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pages: 329 words: 88,954

Emergence by Steven Johnson

A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, edge city, epigenetics, game design, garden city movement, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, pez dispenser, phenotype, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, slashdot, social intelligence, Socratic dialogue, stakhanovite, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush

But it is increasingly recognized as the birthplace of Slashdot.org—the closest thing to a genuinely self-organizing community that the Web has yet produced. Begun as a modest bulletin board by a lifetime Hollander named Rob Malda, Slashdot came into the world as the ultimate in knowable communities: just Malda and his friends, discussing programming news, Star Wars rumors, video games, and other geek-chic marginalia. “In the beginning, Slashdot was small,” Malda writes. “We got dozens of posts each day, and it was good. The signal was high, the noise was low.” Before long, though, Slashdot floated across the rising tsunami of Linux and the Open Source movement and found itself awash in thousands of daily visitors. In its early days, Slashdot had felt like the hill towns of ECHO and the Well, with strong leadership coming from Malda himself, who went by the handle Commander Taco.

Indeed, the adoption rate for these feedback devices is accelerating so rapidly that I suspect in a matter of years a Web page without a dynamic rating system attached will trigger the same response that a Web page without hyperlinks triggers today: yes, it’s technically possible to create a page without these features, but what’s the point? The Slashdot system might seem a little complex, a little esoteric for consumers who didn’t grow up playing D&D, but think of the millions of people who learned how to use a computer for the first time in the past few years, just to get e-mail or to surf the Web. Compared to that learning curve, figuring out the rules of Slashdot is a walk in the park. And rules they are. You can’t think of a system like the one Malda built at Slashdot as a purely representational entity, the way you think about a book or a movie. It is partly representational, of course: you read messages via the Slashdot platform, and so the components of the textual medium that Marshall McLuhan so brilliantly documented in The Gutenberg Galaxy are on display at Slashdot as well. Because you are reading words, your reception of the information behind those words differs from what it would have been had that information been conveyed via television.

Without anything resembling a genuine business infrastructure, much less a real office, Malda needed far more than his twenty-five lieutenants to keep the Slashdot community from descending into complete anarchy. But without the resources to hire a hundred full-time moderators, Slashdot appeared to be stuck at the same impasse that Mumford had described thirty years before: stay small and preserve the quality of the original community; keep growing and sacrifice everything that had made the community interesting in the first place. Slashdot had reached its “climax stage.” What did the Commander do? Instead of expanding his pool of special authorized lieutenants, he made everyone a potential lieutenant. He handed over the quality-control job to the community itself. His goals were relatively simple, as outlined in the Frequently Asked Questions document on the site: 1. Promote quality, discourage crap. 2. Make Slashdot as readable as possible for as many people as possible. 3.


pages: 398 words: 86,023

The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia by Andrew Lih

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, index card, Jane Jacobs, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, optical character recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons, Y2K

In fact, diving directly into the conversation without bothering to read the original story is such a typical action, one of the most common exclamations by regulars is “RTFA”—long-standing Internet jargon for “Read the friggin article!” Conversations in Slashdot are laced with inside jokes, ranging from bad 1980s Yakov Smirnoff laments about Soviet Russia, to cherished Simpsons quotes like “I for one welcome our insect overlords,” when talking about the risks of technology. Slashdot gained an intense following in the technology crowd because of its high caliber of contributors. It was a lively community that grew in size, but maintained quality as well. Slashdot became the tech elite’s peanut gallery and salon. If you won the hearts of Slashdot readers, you captured the in-crowd and gained extremely influential technology street cred. While Slashdot’s editing system was very different from Wikipedia’s free-form system, it did provide an important seed.

“Wikipedia has definitely taken [on] a life of its own; new people are arriving every day and the project seems to be getting only more popular. Long live Wikipedia!” announced Sanger. He also set a goal: “I predict 1,000 [articles] by February 15.” In fact, they hit it three days early. Slashdotting If there was ever a salon for the technical elite and a grand senate of the computing community, it was Slashdot.org. Started originally as a user-contributed news 68_The_Wikipedia_Revolution site, Slashdot boldly proclaims as its pedigree: “News for nerds. Stuff that matters.” It lists significant technology stories in a blog format to foster discussion, but it started even before blogging became part of the Internet lexicon. What makes Slashdot more than just a blog is its unique community formula. A handful of the site operators serve as editors, sifting through user submissions to post on their front page taken from important technology stories from other outlets.

They worked together to sift the good from the bad and to filter out disruptive behavior. The usefulness of Slashdot was entirely in the hands of the individuals who volunteered to do meta-moderation. It was like a community garden. People were stakeholders and invested their time and energy in preserving something special in their corner of the Internet. When Slashdot editors reported on the launch of Wikipedia in January and February of 2001, it resonated. Their readers were introduced to a site that aspired to take the contribution of the masses, be it writing, editing, correcting, or sifting out junk. It was a perfect fit. The first wave of editors from that tech community had such a great influence that Wikipedia has often been dubbed the “Encyclopedia That Slashdot Built.”21 As Wikipedia chugged along, it was to benefit greatly from the Slashdot veterans. To this day, pretty much any story about Wikipedia is treated favorably on Slashdot, with many of the users speaking knowledgeably about the project because they are themselves editors at Wikipedia. 70_The_Wikipedia_Revolution Contributing the Meaning of Everything While the use of wiki software to form Wikipedia was a breakthrough in allowing anyone to edit any page at any time, the assembling of a reference work from distributed strangers is actually not new.


pages: 226 words: 71,540

Epic Win for Anonymous: How 4chan's Army Conquered the Web by Cole Stryker

4chan, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Firefox, future of journalism, hive mind, informal economy, Internet Archive, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mason jar, pre–internet, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, wage slave, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Their logo was a cartoonish parody of the goatse shock image, and their motto was “Gaping Holes Exposed.” Nerd News: Slashdot & Metafilter Slashdot founder Rob Malda, aka “Commander Taco,” says that he created Slashdot because he missed the high-minded technical community he enjoyed in the BBS era that discussed the sort of “news for nerds, stuff that matters” that interested him. In 1997, Slashdot offered something new: user-submitted stories. Each story became its own discussion thread. The site became so popular that when a story was linked by Slashdot, the site’s host would often buckle under the weight of all the traffic. This phenomenon became known as the Slashdot Effect. This phenomenon is not unique to Slashdot, but Slashdot was one of the first to be routinely recognized as a server killer. Other sites can be farked, for example, or undergo the Digg Effect, demonstrating the power that content aggregators wield.

Malda says that Slashdot developed its own unique memetic culture almost instantly. He remembers lots of gross-out memes popping up in addition to stuff from the Star Wars prequels, which were hugely popular during Slashdot’s early years. I asked him if there was a specific moment when he realized that memes were a thing. He replied, “Long before I heard the word, that’s for sure.” Many of Slashdot’s memes deal with ultra geeky science and computing puns. Malda claims that since he started Slashdot, the corporations have taken over, our rights are on the decline, and our privacy is gone. Back in the early days it was chaotic, but free. He recognizes the value in anonymity, and feels that there’s something special about 4chan’s community. I love that they interact anonymously. Slashdot was similarly completely anonymous for the first year of our existence, and still today we allow anyone to post without any identifying information whatsoever.

I think a registered pseudonym is useful because it gives you continuity if not accountability. You might not know that “CmdrTaco” is actually a dude named Rob, but on Slashdot at least, you know that each time you see a post with that name attached, you know it’s the same guy. I felt for Slashdot that it was important to provide that for people that wanted it. I don’t think that creates a sense of “personal responsibility” in any sort of globalized sense, but it allows you to build a reputation and history which might be important if you want to be taken seriously. Interestingly, anonymous posters on Slashdot are jokingly labeled “Anonymous Coward.” Matt Haughey was a big fan of Slashdot, but he wasn’t crazy about the interface. Slashdot had editors that picked from submitted stories. Matt was looking for something more democratic, so he created MetaFilter, a community where anyone’s story could land on the front page.


pages: 173 words: 14,313

Peers, Pirates, and Persuasion: Rhetoric in the Peer-To-Peer Debates by John Logie

1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, book scanning, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hacker Ethic, Isaac Newton, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, peer-to-peer, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, publication bias, Richard Stallman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, search inside the book, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog

ZDNet. 15 Aug. 2005 <http://news.zdnet.com/2100–9595_22–502047. html?legacy=zdnn>. Wah. “Re: Look, this is silly.” Slashdot. 26 Feb. 2000. slashdot.org. 20 Aug. 2006 <http://slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=10781&cid=401279>. “When David Steals Goliath’s Music.” New York Times. 28 Mar. 2005. Nytimes.com. 20 Aug. 2006 <http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/ article?res=F30914FB3E5B0C7B8EDDAA0894DD404482>. Wu, Tim. “Exit Valenti.” Lessig Blog. 2 Aug. 2004. 20 Aug. 2006 <http:// www.lessig.org/blog/archives/002065.shtml>. Yoos, George. “Ethos.” Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition. Ed. Theresa Enos. New York: Garland, 1996. 410–14. Zikzak. “Re: Look, this is silly.” Slashdot. 26 Feb. 2000. slashdot.org. 20 Apr. 2005 <http://slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=10781&cid=401213>. Pa r l orPr e s s wwwww. p a r l or p r e s s . c om Index AAUP (American Association of University Presses), 146 Abelson, Hal, 128 Adar, Eytan, 99 Adobe eBook Reader, 142–43 Albini, Steve: “The Problem with Music,” 118 Alpert, Herb, and the Tijuana Brass, 3–4 Altnet, 119 Amazon.com, 18, 59, 72, 142 American Revolution, 110 anaphora, 108 Apple Computer, Inc., 61–6; iTunes Music Store, 65, 86, 122–23, 135 Archerd, Army, 73–74 Aristotle, 7, 38; arête, 39; eunoia, 39; phronesis, 39 Army of Mice (parody of the MPAA), 123–25 ARPANET, 128 Athens, 140 Audio Home Recording Act of 1991, 57–58, 89, 95, 135 authorship, 130–32 bandwidth, 13, 98, 143–44, 146, 148 Barry, Hank, 34, 106, 109–10 Basic Books v.

“The Effect of File Sharing on Record Sales: An Empirical Analysis.” Mar. 2004. 20 Aug. 2006. <http:// www.unc.edu/~cigar/papers/FileSharing_March2004.pdf>. Patterson, Lyman Ray. Copyright in Historical Perspective. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt UP, 1968. Porter, James E. “Intertextuality and the Discourse Community.” Rhetoric Review 5.1 (1986): 34–47. Rader. “Re: Look, this is silly.” Slashdot. 26 Feb. 2000. slashdot.org. 20 Aug. 2006 <http://slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=10781&cid=401120>. Recording Industry Association of America. “725 Additional Illegal File Sharers Cited In New Wave of Copyright Infringement Lawsuits.” RIAA. 27 Apr. 2005. riaa.com. 20 Aug. 2006 <http://www.riaa.com/News/ newsletter/042705.asp>. —. “Recording Industry to Begin Collecting Evidence and Preparing Lawsuits Against File ‘Sharers’ Who Illegally Offer Music Online.”

That said, Rader does demonstrate some understanding of the history of the Vietnam era, and allies himself with the so-called “draft Pa r l orPr e s s wwwww. p a r l or p r e s s . c om Peer-to-Peer as Combat 113 dodgers” while lambasting another correspondent for, in effect, being a government dupe, much as military volunteers and conscripts were sometimes criticized in the late 1960s and early 1970s. But the carelessness with which Rader draws this analogy prompted an incredulous response from another Slashdot correspondent: ZIKZAK: Holy shit! Are you really claiming that the battle over MP3 pirating could be equivalent in importance to the Vietnam War? Fuck, I have now seen the absolute pinnacle of pathetic justification. Equating the slightly over-priced and admittedly greedy recording industry’s practices to the death of thousands and thousands of young men is absolutely the lowest thing I’ve ever seen on slashdot. Congratulations. You have scraped absolute bottom. Zikzak’s outburst prompted what appeared to be an embarrassed silence from Rader, and other participants, in what had, to that point, been a lively discussion.


pages: 678 words: 216,204

The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom by Yochai Benkler

affirmative action, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, clean water, commoditize, dark matter, desegregation, East Village, fear of failure, Firefox, game design, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information asymmetry, invention of radio, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kenneth Arrow, longitudinal study, market bubble, market clearing, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, random walk, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software patent, spectrum auction, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Vilfredo Pareto

The initial submissions themselves, and more importantly, the approach to sifting through the comments of users for relevance and accreditation, provide a rich example of how this function can be performed on a distributed, peer-production model. 156 First, it is important to understand that the function of posting a story from another site onto Slashdot, the first "utterance" in a chain of comments on Slashdot, is itself an act of relevance production. The person submitting the story is telling the community of Slashdot users, "here is a story that `News for Nerds' readers should be interested in." This initial submission of a link is itself very coarsely filtered by editors who are paid employees of Open Source Technology Group (OSTG), which runs a number of similar platforms--like SourceForge, the most important platform for free software developers. OSTG is a subsidiary of VA Software, a software services company. The FAQ (Frequently Asked Question) response to, "how do you verify the accuracy of Slashdot stories?" is revealing: "We don't. You do. If something seems outrageous, we might look for some corroboration, but as a rule, we regard this as the responsibility of the submitter and the audience.

They spend time selecting sites for inclusion in the directory (in small increments of perhaps fifteen minutes per site reviewed), producing the most comprehensive, highest-quality human-edited directory of the Web--at this point outshining the directory produced by the company that pioneered human edited directories of the Web: Yahoo!. 155 Perhaps the most elaborate platform for peer production of relevance and accreditation, at multiple layers, is used by Slashdot. Billed as "News for Nerds," Slashdot has become a leading technology newsletter on the Web, coproduced by hundreds of thousands of users. Slashdot primarily consists [pg 77] of users commenting on initial submissions that cover a variety of technology-related topics. The submissions are typically a link to an off-site story, coupled with commentary from the person who submits the piece. Users follow up the initial submission with comments that often number in the hundreds.

You might find something that refutes, or supports, the story in the main." In other words, Slashdot very self-consciously is organized as a means of facilitating peer production of accreditation; it is at the comments stage that the story undergoes its most important form of accreditation--peer review ex-post. 157 Filtering and accreditation of comments on Slashdot offer the most interesting case study of peer production of these functions. Users submit comments that are displayed together with the initial submission of a story. Think of the "content" produced in these comments as a cross between academic peer review of journal submissions and a peer-produced substitute for television's "talking heads." It is in the means of accrediting and evaluating these comments that Slashdot's system provides a comprehensive example of peer production of relevance and accreditation.


pages: 189 words: 57,632

Content: Selected Essays on Technology, Creativity, Copyright, and the Future of the Future by Cory Doctorow

AltaVista, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, en.wikipedia.org, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Law of Accelerating Returns, Metcalfe's law, Mitch Kapor, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, optical character recognition, patent troll, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Skype, slashdot, social software, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, Vernor Vinge

is all but out of that business: the ability of the human race to generate new pages far outstrips Yahoo!'s ability to read, review, rank and categorize them. Hence Slashdot, a system of distributed slushreading. Rather than professionalizing the editorship role, Slashdot invites contributors to identify good stuff when they see it, turning editorship into a reward for good behavior. But as well as Slashdot works, it has this signal failing: nearly every conversation that takes place on Slashdot is shot through with discussion, griping and gaming on the moderation system itself. The core task of Slashdot has become editorship, not the putative subjects of Slashdot posts. The fact that the central task of Slashdot is to rate other Slashdotters creates a tenor of meanness in the discussion. Imagine if the subtext of every discussion you had in the real world was a kind of running, pedantic nitpickery in which every point was explicitly weighed and judged and commented upon.

Even when you write for your own consumption, it seems you have to answer to an editor. The early experimental days of the Internet saw much experimentation with alternatives to traditional editor/author divisions. Slashdot, a nerdy news-site of surpassing popularity [fn: Having a link to one's website posted to Slashdot will almost inevitably overwhelm your server with traffic, knocking all but the best-provisioned hosts offline within minutes; this is commonly referred to as "the Slashdot Effect."], has a baroque system for "community moderation" of the responses to the articles that are posted to its front pages. Readers, chosen at random, are given five "moderator points" that they can use to raise or lower the score of posts on the Slashdot message boards. Subsequent readers can filter their views of these boards to show only highly ranked posts. Other readers are randomly presented with posts and their rankings and are asked to rate the fairness of each moderator's moderation.

Other readers are randomly presented with posts and their rankings and are asked to rate the fairness of each moderator's moderation. Moderators who moderate fairly are given more opportunities to moderate; likewise message-board posters whose messages are consistently highly rated. It is thought that this system rewards good "citizenship" on the Slashdot boards through checks and balances that reward good messages and fair editorial practices. And in the main, the Slashdot moderation system works [fn: as do variants on it, like the system in place at Kur5hin.org (pronounced "corrosion")]. If you dial your filter up to show you highly scored messages, you will generally get well-reasoned, or funny, or genuinely useful posts in your browser. This community moderation scheme and ones like it have been heralded as a good alternative to traditional editorship.


Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution by Howard Rheingold

A Pattern Language, augmented reality, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business climate, citizen journalism, computer vision, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, experimental economics, experimental subject, Extropian, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telephone, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, more computing power than Apollo, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, pez dispenser, planetary scale, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, social intelligence, spectrum auction, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, transaction costs, ultimatum game, urban planning, web of trust, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

Official editors would select relevant stories every day, post links and commentary, and the Slashdot community around the world added commentary in the form of sequential posts. Malda, who goes by the online handle “Commander Taco,” called it “Slashdot,” after a commonly used Linux command. Malda later wrote: “We got dozens of posts each day, and it was good. The signal was high, the noise was low.”22 The time was right for a virtual watering hole to appear as a hangout for the programmers around the world who shared the open source zeitgeist. The Slashdot population grew, and soon there were too many posts to police and too much noise to ignore. Malda chose twenty-five people to help. They deleted spam and awarded points to posts that seemed valuable. Then the Slashdot population grew unmanageable even for twenty-five volunteers.

Then the Slashdot population grew unmanageable even for twenty-five volunteers. By 1999, if a link to a Web site was posted as a top-level story on Slashdot, that Web site would get so many hits that host servers often crashed, a phenomenon that came to be known Netwide as “being Slash-dotted.” The original twenty-five moderators chose four hundred more. The Slashdot karma system emerged to filter out noise, point out good postings, and protect against abuse of power from moderators. When a registered user logs in often enough and reads postings over a sustained period, Slashdot’s “Slashcode” software automatically puts that user in a pool of candidates for jury-like service. Randomly selected “moderators” from the pool of regulars are given a limited number of points to use in rating posts of other members, and when they expend those points, their term of service is over until they are selected again.

Moderators use their allotment of points to raise or lower the settings of selected posts and hence affect the karma of the selected posters. Slashdot readers can use a menu to set their “quality filter” reading level. Some readers can choose to read every one of hundreds of posts in a particular discussion; others can set their quality filter to read only those with a rating of 3 or above, usually reducing the number of posts to dozens, or set their quality filter to show only those with the highest rating of five, sometimes reducing a thread of hundreds of posts to a handful. By 2001, the Slashdot community of registered users exceeded 300,000. At that scale, there was no way to organize except self-organize. Malda and friends tinkered with the reputation system in response to community use and abuse, adhering to four design goals: Promote quality, discourage crap. Make Slashdot as readable as possible for as many people as possible.


pages: 245 words: 64,288

Robots Will Steal Your Job, But That's OK: How to Survive the Economic Collapse and Be Happy by Pistono, Federico

3D printing, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, future of work, George Santayana, global village, Google Chrome, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, illegal immigration, income inequality, information retrieval, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, longitudinal study, means of production, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, patent troll, pattern recognition, peak oil, post scarcity, QR code, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, Rodney Brooks, selection bias, self-driving car, slashdot, smart cities, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, women in the workforce

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_censorship_in_the_United_States 96 PROTECT IP / SOPA Breaks The Internet, Kirby Ferguson, 2012. http://vimeo.com/31100268 97 Stop Online Piracy Act. Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stop_Online_Piracy_Act 98 Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement What is ACTA?. Electronic Frontier Foundation. https://www.eff.org/issues/acta 99 Extracts from the Slashdot discussion on SOPA, 2012. Slashdot. http://tech.slashdot.org/story/11/12/16/1943257/congresss-techno-ignorance-no-longer-funny 100 The Top 0.1% Of The Nation Earn Half Of All Capital Gains, Robert Lenzner, 2011. Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/robertlenzner/2011/11/20/the-top-0-1-of-the-nation-earn-half-of-all-capital-gains/ 101 A nationally representative and continuing assessment of English language literary skills of American Adults, National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL).

http://washingtontechnology.com/articles/2011/02/17/ibm-watson-next-steps.aspx Wikipedia, Watson. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watson_\%28computer 87 Mission Control, Built for Cities. I.B.M. Takes ‘Smarter Cities’ Concept to Rio de Janeiro, Natasha Singer, 2012. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/04/business/ibm-takes-smarter-cities-concept-to-rio-de-janeiro.html?pagewanted=all 88 Will IBM Watson Be Your Next Mayor?, 2012. Slashdot. http://yro.slashdot.org/story/12/04/27/0029256/will-ibm-watson-be-your-next-mayor 89 Computers to Acquire Control of the Physical World, P. Magrassi, A. Panarella, N. Deighton, G. Johnson, 2001. Gartner research report. T-14-0301. 90 A World of Smart Objects, P. Magrassi, T. Berg, 2002. Gartner research report. R-17-2243. http://www.gartner.com/DisplayDocument?id=366151 91 The Internet of Things. Wikipedia.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2009_EN_Complete.pdf 103 Americans’ Global Warming Concerns Continue to Drop, 2010. Gallup. http://www.gallup.com/poll/126560/americans-global-warming-concerns-continue-drop.aspx 104 Climate scepticism ’on the rise’, BBC poll shows, 2010. BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8500443.stm 105 Climate change: How do we know?. NASA. http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/ 106 Climate Change Skeptic Results Released Today, 2011. Slashdot. http://news.slashdot.org/story/11/10/31/1255205/climate-change-skeptic-results-released-today 107 Robotic Nation, Marshall Brain. http://marshallbrain.com/robotic-nation.htm 108 Employed persons by detailed occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. Bureau of Labor Statistics. ftp://ftp.bls.gov/pub/special.requests/lf/aat11.txt 109 Employment Situation Summary. Bureau of Labor Statistics.


pages: 387 words: 112,868

Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money by Nathaniel Popper

4chan, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, banking crisis, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, buy and hold, capital controls, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, life extension, litecoin, lone genius, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, QR code, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Startup school, stealth mode startup, the payments system, transaction costs, tulip mania, WikiLeaks

But this, and the derogatory comments that showed up under the Slashdot item, did not dampen his enthusiasm. This was what he’d been waiting for for months. CHAPTER 5 July 12, 2010 When he awoke late, the morning after the Slashdot posting, Martti Malmi saw that the attention was not a hit-and-run phenomenon. People weren’t just taking a look at the site and moving on. They were also downloading and running the Bitcoin software. The number of downloads would jump from around three thousand in June to over twenty thousand in July. The day after the Slashdot piece appeared, Gavin Andresen’s Bitcoin faucet gave away 5,000 Bitcoins and was running empty. As he begged for donations, he marveled at the strength of the network: Over the last two days of Bitcoin being “slashdotted” I haven’t heard of ANY problems with Bitcoin transactions getting lost, or of the network crashing due to the load, or any problem at all with the core functionality.

HEADPHONES ON AND an oversize can of MadCroc energy drink by his side, Martti sat at his dorm room desk, giddy. Slashdot, a go-to news site for computer geeks the world over, was going to post an article about Martti’s pet project. Bitcoin, largely ignored over the last year, was on the verge of receiving global attention. The campaign to get Bitcoin real press coverage had begun a few weeks earlier, not long after Martti finished his three-month internship at Siemens. A new version of Bitcoin, version 0.3, was being prepared for release by Satoshi, and the regulars on the forum saw a perfect opportunity to get the word out. Martti agreed with a handful of other users that Slashdot would be the best place to do this. “Slashdot with its millions of tech-savvy readers would be awesome, perhaps the best imaginable!” Martti wrote on the forum.

CHAPTER 4 44But on May 22, 2010, a guy in California offered to call Lazlo’s local Papa John’s: Information about the Bitcoin transaction is available at https://blockchain.info/tx/a1075db55d416d3ca199f55b6084e2115b9345e16c5cf302fc80e9d5fbf5d48d. 44small item on the website of InfoWorld: Neil McAllister, “Open Source Innovation on the Cutting Edge,” Info World, May 24, 2010, http://www.infoworld.com/article/2627013/open-source-software/open-source-innovation-on-the-cutting-edge.html. 47“Slashdot with its millions of tech-savvy readers”: Martti Malmi to BTCF, June 22, 2010. 48“How’s this for a disruptive technology?”: “Bitcoin Releases Version 0.3,” Slashdot, July 11, 2010, http://news-beta.slashdot.org/story/10/07/11/1747245/bitcoin-releases-version-03. CHAPTER 5 49The number of downloads would jump from around three thousand: Data on software downloads available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/bitcoin/files/stats/timeline. 49“Over the last two days of Bitcoin being”: Gavin Andresen to BTCF, July 14, 2010. 53the difficulty of mining new Bitcoins jumped 300 percent: Data on mining difficulty available at https://blockchain.info/charts/difficulty?


Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge by Cass R. Sunstein

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, availability heuristic, Build a better mousetrap, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, cognitive bias, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, framing effect, hindsight bias, information asymmetry, Isaac Newton, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, market bubble, market design, minimum wage unemployment, prediction markets, profit motive, rent control, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, slashdot, stem cell, The Wisdom of Crowds, winner-take-all economy

Consider a few of many examples. Slashdot, the largest community-driven technology site on the Internet, has long identified itself as “news for nerds, stuff that matters.” Slashdot is, among other things, an edited compilation of news abstracts, focusing on a wide range of topics related to technology. A first-time visitor to Slashdot will notice that the site resembles an ordinary news site, with story headlines, synopses, and links to follow. But its real value lies in the fact that it permits its users to discuss both news articles and one another’s posts. Specifically, Slashdot users can spark discussions by posting ideas and responses to particular articles, thus facilitating discussion. Of course, the system is vulnerable to irrelevant, silly, and abusive comments. Slashdot’s ingenious response is a “moderation system,” by which users judge comments and rank them by score.

Slashdot’s ingenious response is a “moderation system,” by which users judge comments and rank them by score. At first, the founders of Slashdot Many Working Minds / 191 moderated posts themselves. But as the user base expanded, the job of moderating became unmanageable and was therefore delegated to users. As a result, a group of moderators has been selected from a pool of active users. Many minds thus evaluate the contributions of many minds. As the system operates, all comments are scored on an absolute scale from –1 to 5. Logged-in users start at 1 (although this can vary from 0 to 2 based on their prior actions), and anonymous users start at 0. Moderators can add or deduct points from a comment’s score, thus influencing whether a comment will be immediately visible to a reader. (Confession: Slashdot had a discussion of my 2001 book, Republic.com; as the author, I ventured a nonanonymous comment, which was ranked very low: 0, as I recall.

(Confession: Slashdot had a discussion of my 2001 book, Republic.com; as the author, I ventured a nonanonymous comment, which was ranked very low: 0, as I recall. True, I probably deserved the low ranking.) Of course, there is a risk that the moderators will promote an agenda of their own. To combat that risk, Slashdot has produced the ingenious mechanism of “metamoderation,” which operates as a review process of the moderation system. Instead of rating the usefulness of a comment, metamoderation rates the fairness and accuracy of the moderator’s judgment.58 According to the metamoderation statistics, 92 percent to 93 percent of moderations are judged fair.59 (Hence, it is not necessary, to date, to create metametamoderation, reviewing the metamoderators!) Slashdot explores a wide range of questions relating to technology, but more specialized aggregations, involving goods and activities of relevance to everyday life, are easy to imagine.


pages: 233 words: 66,446

Bitcoin: The Future of Money? by Dominic Frisby

3D printing, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer age, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, fixed income, friendly fire, game design, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, land value tax, litecoin, M-Pesa, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, QR code, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing complete, War on Poverty, web application, WikiLeaks

In May 2010, a Florida programmer by the name of Laszlo Hanyecz wanted to test the technology. He offered to buy a pizza for 10,000 coins. The pizza arrived. For several days after that, Hanyecz bought 10,000-bitcoin pizzas. I bet he regrets it now. Ten thousand bitcoins would at one stage be worth over 12 million dollars. Twelve million bucks for a pizza! July 2010 saw Bitcoin’s first step out of obscurity. It was mentioned on the website Slashdot and there was a sudden increase in interest. The value of a bitcoin went up over ten times in a week – from eight-tenths of one cent to eight cents. The price would slide back to six cents and remain there for several months. Then another Bitcoin exchange sprung up, one that would become the biggest and most notorious – MtGox. 3 The Rise of Bitcoin and the Disappearance of its Maker I think that the internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government.

39It was the most prominent site yet to mention Bitcoin and suggested it may be the answer to WikiLeaks’ funding problems. A sudden flood of traffic overwhelmed Bitcoin’s website and it went down. When it came back up again, Satoshi wrote, ‘It would have been nice to get this attention in any other context. WikiLeaks has kicked the hornet’s nest, and the swarm is headed towards us.’ Then Bitcoin was mentioned on Slashdot again, alongside WikiLeaks and the outspoken libertarian US congressman, Ron Paul. Meanwhile, the Financial Action Task Force issued warnings that digital currencies were being used to finance terrorist groups.40 The following morning, on December 12th 2010, Satoshi outlined some technical developments he had made. ‘I’m doing a quick build of what I have so far in case it’s needed, before venturing into more complex ideas,’41 he said.

He saw what was happening to Assange and to Bradley Manning, and what had befallen the founders of other forms of ecash. It’s unlikely he wanted accusations of terrorism levelled against him. Even if they were unfounded, they could have ruined his life and the lives of those close to him. Whether it was WikiLeaks, the CIA or both that caused it, Satoshi had vanished. The rise of Bitcoin That July 2010 mention on Slashdot was a catalyst. More and more users flocked to Bitcoin over the following months. New operations sprung up to mine coins. Open-source development of the protocol continued. At first, the price of a bitcoin remained flat at around six cents, but then it began to rise. In November, it touched 50 cents. The market cap of Bitcoin passed the one-million-dollar mark. Across the net a growing number of people were developing the technology and ways to apply it.


pages: 335 words: 107,779

Some Remarks by Neal Stephenson

airport security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, British Empire, cable laying ship, call centre, cellular automata, edge city, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, music of the spheres, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, packet switching, pirate software, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, Socratic dialogue, South China Sea, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method, trade route, Turing machine, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, X Prize

Putting them in a place devoid of brick walls and speeding taxicabs would make the world healthier for them, and safer for all of us. Slashdot Interview (2004) [questions contributed by Slashdot readers] THE LACK OF RESPECT . . . —BY MOSESJONES Science Fiction is normally relegated to the specialist publications rather than having reviews in the mainstream press. Seen as “fringe” and a bit sad it’s seldom reviewed with anything more than condescension by the “quality” press. Does it bother you that people like Jeffery Archer or Jackie Collins seem to get more respect for their writing than you ? NEAL OUCH! (removes mirrorshades, wipes tears, blows nose, composes self) Let me just come at this one from sort of a big picture point of view. (the sound of a million Slashdot readers hitting the “back” button . . . ) First of all, I don’t think that the condescending “quality” press look too kindly on Jackie Collins and Jeffrey Archer.

About the Author Neal Stephenson is the author of the bestselling Reamde; Anathem; the three-volume historical epic The Baroque Cycle (Quicksilver, The Confusion, and The System of the World); Cryptonomicon; The Diamond Age; Snow Crash, which was named one of Time magazine’s top one hundred all-time best English-language novels; and Zodiac. He lives in Seattle, Washington. Visit www.AuthorTracker.com for exclusive information on your favorite HarperCollins authors. Also by Neal Stephenson Reamde Anathem The System of the World The Confusion Quicksilver Cryptonomicon The Diamond Age Snow Crash Zodiac Permissions A version of “Slashdot Interview” previously appeared on Slashdot.org. A version of “Metaphysics in the Royal Society 1715–2010” previously appeared in Seeing Further: The Story of Science & the Royal Society edited by Bill Bryson. Published by HarperCollins in 2010. A version of “It’s All Geek to Me,” “Turn On, Tune In, Veg Out,” and “Blind Secularism” previously appeared in The New York Times. A version of “Spew,” “In the Kingdom of Mao Bell (selected excerpts),” and “Mother Earth, Mother Board” previously appeared in Wired magazine and on Wired.com.

Some Remarks Essays and Other Writing Neal Stephenson Contents Introduction Arsebestos (2012) Slashdot Interview (2004) Metaphysics in the Royal Society 1715–2010 (2012) It’s All Geek to Me (2007) Turn On, Tune In, Veg Out (2006) Gresham College Lecture (2008) Spew (1994) In the Kingdom of Mao Bell (selected excerpts) (1994) Under-Constable Proudfoot (2012) Mother Earth, Mother Board (1996) The Salon Interview (2004) Blind Secularism (1993) Time Magazine Article About Anathem (2012) Everything and More Foreword (2003) The Great Simoleon Caper (1995) Locked In (2011) Innovation Starvation (2011) Why I Am a Bad Correspondent (1998) About the Author Also by Neal Stephenson Permissions Footnotes Credits Copyright About the Publisher Introduction Certain persons who know what they are talking about where publishing is concerned have assured me that I have reached the stage in my life and career where it is not only possible, but advisable, to release a compilation of what are drolly referred to as my “shorter” works.


pages: 519 words: 102,669

Programming Collective Intelligence by Toby Segaran

always be closing, correlation coefficient, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, full text search, information retrieval, PageRank, prediction markets, recommendation engine, slashdot, Thomas Bayes, web application

Create a new file called treepredict.py to work with throughout this chapter. If you'd like to enter the data manually, add this to the top of the file: my_data=[['slashdot','USA','yes',18,'None'], ['google','France','yes',23,'Premium'], ['digg','USA','yes',24,'Basic'], ['kiwitobes','France','yes',23,'Basic'], ['google','UK','no',21,'Premium'], ['(direct)','New Zealand','no',12,'None'], ['(direct)','UK','no',21,'Basic'], ['google','USA','no',24,'Premium'], ['slashdot','France','yes',19,'None'], ['digg','USA','no',18,'None'], ['google','UK','no',18,'None'], ['kiwitobes','UK','no',19,'None'], ['digg','New Zealand','yes',12,'Basic'], ['slashdot','UK','no',21,'None'], ['google','UK','yes',18,'Basic'], ['kiwitobes','France','yes',19,'Basic']] If you'd prefer to download the dataset, it's available at http://kiwitobes.com/tree/decision_tree_example.txt.

To minimize annoyance for users and sign them up as quickly as possible, the site doesn't ask them a lot of questions about themselves—instead, it collects information from the server logs, such as the site that referred them, their geographical location, how many pages they viewed before signing up, and so on. If you collect the data and put it in a table, it might look like Table 7-1. Table 7-1. User behavior and final purchase decision for a web site Referrer Location Read FAQ Pages viewed Service chosen Slashdot USA Yes 18 None Google France Yes 23 Premium Digg USA Yes 24 Basic Kiwitobes France Yes 23 Basic Google UK No 21 Premium (direct) New Zealand No 12 None (direct) UK No 21 Basic Google USA No 24 Premium Slashdot France Yes 19 None Digg USA No 18 None Google UK No 18 None Kiwitobes UK No 19 None Digg New Zealand Yes 12 Basic Google UK Yes 18 Basic Kiwitobes France Yes 19 Basic Arrange the data in a list of rows, with each row being a list of columns.

Call this function with the tree you just built, and you'll get something like this: >>>reload(treepredict) >>> treepredict.printtree(tree) 0:google? T-> 3:21? T-> {'Premium': 3} F-> 2:yes? T-> {'Basic': 1} F-> {'None': 1} F-> 0:slashdot? T-> {'None': 3} F-> 2:yes? T-> {'Basic': 4} F-> 3:21? T-> {'Basic': 1} F-> {'None': 3} This is a visual representation of the process that the decision tree will go through when trying to make a new classification. The condition on the root node is "is Google in column 0?" If this condition is met, it proceeds to the T-> branch and finds that anyone referred from Google will become a paid subscriber if they have viewed 21 pages or more. If the condition is not met, it jumps to the F-> branch and evaluates the condition "is Slashdot in column 0?" This continues until it reaches a branch that has a result. As mentioned earlier, the ability to view the logic behind the reasoning process is one of the big advantages of decision trees.


pages: 292 words: 81,699

More Joel on Software by Joel Spolsky

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, barriers to entry, Black Swan, Build a better mousetrap, business process, call centre, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, George Gilder, Larry Wall, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mars Rover, Network effects, Paul Graham, performance metric, place-making, price discrimination, prisoner's dilemma, Ray Oldenburg, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, The Great Good Place, type inference, unpaid internship, wage slave, web application, Y Combinator

Instead of deleting posts, why don’t you have a moderation scheme, where people vote on how much they like a post, and people can choose how high the vote has to be before they read it? A. This is, of course, how Slashdot works, and I’ll bet you 50% of the people who read Slashdot regularly have never figured it out. There are three things I don’t like about this. One: it’s more UI complication, a feature that people need to learn how to use. Two: it creates such complicated politics that it make the Byzantine Empire look like third-grade school government. And three: when you read Slashdot with the filters turned up high enough that you see only the interesting posts, the narrative is completely lost. You just get a bunch of random disjointed statements with no context. Q. Why don’t you have a registration scheme to eliminate rude posters?

Building Communities with Software 113 On most investment discussion boards, it’s practically impossible to follow a thread from beginning to end, because every post is its own page, which makes for a lot of banner ad inventory, but the latency in reading a conversation will eventually drive you nuts. The huge amount of flashing commercial crap on all four sides of the conversation makes you feel like you were trying to make friends in Times Square, but the neon lights keep demanding all the attention. On Slashdot, every thread has hundreds of replies, many of which are identical, so the conversation there feels insipid and stupid. In a moment, I’ll reveal why Slashdot has so many identical replies, and the Joel on Software forum doesn’t. And on FuckedCompany.com, the discussion board is completely, utterly worthless; the vast majority of posts consist of irrelevant profanity and general abusiveness, and it feels like a fraternity rudeness contest, without any fraternity. So, we have discovered the primary axiom of online communities: Small software implementation details result in big differences in the way the community develops, behaves, and feels.

I would prefer that you read all the posts before you reply; otherwise, you may post something that is repetitive or that sounds disjointed coming after the previous last post. Of course, I can’t physically grab your eyeballs and move them from left to right, forcing you to read the entire thread before letting you post, but if I put a “Reply” link anywhere but the bottom of the page, that would positively encourage people to spew their little gems before they’ve read what’s already there. This is why Slashdot topics have 500 replies but only 17 interesting replies, and it’s why nobody likes to read Slashdot discussions: they sound like a classroom full of children all shouting out the same answer at the same time. (“Ha ha . . . Bill Gates! That’s an oxymoron!”) Q. The damn “Start a New Topic” link is all the way at the bottom . . . A. Uh huh, same thing. Q. Why don’t you show people their posts to confirm them before you post them? Then people wouldn’t make mistakes and typos.


pages: 309 words: 54,839

Attack of the 50 Foot Blockchain: Bitcoin, Blockchain, Ethereum & Smart Contracts by David Gerard

altcoin, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Extropian, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, index fund, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, margin call, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, prediction markets, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Satoshi Nakamoto, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, slashdot, smart contracts, South Sea Bubble, tulip mania, Turing complete, Turing machine, WikiLeaks

For now, I hope that everyone will continue working on Bitcoin projects that will help make the world a better place. – Roger Ver, July 2013, during the first rumblings at Mt. Gox.91 (He later apologised.92) Bitcoin got its first big publicity push with the announcement of version 0.3 on technology news site Slashdot on 11 July 2010.93 94 95 At this time, Jed McCaleb was a programmer at a loose end. He had previously developed eDonkey, an early file sharing network, which was shut down in late 2005 after being sued by the Recording Industry Association of America. He then went on to develop a game, The Far Wilds, leaving that to its community in 2009. McCaleb saw the Slashdot post, tried and failed to buy some bitcoins, and thought an exchange would be a good idea. (Early Bitcoin core developer Martti Malmi had an exchange site, but it wasn’t very usable.96) He had run the “Magic: The Gathering Online Exchange,” a trading site for an online card game, for a few months in 2007, using the domain name mtgox.com;97 he quickly wrote some exchange software in PHP and reused the name because his girlfriend liked it.

The first known conversion to conventional currency was by Martti Malmi, ardent anarcho-capitalist and Bitcoin core coder: “I sold 5,050 BTC for $5,02 on 2009-10-12.”53 The first exchange site was bitcoinmarket.com, which opened 6 February 2010. The famous first commercial transaction (two pizzas, cost $30 including tip, for 10,000 BTC54) was a few months later, on 22 May 2010.55 From there the price rose steadily to 1c in July 2010. Bitcoin version 0.3 was mentioned on 11 July by tech news site Slashdot, gaining it some notice in the technology world, and inspiring the founding of the Mt. Gox exchange. In November 2010, WikiLeaks released the US diplomatic cables dump; the site was cut off from Visa, Mastercard and PayPal shortly after at the behest of the US government, but could still receive donations in Bitcoin. The price of a bitcoin hit $1 by February 2011. In April 2011, anarcho-capitalist and businessman Roger Ver, who had made his fortune with computer parts business Memory Dealers, heard a segment about Bitcoin on the libertarian podcast Free Talk Live.

Gox 37, 44, 62, 82, 139 MTFLabs 132, 137 Mullins, Eustace 17, 21 Music On The Blockchain 132 MusicGlue 125 MusicTechFest 132 MyBus 75 Mycelia 129 mycrimes.txt 51 Nakamoto, Dorian 59, 60 Nakamoto, Satoshi 20, 22, 48, 59, 61, 122 Namecoin 91 NASA 105, 107 NASCAR 93 nChain 68 nCrypt 65 Netflix 130 New York Times 32, 64 Newsweek 60, 64 NHS 73, 113 Nicolle, Raphael 40, 89 nonce 14 nTrust 63 O’Hagan, Andrew 63 OKCoin 82 Open Music Initiative 134 OpenOffice 59 oracle problem 103, 117 Overstock.com 76 Palmer, Jackson 93 Paul, Ron 21, 49 PayPal 18, 28, 36, 62 PC Cyborg Trojan 72 Pedersen, Allen 66 PeerTracks 134 Pembury Tavern 79 Penn State 49 permissioned blockchain 119 Pink Floyd 132 Pirate Bay, The 92, 136 Pirateat40 37, 40, 89 police virus 72 Ponzi 30, 38, 107 PonzICO : Popper, Nathaniel 64, 141 Potter, Phil 87 praxeology 23 press.one 99 Project Black Flag 54 Proof of Elapsed Time 123 Proof of Stake 91, 94 Proof of Work 13, 91, 94, 118, 131 prosecution futures 52 provably fair gambling 39 Provenance, Inc. 116 pump-and-dump 30 quantum computer 96 R3 Blockchain Consortium 111, 123 R3 Corda 123 ransomware 69, 72 RationalWiki 141 Reason (magazine) 31 Rebit.ph 29 Recording Industry Association of America 45 Recovery Right Token 86 Reddit /r/bitcoin 38, 69, 75, 76 /r/buttcoin 143 /r/dogecoin 93 Bitfinex discussion 87 remittances 28 Revelator 135 Ripple 48 Rodrigue, Jean-Paul 36 Rogers, Benji 135 Ron, Dorit 30 Rothbard, Murray 24, 49 RRT 86 Rubixi 108 RuneScape 39 Sandifer, Phil 24 Sartre, Jean-Paul 67 SatoshiDice 111 Sawtooth Lake 123 secured by math 13, 25, 27, 57 Semetric 134 SGI 65 SGX™ 123 SHA-256 96 Shamir, Adi 30 ShapeShift 130 Shavers, Trendon 40 Sheep Marketplace 54 Shiba Inu 92 sidechains 28, 70 SiliconAngle 67 Silk Road 26, 37, 48, 64, 69 Silk Road 2.0 54 Silver, Jeremy 125 133 SingularDTV 98, 136 Singularity 137 Skunk House 71 Slashdot 36, 45 Slock.it 108 smart contract 94 SNGLS 136 SNT 98 Solarstorm 107 Solidity 106, 107, 109, 122 Sony 127 SoundExchange 126 South Sea Bubble 35 Spotify 130, 131, 137 St. Petersburg Bowl 77 Status 95, 98 Stellar 48 Stephenson, Neal 19 streaming 127 Szabo, Nick 19, 32, 59, 101, 102, 105, 107 TAO, The 135 TechUK 115 Telstra 73 Temkin, Max 75 Thiel, Peter 18 Thornburg, Jonathan 23 Tiny Human 129 Today (Radio 4) 67 Todd, Peter 59, 68 Top500 65 Tor 49, 59 Tual, Stephen 109 Tucker, Jeffrey 40 Tulip Mania 35 Tulip Trust 64 Turing completeness 107 Ujo Music 129 UK Government Office for Science 123 Ukash 73 Ulbricht, Lyn 53 Ulbricht, Ross 26, 48, 64 unbanked 29 Underhanded C Contest 106 Underhanded Solidity Coding Contest 106 Venezuela 31 Ver, Roger 17, 37, 44, 47, 48, 50 virtual reality 135 Visa 28, 36 wallet 12 Walpole, Sir Mark 123 WannaCry 73 Washington Post 32 Wells Fargo 87 Western Union 28 Westwood, Adam 64 WhollyHemp 76 WikiLeaks 36, 62 Wikimedia Foundation 76 Wikipedia 76 Wilcke, Jeffrey 94 Willybot 82 Winter Olympics 93 Wired 64 Wise, Josh 93 Wood, Gavin 94 WordPress 75 Wright Family Trust 63 Wright, Craig 61, 139 Yapizon 89 YouTube 137 Zamovskiy, Andrey 120 Zero Hedge 24 Zhoutong 83 Notes [1] Satoshi Nakamoto.


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Nomad Citizenship: Free-Market Communism and the Slow-Motion General Strike by Eugene W. Holland

business cycle, capital controls, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, deskilling, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, price mechanism, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, slashdot, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, wage slave, working poor

Attempts like Wikipedia to combine distributed intelligence and distrib­ uted sovereignty abound on the Internet. Slashdot and Kuro5hin are both cooperative online information portals (and therefore somewhat differ­ ent from full-fledged encyclopedias): they are designed to make breaking information—either pulled from elsewhere on the Web or written specifi­ cally for the sites—available to their members. Anyone can join Slashdot or Kuro5hin, although both are intended for people specifically interested and involved in Internet technology. (Slashdot presents itself as “News for Nerds. Stuff that M atters”; Kuro5hin’s declared focus is “technology and culture, from the trenches.”) The two sites attempt to promote both openaccess and high-quality debate without resorting to top-down control of either content or participation. Slashdot does exercise a modicum of topdown control regarding content: its editors decide which of the hundreds of items sent to them by members each day will be posted to the homepage or one of the special-topic sections of the Web site.

More recently, a Web site for free software developers called Advogato has undertaken the development of a “trust metric” that would assure a near-perfect self-mo derating process by eliminating the possibility of any one participant or group of participants unfairly distorting peer input and ratings; it remains to be seen how successful the attempt will be and how widely it will be adopted. The posting, comment, and modera­ tion systems used by Slashdot and Kuro5hin and proposed by Advogato may seem complicated, but the aim is to offer both open-access and highquality debate and to do so with little or no top-down interference from the editors: the sites are designed to offer a self-moderating platform for the dissemination and discussion of im portant information for specific subgroups of the Internet community. Slashdot and Kuro5hin are by no means the only sites attempting to combine distributed intelligence and distributed sovereignty by capitalizing on the ability of Internet-linked computers to collect and make use of vast amounts of information for the benefit of users.

Anyone (member or not) can post comments in response to an article, and moderators then rate the quality of the comments. Readers can set their comment threshold to read only the best ones, or only the comments not found objectionable by moderators, or all the comments. Almost anyone can serve as moderator, although there are criteria set to ensure their quality: moderators must be regular and fairly long-standing members of Slashdot (to discourage people signing up new accounts simply to disparage another member), and the comments they themselves have posted must have positive “karm a”— they must have received an average rating of good or better from other moderators (this is to discourage people with little expertise or bad at­ titudes from moderating others’ comments). Moderators are selected by machine at random from the eligible pool of members and are awarded a certain number of points with which to rate comments; if they are not used within three days, they expire.


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We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, disruptive innovation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lateral thinking, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

Sites that aggregated and collated blogs were set up, such as Brigitte Eaton’s Eatonweb, which began with 50 blogs in early 1999; by 2007 it had 65,000.6 That year Technorati, the specialist blog search service, claimed to be tracking 1.6 million updates a day to 75 million blogs, and monitoring the 175,000 new blogs that were being created every day.7 Further sites such as Slashdot and Digg, Plastic and Fark aggregate and sort blogs and user contributions using tools like collaborative filters, while Trackback services allow bloggers to keep track of other blogs that are linked to their own.8 The net result is that bloggers can swarm together and produce something like shared intelligence. In 2004 a self-organised investigation by US bloggers forced a television news network to withdraw a story claiming that President George W. Bush had received preferential treatment during his military service, by showing that the documents the network had relied upon were fakes. The website Slashdot, a meeting-place for nerds and geeks, gets 3 million visitors a day, mainly people who take part in scores of self-moderated discussions.9 OhmyNews in South Korea brings together 55,000 citizen journalists to provide a news service that rivals that of traditional, mainly conservative newspapers and television stations.10 YouTube and Flickr have enabled the widespread sharing of video and photographs and allow people to rate and sort content using tags and collaborative filters.

Contribute A successful creative community has to attract the right mix of people, who have different ideas and outlooks and access to tools that enable them to contribute. We-Think takes off only by getting the right answer to each of the following questions: Who contributes? What do they contribute? Why do they do so? And how do they do it? Creative communities have a social structure. As we have seen, a relatively small, committed core group tends to do most of the heavy lifting: the discussion moderators in Slashdot; the original inhabitants of Second Life. These are the Web 2.0 aristocracy: people who because they have been around longer and done more work tend to get listened to more. There is nothing unusual in this. Most innovative projects, whether inside a company or a theatre group or a laboratory, start with intense collaboration among a small group which shares a particular passion or wants to address a common problem – as did the worm researchers who gathered around Sydney Brenner at Cambridge.13 Often, however, such communities can become closed and inward-looking.

Available from http:// www.essex.ac.uk/chimera/content/pubs/wps/ CWP-2005–02-Blogging-in-the-Knowledge-Society-MB. pdf 4 Rebecca Blood, ‘Weblogs: A History and Perspective’, Rebecca’s Pocket, September 2000. Available from http:// www.rebeccablood.net/essays/weblog_history.html 5 Mallory Jensen, ‘Emerging Alternatives: a Brief History of Weblogs’, 2003. Available from http://www.cjr.org/ issues/2003/5/blog-jensen.asp 6 http://portal.eatonweb.com 7 http://www.technorati.com/about 8 http://slashdot.org and http://www.digg.com http://www.plastic.com http://www.fark.com 9 See Anna Maybank, ‘Web 2.0’, at www.charlesleadbeater. net. 10 See http://english.ohmynews.com 11 Nicole Ellison, Charles Steinfield and Cliff Lampe, ‘Spatially Bound Online Social Networks and Social Capital: The Role of Facebook’, Department of Telecommunication Information Studies and Media, Michigan State University, 2006.


pages: 315 words: 85,791

Technical Blogging: Turn Your Expertise Into a Remarkable Online Presence by Antonio Cangiano

23andMe, Albert Einstein, anti-pattern, bitcoin, bounce rate, cloud computing, en.wikipedia.org, John Gruber, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Network effects, revision control, Ruby on Rails, search engine result page, slashdot, software as a service, web application

Let your readers know when an important new industry-related book has been released—even if you haven’t read it yet and therefore can’t write a full review at that point in time. One time I announced that a new edition of a book was out. I wasn’t the first to announce it, so I didn’t even promote the post (it was a heads-up for my regular readers); however, someone saw it and submitted it on Slashdot. My announcement made the frontpage of Slashdot, bringing me an unexpected few thousand dollars. Results like this are not typical, but it does happen from time to time. Beside, you are offering a very valuable service to your readers. (Feel free to use my service, http://anynewbooks.com, to discover new books in the first place.) Mention books and other products. Even if the point of your post is not to review a product, you can still mention it.

Most blogs have a comment section for this specific purpose, and that’s definitely a positive thing, as your readers will want to interact with you by leaving comments (that you will often reply to as a means of further engaging your commenters). Some readers may even contact you directly by email or link back to your post from their blogs. Other discussions about your content may pop up on sites or communities such as Twitter, Facebook,[3] Reddit,[4] Hacker News,[5] or Slashdot.[6] Thinking of blogging as a conversation can also be freeing because you don’t need to have all the answers before approaching a subject you intend to write about. You are not expected to. A blog post is a conversation starter that can lead to lengthy discussions that have the potential to spread far and wide across the Internet. It’s important that you treat blogging as a conversation that will help you grow and learn, and not just as a megaphone.

Footnotes [1] http://techcrunch.com, http://gizmodo.com, http://venturebeat.com, http://smashingmagazine.com, http://venturebeat.com, http://joelonsoftware.com, http://37signals.com/svn, and http://codinghorror.com/blog [2] http://tumblr.com and http://twitter.com, respectively. [3] http://facebook.com, [4] http://reddit.com [5] http://news.ycombinator.com [6] http://slashdot.org Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Part 1 Plan It Chapter 1 What Kind of Blog Are You Going to Run? The Internet is really about highly specialized information, highly specialized targeting. Eric Schmidt The first step when beginning to plan your blog is to determine the type of blog you intend to run. We have already established that it’s not going to be a blog about your personal life, but you still have some choices to make.


pages: 394 words: 118,929

Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software by Scott Rosenberg

A Pattern Language, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, c2.com, call centre, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Larry Wall, life extension, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, software studies, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Therac-25, thinkpad, Turing test, VA Linux, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

Press coverage spread out in widening circles from Gillmor’s initial piece, including a link from Slashdot, the Web’s best trafficked and noisiest virtual hangout for programmers. Hundreds of outsiders posted their views and wishes to OSAF’s newly public mailing lists. Most of the missives fell into these categories: I need Chandler immediately. Where is it? You mean you haven’t written it yet? Why aren’t you using [this or that particular] open source project as the basis for [this or that element] of Chandler? I will only consider using a PIM that provides this extremely specific feature that I have been using for many years and can’t live without. Outlook blows. Microsoft sucks. Slashdot’s headline, “Mitch Kapor’s Outlook-Killer,” set the tone of the publicity: Kapor was taking on Gates.

“Guido’s time machine”: Eric Raymond’s Jargon File defines it at http://www.catb.org/jargon/html/G/Guido.htm. “When you program, you spend”: Paul Graham, “The Python Paradox,” August 2004, at http://www.paulgraham.com/pypar.htm. Vaporware Hall of Fame: Jon Zilber in MacUser, January 1, 1990. Dan Gillmor’s piece: “Software Idea May Be Just Crazy Enough to Work,” San Jose Mercury News, October 20, 2002. The original Slashdot posting and discussion is at http://slashdot.org/articles/02/10/20/1827210.shtml?tid=99. Complete archives of OSAF’s mailing lists can be accessed at http://www.osafoundation.org/mailing_lists.htm. “We will first put out code”: Kapor’s blog post from November 14, 2002, is at http://blogs.osafoundation.org/mitch/000044.htm# 000044. CHAPTER 4 LEGO LAND David/Rys McCusker’s blog postings are no longer online. “In the future, programs will be built”: James Noble, “The Lego Hypothesis,” slides from talk at JAOO Conference, September 2004, at http://www.jaoo.org/jaoo2004/speakers/show_ speaker.jsp?

Steve Jobs called Kapor—it was the two men’s first conversation in a decade—inviting the OSAF team down to Apple to talk about how they might collaborate. Kapor took special note when Lou Montulli’s name turned up in the signature of an email to OSAF’s just-opened “dev” mailing list—a message suggesting that OSAF look again at Mozilla’s toolkit for building its user interface. Montulli and his pal Aleks Totic had seen the Slashdot article about OSAF; soon after, they got in touch with Kapor to talk about volunteering on Chandler. Both young men were famous in Web circles: Totic had been part of the group at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, that built Mosaic, the first popular graphic Web browser (he had written the Macintosh version), and then decamped with his colleagues for Silicon Valley as part of the founding team at Netscape in 1994.


pages: 398 words: 107,788

Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking by E. Gabriella Coleman

activist lawyer, Benjamin Mako Hill, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Debian, Donald Knuth, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, financial independence, ghettoisation, GnuPG, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Jean Tirole, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Larry Wall, Louis Pasteur, means of production, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, software patent, software studies, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, The Hackers Conference, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, web application, web of trust

If it were not for Patrick Crosby, who literally sat me down one day in 1997 to describe the existence of a novel licensing agreement, the GNU General Public License (GPL), I would have likely never embarked on the study of free software and eventually hackers. I am thrilled he decided that something dear to him would be of interest to me. And it was. I was floored to discover working alternatives to existing intellectual property instruments. After months of spending hour after hour online, week after week, reading about the flurry of exciting developments reported on Linux Weekly News, Kuro5hin, and Slashdot, it became clear to me that much more than the law was compelling about this world, and that I should turn this distractingly fascinating hobby into my dissertation topic or run the risk of never finishing graduate school. Now I not only know why Patrick was happy to have received the Slackware CD back in 1996—and I found he was not alone, because many people have told me about the joy of discovering Slackware—but also hope I can convey this passion for technology to others in the pages of this book.

He firmly came to believe that knowledge access and transactions of sharing facilitate production, that most types of software should be open source, and that the world would be a better place if we were just given choices for software licensing. Although not exactly motivated to engage in F/OSS production to fulfill a political mandate, he understood the political dimension of coding in an entirely new light. In fact, since reading Lawrence Lessig’s Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, and through his daily reading of Slashdot and Boing Boing, popular Web sites reporting technology news and geek esoterica, he came to understand that code is law; code regulates behavior. But so do the copyright industries, which are using everything in their arsenal to fundamentally shape legal policy and even behavior. They suck. This chapter expands the narrative introduced above to present some consistent features of the hacker lifeworld by visiting the sites, practices, events, and technical architectures through which hackers make as well as remake themselves individually and collectively.

I honestly don’t feel like there are vast differences in areas like enjoyment gained in the programming, stress level, levels of collaboration, and stuff like that. But most often when I am done with corporate software, it’s dead, and when I am done with free software, it is alive. Free Software Spreads A nascent, circumscribed political sensibility that differentiated proprietary software from F/OSS was fertilized by everyday geek news on Web-based periodicals like Linux Weekly News and Web sites such as Slashdot, which presented moral and political analyses alongside mainstream news features as well as prolific analyses about life as a coder. “Programmers started writing personally, intently, voluminously,” observes journalist Scott Rosenberg (2007, 301), “pouring out their inspirations and frustrations, their insights and tips and fears and dreams on Web sites and in blogs. It has been the basis of if not a canon of great works of software, at least an informal literature around the day-to-day practice of programming.”


pages: 370 words: 105,085

Joel on Software by Joel Spolsky

AltaVista, barriers to entry, c2.com, commoditize, George Gilder, index card, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, Metcalfe's law, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, new economy, PageRank, Paul Graham, profit motive, Robert X Cringely, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, slashdot, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, thinkpad, VA Linux, web application

The thousands or millions of developer hours it takes to revise every existing device driver are going to have to come at the expense of something. And until that's done, Linux will be once again handicapped in the marketplace because it doesn't support existing hardware. Wouldn't it be better to use all that "zero cost" effort making Gnome better? Or supporting new hardware? __________ 2. Slashdot interview with Moshe Bar, June 7, 2002. See http://interviews.slashdot.org/interviews/02/06/07/1255227.shtml?tid=156. Debugged code is not free, whether proprietary or open source. Even if you don't pay cash dollars for it, it has opportunity cost, and it has time cost. There is a finite amount of volunteer programming talent available for open source work, and each open source project competes with each other open source project for the same limited programming resource, and only the sexiest projects really have more volunteer developers than they can use.

You don't have the capital, and you're afraid that spicy/garlicky sandwiches are just a fad which will pass, anyway. But you're still losing that $15,000 a day. It's a good thing you hired Jason. Jason is a 14-year-old programmer who hacked into the computers that run the factory, and believes that he has come up with a way to speed up the assembly line by a factor of two. Something about overclocking that he heard on Slashdot. And it seemed to work in a test run. There's only one thing stopping you from rolling it out. There's a teeny tiny wee little bug that causes a sandwich to be mushed once an hour or so. Jason wants to fix the wee bug. He thinks he can fix it in three days. Do you let him fix it, or do you roll out the software in its bug-addled state? Rolling out the software three days later will cost you $45,000 in lost profits.

At the very least, Windows programmers will concede the faults of their culture and say pragmatically, "Look, if you want to sell a word processor to a lot of people, it has to run on their computers, and if that means we use the Evil Registry instead of elegant ~/.rc files to store our settings, so be it." The very fact that the UNIX world is so full of self-righteous cultural superiority, "advocacy," and Slashdot-karma-whoring sectarianism while the Windows world is more practical ("yeah, whatever, I just need to make a living here") stems from a culture that feels itself under siege, unable to break out of the server closet and hobbyist market and onto the mainstream desktop. This haughtiness-from-a-position-of-weakness is the biggest flaw of The Art of UNIX Programming, but it's not really a big flaw: On the whole, the book is so full of incredibly interesting insight into so many aspects of programming that I'm willing to hold my nose during the rare smelly ideological rants because there's so much to learn about universal ideals from the rest of the book.


pages: 188 words: 9,226

Collaborative Futures by Mike Linksvayer, Michael Mandiberg, Mushon Zer-Aviv

4chan, AGPL, Benjamin Mako Hill, British Empire, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative economy, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, informal economy, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, late capitalism, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, Network effects, optical character recognition, packet switching, postnationalism / post nation state, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, stealth mode startup, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, WikiLeaks

Intention is required, especially in the context of a empts at its suppression through legal action and industry stigmatization. Links between individual users are weak, but uncooperative tendencies are mitigated by protocols that require reciprocity or bias performance in favour of generous participants (eg BitTorrent, emule). (5) Slashdot, the technology related news and discussion site is extraordinary in not actually producing articles at all. Instead stories are submi ed by users and then filtered. Those published are either selected by paid staff, or voted on by the user-base. Following this, the stories are presented on the web page and the real business of Slashdot begins: voluminous commentary ranging from additional information on the topic covered (of varying levels of accuracy), to analysis (of various degrees of quality), to speculation (of various degrees of pertinence), taking in jokes and assorted trolling along the way.

Sharing, friendship, following, liking, poking, democratizing… collaborating. These new platforms use a pleasant social terminology in an a empt to a ract more users. But this polite pale e of social interactions misses some of the key features that the pioneering systems were not afraid to use. For example, while most social networks only support binary relationships, Slashcode (the so ware that runs Slashdot.org, a pioneer of many features wrongly credited to “Web 2.0”) included a relationship model that defined friends, enemies, enemies-of-friends, etc. The reputation system on the Advogato publishing tool supported a fairly sophisticated trust metric, while most of the more contemporary blog platforms support none. Web 3.0 is also bullshit “The future is already here—it is just unevenly distributed.”

This miasma is then ordered by the users themselves, a changing subset of whom have powers to evaluate comments, which they assess for relevance and accuracy on a sliding scale. The number and quality of comments presented is then determined by users themselves by configuring their viewing preferences. User moderation is in turn moderated for fairness by other users, in a process known as metamoderation. In addition to the news component of the site, Slashdot also provides all users with space for a journal (which predates the blog), and tools to codify relations with other users as ‘friends’ or ‘foes’ (predating and exceeding Facebook). The system behind the site, Slashcode, is free so ware and is used by numerous other web communities of a smaller scale. (6) Vimeo, a portal for user-produced video, shelters a wide variety of subcultures/communities under one roof.


We Are the Nerds: The Birth and Tumultuous Life of Reddit, the Internet's Culture Laboratory by Christine Lagorio-Chafkin

4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, Donald Trump, East Village, game design, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joi Ito, Justin.tv, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QR code, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, technoutopianism, uber lyft, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

Beyond amassing karma, usernames weren’t good for much—though they did serve to differentiate Reddit from message boards like 4chan and 8chan, on which all posters were strictly anonymous. Huffman had the distinct impression that Graham disliked the way comments worked on competing sites, such as Slashdot, and wouldn’t welcome them on Reddit. Spolsky joined that camp, telling Huffman that he didn’t think comments worked well anywhere on the Internet; they were a write-only medium, meaning, individuals loved to type in their thoughts the same way they loved to hear themselves speak. His conclusion: “Comments are going to ruin Reddit.” Huffman, though, had already made up his mind. At the time, Slashdot’s comments relied on an intricate moderator-based system for ranking and displaying comments, in order from best to worst. “That dynamic, I totally just copied right from them. Except I didn’t want to implement the moderation system,” Huffman explained.

Front Page of the Internet Graham pulled out a chair at the conference room table and explained where Huffman and Ohanian had gone wrong. It was too early to be focused completely on mobile development. Few people were yet using their cell phones for much Internet browsing. Text messaging and BlackBerry Messenger were still in their infancy. Graham had an entirely different sort of Internet business in mind. You know who was on to something, Graham mused: Slashdot. He pulled up the site and showed the young men its trove of interesting but somewhat mainstream tech-centric links. There was also, similarly, Delicious (known often by its curious domain name, del.icio.us), a site many people used to bookmark their favorite websites and articles, or find topical content, based on freeform hashtags suggested by users. Co-created by former Morgan Stanley analyst Joshua Schachter, Delicious had earned Graham’s esteem after it directed significant traffic to some of his essays, which had been boosted to its “popular” page.

Huffman had arrived in Boston a few days before Ohanian, and brought with him the notebook from college and Cancun, full of potential names, site structures, and concepts. He knew what he wanted: a way for users to submit links, and to give a virtual thumbs-up to content they enjoyed with a single click. That click, or an upvote, would help Reddit rank its homepage—the most interesting, most upvoted stuff would rise to the top. It would be a massively collaborative content popularity contest and key to their model. Their competitors, Delicious and Slashdot, constantly refreshed their “popular” pages; Reddit’s homepage would only be a “popular” page. Also scribbled in Huffman’s notebook was the word “karma.” Huffman and Ohanian had concocted another secret sauce. They’d give readers feel-good points that would accrue with every activity they partook in on Reddit. Posting a link: karma point. Having your post upvoted by someone else: karma point.


pages: 369 words: 80,355

Too Big to Know: Rethinking Knowledge Now That the Facts Aren't the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room by David Weinberger

airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, Debian, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of journalism, Galaxy Zoo, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, linked data, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, openstreetmap, P = NP, Pluto: dwarf planet, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, slashdot, social graph, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

IBM has pioneered the use of “jams” to engage the entire corporation, at every level and pay grade, in discussing core business challenges over the course of a few days. From this have come new lines of business—created out of a stew in which the beef, peas, and carrots all have the same rank. “Other”-credentialed. At the tech-geek site Slashdot.com (its motto is “News for Nerds”), you’ll find rapid bursts of argumentation on the geeky news of the day. To cite your credentials generally would count against you, and if you don’t know what you’re talking about, a credential would do you no good. At Slashdot, a slash-and-burn sense of humor counts for more than a degree from Carnegie Mellon. Unsettled. We used to rely on experts to have decisive answers. It is thus surprising that in some branches of biology, rather than arguing to a conclusion about how to classify organisms, a new strategy has emerged to enable scientists to make progress together even while in fundamental disagreement.

One guess at the number of developers who worked on Windows 7 is 1,000, based on a post by Steve Sinofsky at the “Engineering Windows 7” blog on August 17, 2008 (http://blogs.msdn.com/b/e7/archive/2008/08/18/windows_5f00_7_5f00_team.aspx). But it is extremely difficult to do an apples-to-apples comparison, so to speak. 17 Eric Steven Raymond, “The Cathedral and the Bazaar,” http://catb.org/~esr/writings/homesteading (May 1997). Raymond later published a book by the same name. 18 “The Scalability of Linus,” Slashdot, July 23, 2010, http://linux.slashdot.org/story/10/07/23/123209/The-Scalability-of-Linus? 19 See http://www.debian.org/devel/constitution as well as Mathieu O’Neil, Cyberchiefs: Autonomy and Authority in Online Tribes (Pluto Press, 2009), p. 132. 20 O’Neil, Cyberchiefs. 21 Interview with Noel Dickover, February 25, 2011. 22 See http://www.fantasypumpkins.com/. 23 Peter J. Denning and Rick Hayes-Roth, “Decision Making in Very Large Networks,” Communications of the ACM [Association for Computing Machinery] 49, no. 11 (November 2006): 19–23. 24 There are important exceptions.

See also Books and book publishing Paper-based tools Parenting experts Patent Office, US PatientsLikeMe.com Pavement performance Peer-review journals Perception, facts and Permission-free knowledge Philosophy defining and quantifying knowledge information overload reality unresolved knowledge Pinker, Steven Planetary Skin initiative Plato PLoS One online journal Pogue, David Polio vaccine Politics Politifact.com Popper, Karl Population growth, Malthusian theory of Pornography Postmodernism Pragmatism PressThink.org Primary Insight Principles of Geology (Lyell) Prize4Life Protein folding ProteomeCommons.org Pseudo-science Public Library of Science (PLoS) Punchcard data Pyramid, knowledge Pyramid of organizational efficiency Quora Racial/ethnic identity Ramanujan, Srinivasa RAND Corporation Random Hacks of Kindness Rauscher, Francis Raymond, Eric Reagan, Ronald Reality Reason as the path to truth and knowledge critical debate on unresolved knowledge Reliability Repositories, open access Republic of Letters Republican Party Republic.com (Sunstein) Revolution in the Middle East Rheingold, Howard Richards, Ellen Swallow Riesman, David Robustness “The Rock” (Eliot) Rogers, William Rorty, Richard Rosen, Jay Roskam, Peter Rushkoff, Douglas Russia: Dogger Bank Incident Salk, Jonas Sanger, Larry Schmidt, Michael School shootings Science amateurs in crowdsourcing expertise failures in goals of hyperlinked inflation of scientific studies interdisciplinary approaches media relations Net-based inquiry open filtering journal articles open-notebook overgeneration of scientific facts philosophical and professional differences among scientists public and private realms scientific journals transformation of scientific knowledge Science at Creative Commons Science journal Scientific journals Scientific management Scientific method Self-interest: fact-based knowledge Semantic Web Seneca Sensory overload Sexual behavior The Shallows (Carr) Shapiro, Jesse Shared experiences Shilts, Randy Shirky, Clay Shoemaker, Carolyn Simplicity in scientific thought Simulation of physical interactions Slashdot.com Sloan Digital Sky Survey Smart mobs “Smarter planet” initiative Smith, Arfon Smith, Richard Soccer Social conformity Social networks crowdsourcing expertise Middle East revolutions pooling expertise scaling social filtering Social policy: social role of facts Social reform Dickens’s antipathy to fact-based knowledge global statistical support for Bentham’s ideas Social tools: information overload Society of Professional Journalists Socrates Software defaults Software development, contests for Sotomayor, Sonia Source transparency Space Shuttle disaster Spiro, Mary Sports Sprinkle, Annie Standpoint transparency Statistics emergence of Hunch.com Stopping points for knowledge The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Kuhn) Stupidity, Net increasing Sub-networks Suel, Gurol Sunlight Foundation Sunstein, Cass Surowiecki, James Systems biology Tag cloud Tagging Tatalias, Jean Taylor, Frederick Wilson TechCamps Technodeterminism Technology easing information overload Technorati.com Television, homophily and Temptation of hyperlinks Think tanks Thoreau, Henry David The Tipping Point (Gladwell) Todd, Mac Toffler, Alvin TopCopder Topic-based expertise Torvalds, Linus Traditional knowledge Tranche Transparency hyperlinks contributing to objectivity and of the Net Open Government Initiative Transparency and Open Government project Triangular knowledge Trillin, Calvin Trust: reliability of information Trust-through-authority system Truth elements of knowledge reason as the path to value of networked knowledge Twitter Tyme, Mae Unnailing facts Updike, John USAID UsefulChem notebook Vaccinations Verizon Vietnam Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Wales, Jimmy Wallace, Alfred Russel Walter, Skip Washington Post Watson, James Welch, Jack Welfare The WELL (The Whole Earth’Lectronic Link) Whole Earth Catalog Wikipedia editorial policy LA Times wikitorial experiment policymaking Virginia Tech shootings Wikswo, John Wilbanks, John Wired magazine The Wisdom of Crowds (Surowiecki) Wise crowds Wittgenstein, Ludwig Wolfram, Stephen WolframAlpha.com World Bank World Cup World War I Wurman, Richard Saul Wycliffe, John York, Jillian YourEncore Zappa, Frank Zeleny, Milan Zettabyte Zittrain, Jonathan Zuckerman, Ethan a I’m leaving this as an unsupported idea because it’s not the point of this book.


pages: 302 words: 85,877

Cult of the Dead Cow: How the Original Hacking Supergroup Might Just Save the World by Joseph Menn

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, commoditize, corporate governance, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Chrome, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Peter Thiel, pirate software, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, ransomware, Richard Stallman, Robert Mercer, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day

“a qualified thumbs-up”: Bruce Schneier, “Back Orifice 2000,” Crypto-Gram (newsletter), Schneier on Security (blog), August 15, 1999, www.schneier.com/crypto-gram/archives/1999/0815.html#BackOrifice 2000. “One Lockheed Martin expert wrote to a security mailing list”: The email went to subscribers of the list called NTBugtraq. “Carrie wanted to help Microsoft do better”: My sources for this anecdote are Carrie and Beck. “the leading tech discussion site Slashdot”: “Bizarre Answers from Cult of the Dead Cow,” Slashdot, October 22, 1999, https://news.slashdot.org/story/99/10/22/1157259/bizzare-answers-from-cult-of-the-dead-cow. Chapter 7: Oxblood “John Lester’s personal account”: Count Zero, “HoHoCon 1994… The Insanity Continues,” January 6, 1995, www.cultdeadcow.com/oldskool/HoHo94.html. “Laird said he was working for a not-for-profit”: He later told me he had been volunteering at the Toronto group Web Networks, which built websites for progressive groups, native tribes, and government agencies, and supported himself with other jobs on the side.

“File integrity became a big thing” too, Beck said, with software that checked that a program had not been altered. Security budgets rose across the industry as companies spent more on deeper security research and bought firewalls and intrusion-detection systems. Pulling off feats like the Orifice launches two years in a row cemented cDc’s position in security culture as the internet boom was peaking. In a format later adopted by Reddit for its AMAs, the leading tech-discussion site Slashdot arranged that fall for cDc to answer reader questions under their various handles. Amid a lot of joking and posed crudeness, they articulated quite a few beliefs and goals for security that had many tech-industry readers nodding. They especially wanted software companies to put more thought, effort, and money into user safety and privacy, even if they did not consider themselves to be in the security business.

See Monsegur, Hector Sadofsky, Jason Scott, 38, 46–47, 58–59, 67, 69 Salon (online magazine), 151 San Antonio Express-News, 60 Sandberg, Sheryl, 200 San Francisco, California, 1–8, 22, 30, 65, 113, 123, 128, 155, 186 satellite communications, 61, 93, 95, 131, 177 Schneier, Bruce, 82–83, 155, 210 script kiddies, 64, 83, 122 secrecy, role of, 117–120, 134, 145, 171, 196 WikiLeaks, 142–151, 155–156, 158–159, 163, 166, 169–170, 192 “Secrets of the Little Blue Box” (Rosenbaum), 18 Secure Sockets Layer encryption, 127 security, 3–5, 43, 51, 84, 136, 182–184, 199 advisories to public, 56–57, 59, 61, 72–74, 108–110, 113, 193, 197 consulting, 56, 109–111 industry, 29–30, 79–80, 85, 171, 177–180, 197 self-driving car technology, 7, 175, 178, 186–187 Sendmail, 48, 56 Setec Astronomy, 65 sexism, in tech world, 158, 170, 193–194 sexual misconduct, in tech world, 150, 152–156, 193 Shadow Brokers, 167 Shea, Dylan (FreqOut), 49, 65 Sid Vicious. See Brewer, Brandon Signal, 152, 162, 171, 178 Silicon Valley, 3–4, 37, 121, 130, 133, 184–185, 191–192, 201–202 Sir Dystic (Josh Buchbinder), 63–68, 78, 81, 93, 186 Six/Four System, 128–129, 162 Slack, 193 Slashdot, 84 Slick, Grace, 22 smartphones, 124, 130–131, 163, 178 Smith, Val, 121, 177–178 Sneakers (film), 65, 109 Snowden, Edward, 138, 167, 172, 177, 181–182, 211 contents of leak, 4, 120, 137, 139, 151, 172 Freedom of the Press Foundation, 150–151, 155 ramifications of leak, 122, 153, 161, 196–198 Snyder, Window (Rosie the Riveter), 49–50, 63, 110–111, 121–123, 171 social engineering, 35, 141, 153 social media, 6, 192–195, 203 Facebook, 4–6, 152, 157–158, 190–196, 198–201, 211 Instagram, 192, 199–200 See also Twitter software, pirated, 15–16, 21, 30, 54, 68, 121 software flaws.


pages: 518 words: 49,555

Designing Social Interfaces by Christian Crumlish, Erin Malone

A Pattern Language, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, c2.com, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative editing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, ghettoisation, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, if you build it, they will come, Merlin Mann, Nate Silver, Network effects, Potemkin village, recommendation engine, RFC: Request For Comment, semantic web, SETI@home, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, source of truth, stealth mode startup, Stewart Brand, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application

Developer Network, http://developer.yahoo.com Collaborative Filtering What People need help finding the best contributions to online community (Figure 15-4). Figure 15-4. Slashdot popularized the idea of harnessing the preferences of the site’s readership to vote articles up or down and (in theory) bring the highest-quality articles and comments to the surface while burying the worst. Download at WoweBook.Com Group Moderation 393 Use when Use this pattern when you have a large base of contributors and a wide range of quality. How Enable authenticated users to vote up or down, or otherwise rate content. Optionally give users with higher reputation status more privileges to highlight or hide content. Aggregate the votes, and use this to determine sorting and display order (Figure 15-5). Figure 15-5. At Slashdot, only comments above a rating threshold are displayed automatically in the thread.

A reader can still expand a hidden comment to read it, or change her preferences to move the threshold. Why The collective wisdom of the community can help filter out the best contributions and conversations. Related patterns “Reputation Influences Behavior” on page 154 “Thumbs Up/Down Ratings” on page 269 “Vote to Promote” on page 266 Download at WoweBook.Com 394 Chapter 15: Good Cop, Bad Cop As seen on Kuro5hin (http://www.kuro5hin.org/) Slashdot (http://slashdot.org/) Yahoo! Answers (http://answers.yahoo.com/) Report Abuse What Any active, successful social system online is subject to abuse. We know it will occur, so we need to have processes in place for identifying and mitigating it. People need a way to report it that isn’t too inconvenient and doesn’t require them to type in or restate information that we could glean from context. In a growing community, abuse reporting scales up faster than human beings can handle it, so an escalation strategy is needed to deal with the consequences of popularity.

They have learned to share sophisticated tools (like breaking captcha) so effectively the pros and the least sophisticated script-kiddies are no longer two separate groups. The good news is that there is a better way, but it requires a totally new and fresh approach. In particular, I’ve become a true believer in community-moderation and collaborative filtering, after seeing the success of schemes like those of Y! Answers and Slashdot. What these successful sites are doing in essence is empowering their (good) users to take ownership of the abuse and qualitylevel goals. They create strong incentives for good users to put an effort into moderating the sites. Users who consistently exhibit good judgments and willingness to contribute, get “strength points” making them more and more powerful in the never ending game of stamping-out abuse.


pages: 390 words: 114,538

Digital Wars: Apple, Google, Microsoft and the Battle for the Internet by Charles Arthur

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, gravity well, Jeff Bezos, John Gruber, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Network effects, PageRank, pre–internet, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, software patent, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, the new new thing, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, turn-by-turn navigation, upwardly mobile

The software – then Mac-only – was slick, and the auto-updating smooth. Yet, if Jobs had been expecting a rapturous reception from the technical press for the iPod’s design, he may have been disappointed. Hard-core technologists weren’t positive. The response by CmdrTaco – real name Rob Malda – head of the ‘news for nerds’ site Slashdot, then one of the most influential technology discussion sites, was typical: ‘No wireless. Less space than a Nomad. Lame.’6 Yet Slashdot denizens liked the idea of an ultraportable hard drive that could boot a Mac. Some began seeing iPods as a futuristic personal computer that would store your personal data in your pocket and plug in to any computer you liked and work with it – as long as the computer was a Mac, of course, though some geeks were considering whether they could reformat the disk to a Windows version.

Jobs called Universal’s bluff: completely withdrawing its songs would cost the record label around $200 million annually. Universal didn’t re-sign the contract – but the songs remained available on an ‘as is’ basis.) Word about the project started leaking out in June. Because it included Wi-Fi, an application for compliance testing had to be filed in August 2006 with the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC), where reporters immediately picked up on it. On Slashdot, news of the device’s capabilities earned the ironic comment: ‘Wireless. More space than a Nomad. Lame.’33 Technology reviewers liked some of the ideas of the Zune, but were dubious about its colour – brown – and limitations. The sharing limits in particular struck many as peculiar. Despite the undercurrents of unease – and the fact that Apple had sold more than 8 million iPods in each of the first three quarters of 2006– Allard sought to rally the troops.

atype=tp 42 http://www.businessinsider.com/microsoft-bing-losing-billions-2011-4 43 http://www.businessinsider.com/henry-blodget-bing-revisited-still-toast-but-slightly-less-burnt-2010-3 44 http://press.nokia.com/2011/04/21/nokia-and-microsoft-sign-definitive-agreement-ahead-of-schedule/ 45 http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2005/05/02/8258478/index.htm 46 http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/09/technology/09msn.html Chapter Four Digital music: Apple versus Microsoft 1 http://www.theregister.co.uk/2000/12/06/apple_to_fall_into/ 2 Walter Isaacson (2011) Steve Jobs, Little, Brown, London. 3 Private conversation with Gayle Laakmann. 4 http://www.wired.com/gadgets/mac/commentary/cultofmac/2006/10/71956?currentPage=all 5 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kN0SVBCJqLs 6 http://slashdot.org/story/01/10/23/1816257/Apple-releases-iPod 7 http://news.cnet.com/Apples-iPod-spurs-mixed-reactions/2100-1040_3-274821.html 8 Private conversation with Paul Griffin. 9 http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2002/jan/16results.html 10 Private conversation with Bob Ohlweiler. 11 http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/4.02/jobs_pr.html 12 http://www.macobserver.com/tmo/article/A_Few_Of_Her_Favorite_Things_Oprah_Gives_iPods_To_Everyone_In_Audience/ 13 Private conversation with Don Norman. 14 http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/showbiz/bizarre/165843/iCant-believe-Geri-hasntBRgot-an-iPod.html 15 http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2003/05/12/342289/index.htm 16 http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/features/2003/oct03/10-15MusicServices.mspx 17 http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2003/dec/14/gadgets.christmas 18 http://www.youtube.com/watch?


Engineering Security by Peter Gutmann

active measures, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, bank run, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Brian Krebs, business process, call centre, card file, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Debian, domain-specific language, Donald Davies, Donald Knuth, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, fault tolerance, Firefox, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, glass ceiling, GnuPG, Google Chrome, iterative process, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, Laplace demon, linear programming, litecoin, load shedding, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Network effects, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, post-materialism, QR code, race to the bottom, random walk, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ruby on Rails, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, semantic web, Skype, slashdot, smart meter, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, telemarketer, text mining, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Market for Lemons, the payments system, Therac-25, too big to fail, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, web application, web of trust, x509 certificate, Y2K, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

References 645 [204] Miller Smiles scam report 5864-78694-286039, 19 November 2009, http://www.millersmiles.co.uk/report/12818. [205] Miller Smiles scam report 5941-79445-287373, 22 November 2009, http://www.millersmiles.co.uk/report/12885. [206] Miller Smiles scam report 6283-84449-295388, 6 December 2009, http://www.millersmiles.co.uk/report/13171. [207] Miller Smiles scam report 6286-84510-295482, 7 December 2009, http://www.millersmiles.co.uk/report/13174. [208] Miller Smiles scam report 6429-86374-298493, 12 December 2009, http://www.millersmiles.co.uk/report/13302. [209] “3DS is also broken from a human factors POV”, ‘gilgongo’, 28 January 2010, http://news.slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=1528586&no_d2=1&cid=30943342. [210] “Not only insecure, WORTHLESS”, ‘macbuzz01’, 28 January 2010, [211] [212] [213] [214] http://news.slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=1528586&no_d2=1&cid=30944372. “Re:Lol”, ‘tatsuyame’, 28 January 2010, http://news.slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=1528586&no_d2=1&cid=30939322. “Re:Lol”, ‘Kamokazi’, 28 January 2010, http://news.slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=1528586&no_d2=1&cid=30939456. “Re:Lol”, ‘Lord Byron II’, 28 January 2010, http://news.slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=1528586&no_d2=1&cid=30940032. “Re:Lol”, ‘JesterOne’, 28 January 2010, http://news.slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=1528586&no_d2=1&cid=30940856. [215] “The ‘Verified by Visa’ fiasco … courtesy of ANZ”, ‘foobar’, 20 June 2008, http://www.geekzone.co.nz/foobar/5256. [216] “Part II of: The ‘Verified by Visa’ fiasco … courtesy of ANZ”, ‘foobar’, 30 June 2008, http://www.geekzone.co.nz/foobar/5294. [217] “The Seven Flaws of Identity Management”, Rachna Dhamija and Lisa Dusseault, IEEE Security and Privacy, Vol.6, No.2 (March/April 2008), p.24. [218] “Godzilla Encryption and Security Tutorial, Part 3: Authentication”, Peter Gutmann, http://www.cypherpunks.to/~peter/T3_Authentication.pdf. [219] “Protocol Governance: The Elite, or the Mob (Transcript of Discussion)”, Ross Anderson, Proceedings of the 20th Security Protocols Workshop (Protocols’12), Springer-Verlag LNCS No.7622, April 2012, p.146. [220] “One Of The 32 Million With A RockYou Account?

, which is why the museum (hopefully) has a range of security measures in place to prevent their exhibits from walking out the door (or, in this case, the skylight). Designing for evil requires asking yourself the question “what if some of my users are evil?” [1]. Slashdot’s reputation-based posting mechanism, which filters out spammers and other nuisance posters, is a good example of designing for evil (on the other hand this kind of social-rating system can be defeated if the stakes are high enough, as has been demonstrated on eBay where cybercriminals bypass the reputation-based rating system either indirectly using cliques and stolen credit cards to inflate their feedback ratings or directly by buying highly-rated accounts from phishers). Slashdot also uses a few other tricks like randomisation, allocating the ability to rate other people’s posts on a random basis, which makes it much harder to game than other reputation-based sites.

An example of this type of behaviour is shown in Figure 143, in which the TargetAlert plugin for the Mozilla web browser is indicating that clicking on the link will cause the browser to hang while it loads the Adobe Acrobat plugin. TargetAlert has other indicators to warn the user about links that are executable, pop up new windows, execute Javascript, and so on [78]. Figure 144: Slashdot displaying the true destination of a link A variation of this technique is used by the Slashdot web site to prevent link spoofing, in which a link that appears to lead to a particular web site instead leads to a completely different one. This measure, shown in Figure 144, was introduced to counter the widespread practice of having a link to a supposedly informational site lead instead to the (now-defunct) goatse.cx, a site that may euphemistically be described as “not work-safe”, the Internet equivalent of a whoopee cushion.


Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy by Lawrence Lessig

Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Benjamin Mako Hill, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Cass Sunstein, collaborative editing, commoditize, disintermediation, don't be evil, Erik Brynjolfsson, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Larry Wall, late fees, Mark Shuttleworth, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, optical character recognition, PageRank, peer-to-peer, recommendation engine, revision control, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Saturday Night Live, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, transaction costs, VA Linux, yellow journalism

As McCullagh told me as we ended our interview, “Oh, I should say: I met my wife through the list.” Slashdot Slashdot began in September 1997 as a Web site covering technologyrelated news. Its angle, however, was a technology that enabled users to both comment upon the articles that got referenced, and comment upon the comments. The consequence of the second set of comments would be to filter out comments not thought useful. That meant the site could self-edit, and hence present to any reader 80706 i-xxiv 001-328 r4nk.indd 198 8/12/08 1:55:43 AM H Y BRID EC O NO MIE S 199 a high-quality public debate about issues important to the technology community. Today there are more than a quarter million people collaborating in just this way on Slashdot.30 Their work—work they don’t get paid for, don’t even get frequent-flier miles for—produced a site worth millions of dollars.

Today there are more than a quarter million people collaborating in just this way on Slashdot.30 Their work—work they don’t get paid for, don’t even get frequent-flier miles for—produced a site worth millions of dollars. In 1999, Slashdot was sold to Andover .net, and ads were added to the layout. So readers edit, and readers and Andover.net then profit. Collaboration here winnows a potentially endless array of comments to a relative few that people reading the site would or should want to see. The site adds a kind of collaborative editing to a news page that is RW to the tradition of RO news. This collaboration produces a high-quality RW site. Editing is value. This value is produced for free. Last.fm No doubt the industry that has squealed the most (think stuck pig) about the Internet is the traditional recording industry. As I’ve described, the Net competed (whether legally or not) with its model for profiting from music. It fought hard to limit that competition.

., 206 RW (Read/Write) culture, 28–29, 33, 34–35, 50, 51–83, 116, 252, 253, 274 copyright law and, 97, 100–105, 108 economic value promoted by, 88–90 importance and value of, 106–8 media in, 68–83 RO culture compared with, 84–114 text in, 57–68, 69 value of works created in, 90–97 values and, 85–88 Sadler, Sim, 72–73 Safari Books Online, 235–36 sampling, 53–54, 104, 273 San Francisco Chronicle, 190 Sanger, Larry, 156, 157 Saturday Night Live, 227–28 Scherf, Steve, 237–28 Scholastic, 206 Second Life, 213, 214–20, 236 Sefton-Green, Julia, 78 segregation, 257–58 SETI, 167 Sendmail, 163–64 sharecropping, 243–48 sharing economies, 116, 118–19, 143–76, 177, 223 commercial economies and, 145–51, 177–78, 225–26, 252 crossovers and, 227–28 hybrid economies and, 177–78, 225; see also hybrid economies on Internet, 119, 155–72 motivations for participation in, 151–54, 172–76, 291 parallel economies and, 225–26 thick, 152, 154 thin, 152–54 tools signaling, 226–27 Sherman, Cary, 114 Shuttleworth, Mark, 184–85 SilviaO, 15–17, 95 Sims, Charles, 91–92, 93, 95 8/12/08 1:56:33 AM 326 IND E X Six Apart, 233 Skype, 153 slander, 275 Slashdot, 198–99 Smith, Adam, 49–50 Smith, Marc, 201–2 Söderberg, Johan, 70, 73, 75, 273 software, 221 free and open-source, 163–66, 172, 173–75, 179–85, 219, 220, 240–43, 291 Sony, xxi, 2, 10, 40, 102, 241, 244, 249 Sousa, John Philip, 23–29, 31–33, 35, 36, 50, 56, 82, 132, 254, 280 Southwestern Bell, 181–82 spam, 58 Spears, Britney, 95–96 spillovers, 229–31 Stallman, Richard, 157, 163, 179, 182, 183 Star Wars, 245–46, 247 Sterling, Thomas, 180 stock markets, 152–53, 154 Stone, Victor, 75, 97 Success of Open Source, The (Weber), 174–75 Sun Microsystems, 181, 232 Sunstein, Cass, 126 Supreme Court, U.S., 102, 110, 123, 225, 291–92 MGM v.


Toast by Stross, Charles

anthropic principle, Buckminster Fuller, cosmological principle, dark matter, double helix, Ernest Rutherford, Extropian, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, glass ceiling, gravity well, Khyber Pass, Mars Rover, Mikhail Gorbachev, NP-complete, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, performance metric, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, slashdot, speech recognition, strong AI, traveling salesman, Turing test, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Review, Y2K

Manfred takes it and heads for the back of the split-level bar, up the steps to a table where some guy with greasy dreadlocks is talking to a suit from Paris. The hanger-on at the bar notices him for the first time, staring with suddenly wide eyes: nearly spills his coke in a mad rush for the door. Oh shit, thinks Manfred, better buy some more server PIPS. He can recognize the signs: he's about to be slashdotted. He gestures at the table: “this one taken?” Be my guest,” says the guy with the dreads. Manfred slides the chair open then realises that the other guy -- immaculate double-breasted suit, sober tie, crew-cut -- is a girl. Mr Dreadlock nods. “You're Macx? I figured it was about time we met.” “Sure.” Manfred holds out a hand and they shake. Manfred realises the hand belongs to Bob Franklin, a Research Triangle startup monkey with a VC track record, lately moving into micromachining and space technology: he made his first million two decades ago and now he's a specialist in extropian investment fields.

Just then a bandwidth load as heavy as a pregnant elephant sits down on Manfred's head and sends clumps of humongous pixellation flickering across his sensorium: around the world five million or so geeks are bouncing on his home site, a digital flash crowd alerted by a posting from the other side of the bar. Manfred winces. “I really came here to talk about the economic exploitation of space travel, but I've just been slashdotted. Mind if I just sit and drink until it wears off?” “Sure, man.” Bob waves at the bar. “More of the same all round!” At the next table a person with make-up and long hair who's wearing a dress -- Manfred doesn't want to speculate about the gender of these crazy mixed-up Euros -- is reminiscing about wiring the fleshpots of Tehran for cybersex. Two collegiate-looking dudes are arguing intensely in German: the translation stream in his glasses tell him they're arguing over whether the Turing Test is a Jim Crow law that violates European corpus juris standards on human rights.

Meanwhile automated factories in Indonesia and Mexico have produced another quarter of a million motherboards with processors rated at more than ten petaflops -- about an order of magnitude below the computational capacity of a human brain. Another fourteen months and the larger part of the cumulative conscious processing power of the human species will be arriving in silicon. And the first meat the new AI's get to know will be the uploaded lobsters. Manfred stumbles back to his hotel, bone-weary and jet-lagged; his glasses are still jerking, slashdotted to hell and back by geeks piggybacking on his call to dismantle the moon. They stutter quiet suggestions at his peripheral vision; fractal cloud-witches ghost across the face of the moon as the last huge Airbuses of the night rumble past overhead. Manfred's skin crawls, grime embedded in his clothing from three days of continuous wear. Back in his room, aineko mewls for attention and strops her head against his ankle.


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Lurking: How a Person Became a User by Joanne McNeil

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Burning Man, Chelsea Manning, Chris Wanstrath, citation needed, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, feminist movement, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, l'esprit de l'escalier, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, packet switching, PageRank, pre–internet, profit motive, QAnon, recommendation engine, Saturday Night Live, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Turing complete, We are the 99%, web application, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog

For years, I could have sworn HotBot had the most relevant results, and I was surprised to learn many, many years later that it was only the skin for search that the Inktomi database provided. In addition to the Lycos and Yahoo model of directories, there was a user-sorted directory called DMOZ, which shut down in 2017. Slashdot noted that the “site was so old that its hierarchical categories were originally based on the hierarchy of Usenet newsgroups” (“After 19 Years, DMOZ Will Close, Announces AOL,” Slashdot, March 4, 2017). Mark Hansen and Ben Rubin’s installation Listening Post was first presented at Brooklyn Academy of Music in December 2001. Rubin has a video clip on his Vimeo page. On YouTube, one might find a 2006 user-created video depicting a screen broadcasting live search results. Frank Pasquale, in a piece for Aeon (“Digital Star Chamber,” August 18, 2015), provides more context about Google results: “For example, thanks to Federal Trade Commission action in 2002, United States consumer-protection laws require the separation of advertisements from unpaid, ‘organic’ content.

Indymedia, a collectively authored platform that spun out from the 1999 “Battle of Seattle” WTO protests, operated as a major online hub for activism for a decade, prioritizing information on local events and on-the-ground reporting. Contributors often uploaded video footage or reports about a protest while it was under way, bypassing the approval process and time delays that slowed down traditional publications. The Indymedia interface resembled other collective publishing platforms like Slashdot, where users could submit stories and comment on them. MetaFilter, also known as the “blue,” for its deep cerulean background (HEX color #006699, to be exact), did not look like the other collectively authored blogs. Its emphasis on brief setups to provide context for the links shared, followed by sarcasm and banter from the community, predated the kind of collective joshing that happens on Twitter nowadays.

This process mitigates the openness of the Reddit channel, and while it does not perfectly prevent trolling on Discord, it is manageable. Diverse as its communities are today, Lo thinks of Reddit as inheriting “forum dwelling behavior.” The culture on this platform was set by “young white men who were already on forums.” These first users had plenty of alternatives when Reddit launched; there was already Digg, Slashdot, and Something Awful—all built for a certain sort of online guy. But these “forum dwellers” preferred Reddit, and their loyalty is what brought other communities along to create their own subreddits. In Lo’s words, Reddit has “idiot libertarian” founding principles; it did nothing to improve the diversity of its users; it did nothing special for them at all—it was just easy for everyone to use.


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The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, c2.com, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, commoditize, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, John Markoff, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, old-boy network, packet switching, peer-to-peer, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Stacy Schiff, Know It All: Can Wikipedia Conquer Expertise?, NEW YORKER (July 21, 2006), available at http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2006/07/31/060731fa_fact. 24. Wikipedia, Nupedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nupedia (as of Apr. 30, 2007, 18:01 GMT). 25. Id. 26. Nupedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://nupedia.8media.org (last visited June 1, 2007). 27. Posting of Timothy to Slashdot, The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir, http://features.slashdot.org/features/05/04/18/164213.shtml (Apr. 18, 2005, updated Apr. 20, 2005 19:19 GMT). 28. Also known as the “robustness principle.” See INFO. SEI. INST., UNIV. OF S. CAL., TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL: DARPA INTERNET PROGRAM PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION (Jon Postel ed., Sept. 1981), available at http//rfc.sunsite.dk/rfc/rfc793.html. 29. See Wikipedia Meta-Wiki, Wikipedia, http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia (as of June 1, 2007, 08:15 GMT). 30.

See FCC, Memorandum Opinion and Order in re Cablevision Systems Corporation’s Request for Waiver of Section 76.1204(a)(1) (Jan. 10, 2007), available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DA-07-48A1.pdf; FCC, Memorandum Opinion and Order in re Bend Cable Communications, LLC Request for Waiver of Section 76.1204(a)(1) (Jan. 10, 2007), available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DA-07-47A1.pdf However, others have been denied. FCC, Memorandum Opinion and Order in re Comcast Corporation, LLC Request for Waiver of Section 76.1204(a)(1) (Jan. 10, 2007), available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DA-07-49A1.pdf; Posting of Cowboy Neal to Slashdot, FCC Opens Market for Cable Boxes (Jan. 11, 2007, 21:51), http://hardware.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/01/12/0043249. See Press Release, FCC, Media Bureau Acts on Requests for Waiver of Rules on Integrated Set-Top Boxes and Clarifies Compliance of Downloadable Conditional Access Security Solution (Jan. 10, 2007), available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-269446A1.pdf, for information regarding decisions on integrated boxes, and Todd Spangler, FCC: Set-Top Fines Capped at $325K, MULTICHANNEL NEWS, Feb. 15, 2007, http://www.multichannel.com/article/CA6416753.html, for general information about the rulings. 29.

As mentioned earlier, a site popular with others—with lots of inbound links—is considered worthier of a high rank than an unpopular one, and thus search engines can draw upon the behavior of millions of other Web sites as they sort their search results.86 Sites like Amazon deploy a different form of ranking, using the “mouse droppings” of customer purchasing and browsing behavior to make recommendations—so they can tell customers that “people who like the Beatles also like the Rolling Stones.” Search engines can also more explicitly invite the public to express its views on the items it ranks, so that users can decide what to view or buy on the basis of others’ opinions. Amazon users can rate and review the items for sale, and subsequent users then rate the first users’ reviews. Sites like Digg and Reddit invite users to vote for stories and articles they like, and tech news site Slashdot employs a rating system so complex that it attracts much academic attention.87 eBay uses reputation to help shoppers find trustworthy sellers. eBay users rate each others’ transactions, and this trail of ratings then informs future buyers how much to trust repeat sellers. These rating systems are crude but powerful. Malicious sellers can abandon poorly rated eBay accounts and sign up for new ones, but fresh accounts with little track record are often viewed skeptically by buyers, especially for proposed transactions involving expensive items.


Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide by Henry Jenkins

barriers to entry, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, Columbine, deskilling, Donald Trump, game design, George Gilder, global village, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, means of production, moral panic, new economy, profit motive, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, slashdot, Steven Pinker, the market place, Y Combinator

Amateur media producers w i l l upload digital videos to a Web site; visitors to the site w i l l be able to evaluate each submission, and those w h i c h receive the strongest support from viewers w i l l make it onto the airwaves. The idea of reader-moderated news content is not new. Slashdot was one of the first sites to experiment w i t h user-moderation, gathering a wealth of information w i t h a five-person paid staff, mostly part time, b y empowering readers not only to submit their o w n stories but to w o r k collectively to determine the relative value of each submission. Slashdot's focus is explicitly on technology and culture, and so it became a focal point for information about Internet privacy issues, the debates over mandatory filters i n public libraries, the open source movement, and so forth. Slashdot attracts an estimated 1.1 million unique users per month, and some 250,000 per day, constituting a user base as large as that of many of the nation's leading online general 1 240 Skenovâno pro studijni ucely Conclusion interest and technology-centered news sites.

Slashdot attracts an estimated 1.1 million unique users per month, and some 250,000 per day, constituting a user base as large as that of many of the nation's leading online general 1 240 Skenovâno pro studijni ucely Conclusion interest and technology-centered news sites. Yet, this w o u l d be the first time that something like the Slashdot model was being applied to television. Even before the network reached the air, Current's promise to "democratize television" became a focal point for debates about the p o l i tics of participation. Cara Mertes, the executive producer for the PBS documentary program POV, itself an icon of the struggle to get alternative perspectives on television, asked, "What are y o u talking about when you say 'democratizing the media'? Is it using media to further democratic ends, to create an environment conducive to the democratic process through unity, empathy and civil discourse? O r does it mean handing over the means of production, w h i c h is the logic of public access?"

Sharon Waxman and Randy Kennedy, "The G u r u s of What's In Wonder If They're out of Touch," New York Times, November 6, 2004, p. A12. Notes to the Conclusion 1. A r i Berman, " A l Gets D o w n , " The Nation, A p r i l 28, 2005, h t t p : / / w w w . t h e nation.com/doc.mhtml?i=20050516&c=l&s=berman. 2. See A n i t a J. C h a n , "Distributed Editing, Collective A c t i o n , and the C o n struction of Online N e w s on Slashdot.org," Masters thesis, Comparative M e d i a Studies Program, MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 2002. For more on participatory journalism, see D a n G i l m o r , We the Media: Grassroots Journalism By the People, For the People (New York: O'Reilly, 2004), and Pablo J. B o c z k o w s k i , Digitizing the News: Innovation in Online Newspapers (Cambridge, Mass.: M I T Press, 2005). 3. Berman, " A l Gets D o w n . " For more on the debates about Current, see N i a l l M c C a y , "The Vee Pee's N e w Tee Vee," Wired Nezvs, A p r i l 6, 2005, h t t p : / / www.wired.com/news/digiwood/0,1412,67143,00,html; Farhad Manjoo, "The Television W i l l Be Revolutionized," Salon, July 7, 2005, h t t p : / / w w w . s a l o n . c o m / n e w s / f e a t u r e / 2 0 0 5 / 0 7 / l l / g o r e t v / p r i n t . h t m l ; Tamara Straus, "I Want M y A l TV," San Francisco magazine, July 2005, h t t p : / / w w w . s a n f r a n . c o m / h o m e / v i e w _story/625/?


pages: 509 words: 92,141

The Pragmatic Programmer by Andrew Hunt, Dave Thomas

A Pattern Language, Broken windows theory, business process, buy low sell high, c2.com, combinatorial explosion, continuous integration, database schema, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, general-purpose programming language, George Santayana, Grace Hopper, if you see hoof prints, think horses—not zebras, index card, lateral thinking, loose coupling, Menlo Park, MVC pattern, premature optimization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, revision control, Schrödinger's Cat, slashdot, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, traveling salesman, urban decay, Y2K

In addition, the O'Reilly Nutshell series (www.ora.com) gives quick, comprehensive treatments of miscellaneous topics and languages such as perl, yacc, sendmail, Windows internals, and regular expressions. The Web Finding good content on the Web is hard. Here are several links that we check at least once a week. Slashdot. Billed as "News for nerds. Stuff that matters," Slashdot is one of the net homes of the Linux community. As well as regular updates on Linux news, the site offers information on technologies that are cool and issues that affect developers. ⇒ www.slashdot.org Cetus Links. Thousands of links on object-oriented topics. ⇒ www.cetus-links.org WikiWikiWeb. The Portland Pattern Repository and patterns discussion. Not just a great resource, the WikiWikiWeb site is an interesting experiment in collective editing of ideas. ⇒ www.c2.com Internet Resources The links below are to resources available on the Internet.

., 273 RCS, see Revision Control System Real-world data, 243 Refactoring, 5, 185 automatic, 187 and design, 186 testing, 187 time constraints, 185 Refactoring browser, 187, 268 Refinement, excessive, 11 Regression, 76, 197, 232, 242 Relationship has-a, 304 kind-of, 111, 304 Releases, and SCCS, 87 Remote Method Invocation (RMI), 128 exception handling, 39 Remote procedure call (RPC), 29, 39 Repository, 87 Requirement, 11, 202 business problem, 203 changing, 26 creep, 209 DBC, 110 distribution, 211 documenting, 204 in domain language, 58 expressing as invariant, 116 formal methods, 220 glossary, 210 over specifying, 208 and policy, 203 usability testing, 241 user interface, 203 Researching, 15 Resource balancing, 129 C++ exceptions, 132 checking, 135 coupled code, 130 dynamic data structures, 135 encapsulation in class, 132 Java, 134 nest allocations, 131 Response set, 141, 242 Responsibility, 2, 250, 258 Reuse, 33, 36 Reversibility, 44 flexible architecture, 46 Revision Control System (RCS), 250, 271 Risk management, 13 orthogonality, 36 RMI, see Remote Method Invocation Rock-n-roll, 47 RPC, see Remote procedure call Rubber ducking, 3, 95 Rules engine, 169 S Saboteur, 244 Samba, 272 Sample programs, see Example code Sather, 114, 268 SCCS, see Source code control system Schedule, project, 68 Schrödinger, Erwin (and his cat), 47 Scope, requirement, 209 Screen scraping, 61 Scripting language, 55, 145 Secure hash, 74 sed, 99 Sedgewick, Robert, 183 Self-contained components, see Orthogonality; Cohesion Semantic invariant, 116, 135 sendmail program, 60 Sequence diagram, 158 Server code, 196 Services, design using, 154 Shell, command, 77 vs. GUI, 78 see also Command shell “Shy code”, 40 Side effect, 124 SIGPLAN, 263 Simple loop, 180 Singleton object, 41 Slashdot, 265 SmallEiffel, 267 Smalltalk, 46, 186, 187, 268, 272 Software development technologies, 221 quality, 9 requirements, 11 Software bus, 159 “Software Construction”, 184 Software Development Magazine, 263 Software IC, 189n “Software rot”, 4 Solaris, 76 Source code cat eating, 3 documentation, see Comments downloading, see Example code duplication in, 29 generating, 103 reviews, see Code reviews Source code control system (SCCS), 86 Aegis, 246 builds using, 88 CVS, 271 development tree, 87 plain text and, 76 RCS, 250, 271 repository, 87 tools, 271 Specialization, 221 Specification, 58 implementation, 219 language, 62 as security blanket, 219 writing, 218 Spy cells, 138 Squeak, 268 Stand-alone mini-language, 62 “Start-up fatigue”, 7 Starting a project problem solving, 212 prototyping, 216 specifications, 217 see also Requirement Stevens, W.


pages: 706 words: 202,591

Facebook: The Inside Story by Steven Levy

active measures, Airbnb, Airbus A320, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Ben Horowitz, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, cloud computing, computer vision, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, don't be evil, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Firefox, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, Oculus Rift, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Robert Mercer, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sexual politics, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social software, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Tim Cook: Apple, web application, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Y2K

Synapse was slow to take off, despite Zuckerberg’s attempts to promote it, including getting Synapse-ai T-shirts made that said [[my brain is better than yours]]. (The brackets were a flourish invoking programming protocol.) It wasn’t until spring that things started happening with Synapse. On April, 21, 2003, Slashdot, the premier source of news for the geek world, ran an item about an “interesting approach to digital music by students at Caltech and Harvard.” It invited the millions of people in the Slashdot community to try it out, and, as was common with the site, a spirited online conversation ensued. One of the discussion threads dealt with the program’s retention of the user’s music preferences. Some flagged it as a privacy violation. “I may be paranoid,” one commenter wrote, “but I prefer not to have anyone, even my own computer, perform data mining on me.

.,” Adweek, June 25, 2019. “interesting approach to digital music”: Dan Moore wrote on machine learning and MP3s on Slashdot, April 21, 2003. They both moved on: S. F. Brickman, “Not-So-Artificial Intelligence,” The Harvard Crimson, October 23, 2003. Friendster: The best account of Friendster is the two-part series on the Startup podcast that ran on April 21 and 28, 2017. Seth Feigerman’s “Friendster Founder Tells His Side of the Story” (Mashable, February 3, 2014) gives Abrams’s point of view. There are also good summaries in Angwin’s Stealing MySpace and Kirkpatrick, The Facebook Effect. postmortem podcast: “Friendster 1: The Rise,” Startup, April 21, 2017. Buddy Zoo: “AIM Meets Social Network Theory,” Slashdot, April 14, 2003. Chris Hughes: In addition to personal interview, Hughes tells his own story in Fair Shot: Rethinking Inequality and How We Learn (St.

And then he added this: And a note about privacy. None of your musical listening data will be available to anyone other than you. We hope to use massive amounts of data to aid in analysis, but your individual data will never be seen by anyone else. * * * • • • IT WAS ZUCKERBERG’S first public acknowledgment of the importance of privacy in his work. Certainly not the last. The Slashdot geeks noted another oddity involving Synapse: the callow and creepy language in the program description Zuckerberg had written. There was a rambling paragraph about all the people who would love Synapse (“Programmers. Gangsters. Punks. Nerds. Really big nerds. Even ones from Yemen. Yeah, plenty of those . . . People who exercise to Rocky music . . . Revolutionaries. Even Canadians. Quality people.


Simple and Usable Web, Mobile, and Interaction Design by Giles Colborne

call centre, Firefox, HyperCard, Menlo Park, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy

vision Download from WoweBook.com Download from WoweBook.com Why you should ignore expert customers Most companies spend too much time listening to their expert customers—the ones who spend the most time using their products or services—because they’re easy to talk to. Expert customers are enthusiasts, they’re vocal and opinionated about how to improve what’s on offer. But experts aren’t typical customers and their judgment is often skewed. They don’t experience the problems that mainstream customers have. And they want things that mainstream customers don’t care about. Here’s what one responder on Slashdot (a blog run by experts and enthusiasts) had to say when the iPod was announced: “No wireless. Less space than a Nomad. Lame.” Another commenter wrote: “I don’t see many sales in the future of iPod.” And another: “All I can say is, as an Apple ‘fan’, I’m sad.” Commenters on another enthusiast blog, MacRumors, also wanted more: ”I still can’t believe this! All this hype for something so ridiculous!

See also design features changes, importance versus feasibility, 14–15 character and personality, 10 descriptions concise, clear, and complete, 46 experiences, 44 one-line, 18 dissatisfaction with complexity, 6 incorrect approaches, 66–67 fake simplicity of interfaces, 12–13 lightening users’ load, 84–85 guidelines, 18 overburdening users’ decisionmaking, 86–87, 94–95 needs poorly implemented features, 70–71 prioritizing features, 82–83 providing options and preferences, 92–93 smart defaults, 90–91 versus removing too many features, 104–105 control issues, 34 emotional, 32–33 of self and customers, 14–15, 36 strategies for achieving, 2 Skitch app, 154 Slashdot blog commenters on iPods, 26 Sless, David, 108 Standish Group poll, 64 versus satisfied users, 106–107 INDEX • 195 Download from WoweBook.com strategies for simplicity, 2 needs DVD remote controls, 56–59 for details, 182 displacing buttons, 60–61 emotional, 32–34 hiding buttons, 60–61 for simplicity, 184 organizing buttons, 60–61 self-knowledge, 14–15 removing buttons, 60–61 willing adopters, 24 SUV principle, 6 versus other users, 28 world/natural environment, 18–21 T homes, 22 Ta-da List (37signals), 174 interruptions, 22–23 Telewest, 52, 68–69 offices, 22 Tesler, Larry, 180 outdoors, 22 Things app, 32–34 37signals V Basecamp, 64 Volkswagen advertisement, 102–103 Ta-da List app, 174 VW Beetle (original), 4 Thompson, Debora Viana, 78 to-do list apps, 32–34, 174 touch interfaces, 127 travel planning software, 166–169 Tufte, Edward, 98 TUI Ski, 70 Tumblr’s blog service, 64, 180 W Whac-A-Mole game, 180–181 Which?


pages: 496 words: 154,363

I'm Feeling Lucky: The Confessions of Google Employee Number 59 by Douglas Edwards

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, barriers to entry, book scanning, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, business intelligence, call centre, commoditize, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Googley, gravity well, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job-hopping, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, microcredit, music of the spheres, Network effects, PageRank, performance metric, pets.com, Ralph Nader, risk tolerance, second-price auction, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, stem cell, Superbowl ad, Y2K

Microsoft had also asked for a cameo, but had not been pleased when Bill Gates was depicted crushing Homer's startup dreams and saying, "I didn't get rich by writing a lot of checks." [back] *** * CP+B won Microsoft's $300 million account in 2008 and created the "I'm a PC" campaign. [back] *** * The name was changed to "orkut" because the Eden.com domain was not for sale. It was intentionally not capitalized to distinguish orkut the service from Orkut the engineer. [back] *** * "Slashdotting" was a well-known online phenomenon: a site was mentioned on slashdot.com and all the users congregating there immediately went to check it out, causing the site's servers to crash under the sudden load. [back] *** * And in Finland for a brief time, because "orkut" in Finnish means "multiple sexual climaxes." Once people realized the site was not for romantic hookups, traffic quickly fell off. [back] *** * Google bought DoubleClick in 2007 for $3.1 billion.

We would use our own site to present our unfiltered messages in coordination with op-ed pieces in newspapers and executive speeches to select audiences. "I want to kill the perception that we're selling our search results ASAP," she told us. "Our brand has been injured and we need to fix it. We're Google! Let's be outrageous and daring and have some fun with this." Feelings ran deep on the subject of paid placement. When the topic of Google's refusal to sell placement came up on the geek bulletin board Slashdot, the first posted response was "I swear I want to make love to this company." A self-identified Overture employee didn't share those warm and fuzzy feelings. "As for the claim by Google that they are pure," he asked plaintively, "why are they getting into the ad search business?" His implication seemed to be that the whole business was tainted. I didn't think so. You could present useful ads, but you needed to make it clear they were ads.

Urs, our Google Fellow, raised his own questions about the timing. He had been hearing all day from engineers about unresolved issues: that orkut was running on a single machine with no easy way to scale, that there had been no proper load testing, no security review, and no agreement on the privacy policy. Clearly orkut would not be able to handle the influx of traffic once word got out to the geek news site Slashdot,* which would take about fifteen minutes. It would be smarter, he said, to clean things up for a few days, wait for the execs to return from Switzerland, and avoid a huge mistake. We all breathed a sigh of relief when Jonathan confirmed that he had spoken with most of the executive team and they had agreed with Urs it was better to delay the launch. It was a commendable idea to accelerate the launch process, but just too risky given all the red flags that had been raised.


Free as in Freedom by Sam Williams

Asperger Syndrome, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, Debian, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John Markoff, Larry Wall, Marc Andreessen, Maui Hawaii, Murray Gell-Mann, profit motive, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software patent, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, urban renewal, VA Linux, Y2K

Ultimately, however, it is a tale of two cities: New York, New York, the book-publishing capital of the world, and Sebastopol, California, the book-publishing capital of Sonoma County. The story starts in April, 2000. At the time, I was writing stories for the ill-fated BeOpen web site (http://www.beopen.com/). One of my first assignments was a phone interview with Richard M. Stallman. The interview went well, so well that Slashdot (http://www.slashdot.org/), the popular "news for nerds" site owned by VA Software, Inc. (formerly VA Linux Systems and before that, VA Research), gave it a link in its daily list of feature stories. Within hours, the web servers at BeOpen were heating up as readers clicked over to the site. 158 For all intents and purposes, the story should have ended there. Three months after the interview, while attending the O'Reilly Open Source Conference in Monterey, California, I received the following email message from Tracy Pattison, foreign-rights manager at a large New York publishing house: To: sam@BeOpen.com Subject: RMS InterviewDate: Mon, 10 Jul 2000 15:56:37 -0400 Dear Mr.

"Never pick a fight with a man who buys his ink by the barrel," goes the old Mark Twain adage. In the case of Stallman, never attempt the definitive biography of a man who trusts his every thought to the public record. For the readers who have decided to trust a few hours of their time to exploring this book, I can confidently state that there are facts and quotes in here that one won't find in any Slashdot story or Google search. Gaining access to these facts involves paying a price, however. In the case of the book version, you can pay for these facts the traditional manner, i.e., by purchasing the book. In the case of the electronic versions, you can pay for these facts in the free software manner. Thanks to the folks at O'Reilly & Associates, this book is being distributed under the GNU Free Documentation License, meaning you can help to improve the work or create a personalized version and release that version under the same license.


pages: 263 words: 75,610

Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age by Viktor Mayer-Schönberger

en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, full text search, George Akerlof, information asymmetry, information retrieval, information trail, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, John Markoff, Joi Ito, lifelogging, moveable type in China, Network effects, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, RFID, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Market for Lemons, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Vannevar Bush

See Schwartz, “Beyond Lessig’s Code for Internet Privacy”; Samuelson, “Privacy as Intellectual Property?”; Rotenberg, “Fair Information Practices and the Architecture of Privacy,” 80–90; see also Lemley, “Private Property,” 1547; Cohen, “DRM and Privacy,” 577. 25. Mayer-Schönberger, “Beyond Copyright: Managing Information Rights with DRM.” 26. Halderman, Waters, and Felten, “Privacy Management for Portable Recording Devices.” 27. Julian Togelius, comment on Slashdot, May 10, 2007, http://yro.slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=234167&cid=19065957. 28. Winter, “The Advantages of Amnesia.” 29. Schacter, How the Mind Forgets, 184–206. 30. Anderson and Schooler, “Reflections of the Environment in Memory.” 31. On the very extreme end of measures, drugs may be used to help such a cognitive adjustment. See in a different context, Kolber, “Therapeutic Forgetting: The Legal and Ethical Implications.” 32.

If we accept that digital memory—a set of information stored on digital media and thus frozen in time—is what our responses ought to address, a further, perhaps more fitting set of three possible approaches—based on norms, laws, and architecture—emerges. This set of three responses is more speculative than the more familiar set of three I have just described. But as they focus less on the relational dimension of information, they may conceivably be better suited to address the “time” challenge of digital remembering. Cognitive Adjustment When my initial paper on the demise of forgetting in the digital age was discussed at Internet site Slashdot, Julian Togelius, an artificial intelligence researcher in Europe agreed with my diagnosis, but suggested a very different remedy. “Instead,” he wrote, “we have to adapt our culture to the inevitable presence of modern technology. [ . . . ] We will simply have to assume that people can change and restrict ourselves to looking at their most recent behavior and opinions.”27 Togelius’ sentiments were echoed by Harvard Berkman Center fellow danah boyd, who is convinced that “[p]eople, particularly younger people, are going to come up with coping mechanisms.


pages: 310 words: 92,880

Blood, Sweat, and Tea: Real-Life Adventures in an Inner-City Ambulance by Tom Reynolds

G4S, slashdot

Finally, if you do lose your job, you have a whole audience of people finding out about it, any of which might help you get a job. I know at least two people (people I’ve met, not including people I’ve read about), who have gotten jobs based on their blogging. In most cases people are happier with their new jobs than their old, if only because their new company understands and supports their blogging. *Slashdotted (verb): to have your website linked to by the incredibly popular technology news website www.slashdot.org. **Don’t ask! Fit Yesterday was busy, but busy in a good way in that most of the calls that I got actually warranted an ambulance. Actually, if I had been dropped on my head repeatedly as a child leading to me believing in the supernatural, I would have thought that there was something strange going on. The majority of my jobs, and a lot of the jobs that I heard being given out over the radio, were for people having seizures.

I’m no expert on how easy it is to sack people, but I suspect that ‘gross misconduct’, ‘failure to follow Internet policy’, ‘bringing the company into disrepute’ and ‘revealing company secrets’ are fairly easy things to get past an industrial appeal board. I would imagine that some of the people who have been fired or disciplined have comforted themselves with the thought that ‘it’s because I have a blog, that’s the only reason’. So be a good worker, then they won’t be so quick to sack you. Just because you blog, it doesn’t make you special. Sure, you might have 10000 page-hits a day, you are ‘Slashdotted’.*This occasionally results in overwhelming levels of traffic, capable of knocking your website over on a regular basis, and you have Dave Weiner’s**home phone number–but that means nothing to your boss. Blogging doesn’t bring with it a ‘Get Out Of Jail Free’ card, you have no ‘Freedom of the Press’, and just because thousands of people hang on your every word it doesn’t mean that they will help you keep your job.


pages: 267 words: 82,580

The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett

3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, moral panic, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

The US court documents relating to the charges brought by Smart against Huffman: http://ia700703.us.archive.org/0/items/gov.uscourts.casd.404008/gov.us courts.casd.404008.1.0.pdf. p.32 ‘At the turn of the . . .’ SomethingAwful.com hosts a wide variety of funny and offensive content – especially blogs, videos and stories – written by editors and forum members; it also hosts several large forums. Fark.com is a satirical site with stories submitted by users of the site. Slashdot.com was more about open-source software and technology but also had a subversive edge and was opposed to censorship. Slashdot, founded in 2000, had a vast online community, many of them Usenetters, and celebrated user-generated in-jokes and memes. SomethingAwful forum members – those who posted regularly on the site called themselves ‘Goons’ – frequently targeted other more serious websites for raids and general mischief-making. p.35 ‘Out of this milieu came . . .’ http://www.thestar.com/life/2007/ 09/22/funny_how_stupid_site_is_addictive.html.

The internet was becoming more accessible and the speed of downloading (and more importantly, uploading) was slashed, enabling users to post more content online, including pictures and videos. Usenet, like most new and exciting technologies, had become outdated. At the turn of the millennium, trolls migrated from Usenet to a new breed of irreverent, user-driven, censorship-free sites, that were soon collectively labelled as ‘Not Safe For Work’ (NSFW), and often created by students or teenagers: SomethingAwful.com, Fark.com and Slashdot.com. Unlike traditional media, these sites were filled with stories, links, suggestions and comments from their readers. Whatever stories were the most read or shared by users would rise up the ranking system, meaning popularity was driven not by centralised editorial control but by whatever happened to capture the attention of the community. This created – as with many content-driven sectors online – a natural incentive to be outrageous.


pages: 597 words: 119,204

Website Optimization by Andrew B. King

AltaVista, bounce rate, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, information retrieval, iterative process, Kickstarter, medical malpractice, Network effects, performance metric, search engine result page, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, Steve Jobs, web application

Send email to reporters, bloggers, and colleagues. Post media to Flickr and YouTube, add a page to Facebook, submit stories to Slashdot, and tag those stories on del.icio.us. Respond to Usenet and blog posts. In other words, use social networking to get your site out there. A link from one of these high PageRank sites drives a lot of traffic and is worth hundreds of links from lesser sites (refer back to Table 1-1). A little preparation can increase your odds when submitting to news sites such as Slashdot, Digg.com, and Yahoo! Buzz because such sites have an extremely large user base that is equally critical to the site's effect. First, make sure you submit to the proper category. Submit only your most newsworthy content, because sites such as Slashdot are inundated with submissions. Be sure to follow the headline and deck writing guidelines in this chapter, as well as in Chapter 5.

, Microsoft, and Everybody Else, Goals and Values, Goals and Values website focus and, Unprofessional design work cycle overview, The Pay-per-Click Work Cycle press releases, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion primacy effect, New visitors primary content consumption (metric), Website Success Metrics, Primary content consumption, Success Metrics = Reaching Goals PRNewsWire.com, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion product images, Factor #8: Deploy Persuasive, Benefit-Oriented Content, Factor #9: Use Illustrative Product and Service Images—The "Hero Shot", Factor #10: Use Interactive Elements to Engage Users professional website design, Unprofessional design, Make it linkworthy profit-per-impression equation, Measuring Ad Performance progressive enhancement (PE) strategy, Use progressive enhancement, Use progressive enhancement, Use progressive enhancement, Use progressive enhancement Prototype library, Relying on Ajax Libraries prototyping, Put it on paper and build graphical mockups ProxyPass directive, Using mod_cache ProxyScoring (metric), PathWeight and ProxyScoring PRWeb.com, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion psychographics, Discovering personas psychological reactance, The six persuaders psychology of persuasion, The six persuaders, The six persuaders, The six persuaders, The six persuaders, The six persuaders, The six persuaders, Building trust to close the sale, Optimize with persuasive copywriting, Optimize with persuasive copywriting authority, The six persuaders building trust, Building trust to close the sale, Optimize with persuasive copywriting consistency, The six persuaders CRO considerations, Optimize with persuasive copywriting liking, The six persuaders reciprocation, The six persuaders scarcity, The six persuaders social proof, The six persuaders PubSub.com, Delta encoding (delta compression) Q Quality Scores, Optimizing Pay-per-Click Ads optimizing ad groups, Optimizing Pay-per-Click Ads QuickTime Pro, Optimizing videos for the Web, Optimizing videos for the Web, Optimizing videos for the Web, Optimizing videos for the Web, Optimizing videos for the Web, Optimizing videos for the Web, Optimizing videos for the Web, Optimizing videos for the Web, Optimizing videos for the Web Compressor section, Optimizing videos for the Web Data Rate section, Optimizing videos for the Web Encoding area, Optimizing videos for the Web Frame Reordering box, Optimizing videos for the Web Key Frames area, Optimizing videos for the Web Motion section, Optimizing videos for the Web optimizing video, Optimizing videos for the Web Quality area, Optimizing videos for the Web Temporal slider, Optimizing videos for the Web R rankings, Natural Search Engine Optimization, Natural Search Engine Optimization, The Benefits of SEO, Duplicate content, Duplicate content, Best Practices, Tools for keyword research, Optimize key content, Acquire inbound links, Acquire inbound links, Summary, Step 1: Determine Your Keyword Phrases, Find your primary keyphrase, Tools for keyword research, Tools for keyword research, Tools for keyword research, Tools for keyword research, Find your primary keyphrase, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Step 3: Refine Keyword Phrases and Re-Sort, Right-size your keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually), Right-size your keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually), Right-size your keyphrases, Right-size your keyphrases, Target multiple keyphrases, Target multiple keyphrases, Target multiple keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually), Keywords trump company name (usually), Keywords trump company name (usually), Step 6: Write a Keywords Meta Tag, Write headlines that pop, Step 8: Add Keywords Tactically, Buy keyphrased domain names, Buy keyphrased domain names, Buy keyphrased domain names, Step 9: Create Valuable Keyword-Focused Content, Sharpen your keyword-focused content, Create search-friendly URIs, Write compelling summaries, Automatically categorize with blogs, Automatically categorize with blogs, Automatically categorize with blogs, Create tag clouds, Create tag clouds, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Summary, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Don't dilute your PageRank, Be leery of link exchange voodoo, Hurl harmful outlinks, Reduce risky redirects, Measuring inbound links, Measuring inbound links, Summary, Summary acquiring inbound links, Acquire inbound links adding keywords tactically, Buy keyphrased domain names, Buy keyphrased domain names best practices, Best Practices, Tools for keyword research, Tools for keyword research building inbound links, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Summary, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Measuring inbound links, Summary determining keyphrases, Step 1: Determine Your Keyword Phrases, Find your primary keyphrase, Tools for keyword research, Find your primary keyphrase duplicate website content and, Duplicate content Google factors, Step 2: Sort by Popularity importance of, Natural Search Engine Optimization, The Benefits of SEO keyword stuffing and, Step 2: Sort by Popularity keyword-focused content, Sharpen your keyword-focused content, Automatically categorize with blogs negative factors, Step 2: Sort by Popularity on-site optimization and, Natural Search Engine Optimization optimizing key content, Optimize key content positive factors, Step 2: Sort by Popularity re-sorting keyphrases, Right-size your keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually), Target multiple keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually) refining keyphrases, Right-size your keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually), Target multiple keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually) reinforcing site theme, Duplicate content steps for improving, Acquire inbound links, Summary, Tools for keyword research, Tools for keyword research, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Step 3: Refine Keyword Phrases and Re-Sort, Right-size your keyphrases, Right-size your keyphrases, Target multiple keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually), Step 6: Write a Keywords Meta Tag, Write headlines that pop, Step 8: Add Keywords Tactically, Buy keyphrased domain names, Step 9: Create Valuable Keyword-Focused Content, Create search-friendly URIs, Write compelling summaries, Automatically categorize with blogs, Automatically categorize with blogs, Create tag clouds, Create tag clouds, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Don't dilute your PageRank, Be leery of link exchange voodoo, Hurl harmful outlinks, Reduce risky redirects, Measuring inbound links, Summary RDF (Resource Description Framework), Summary reciprocation (persuader), The six persuaders Red Hat Enterprise platform, Target files by extension for caching reference movies, Step 3: Optimize Multimedia regional compression, Step 2: Resize and Optimize Images remote procedure calls, Load JavaScript on demand (remote procedure calls) remote scripting, Ajax Optimization repeat visitors (metric), Repeat visitors replication, Shorthand properties Resource Description Framework (RDF), Summary return statement, Avoid Optional Constructs and Kill Dead Code Fast revenue per visit (metric), Revenue per visit(or) RewriteEngine directive, How mod_rewrite works RewriteMap directive, How mod_rewrite works RewriteRule directive, How mod_rewrite works RFC 2397, Inline Images with Data URIs, Disadvantages of inline images Rhino JavaScript engine, Bundle Your Scripts, JavaScript Optimization and Packing RIAs (Rich Internet Applications), Ajax Optimization ROAS (return on advertising spend), Differences in Geotargeting, Web Server Log Analysis defined, Differences in Geotargeting web analytics support, Web Server Log Analysis robots exclusion protocol, Duplicate content ROI (return on investment), Summary of the Differences Among AdWords, adCenter, and YSM, Calculating Return on Investment, Pay-per-Click Return on Investment and Goals Summary calculating, Calculating Return on Investment PPC optimization and, Summary of the Differences Among AdWords, adCenter, and YSM, Pay-per-Click Return on Investment and Goals Summary root terms, The Right Keywords and the Myth of the Long Tail, The Right Keywords and the Myth of the Long Tail, Guidelines for Grouping ad group themes, Guidelines for Grouping broad matching, The Right Keywords and the Myth of the Long Tail unique keywords and, The Right Keywords and the Myth of the Long Tail RSS news feeds, Write compelling summaries headline summaries, Write compelling summaries rss2html.pl script, Example RSS cache S sales cycle, Goals and Values, Include multiple conversion points for different stages of the buying cycle, Building trust to close the sale, Factor #7: Include Appealing Offers and Calls to Action building trust, Building trust to close the sale calls to action, Factor #7: Include Appealing Offers and Calls to Action multiple conversion points, Include multiple conversion points for different stages of the buying cycle stages in, Goals and Values scarcity (persuader), The Psychology of Persuasion, The six persuaders scent, Factor #5: Use Benefit-Oriented Headlines script tag, Lazy-Load Your Code, Minimizing HTTP Requests, Load JavaScript on demand (remote procedure calls) scripting, Remap Built-in Objects, Delay Script Loading, Use progressive enhancement, Use progressive enhancement, Use an iframe for external JavaScript delaying loading, Delay Script Loading, Use progressive enhancement, Use progressive enhancement, Use an iframe for external JavaScript remapped objects and, Remap Built-in Objects Search Engine Marketing Professional Organization (SEMPO), Measuring SEM success search engines, Acquire inbound links, Tools for keyword research, Create search-friendly URIs, Original Site estimating search volume, Tools for keyword research ranking considerations, Acquire inbound links search parameters, Create search-friendly URIs simulating with Lynx, Original Site security policies, Minimizing HTTP Requests selectors (CSS), Top 10 Tips for Optimizing CSS replacing inline style with, Top 10 Tips for Optimizing CSS SEM (search engine marketing), Website Success Metrics, Measuring SEM success, Website Success Metrics, Popular Web Metrics, Popular Web Metrics, Measuring SEM success, Search Engine Marketing Metrics, Search Engine Marketing Metrics, Classes of Metrics, Unique visitors, Classes of Metrics, Content, Objectives, Means, Volume Metrics, Content Metrics: Measuring Each Component, Unique visitors, Unique visitors, Content Metrics: Measuring Each Component, Content Metrics: Measuring Each Component, Entries, Objectives, Understanding objectives classes of metrics, Classes of Metrics, Unique visitors, Classes of Metrics, Means, Unique visitors content metrics, Content, Entries, Understanding objectives measuring success, Popular Web Metrics metrics overview, Search Engine Marketing Metrics objectives for metrics, Objectives, Objectives strategies, Search Engine Marketing Metrics volume metrics, Volume Metrics, Content Metrics: Measuring Each Component, Unique visitors, Content Metrics: Measuring Each Component, Content Metrics: Measuring Each Component website success metrics, Website Success Metrics, Measuring SEM success, Website Success Metrics, Popular Web Metrics, Measuring SEM success Semphonic XChange, Unique visitors SEMPO (Search Engine Marketing Professional Organization), Measuring SEM success SEO (search engine optimization), Natural Search Engine Optimization, The Benefits of SEO, Common SEO Barriers, Reinforce the theme of your site, Inadequate inbound links, Drowning in splash pages, Flash fires, Flash fires, Unprofessional design, Unprofessional design, Obscure navigation, Duplicate content, Duplicate content, Reinforce the theme of your site, Step 1: Determine Your Keyword Phrases, Summary benefits, The Benefits of SEO common barriers, Common SEO Barriers, Reinforce the theme of your site, Reinforce the theme of your site duplicate content, Duplicate content, Duplicate content fixing focus, Unprofessional design Flash proliferation, Flash fires, Flash fires inadequate inbound links, Inadequate inbound links increased competition, Step 1: Determine Your Keyword Phrases JavaScript-only navigation, Obscure navigation metadata, Summary process components, Natural Search Engine Optimization splash pages, Drowning in splash pages unprofessional design, Unprofessional design SERPs (search engine result pages), Duplicate content, Keywords trump company name (usually), Buy keyphrased domain names company names in, Keywords trump company name (usually) keyphrased domain names, Buy keyphrased domain names two-URIs-per-hostname limit, Duplicate content server-side includes (SSIs), Eliminate (i)frames and JavaScript includes server-side optimization, Reduce DNS lookups, Caching Frequently Used Objects, Using mod_cache, Caching Frequently Used Objects, Three ways to cache in, Three ways to cache in, A specific caching example, Target files by extension for caching, Target files by extension for caching, Using mod_cache, Using mod_cache, Using HTTP Compression, Delta encoding (delta compression), Average compression ratios for HTTP compression, Average compression ratios for HTTP compression, Delta encoding (delta compression), The Benefits of a Content Delivery Network cache control, Caching Frequently Used Objects, Using mod_cache, Caching Frequently Used Objects, Three ways to cache in, Three ways to cache in, A specific caching example, Target files by extension for caching, Target files by extension for caching, Using mod_cache, Using mod_cache Content Delivery Network, The Benefits of a Content Delivery Network HTTP compression, Using HTTP Compression, Delta encoding (delta compression), Average compression ratios for HTTP compression, Average compression ratios for HTTP compression, Delta encoding (delta compression) parallel downloads, Reduce DNS lookups ServerAlias directive, Optimizing Parallel Downloads ServerTokens command, Target files by extension for caching service command, Target files by extension for caching service images, Factor #9: Use Illustrative Product and Service Images—The "Hero Shot", Factor #9: Use Illustrative Product and Service Images—The "Hero Shot", Factor #10: Use Interactive Elements to Engage Users session IDs, Create search-friendly URIs sessions, Volume Metrics Set-Cookie header, Three ways to cache in setRequestHeader( ) method, Method 3: Make Requests with an Old If-Modified-Since Header Shop.org study, Discovery sign-ups, Sign-ups simple engagement, Bounce rate (and simple engagement) Sistrix study, Buy keyphrased domain names Skip Intro links, Drowning in splash pages Skitz, Load JavaScript on demand (remote procedure calls) Slashdot, Employ social networking and user-generated content slogans, Best Practices for CRO, Factor #4: Write a Memorable Slogan sniffing, Step 4: Convert JavaScript Behavior to CSS , XSSI browser sniffing social networking, Employ social networking and user-generated content social norms, The six persuaders social proof (persuader), The Psychology of Persuasion, The six persuaders socket connections, Speed checklist, Request statistics, AOL Pagetest Solaris platform, Compressing content in Apache Sorenson codec, Optimizing videos for the Web Sorenson Video 3 Pro, Optimizing videos for the Web Souders, Switch to Semantic Markup source credibility, Source Credibility: Designing Gut Reactions, Factor #3: Optimize the Credibility of Your Logo spatial compression, Optimizing videos for the Web speed tax, Request statistics Speed Up Your Site, Average compression ratios for HTTP compression, Speed checklist Web Site Optimization, Average compression ratios for HTTP compression, Speed checklist splash pages, Drowning in splash pages Spontaneous personality type, Building trust to close the sale Start Render time metric, Load times, Reporting the Numbers, Start render Stefanov, Load JavaScript on demand (remote procedure calls) Sterne, Website Optimization Metrics strange attractors, Deploy strange attractors string constants, Use String Constant Macros structural assurance, Building trust to close the sale StuffIt, Speed checklist Sullivan, Don't dilute your PageRank sweetened traffic, Unique visitors T tag clouds, Create tag clouds, Deploy strange attractors, Create tag clouds, Deploy strange attractors taglines, Factor #4: Write a Memorable Slogan Telestream Episode Pro, Optimizing videos for the Web temporal compression, Optimizing videos for the Web ternary operator, Use JavaScript Shorthand testing, Testing ads the easy way: AdWords optimized ad serving, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Testing Landing Pages, Adjusting Bids, Adjusting Bids, Multivariate testing with Google Website Optimizer, User Experience Testing Software, Designing a Sample Test, IBM Page Detailer, IBM Page Detailer ads, Testing ads the easy way: AdWords optimized ad serving, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Adjusting Bids confidence interval, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Adjusting Bids designing sample tests, Designing a Sample Test, IBM Page Detailer, IBM Page Detailer landing pages, Testing Landing Pages multivariate, Multivariate testing with Google Website Optimizer UX software, User Experience Testing Software Text-Link-Ads.com, Pay for links Textlinkbrokers.com, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Pay for links themed ad groups, Organizing and Optimizing Ad Groups, Guidelines for Grouping, Example Themed Ad Groups, Example Themed Ad Groups advantages, Organizing and Optimizing Ad Groups example, Example Themed Ad Groups, Example Themed Ad Groups guidelines, Guidelines for Grouping themes, Step 1: Look through your site and identify major themes TIFF format, Step 2: Resize and Optimize Images time to live (TTL), Three ways to cache in timeout mechanisms, Timeouts, Retries, and Ordering, Addressing Server and Content Error, Timeouts, Retries, and Ordering, Addressing Server and Content Error title tags, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Target multiple keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually) trackPageview function, JavaScript Page Tagging trademarks, Trademark Issues, Summary, How do I stop advertisers from bidding on my trademark?


pages: 571 words: 162,958

Rewired: The Post-Cyberpunk Anthology by James Patrick Kelly, John Kessel

back-to-the-land, Columbine, dark matter, Extropian, Firefox, gravity well, haute couture, Internet Archive, pattern recognition, phenotype, post-industrial society, price stability, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, technological singularity, telepresence, the scientific method, Turing test, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Y2K, zero day

” — Sterling to Kessel, 22 August 1986 1 The term “postcyberpunk” was first used by writer Lawrence Person, in an essay titled “Notes Toward a Postcyberpunk Manifesto” published in the critical magazine Nova Express in 1998. Person’s essay points toward some of the same developments we are pursuing in this anthology, but we do not use the term in exactly the same way that he sets it forth. As we go to press, Person’s essay is still available at the URL http://slashdot.org/features/99/10/08/2123255.shtml. Sterling-Kessel Correspondence IN THE WAKE of the publication of Neuromancer in 1984 there was a lot of talk about something called “cyberpunk” and a scurrilous fanzine called Cheap Truth, which apparently (I had never seen a copy) had been taking potshots at a number of writers I admired. In the spring of 1985, I wrote a letter to Bruce Sterling asking what all the fuss was about.

Manfred takes it and heads for the back of the split-level bar, up the steps to a table where some guy with greasy dreadlocks is talking to a suit from Paris. The hanger-on at the bar notices him for the first time, staring with suddenly wide eyes: nearly spills his Coke in a mad rush for the door. Oh shit, thinks Macx, better buy some more server PIPS. He can recognize the signs: he’s about to be slashdotted. He gestures at the table: “this one taken?” “Be my guest,” says the guy with the dreads. Manfred slides the chair open then realizes that the other guy—immaculate double-breasted suit, sober tie, crew-cut — is a girl. Mr. Dreadlock nods. “You’re Macx? I figured it was about time we met.” “Sure.” Manfred holds out a hand and they shake. Manfred realizes the hand belongs to Bob Franklin, a Research Triangle startup monkey with a vc track record, lately moving into micromachining and space technology: he made his first million two decades ago and now he’s a specialist in extropian investment fields.

Just then a bandwidth load as heavy as a pregnant elephant sits down on Manfred’s head and sends clumps of humongous pixellation flickering across his sensorium: around the world five million or so geeks are bouncing on his home site, a digital flash crowd alerted by a posting from the other side of the bar. Manfred winces. “I really came here to talk about the economic exploitation of space travel, but I’ve just been slashdotted. Mind if I just sit and drink until it wears off?” “Sure, man.” Bob waves at the bar. “More of the same all round!” At the next table a person with make-up and long hair who’s wearing a dress — Manfred doesn’t want to speculate about the gender of these crazy mixed-up Euros — is reminiscing about wiring the fleshpots of Tehran for cybersex. Two collegiate-looking dudes are arguing intensely in German: the translation stream in his glasses tell him they’re arguing over whether the Turing Test is a Jim Crow law that violates European corpus juris standards on human rights.


pages: 607 words: 133,452

Against Intellectual Monopoly by Michele Boldrin, David K. Levine

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business cycle, cognitive bias, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, financial innovation, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jean Tirole, John Harrison: Longitude, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, linear programming, market bubble, market design, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, new economy, open economy, peer-to-peer, pirate software, placebo effect, price discrimination, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, the market place, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Y2K

Many people contributed examples, comments, and references, especially Serguey Braguinski, Tim Erickson, Jack Hirshleifer, Bronwyn Hall, Andrea Moro, G. Moschini, Ed Prescott, Paul Seabright, Malik Shukayev, Robert Solow, William Stepp, Stefano Trento, and Edward Welbourne. We learned an immense amount from our fellow bloggers at http:// www.againstmonopoly.org: John Bennett, Andrea Moro, Michael Perelman, Sheldon Richman, and William Stepp. We are grateful also to the Slashdot Web site (http://slashdot.org) and its many contributors for a set of detailed comments on an early version of some of the chapters. Many other people contributed thoughts, ideas, examples, vii P1: PDX head margin: 1/2 gutter margin: 7/8 CUUS245-FM cuus245 978 0 521 87928 6 May 21, 2008 19:26 viii Acknowledgments and discussion: Larry Ausubel, David Backus, Kyle Bagwell, Sandip Baliga, Gary Becker, Robert Becker, James Bessen, William Brock, Andres Bucio, Jorge Capapey, V.

The many sweeping statements we have made, here and in the previous chapter, in relation to the agricultural sector and the irrelevance of patents for its technological development, are based on the scientific research reported in Butler and Marion (1985), Campbell and Overton (1991), Griliches (1960), Kloppenburg (1988), McClelland (1997), among others. 25. June 25, 2000, article, available at http://www.biotech-info.net/basmati patent.html (accessed February 24, 2008). Additional detailed information about the Basmati rice patent is widespread on the Internet. For example, http://www.american. edu/TED/basmati.htm (accessed February 24. 2008), reports detailed, precise information about this and a dozen other cases. 26. Slashdot, http://politics.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=04/11/13/2023220 (accessed February 24, 2008). The story about the Provisional Authority imposing agricultural IP on Iraq farmers is also widely documented elsewhere. 27. The copyright lawsuit over the Freedom Tower is discussed in Sadeghi (2004). 28. The discussion and quotations are from “Suit Claiming Similarities in Tower Design Can Proceed” New York Times Region Section, August 11, 2005. 29.


pages: 525 words: 149,886

Higher-Order Perl: A Guide to Program Transformation by Mark Jason Dominus

always be closing, Defenestration of Prague, Donald Knuth, Isaac Newton, Larry Wall, P = NP, Paul Graham, Perl 6, slashdot, SpamAssassin

Perl’s standard map() and grep() each take a function and a list and return a new list; for example: # returns 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 map {$_*2} (1..5); # returns 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 grep {$_ % 2 == 0} (1..10); Often it’s more convenient to have curried versions of these functions: sub cmap (&) { my $f = shift; my $r = sub { my @result; for (@_) { push @result, $f->($_); } @result; }; return $r; } sub cgrep (&) { my $f = shift; my $r = sub { my @result; for (@_) { push @result, $_ if $f->($_); } @result; }; return $r; } These functions should be called like this: $double = cmap { $_*2 }; $find_slashdot = cgrep { $_->{referer} =˜ /slashdot/i }; After which $double->(1..5) returns (2, 4, 6, 8, 10) and $find_slashdot ->(weblog()) returns the web log records that represent referrals from Slashdot. It may be tempting to try to make cmap() and cgrep() polymorphic, as we did with slope() (I was tempted, anyway.): sub cmap (&;@) { my $f = shift; my $r = sub { my @result; for (@_) { push @result, $f->($_); } @result; }; return @_ ? $r->(@_) : $r; } Then we would also be able to use cmap() and cgrep() like regular map() and grep(): @doubles = cmap { $_*2 } (1..5); @evens = cgrep { $_ % 2 == 0 } (1..10); Unfortunately, this apparently happy notation hides an evil surprise: @doubles = cmap { $_*2 } @some_array; If @some_array is empty, @doubles is assigned a reference to a doubling function. 7.2.1 Automatic Currying We’ve written the same code several times to implement curried functions: sub some_curried_function { my $first_arg = shift; my $r = sub { ... }; return @_ ?


pages: 982 words: 221,145

Ajax: The Definitive Guide by Anthony T. Holdener

AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, business process, centre right, create, read, update, delete, database schema, David Heinemeier Hansson, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, full text search, game design, general-purpose programming language, Guido van Rossum, information retrieval, loose coupling, MVC pattern, Necker cube, p-value, Ruby on Rails, slashdot, sorting algorithm, web application

That next screen provides more information and entices you to find out even more, but it does provide navigation to the rest of the application if the user desires. 148 | Chapter 6: Designing Ajax Interfaces Panels are probably the most common type of design pattern that developers use. Any site that places an application’s different components in specific spots (or columns) is a paneled design pattern. Slashdot’s web site (http://slashdot.org/) is a good example of a paneled structure, as seen in Figure 6-6. Figure 6-6. Slashdot’s paneled design pattern Looking at Slashdot, you can immediately see a top panel for the site name, slogan, search bar, and so on, and three vertical panels that make up the rest of the site. The left panel is for navigation, the right panel is for information, quick links, and so forth, and the middle panel contains the site content. This pattern does not change as you move through the site.

., 349–355 confirmation window, 349–351 larger forms, 353–355 prompt window, 351–353 tool tips, 355–360 Necker cube, 183 Nederlof, Peter, 188 .NET Framework, 41, 58 architecture, 58 assemblies, 59 .NET Remoting, 596 NETaccounts (financial accounting), 626, 904 Netscape browsers browser wars with Microsoft, 10 layout engines, 18 network databases, 48 network stack, 816 news and weather services, 636–641 list of some services, 637 NewsIsFree, 637–641 NewsCloud, 637, 904 NewsGator, 637, 904 NewsIsFree, 637, 637–641, 905 API functions for use with web service, 638 getNews( ) request, results of, 639 using SOAP and PHP to pull data from, 640 nodes appending by specifying a location, 109 appending node to list of child nodes, 108 methods used to create, 107 referencing table nodes, 136 standardized list of node types, 105 nodeType property, 113 <noframes> element, 318 Nonstandard Event module, 130 O O(n log n) sorting algorithms, 268 O(n2) sorting algorithms, 268 O’Reilly, Tim, 661 OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards), 596 object databases, 48 object literals, 825 object manipulations (animation), 467–472 object positioning (Rico), 464 obscurity, avoiding in application design, 145 one-stop shops, 149 onFailure property, 277 onreadystatechange property (XMLHttpRequest), 69, 80 onSuccess property, 277 Open Group, 596 open source services, 668 OpenAJAX Alliance, 94 openPageInDIV( ) function (example), 326 openPopUp( ) function, 340 Opera browsers Presto layout engine, 19 user changes, 363 operating systems alert windows, 335 fonts, 163–166 interoperable communication with SOAP, 597 optimization of Ajax applications, 807–839 Ajax optimization, 838 client and server communication, 838 code optimization, 839 data, 839 client-side, 818–830 JavaScript, 822–830 XHTML and CSS, 819–822 execution speed, 809 file size, 808 HTTP, 809–815 compression, 813–815 headers, 810–813 packets, 815–818 optimal sizes, 817 server side, 830–838 compression, 830–833 SQL, 833–838 Optrata mashup, 662 Oracle, 45 open source version, 10g Express Edition, 46 web site, 45 organic layout, 158 Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), 596 organizing tools, 155 overflow: hidden (CSS rule), 442 P packets, 815–818 optimal sizes, 817 requests for JavaScript, CSS, and media files, 818 TIP/IP, 808 page indexing, 569 page layout, 329–334 dynamic nature of pages, 330 separating structure from presentation, 333–334 page loading, status bar for Ajax, 240–243 page reloads, web pages in 2000, 7 paged navigation, 228–231 Ajax solution, 230 solution using DHTML techniques, 228 pagination, table, 283–291 sorting paginated tables, 289–291 using Ajax, 287–289 using JavaScript, 285–287 palettes, 436 panels, 149 parallel lines, 763 ParseKeypress( ) function (example), 765 ParseMouseClicks( ) function (example), 766 parseResponse function, 100 parsers documentation, 27 validating parsers, 27 parseStateToQueryString( ) function, 245 parseXML( ) function, 80 parsing JSON strings, 90 path between two points approximating a straight line, 748 pause time between frame switching, 442 PC Direct Source storefront, 161 PEAR modules, 63 Index | 945 pen colors (whiteboard), 715–718 People Finders, 666 people searches, 667 perception, 3D objects in 2D space, 183 PeriodicalUpdater object, 868 PeriodicUpdater object, 101 persistent stylesheets, 372 Personal Web Server (PWS), 36 PhishTank, 905 phone number reference service, 650 phone numbers, validating, 539 photo services, 641–649 Flickr, 642–649 list of popular APIs, 641 PHP, 39, 41 adding a post programmatically to del.icio.us, 624–626 adding compression to a site, 831 base64_encode( ) function, 312 calling FeedBurner MgmtAPI’s Find Feeds method, 622 chat client structure, 679 checking on parameters, 556 code to create a table for a server response, 277 error and logging constants, 410 error handler, custom, 411 frameworks, 62 full text site search, 568 get_points.php file, sending whiteboard information to clients, 713 handling a JSON request from the client, 88 inline documentation, 27 logError script, 427 modular server-side components used to build page structure, 805 mysql_real_escape_string( ) function, 535 parsing <meta> elements on a site, 566 preparing and sending search hints back to user, 579 put_message.php file (chat application), 687 REST request to AWS, 610 script handling a RAW POST sent as XML, 526 script handling an XML data request, 74 script handling GET or POST from the client, 525 script handling RAW POST as JSON, 526 946 | Index server-side script handling dynamic bar graph request, 477 slide show application, script for Internet Explorer, 315 slide show application, script sending pictures from server, 312–314 SOAP request to AWS, 607 SoapClient( ), 637 using feeds to distrubute information, 615 using to pull data from NewsIsFree, 640 using with JSON, 87 phpDocumentor parser, 27 pictures (see images; photo services) pipe character (|), separating lists, 226 Pixagogo, 642, 905 pixels (font sizing), 386 planning phase, Ajax web application development, 24 platform games, 731 plug-ins for browsers, 733 Flash, 733 Java applets, 734 Shockwave, 734 PNG alpha-transparency, support by browser engines, 18 PNG image format, 437, 439–453 alpha transparency, 439 building animations with JavaScript looping, 442–444 more robust animation object, 444–448 PNG CSS, 441 using Ajax, 448–453 character animation, 735 differences from GIF, 440 pop-up boxes building custom, 336 CSS styling rules for alert window, 338 dragging functionality, adding, 344–347 keeping focus and closing, 339–343 pop-up windows, 360–362 file sharing application, sending a file, 692 list of features, 361 user consent for, 361 (see also navigation windows) port types element (WSDL), 601 Portable Network Graphics (see PNG image format) portlets, 668 ports element (WSDL), 601 position of an object, animating dynamically, 464–467 POST method (see GET and POST methods) postfix incrementing operators, 830 PostgreSQL, 46 preferred stylesheets, 372 font size, 389 presentation layer, separation from structure or data layer, 250 Presto, 19 standards supported, 18 print files (CSS), units of measurement, 371 processing instructions (PIs) in XML, 849 product codes (UPC Database), 653, 909 professional licenses, 667 Programmable Web, 668, 892 programming languages compiled, optimization of, 807 language for the backend, optimization and, 808 object databases, 48 selecting for mashup backend, 670 Progressive JPEG, support by browser engines, 18 project managers, prerequisites for this book, xiv prompt window, 351–353 properties CSS2 and JavaScript equivalents, 119–124 Event object, 132–133 informational DOM stylesheet properties, 126 informational properties (DOM), 114 innerHTML, 138–140 Internet Explorer alternatives to DOM 2 stylesheet, 127 JavaScript errors, 409 nodeType, 113 traversal properties (DOM), 116 protocol stack, web services, 597 Prototype Framework, 95, 863–869 $F( ) function, 496 accordion object, 238 Ajax response callbacks, 864 Ajax with Prototype, 863 automating requests, 868 dynamic page updating, 867 Element object, show( ) and hide( ) methods, 242 evaluating JSON, 866 event handling, 577 Event object, pointerX( ) and PointerY( ) methods, 704 events and event handling, 342 global responders, 867 helper functions, 98 objects used with Ajax, 99–102 passing parameters to HTTP method, 865 use by Rico library as base, 460 use in file menu example, 198 pseudoselectors, Internet Explorer and, 223 Public Record Finder, 666 public records, 666 differences in availability from states, 666 puzzle games, 730 PWS (Personal Web Server), 36 Pythagorean theorem, 759 Python, 39, 42 frameworks, 61 Q query string, passing page number in, 228, 230 Quest for Glory game series, 727 quick sorts, 268 quote_smart( ) function, 687 R Rademacher, Paul, 660 radio buttons custom, 499 properties, 499 form controls, 493 setting error indicator to, 553 Rails (see Ruby on Rails) RangeError object, 409 RAW POST method, 525 PHP script handling as XML, 526 script handling as JSON, 526 RDF Site Summary (RSS 0.9 and 1.0), 16 reading style for web content, 147 readyState property (xmlDoc), 80 readyState property (XMLHttpRequest), 69 using in status bar, 242 real estate company, mashup for, 671 RealEDA Reverse Phone Lookup, 650, 905 Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2.0), 16 (see also RSS) Index | 947 real-time communication (see communication needs for business) real-time strategy games, 724 receptivity to user feedback, 142 rectangular collision detection, 754–759 reference services, 650 ReferenceError object, 409 regular expressions, 538 checking for valid email addreses, 540 Dojo validation objects, 551 phone number checks, 539 Rehabilitation Act, Section 508, 33 relational databases, 48–54 creating tables, 48–51 deleting records from a table, 53 getting records from the database, 52 implementation of dimensional databases, 47 inserting records into tables, 51 performance improvement with stored procedures, 54 updating records, 53 relative font sizes, 386 release (software development), 23 reloading web pages, classic web sites, 7 Remote Procedure Call (RPC), 595 removeChild( ) method, 110 removeEventListener( ) method, 131 repositioning objects and storing the positions, 403–407 dragging objects, 403 storing information in a database, 404 Representational State Transfer (see REST) Request Entity Too Large error, 421 requirements analysis, 23 Ajax web application development, 24 residential information in the U.S. and Puerto Rico, 651 Resig, John, 96 resolution testing, 26 Responders object, 867 <response> elements code attribute, 612 response headers (HTTP), 810 response to search query, 590 responseText property (XMLHttpRequest), 69 responseXML property (XMLHTTPRequest), 76 948 | Index responseXML property (XMLHttpRequest), 69, 78 REST (Representational State Transfer), 604 eBay API, 653 requesting search results, 654 example request to Flickr web service, 648 Flickr request and response, 642 request to AWS, 609 triangle of nouns, verbs, and content types, 605 RESTful design, 605 Result objects (Google AJAX Search API), 587 CSS classes for each object, 592 Results objects (Google AJAX Search API) CSS styling structures, listed, 592 reusability (web applications), 142 Rhapsody, 632, 906 RIAs (Rich Internet Applications), 30 Rich Site Summary (RSS 0.91 and 1.0), 16 Rico, 97 Rico library animating an element on the page, 466 dragging and dropping capabilities, 460 object positioning through Effect object, 464 reference, 875 role-playing games (RPGs), 728–730 massive multiplayer online RPGs (MMORPGs), 730 root element or root node, 104 rows collection, 136 RPC (Remote Procedure Call), 595 RSS, 614 differences between Atom 1.0 and RSS 2.0, 16 feed results of getNews( ) request on NewsIsFree, 639 feed used to create REST web service, 615 feed validation, 616 GeoRSS feed, 630 standards and versions, 15 support by browser engines, 18 version 2.0, 15 Ruby, 39, 43 Ruby on Rails (RoR or Rails), 59 rule of thirds, 163 rules collection (Internet Explorer), 128 S Safari browsers, WebCore layout engine, 18 sans-serif fonts, 162 Sarissa library, 97, 884–885 Ajax requests, 884 parsing data from the server, 885 web site, 83 XML, 885 XSLT transformation with, 84–86 scraping data for web feeds, 613 screen descriptor (GIF), 435 screen files (CSS), units of measurement, 371 screen.css file, 369 <script> elements needed to use Rico, 466 script.aculo.us, 95, 869–875 auto-completion, 869–872 components, 802 Draggable object, 344–345, 403 dragging and dropping functionality, 455–457 Effect object, 238 effects, 467, 875 online demonstration, 468 inline editing, 873–875 organic site layout, 159 sortable list, integrating Ajax, 303 sorting lists via drag-and-drop solution, 298 scripting languages, 39 server scripting errors, 410 used for ASP, 40 search engines, 154, 565 problems with sites using Ajax, 921 use of databases, 570 using on a local site, 570–575 searches, 565–593 dynamic searching with Ajax, 577–581 giving hints to the user, 577–580 submitting a search from hints, 580 Googling a site, 581–593 search services, 651 types of site searches, 565–576 advanced searching, 576 full text parsing, 568 keyword searches, 566 page indexing, 569 using public search engines on local sites, 570–575 web application search tools, 151 Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, 33 security, risks associated with use of Ajax, 919–921 SeeqPod (music service), 632, 906 <select> elements, placement of labels, 485 SELECT statements (SQL), 52 selectNodes( ) method, 83 selectSingleNode( ) method, 83 serialize( ) method, 86 serif fonts, 162 server responses, 531–533 example of client handling complex response, 532 reporting success or failure, 531 Server Side Include (SSI), 38 server side of Ajax applications, 804–806 breaking into components and modularizing, 806 modularizing SQL, 805 optimizations, 830–838 compression, 830–833 SQL, 833–838 using for structure, 804 server-side errors, 410–413 database, 412 external errors, 413 notifying the user, 419 server scripting errors, 410–412 server-side scripting, 28, 39–44 ASP/ASP.NET, 40 handling dynamic bar graph request (fa_stats.php), 477 Java, 43 logging errors, 427 PHP, 41 Python, 42 Ruby, 43 to web services, 607–610 Service Description level (web services), 597 Service Discovery level (web services), 597 Service Messaging level (web services), 597 Service Transport level (web services), 597 Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), 596 services element (WSDL), 601 servlets (Java), 38, 44 setAttributeNode( ) method, 107 setDragTarget( ) method, 458 setSiteRestriction( ) method (GwebSearch), 586 shapes, drawing for whiteboard, 719 Index | 949 Shea, Dave, 332 shell sorts, 268 Ship, Howard M. Lewis, 61 Shockwave, 734 shopping carts, 155 shopping services, 652–655 eBay, 653–655 .shtml file extension, 38 SimCity, 725 simple path movement, 747 simple to use applications, 142 Simpy (bookmarking service), 623, 906 slang dictionary, 650, 910 Slashdot, paneled design pattern, 149 slide show application, 304–315 Ajax-enabled, in action, 314 CSS styling rules, 305–307 JavaScript code, 307–311 server-side PHP script to send images, 312–314 working slide show using Ajax, 311 slideBy( ) method, 465 slider bar for font sizes, 389–392 slideTo( ) method, 465 sliding an element around on the page, 464 Smarty, 63 SmugMug, 641, 907 Snipshot, 642, 907 SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture), 596 SOAP, 597 request to AWS using PHP, 607 request to NewsIsFree, 637 using to pull data from NewsIsFree, 640 Social Security numbers, validating, 540 software development life cycle, 22–24 simplification for web applications, 24 Sortable object, 298 create( ) method, options to pass in object parameter, 298 onUpdate callback, 303 sorting lists, 297–302 tables, 264–279 JavaScript versus Ajax sorting, 279 JavaScript, using, 264–275 keeping style with sorts, 280–283 paginated tables, 289–291 using Ajax, 275–279 sorting algorithms, 268–269 950 | Index Sowden, Paul, 372 spacing, text, 166 spellcheckers, 157 spider performing a full text search, 569 spreadsheets, 157 Spring framework, 60 SQL (Structured Query Language) CREATE TABLE statement, 49 DELETE statement, 53 INSERT statement, 51 Microsoft SQL Server, 45 modularizing in server-side coding, 805 optimization, 809, 833–838 inline queries, 834–837 stored procedures, 837 origin of, 45 retrieving and storing information for draggable object, 404 SELECT statements, 52 stored procedures, 54 UPDATE statements, 53 SQL injection attack, 535 function dealing with quotes, 687 square collision detection, 754 SRC Demographics, 650, 907 SSI (Server Side Include), 38 ASP (Active Server Pages), 40 stamps for whiteboard application, 719 standards organizations, 10 standards, compliance with, 19 (see also web standards) static directions (character movement), 742 status bar, showing Ajax actions, 242 Status object, 242 status property (XMLHttpRequest), 69 statusText property (XMLHttpRequest), 69 Stenhouse, Mike, 244 storage engines (MySQL), 46 stored procedures, 54, 805, 837 storing information, 155 desktop application tools, 157 straight line between two points, 748 strategy games, 724–726 abstract, 724 real-time, 724 turn-based, economic, and God-like, 725 stress testing, 26 StrikeIron Historical Stock Quotes, 626, 907 StrikeIron Residential Lookup, 651, 908 StrikeIron U.S.


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Data for the Public Good by Alex Howard

23andMe, Atul Gawande, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Hernando de Soto, Internet of things, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Network effects, openstreetmap, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social intelligence, social software, social web, web application

As Clive Thompson reported at Wired last year, public sector data can help fuel jobs, and “shoving more public data into the commons could kick-start billions in economic activity.” In the transportation sector, for instance, transit data is open government fuel for economic growth. There is a tremendous amount of work ahead in building upon the foundations that civil society has constructed over decades. If you want a deep look at what the work of digitizing data really looks like, read Carl Malamud’s interview with Slashdot on opening government data. Data for the public good, however, goes far beyond government’s own actions. In many cases, it will happen despite government action — or, often, inaction — as civic developers, data scientists and clinicians pioneer better analysis, visualization and feedback loops. For every civic startup or regulation, there’s a backstory that often involves a broad number of stakeholders.


Multitool Linux: Practical Uses for Open Source Software by Michael Schwarz, Jeremy Anderson, Peter Curtis

business process, Debian, defense in depth, GnuPG, index card, indoor plumbing, Larry Wall, MITM: man-in-the-middle, optical character recognition, publish or perish, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, slashdot, web application

www.sourceforge.net Got an open source project? Want a free place to host the Web site and CVS archive? Do I need to continue? I think not. www.slashdot.org "News for Nerds. Stuff that matters." Need I say more? Not really, but I'm going to. Have you ever tried to get to a page on a Web site only to get a "timed out" error from your browser? Chances are the network is acting funny, the Web site is poorly designed or not working, or the page you are trying to access is being "slash-dotted." Slashdot.org is so popular that when particularly interesting news blurbs appear, its readers have this knack of saturating the Web sites the news blurbs refer to. If you need a daily dose of techie news, Slashdot.org is definitely for you. www.lwn.net News on Linux—lots of news on Linux. Where do they get all this stuff? My work is starting to suffer because there's so much to read on Linux.


Practical OCaml by Joshua B. Smith

cellular automata, Debian, domain-specific language, general-purpose programming language, Grace Hopper, hiring and firing, John Conway, Paul Graham, slashdot, SpamAssassin, text mining, Turing complete, type inference, web application, Y2K

The first file is the lexer, which would go into a file named uri_lexer.mll and be compiled with the following: $ ocamllex uri_lexer.mll $ ocamlc –c uri_lexer.ml { open Uri_parser } 620Xch11final.qxd 9/22/06 12:37 AM Page 143 CHAPTER 11 ■ PRACTICAL: A URI LIBRARY rule token = parse "http://" { HTTP } | "mailto://" { MAILTO } | "file://" { FILE } | ':' { SEP } | ['/' '\\'] { PATHSEP } | '@' { AT } | eof { EOF } | (['a'-'z' 'A'-'Z' '0'-'9' '%' '^' '&' '*' '(' ')' '-' '_' '+' '=' '?' '<' '>' '|' '{' '}' '[' ']' '!' '.' ',']+ as st) { STRING(st) } { let lb = Lexing.from_string "http://www.slashdot.org/index.html";; let _ = let res = Uri_parser.main token lb in Printf.printf "[%s %s]" (fst res) (snd res);; } The next file (uri_parser.mly) is shown as follows. This is an ocamlyacc file that must be processed by ocamlyacc before being compiled (much like the preceding ocamllex file). $ ocamlyacc uri_parser.mly $ ocamlc –c uri_parser.mli $ ocamlc –c uri_parser.ml %token HTTP MAILTO FILE SEP PATHSEP AT EOF %token<string> STRING %start main %type<string * string> main %% main: http EOF { $1 } | file EOF { $1 } ; path: STRING { $1 } | PATHSEP STRING { $2 } | path PATHSEP { $1 ^ "/" } | path STRING { $1 ^ "/" ^ $2 } ; 143 620Xch11final.qxd 144 9/22/06 12:37 AM Page 144 CHAPTER 11 ■ PRACTICAL: A URI LIBRARY http: HTTP STRING path { ($2,$3) } | HTTP STRING AT STRING path { ($4,$5) } | HTTP STRING SEP STRING AT STRING path { ($6,$7) } ; file: FILE PATHSEP PATHSEP path { ("",$4) } ; mailto: MAILTO PATHSEP PATHSEP STRING AT STRING { ($4,$6) } ; After you process these two files, you can compile them to a single executable by simply calling the compiler on both of the generated .cmo files. $ ocamlc –o parse_test uri_parser.cmo uri_lexer.cmo $ .

. $ ocamlyacc uri_parser.mly $ ocamlc –c uri_parser.mli $ ocamlc –c uri_parser.ml %token HTTP MAILTO FILE SEP PATHSEP AT EOF %token<string> STRING %start main %type<string * string> main %% main: http EOF { $1 } | file EOF { $1 } ; path: STRING { $1 } | PATHSEP STRING { $2 } | path PATHSEP { $1 ^ "/" } | path STRING { $1 ^ "/" ^ $2 } ; 143 620Xch11final.qxd 144 9/22/06 12:37 AM Page 144 CHAPTER 11 ■ PRACTICAL: A URI LIBRARY http: HTTP STRING path { ($2,$3) } | HTTP STRING AT STRING path { ($4,$5) } | HTTP STRING SEP STRING AT STRING path { ($6,$7) } ; file: FILE PATHSEP PATHSEP path { ("",$4) } ; mailto: MAILTO PATHSEP PATHSEP STRING AT STRING { ($4,$6) } ; After you process these two files, you can compile them to a single executable by simply calling the compiler on both of the generated .cmo files. $ ocamlc –o parse_test uri_parser.cmo uri_lexer.cmo $ ./parse_test www. slashdot.org /index.html $ Conclusion With this code under your belt, you should be well on your way to actually solving problems with OCaml. You have created a module to handle URIs in a platform-independent manner, including filenames. A module like this creates the ability to improve code maintenance because you can make changes at the module layer for handling different URIs. The next chapter discusses the ocamldoc system, which is a Javadoc-like tool that enables you to embed documentation in your code and output HTML, LaTeX, Texinfo, and man pages for your code. ocamldoc is a powerful and very useful tool that is widely used.

We can Center} and Left and } {R Right Align too} We can reference code with links like this: {!Chapter12.Docoff.bar}. Notice it has to be fully qualified. Source code can be inlined like this: [val source_code_style: string -> int] Or preformated like this: {[ let source_code_string x = String.length x;; ]} {v Verbatim text can be added, though you may still have to escape certain text in verbatim blocks. v} {{:http://www.slashdot.org} this text can be a link} We can also make L{_a}T{^e}X look (almost) correct. *) 149 620Xch12final.qxd 150 9/22/06 12:39 AM Page 150 CHAPTER 12 ■ USING OCAMLDOC Figure 12-1. Code transformed into HTML Lists There are shortcuts available, but they should not be used to define nested lists. {ol List} with {li list items} {ul List with {li list items} Sections and Headings From the basic formatting example, you can see one example of a section heading.


pages: 489 words: 148,885

Accelerando by Stross, Charles

business cycle, call centre, carbon-based life, cellular automata, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, Conway's Game of Life, dark matter, dumpster diving, Extropian, finite state, Flynn Effect, glass ceiling, gravity well, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, knapsack problem, Kuiper Belt, Magellanic Cloud, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, packet switching, performance metric, phenotype, planetary scale, Pluto: dwarf planet, reversible computing, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, South China Sea, stem cell, technological singularity, telepresence, The Chicago School, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, web of trust, Y2K, zero-sum game

Manfred takes it and heads for the back of the split-level bar, up the steps to a table where some guy with greasy dreadlocks is talking to a suit from Paris. The hanger-on at the bar notices him for the first time, staring with suddenly wide eyes: He nearly spills his Coke in a mad rush for the door. Oh shit, thinks Manfred, better buy some more server time. He can recognize the signs: He's about to be slashdotted. He gestures at the table. "This one taken?" "Be my guest," says the guy with the dreads. Manfred slides the chair open then realizes that the other guy – immaculate double-breasted Suit, sober tie, crew cut – is a girl. She nods at him, half-smiling at his transparent double take. Mr. Dreadlock nods. "You're Macx? I figured it was about time we met." "Sure." Manfred holds out a hand, and they shake.

Just then, a bandwidth load as heavy as a pregnant elephant sits down on Manfred's head and sends clumps of humongous pixilation flickering across his sensorium: Around the world, five million or so geeks are bouncing on his home site, a digital flash crowd alerted by a posting from the other side of the bar. Manfred winces. "I really came here to talk about the economic exploitation of space travel, but I've just been slashdotted. Mind if I just sit and drink until it wears off?" "Sure, man." Bob waves at the bar. "More of the same all round!" At the next table, a person with makeup and long hair who's wearing a dress – Manfred doesn't want to speculate about the gender of these crazy mixed-up Euros – is reminiscing about wiring the fleshpots of Tehran for cybersex. Two collegiate-looking dudes are arguing intensely in German: The translation stream in his glasses tell him they're arguing over whether the Turing Test is a Jim Crow law that violates European corpus juris standards on human rights.

Meanwhile automated factories in Indonesia and Mexico have produced another quarter of a million motherboards with processors rated at more than ten petaflops – about an order of magnitude below the lower bound on the computational capacity of a human brain. Another fourteen months and the larger part of the cumulative conscious processing power of the human species will be arriving in silicon. And the first meat the new AIs get to know will be the uploaded lobsters. Manfred stumbles back to his hotel, bone-weary and jet-lagged; his glasses are still jerking, slashdotted to hell and back by geeks piggybacking on his call to dismantle the moon. They stutter quiet suggestions at his peripheral vision. Fractal cloud-witches ghost across the face of the moon as the last huge Airbuses of the night rumble past overhead. Manfred's skin crawls, grime embedded in his clothing from three days of continuous wear. Back in his room, the Aineko mewls for attention and strops her head against his ankle.


pages: 541 words: 109,698

Mining the Social Web: Finding Needles in the Social Haystack by Matthew A. Russell

Climategate, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, full text search, Georg Cantor, Google Earth, information retrieval, Mark Zuckerberg, natural language processing, NP-complete, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, text mining, traveling salesman, Turing test, web application

Given that you’re probably working with a relatively small collection of items and that you’ve been introduced to some other mechanisms for sorting in Chapter 3, you then simply sort the data on the client-side and apply a frequency threshold. Example output with a threshold of 15 is shown in Table 5-1 but also displayed as a chart in Figure 5-1 so that you have a feel for the underlying distribution. Table 5-1. Entities sorted by frequency from harvested tweets by @timoreilly EntityFrequency #gov20 140 @OReillyMedia 124 #Ebook 89 @timoreilly 77 #ebooks 55 @slashdot 45 @jamesoreilly 41 #w2e 40 @gnat 38 @n2vip 37 @monkchips 33 #w2s 31 @pahlkadot 30 @dalepd 28 #g2e 27 #ebook 25 @ahier 24 #where20 22 @digiphile 21 @fredwilson 20 @brady 19 @mikeloukides 19 #pdf10 19 @nytimes 18 #fooeast 18 @andrewsavikas 17 @CodeforAmerica 16 @make 16 @pkedrosky 16 @carlmalamud 15 #make 15 #opengov 15 Figure 5-1. The frequency of entities that have been retweeted by @timoreilly for a sample of recent tweets So, what’s on Tim’s mind these days?

Finding @mention tweet entities that are also friends (the_tweet__how_many_user_entities_are_friends.py) # -*- coding: utf-8 -*- import json import redis import couchdb import sys from twitter__util import getRedisIdByScreenName from twitter__util import getRedisIdByUserId SCREEN_NAME = sys.argv[1] THRESHOLD = int(sys.argv[2]) # Connect using default settings for localhost r = redis.Redis() # Compute screen_names for friends friend_ids = r.smembers(getRedisIdByScreenName(SCREEN_NAME, 'friend_ids')) friend_screen_names = [] for friend_id in friend_ids: try: friend_screen_names.append(json.loads(r.get(getRedisIdByUserId(friend_id, 'info.json')))['screen_name']) except TypeError, e: continue # not locally available in Redis - look it up or skip it # Pull the list of (entity, frequency) tuples from CouchDB server = couchdb.Server('http://localhost:5984') db = server['tweets-user-timeline-' + SCREEN_NAME] entities_freqs = sorted([(row.key, row.value) for row in db.view('index/entity_count_by_doc', group=True)], key=lambda x: x[1]) # Keep only user entities with insufficient frequencies user_entities = [(ef[0])[1:] for ef in entities_freqs if ef[0][0] == '@' and ef[1] >= THRESHOLD] # Do a set comparison entities_who_are_friends = \ set(user_entities).intersection(set(friend_screen_names)) entities_who_are_not_friends = \ set(user_entities).difference(entities_who_are_friends) print 'Number of user entities in tweets: %s' % (len(user_entities), ) print 'Number of user entities in tweets who are friends: %s' \ % (len(entities_who_are_friends), ) for e in entities_who_are_friends: print '\t' + e print 'Number of user entities in tweets who are not friends: %s' \ % (len(entities_who_are_not_friends), ) for e in entities_who_are_not_friends: print '\t' + e The output with a frequency threshold of 15 (shown in Example 5-6) is predictable, yet it brings to light a couple of observations. Example 5-6. Sample output from Example 5-5 displaying @mention tweet entities that are also friends of @timoreilly Number of user entities in tweets: 20 Number of user entities in tweets who are friends: 18 ahier pkedrosky CodeforAmerica nytimes brady carlmalamud pahlkadot make jamesoreilly andrewsavikas gnat slashdot OReillyMedia dalepd mikeloukides monkchips fredwilson digiphile Number of user entities in tweets who are not friends: 2 n2vip timoreilly All in all, there were 20 user entities who exceeded a frequency threshold of 15, and 18 of those turned out to be friends. Given that most of the people who appear in his tweets are also his friends, it’s probably safe to say that there’s a strong trust relationship of some kind between Tim and these individuals.

The listing in Table 5-2 also uses a threshold of 15, to juxtapose the difference. Table 5-2. Most frequent entities appearing in retweets by @timoreilly; additional columns to illustrate normalization of retweet counts by @timoreilly EntityNumber of times @user retweeted by @timoreillyTotal tweets ever by @userNormalized retweet score @monkchips 30 33215 0.000903206 @ahier 18 14849 0.001212203 @slashdot 41 22081 0.0018568 @gnat 28 11322 0.002473061 @mikeloukides 15 2926 0.005126452 @pahlkadot 16 3109 0.005146349 @oreillymedia 97 6623 0.014645931 @jamesoreilly 34 4439 0.007659383 @dalepd 16 1589 0.010069226 So, who does Tim retweet/compliment the most? Well, not so surprisingly, his company and folks closely associated with his company compose the bulk of the list, with @oreillymedia coming in at the top of the pack.


pages: 349 words: 114,038

Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens

4chan, airport security, AltaVista, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, commoditize, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, intangible asset, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mega-rich, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, selection bias, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, twin studies, union organizing, wealth creators, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law

This happens both on-line, with new communities springing up rapidly around new challenges and opportunities, and in the real world, with mobile crowds responding rapidly to events in the streets. The Economic Quickening Without protectionism, Germany sells the precision instruments to produce the optics, Japan designs the semiconductors, Taiwan fabs the chips and the Chinese assemble them with equipment bought from the West. Everyone benefits, is employed, and makes enough money to buy a $10 camera. -- 1stworld, on Slashdot The economic impact of seven billion citizens joining digital society is vast and only just starting to be understood. Where this will take us is not clear. We can however already see the trends: All markets have more participants. In any given area of activity, the number of people who participate and compete has greatly increased. Rather than creating a race to the bottom, we see increasing specialization and diversity of suppliers, and lucrative new businesses constantly emerge.

As a note, I'm shocked that my "teenager arrested for antisocial on-line comments, facing terrorism charges" line actually came true in 2013, multiple times. I wrote it several years ago as an absurd caricature. Kisses in the Park "According to a Sydney Morning Herald article, the Australia government has decided to take the controversial step of having Internet service providers filter web content at the request of parents, in a crackdown on on-line bad language, pornography and child sex predators."--Slashdot front page, 9 August 2007 Having our thoughts held captive under the influence of propaganda only lasts for so long. We eventually clear our minds and realize that things are not quite right. For longer-lasting results, the men in charge have a more solid argument against freedom. I'm not talking about terrorism. I'm talking about simple morality. When people have too much freedom, the argument goes, they do bad things.

If you were leaving the Spanish Netherlands of 2030, metaphorically speaking, would you go to a country with more or less freedom? Freedom of Organization Azmeen said: "Although I'm a Linux person, I must say that yeah, Microsoft does receive a lot of stick from us open source folks. Of course, MS do get a lot of things right at least in the technological and UI aspects." -- Microsoft sock puppet on Slashdot, February 2008 As I explained in “Faceless Societies”, human society in all its richness can be seen as a truth-mining machine. There are of course many kinds of truths in addition to the physical facts for which science searches. For example, there are truths about problems, such as: "Congress is going to pass a bill that will allow censorship of any website." There are truths about solutions, such as: "Emailing your congressman won't help; call him or send a paper letter, or better still, try to visit him."


pages: 224 words: 64,156

You Are Not a Gadget by Jaron Lanier

1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, call centre, cloud computing, commoditize, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, different worldview, digital Maoism, Douglas Hofstadter, Extropian, follow your passion, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Conway, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Long Term Capital Management, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, social graph, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog

The ascendant tribe is composed of the folks from the open culture/Creative Commons world, the Linux community, folks associated with the artificial intelligence approach to computer science, the web 2.0 people, the anticontext file sharers and remashers, and a variety of others. Their capital is Silicon Valley, but they have power bases all over the world, wherever digital culture is being created. Their favorite blogs include Boing Boing, TechCrunch, and Slashdot, and their embassy in the old country is Wired. Obviously, I’m painting with a broad brush; not every member of the groups I mentioned subscribes to every belief I’m criticizing. In fact, the groupthink problem I’m worried about isn’t so much in the minds of the technologists themselves, but in the minds of the users of the tools the cybernetic totalists are promoting. The central mistake of recent digital culture is to chop up a network of individuals so finely that you end up with a mush.

Buyers and sellers on eBay are a little more civil, despite occasional disappointments, such as encounters with flakiness and fraud. Based on those data, you could conclude that it isn’t exactly anonymity, but transient anonymity, coupled with a lack of consequences, that brings out online idiocy. With more data, that hypothesis can be refined. Participants in Second Life (a virtual online world) are generally not quite as mean to one another as are people posting comments to Slashdot (a popular technology news site) or engaging in edit wars on Wikipedia, even though all allow pseudonyms. The difference might be that on Second Life the pseudonymous personality itself is highly valuable and requires a lot of work to create. So a better portrait of the troll-evoking design is effortless, consequence-free, transient anonymity in the service of a goal, such as promoting a point of view, that stands entirely apart from one’s identity or personality.


pages: 49 words: 12,968

Industrial Internet by Jon Bruner

autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, commoditize, computer vision, data acquisition, demand response, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, job automation, loose coupling, natural language processing, performance metric, Silicon Valley, slashdot, smart grid, smart meter, statistical model, web application

Collaboration between machine makers and control makers is crucial, and the quality with which machines accommodate and respond to intelligent controls will become a key differentiator. Silicon Valley and industry adapting to each other Nathan Oostendorp thought he’d chosen a good name for his new startup: “Ingenuitas,” derived from the Latin for “freely born” — appropriate, he thought, for a company that would be built on his own commitment to open-source software. But Oostendorp, earlier a co-founder of Slashdot, was aiming to bring modern computer vision systems to heavy industry, where the Latinate name didn’t resonate. At his second meeting with a salty former auto executive who would become an advisor to his company, Oostendorp says, “I told him we were going to call the company Ingenuitas, and he immediately said, ‘bronchitis, gingivitis, inginitis. Your company is a disease.’” And so Sight Machine[42] got its name — one so natural to Michigan’s manufacturers that, says CEO and co-founder Jon Sobel, visitors often say “I spent the afternoon down at Sight” in the same way they might say “down at Anderson” to refer to a tool-and-die shop called Anderson Machine.


pages: 52 words: 14,333

Growth Hacker Marketing: A Primer on the Future of PR, Marketing, and Advertising by Ryan Holiday

Airbnb, iterative process, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, market design, minimum viable product, Paul Graham, pets.com, post-work, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Wozniak, Travis Kalanick

In an effort to drive these sign-ups, the founders crafted a demo video that walked potential users through the service. They didn’t hire some production company to produce an expensive or elaborate video that they jammed down people’s throats through widespread ads. They made the video themselves and they made the right one for the right place. Knowing the outlets where they intended to post the video (Digg, Slashdot, and Reddit), they filled it with all sorts of allusions and references that those communities would love. As a result, this homemade video was enormously popular with these potential users. It immediately made the respective front pages, it drove hundreds of thousands of new visitors to the special page Dropbox had set up for this purpose (GetDropbox.com), and the waiting list went from 5,000 users to 75,000 users nearly overnight.


pages: 532 words: 139,706

Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta

23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Ben Horowitz, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management, zero-sum game

Ideas rushed to Krane’s brain, and he made a surprising choice. He explained how to make a reed for a clarinet, how to file and test and tweak it so the musical tone was clear and warm. Brin listened, then quickly moved on to his second question: “Have you ever heard of Slashdot?” Slashdot was a technology news site that encouraged user-generated comments, a pioneer of what came to be known as blogging. Krane smiled and pulled from his pocket a geeky badge of honor: a Palm 7, which permitted a wireless Internet connection to one of his favorite sites, Slashdot .com. “I thought,” said Krane, “I had aced the interview!” Brin shook hands and left, and Page entered. “He greeted me in a very reserved way. He asked me the equivalent of a tell-me-about-yourself ice-breaker question.” Krane waltzed through his life, his interests, his passion for Google.


pages: 106 words: 22,332

Cancel Cable: How Internet Pirates Get Free Stuff by Chris Fehily

Firefox, patent troll, peer-to-peer, pirate software, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, WikiLeaks

Besides, the studios might hire me to push broom as a piracy consultant after the book comes out. Ditto Music. It’ll have to be Cable. Lots of resentment to feed off. A how-to book. Who’ll publish it? The mainstream cowards won’t touch it. What the hell are these people clapping for now? Maybe I’ll self-publish and astroturf a story about being oppressed by Big Media. The idiots at the news aggregators always fall for that. Need to post a fake review on Slashdot. That works like a house on fire for O’Reilly. Position it as a gift that under-30s can give to their clueless parents. Maybe I’ll get sued and the whole thing will go Streisand. Some geezer singing. What the? You’ve Got a Friend in Me? Let me out. Chapter 2 – Understanding BitTorrent BitTorrent is the most popular communications protocol (set of standard rules) that pirates use to exchange files over the internet.


The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences by Rob Kitchin

Bayesian statistics, business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, disruptive innovation, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, longitudinal study, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs

Strasser, C. (2013) ‘Closed data... excuses, excuses’, Data Pub: California Digital Library, 24 April, http://datapub.cdlib.org/2013/04/24/closed-data-excuses-excuses (last accessed 18 September 2013). Strohm, C. and Homan, T. (2013) ‘NSA spying row in Congress ushers in debate over big data’, Bloomberg, 25 July, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-07-25/nsa-spying-row-in-congressushers-in-debate-over-big-data.html (last accessed 25 July 2013). Strom, D. (2012) ‘Big data makes things better’, Slashdot, 3 August, http://slashdot.org/topic/bi/bigdata-makes-things-better/ (last accessed 24 October 2013). Sword, K. (2008) ‘Contribution to: The Promise of Digital History’ (roundtable discussion), Journal of American History, 95(2): 452–91. Taleb. N. (2012) Antifragile: Things That Gain From Disorder. Random House, New York. Taleb, N. (2013) ‘Beware the big errors of “big data”’, Wired, 2 February, http://www.wired.com/opinion/2013/02/big-data-means-big-errors-people/ (last accessed 9 February 2013).


pages: 332 words: 91,780

Starstruck: The Business of Celebrity by Currid

"Robert Solow", barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Donald Trump, income inequality, index card, industrial cluster, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, natural language processing, place-making, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Florida, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, slashdot, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban decay, Vilfredo Pareto, winner-take-all economy

Maynard, a computer programmer and denizen of Fairmont, Minnesota (population 11,000), went from geek to Internet celebrity after pictures of him in a luminescent costume inspired by the Disney science-fiction movie Tron showed up all over the Internet. Maynard actually never intended on becoming a celebrity but capitalized on his star power when it came around. “I think everyone wants to become famous kind of idly. I never expected to become famous,” he said. “What happened was that I submitted a story to Slashdot [a technology news website]. It was a follow-up to other stories about other Tron fan costumes…I thought maybe a couple of people would be interested…The story just spread across the Internet instantly…People were making pretty seriously derogatory comments. Like ‘that guy in spandex.’ They didn’t think that anybody that was my shape should ever put on tights. I knew darn well going in that I wasn’t shaped like Bruce Boxleitner, the guy who plays Tron.”

Ono, Yoko Oppenheimer, Jerry Oscars, see Academy Awards Owl and Weasel (newsletter) Oxford University Page, Larry Pakistan Palencia, Francisco Palin, Sarah Paltrow, Gwyneth paparazzi Paramount Pictures Pareto Principle Paris Park City (Utah) Parliament, British participatory culture path dependency Pattinson, Robert Peake, John Penguin Press Penn, Sean People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) People magazine PepsiCo PerezHilton.com; see also Hilton, Perez personal digital assistant (PDA) applications Pew Research Center Peyton-Jones, Julia Phoenix, River Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living, The (Hirst) Picasso, Pablo Pinsky, Drew Pitt, Brad Pittsburgh Playboy Polaroid Scene Politico newspaper and blog politics; academic; British; celebrity residual in; geography of stardom and; networks in Ponzi schemes pop art Popeye Series (Koons) Pop Idol (TV show) Pop magazine Portman, Natalie Posen, Zac Price, Katie (“Jordan”) Princeton University Proenza fashion house Project Runway (TV show) publicists; democratic celebrities and; fees of; geography of stardom and; lack of, in Bollywood Puppy (Koons) Putnam, Robert Queen Latifah Radar magazine Rainie, Lee RateMyProfessors.com Ravid, Gilad RCA Records Reader, The (film) reality TV; British; financial celebrities on; narcissism of; relative celebrities on; stars of; see also specific shows Real Madrid Real World, The (TV show) Reed, David Reed, Lou Reid, Tara Rein, Irving Reinhardt, Doug relative celebrities; in academia; in art world; characteristics of,; mainstream celebrities versus; networks of Reliance film company Renaissance Technologies Republican Party residual, see celebrity residual Reuters Reynolds, Jamie Richards, Mark Richter, Gerhard Ripa, Kelly Ritchie, Guy Rivera, Mariano Roberts, Julia Rodarte fashion house Rodriguez, Alex (A-Rod) ROFLCon Rogers and Cowan Rolling Stone Roman Empire Romer, Paul Ronaldinho (Ronaldo de Assis Moreira) Ronaldo, Cristiano Ronson, Samantha Rose, Jessica Rosen, Sherwin Rosenfield, Stan Ross, Andrew Roubini, Nouriel Rousing, Hans Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Royal Festival Hall (London) Ruscha, Ed Ruth, Babe Saatchi, Charles Sachs, Jeffrey Salomon, Rick Salomon Brothers Samuels, David Sandler, Adam San Francisco 49ers São Paulo, traffic in Schouler fashion house Schroeder, Alice Science magazine Scientific American Scientologists Scorsese, Martin Scotland Seacrest, Ryan Seattle Mariners Secret Service Sedgwick, Edie Seipp, Catherine Senate, U.S. Serpentine Gallery (London) Shaw, David short message service (SMS) text messaging Sigler, Jamie-Lynn Silicon Valley Simons, James Simple Life, The (TV series) Simpson, O. J. Sinatra, Frank Sitrick, Michael Slashdot Slumdog Millionaire (film) Smart, Barry Smith, Will Snowball (Schroeder) soccer Soccernomics (Kuper and Szymanski) Social Issue Research Center social media; democratic celebrities and; see also Facebook; MySpace; Twitter social networks; in Bollywood; see also networks, celebrity Solow, Robert M. Sontag, Susan Sotheby’s South Beach (Florida) Southern California, University of South Korea South Park (TV show) So You Think You Can Dance (TV show) Spears, Britney; bad behavior of; celebrity residual of; comments on blog postings on,; economic impact of; paparazzi and; volume of media mentions of Spears, Jamie Lynn Spice Girls; see also Beckham, Victoria Spielberg, Steven Spitzer, Eliot sports; celebrity residual in; networks in; relative celebrity in; see also baseball; football; soccer Sports Illustrated Sports Network SPPS Clementine Springsteen, Bruce Stallabrass, Julian Staller, Ilona (Cicciolina) Starbucks starlets Starr, Freddie Starr, Ringo Star Search (TV show) Star Trek TV shows and movies Stiller, Ben Streep, Meryl Stuckism art movement Studdard, Ruben Studio 54 (New York) Style Rookie subcultures Submission (film) Sudan Summers, Harvard Sun (tabloid) Sun Country Classic Sundance Film Festival Sunday Times supermodels superstar effect Surowiecki, James Sutton, Willie Szymanski, Stefan tabloids; American Idol winners in; Aniston in; bad behavior coverage in; British; covers; events covered by; Hilton in; Indian; paparazzi and; publicists and; sports stars in; superstar effect and; among top two hundred best selling magazines talent; in art world; celebrity residual versus; geography of stardom and; networks and; relative celebrity and; Star Currency and Talese, Gay Talley, André Leon Target stores Tate Modern (London) Tatler magazine Tavistock Group Taylor, Elizabeth Teixeira, Mark Teller, Juergen Tequila, Tila Texas Rangers Thakoon fashion house Thousand Years, A (Hirst) Timberlake, Justin Tipping Point, The (Gladwell) TLC TMZ Tokyo; World Cup in Tonight Show, The Topshop Torre, Joe Torvalds, Linus Total Request Live (TRL) trainers Transformers (film) Treasury bonds TriBeCa Film Festival Tron (film) Tron Guy Trump, Donald Trump, Melania Tucker, Ken Turner, Graeme Turner Prize Tussaud, Madame (Marie Grosholtz) Twentieth Century-Fox Twilight Saga films Twitter Underwood, Carrie Ungaro Union Square Cafe (New York) United Kingdom; art scene in; awards shows in; fantasy war games in; film premiers in; political elite in; press in; publicists in; reality TV in; sports celebrities in; see also London United Talent Agency Universal Pictures Urban Decay US Weekly; casual shots of stars in; circulation of; endorsement deals announced in; mentions of Winslet versus Aniston in U2 Vaccaro, Sonny Van Gogh, Theo Vanity Fair magazine; Oscar party hosted by Vaughn, Vince Verardi, Vincenzo VH1 Vicious, Sid Viper Room (Los Angeles) Virgin brand Vogue magazine; online Voltaire von Furstenberg, Diane Von Teese, Dita Walker, Kara Walk of Fame (Hollywood) Wallace, David Foster Wall Street Journal Wal-Mart Warhammer Warhol, Andy Warhol Economy, The (Currid-Halkett) Washington, D.C.


pages: 313 words: 95,077

Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations by Clay Shirky

Andrew Keen, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, c2.com, Charles Lindbergh, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, hiring and firing, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, Joi Ito, Kuiper Belt, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Merlin Mann, Metcalfe’s law, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, Picturephone, place-making, Pluto: dwarf planet, prediction markets, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Vilfredo Pareto, Yogi Berra

Jehovah’s Witnesses enjoy advantages similar to those of other Christian sects, but ex-Witnesses turn to Meetup because they don’t enjoy that kind of socially supported coordination. The second category of Meetup groups includes the members of websites and services who would like to assemble with other users of those services in real life. This group includes Slashdot, LiveJournal, Bloggers, Fark, Ultima, and Bookcrossing. (Interestingly, the numbers show how clustered these groups are; though Slashdot and LiveJournal had more members than Witches did, they met in fewer cities; or put another way, Witches are more evenly distributed in U.S. society than are geeks or bloggers.) This is what the end of cyberspace looks like: the popularity of these Meetup groups suggests that meeting online isn’t enough and that after communicating with one another using these various services, the members become convinced that they share enough to want to get together in the real world.


pages: 400 words: 94,847

Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science by Michael Nielsen

Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Cass Sunstein, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, Kevin Kelly, Magellanic Cloud, means of production, medical residency, Nicholas Carr, P = NP, publish or perish, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, social intelligence, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, University of East Anglia, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge

The most obvious benefit of widespread open access is to individual citizens: no more restrictions on the ability of people suffering diseases to download the latest research! But over the long run an even bigger benefit of open access will be that it enables the creation of other institutions bridging science and the rest of society. We’re already starting to see this happen. For example, user-generated online news sites such as Digg and Slashdot routinely link to the latest research in the arXiv and PLoS and other open access sources. These news sites enable ordinary people to collectively decide what the news is, and provide a space where they can discuss that news. Often, what people choose to discuss includes the latest papers at the arXiv on subjects such as cosmology and quantum teleportation, or the latest papers at PLoS on subjects such as genetics and evolutionary biology.

See data sharing shared praxis, 75–77, 78–82, 198 Sheppard, Alice, 133, 135 Shirky, Clay, 153, 154, 219 signaling. See scoring Simon, Herbert, 217, 223 Sinclair, Cameron, 46 Singh, Simon, 165–67 Skilling, Jeffrey, 165 Skunk Works, 36 Skype video chat, 41 sky surveys, 98 of Hipparchus, 104 of Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, 107, 151 of Palomar Observatory, 102 of Ptolemy, 98, 102, 104. See also Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Slashdot, 163 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), 96–105 data-driven intelligence and, 112, 114 data sharing by, 102–5, 108–10, 181 data web and, 111 Galaxy Zoo’s use of, 138, 139, 140 new pattern of discovery and, 106–7 potential of networked science and, 175 Schawinski’s use of, 134 spectra of galaxies in, 138 Sloan Great Wall, 97, 99, 100, 112, 116 small contributions, 33, 48, 63–64, 227.


pages: 407 words: 103,501

The Digital Divide: Arguments for and Against Facebook, Google, Texting, and the Age of Social Netwo Rking by Mark Bauerlein

Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, business cycle, centre right, citizen journalism, collaborative editing, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, disintermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, peer-to-peer, pets.com, Results Only Work Environment, Saturday Night Live, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technology bubble, Ted Nelson, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, web application

Taking their cue from old-school Internet discussion groups like Usenet, websites such as MetaFilter let people begin discussions about almost anything they’ve found online. Each conversation begins with a link, then grows as far as its participants can take it. This is the real beauty of hypertext, and it’s finally catching on. Although hackers have used bulletin board interfaces on sites such as Slashdot since the Web’s inception, more commercially minded endeavors—e.g., Plastic—are adopting the same model to generate dialogues about culture and media. On Yahoo! the biggest growth area is conversation. Yahoo! Groups, a set of bulletin board discussions and mailing lists, contains thousands of the best discussions happening online—and almost all of them have been started by real people. Based on an old but still widely used style of e-mail conversation called Listserv, it allows group members to read postings and add to the conversation without ever opening their browsers.

Seinfeld (television series) Self-portraits Self-publishing Self-realization Self-sufficiency Semantic priming Semiotic democracy Sensory deprivation September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks Serialization SERP. See Search Engine Results Page Sesame Street Shakesville (blog) Shirky, Clay Shoutcast Simulations Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age (Watts) Skrenta, Rich “Skyful of Lies” and Black Swans (Gowing) Slashdot Slatalla, Michelle Slate (magazine) Sleeper Curve Slingbox SLVR phone Small world experiment Social currency Social graph Social media Social mind The Social Network (film) Social networking sites. See also specific sites activism and advertising on amount of users on development of identity setup on learning and marketing on politicians on privacy dangers and self-exposure through self-portraits on spam on weak ties on Social rules and norms Social saturation Social skills Socrates Solitude Sony Soundscape, cell phones and SourceForge.net South Korea Spamming, on social network sites Speech recognition Speed, Net Geners and Spengler, Oswald Splash screens Spotlight (blog) Squarciafico, Hieronimo Standage, Tom Starbucks Starkweather, Gary Star Trek (television series) Star Wars Stone, Linda Street Fighter II (video game) “The Strength of Weak Ties” (Granovetter) StyleDiary.net Suburbanization Sundance Resort Suriowecki, James Survival of the fittest Survivor (television series) Swados, Harvey Swarm intelligence Switch costs Tagging TakingITGlobal Task management Task switching Taylor, Frederick Winslow Teachout, Zephyr Techgnosis Technics and Civilization (Mumford) Techno-brain burnout Technology Education and Design (TED) Technomadicity Technorati TED.


Gaming the Vote: Why Elections Aren't Fair (And What We Can Do About It) by William Poundstone

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, business cycle, Debian, desegregation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, global village, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, invisible hand, jimmy wales, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, manufacturing employment, Nash equilibrium, Paul Samuelson, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, slashdot, the map is not the territory, Thomas Bayes, transcontinental railway, Unsafe at Any Speed, Y2K

Last Man Standing 219 Orange County· John Wayne· American machismo· the Condorcet winner· Linux • Markus Schulze· CSSD • Wikipedia • trolls· Queen Elizabeth· Kim Jongil • sarcasm· simplicity· Ka-Ping Yee· Microsoft Windows· manipulative behavior • how ro prevent carjacking· Mathematics Awareness Week • lain Mclean· permanent pointlessness 231 14. Hot or Not? Hanging out· James Hong· Jim Young· gene survival· speed dating· Silicon Valley· Slashdot • Playboy· Michelin ratings· range voting· the Internet Movie Database· The Seventh Seal· Jennifer Anisron • cheating· Warren D. Smith· Bayesian regret· ignorance· honesty· guilt· quasi-spiritual acts· honeybees· Jan Kok • number phobia· pop culture 250 15. Present but Not Voting This Is Spinal Tap· Jeremy Bentham· faulty embalming· Lionel Robbins· eBay • Claude Hillinger • socialism· John Harsanyi • fiddling while Rome burns· what the impossibility theorem really means THE REALITY 261 16.

So we said. wouldn't it be funny if there was a website where you could see if someone is a 'perfect ten'?" Jim Young coded the site in just a few days. In October 2000, Young and Hong sent e-mails to friends telling them about the site. Pictures poured in, and site visits grew exponentially. On the eighth day, the site got 1.8 million hits. By early 2001, NetNielson listed it as one of the top twenty-five sites for Web advertising. It was soon being written up in Slashdot and Playboy. By adding the matchmaking feature, the site went commercial. Hong, now the site's CEO, reports that about a marriage a day results from people who meet on the site. More than twelve 232 Hot or Not? billion votes have been cast. That is more than four times the votes cast in every presidential election in the history of the United States. The type of voting used on Hot or Not is called range voting, and it has become the favored voting method of the Internet.


pages: 132 words: 31,976

Getting Real by Jason Fried, David Heinemeier Hansson, Matthew Linderman, 37 Signals

call centre, David Heinemeier Hansson, iterative process, John Gruber, knowledge worker, Merlin Mann, Metcalfe's law, performance metric, post-work, premature optimization, Ruby on Rails, slashdot, Steve Jobs, web application

Post to your blog about the development. Stay vague but plant the seed. Also, get a site up where you can collect emails from folks who are interested. At this stage, you should also start seducing mavens and insiders. These are the folks on the cutting edge. They're the tastemakers. Appeal to their vanity and status as ahead-of-the-curvers. Tell them they're getting an exclusive sneak preview. If a site like Boing Boing, Slashdot, or Digg links up your app, you'll get loads of traffic and followers. Plus, your page rank at Google will go up too. Preview A few weeks ahead of launch, start previewing features. Give people behind-the-scenes access. Describe the theme of the product. For Basecamp, we posted screenshots and highlighted reminders, milestones, and other features. Also, tell people about the ideas and principles behind the app.


pages: 344 words: 104,077

Superminds: The Surprising Power of People and Computers Thinking Together by Thomas W. Malone

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Asperger Syndrome, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, clean water, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, gig economy, happiness index / gross national happiness, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, inventory management, invisible hand, Jeff Rulifson, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, Occupy movement, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, prediction markets, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

Ridgeway, “Status Hierarchies and the Organization of Collective Action,” Sociological Theory 30, no. 3 (2012): 149–66, doi:10.1177/0735275112457912. 3. The story of Wikipedia’s beginnings has been recounted in numerous places. See Wikipedia, s.v. “history of Wikipedia,” accessed July 6, 2016, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Wikipedia; Larry Sanger, “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir,” Slashdot, April 18, 2005, https://features.slashdot.org/story/05/04/18/164213/the-early-history-of-nupedia-and-wikipedia-a-memoir; Marshall Poe, “The Hive: Can Thousands of Wikipedians Be Wrong? How an Attempt to Build an Online Encyclopedia Touched off History’s Biggest Experiment in Collaborative Knowledge,” Atlantic Monthly, September 2006, 86–94, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2006/09/the-hive/5118. 4. Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger, Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991); Etienne Wenger, Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998). 5.


pages: 446 words: 102,421

Network Security Through Data Analysis: Building Situational Awareness by Michael S Collins

business process, cloud computing, create, read, update, delete, Firefox, general-purpose programming language, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, iterative process, p-value, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer, slashdot, statistical model, zero day

Cloud computing enables defenders to run highly distributed services across the Internet’s routing infrastructure. This, in turn, increases the resources the attacker needs to take out a single defender. With DoS attacks, the most common false positives are flash crowds and cable cuts. A flash crowd is a sudden influx of legitimate traffic to a site in response to some kind of announcement or notification. Alternate names for flash crowds such as SlashDot effect, farking, or Reddit effect provide a good explanation of what’s going on. These different classes of attacks are usually easily distinguished by looking at a graph of incoming traffic. Some idealized images are shown in Figure 12-7, which explain the basic phenomena. Figure 12-7. Different classes of bandwidth exhaustion The images in Figure 12-7 describe three different classes of bandwidth exhaustion: a DDoS, a flash crowd, and a cable cut or other infrastructure failure.

built-in documentation, Choosing and Formatting Output Field Manipulation: rwcut, Basic Field Manipulation: rwfilter combining information flows with rwcount, Combining Information Flows: rwcount counting values with rwuniq, rwuniq creating IP sets with wrset, rwset and IP Sets data collection with rwptoflow, rwptoflow data collection with YAF, YAF data conversion with rwtuc, rwtuc installation of, Acquiring and Installing SiLK metadata access with rwfileinfo command, rwfileinfo and Provenance output field manipulation formatting, Choosing and Formatting Output Field Manipulation: rwcut storage structure of rwbag, rwbag subnetwork association with pmaps, pmaps SIM/SEM/SIEM (security information/event management), Basic Vocabulary simple math, Writing Functions situational awareness definition of, Preface foundation of, Network Mapping Slammer worm, Basic Vocabulary SlashDot effect, DDoS and Routing Infrastructure SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) banners in, Non-Web Banners clustering coefficient and, Clustering Coefficient failure rate in, Automation fumbling behaviors and, SMTP Fumbling log file formats in, SMTP smurf attacks, DDoS and Routing Infrastructure snaplen (-s) argument, Limiting the Data Captured from Each Packet Snort, Basic Vocabulary, Enhancing IDS Detection SOA (Start of Authority) records, Forward DNS Querying Using dig, Forward DNS Querying Using dig software updates, Beaconing solid state storage (SSD), A Brief Introduction to NoSQL Systems Solr, A Brief Introduction to NoSQL Systems Spam and Open Relay Blocking System (SORBS), DNSBLs spam, fumbling behaviors and, SMTP Fumbling SpamCop, DNSBLs Spamhaus, DNSBLs spatial dependencies, Creating a Well-Organized Flat File System: Lessons from SiLK spatial locality, Locality spear-phishing attacks, SMTP Fumbling specificity, Classifier Failure Rates: Understanding the Base-Rate Fallacy spiders, HTTP Fumbling spreads, Identifying Servers src host predicate, Filtering Specific Types of Packets src-reserve field, pmaps standard deviations, The Quantile-Quantile (QQ) Plot start-rec-num command, Choosing and Formatting Output Field Manipulation: rwcut statistical analysis, An Introduction to R for Security Analysts (see also R for Security Analysts) five-number summary, The Five-Number Summary and the Boxplot threshold values, Exploratory Data Analysis and Visualization, The Quantile-Quantile (QQ) Plot, Using Volume as an Alarm variables, Variables and Visualization, Histograms stream reassembly, Domains: Determining Data That Can Be Collected streaming processing, What Storage Approach to Use subversion attacks, Attack Models Suricata, Basic Vocabulary sweeping ping, Checking Connectivity: Using ping to Connect to an Address switch statements, Conditionals and Iteration Symantec’s Security Response, The NVD, Malware Sites, and the C*Es SYN Flood, DDoS, Flash Crowds, and Resource Exhaustion syslog logging utility, Syslog System for Internet-Level Knowledge (see SiLK) System Log, Accessing and Manipulating Logfiles system.log files, Accessing and Manipulating Logfiles T table command, Contingency Tables tcp predicate, Filtering Specific Types of Packets TCP sockets fumbling behaviors, Identifying Fumbling redirecting output to with netcat, netcat TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/internet protocol) asymmetric sessions and, Phase II: Examining the IP Space port number/flag filtering in, Filtering Specific Types of Packets, TCP Options port numbers in, Port Number, Port Number sensor domains and, Network Layering and Its Impact on Instrumentation TCP (protocol 6), Packet and Frame Formats TCP state machine, TCP Fumbling: The State Machine tcpdump active banner grabbing with, Application Identification by Banner Grabbing Berkeley Packet Filtering (BPF), Filtering Specific Types of Packets data capture with, Packet Data filtering with, Filtering Specific Types of Packets, Helper Options MAC adresses and, Filtering Specific Types of Packets record manipulation with Scapy, Scapy rolling buffer implementation, Rolling Buffers snaplen (-s) argument, Limiting the Data Captured from Each Packet technique-extract-analyze process, EDA Workflow template-based NetFlow, “Flow and Stuff:” NetFlow v9 and IPFIX templated data logs, Existing Logfiles and How to Manipulate Them temporal locality, Locality text converting to columns, Existing Logfiles and How to Manipulate Them drawing on a plot, Annotating a Visualization The Threat Center, The NVD, Malware Sites, and the C*Es threshold values, Exploratory Data Analysis and Visualization, The Quantile-Quantile (QQ) Plot, Using Volume as an Alarm Thrift, Creating a Well-Organized Flat File System: Lessons from SiLK time series data, Data Selection time-to-live (TTL) value, Network Layers and Vantage, Tracerouting, Identifying NATs tools aggregation/transport, Actions: What a Sensor Does with Data classification/event, Classification and Event Tools: IDS, AV, and SEM–Prefetching Data communications/probing, Communications and Probing packet inspection/reference, Packet Inspection and Reference–Search Engines, Mailing Lists, and People R for Security Analysts, An Introduction to R for Security Analysts–Testing Data reference/lookup, Reference and Lookup: Tools for Figuring Out Who Someone Is–DNSBLs SiLK (System for Internet-Level Knowledge), The SiLK Suite–rwtuc visualization, Visualization traceroute tool, Tracerouting traffic logs (see logs) traffic volume (see volume/time analysis) transmission control protocol/internet protocol (see TCP/IP) transport tools, Actions: What a Sensor Does with Data trellis plots, Multivariate Visualization trendlines, Rule three: use trendlines, distinguish artifacts from observations TripWire, Basic Vocabulary Type I Errors (see false-positive alerts) Type II Errors (see false-negative alerts) U UDP (User Datagram Protocol) accessing port numbers in, Filtering Specific Types of Packets, Port Number, Port Number fumbling behaviors and, Identifying UDP Fumbling identifying servers in, Identifying Servers redirecting socket output to with netcat, netcat UDP protocol 17, Packet and Frame Formats udp predicate, Filtering Specific Types of Packets unidirectional flow filtering, Unidirectional flow filtering uniform distribution, The Quantile-Quantile (QQ) Plot univariate visualization bar plots, Bar Plots (Not Pie Charts) boxplots/box-and-whiskers plots, The Five-Number Summary and the Boxplot five-number summary, The Five-Number Summary and the Boxplot histograms, Univariate Visualization: Histograms, QQ Plots, Boxplots, and Rank Plots Quantile-Quantile (QQ) plots, The Quantile-Quantile (QQ) Plot Unix basic shell commands, What Is SiLK and How Does It Work?


pages: 624 words: 180,416

For the Win by Cory Doctorow

anti-globalists, barriers to entry, Burning Man, creative destruction, double helix, Internet Archive, inventory management, lateral thinking, loose coupling, Maui Hawaii, microcredit, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, post-materialism, random walk, RFID, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, union organizing, wage slave

Perry looked at Suzanne, who was videoing this exchange with her keychain. Then he looked back at Tjan, “Yeah, of course. Sorry—force of habit. No harm done, though, right?” That footage got downloaded a couple hundred times that night, but once it got slashdotted by a couple of high-profile headline aggregators, she found her server hammered with a hundred thousand requests. The Merc had the horsepower to serve them all, but you never knew: every once in a while, the web hit another tipping point and grew by an order of magnitude or so, and then all the server-provisioning—calculated to survive the old slashdottings—shredded like wet kleenex. From: kettlewell-l@skunkworks.kodacell.com To: schurch@sjmercury.com Subject: Re: Embedded journalist? This stuff is amazing. Amazing! Christ, I should put you on the payroll. Forget I wrote that.

He was enormous, not just tall but fat, as big around as a barrel. His green tee-shirt read IT’S FUN TO USE LEARNING FOR EVIL! in blocky, pixelated letters. He took her hand and shook it. “I love your blog,” he said. “I read it all the time.” He had three chins, and eyes that were nearly lost in his apple cheeks. “Meet Lester,” Perry said. “My partner.” “Sidekick,” Lester said with a huge wink. “Sysadmin slash hardware hacker slash dogsbody slashdot org.” She chuckled. Nerd humor. Ar ar ar. “Right, let’s get started. You wanna see what I do, right?” Perry said. “That’s right,” Suzanne said. “Lead the way, Lester,” Perry said, and gestured with an arm, deep into the center of the junkpile. “All right, check this stuff out as we go.” He stuck his hand through the unglazed window of a never-built shop and plucked out a toy in a battered box.


pages: 936 words: 85,745

Programming Ruby 1.9: The Pragmatic Programmer's Guide by Dave Thomas, Chad Fowler, Andy Hunt

book scanning, David Heinemeier Hansson, Debian, domain-specific language, Jacquard loom, Kickstarter, p-value, revision control, Ruby on Rails, slashdot, sorting algorithm, web application

For each URL that it is asked to download, the code creates a separate thread that handles the HTTP transaction. Download samples/tutthreads_4.rb require 'net/http' pages = %w( www.rubycentral.com threads = [] slashdot.org www.google.com ) for page_to_fetch in pages threads << Thread.new(page_to_fetch) do |url| Report erratum M ULTITHREADING 187 h = Net::HTTP.new(url, 80) print "Fetching: #{url}\n" resp = h.get('/') print "Got #{url}: #{resp.message}\n" end end threads.each {|thr| thr.join } produces: Fetching: www.rubycentral.com Fetching: slashdot.org Fetching: www.google.com Got www.google.com: OK Got www.rubycentral.com: OK Got slashdot.org: OK Let’s look at this code in more detail, because a few subtle things are happening. New threads are created with the Thread.new call. It is given a block that contains the code to be run in a new thread.

A thread shares all global, instance, and local variables that are in existence at the time the thread starts. As anyone with a kid brother can tell you, sharing isn’t always a good thing. In this case, all three threads would share the variable page_to_fetch. The first thread gets started, and page_to_fetch is set to "www.rubycentral.com". In the meantime, the loop creating the threads is still running. The second time around, page_to_fetch gets set to "slashdot.org". If the first thread has not yet finished using the page_to_fetch variable, it will suddenly start using this new value. These kinds of bugs are difficult to track down. However, local variables created within a thread’s block are truly local to that thread—each thread will have its own copy of these variables. In our case, the variable url will be set at the time the thread is created, and each thread will have its own copy of the page address.


pages: 425 words: 112,220

The Messy Middle: Finding Your Way Through the Hardest and Most Crucial Part of Any Bold Venture by Scott Belsky

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ben Horowitz, bitcoin, blockchain, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, delayed gratification, DevOps, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, endowment effect, hiring and firing, Inbox Zero, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, NetJets, Network effects, new economy, old-boy network, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, subscription business, TaskRabbit, the medium is the message, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, Y Combinator, young professional

To complicate matters, sometimes the doubt you receive from others—early customers, investors, and family included—is actually a positive sign. One of my favorite examples is the early reviews for the iPod when it was first released in 2001. One letter to the editor of Macworld deemed it “another one of Apple’s failures just like the Newton . . . Apple could have done more-innovative things with an MP3 player than just make it look cool and give it some fast features.” More succinctly, one Slashdot iPod review read: “No wireless. Less space than a Nomad. Lame.” People love taking down something that is new and unfamiliar. Society is remarkably hypocritical. We shun things before we celebrate them. We chastise students who drop out of college to pursue a fascination that cannot be taught in school, and then we celebrate them when they become dropout-cum-wunderkinds like Jobs, Zuckerberg, or Gates.

., 199–202 perseverance, persistence, 62, 79, 85 perspective, 40–42, 66, 74, 326 quitting and, 62–64 Photoshop, 10, 144, 159, 162, 185, 206–7, 238–39, 270, 347 Pine Street, 125 Pinterest, 10, 64, 86–87, 94, 112, 158–59, 165, 174, 204, 233, 248, 319 Pixar, 141 placebo, 59–61 planning, 93, 280–81 polarizing people, 114–15 PolitiFact, 303 positive feedback, and hard truths, 28–31 Post-it notes, 325 pragmatists, 295, 296 Prefer, 28, 298, 299 preparedness, 16 presenting ideas, vs. promoting, 164–65 press, 265–66, 336 Pretty Young Professionals (PYP), 72–73 Principles (Dalio), 306, 307 problem solving, 209 big vs. small problems, 180–82, 322 explicitness and, 173–74 process, 153–57 Proctor & Gamble, 143 product(s), 8, 29 brand fit and, 256, 257 complexity in, 209–10, 217 explicitness in, 174–75, 271 founder fit and, 256 life cycle of, 209–10, 217 market fit and, 256 minimum viable (MVP), 86, 186, 195, 252 paradox of success of, 216 power users of, 217 products used to create, 143–45 simplicity in, 209, 210–11, 216–18, 271 product, optimizing, 17, 209–75 anchoring to your customers, 247–75 being first, 264–66 disproportionate impact and, 267–68 empathy and humility before passion, 248–50 engaging the right customers at the right time, 251–54 and measuring each feature by its own measure, 269–70 mystery and engagement in, 271–73 narrative in, 255–57 and playing to the middle, 274–75 and role of leaders in communities, 258–61 sales and, 262–63 simplifying and iterating, 213–46 and believing in the product, 223–25 creativity and familiarity in, 226–27 and design as invisible, 230–31 doing, showing, and explaining, 238–39 “first mile” and, 232–34 identifying what you’re willing to be bad at, 214–15 inbred innovations and, 245–46 incrementalism and assumptions in, 242–44 killing your darlings, 219–22 for laziness, vanity, and selfishness, 235–37 making one subtraction for every addition, 216–18 novelty and utility in, 240–41 scrutiny and flaws in, 228–29 productivity, 179, 180–82, 187, 322, 324, 325 measures of, 78–79 performance and, 214 promoting ideas, vs. presenting, 164–65 promotions, 130 progress, 24–25, 31, 40, 47, 64, 75, 83, 85, 160, 179, 181, 349 conflict avoidance and, 185–86 process and, 154 progress bars, 181 prototypes and mock-ups, 161–63 Psychological Bulletin, 272 psychological safety, 122 Psychological Science, 272–73 psychology, 316, 317 Quartz, 37–38, 108, 301 questions, 69–71, 183–84, 321 Quiller-Couch, Arthur, 220 Quinn, Megan, 303–4 quitting, perspective and, 62–64 Quora, 138, 167 Rad, Sean, 259 Radcliffe, Jack, 197 Rams, Dieter, 230 reactionary workflow, 327, 328 Ready, The, 179 reality-distortion field, 41 Reboot, 327 Reddit, 261, 300, 302 rejection, 58 relatability, 57 relationships: commitments and, 283–84 and how others perceive you, 316–17 negotiation and, 286–87 REMIX, 165 resets, 63–64, 72–75 resistance, fighting, 35–36 resourcefulness, and resources, 100–102 reward system, short-circuiting, 24–27 Rhode Island School of Design, 186, 354 rhythm of making, 16 Ries, Eric, 194 risk, 122, 316, 337 ritual, 328 rock gardens, 67–68 routines, 323 ruckus, making, 337–38 Saatchi Online, 89 Sabbath Manifesto, 327–28 safety, psychological, 122 Sakurada, Isuzu, 361–62 salaries, 141–42 sales, salespeople, 262–63 Salesforce, 159, 204 Sandberg, Sheryl, 39 Santa Fe, USS, 167 satisficers, 229, 284–85 scalability, 242 Schouwenburg, Kegan, 50–51 Schwartz, Barry, 284–85 science vs. art of business, 310–13 Seinfeld, Jerry, 250 self, optimizing, 8, 17, 277–338 crafting business instincts, 293–313 auditing measures instead of blindly optimizing, 297–99 data vs. intuition in, 300–304 mining contradictory advice and developing intuition, 294–96 naivety and openness in, 308–9 science vs. art of business, 310–13 stress-testing opinions with truthfulness, 305–7 planning and making decisions, 279–92 focus and choice, 282–85 making a plan vs. sticking to it, 280–81 negotiation in, 286–87 sunk costs and, 291–92 timing and, 288–90 sharpening your edge, 315–28 building a network and increasing signal, 320–21 commitments and, 318–19 disconnecting, 326–28 and how you appear to others, 316–17 leaving margins for the unexpected, 324–25 values and time use, 322–23 staying permeable and relatable, 329–38 attention and, 335–36 credit-seeking and, 330–32 and making a ruckus, 337–38 removing yourself to allow for others’ ideas, 333–34 self-awareness, 54–56, 305–7 selfishness, laziness, and vanity, 235–37 setbacks, 41 70/20/10 model for leadership development, 125 Shapeways, 50 Shiva, 374 shortcuts, 85 signal and noise, 320–21 Silberman, Ben, 86–87, 94, 112, 165, 319 Silicon Valley, 86 Simon, Herbert, 229, 284 SimpleGeo, 267 Sinclair, Jake, 334 skills, and choosing commitments, 283–84 Skybox, 101 sky decks, 117 Slack, 139, 210, 241 Slashdot, 295 Smarter Faster Better (Duhigg), 180 Smith, Brad, 373 Snapchat, 70, 189, 210, 227, 249 Snowden, Eric, 48, 162 Social Capital, 107 social media, 70, 139, 195, 210, 235–36, 243 solar eclipse, 300–302 SOLS, 50–51 Song Exploder, 333 Sonnad, Nikhil, 301–2 Sonos, 275 Southwest Airlines, 214–15 Soyer, Emre, 32–33 SpaceX, 168 Spark, 303 speed, 194–98 Spiegel, Evan, 249 Spot, 256, 257 Square, 303–4 Squarespace, 312 Stafford, Tom, 291 stand-ins, 297–98 start, 1, 6–8, 13, 209, 331 Statue of Liberty, 200 Stein, Dave, 280 Steinberg, Jon, 44–45, 313 Stitch Fix, 79 story, see narrative and storytelling Stratechery, 135 strategy, patience and, 80–85 strengths, 29, 54, 95, 214 stretch assignments, 130 structure, rules for, 150–52 StumbleUpon, 112, 256 Stumbling on Happiness (Gilbert), 196 suffering, 35–36, 131 Summers, Larry, 108 sunk costs, 64, 71, 185, 291–92 Super Bowl, 273 superiority, sense of, 331–32 suspension of disbelief, 60–61 Suster, Mark, 204–5 Swarthmore College, 229 sweetgreen, 10, 151, 217, 221, 233, 245–46, 310 Systemized Intelligence Lab, 306 Systems Thinking, 283 Systrom, Kevin, 36 Taflinger, Richard, 38 talent, 119–25, 127, 187 Talk of the Nation, 196 TaskRabbit, 259 team, 39, 331, 332 energy and, 43–45 perspective and, 40–42 team, optimizing, 8, 17, 97–207, 211 building, hiring, and firing, 99–131 discussions and, 112–13 diversity in, 106–9 firing people to keep good people, 126–28 grafting and recruiting talent, 119–25 hiring people who have endured adversity, 110–11 immune system in, 116–18 initiative and experience in, 103–5 keeping people moving, 129–31 polarizing people and, 114–15 resourcefulness and resources in, 100–102 clearing the path to solutions, 177–207 big and small problems, 180–82 bureaucracy, 183–84 competitive energy, 187–91 conflict avoidance, 185–86 conviction vs. consensus, 203–5 creative block, 192–93 forgiveness vs. permission, 199–202 organization debt, 178–79 and resistance to change, 206–7 speed in, 194–98 culture, tools, and space, 133–48 attribution of credit, 146–48 free radicals and, 137–39 frugality and, 140–42 stories and, 134–36 tools, 143–45 structure and communication, 149–76 communication, 170–76 delegation, 166–69 merchandising, internal, 158–60 mock-ups for sharing vision, 161–63 presenting vs. promoting ideas, 164–65 process in, 153–57 rules in, 150–52 technology, 328, 371 TED, 62, 116, 305 teleportation, 70, 264 Temps, 201 10 Principles of Good Design (Rams), 230 Teran, Dan, 221 Tesla, 273 think blend, 33 Thomas, Frank, 222 Thompson, Ben, 135 Threadless, 267 time, use of, 210, 283, 299 leaving margins, 324–25 money and, 370–72 values and, 322–23 time-outs, 74 timing, 288–90, 332 decision making and, 289–90 investment and, 290 leader and, 288–89 Tinder, 259–60 Tiny, 294 Todd, Charlie, 113 Todoist, 229 tools, 143–45 Topick, 249 transparency, 259–60, 287 triggers, 55 Trump, Donald, 273, 302–3 truth(s), 71, 174, 193, 331, 338 creative block and, 192–93 hard, 28–31 stress-testing opinions with, 305–7 about time use, 323 Turn the Ship Around!


pages: 398 words: 120,801

Little Brother by Cory Doctorow

airport security, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, citizen journalism, Firefox, game design, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, mail merge, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas Bayes, web of trust, zero day

EFF has a huge, deep website with amazing information aimed at a general audience, as do the American Civil Liberties Union (aclu.org), Public Knowledge (publicknowledge.org), FreeCulture (freeculture.org), Creative Commons (creativecommons.org) -- all of which also are worthy of your support. FreeCulture is an international student movement that actively recruits kids to found their own local chapters at their high schools and universities. It's a great way to get involved and make a difference. A lot of websites chronicle the fight for cyberliberties, but few go at it with the verve of Slashdot, "News for Nerds, Stuff That Matters" (slashdot.org). And of course, you have to visit Wikipedia, the collaborative, net-authored encyclopedia that anyone can edit, with more than 1,000,000 entries in English alone. Wikipedia covers hacking and counterculture in astonishing depth and with amazing, up-to-the-nanosecond currency. One caution: you can't just look at the entries in Wikipedia. It's really important to look at the "History" and "Discussion" links at the top of every Wikipedia page to see how the current version of the truth was arrived at, get an appreciation for the competing points-of-view there, and decide for yourself whom you trust.


pages: 472 words: 117,093

Machine, Platform, Crowd: Harnessing Our Digital Future by Andrew McAfee, Erik Brynjolfsson

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Airbnb, airline deregulation, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backtesting, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, British Empire, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, complexity theory, computer age, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, discovery of DNA, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, family office, fiat currency, financial innovation, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, law of one price, longitudinal study, Lyft, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mitch Kapor, moral hazard, multi-sided market, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precision agriculture, prediction markets, pre–internet, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Davenport, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, transportation-network company, traveling salesman, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, yield management, zero day

Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Five Pillars,” last modified February 6, 2017, at 10:52, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Five_pillars. †† Larry Sanger left the Wikipedia community in the early years of the twenty-first century over differences about its governance. He came to feel that it was harmfully antiauthoritarian. Larry Sanger [timothy, pseud.], “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia, Part II,” Slashdot, April 19, 2005, https://slashdot.org/story/05/04/19/1746205/the-early-history-of-nupedia-and-wikipedia-part-ii. ‡‡ Wikipedians are not paid for their contributions and are mostly anonymous, so fame is of limited power as an incentive. As shown in a clever field experiment by Jana Gallus, they do seem to respond well to recognition, even if it’s just from fellow Wikipedians. Jana Gallus, Fostering Voluntary Contributions to a Public Good: A Large-Scale Natural Field Experiment at Wikipedia, Natural Field Experiments 00552 (2016), https://ideas.repec.org/p/feb/natura/00552.html.


pages: 474 words: 130,575

Surveillance Valley: The Rise of the Military-Digital Complex by Yasha Levine

23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bitcoin, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collaborative editing, colonial rule, computer age, computerized markets, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global village, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Howard Zinn, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Hackers Conference, uber lyft, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

He knew that whether he liked it or not, Tor’s relationship with the federal government would come out sooner or later. “We also need to think about a strategy for how to spin this move in terms of Tor’s overall direction. I would guess that we don’t want to loudly declare war on China, since this only harms our goals?” he wrote. “But we also don’t want to hide the existence of funding from [the BBG], since ‘they’re getting paid off by the feds and they didn’t tell anyone’ sounds like a bad Slashdot title for a security project. Is it sufficient just to always talk about Iran, or is that not subtle enough?”30 In college Dingledine had dreamed of using technology to create a better world. Now he was suddenly talking about whether or not they should declare war on China and Iran and worrying about being labeled a federal agent? What was going on? Berman emailed back, reassuring Dingledine that he and his agency were ready to do anything it took to protect Tor’s independent image.

Andrew Lewman, Executive Director, email message sent to Kelly DeYoe, program officer, BBG, “RE: contract BBGCON1807S6441,” March 10, 2010, https://surveillancevalley.com/content/citations /andrew-lewman-executive-director-to-kelly-deyoe-program-officer-bbg-re-contract-bbgcon1807s6441–10-march-2010-bbg-tor-contract-stack-2.pdf. 75. An example of Roger Dingledine’s reports: “One of the best ways we’ve found for getting new relays is to go to conferences and talk to people in person. There are many thousands of people out there with spare fast network connections and a willingness to help save the world. Our experience is that visiting them in person produces much better results, long-term, than Slashdot articles.… The first is in Japan. The second is our first major high bandwidth node in New Zealand.” 76. It would be led by Dingledine and Appelbaum. “All around the world there are people teaching other people how to safely use Tor and related applications. This training will be ramping up with projects like iFree, NGO-in-a-box, and the Global Voices seminars. We should help train the trainers about Tor, so they better understand the technology, issues, and tradeoffs and can then do a better job of training the users,” wrote Dingledine (Dingledine, “Tor Development Roadmap, 2008–2011”).


pages: 515 words: 143,055

The Attention Merchants: The Epic Scramble to Get Inside Our Heads by Tim Wu

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, anti-communist, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bob Geldof, borderless world, Brownian motion, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, colonial rule, East Village, future of journalism, George Gilder, Golden Gate Park, Googley, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, informal economy, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Live Aid, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, placebo effect, post scarcity, race to the bottom, road to serfdom, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Tim Cook: Apple, Torches of Freedom, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, white flight, zero-sum game

Being-on-the-Web was turning out to be even more important and more fun than we’d thought it would be….We thought we were participating in a revolution. And we were somewhat right.” By their nature the new creators varied but were unified by a pioneering spirit and a bracingly amateur affect. Among them were: a site named the Drudge Report, launched in the 1990s, which gained much attention with its timely leaks related to a scandal surrounding President Bill Clinton’s affair with an intern; Slashdot.org, launched in 1997, to bring “news for nerds”; the Robot Wisdom, with links to news stories and aiming to establish a link between artificial intelligence and the work of James Joyce; Megnut.com and Kottke.org, the personal blogs of two Internet entrepreneurs who would eventually marry; “The Instapundit” Glenn Reynolds, a libertarian expert on the law of outer space, who gained an audience coupling his pithy one-liners with news of the day.

Zephyr Teachout, the director of Internet organizing for the 2004 Howard Dean campaign, likened successful bloggers to pastors, each leading their loyal flocks. Consequently, audiences were fragmented to a degree that made cable television look like the days of The Ed Sullivan Show. The regular follower of, say, the blogger Andrew Sullivan would have to be interested in a pro-war gay conservative viewpoint that also advocated for Catholicism, marijuana, beards, beagles, and same-sex marriage. Readers of Boing Boing or Slashdot were people whose truest affiliation was to a neo-geek mentality that celebrated eccentricity and arcane obsessions. Such groups were nothing like the clear demographic categories of old, or even the relatively precise PRIZM clusters. In fact, bloggers sometimes claimed they were creating a-geographical communities, aggregations purely by common interest and passion. And since bloggers had, at least initially, no expectation of making money, there was no temptation to compromise their standards or temper their opinions.


pages: 142 words: 47,993

The Partly Cloudy Patriot by Sarah Vowell

Columbine, cuban missile crisis, financial independence, Ralph Nader, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, slashdot, stem cell, Upton Sinclair, white picket fence

The discussion of current events would follow some historical tangent, such as whether or not the early Clinton administration should have honored the promised middle-class tax cut instead of going for deficit reduction in 1993, and we would bicker about the findings of former Labor Secretary Robert Reich and blah, blah, Alan Greenspan, and the next morning I would wake up to find that in the middle of the night my friend Stephen had called me a “deficit hawk,” which, in his vocabulary is a synonym for “Republican.” The best part about being a nerd within a community of nerds is the insularity—it’s cozy, familial, come as you are. In a discussion board on the Web site Slashdot.org about Rushmore, a film with a nerdy teen protagonist, one anonymous participant pinpointed the value of taking part in detail-oriented zealotry: Geeks tend to be focused on very narrow fields of endeavor. The modern geek has been generally dismissed by society because their passions are viewed as trivial by those people who “see the big picture.” Geeks understand that the big picture is pixilated and their high level of contribution in small areas grows the picture.


pages: 1,280 words: 384,105

The Best of Best New SF by Gardner R. Dozois

back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, Columbine, congestion charging, dark matter, Doomsday Book, double helix, Extropian, gravity well, lateral thinking, Mason jar, offshore financial centre, out of africa, pattern recognition, phenotype, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, Turing machine, Turing test, Winter of Discontent, Y2K, zero-sum game

Manfred takes it and heads for the back of the split-level bar, up the steps to a table where some guy with greasy dreadlocks is talking to a suit from Paris. The hanger-on at the bar notices him for the first time, staring with suddenly wide eyes: nearly spills his Coke in a mad rush for the door. Oh shit, thinks Macx, better buy some more server PIPS. He can recognize the signs: he’s about to be slashdotted. He gestures at the table: “this one taken?” “Be my guest,” says the guy with the dreads. Manfred slides the chair open then realizes that the other guy – immaculate double-breasted suit, sober tie, crew-cut – is a girl. Mr. Dreadlock nods. “You’re Macx? I figured it was about time we met.” “Sure.” Manfred holds out a hand and they shake. Manfred realizes the hand belongs to Bob Franklin, a Research Triangle startup monkey with a VC track record, lately moving into micromachining and space technology: he made his first million two decades ago and now he’s a specialist in extropian investment fields.

Just then a bandwidth load as heavy as a pregnant elephant sits down on Manfred’s head and sends clumps of humongous pixellation flickering across his sensorium: around the world five million or so geeks are bouncing on his home site, a digital flash crowd alerted by a posting from the other side of the bar. Manfred winces. “I really came here to talk about the economic exploitation of space travel, but I’ve just been slash-dotted. Mind if I just sit and drink until it wears off?” “Sure, man.” Bob waves at the bar. “More of the same all round!” At the next table a person with make-up and long hair who’s wearing a dress – Manfred doesn’t want to speculate about the gender of these crazy mixed-up Euros – is reminiscing about wiring the fleshpots of Tehran for cybersex. Two collegiate-looking dudes are arguing intensely in German: the translation stream in his glasses tell him they’re arguing over whether the Turing Test is a Jim Crow law that violates European corpus juris standards on human rights.

Meanwhile automated factories in Indonesia and Mexico have produced another quarter of a million motherboards with processors rated at more than ten petaflops – about an order of magnitude below the computational capacity of a human brain. Another fourteen months and the larger part of the cumulative conscious processing power of the human species will be arriving in silicon. And the first meat the new AI’s get to know will be the uploaded lobsters. Manfred stumbles back to his hotel, bone-weary and jet-lagged; his glasses are still jerking, slashdotted to hell and back by geeks piggybacking on his call to dismantle the moon. They stutter quiet suggestions at his peripheral vision; fractal cloud-witches ghost across the face of the moon as the last huge Airbuses of the night rumble past overhead. Manfred’s skin crawls, grime embedded in his clothing from three days of continuous wear. Back in his room, Aineko mewls for attention and strops her head against his ankle.


pages: 216 words: 61,061

Without Their Permission: How the 21st Century Will Be Made, Not Managed by Alexis Ohanian

Airbnb, barriers to entry, carbon-based life, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Hans Rosling, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Justin.tv, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, Occupy movement, Paul Graham, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, software is eating the world, Startup school, Tony Hsieh, unpaid internship, Y Combinator

Long before most people realized the power of online software, he knew the Internet offered tremendous potential for an idea to spread as never before. When a customer only needs a browser and an Internet connection to access your product, unprecedented growth is possible. He asked us about frustrations we had using the Internet, which had just recently seen the launch of a college-only site called TheFacebook.com. Steve was an avid reader of Slashdot, a news website with editorial oversight and a robust community of commenters as well as a moderation system. I had too many tabs open every day—they showed me a range of news websites, but I had no way to filter signal from noise. At the time, a website called del.icio.us (pronounced “delicious”; ignore the dots) let people bookmark websites online, so if you hopped between computers, your reference material followed you.


pages: 378 words: 67,804

Learning Android by Marko Gargenta

create, read, update, delete, database schema, Firefox, loose coupling, slashdot, web application

-- --> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent"> <!-- --> <LinearLayout android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_width="fill_parent"> <!-- --> <TextView android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1" android:id="@+id/textUser" android:text="Slashdot" android:textStyle="bold" /> <!-- --> <TextView android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1" android:gravity="right" android:id="@+id/textCreatedAt" android:text="10 minutes ago" /> </LinearLayout> <!-- --> <TextView android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:id="@+id/textText" android:text="Firefox comes to Android" /> </LinearLayout> The main layout for the entire row.


pages: 666 words: 181,495

In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy

23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business process, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, discounted cash flows, don't be evil, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, El Camino Real, fault tolerance, Firefox, Gerard Salton, Gerard Salton, Google bus, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, HyperCard, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, one-China policy, optical character recognition, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Potemkin village, prediction markets, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, search inside the book, second-price auction, selection bias, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, trade route, traveling salesman, turn-by-turn navigation, undersea cable, Vannevar Bush, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

He had grown up just outside Rochester, New York, a typical hacker kid driven by silicon and curiosity, and by the time he entered Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, he was full of ideas and projects, one of them being a web-based email program. After graduation, he took a job with Intel. But the chipmaker was big and bureaucratic. “I wasn’t really loving Intel,” he later said, meaning he hated it. He started looking around for an interesting start-up. He’d read about Google on Slashdot, an online discussion site that was like Entertainment Tonight for geeks, and started using its search engine. He was impressed by Google’s imaginative stab at an interesting technical problem. He sent his résumé to jobs@google.com. The email bounced—the server was down—but he persisted and eventually was granted a phone screener, followed by a face-to-face interview. Unlike at the other companies he was talking to, the Google people asked smart, technical questions.

., 140 Playboy, 153–54, 155 pornography, blocking, 54, 97, 108, 173, 174 Postini, 241 Pregibon, Daryl, 118–19 Premium Sunset, 109, 112–13, 115 privacy: and Book Settlement, 363 and browsers, 204–12, 336–37 and email, 170–78, 211–12, 378 and Google’s policies, 10, 11, 145, 173–75, 333–35, 337–40 and Google Street View, 340–43 and government fishing expeditions, 173 and interest-based ads, 263, 334–36 and security breach, 268 and social networking, 378–79, 383 and surveillance, 343 Privacy International, 176 products: beta versions of, 171 “dogfooding,” 216 Google neglect of, 372, 373–74, 376, 381 in GPS meetings, 6, 135, 171 machine-driven, 207 marketing themselves, 77, 372 speed required in, 186 Project Database (PDB), 164 property law, 6, 360 Python, 18, 37 Qiheng, Hu, 277 Queiroz, Mario, 230 Rainert, Alex, 373, 374 Rajaram, Gokul, 106 Rakowski, Brian, 161 Randall, Stephen, 153 RankDex, 27 Rasmussen, Lars, 379 Red Hat, 78 Reese, Jim, 181–84, 187, 195, 196, 198 Reeves, Scott, 153 Rekhi, Manu, 373 Reyes, George, 70, 148 Richards, Michael, 251 robotics, 246, 351, 385 Romanos, Jack, 356 Rosenberg, Jonathan, 159–60, 281 Rosenstein, Justin, 369 Rosing, Wayne, 44, 55, 82, 155, 158–59, 186, 194, 271 Rubin, Andy, 135, 213–18, 220, 221–22, 226, 227–30, 232 Rubin, Robert, 148 Rubinson, Barry, 20–21 Rubinstein, Jon, 221 Sacca, Chris, 188–94 Salah, George, 84, 128, 129, 132–33, 166 Salinger Group, The, 190–91 Salton, Gerard, 20, 24, 40 Samsung, 214, 217 Samuelson, Pamela, 362, 365 Sandberg, Sheryl, 175, 257 and advertising, 90, 97, 98, 99, 107 and customer support, 231 and Facebook, 259, 370 Sanlu Group, 297–98 Santana, Carlos, 238 Schillace, Sam, 201–3 Schmidt, Eric, 107, 193 and advertising, 93, 95–96, 99, 104, 108, 110, 112, 114, 115, 117, 118, 337 and antitrust issues, 345 and Apple, 218, 220, 236–37 and applications, 207, 240, 242 and Book Search, 350, 351, 364 and China, 267, 277, 279, 283, 288–89, 305, 310–11, 313, 386 and cloud computing, 201 and financial issues, 69–71, 252, 260, 376, 383 and Google culture, 129, 135, 136, 364 and Google motto, 145 and growth, 165, 271 and IPO, 147–48, 152, 154, 155–57 on lawsuits, 328–29 and management, 4, 80–83, 110, 158–60, 165, 166, 242, 254, 255, 273, 386, 387 and Obama, 316–17, 319, 321, 346 and privacy, 175, 178, 383 and public image, 328 and smart phones, 216, 217, 224, 236 and social networking, 372 and taxes, 90 and Yahoo, 344, 345 and YouTube, 248–49, 260, 265 Schrage, Elliot, 285–87 Schroeder, Pat, 361 search: decoding the intent of, 59 failed, 60 freshness in, 42 Google as synonymous with, 40, 41, 42, 381 mobile, 217 organic results of, 85 in people’s brains, 67–68 real-time, 376 sanctity of, 275 statelessness of, 116, 332 verticals, 58 see also web searches search engine optimization (SEO), 55–56 search engines, 19 bigram breakage in, 51 business model for, 34 file systems for, 43–44 and hypertext link, 27, 37 information retrieval via, 27 and licensing fees, 77, 84, 95, 261 name detection in, 50–52 and relevance, 48–49, 52 signals to, 22 ultimate, 35 upgrades of, 49, 61–62 Search Engine Watch, 102 SearchKing, 56 SEC regulations, 149, 150–51, 152, 154, 156 Semel, Terry, 98 Sengupta, Caesar, 210 Seti, 65–67 Shah, Sonal, 321 Shapiro, Carl, 117 Shazeer, Noam, 100–102 Sheff, David, 153 Sherman Antitrust Act, 345 Shriram, Ram, 34, 72, 74, 79 Siao, Qiang, 277 Sidekick, 213, 226 signals, 21–22, 49, 59, 376 Silicon Graphics (SGI), 131–32 Silverstein, Craig, 13, 34, 35, 36, 43, 78, 125, 129, 139 Sina, 278, 288, 302 Singh, Sanjeev, 169–70 Singhal, Amit, 24, 40–41, 48–52, 54, 55, 58 Siroker, Dan, 319–21 skunkworks, 380–81 Skype, 233, 234–36, 322, 325 Slashdot, 167 Slim, Carlos, 166 SMART (Salton’s Magical Retriever of Text), 20 smart phones, 214–16, 217–22 accelerometers on, 226–28 carrier contracts for, 230, 231, 236 customer support for, 230–31, 232 direct to consumer, 230, 232 Nexus One, 230, 231–32 Smith, Adam, 360 Smith, Bradford, 333 Smith, Christopher, 284–86 Smith, Megan, 141, 158, 184, 258, 318, 350, 355–56 social graph, 374 social networking, 369–83 Sogou, 300 Sohu, 278, 300 Sony, 251, 264 Sooner (mobile operating system), 217, 220 Southworth, Lucinda, 254 spam, 53–57, 92, 241 Spector, Alfred, 65, 66–67 speech recognition, 65, 67 spell checking, 48 Spencer, Graham, 20, 28, 201, 375 spiders, 18, 19 Stanford University: and BackRub, 29–30 and Book Search, 357 Brin in, 13–14, 16, 17, 28, 29, 34 computer science program at, 14, 23, 27, 32 Digital Library Project, 16, 17 and Google, 29, 31, 32–33, 34 and MIDAS, 16 Page in, 12–13, 14, 16–17, 28, 29, 34 and Silicon Valley, 27–28 Stanley (robot), 246, 385 Stanton, Katie, 318, 321, 322, 323–25, 327 Stanton, Louis L., 251 State Department, U.S., 324–25 Steremberg, Alan, 18, 29 Stewart, Jon, 384 Stewart, Margaret, 207 Stricker, Gabriel, 186 Sullivan, Danny, 102 Sullivan, Stacy, 134, 140, 141, 143–44, 158–59 Summers, Larry, 90 Sun Microsystems, 28, 70 Swetland, Brian, 226, 228 Taco Town, 377 Tan, Chade-Meng, 135–36 Tang, Diane, 118 Taylor, Bret, 259, 370 Teetzel, Erik, 184, 197 Tele Atlas, 341 Tesla, Nikola, 13, 32, 106 Thompson, Ken, 241 3M, 124 Thrun, Sebastian, 246, 385–86 T-Mobile, 226, 227, 230 Tseng, Erick, 217, 227 Twentieth Century Fox, 249 Twitter, 309, 322, 327, 374–77, 387 Uline, 112 Universal Music Group, 261 Universal Search, 58–60, 294, 357 University of Michigan, 352–54, 357 UNIX, 54, 80 Upson, Linus, 210, 211–12 Upstartle, 201 Urchin Software, 114 users: in A/B tests, 61 data amassed about, 45–48, 59, 84, 144, 173–74, 180, 185, 334–37 feedback from, 65 focus on, 5, 77, 92 increasing numbers of, 72 predictive clues from, 66 and security breach, 268, 269 U.S.


pages: 226 words: 75,783

In the Land of Invented Languages: Adventures in Linguistic Creativity, Madness, and Genius by Arika Okrent

British Empire, centre right, global village, Johannes Kepler, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, slashdot, software patent, Stephen Hawking

Dungeons & Dragons players, ham radio operators, robot engineers, computer programmers, comic book collectors—they all look down on Klingon speakers. Even the most ardent Star Trek fanatics, the Trekkies, who dress up in costume every day, who can recite scripts of entire episodes, who collect Star Trek paraphernalia with mad devotion, consider Klingon speakers beneath them. When a discussion of Klingon appeared on Slashdot.org—the Web site billed as “News for Nerds”—the topic inspired comments like “I'm sorry but it's people like this that give science fiction a bad name.” Another said that Klingon speakers “provide excellent reasons for forced sterilization. Then again being able to speak Klingon pretty much does this without surgery.” Mark Shoulson, who has a wife and two children, doesn't enjoy being talked about this way.


pages: 231 words: 71,248

Shipping Greatness by Chris Vander Mey

corporate raider, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fudge factor, Google Chrome, Google Hangouts, Gordon Gekko, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, minimum viable product, performance metric, recommendation engine, Skype, slashdot, sorting algorithm, source of truth, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, web application

In situations where you can’t roll back, your best bet is to make sure that you have the team capacity to keep moving forward very quickly for a couple of days, because it may take you that long to find and fix your problems—and as you’re fixing them, customers are having a bad day. On the other hand, if rollback is possible, you can turn off the changes, fix things at a leisurely pace, and try again. Handle Any Production Crises Sometimes the world explodes. Maybe you got slashdotted. Or maybe there was a security hole, privacy violation, or pricing mishap. Or maybe an intern redirected the production website to his or her desktop instead of the datacenter (true story!). In cases like these, there’s a good script you can follow. And like all good reactive measures, it’s inspired by the Boy Scouts: you start by being prepared. Part of being prepared means having an on-call rotation and pagers.


pages: 238 words: 73,824

Makers by Chris Anderson

3D printing, Airbnb, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, business process, commoditize, Computer Numeric Control, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, factory automation, Firefox, future of work, global supply chain, global village, IKEA effect, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, private space industry, profit maximization, QR code, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, South of Market, San Francisco, spinning jenny, Startup school, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize, Y Combinator

They were actually pretty amazing, and it occurred to me that those were exactly the same sensors that you’d need to make an airplane autopilot. We could kill two birds with one stone: invent something cool with Lego that had never been done before and get the robot to fly the plane! It was sure to be a better pilot than me. The moment I got home, I prototyped a Lego autopilot on the dining room table, and my nine-year-old helped write the software. We took some pictures, posted them, and it was on the front page of Slashdot by that evening. We put it in a plane—the world’s first Lego UAV, I think—and took it out a few weekends later. It almost kinda worked—it was definitely staying aloft and steering on its own, albeit not exactly where we had intended. At that point I went down the rabbit hole and resolved to improve it until it worked as I’d dreamed, a quest that I’m still on years later. (The kids, sadly, lost interest within days, and returned to their usual staple of video games and YouTube, both of which offer more immediate gratification.)


pages: 254 words: 76,064

Whiplash: How to Survive Our Faster Future by Joi Ito, Jeff Howe

3D printing, Albert Michelson, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, buy low sell high, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, fiat currency, financial innovation, Flash crash, frictionless, game design, Gerolamo Cardano, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, microbiome, Nate Silver, Network effects, neurotypical, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Coase, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Singularitarianism, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, universal basic income, unpaid internship, uranium enrichment, urban planning, WikiLeaks

Though the price seemed reasonable at the time, amounting to about $25, the same 10,000 bitcoins would have been worth more than $2 million in early 2015.14 That pizza purchase came the same year as the rise of the most famous, or infamous, Bitcoin exchange—Mt. Gox. Originally established in 2007 as “Magic: The Gathering Online eXchange,” a trading site for Magic: The Gathering Online cards, Mt. Gox gathered digital dust for several years before its founder, Jed McCaleb, read a Slashdot post about Bitcoin and rewrote the site as a Bitcoin exchange. McCaleb moved on in 2011, but he transferred Mt. Gox to Mark Karpelès, a French developer living in Japan.15 Over the next two years, as Bitcoin became more visible and more popular, Mt. Gox grew along with it, eventually handling more than 70 percent of the global trade in bitcoins.16 While Mt. Gox’s business suffered from a number of security breaches and software bugs along the way—including a massive, fraudulent transfer of bitcoins to a hacker who then dumped the coins on the exchange, driving the price to nearly zero for several minutes17—the debacle for which it will be most remembered occurred in 2013, when a cascade of legal and regulatory problems drove it into bankruptcy.18 It started when the U.S.


pages: 326 words: 74,433

Do More Faster: TechStars Lessons to Accelerate Your Startup by Brad Feld, David Cohen

augmented reality, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, hiring and firing, Inbox Zero, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, software as a service, Steve Jobs

Usage Is Like Oxygen for Ideas Matt Mullenweg Matt is the founder of Automattic which makes WordPress.com, Akismet, bbPress, BuddyPress, and now Intense Debate, a TechStars company that Automattic acquired in 2008. I like Apple because they are not afraid of getting a basic 1.0 out into the world and iterating on it. A case in point: “No wireless. Less space than a nomad. Lame.”—cmdrtaco, Slashdot.org, 2001, when reviewing the first iPod. I remember my first iPhone. I stood in line for hours to buy it, and like a great meal, you have to wait for in a long line outside a hot night club, the wait made the first time I swiped to unlock the phone that much sweeter. I felt like I was on Star Trek and this was my magical tricorder—a tricorder that constantly dropped calls on AT&T's network, had a headphone adapter that didn't fit any of the hundreds of dollars worth of headphones I owned, ran no applications, had no copy and paste, and was slow as molasses.


pages: 720 words: 197,129

The Innovators: How a Group of Inventors, Hackers, Geniuses and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution by Walter Isaacson

1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, desegregation, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Terrell, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Jimmy Wales interview, conducted by Brian Lamb, C-SPAN, Sept. 25, 2005. 89. Author’s interview with Jimmy Wales; Eric Raymond, “The Cathedral and the Bazaar,” first presented in 1997, reprinted in The Cathedral and the Bazaar (O’Reilly Media, 1999). 90. Richard Stallman, “The Free Universal Encyclopedia and Learning Resource” (1999), http://www.gnu.org/encyclopedia/free-encyclopedia.html. 91. Larry Sanger, “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia,” Slashdot, http://beta.slashdot.org/story/56499; and O’Reilly Commons, http://commons.oreilly.com/wiki/index.php/Open_Sources_2.0/Beyond_Open_Source:_Collaboration_and_Community/The_Early_History_of_Nupedia_and_Wikipedia:_A_Memoir. 92. Larry Sanger, “Become an Editor or Peer Reviewer!” Nupedia, http://archive.is/IWDNq. 93. Author’s interview with Jimmy Wales; Lih, The Wikipedia Revolution, 960. 94. Author’s interview with Jimmy Wales. 95.


pages: 411 words: 80,925

What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers

Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, hedonic treadmill, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer rental, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar

What Lessig and the Creative Commons have done is to create a significant culture of online socializing that encourages us to share. Through our digital experiences, we are recognizing that by providing value to the community, we enable our own social value to expand in return. When we post photos on Flickr; our knowledge on the likes of Wikipedia, Open Street Map, and Citizendium; our news on Public News and Slashdot; and our research on Bepress and NeuroCommons, we learn that we need to “give to get” in these communities. As David Bollier writes in Viral Spiral, “The commons—a hazy concept to many people—is a new paradigm for creating value and organizing a community of shared interests.”21 Collaborative Consumption is tied to how these principles are being applied to other parts of our lives, beyond media or content, by tapping into an innate quest to be part of a solution or even a movement of people with similar interests.


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

The National Center for Women and Information Technology reports that of the top one hundred tech companies, only 6 percent of chief executives are women.16 The numbers for Asians who ascend to the top are comparable despite the fact that they make up a third of all Silicon Valley software engineers.17 In 2010, not even 1 percent of the founders of Silicon Valley companies were black.18 Data on gender within online communities, routinely held up as exemplars of a new, open culture, are especially damning. First, consider Wikipedia. One survey revealed that women write less than 15 percent of the articles on the site, despite the fact that they use the resource in equal numbers to men. Collaborative filtering sites like Reddit and Slashdot, heralded by the digerati as the cultural curating mechanisms of the future, cater to users who are up to 90 percent male and overwhelmingly young, wealthy, and white.19 Reddit, in particular, has achieved notoriety for its misogynist culture, with threads where rapists can recount their exploits without fear of reprisal and photos of underage girls are posted under headings like “Chokeabitch,” “Niggerjailbait,” and “Creepshots” (“When you are in public, you do not have a reasonable expectation of privacy,” moderators posted.


pages: 1,201 words: 233,519

Coders at Work by Peter Seibel

Ada Lovelace, bioinformatics, cloud computing, Conway's Game of Life, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, fault tolerance, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Guido van Rossum, HyperCard, information retrieval, Larry Wall, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Perl 6, premature optimization, publish or perish, random walk, revision control, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, Saturday Night Live, side project, slashdot, speech recognition, the scientific method, Therac-25, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, type inference, Valgrind, web application

The multithreaded stuff, frankly, scares me because before I was married and had kids it took a lot of my life. And not everybody was ready to think about concurrency and all the possible combinations of orders that are out there for even small scenarios. Once you combine code with other people's code it just gets out of control. You can't possibly model the state space in your head. Most people aren't up to it. I could be like one of these chest-thumpers on Slashdot—when I blogged about “Threads suck” someone was saying, “Oh he doesn't know anything. He's not a real man.” Come on, you idiot. I got a trip to New Zealand and Australia. I got some perks. But it was definitely painful and it takes too long. As Oscar Wilde said of socialism, “It takes too many evenings.” Seibel: How do you design code? Eich: A lot of prototyping. I used to do sort of high-level pseudocode, and then I'd start filling in bottom up.

That's much easier to absorb than, “Here's a whole new way of thinking about programming.” That said, I think that if we're specifically discussing functional programming then I do think that we have seen a qualitative sea change in people's attitude. Many more people have heard about functional programming than ever used to. Suddenly rather than always having to explain what Haskell is, sometimes people say, “Oh, I've heard about that. In fact I was reading about it on Slashdot the other week and I gather it's rather cool.” That just didn't happen a few years ago. But what's underlying that? Is it just a random popularity thing? Or maybe part of it is that more students have been taught about functional programming in university and are now in managerial or seniorish positions. Perhaps. But perhaps it's also to do with as we scale up software dealing with the bad consequences of unrestricted side effects and as we want to deal with more verification and parallelism, all those issues become more pressing.


pages: 349 words: 102,827

The Infinite Machine: How an Army of Crypto-Hackers Is Building the Next Internet With Ethereum by Camila Russo

4chan, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, altcoin, always be closing, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Asian financial crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, diversification, Donald Trump, East Village, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, hacker house, Internet of things, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, mobile money, new economy, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, QR code, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Satoshi Nakamoto, semantic web, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, South of Market, San Francisco, the payments system, too big to fail, tulip mania, Turing complete, Uber for X

He stopped believing he could make a difference or that a system he thought was broken could be fixed. There was no point in trying anymore. After quitting his teaching job at the University of Colorado, he took a series of consulting contracts doing programming work. They were mostly boring jobs that paid the bills while he figured out what he really wanted to do. He kept drifting until he noticed Bitcoin was spiking. He had read the white paper in 2011 after seeing an article on the website Slashdot. At the time, he thought it was an interesting idea, but its volatility would never allow it to become a widely used means of exchange. To him, there also had to be a lot of infrastructure behind it, like credible exchanges and liquidity, before it could become a self-fulfilling prophecy and work. Those rails just weren’t there. In 2013, when the price shot above $100 for the first time, he took a second look.


pages: 394 words: 110,352

The Art of Community: Building the New Age of Participation by Jono Bacon

barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), collaborative editing, crowdsourcing, Debian, DevOps, do-ocracy, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Guido van Rossum, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Jono Bacon, Kickstarter, Larry Wall, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, openstreetmap, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, software as a service, telemarketer, union organizing, VA Linux, web application

I joined Creative Commons in April 2003, a few months after the first Creative Commons licenses were released. We were in the basement of the Stanford Law School, as that’s where Lawrence Lessig was. Various people had been involved over the preceding year, but essentially there were three staff [members] just before I joined. There was a very loose community initially, based on the notoriety of Lessig and other founders and some friendly coverage in the usual (for the time) geek outlets such as Slashdot—more a variety of well-wishers than a community. What kind of community did you set out to grow? The other person Creative Commons hired in April 2003 was our first international coordinator, based in Berlin. One community that we set out to grow, initially via this position, was a network of legal scholars around the world, who could collectively figure out how Creative Commons licenses work with copyright law in various jurisdictions around the world.

The cofounders of the Humble Indie Bundle originally headed up an indie game studio called Wolfire Games, where they learned a lot about making games and the state of the industry. They had an indie game called Lugaru, and they wanted to find a way to promote it alongside the games made by their friends in the indie game community. They had assessed—as Cory Doctorow and others have said—that an independent creator’s number one challenge is obscurity. As indie game developers and geeks themselves, they had observed various trends through sites like Reddit, Slashdot, Ars Technica, and so on. It was clear that the gaming communities didn’t like DRM. Online sales that were package deals were very popular. Pay-what-you-want seemed to be somewhat hit-or-miss, but was almost always newsworthy. They were inspired by these various promotions and set out to combine all of the ideas into one, big, blowout Internet-melting event. That’s essentially how the Humble Indie Bundle was born.


pages: 240 words: 109,474

Masters of Doom: How Two Guys Created an Empire and Transformed Pop Culture by David Kushner

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, book scanning, Columbine, corporate governance, game design, glass ceiling, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Marc Andreessen, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software patent, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, X Prize

Stuart Fischoff, founder of the Media Psychology lab at California State University in Los Angeles, said in an address to the American Psychological Association later in 1999, “but because two phenomena are both disturbing and coincident in time does not make them causally connected… There is not, I submit, a single research 211 study which is even remotely predictive of [events like] the Columbine massacre.” Murderers, after all, had proven that they could find inspiration in anything–the White Album, Taxi Driver, Catcher in the Rye. How many acts of violence had the Bible inspired? After Columbine, however, few had the nerve or the knowledge to defend games. Jon Kate, a writer for Rolling Stone and the tech community Slashdot, posted several essays that assailed the media’s stereotypes of geeks and gamers. “This is so crazy and hysterical,” he told the San Francisco Chronicle. “The real issue should be how teenagers get their hands on machine guns and bombs–not about a Web site and video games.” Others offered backhanded defense at best. “Violence has always been a big thing in the U.S.,” wrote Time, “and there are good constitutional reasons why we can’t legislate that out of our entertainment products.


pages: 379 words: 109,612

Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

If we want to spend hours reading books, we still possess that freedom. Only philosophical argument could establish that information overload has deprived us of our agency; the claim, at root, is philosophical, not empirical. My interlocutors might cleverly reply that in the age of Facebook and Wikipedia we do still deliberate, but collectively. In other words, for example, we vote stuff up or down on Digg, del.icio.us, and Slashdot, and then we might feel ourselves obligated—if we’re participating as true believers—to pay special attention to the top-voted items. Similarly, we attempt to reach “consensus” on Wikipedia, and—again, if participating as true believers—we endorse the end result as credible. To the extent that our time is thus directed by social networks engaged in collective deliberation, we are subjugated to a “collective will,” something like Rousseau’s notion of a general will.


pages: 353 words: 104,146

European Founders at Work by Pedro Gairifo Santos

business intelligence, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, fear of failure, full text search, information retrieval, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, natural language processing, pattern recognition, pre–internet, recommendation engine, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, subscription business, technology bubble, web application, Y Combinator

Not for a couple years after that did we have a really good recommender system. Music recommendation never really was my field, but I had a go at it, and then later on we hired somebody who knew what they were doing. I was kept quite busy just with keeping the service alive. We moved it around between hosts several times. I was getting free hosting from the university originally. And then there was a Slashdot article and I had a word with the university sys admin and he told me about how to properly index my MySQL database, that kind of thing. Then other people contributed free hosting. So I would move the site every couple of months to a new server. So it jumped around all over the place at the beginning. Santos: How did you come into contact with the other co-founders from Last.fm? Jones: Felix [Miller] and Martin [Stiksel].


pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

No one needed to ask permission to publish. Anyone with an internet connection could post their work and gather an audience; it was the end of publishers controlling the gates. This was a revolution! And since it was a revolution, Wired published “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace” announcing the end of old media. New media was certainly spawning rapidly. Among them were the link aggregators such as Slashdot, Digg, and later Reddit that enabled users to vote up or down items and to work together as a collaborative consensus filter, making mutual recommendations based on “others like you.” Rheingold believed that Wired would get further faster by unleashing people with strong voices, lots of passion, and the willingness to write without any editors to thwart them. Today we’d call those contributors “bloggers.”


pages: 918 words: 257,605

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff

Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, book scanning, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, dogs of the Dow, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Ford paid five dollars a day, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, impulse control, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, linked data, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, off grid, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, precision agriculture, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Mercer, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, structural adjustment programs, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, union organizing, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

For details of bans in key countries, see “New Developments Regarding Google Street View,” Austrian Data Protection Agency, April 4, 2016, http://web.archive.org/web/20160404072538/https://www.dsb.gv.at/site/6733/default.aspx; Helena Smith Athens, “Google Street View Banned from Greece,” Guardian, May 12, 2009, https://www.the guardian.com/technology/2009/may/12/google-street-view-banned-greece; John Ribeiro, “Google Street View in India Faces Challenges,” PCWorld, May 26, 2011, http://www.pcworld.com/article/228713/article.html; Danuta Pavilenene, “Google Street View Banned from Lithuanian Streets,” Baltic Course, May 23, 2012, http://www.baltic-course.com/eng/Technology/?doc =57649. 57. Liz Gannes, “Ten Years of Google Maps, from Slashdot to Ground Truth,” Recode, February 8, 2015, http://www.recode.net/2015/2/8/11558788/ten-years-of-google-maps-from-slashdot-to-ground-truth. 58. Kashmir Hill, “Google’s Privacy Director Is Stepping Down,” Forbes, April 1, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/kashmirhill/2013/04/01/googles-privacy-director-is-stepping-down/print; ScroogledTruth, Scroogled—Dr. Alma Whitten (Google’s Privacy Engineering Lead) Before Congress, 2013, https://www.youtube.com/watch?


Python Web Development With Django by Jeff Forcier

create, read, update, delete, database schema, Debian, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, full text search, Guido van Rossum, loose coupling, MVC pattern, revision control, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, slashdot, web application

Once you’ve set up the table, your CACHE_BACKEND setting becomes CACHE_BACKEND = “db://cache/” This is a very simple table with only three columns: cache_key (the table’s primary key), value (the actual data being cached), and expires (a datetime field; Django sets an index on this column for speed). Memcached Memcached is the most powerful caching option that Django provides. Not surprisingly, it is also more complicated to set up than the others. But if you need it, it’s worth it. It was originally created at Livejournal.com to ease the load that 20 million page views per day were putting on their database servers. It has since been adopted at Wikipedia.org, Fotolog.com, Slashdot.org, and other busy sites. Memcached’s home page is located at http://danga.com/memcached. The major advantage Memcached offers over the other options listed here is easy distribution across multiple servers. Memcached is a “giant hash table in the sky”; you use it like a key-value mapping such as a Python dictionary, but it transparently spreads the data across as many servers as you give it.


pages: 312 words: 93,504

Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by Dariusz Jemielniak

Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), citation needed, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Debian, deskilling, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, moral hazard, online collectivism, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, The Hackers Conference, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Ostrom’s principles related to smaller communities, and it can be assumed that Wikipedia is a pioneer in addressing many of the social organization problems of scale and that not all principles of open-collaboration communities may be fully applicable to it. C h a p t er 5 1. Essjay’s original talk page no longer exists, but this post has been archived at http://www.wikipedia-watch.org/essjay.html. 2. This post is archived at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User_talk:Ess jay&oldid=112480415#Slashdot. 3. This post is archived at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User_ talk:Essjay&oldid=112480415. No t e s t o C h a p t er 6   2 3 3 C h a p t er 6 1. For a useful taxonomy of contributions to Wikimedia projects, see “Research:Contribution Taxonomy Project,” 2012. 2. I wrote these words two days after I was appointed one of seven members of the FDC, and I was later elected chair. I hope that this book’s organizational analysis is unaffected by this role, but the reader should be aware of a potential bias.


pages: 503 words: 131,064

Liars and Outliers: How Security Holds Society Together by Bruce Schneier

airport security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, commoditize, corporate governance, crack epidemic, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, desegregation, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Hofstadter, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, George Akerlof, hydraulic fracturing, impulse control, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, iterative process, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Julian Assange, longitudinal study, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, patent troll, phenotype, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, security theater, shareholder value, slashdot, statistical model, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, technological singularity, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, traffic fines, transaction costs, ultimatum game, UNCLOS, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y2K, zero-sum game

The eBay feedback mechanism is a reputational system that requires security to ensure the system can't be hacked and manipulated by unscrupulous merchants. Other examples are letters of introduction, tribal clothing, employee background checks, sex offender databases, diplomas posted on walls, and U.S. State Department travel advisories. Informal online reviews of doctors allow us to trust people we don't know anything about, with our health. Online reputational systems allow us to trust unknown products on Amazon, unknown commenters on Slashdot, and unknown “friends” on Facebook. Credit-rating systems codify reputation. In online games, security systems are less of an enhancement to, and more of a replacement of, moral and reputational pressures for ensuring game fairness. Security-augmented institutional pressure. A community might install cameras to help enforce speed limits. Or a government might use correlation software to analyze millions of tax returns, looking for evidence of cheating.


Jennifer Morgue by Stross, Charles

call centre, correlation does not imply causation, disintermediation, dumpster diving, Etonian, haute couture, interchangeable parts, Maui Hawaii, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, planetary scale, RFID, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, stem cell, telepresence, traveling salesman, Turing machine

So I duly issue Pete with a 1.4 gigahertz Toshiba Sandwich Toaster, enlist his help in moving my stuff into the new office, nail a WiFi access point to the door like a tribal fetish or mezuzah ("this office now occupied by geeks who worship the great god GHz"), and park him on the other side of the spacious desk so I can keep an eye on him. The next day I've got a staff meeting at 10:00 a.m. I spend the first half hour of my morning drinking coffee, making snide remarks in e-mail, reading Slashdot, and waiting for Pete to show up. He arrives at 9:35. "Here." I chuck a fat wallet full of CD-Rs at him. "Install these on your laptop, get on the intranet, and download all the patches you need. Don't, whatever you do, touch my computer or try to log onto my NWN server — it's called Bosch, by the way. I'll catch up with you after the meeting." "Why is it called Bosch?" he whines as I stand up and grab my security badge off the filing cabinet.


Django Book by Matt Behrens

Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), create, read, update, delete, database schema, distributed revision control, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, full text search, loose coupling, MITM: man-in-the-middle, MVC pattern, revision control, Ruby on Rails, school choice, slashdot, web application

Each time a user requests a page, the Web server makes all sorts of calculations – from database queries to template rendering to business logic – to create the page that your site’s visitor sees. This is a lot more expensive, from a processing-overhead perspective, than your standard read-a-file-off-the-filesystem server arrangement. For most Web applications, this overhead isn’t a big deal. Most Web applications aren’t washingtonpost.com or slashdot.org; they’re simply small- to medium-sized sites with so-so traffic. But for medium- to high-traffic sites, it’s essential to cut as much overhead as possible. That’s where caching comes in. To cache something is to save the result of an expensive calculation so that you don’t have to perform the calculation next time. Here’s some pseudocode explaining how this would work for a dynamically generated Web page: given a URL, try finding that page in the cache if the page is in the cache: return the cached page else: generate the page save the generated page in the cache (for next time) return the generated page Django comes with a robust cache system that lets you save dynamic pages so they don’t have to be calculated for each request.


Producing Open Source Software: How to Run a Successful Free Software Project by Karl Fogel

active measures, AGPL, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, collaborative editing, continuous integration, corporate governance, Debian, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Firefox, GnuPG, Hacker Ethic, Internet Archive, iterative process, Kickstarter, natural language processing, patent troll, peer-to-peer, pull request, revision control, Richard Stallman, selection bias, slashdot, software as a service, software patent, SpamAssassin, web application, zero-sum game

., @kfogel) in a comment on a ticket will cause that person to be added to the email thread associated with that ticket. Publicity In free software, there is a fairly smooth continuum between purely internal discussions and public relations statements. This is partly because the target audience is always ill-defined: given that most or all posts are publicly accessible, the project doesn't have full control over the impression the world gets. Someone—say, a Hacker News poster or slashdot.org editor—may draw millions of readers' attention to a post that no one ever expected to be seen outside the project. This is a fact of life that all open source projects live with, but in practice, the risk is usually small. In general, the announcements that the project most wants publicized are the ones that will be most publicized, assuming you use the right mechanisms to indicate relative newsworthiness to the outside world.


Eloquent JavaScript by Marijn Haverbeke

always be closing, domain-specific language, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, hypertext link, job satisfaction, MITM: man-in-the-middle, premature optimization, slashdot, web application, WebSocket

PRAISE FOR THE FIRST AND SECOND EDITIONS OF ELOQUENT JAVASCRIPT “Provides some of the best explanations of programming concepts that I’ve ever read.” —SANDRA HENRY-STOCKER, IT WORLD “If you choose to start your JavaScript journey with this book, it can quickly teach you a lot of technical information and also programming wisdom.” —MICHAEL J. ROSS, WEB DEVELOPER AND SLASHDOT CONTRIBUTOR “I became a better architect, author, mentor and developer because of this book. It deserves to share shelf space with Flannagan and Crockford.” —ANGUS CROLL, TWITTER DEVELOPER “The best introduction into any programming language and programming overall. Period.” —JAN LEHNARDT, CO-CREATOR OF HOODIE AND ORGANIZER OF JSCONF EU “This is the book I give out when people ask me how to learn proper JavaScript.”


pages: 1,535 words: 337,071

Networks, Crowds, and Markets: Reasoning About a Highly Connected World by David Easley, Jon Kleinberg

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, clean water, conceptual framework, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Douglas Hofstadter, Erdős number, experimental subject, first-price auction, fudge factor, George Akerlof, Gerard Salton, Gerard Salton, Gödel, Escher, Bach, incomplete markets, information asymmetry, information retrieval, John Nash: game theory, Kenneth Arrow, longitudinal study, market clearing, market microstructure, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, Pareto efficiency, Paul Erdős, planetary scale, prediction markets, price anchoring, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, random walk, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, sealed-bid auction, search engine result page, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, Simon Singh, slashdot, social web, Steve Jobs, stochastic process, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Vannevar Bush, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

This also reinforces the fact that structural balance is not necessarily a good thing: since its global outcome is often two implacably opposed alliances, the search for balance in a system can sometimes 138 CHAPTER 5. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE RELATIONSHIPS be seen as a slide into a hard-to-resolve opposition between two sides. Trust, Distrust, and On-Line Ratings. A growing source for network data with both positive and negative edges comes from user communities on the Web where people can express positive or negative sentiments about each other. Examples include the technology news site Slashdot, where users can designate each other as a “friend” or a “foe” [262], and on-line product-rating sites such as Epinions, where a user can express her evaluation of different products, and also express her trust or distrust of other users. Guha, Kumar, Raghavan, and Tomkins performed an analysis of the network of user evaluations on Epinions [200]; their work identified an interesting set of issues that show how the trust/distrust dichotomy in on-line ratings has both similarities and differences with the friend/enemy dichotomy in structural balance theory.

[260] Ravi Kumar, Jasmine Novak, Prabhakar Raghavan, and Andrew Tomkins. Structure and evolution of blogspace. Communications of the ACM, 47(12):35–39, 2004. [261] Ravi Kumar, Prabhakar Raghavan, Sridhar Rajagopalan, D. Sivakumar, Andrew Tomkins, and Eli Upfal. Random graph models for the web graph. In Proc. 41st IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science, pages 57–65, 2000. [262] Jérôme Kunegis, Andreas Lommatzsch, and Christian Bauckhage. The Slashdot Zoo: Mining a social network with negative edges. In Proc. 18th International World Wide Web Conference, pages 741–750, 2009. [263] Marcelo Kuperman and Guillermo Abramson. Small world effect in an epidemiological model. Physical Review Letters, 86(13):2909–2912, March 2001. [264] Amy N. Langville and Carl D. Meyer. Google’s PageRank and Beyond: The Science of Search Engine Rankings. Princeton University Press, 2006


pages: 470 words: 144,455

Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World by Bruce Schneier

Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, business process, butterfly effect, cashless society, Columbine, defense in depth, double entry bookkeeping, fault tolerance, game design, IFF: identification friend or foe, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, pez dispenser, pirate software, profit motive, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, slashdot, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, the payments system, Y2K, Yogi Berra

In 1990, the Secret Service raided the headquarters of a role-playing game company, Steve Jackson Games, because the company was working on a role-playing game (not even a computer program) that had something to do with “cyberpunks” and hackers, and because they believed an employee, Loyd Blankenship, was a member of the “Legion of Doom” hacker group. In 1999, the DVD Copy Control Association tried to gag 500 Web sites whose only crime was writing about the DVD encryption break. And in 2000, Microsoft tried to force Slashdot to delete postings about its proprietary extensions to the Kerberos protocol. This is also not meant to be a call for overreaction, which we saw a lot of in the 1990s. David Smith, the author of the Melissa virus, faces five to ten years in prison. Kevin Mitnick got (and served) almost five years, and was prohibited from using a computer for another three. (All his skills are related to computers, and he has been prohibited from lecturing on the subject.


pages: 2,054 words: 359,149

The Art of Software Security Assessment: Identifying and Preventing Software Vulnerabilities by Justin Schuh

Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, bash_history, business process, database schema, Debian, defense in depth, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, information retrieval, iterative process, loose coupling, MITM: man-in-the-middle, MVC pattern, RFC: Request For Comment, slashdot, web application

The TCP stack must ensure that the option length, when added to the offset into the header where the option appears, isn’t larger than the total size of the TCP header (and, of course, the total size of the packet). TCP Connections Before two hosts can communicate over TCP, they must establish a connection. TCP connections are uniquely defined by source IP address, destination IP address, TCP source port, and TCP destination port. For example, a connection from a Web browser on your desktop to Slashdot’s Web server would have a source IP of something like 24.1.20.30, and a high, ephemeral source port such as 46023. It would have a destination IP address of 66.35.250.151, and a destination port of 80 the well-known port for HTTP. There can only be one TCP connection with those ports and IP addresses at any one time. If you connected to the same Web server with another browser simultaneously, the second connection would be distinguished from the first by having a different source port.


pages: 561 words: 163,916

The History of the Future: Oculus, Facebook, and the Revolution That Swept Virtual Reality by Blake J. Harris

4chan, airport security, Anne Wojcicki, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, computer vision, cryptocurrency, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, financial independence, game design, Grace Hopper, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, Peter Thiel, QR code, sensor fusion, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, software patent, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, unpaid internship, white picket fence

Venture Beat, October 3, 2011. 3.Schiesel, Seth. “Wasteland of Mutants and Thugs.” The New York Times, October 11, 2011. 4.Kushner, David. Masters of Doom: How Two Guys Created an Empire and Transformed Pop Culture. New York: Random House, 2003. 5.Abrash, Michael. “Valve: How I Got Here, What It’s Like, and What I’m Doing.” Ramblings in Valve Time, April 13, 2012. 6.Carmack, John. “Parasites.” Slashdot (Comments Section), June 2, 2005. 7.“Products: Personal 3D Viewer.” Sony.com, September 23, 2011. 8.Tone. “LEEP on the Cheap.” VR-TIFACTS, March 23, 2011. 9.Luckey, Palmer. “Oculus “Rift”: An open-source HMD for Kickstarter.” MTBS3D, April 15, 2012. CHAPTER 3 1.Carmack, John. “A Day with an Oculus Rift.” MTBS3D, May 17, 2012. 2.JamesB. “Why John Carmack’s Rocket-Powered Goggles Won E3.” PC Games, June 12, 2012.


pages: 834 words: 180,700

The Architecture of Open Source Applications by Amy Brown, Greg Wilson

8-hour work day, anti-pattern, bioinformatics, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, David Heinemeier Hansson, Debian, domain-specific language, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, Firefox, friendly fire, Guido van Rossum, linked data, load shedding, locality of reference, loose coupling, Mars Rover, MITM: man-in-the-middle, MVC pattern, peer-to-peer, Perl 6, premature optimization, recommendation engine, revision control, Ruby on Rails, side project, Skype, slashdot, social web, speech recognition, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, WebSocket

The rendering engine started as an experiment, simply to see if I could write one. whisper was written over the course of a weekend out of desperation to solve a show-stopper problem before a critical launch date. carbon has been rewritten more times than I care to remember. Once I was allowed to release Graphite under an open source license in 2008 I never really expected much response. After a few months it was mentioned in a CNET article that got picked up by Slashdot and the project suddenly took off and has been active ever since. Today there are dozens of large and mid-sized companies using Graphite. The community is quite active and continues to grow. Far from being a finished product, there is a lot of cool experimental work being done, which keeps it fun to work on and full of potential. Footnotes http://launchpad.net/graphite There is another port over which serialized objects can be sent, which is more efficient than the plain-text format.


pages: 728 words: 182,850

Cooking for Geeks by Jeff Potter

3D printing, A Pattern Language, carbon footprint, centre right, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, crowdsourcing, Donald Knuth, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, fear of failure, food miles, functional fixedness, hacker house, haute cuisine, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, iterative process, Kickstarter, Parkinson's law, placebo effect, random walk, Rubik’s Cube, slashdot, stochastic process, the scientific method

Part of that is due to not wanting to waste the food or the money, but the other part is they haven’t gotten to the point where they’re enjoying doing it over until they get it right. Have there been any particular recipes whose success has caught you off-guard? Tiramisu is the recipe that launched Cooking for Engineers. I posted the tiramisu recipe, and three days later I was getting maybe 100 page views a day on that article. Enough people saw it that I got attention from Slashdot, which wrote an article about this new cooking website geared toward geeky people. Boom, I got a lot of readership. So much so that I had a little trouble keeping up with the number of people who were looking at the web pages on the little server that I was running on. The tiramisu recipe that we have on Cooking for Engineers is a bit more simplified than many of the other tiramisu recipes. I spent a lot of time developing it.


pages: 786 words: 195,810

NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity by Steve Silberman

Albert Einstein, animal electricity, Asperger Syndrome, assortative mating, crowdsourcing, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental subject, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Larry Wall, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mother of all demos, neurotypical, New Journalism, pattern recognition, placebo effect, scientific mainstream, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, twin studies, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

(He later became a successful software entrepreneur, selling his interactive sheet music app, Etude, to Steinway & Sons, the venerable piano company, while Plank became a consultant for the popular TV series The Bridge, helping actress Diane Kruger develop the character of Sonya Cross, a detective with Asperger’s syndrome.) For two young men generally too shy to ask a girl out to the local multiplex on Saturday night, they proved adept at promoting their creation in social media, buying placement in Google’s AdSense and AdWords so a reporter new to the autism beat would inevitably be directed to Wrong Planet while generating a healthy income stream for the site. The community grew slowly and steadily until Slashdot, the preeminent tech news aggregator, linked to Plank’s interview with Bram Cohen, the autistic creator of BitTorrent, a peer-to-peer file-sharing protocol estimated to account for a third of all Internet traffic in the United States. New members poured in by the thousands. Young people on the spectrum flocked to online communities like Wrong Planet to announce their diagnoses as cause for celebration rather than as occasions for mourning, because their lives had at last come into focus.


pages: 1,380 words: 190,710

Building Secure and Reliable Systems: Best Practices for Designing, Implementing, and Maintaining Systems by Heather Adkins, Betsy Beyer, Paul Blankinship, Ana Oprea, Piotr Lewandowski, Adam Stubblefield

anti-pattern, barriers to entry, bash_history, business continuity plan, business process, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, continuous integration, correlation does not imply causation, create, read, update, delete, cryptocurrency, cyber-physical system, database schema, Debian, defense in depth, DevOps, Edward Snowden, fault tolerance, fear of failure, general-purpose programming language, Google Chrome, Internet of things, Kubernetes, load shedding, margin call, microservices, MITM: man-in-the-middle, performance metric, pull request, ransomware, revision control, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Skype, slashdot, software as a service, source of truth, Stuxnet, Turing test, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Valgrind, web application, Y2K, zero day

The global pool of similar resources also becomes smaller—for example, disk failures reduce overall storage capacity, network failures reduce bandwidth and increase latency, and software failures reduce the computational capacity system-wide. The failures might compound—for example, a storage shortage could lead to software failures. Resource shortages like these, or a sudden spike in incoming requests like those caused by the Slashdot effect, misconfiguration, or a denial-of-service attack, could lead to system overload. When a system’s load exceeds its capacity, its response inevitably begins to degrade, and that can lead to a completely broken system with no availability. Unless you’ve planned for this scenario in advance, you don’t know where the system may break—but this will most likely be where the system is weakest, and not where it’s safest.


pages: 496 words: 174,084

Masterminds of Programming: Conversations With the Creators of Major Programming Languages by Federico Biancuzzi, Shane Warden

Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, cloud computing, commoditize, complexity theory, conceptual framework, continuous integration, data acquisition, domain-specific language, Douglas Hofstadter, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, Firefox, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, general-purpose programming language, Guido van Rossum, HyperCard, information retrieval, iterative process, John von Neumann, Larry Wall, linear programming, loose coupling, Mars Rover, millennium bug, NP-complete, Paul Graham, performance metric, Perl 6, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Renaissance Technologies, Ruby on Rails, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software as a service, software patent, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, traveling salesman, Turing complete, type inference, Valgrind, Von Neumann architecture, web application

But consider that our industry has literally transformed the world in, essentially, one generation. To me, that’s fast, not slow. How can we transmit experience in the software field? Grady: In the Middle Ages, guilds served as a primary mechanism for the transmission of tribal memory; today, we lack such apprenticeships in software. Still, a considerable amount of experience is transmitted via the Web (consider Slashdot, for example), books, blogs, and technical meetings. It is also that case that raw, running, naked source code is a source of knowledge from the past—and this is one of the reasons I’ve worked with the Computer History Museum to preserve the code of classic software for future generations. What should today’s students study more? Grady: I’ll answer that question in two ways. From the lens of software, any good course of study will teach you the basic skills of programming and design.


pages: 468 words: 233,091

Founders at Work: Stories of Startups' Early Days by Jessica Livingston

8-hour work day, affirmative action, AltaVista, Apple II, Brewster Kahle, business cycle, business process, Byte Shop, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, don't be evil, fear of failure, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, game design, Googley, HyperCard, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Justin.tv, Larry Wall, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, nuclear winter, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, software patent, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, web application, Y Combinator

So I traveled around a lot, got really bored, and realized—I had been around computers all my life, that is really what I like doing, so why am I depriving myself of the fun of working on startups? It really came down to solving a need of mine. I had started another company—an anti-spam company—called Trustic, and that wasn’t going very far. But as I was starting that, I was doing this other thing on the side, which became Bloglines. I had a bookmark list of about 100 sites that I went to every day just to see if there was new stuff. Things like Slashdot, CNN, my friends’ blogs. It was taking a long time; I figured there had to be a better solution to 233 234 Founders at Work this, and that’s how I found out about RSS. At that time, there were a couple of desktop-based aggregators—programs that you could download. But those weren’t really applicable to me because I’m on several different computers every day and the quality of the programs weren’t very good.


pages: 1,758 words: 342,766

Code Complete (Developer Best Practices) by Steve McConnell

Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, continuous integration, data acquisition, database schema, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, fault tolerance, Grace Hopper, haute cuisine, if you see hoof prints, think horses—not zebras, index card, inventory management, iterative process, Larry Wall, loose coupling, Menlo Park, Perl 6, place-making, premature optimization, revision control, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, slashdot, sorting algorithm, statistical model, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing machine, web application

It is used primarily for client-side programming such as adding simple functions and online applications to Web pages. Perl Perl is a string-handling language that is based on C and several UNIX utilities. Perl is often used for system administration tasks, such as creating build scripts, as well as for report generation and processing. It's also used to create Web applications such as Slashdot. The acronym "Perl" stands for Practical Extraction and Report Language. PHP PHP is an open-source scripting language with a simple syntax similar to Perl, Bourne Shell, JavaScript, and C. PHP runs on all major operating systems to execute server-side interactive functions. It can be embedded in Web pages to access and present database information. The acronym "PHP" originally stood for Personal Home Page but now stands for PHP: Hypertext Processor.


pages: 1,318 words: 403,894

Reamde by Neal Stephenson

air freight, airport security, crowdsourcing, digital map, drone strike, Google Earth, industrial robot, informal economy, Jones Act, large denomination, megacity, MITM: man-in-the-middle, new economy, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, ransomware, side project, Skype, slashdot, South China Sea, the built environment, the scientific method, young professional

There’s yours right there.” And he rolled clear of a window and pointed toward one marked UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. “What’s going on?” Zula asked. Csongor shrugged. “Some kind of conference maybe?” “Taiwan,” Peter said. “I heard about this! It’s something to do with Taiwan.” Zula goggled, not out of skepticism but because she didn’t normally look to Peter to be up to speed on current events. He shrugged. “Slashdot. There’s been some kind of hassle, connected with this. Denial-of-service attacks against Taiwanese ISPs.” “Okay, yes! I did hear something about this,” Csongor said. “They are having diplomatic talks. But I didn’t realize it was happening in Xiamen.” But this was the last they saw before Sokolov ordered that all the shades be pulled down. After they came to a stop, Ivanov emerged from the aft cabin, talking on a phone, and exited the plane.


Programming Python by Mark Lutz

Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Build a better mousetrap, business process, cloud computing, Firefox, general-purpose programming language, Google Chrome, Guido van Rossum, iterative process, linear programming, loose coupling, MVC pattern, natural language processing, off grid, slashdot, sorting algorithm, web application

__init__(self, parent) self.pack() self.lbl = Label(self, text="none", bg='blue', fg='red') self.pix = Button(self, text="Press me", command=self.draw, bg='white') self.lbl.pack(fill=BOTH) self.pix.pack(pady=10) demoCheck.Demo(self, relief=SUNKEN, bd=2).pack(fill=BOTH) files = glob(gifdir + "*.gif") self.images = [(x, PhotoImage(file=x)) for x in files] print(files) def draw(self): name, photo = random.choice(self.images) self.lbl.config(text=name) self.pix.config(image=photo) if __name__ == '__main__': ButtonPicsDemo().mainloop() This version works the same way as the original, but it can now be attached to any other GUI where you would like to include such an unreasonably silly button. * * * [34] This particular image is not my creation; it appeared as a banner ad on developer-related websites such as Slashdot when the book Learning Python was first published in 1999. It generated enough of a backlash from Perl zealots that O’Reilly eventually pulled the ad altogether. Which may be why, of course, it later appeared in this book. Viewing and Processing Images with PIL As mentioned earlier, Python tkinter scripts show images by associating independently created image objects with real widget objects.