine after I added my hundred-thousandth audiobook. I’ve got a bunch of the Library of Congress in mine as high-rez scans, too. A copy of the Internet Archive, every post every made on Usenet... Basically, these things are infinitely capacious, given the size of the media we work with today.” He rolled the buds out on the workbench and laughed. “And that’s just the point! Tomorrow, we’ll have some new extra fat kind of media and some new task to perform with it and some new storage medium that will make these things look like an old iPod. Before that happens, you want this to wear out and scuff up or get lost—” “I lose those things all the time, like a set a month.”


pages: 728 words: 182,850

Cooking for Geeks by Jeff Potter

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3D printing, A Pattern Language, carbon footprint, centre right, Community Supported Agriculture, crowdsourcing, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, fear of failure, food miles, hacker house, haute cuisine, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, iterative process, Parkinson's law, placebo effect, random walk, slashdot, stochastic process, the scientific method

If nothing else, limiting yourself to ingredients that would traditionally be used together can help bring a certain uniformity to your dish, and serve as a fun challenge, too. And you can extend this idea to wines to accompany your dishes, from the traditional (say, a French rosé with Niçoise salad) to modern (Aussie Shiraz with barbeque). Another way of looking at historical combinations is to look at old cookbooks. A number of older cookbooks are now in the public domain and accessible via the Internet Archive (http://www.archive.org), Project Gutenberg (http://www.gutenberg.org), and Google Books (http://books.google.com). Try searching Google Books for "Boston Cooking-School Cook Book"; for waffles, see page 80 (page 112 in the downloadable PDF). If nothing else, seeing how much—and, really, how little!—has changed can be great fun. And then there are classic gems, foods that have simply fallen to the sidelines of history for no discernable reason.

The death and life of great American cities by Jane Jacobs

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City Beautiful movement, Golden Gate Park, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen

This book made available by the Internet Archive. To NEW YORK CITY where I came to seek my fortune and found it by finding Bob, Jimmy, Ned and Mary for whom this book is written too Acknowledgment So many scores of persons helped me with this book, wittingl and unwittingly, that I shall never fully be able to acknowleds the appreciation I owe and feel. In particular I am grateful fc information, aid or criticism given by the following person Saul AUnsky, Norris C. Andrews, Edmund Bacon, June Blyth John Decker Butzner, Jr., Henry Churchill, Grady Clay, Williai C. Crow, Vernon De Mars, Monsignor John J. Egan, Charl( Famsley, Carl Feiss, Robert B. Filley, Mrs. Rosario Folino, Cha< bourne Gilpatric, Victor Gruen, Frank Havey, Goldie HoflFma Frank Hotchkiss, Leticia Kent, William H. Kirk, Mr. and Mr George Kostritsky, Jay Landesman, The Rev.


pages: 933 words: 205,691

Hadoop: The Definitive Guide by Tom White

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Amazon Web Services, bioinformatics, business intelligence, combinatorial explosion, database schema, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, full text search, Grace Hopper, information retrieval, Internet Archive, linked data, loose coupling, openstreetmap, recommendation engine, RFID, SETI@home, social graph, web application

That’s roughly the same order of magnitude as one disk drive for every person in the world. This flood of data is coming from many sources. Consider the following:[3] The New York Stock Exchange generates about one terabyte of new trade data per day. Facebook hosts approximately 10 billion photos, taking up one petabyte of storage. Ancestry.com, the genealogy site, stores around 2.5 petabytes of data. The Internet Archive stores around 2 petabytes of data, and is growing at a rate of 20 terabytes per month. The Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, will produce about 15 petabytes of data per year. So there’s a lot of data out there. But you are probably wondering how it affects you. Most of the data is locked up in the largest web properties (like search engines), or scientific or financial institutions, isn’t it?


pages: 571 words: 162,958

Rewired: The Post-Cyberpunk Anthology by James Patrick Kelly, John Kessel

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back-to-the-land, Columbine, dark matter, Extropian, Firefox, gravity well, haute couture, Internet Archive, pattern recognition, phenotype, post-industrial society, price stability, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, technological singularity, telepresence, the scientific method, Turing test, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Y2K, zero day

The new group was alt.november5-disaster.recovery, with .recovery.goverance, .recovery.finance, .recovery.logistics and .recovery.defense hanging off of it. Bless the wooly alt. hierarchy and all those who sail in her. The sysadmins came out of the woodwork. The Googleplex was online, with the stalwart Queen Kong bossing a gang of rollerbladed grunts who wheeled through the gigantic data-center swapping out dead boxen and hitting reboot switches. The Internet Archive was offline in the Presidio, but the mirror in Amsterdam was live and they’d redirected the DNS SO that you’d hardly know the difference. Amazon was down. PayPal was up. Blogger, TypePad, and LiveJournal were all up, and filling with millions of posts from scared survivors huddling together for electronic warmth. The Flickr photostreams were horrific. Felix had to unsubscribe from them after he caught a photo of a woman and a baby, dead in a kitchen, twisted into an agonized hieroglyph by the bioagent.


pages: 829 words: 186,976

The Signal and the Noise: Why So Many Predictions Fail-But Some Don't by Nate Silver

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airport security, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Black Swan, Broken windows theory, Carmen Reinhart, Claude Shannon: information theory, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, Donald Trump, Edmond Halley, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, en.wikipedia.org, equity premium, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, Freestyle chess, fudge factor, George Akerlof, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, high batting average, housing crisis, income per capita, index fund, Internet Archive, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, locking in a profit, Loma Prieta earthquake, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, Nate Silver, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pets.com, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, savings glut, security theater, short selling, Skype, statistical model, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons

Feng-hsiung Hsu, Thomas Anantharaman, Murray Campbell, and Andreas Nowatzyk, “A Grandmaster Chess Machine,” Scientific American, October 1990. http://www.disi.unige.it/person/DelzannoG/AI2/hsu.html. 15. Ibid. 16. “The Chip vs. the Chessmaster,” Nova (documentary), March 26, 1991. 17. Garry Kasparov, “The Chess Master and the Computer,” New York Review of Books, February 11, 2010. http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2010/feb/11/the-chess-master-and-the-computer/. 18. “Frequently Asked Questions: Deep Blue;” IBM Research via Internet Archive WayBack Machine beta. http://web.archive.org/web/20071028124110/http://www.research.ibm.com/deepblue/meet/html/d.3.3a.shtml#difficult. 19. Chess Opening Explorer, chessgames.com. http://www.chessgames.com/perl/explorer. 20. Murray Campbell, A. Joseph Hoane Jr., and Feng-hsiung Hsu, “Deep Blue,” sjeng.org, August 1, 2001. http://sjeng.org/ftp/deepblue.pdf. 21. IBM Research, “Frequently Asked Questions: Deep Blue.” 22. “1, Nf3 d5, 2. g3 Bg4” Chess Opening Explorer, chessgames.com. http://www.chessgames.com/perl/explorer?

Frommer's Egypt by Matthew Carrington

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airport security, centre right, colonial rule, Internet Archive, land tenure, Maui Hawaii, open economy, rent control, rolodex, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, Yom Kippur War

From the street outside, the water is at eye level and the effect is intense, and a flying pier structure juts out from the second floor. Inside the library, the best perspective is from above, at the level of the entranceway. From here you get a marvelous sense of space, which extends to the stacks, mostly empty due to a combination of censorship and lack of funding. The irony here is that the Bibliotheca is the mirror site for the Internet Archive project, which attempts to download and archive the entire contents of the Internet. The Antiquities Museum in the basement isn’t very good—it feels like an afterthought—but it has two exquisite mosaics as well as some lovely Mamluke glass and Coptic icons. The documentation is in broken English and difficult to follow. The Bibliotheca also hosts traveling international exhibits from time to time, and it’s worth checking its website if you’re in town for a few days.


pages: 879 words: 233,093

The Empathic Civilization: The Race to Global Consciousness in a World in Crisis by Jeremy Rifkin

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, planetary scale, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey

Holt and Company, 1911. pp. 10-11. 30 Blum, Harold F. Time’s Arrow and Evolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 1968. p. 94. 31 Schrödinger, Erwin. What Is Life? New York: Macmillan, 1947. pp. 72, 75. 32 Russell, Bertrand. An Outline of Philosophy. New York: Meridian, 1974 [1927/1960]. p. 30. 33 Miller, G. Tyler. Energetics, Kinetics, and Life. p. 291. 34 Ibid. 35 Lotka, Alfred. Elements of Physical Biology. Internet archive. “Full Text of Elements of Physical Biology.” www.archive.org/stream/elementsofphysic017171mbp/elementsofphysic017171mbp_djvu.txt 36 Lotka, Alfred J. “Contribution to the Energetics of Evolution.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 1922. 8:149. 37 Lotka, Alfred J. “The Law of Evolution as a Marxian Principle.” Human Biology 17. September 1945. p. 186. 38 White, Leslie A. The Science of Culture: A Study of Man and Civilization.


pages: 780 words: 168,782

Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century by Christian Caryl

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, financial deregulation, financial independence, friendly fire, full employment, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet Archive, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, Yom Kippur War

The Progress of Socialism: A Lecture by Sidney Webb, LL.B. (Modern Press, London, 1890), http://archive.org/details/progressofsocialoowebbuoft. 2. The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran, Charles Kurzman, 99. 3. See “The Religious Mind of Mrs. Thatcher,” Antonio E. Weiss. www.margaretthatcher.org/document/112748. 4. See The Final Revolution: The Resistance Church and the Collapse of Communism, George Weigel. 5. The Communist Manifesto, Marxists Internet Archive, 20, http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/download/pdf/Manifesto.pdf. 6. Khomeini, “Speech at Feyziyeh Theological School,” August 24, 1979; in Anti-American Terrorism and the Middle East: A Documentary Reader, Barry Rubin and Judith Colp Rubin, 34. Oxford University Press, USA, 2004. 7. “What Is Man Afraid Of?,” Redemptor Hominis, John Paul II, http://www.vatican.va/edocs/ENG0218/PG.HTM#$2Q. 8.


pages: 784 words: 229,648

O Jerusalem by Larry Collins, Dominique Lapierre

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back-to-the-land, colonial rule, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, union organizing

This book made available by the Internet Archive. 21 'One of the Arabs we killed last night' 254 22 The peace of Deir Yassin 260 23 'Shalom, my dear ...' 279 24 'Attack and attack and attack' 295 25 A message from Glubb Pasha 302 26 'We shall come back' 320 27 Throw stones and die' 339 28 By just one vote 349 29 The last supper 363 30 The fifth day of Iyar 377 PART FOLR JERUSALEM: A CITY DIVIDED 31 These shall stand' 399 32 The most beautiful month of the year' 409 33 'Go save Jerusalem' 419 34 4 A lament for a generation' 431 35 'Yosef has saved Jerusalem!' 440 36 Take Latrun' 451 37 Ticket to a Promised Land 463 38 'Execute your task at all costs' 474 39 The wheatfields of Latrun 482 40 *... Remember me only in happiness' 489 41 'Goodnight and goodbye from Jerusalem* 502 42 'We'll open a new road* 509 43 The Arab people will never forgive us' 521 44 A toast to the living 535 45 The thirty-day pause 541 46 The flawed trumpet 553 Epilogue 563 Biographical notes: Where are they now?


pages: 934 words: 232,651

Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1945-1956 by Anne Applebaum

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, language of flowers, means of production, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, price mechanism, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Slavoj Žižek, stakhanovite, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning

With thanks to Martin Gilbert. 68. Adam Zamoyski, Warsaw 1920: Lenin’s Failed Conquest of Europe (London, 2008), pp. 1–13, 42. 69. Pipes, Russia Under the Bolshevik Regime, p. 192. 70. Tim Tzouliadis, The Forsaken: An American Tragedy in Stalin’s Russia (New York, 2008), p. 55. 3. COMMUNISTS 1. Quoted in Carola Stern, Ulbricht: A Political Biography, trans. Abe Farbstein (New York, 1965), p. 203. 2. See Marxists’ Internet Archive, http://www.marxists.org/archive/bulganin/1949/12/21.htm. 3. Stern, Ulbricht. Unless otherwise noted, the biographical information about Ulbricht comes from Stern’s superb biography. 4. Ibid., p. 15. 5. Ibid., p. 89. 6. Elfriede Brüning, Und außerdem war es mein Leben (Berlin, 2004), p. 28. 7. Walter Ulbricht, On Questions of Socialist Construction in the GDR (Dresden, 1968). 8. Stern, Ulbricht, p. 124. 9.


pages: 706 words: 206,202

Den of Thieves by James B. Stewart

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discounted cash flows, diversified portfolio, fudge factor, George Gilder, index arbitrage, Internet Archive, margin call, Ponzi scheme, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, South Sea Bubble, The Predators' Ball, walking around money, zero-coupon bond

This book made available by the Internet Archive. For Jane, my sister; Michael, my brother; AND for Kate And Jesus went into the temple of God, and cast out all them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves. And said unto them. It is written. My house shall be called the house of prayer; but ye have made it a den of thieves. MATTHEW 21:12-13 King James Edition Cast of Characters As crime on Wall Street neared its climax^ late 1985. At Kidder, Peabody & Co., New York Martin Siegel, investment banker Ralph DeNunzio, chief executive Al Gordon, chairman John T. Roche, president Robert Krantz, counsel Richard Wigton, head of arbitrage Timothy Tabor, arbitrageur Peter Goodson, head of M&A John Gordon, investment banker Hal Ritch, investment banker At Ivan F.


pages: 816 words: 242,405

A Man on the Moon by Andrew Chaikin

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cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, gravity well, index card, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, V2 rocket

Throi 1 (continued on back flap) (continued from front flap) we can look back and understand the achievement ogan on that almost mythic July night when, as ikin writes in his preface, “we touched the face of another world and became a people without limits.” APR 2 3 1996 629.45 Cha Chaikin, Andrew, 1956-A man on the moon : the voyages of the Apollo astronauts ARCHBISHOP MITTY LIBRARY Archbishop Mitty High School Library 5000 Mitty Way San Jose, CA 95129 Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2012 http://archive.org/details/manonmoonvoyagesOOchai ANDREW CHAIKIN A Man ON THE Moon The Voyages of the Apollo Astronauts VIKING VIKING Published by the Penguin Group Penguin Books USA Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014, U.S.A. Penguin Books Ltd, 27 Wrights Lane, London W8 5TZ, England Penguin Books Australia Ltd, Ringwood, Victoria, Australia Penguin Books Canada Ltd, 10 Alcorn Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M4V 3B2 Penguin Books (N.Z.)


pages: 1,118 words: 309,029

The Wars of Afghanistan by Peter Tomsen

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airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

Now a barren wasteland in far western China’s Xinjiang Province, it may have been a hospitable living environment before warfare and desertification forced the population to move on. 7 Dupree, Afghanistan, 199. 8 The Kushan kings promoted Gandhara Buddhist art, an eclectic mixture of Buddhist, Greek, and Hindu art themes. They simultaneously carried three titles reflecting their religious tolerance: the Sanskrit rajatiraja (king of kings), the Greek basileus (king), and kaisara, from the Latin “caesar.” 9 Procopius, translated by H. B. Dewing, Internet Archive, www.archive.org/stream/procopiuswitheng01procuoft/procopiuswitheng01procuoft_djvu.txt. See also Arnold Fletcher, Afghanistan: Highway of Conquest (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1965), 33. 10 Because the White Huns were not related to the Black Huns, most historians, including ancient Greek and Roman writers, have referred to them as the Hephthalites or Ephthalites. 11 The title khan gradually morphed into a surname adopted by the khans’ descendants, whatever their walk of life, in Pakistan and India as well as Afghanistan.