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pages: 329 words: 88,954

Emergence by Steven Johnson

A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, edge city, epigenetics, game design, garden city movement, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, pez dispenser, phenotype, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, slashdot, Socratic dialogue, stakhanovite, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush

But it is increasingly recognized as the birthplace of Slashdot.org—the closest thing to a genuinely self-organizing community that the Web has yet produced. Begun as a modest bulletin board by a lifetime Hollander named Rob Malda, Slashdot came into the world as the ultimate in knowable communities: just Malda and his friends, discussing programming news, Star Wars rumors, video games, and other geek-chic marginalia. “In the beginning, Slashdot was small,” Malda writes. “We got dozens of posts each day, and it was good. The signal was high, the noise was low.” Before long, though, Slashdot floated across the rising tsunami of Linux and the Open Source movement and found itself awash in thousands of daily visitors. In its early days, Slashdot had felt like the hill towns of ECHO and the Well, with strong leadership coming from Malda himself, who went by the handle Commander Taco.

Indeed, the adoption rate for these feedback devices is accelerating so rapidly that I suspect in a matter of years a Web page without a dynamic rating system attached will trigger the same response that a Web page without hyperlinks triggers today: yes, it’s technically possible to create a page without these features, but what’s the point? The Slashdot system might seem a little complex, a little esoteric for consumers who didn’t grow up playing D&D, but think of the millions of people who learned how to use a computer for the first time in the past few years, just to get e-mail or to surf the Web. Compared to that learning curve, figuring out the rules of Slashdot is a walk in the park. And rules they are. You can’t think of a system like the one Malda built at Slashdot as a purely representational entity, the way you think about a book or a movie. It is partly representational, of course: you read messages via the Slashdot platform, and so the components of the textual medium that Marshall McLuhan so brilliantly documented in The Gutenberg Galaxy are on display at Slashdot as well. Because you are reading words, your reception of the information behind those words differs from what it would have been had that information been conveyed via television.

Without anything resembling a genuine business infrastructure, much less a real office, Malda needed far more than his twenty-five lieutenants to keep the Slashdot community from descending into complete anarchy. But without the resources to hire a hundred full-time moderators, Slashdot appeared to be stuck at the same impasse that Mumford had described thirty years before: stay small and preserve the quality of the original community; keep growing and sacrifice everything that had made the community interesting in the first place. Slashdot had reached its “climax stage.” What did the Commander do? Instead of expanding his pool of special authorized lieutenants, he made everyone a potential lieutenant. He handed over the quality-control job to the community itself. His goals were relatively simple, as outlined in the Frequently Asked Questions document on the site: 1. Promote quality, discourage crap. 2. Make Slashdot as readable as possible for as many people as possible. 3.


pages: 398 words: 86,023

The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia by Andrew Lih

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Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, index card, Jane Jacobs, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, jimmy wales, Marshall McLuhan, Network effects, optical character recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons, Y2K

In fact, diving directly into the conversation without bothering to read the original story is such a typical action, one of the most common exclamations by regulars is “RTFA”—long-standing Internet jargon for “Read the friggin article!” Conversations in Slashdot are laced with inside jokes, ranging from bad 1980s Yakov Smirnoff laments about Soviet Russia, to cherished Simpsons quotes like “I for one welcome our insect overlords,” when talking about the risks of technology. Slashdot gained an intense following in the technology crowd because of its high caliber of contributors. It was a lively community that grew in size, but maintained quality as well. Slashdot became the tech elite’s peanut gallery and salon. If you won the hearts of Slashdot readers, you captured the in-crowd and gained extremely influential technology street cred. While Slashdot’s editing system was very different from Wikipedia’s free-form system, it did provide an important seed.

“Wikipedia has definitely taken [on] a life of its own; new people are arriving every day and the project seems to be getting only more popular. Long live Wikipedia!” announced Sanger. He also set a goal: “I predict 1,000 [articles] by February 15.” In fact, they hit it three days early. Slashdotting If there was ever a salon for the technical elite and a grand senate of the computing community, it was Slashdot.org. Started originally as a user-contributed news 68_The_Wikipedia_Revolution site, Slashdot boldly proclaims as its pedigree: “News for nerds. Stuff that matters.” It lists significant technology stories in a blog format to foster discussion, but it started even before blogging became part of the Internet lexicon. What makes Slashdot more than just a blog is its unique community formula. A handful of the site operators serve as editors, sifting through user submissions to post on their front page taken from important technology stories from other outlets.

They worked together to sift the good from the bad and to filter out disruptive behavior. The usefulness of Slashdot was entirely in the hands of the individuals who volunteered to do meta-moderation. It was like a community garden. People were stakeholders and invested their time and energy in preserving something special in their corner of the Internet. When Slashdot editors reported on the launch of Wikipedia in January and February of 2001, it resonated. Their readers were introduced to a site that aspired to take the contribution of the masses, be it writing, editing, correcting, or sifting out junk. It was a perfect fit. The first wave of editors from that tech community had such a great influence that Wikipedia has often been dubbed the “Encyclopedia That Slashdot Built.”21 As Wikipedia chugged along, it was to benefit greatly from the Slashdot veterans. To this day, pretty much any story about Wikipedia is treated favorably on Slashdot, with many of the users speaking knowledgeably about the project because they are themselves editors at Wikipedia. 70_The_Wikipedia_Revolution Contributing the Meaning of Everything While the use of wiki software to form Wikipedia was a breakthrough in allowing anyone to edit any page at any time, the assembling of a reference work from distributed strangers is actually not new.


pages: 226 words: 71,540

Epic Win for Anonymous: How 4chan's Army Conquered the Web by Cole Stryker

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4chan, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Firefox, future of journalism, hive mind, informal economy, Internet Archive, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mason jar, pre–internet, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, wage slave, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Their logo was a cartoonish parody of the goatse shock image, and their motto was “Gaping Holes Exposed.” Nerd News: Slashdot & Metafilter Slashdot founder Rob Malda, aka “Commander Taco,” says that he created Slashdot because he missed the high-minded technical community he enjoyed in the BBS era that discussed the sort of “news for nerds, stuff that matters” that interested him. In 1997, Slashdot offered something new: user-submitted stories. Each story became its own discussion thread. The site became so popular that when a story was linked by Slashdot, the site’s host would often buckle under the weight of all the traffic. This phenomenon became known as the Slashdot Effect. This phenomenon is not unique to Slashdot, but Slashdot was one of the first to be routinely recognized as a server killer. Other sites can be farked, for example, or undergo the Digg Effect, demonstrating the power that content aggregators wield.

Malda says that Slashdot developed its own unique memetic culture almost instantly. He remembers lots of gross-out memes popping up in addition to stuff from the Star Wars prequels, which were hugely popular during Slashdot’s early years. I asked him if there was a specific moment when he realized that memes were a thing. He replied, “Long before I heard the word, that’s for sure.” Many of Slashdot’s memes deal with ultra geeky science and computing puns. Malda claims that since he started Slashdot, the corporations have taken over, our rights are on the decline, and our privacy is gone. Back in the early days it was chaotic, but free. He recognizes the value in anonymity, and feels that there’s something special about 4chan’s community. I love that they interact anonymously. Slashdot was similarly completely anonymous for the first year of our existence, and still today we allow anyone to post without any identifying information whatsoever.

I think a registered pseudonym is useful because it gives you continuity if not accountability. You might not know that “CmdrTaco” is actually a dude named Rob, but on Slashdot at least, you know that each time you see a post with that name attached, you know it’s the same guy. I felt for Slashdot that it was important to provide that for people that wanted it. I don’t think that creates a sense of “personal responsibility” in any sort of globalized sense, but it allows you to build a reputation and history which might be important if you want to be taken seriously. Interestingly, anonymous posters on Slashdot are jokingly labeled “Anonymous Coward.” Matt Haughey was a big fan of Slashdot, but he wasn’t crazy about the interface. Slashdot had editors that picked from submitted stories. Matt was looking for something more democratic, so he created MetaFilter, a community where anyone’s story could land on the front page.


pages: 173 words: 14,313

Peers, Pirates, and Persuasion: Rhetoric in the Peer-To-Peer Debates by John Logie

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1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, book scanning, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hacker Ethic, Isaac Newton, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, peer-to-peer, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, publication bias, Richard Stallman, search inside the book, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog

ZDNet. 15 Aug. 2005 <http://news.zdnet.com/2100–9595_22–502047. html?legacy=zdnn>. Wah. “Re: Look, this is silly.” Slashdot. 26 Feb. 2000. slashdot.org. 20 Aug. 2006 <http://slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=10781&cid=401279>. “When David Steals Goliath’s Music.” New York Times. 28 Mar. 2005. Nytimes.com. 20 Aug. 2006 <http://select.nytimes.com/search/restricted/ article?res=F30914FB3E5B0C7B8EDDAA0894DD404482>. Wu, Tim. “Exit Valenti.” Lessig Blog. 2 Aug. 2004. 20 Aug. 2006 <http:// www.lessig.org/blog/archives/002065.shtml>. Yoos, George. “Ethos.” Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition. Ed. Theresa Enos. New York: Garland, 1996. 410–14. Zikzak. “Re: Look, this is silly.” Slashdot. 26 Feb. 2000. slashdot.org. 20 Apr. 2005 <http://slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=10781&cid=401213>. Pa r l orPr e s s wwwww. p a r l or p r e s s . c om Index AAUP (American Association of University Presses), 146 Abelson, Hal, 128 Adar, Eytan, 99 Adobe eBook Reader, 142–43 Albini, Steve: “The Problem with Music,” 118 Alpert, Herb, and the Tijuana Brass, 3–4 Altnet, 119 Amazon.com, 18, 59, 72, 142 American Revolution, 110 anaphora, 108 Apple Computer, Inc., 61–6; iTunes Music Store, 65, 86, 122–23, 135 Archerd, Army, 73–74 Aristotle, 7, 38; arête, 39; eunoia, 39; phronesis, 39 Army of Mice (parody of the MPAA), 123–25 ARPANET, 128 Athens, 140 Audio Home Recording Act of 1991, 57–58, 89, 95, 135 authorship, 130–32 bandwidth, 13, 98, 143–44, 146, 148 Barry, Hank, 34, 106, 109–10 Basic Books v.

“The Effect of File Sharing on Record Sales: An Empirical Analysis.” Mar. 2004. 20 Aug. 2006. <http:// www.unc.edu/~cigar/papers/FileSharing_March2004.pdf>. Patterson, Lyman Ray. Copyright in Historical Perspective. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt UP, 1968. Porter, James E. “Intertextuality and the Discourse Community.” Rhetoric Review 5.1 (1986): 34–47. Rader. “Re: Look, this is silly.” Slashdot. 26 Feb. 2000. slashdot.org. 20 Aug. 2006 <http://slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=10781&cid=401120>. Recording Industry Association of America. “725 Additional Illegal File Sharers Cited In New Wave of Copyright Infringement Lawsuits.” RIAA. 27 Apr. 2005. riaa.com. 20 Aug. 2006 <http://www.riaa.com/News/ newsletter/042705.asp>. —. “Recording Industry to Begin Collecting Evidence and Preparing Lawsuits Against File ‘Sharers’ Who Illegally Offer Music Online.”

That said, Rader does demonstrate some understanding of the history of the Vietnam era, and allies himself with the so-called “draft Pa r l orPr e s s wwwww. p a r l or p r e s s . c om Peer-to-Peer as Combat 113 dodgers” while lambasting another correspondent for, in effect, being a government dupe, much as military volunteers and conscripts were sometimes criticized in the late 1960s and early 1970s. But the carelessness with which Rader draws this analogy prompted an incredulous response from another Slashdot correspondent: ZIKZAK: Holy shit! Are you really claiming that the battle over MP3 pirating could be equivalent in importance to the Vietnam War? Fuck, I have now seen the absolute pinnacle of pathetic justification. Equating the slightly over-priced and admittedly greedy recording industry’s practices to the death of thousands and thousands of young men is absolutely the lowest thing I’ve ever seen on slashdot. Congratulations. You have scraped absolute bottom. Zikzak’s outburst prompted what appeared to be an embarrassed silence from Rader, and other participants, in what had, to that point, been a lively discussion.


pages: 189 words: 57,632

Content: Selected Essays on Technology, Creativity, Copyright, and the Future of the Future by Cory Doctorow

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book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, en.wikipedia.org, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Law of Accelerating Returns, Metcalfe's law, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, optical character recognition, patent troll, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Skype, slashdot, social software, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, Vernor Vinge

is all but out of that business: the ability of the human race to generate new pages far outstrips Yahoo!'s ability to read, review, rank and categorize them. Hence Slashdot, a system of distributed slushreading. Rather than professionalizing the editorship role, Slashdot invites contributors to identify good stuff when they see it, turning editorship into a reward for good behavior. But as well as Slashdot works, it has this signal failing: nearly every conversation that takes place on Slashdot is shot through with discussion, griping and gaming on the moderation system itself. The core task of Slashdot has become editorship, not the putative subjects of Slashdot posts. The fact that the central task of Slashdot is to rate other Slashdotters creates a tenor of meanness in the discussion. Imagine if the subtext of every discussion you had in the real world was a kind of running, pedantic nitpickery in which every point was explicitly weighed and judged and commented upon.

Even when you write for your own consumption, it seems you have to answer to an editor. The early experimental days of the Internet saw much experimentation with alternatives to traditional editor/author divisions. Slashdot, a nerdy news-site of surpassing popularity [fn: Having a link to one's website posted to Slashdot will almost inevitably overwhelm your server with traffic, knocking all but the best-provisioned hosts offline within minutes; this is commonly referred to as "the Slashdot Effect."], has a baroque system for "community moderation" of the responses to the articles that are posted to its front pages. Readers, chosen at random, are given five "moderator points" that they can use to raise or lower the score of posts on the Slashdot message boards. Subsequent readers can filter their views of these boards to show only highly ranked posts. Other readers are randomly presented with posts and their rankings and are asked to rate the fairness of each moderator's moderation.

Other readers are randomly presented with posts and their rankings and are asked to rate the fairness of each moderator's moderation. Moderators who moderate fairly are given more opportunities to moderate; likewise message-board posters whose messages are consistently highly rated. It is thought that this system rewards good "citizenship" on the Slashdot boards through checks and balances that reward good messages and fair editorial practices. And in the main, the Slashdot moderation system works [fn: as do variants on it, like the system in place at Kur5hin.org (pronounced "corrosion")]. If you dial your filter up to show you highly scored messages, you will generally get well-reasoned, or funny, or genuinely useful posts in your browser. This community moderation scheme and ones like it have been heralded as a good alternative to traditional editorship.


pages: 678 words: 216,204

The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom by Yochai Benkler

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affirmative action, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, clean water, commoditize, dark matter, desegregation, East Village, fear of failure, Firefox, game design, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of radio, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kenneth Arrow, market bubble, market clearing, Marshall McLuhan, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, random walk, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software patent, spectrum auction, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Vilfredo Pareto

The initial submissions themselves, and more importantly, the approach to sifting through the comments of users for relevance and accreditation, provide a rich example of how this function can be performed on a distributed, peer-production model. 156 First, it is important to understand that the function of posting a story from another site onto Slashdot, the first "utterance" in a chain of comments on Slashdot, is itself an act of relevance production. The person submitting the story is telling the community of Slashdot users, "here is a story that `News for Nerds' readers should be interested in." This initial submission of a link is itself very coarsely filtered by editors who are paid employees of Open Source Technology Group (OSTG), which runs a number of similar platforms--like SourceForge, the most important platform for free software developers. OSTG is a subsidiary of VA Software, a software services company. The FAQ (Frequently Asked Question) response to, "how do you verify the accuracy of Slashdot stories?" is revealing: "We don't. You do. If something seems outrageous, we might look for some corroboration, but as a rule, we regard this as the responsibility of the submitter and the audience.

They spend time selecting sites for inclusion in the directory (in small increments of perhaps fifteen minutes per site reviewed), producing the most comprehensive, highest-quality human-edited directory of the Web--at this point outshining the directory produced by the company that pioneered human edited directories of the Web: Yahoo!. 155 Perhaps the most elaborate platform for peer production of relevance and accreditation, at multiple layers, is used by Slashdot. Billed as "News for Nerds," Slashdot has become a leading technology newsletter on the Web, coproduced by hundreds of thousands of users. Slashdot primarily consists [pg 77] of users commenting on initial submissions that cover a variety of technology-related topics. The submissions are typically a link to an off-site story, coupled with commentary from the person who submits the piece. Users follow up the initial submission with comments that often number in the hundreds.

You might find something that refutes, or supports, the story in the main." In other words, Slashdot very self-consciously is organized as a means of facilitating peer production of accreditation; it is at the comments stage that the story undergoes its most important form of accreditation--peer review ex-post. 157 Filtering and accreditation of comments on Slashdot offer the most interesting case study of peer production of these functions. Users submit comments that are displayed together with the initial submission of a story. Think of the "content" produced in these comments as a cross between academic peer review of journal submissions and a peer-produced substitute for television's "talking heads." It is in the means of accrediting and evaluating these comments that Slashdot's system provides a comprehensive example of peer production of relevance and accreditation.

Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge by Cass R. Sunstein

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affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, availability heuristic, Build a better mousetrap, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, cognitive bias, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, framing effect, hindsight bias, information asymmetry, Isaac Newton, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, market bubble, market design, minimum wage unemployment, prediction markets, profit motive, rent control, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, slashdot, stem cell, The Wisdom of Crowds, winner-take-all economy

Consider a few of many examples. Slashdot, the largest community-driven technology site on the Internet, has long identified itself as “news for nerds, stuff that matters.” Slashdot is, among other things, an edited compilation of news abstracts, focusing on a wide range of topics related to technology. A first-time visitor to Slashdot will notice that the site resembles an ordinary news site, with story headlines, synopses, and links to follow. But its real value lies in the fact that it permits its users to discuss both news articles and one another’s posts. Specifically, Slashdot users can spark discussions by posting ideas and responses to particular articles, thus facilitating discussion. Of course, the system is vulnerable to irrelevant, silly, and abusive comments. Slashdot’s ingenious response is a “moderation system,” by which users judge comments and rank them by score.

Slashdot’s ingenious response is a “moderation system,” by which users judge comments and rank them by score. At first, the founders of Slashdot Many Working Minds / 191 moderated posts themselves. But as the user base expanded, the job of moderating became unmanageable and was therefore delegated to users. As a result, a group of moderators has been selected from a pool of active users. Many minds thus evaluate the contributions of many minds. As the system operates, all comments are scored on an absolute scale from –1 to 5. Logged-in users start at 1 (although this can vary from 0 to 2 based on their prior actions), and anonymous users start at 0. Moderators can add or deduct points from a comment’s score, thus influencing whether a comment will be immediately visible to a reader. (Confession: Slashdot had a discussion of my 2001 book, Republic.com; as the author, I ventured a nonanonymous comment, which was ranked very low: 0, as I recall.

(Confession: Slashdot had a discussion of my 2001 book, Republic.com; as the author, I ventured a nonanonymous comment, which was ranked very low: 0, as I recall. True, I probably deserved the low ranking.) Of course, there is a risk that the moderators will promote an agenda of their own. To combat that risk, Slashdot has produced the ingenious mechanism of “metamoderation,” which operates as a review process of the moderation system. Instead of rating the usefulness of a comment, metamoderation rates the fairness and accuracy of the moderator’s judgment.58 According to the metamoderation statistics, 92 percent to 93 percent of moderations are judged fair.59 (Hence, it is not necessary, to date, to create metametamoderation, reviewing the metamoderators!) Slashdot explores a wide range of questions relating to technology, but more specialized aggregations, involving goods and activities of relevance to everyday life, are easy to imagine.


pages: 387 words: 112,868

Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money by Nathaniel Popper

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4chan, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, capital controls, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, life extension, litecoin, lone genius, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, QR code, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Startup school, stealth mode startup, the payments system, transaction costs, tulip mania, WikiLeaks

But this, and the derogatory comments that showed up under the Slashdot item, did not dampen his enthusiasm. This was what he’d been waiting for for months. CHAPTER 5 July 12, 2010 When he awoke late, the morning after the Slashdot posting, Martti Malmi saw that the attention was not a hit-and-run phenomenon. People weren’t just taking a look at the site and moving on. They were also downloading and running the Bitcoin software. The number of downloads would jump from around three thousand in June to over twenty thousand in July. The day after the Slashdot piece appeared, Gavin Andresen’s Bitcoin faucet gave away 5,000 Bitcoins and was running empty. As he begged for donations, he marveled at the strength of the network: Over the last two days of Bitcoin being “slashdotted” I haven’t heard of ANY problems with Bitcoin transactions getting lost, or of the network crashing due to the load, or any problem at all with the core functionality.

HEADPHONES ON AND an oversize can of MadCroc energy drink by his side, Martti sat at his dorm room desk, giddy. Slashdot, a go-to news site for computer geeks the world over, was going to post an article about Martti’s pet project. Bitcoin, largely ignored over the last year, was on the verge of receiving global attention. The campaign to get Bitcoin real press coverage had begun a few weeks earlier, not long after Martti finished his three-month internship at Siemens. A new version of Bitcoin, version 0.3, was being prepared for release by Satoshi, and the regulars on the forum saw a perfect opportunity to get the word out. Martti agreed with a handful of other users that Slashdot would be the best place to do this. “Slashdot with its millions of tech-savvy readers would be awesome, perhaps the best imaginable!” Martti wrote on the forum.

CHAPTER 4 44But on May 22, 2010, a guy in California offered to call Lazlo’s local Papa John’s: Information about the Bitcoin transaction is available at https://blockchain.info/tx/a1075db55d416d3ca199f55b6084e2115b9345e16c5cf302fc80e9d5fbf5d48d. 44small item on the website of InfoWorld: Neil McAllister, “Open Source Innovation on the Cutting Edge,” Info World, May 24, 2010, http://www.infoworld.com/article/2627013/open-source-software/open-source-innovation-on-the-cutting-edge.html. 47“Slashdot with its millions of tech-savvy readers”: Martti Malmi to BTCF, June 22, 2010. 48“How’s this for a disruptive technology?”: “Bitcoin Releases Version 0.3,” Slashdot, July 11, 2010, http://news-beta.slashdot.org/story/10/07/11/1747245/bitcoin-releases-version-03. CHAPTER 5 49The number of downloads would jump from around three thousand: Data on software downloads available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/bitcoin/files/stats/timeline. 49“Over the last two days of Bitcoin being”: Gavin Andresen to BTCF, July 14, 2010. 53the difficulty of mining new Bitcoins jumped 300 percent: Data on mining difficulty available at https://blockchain.info/charts/difficulty?


pages: 335 words: 107,779

Some Remarks by Neal Stephenson

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airport security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, British Empire, cable laying ship, call centre, cellular automata, edge city, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, music of the spheres, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, packet switching, pirate software, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, Socratic dialogue, South China Sea, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method, trade route, Turing machine, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, X Prize

Putting them in a place devoid of brick walls and speeding taxicabs would make the world healthier for them, and safer for all of us. Slashdot Interview (2004) [questions contributed by Slashdot readers] THE LACK OF RESPECT . . . —BY MOSESJONES Science Fiction is normally relegated to the specialist publications rather than having reviews in the mainstream press. Seen as “fringe” and a bit sad it’s seldom reviewed with anything more than condescension by the “quality” press. Does it bother you that people like Jeffery Archer or Jackie Collins seem to get more respect for their writing than you ? NEAL OUCH! (removes mirrorshades, wipes tears, blows nose, composes self) Let me just come at this one from sort of a big picture point of view. (the sound of a million Slashdot readers hitting the “back” button . . . ) First of all, I don’t think that the condescending “quality” press look too kindly on Jackie Collins and Jeffrey Archer.

About the Author Neal Stephenson is the author of the bestselling Reamde; Anathem; the three-volume historical epic The Baroque Cycle (Quicksilver, The Confusion, and The System of the World); Cryptonomicon; The Diamond Age; Snow Crash, which was named one of Time magazine’s top one hundred all-time best English-language novels; and Zodiac. He lives in Seattle, Washington. Visit www.AuthorTracker.com for exclusive information on your favorite HarperCollins authors. Also by Neal Stephenson Reamde Anathem The System of the World The Confusion Quicksilver Cryptonomicon The Diamond Age Snow Crash Zodiac Permissions A version of “Slashdot Interview” previously appeared on Slashdot.org. A version of “Metaphysics in the Royal Society 1715–2010” previously appeared in Seeing Further: The Story of Science & the Royal Society edited by Bill Bryson. Published by HarperCollins in 2010. A version of “It’s All Geek to Me,” “Turn On, Tune In, Veg Out,” and “Blind Secularism” previously appeared in The New York Times. A version of “Spew,” “In the Kingdom of Mao Bell (selected excerpts),” and “Mother Earth, Mother Board” previously appeared in Wired magazine and on Wired.com.

Some Remarks Essays and Other Writing Neal Stephenson Contents Introduction Arsebestos (2012) Slashdot Interview (2004) Metaphysics in the Royal Society 1715–2010 (2012) It’s All Geek to Me (2007) Turn On, Tune In, Veg Out (2006) Gresham College Lecture (2008) Spew (1994) In the Kingdom of Mao Bell (selected excerpts) (1994) Under-Constable Proudfoot (2012) Mother Earth, Mother Board (1996) The Salon Interview (2004) Blind Secularism (1993) Time Magazine Article About Anathem (2012) Everything and More Foreword (2003) The Great Simoleon Caper (1995) Locked In (2011) Innovation Starvation (2011) Why I Am a Bad Correspondent (1998) About the Author Also by Neal Stephenson Permissions Footnotes Credits Copyright About the Publisher Introduction Certain persons who know what they are talking about where publishing is concerned have assured me that I have reached the stage in my life and career where it is not only possible, but advisable, to release a compilation of what are drolly referred to as my “shorter” works.


pages: 519 words: 102,669

Programming Collective Intelligence by Toby Segaran

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always be closing, correlation coefficient, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, full text search, information retrieval, PageRank, prediction markets, recommendation engine, slashdot, Thomas Bayes, web application

Create a new file called treepredict.py to work with throughout this chapter. If you'd like to enter the data manually, add this to the top of the file: my_data=[['slashdot','USA','yes',18,'None'], ['google','France','yes',23,'Premium'], ['digg','USA','yes',24,'Basic'], ['kiwitobes','France','yes',23,'Basic'], ['google','UK','no',21,'Premium'], ['(direct)','New Zealand','no',12,'None'], ['(direct)','UK','no',21,'Basic'], ['google','USA','no',24,'Premium'], ['slashdot','France','yes',19,'None'], ['digg','USA','no',18,'None'], ['google','UK','no',18,'None'], ['kiwitobes','UK','no',19,'None'], ['digg','New Zealand','yes',12,'Basic'], ['slashdot','UK','no',21,'None'], ['google','UK','yes',18,'Basic'], ['kiwitobes','France','yes',19,'Basic']] If you'd prefer to download the dataset, it's available at http://kiwitobes.com/tree/decision_tree_example.txt.

To minimize annoyance for users and sign them up as quickly as possible, the site doesn't ask them a lot of questions about themselves—instead, it collects information from the server logs, such as the site that referred them, their geographical location, how many pages they viewed before signing up, and so on. If you collect the data and put it in a table, it might look like Table 7-1. Table 7-1. User behavior and final purchase decision for a web site Referrer Location Read FAQ Pages viewed Service chosen Slashdot USA Yes 18 None Google France Yes 23 Premium Digg USA Yes 24 Basic Kiwitobes France Yes 23 Basic Google UK No 21 Premium (direct) New Zealand No 12 None (direct) UK No 21 Basic Google USA No 24 Premium Slashdot France Yes 19 None Digg USA No 18 None Google UK No 18 None Kiwitobes UK No 19 None Digg New Zealand Yes 12 Basic Google UK Yes 18 Basic Kiwitobes France Yes 19 Basic Arrange the data in a list of rows, with each row being a list of columns.

Call this function with the tree you just built, and you'll get something like this: >>>reload(treepredict) >>> treepredict.printtree(tree) 0:google? T-> 3:21? T-> {'Premium': 3} F-> 2:yes? T-> {'Basic': 1} F-> {'None': 1} F-> 0:slashdot? T-> {'None': 3} F-> 2:yes? T-> {'Basic': 4} F-> 3:21? T-> {'Basic': 1} F-> {'None': 3} This is a visual representation of the process that the decision tree will go through when trying to make a new classification. The condition on the root node is "is Google in column 0?" If this condition is met, it proceeds to the T-> branch and finds that anyone referred from Google will become a paid subscriber if they have viewed 21 pages or more. If the condition is not met, it jumps to the F-> branch and evaluates the condition "is Slashdot in column 0?" This continues until it reaches a branch that has a result. As mentioned earlier, the ability to view the logic behind the reasoning process is one of the big advantages of decision trees.


pages: 233 words: 66,446

Bitcoin: The Future of Money? by Dominic Frisby

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3D printing, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer age, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, fixed income, friendly fire, game design, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, land value tax, litecoin, M-Pesa, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, QR code, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing complete, War on Poverty, web application, WikiLeaks

In May 2010, a Florida programmer by the name of Laszlo Hanyecz wanted to test the technology. He offered to buy a pizza for 10,000 coins. The pizza arrived. For several days after that, Hanyecz bought 10,000-bitcoin pizzas. I bet he regrets it now. Ten thousand bitcoins would at one stage be worth over 12 million dollars. Twelve million bucks for a pizza! July 2010 saw Bitcoin’s first step out of obscurity. It was mentioned on the website Slashdot and there was a sudden increase in interest. The value of a bitcoin went up over ten times in a week – from eight-tenths of one cent to eight cents. The price would slide back to six cents and remain there for several months. Then another Bitcoin exchange sprung up, one that would become the biggest and most notorious – MtGox. 3 The Rise of Bitcoin and the Disappearance of its Maker I think that the internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government.

39It was the most prominent site yet to mention Bitcoin and suggested it may be the answer to WikiLeaks’ funding problems. A sudden flood of traffic overwhelmed Bitcoin’s website and it went down. When it came back up again, Satoshi wrote, ‘It would have been nice to get this attention in any other context. WikiLeaks has kicked the hornet’s nest, and the swarm is headed towards us.’ Then Bitcoin was mentioned on Slashdot again, alongside WikiLeaks and the outspoken libertarian US congressman, Ron Paul. Meanwhile, the Financial Action Task Force issued warnings that digital currencies were being used to finance terrorist groups.40 The following morning, on December 12th 2010, Satoshi outlined some technical developments he had made. ‘I’m doing a quick build of what I have so far in case it’s needed, before venturing into more complex ideas,’41 he said.

He saw what was happening to Assange and to Bradley Manning, and what had befallen the founders of other forms of ecash. It’s unlikely he wanted accusations of terrorism levelled against him. Even if they were unfounded, they could have ruined his life and the lives of those close to him. Whether it was WikiLeaks, the CIA or both that caused it, Satoshi had vanished. The rise of Bitcoin That July 2010 mention on Slashdot was a catalyst. More and more users flocked to Bitcoin over the following months. New operations sprung up to mine coins. Open-source development of the protocol continued. At first, the price of a bitcoin remained flat at around six cents, but then it began to rise. In November, it touched 50 cents. The market cap of Bitcoin passed the one-million-dollar mark. Across the net a growing number of people were developing the technology and ways to apply it.


pages: 310 words: 34,482

Makers at Work: Folks Reinventing the World One Object or Idea at a Time by Steven Osborn

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3D printing, A Pattern Language, additive manufacturing, air freight, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, c2.com, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mason jar, means of production, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, Oculus Rift, patent troll, popular electronics, QR code, Rodney Brooks, Shenzhen was a fishing village, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software as a service, special economic zone, speech recognition, subscription business, telerobotics, urban planning, web application, Y Combinator

Osborn: That wraps up my questions. I love your insight on manufacturing in China and learning about the history behind the Bus Pirate. One piece of front matter I have left is I don’t have a title for you. Should it be “founder,” “blogger,” “CEO”? Lesnet: Really, I prefer “Slashdot troll.” That’s usually what I tell people. I don’t think of myself as a CEO, nor as a blogger. I just like to play with electronics, and I’m lucky enough to be here doing it. Osborn: What about “founder”? 279 280 Chapter 20 | Ian Lesnet: Slashdot Troll, Dangerous Prototypes Lesnet: Well, that’s okay. That sounds very technical, though. There are so many founders. So many people contributed to the Bus Pirate, and it wouldn’t be here without the hundreds of people that contributed to it. So I can’t say I’m really the founder of that either.

Contents Foreword ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� vii About the Author������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������xi Acknowledgments���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� xiii Introduction���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������xv Chapter 1: Erik Kettenburg, Founder, Digistump������������������������������������������������ 1 Chapter 2: David Merrill, Cofounder, Sifteo�������������������������������������������������������21 Chapter 3: Nathan Seidle, CEO, SparkFun Electronics�����������������������������������������37 Chapter 4: Laen, Founder, OSH Park �����������������������������������������������������������������51 Chapter 5: Zach Kaplan, Founder and CEO, Inventables ���������������������������������������61 Chapter 6: Emile Petrone, Founder, Tindie�������������������������������������������������������71 Chapter 7: bunnie Huang, Founder, bunnie studios���������������������������������������������83 Chapter 8: Natan Linder, Founder, Formlabs�����������������������������������������������������99 Chapter 9: Ben Heck, Host, The Ben Heck Show�����������������������������������������������115 Chapter 10: Becky Stern, Director of Wearable Electronics, Adafruit Industries�����������127 Chapter 11: Eric Stackpole, Cofounder, OpenROV���������������������������������������������139 Chapter 12: Eben Upton, Founder, Raspberry Pi Foundation ���������������������������������153 Chapter 13: Catarina Mota, Founder, OpenMaterials.org�������������������������������������163 Chapter 14: Ward Cunningham, Inventor, Wiki ���������������������������������������������177 Chapter 15: Jeri Ellsworth, Founder, Technical Illusions ���������������������������������������195 Chapter 16: Sylvia Todd, Maker, Sylvia’s Super Awesome Maker Show!���������������������221 Chapter 17: Dave Jones, Host, EEVBlog �����������������������������������������������������������229 Chapter 18: Bre Pettis, CEO, MakerBot �����������������������������������������������������������245 vi Contents Chapter 19: Eric Migicovsky, CEO, Pebble Technology�����������������������������������������255 Chapter 20: Ian Lesnet, Slashdot Troll, Dangerous Prototypes���������������������������������263 Chapter 21: Massimo Banzi, Cofounder, Arduino�����������������������������������������������281 Index�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������293 Introduction I am a big fan of the original book in this series, Founders at Work. One thing that stuck with me about the stories in Founders at Work is the fact that CEOs of massive, successful Internet companies are just regular people who have overcome many obstacles and failures.

We’ve shipped over one hundred thousand Pebbles. Our job as a company right now is delivering on software, pushing out updates, adding cool new features to the watch, and enabling developers to write more awesome apps for Pebble. Osborn: T   hat’s pretty cool.  I’m really interested to see what sort of applications people come up with for it. Thanks for your time, Eric. 5 http://selfstarter.us 261 CHAPTER 20 Ian Lesnet Slashdot Troll Dangerous Prototypes Ian Lesnet is an entrepreneur and electrical engineer who has lived and worked in cities all over the world. Ian has written about his open-hardware electronics projects on many popular electronics blogs, including DIY Live and Hack a Day. He is the owner and creator of Dangerous Prototypes (dangerousprototypes.com), an ­electronics blog with a focus on DIY electronic projects and tools.


pages: 292 words: 81,699

More Joel on Software by Joel Spolsky

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a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, barriers to entry, Black Swan, Build a better mousetrap, business process, call centre, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, George Gilder, Larry Wall, low cost carrier, Mars Rover, Network effects, Paul Graham, performance metric, place-making, price discrimination, prisoner's dilemma, Ray Oldenburg, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, The Great Good Place, type inference, unpaid internship, wage slave, web application, Y Combinator

Instead of deleting posts, why don’t you have a moderation scheme, where people vote on how much they like a post, and people can choose how high the vote has to be before they read it? A. This is, of course, how Slashdot works, and I’ll bet you 50% of the people who read Slashdot regularly have never figured it out. There are three things I don’t like about this. One: it’s more UI complication, a feature that people need to learn how to use. Two: it creates such complicated politics that it make the Byzantine Empire look like third-grade school government. And three: when you read Slashdot with the filters turned up high enough that you see only the interesting posts, the narrative is completely lost. You just get a bunch of random disjointed statements with no context. Q. Why don’t you have a registration scheme to eliminate rude posters?

Building Communities with Software 113 On most investment discussion boards, it’s practically impossible to follow a thread from beginning to end, because every post is its own page, which makes for a lot of banner ad inventory, but the latency in reading a conversation will eventually drive you nuts. The huge amount of flashing commercial crap on all four sides of the conversation makes you feel like you were trying to make friends in Times Square, but the neon lights keep demanding all the attention. On Slashdot, every thread has hundreds of replies, many of which are identical, so the conversation there feels insipid and stupid. In a moment, I’ll reveal why Slashdot has so many identical replies, and the Joel on Software forum doesn’t. And on FuckedCompany.com, the discussion board is completely, utterly worthless; the vast majority of posts consist of irrelevant profanity and general abusiveness, and it feels like a fraternity rudeness contest, without any fraternity. So, we have discovered the primary axiom of online communities: Small software implementation details result in big differences in the way the community develops, behaves, and feels.

I would prefer that you read all the posts before you reply; otherwise, you may post something that is repetitive or that sounds disjointed coming after the previous last post. Of course, I can’t physically grab your eyeballs and move them from left to right, forcing you to read the entire thread before letting you post, but if I put a “Reply” link anywhere but the bottom of the page, that would positively encourage people to spew their little gems before they’ve read what’s already there. This is why Slashdot topics have 500 replies but only 17 interesting replies, and it’s why nobody likes to read Slashdot discussions: they sound like a classroom full of children all shouting out the same answer at the same time. (“Ha ha . . . Bill Gates! That’s an oxymoron!”) Q. The damn “Start a New Topic” link is all the way at the bottom . . . A. Uh huh, same thing. Q. Why don’t you show people their posts to confirm them before you post them? Then people wouldn’t make mistakes and typos.


pages: 265 words: 15,515

Nomad Citizenship: Free-Market Communism and the Slow-Motion General Strike by Eugene W. Holland

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capital controls, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, deskilling, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, price mechanism, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, slashdot, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, wage slave, working poor

Attempts like Wikipedia to combine distributed intelligence and distrib­ uted sovereignty abound on the Internet. Slashdot and Kuro5hin are both cooperative online information portals (and therefore somewhat differ­ ent from full-fledged encyclopedias): they are designed to make breaking information—either pulled from elsewhere on the Web or written specifi­ cally for the sites—available to their members. Anyone can join Slashdot or Kuro5hin, although both are intended for people specifically interested and involved in Internet technology. (Slashdot presents itself as “News for Nerds. Stuff that M atters”; Kuro5hin’s declared focus is “technology and culture, from the trenches.”) The two sites attempt to promote both openaccess and high-quality debate without resorting to top-down control of either content or participation. Slashdot does exercise a modicum of topdown control regarding content: its editors decide which of the hundreds of items sent to them by members each day will be posted to the homepage or one of the special-topic sections of the Web site.

More recently, a Web site for free software developers called Advogato has undertaken the development of a “trust metric” that would assure a near-perfect self-mo derating process by eliminating the possibility of any one participant or group of participants unfairly distorting peer input and ratings; it remains to be seen how successful the attempt will be and how widely it will be adopted. The posting, comment, and modera­ tion systems used by Slashdot and Kuro5hin and proposed by Advogato may seem complicated, but the aim is to offer both open-access and highquality debate and to do so with little or no top-down interference from the editors: the sites are designed to offer a self-moderating platform for the dissemination and discussion of im portant information for specific subgroups of the Internet community. Slashdot and Kuro5hin are by no means the only sites attempting to combine distributed intelligence and distributed sovereignty by capitalizing on the ability of Internet-linked computers to collect and make use of vast amounts of information for the benefit of users.

Anyone (member or not) can post comments in response to an article, and moderators then rate the quality of the comments. Readers can set their comment threshold to read only the best ones, or only the comments not found objectionable by moderators, or all the comments. Almost anyone can serve as moderator, although there are criteria set to ensure their quality: moderators must be regular and fairly long-standing members of Slashdot (to discourage people signing up new accounts simply to disparage another member), and the comments they themselves have posted must have positive “karm a”— they must have received an average rating of good or better from other moderators (this is to discourage people with little expertise or bad at­ titudes from moderating others’ comments). Moderators are selected by machine at random from the eligible pool of members and are awarded a certain number of points with which to rate comments; if they are not used within three days, they expire.


pages: 398 words: 107,788

Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking by E. Gabriella Coleman

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Benjamin Mako Hill, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Debian, Donald Knuth, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, financial independence, ghettoisation, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Jean Tirole, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Larry Wall, Louis Pasteur, means of production, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, software patent, software studies, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, web application, web of trust

If it were not for Patrick Crosby, who literally sat me down one day in 1997 to describe the existence of a novel licensing agreement, the GNU General Public License (GPL), I would have likely never embarked on the study of free software and eventually hackers. I am thrilled he decided that something dear to him would be of interest to me. And it was. I was floored to discover working alternatives to existing intellectual property instruments. After months of spending hour after hour online, week after week, reading about the flurry of exciting developments reported on Linux Weekly News, Kuro5hin, and Slashdot, it became clear to me that much more than the law was compelling about this world, and that I should turn this distractingly fascinating hobby into my dissertation topic or run the risk of never finishing graduate school. Now I not only know why Patrick was happy to have received the Slackware CD back in 1996—and I found he was not alone, because many people have told me about the joy of discovering Slackware—but also hope I can convey this passion for technology to others in the pages of this book.

He firmly came to believe that knowledge access and transactions of sharing facilitate production, that most types of software should be open source, and that the world would be a better place if we were just given choices for software licensing. Although not exactly motivated to engage in F/OSS production to fulfill a political mandate, he understood the political dimension of coding in an entirely new light. In fact, since reading Lawrence Lessig’s Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, and through his daily reading of Slashdot and Boing Boing, popular Web sites reporting technology news and geek esoterica, he came to understand that code is law; code regulates behavior. But so do the copyright industries, which are using everything in their arsenal to fundamentally shape legal policy and even behavior. They suck. This chapter expands the narrative introduced above to present some consistent features of the hacker lifeworld by visiting the sites, practices, events, and technical architectures through which hackers make as well as remake themselves individually and collectively.

I honestly don’t feel like there are vast differences in areas like enjoyment gained in the programming, stress level, levels of collaboration, and stuff like that. But most often when I am done with corporate software, it’s dead, and when I am done with free software, it is alive. Free Software Spreads A nascent, circumscribed political sensibility that differentiated proprietary software from F/OSS was fertilized by everyday geek news on Web-based periodicals like Linux Weekly News and Web sites such as Slashdot, which presented moral and political analyses alongside mainstream news features as well as prolific analyses about life as a coder. “Programmers started writing personally, intently, voluminously,” observes journalist Scott Rosenberg (2007, 301), “pouring out their inspirations and frustrations, their insights and tips and fears and dreams on Web sites and in blogs. It has been the basis of if not a canon of great works of software, at least an informal literature around the day-to-day practice of programming.”


pages: 370 words: 105,085

Joel on Software by Joel Spolsky

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barriers to entry, c2.com, commoditize, George Gilder, index card, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, Metcalfe's law, Network effects, new economy, PageRank, Paul Graham, profit motive, Robert X Cringely, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, slashdot, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, thinkpad, VA Linux, web application

The thousands or millions of developer hours it takes to revise every existing device driver are going to have to come at the expense of something. And until that's done, Linux will be once again handicapped in the marketplace because it doesn't support existing hardware. Wouldn't it be better to use all that "zero cost" effort making Gnome better? Or supporting new hardware? __________ 2. Slashdot interview with Moshe Bar, June 7, 2002. See http://interviews.slashdot.org/interviews/02/06/07/1255227.shtml?tid=156. Debugged code is not free, whether proprietary or open source. Even if you don't pay cash dollars for it, it has opportunity cost, and it has time cost. There is a finite amount of volunteer programming talent available for open source work, and each open source project competes with each other open source project for the same limited programming resource, and only the sexiest projects really have more volunteer developers than they can use.

You don't have the capital, and you're afraid that spicy/garlicky sandwiches are just a fad which will pass, anyway. But you're still losing that $15,000 a day. It's a good thing you hired Jason. Jason is a 14-year-old programmer who hacked into the computers that run the factory, and believes that he has come up with a way to speed up the assembly line by a factor of two. Something about overclocking that he heard on Slashdot. And it seemed to work in a test run. There's only one thing stopping you from rolling it out. There's a teeny tiny wee little bug that causes a sandwich to be mushed once an hour or so. Jason wants to fix the wee bug. He thinks he can fix it in three days. Do you let him fix it, or do you roll out the software in its bug-addled state? Rolling out the software three days later will cost you $45,000 in lost profits.

At the very least, Windows programmers will concede the faults of their culture and say pragmatically, "Look, if you want to sell a word processor to a lot of people, it has to run on their computers, and if that means we use the Evil Registry instead of elegant ~/.rc files to store our settings, so be it." The very fact that the UNIX world is so full of self-righteous cultural superiority, "advocacy," and Slashdot-karma-whoring sectarianism while the Windows world is more practical ("yeah, whatever, I just need to make a living here") stems from a culture that feels itself under siege, unable to break out of the server closet and hobbyist market and onto the mainstream desktop. This haughtiness-from-a-position-of-weakness is the biggest flaw of The Art of UNIX Programming, but it's not really a big flaw: On the whole, the book is so full of incredibly interesting insight into so many aspects of programming that I'm willing to hold my nose during the rare smelly ideological rants because there's so much to learn about universal ideals from the rest of the book.


pages: 369 words: 80,355

Too Big to Know: Rethinking Knowledge Now That the Facts Aren't the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room by David Weinberger

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airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, Debian, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of journalism, Galaxy Zoo, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, linked data, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, openstreetmap, P = NP, Pluto: dwarf planet, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, slashdot, social graph, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

IBM has pioneered the use of “jams” to engage the entire corporation, at every level and pay grade, in discussing core business challenges over the course of a few days. From this have come new lines of business—created out of a stew in which the beef, peas, and carrots all have the same rank. “Other”-credentialed. At the tech-geek site Slashdot.com (its motto is “News for Nerds”), you’ll find rapid bursts of argumentation on the geeky news of the day. To cite your credentials generally would count against you, and if you don’t know what you’re talking about, a credential would do you no good. At Slashdot, a slash-and-burn sense of humor counts for more than a degree from Carnegie Mellon. Unsettled. We used to rely on experts to have decisive answers. It is thus surprising that in some branches of biology, rather than arguing to a conclusion about how to classify organisms, a new strategy has emerged to enable scientists to make progress together even while in fundamental disagreement.

One guess at the number of developers who worked on Windows 7 is 1,000, based on a post by Steve Sinofsky at the “Engineering Windows 7” blog on August 17, 2008 (http://blogs.msdn.com/b/e7/archive/2008/08/18/windows_5f00_7_5f00_team.aspx). But it is extremely difficult to do an apples-to-apples comparison, so to speak. 17 Eric Steven Raymond, “The Cathedral and the Bazaar,” http://catb.org/~esr/writings/homesteading (May 1997). Raymond later published a book by the same name. 18 “The Scalability of Linus,” Slashdot, July 23, 2010, http://linux.slashdot.org/story/10/07/23/123209/The-Scalability-of-Linus? 19 See http://www.debian.org/devel/constitution as well as Mathieu O’Neil, Cyberchiefs: Autonomy and Authority in Online Tribes (Pluto Press, 2009), p. 132. 20 O’Neil, Cyberchiefs. 21 Interview with Noel Dickover, February 25, 2011. 22 See http://www.fantasypumpkins.com/. 23 Peter J. Denning and Rick Hayes-Roth, “Decision Making in Very Large Networks,” Communications of the ACM [Association for Computing Machinery] 49, no. 11 (November 2006): 19–23. 24 There are important exceptions.

See also Books and book publishing Paper-based tools Parenting experts Patent Office, US PatientsLikeMe.com Pavement performance Peer-review journals Perception, facts and Permission-free knowledge Philosophy defining and quantifying knowledge information overload reality unresolved knowledge Pinker, Steven Planetary Skin initiative Plato PLoS One online journal Pogue, David Polio vaccine Politics Politifact.com Popper, Karl Population growth, Malthusian theory of Pornography Postmodernism Pragmatism PressThink.org Primary Insight Principles of Geology (Lyell) Prize4Life Protein folding ProteomeCommons.org Pseudo-science Public Library of Science (PLoS) Punchcard data Pyramid, knowledge Pyramid of organizational efficiency Quora Racial/ethnic identity Ramanujan, Srinivasa RAND Corporation Random Hacks of Kindness Rauscher, Francis Raymond, Eric Reagan, Ronald Reality Reason as the path to truth and knowledge critical debate on unresolved knowledge Reliability Repositories, open access Republic of Letters Republican Party Republic.com (Sunstein) Revolution in the Middle East Rheingold, Howard Richards, Ellen Swallow Riesman, David Robustness “The Rock” (Eliot) Rogers, William Rorty, Richard Rosen, Jay Roskam, Peter Rushkoff, Douglas Russia: Dogger Bank Incident Salk, Jonas Sanger, Larry Schmidt, Michael School shootings Science amateurs in crowdsourcing expertise failures in goals of hyperlinked inflation of scientific studies interdisciplinary approaches media relations Net-based inquiry open filtering journal articles open-notebook overgeneration of scientific facts philosophical and professional differences among scientists public and private realms scientific journals transformation of scientific knowledge Science at Creative Commons Science journal Scientific journals Scientific management Scientific method Self-interest: fact-based knowledge Semantic Web Seneca Sensory overload Sexual behavior The Shallows (Carr) Shapiro, Jesse Shared experiences Shilts, Randy Shirky, Clay Shoemaker, Carolyn Simplicity in scientific thought Simulation of physical interactions Slashdot.com Sloan Digital Sky Survey Smart mobs “Smarter planet” initiative Smith, Arfon Smith, Richard Soccer Social conformity Social networks crowdsourcing expertise Middle East revolutions pooling expertise scaling social filtering Social policy: social role of facts Social reform Dickens’s antipathy to fact-based knowledge global statistical support for Bentham’s ideas Social tools: information overload Society of Professional Journalists Socrates Software defaults Software development, contests for Sotomayor, Sonia Source transparency Space Shuttle disaster Spiro, Mary Sports Sprinkle, Annie Standpoint transparency Statistics emergence of Hunch.com Stopping points for knowledge The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Kuhn) Stupidity, Net increasing Sub-networks Suel, Gurol Sunlight Foundation Sunstein, Cass Surowiecki, James Systems biology Tag cloud Tagging Tatalias, Jean Taylor, Frederick Wilson TechCamps Technodeterminism Technology easing information overload Technorati.com Television, homophily and Temptation of hyperlinks Think tanks Thoreau, Henry David The Tipping Point (Gladwell) Todd, Mac Toffler, Alvin TopCopder Topic-based expertise Torvalds, Linus Traditional knowledge Tranche Transparency hyperlinks contributing to objectivity and of the Net Open Government Initiative Transparency and Open Government project Triangular knowledge Trillin, Calvin Trust: reliability of information Trust-through-authority system Truth elements of knowledge reason as the path to value of networked knowledge Twitter Tyme, Mae Unnailing facts Updike, John USAID UsefulChem notebook Vaccinations Verizon Vietnam Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Wales, Jimmy Wallace, Alfred Russel Walter, Skip Washington Post Watson, James Welch, Jack Welfare The WELL (The Whole Earth’Lectronic Link) Whole Earth Catalog Wikipedia editorial policy LA Times wikitorial experiment policymaking Virginia Tech shootings Wikswo, John Wilbanks, John Wired magazine The Wisdom of Crowds (Surowiecki) Wise crowds Wittgenstein, Ludwig Wolfram, Stephen WolframAlpha.com World Bank World Cup World War I Wurman, Richard Saul Wycliffe, John York, Jillian YourEncore Zappa, Frank Zeleny, Milan Zettabyte Zittrain, Jonathan Zuckerman, Ethan a I’m leaving this as an unsupported idea because it’s not the point of this book.


pages: 394 words: 118,929

Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software by Scott Rosenberg

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A Pattern Language, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, c2.com, call centre, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Grace Hopper, Guido van Rossum, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Howard Rheingold, index card, Internet Archive, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Larry Wall, life extension, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Potemkin village, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, semantic web, side project, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, software studies, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Therac-25, thinkpad, Turing test, VA Linux, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

Press coverage spread out in widening circles from Gillmor’s initial piece, including a link from Slashdot, the Web’s best trafficked and noisiest virtual hangout for programmers. Hundreds of outsiders posted their views and wishes to OSAF’s newly public mailing lists. Most of the missives fell into these categories: I need Chandler immediately. Where is it? You mean you haven’t written it yet? Why aren’t you using [this or that particular] open source project as the basis for [this or that element] of Chandler? I will only consider using a PIM that provides this extremely specific feature that I have been using for many years and can’t live without. Outlook blows. Microsoft sucks. Slashdot’s headline, “Mitch Kapor’s Outlook-Killer,” set the tone of the publicity: Kapor was taking on Gates.

“Guido’s time machine”: Eric Raymond’s Jargon File defines it at http://www.catb.org/jargon/html/G/Guido.htm. “When you program, you spend”: Paul Graham, “The Python Paradox,” August 2004, at http://www.paulgraham.com/pypar.htm. Vaporware Hall of Fame: Jon Zilber in MacUser, January 1, 1990. Dan Gillmor’s piece: “Software Idea May Be Just Crazy Enough to Work,” San Jose Mercury News, October 20, 2002. The original Slashdot posting and discussion is at http://slashdot.org/articles/02/10/20/1827210.shtml?tid=99. Complete archives of OSAF’s mailing lists can be accessed at http://www.osafoundation.org/mailing_lists.htm. “We will first put out code”: Kapor’s blog post from November 14, 2002, is at http://blogs.osafoundation.org/mitch/000044.htm# 000044. CHAPTER 4 LEGO LAND David/Rys McCusker’s blog postings are no longer online. “In the future, programs will be built”: James Noble, “The Lego Hypothesis,” slides from talk at JAOO Conference, September 2004, at http://www.jaoo.org/jaoo2004/speakers/show_ speaker.jsp?

Steve Jobs called Kapor—it was the two men’s first conversation in a decade—inviting the OSAF team down to Apple to talk about how they might collaborate. Kapor took special note when Lou Montulli’s name turned up in the signature of an email to OSAF’s just-opened “dev” mailing list—a message suggesting that OSAF look again at Mozilla’s toolkit for building its user interface. Montulli and his pal Aleks Totic had seen the Slashdot article about OSAF; soon after, they got in touch with Kapor to talk about volunteering on Chandler. Both young men were famous in Web circles: Totic had been part of the group at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, that built Mosaic, the first popular graphic Web browser (he had written the Macintosh version), and then decamped with his colleagues for Silicon Valley as part of the founding team at Netscape in 1994.


pages: 315 words: 85,791

Technical Blogging: Turn Your Expertise Into a Remarkable Online Presence by Antonio Cangiano

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Albert Einstein, anti-pattern, bitcoin, bounce rate, cloud computing, en.wikipedia.org, John Gruber, Lean Startup, Network effects, revision control, Ruby on Rails, search engine result page, slashdot, software as a service, web application

Let your readers know when an important new industry-related book has been released—even if you haven’t read it yet and therefore can’t write a full review at that point in time. One time I announced that a new edition of a book was out. I wasn’t the first to announce it, so I didn’t even promote the post (it was a heads-up for my regular readers); however, someone saw it and submitted it on Slashdot. My announcement made the frontpage of Slashdot, bringing me an unexpected few thousand dollars. Results like this are not typical, but it does happen from time to time. Beside, you are offering a very valuable service to your readers. (Feel free to use my service, http://anynewbooks.com, to discover new books in the first place.) Mention books and other products. Even if the point of your post is not to review a product, you can still mention it.

Most blogs have a comment section for this specific purpose, and that’s definitely a positive thing, as your readers will want to interact with you by leaving comments (that you will often reply to as a means of further engaging your commenters). Some readers may even contact you directly by email or link back to your post from their blogs. Other discussions about your content may pop up on sites or communities such as Twitter, Facebook,[3] Reddit,[4] Hacker News,[5] or Slashdot.[6] Thinking of blogging as a conversation can also be freeing because you don’t need to have all the answers before approaching a subject you intend to write about. You are not expected to. A blog post is a conversation starter that can lead to lengthy discussions that have the potential to spread far and wide across the Internet. It’s important that you treat blogging as a conversation that will help you grow and learn, and not just as a megaphone.

Footnotes [1] http://techcrunch.com, http://gizmodo.com, http://venturebeat.com, http://smashingmagazine.com, http://venturebeat.com, http://joelonsoftware.com, http://37signals.com/svn, and http://codinghorror.com/blog [2] http://tumblr.com and http://twitter.com, respectively. [3] http://facebook.com, [4] http://reddit.com [5] http://news.ycombinator.com [6] http://slashdot.org Copyright © 2012, The Pragmatic Bookshelf. Part 1 Plan It Chapter 1 What Kind of Blog Are You Going to Run? The Internet is really about highly specialized information, highly specialized targeting. Eric Schmidt The first step when beginning to plan your blog is to determine the type of blog you intend to run. We have already established that it’s not going to be a blog about your personal life, but you still have some choices to make.


pages: 313 words: 84,312

We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

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1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

Sites that aggregated and collated blogs were set up, such as Brigitte Eaton’s Eatonweb, which began with 50 blogs in early 1999; by 2007 it had 65,000.6 That year Technorati, the specialist blog search service, claimed to be tracking 1.6 million updates a day to 75 million blogs, and monitoring the 175,000 new blogs that were being created every day.7 Further sites such as Slashdot and Digg, Plastic and Fark aggregate and sort blogs and user contributions using tools like collaborative filters, while Trackback services allow bloggers to keep track of other blogs that are linked to their own.8 The net result is that bloggers can swarm together and produce something like shared intelligence. In 2004 a self-organised investigation by US bloggers forced a television news network to withdraw a story claiming that President George W. Bush had received preferential treatment during his military service, by showing that the documents the network had relied upon were fakes. The website Slashdot, a meeting-place for nerds and geeks, gets 3 million visitors a day, mainly people who take part in scores of self-moderated discussions.9 OhmyNews in South Korea brings together 55,000 citizen journalists to provide a news service that rivals that of traditional, mainly conservative newspapers and television stations.10 YouTube and Flickr have enabled the widespread sharing of video and photographs and allow people to rate and sort content using tags and collaborative filters.

Contribute A successful creative community has to attract the right mix of people, who have different ideas and outlooks and access to tools that enable them to contribute. We-Think takes off only by getting the right answer to each of the following questions: Who contributes? What do they contribute? Why do they do so? And how do they do it? Creative communities have a social structure. As we have seen, a relatively small, committed core group tends to do most of the heavy lifting: the discussion moderators in Slashdot; the original inhabitants of Second Life. These are the Web 2.0 aristocracy: people who because they have been around longer and done more work tend to get listened to more. There is nothing unusual in this. Most innovative projects, whether inside a company or a theatre group or a laboratory, start with intense collaboration among a small group which shares a particular passion or wants to address a common problem – as did the worm researchers who gathered around Sydney Brenner at Cambridge.13 Often, however, such communities can become closed and inward-looking.

Available from http:// www.essex.ac.uk/chimera/content/pubs/wps/ CWP-2005–02-Blogging-in-the-Knowledge-Society-MB. pdf 4 Rebecca Blood, ‘Weblogs: A History and Perspective’, Rebecca’s Pocket, September 2000. Available from http:// www.rebeccablood.net/essays/weblog_history.html 5 Mallory Jensen, ‘Emerging Alternatives: a Brief History of Weblogs’, 2003. Available from http://www.cjr.org/ issues/2003/5/blog-jensen.asp 6 http://portal.eatonweb.com 7 http://www.technorati.com/about 8 http://slashdot.org and http://www.digg.com http://www.plastic.com http://www.fark.com 9 See Anna Maybank, ‘Web 2.0’, at www.charlesleadbeater. net. 10 See http://english.ohmynews.com 11 Nicole Ellison, Charles Steinfield and Cliff Lampe, ‘Spatially Bound Online Social Networks and Social Capital: The Role of Facebook’, Department of Telecommunication Information Studies and Media, Michigan State University, 2006.


pages: 188 words: 9,226

Collaborative Futures by Mike Linksvayer, Michael Mandiberg, Mushon Zer-Aviv

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4chan, Benjamin Mako Hill, British Empire, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative economy, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, informal economy, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, late capitalism, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, Network effects, optical character recognition, packet switching, postnationalism / post nation state, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, stealth mode startup, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application

Intention is required, especially in the context of a empts at its suppression through legal action and industry stigmatization. Links between individual users are weak, but uncooperative tendencies are mitigated by protocols that require reciprocity or bias performance in favour of generous participants (eg BitTorrent, emule). (5) Slashdot, the technology related news and discussion site is extraordinary in not actually producing articles at all. Instead stories are submi ed by users and then filtered. Those published are either selected by paid staff, or voted on by the user-base. Following this, the stories are presented on the web page and the real business of Slashdot begins: voluminous commentary ranging from additional information on the topic covered (of varying levels of accuracy), to analysis (of various degrees of quality), to speculation (of various degrees of pertinence), taking in jokes and assorted trolling along the way.

Sharing, friendship, following, liking, poking, democratizing… collaborating. These new platforms use a pleasant social terminology in an a empt to a ract more users. But this polite pale e of social interactions misses some of the key features that the pioneering systems were not afraid to use. For example, while most social networks only support binary relationships, Slashcode (the so ware that runs Slashdot.org, a pioneer of many features wrongly credited to “Web 2.0”) included a relationship model that defined friends, enemies, enemies-of-friends, etc. The reputation system on the Advogato publishing tool supported a fairly sophisticated trust metric, while most of the more contemporary blog platforms support none. Web 3.0 is also bullshit “The future is already here—it is just unevenly distributed.”

This miasma is then ordered by the users themselves, a changing subset of whom have powers to evaluate comments, which they assess for relevance and accuracy on a sliding scale. The number and quality of comments presented is then determined by users themselves by configuring their viewing preferences. User moderation is in turn moderated for fairness by other users, in a process known as metamoderation. In addition to the news component of the site, Slashdot also provides all users with space for a journal (which predates the blog), and tools to codify relations with other users as ‘friends’ or ‘foes’ (predating and exceeding Facebook). The system behind the site, Slashcode, is free so ware and is used by numerous other web communities of a smaller scale. (6) Vimeo, a portal for user-produced video, shelters a wide variety of subcultures/communities under one roof.

Remix: Making Art and Commerce Thrive in the Hybrid Economy by Lawrence Lessig

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Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Benjamin Mako Hill, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Cass Sunstein, collaborative editing, commoditize, disintermediation, don't be evil, Erik Brynjolfsson, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Larry Wall, late fees, Mark Shuttleworth, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, optical character recognition, PageRank, peer-to-peer, recommendation engine, revision control, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Saturday Night Live, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, transaction costs, VA Linux, yellow journalism

As McCullagh told me as we ended our interview, “Oh, I should say: I met my wife through the list.” Slashdot Slashdot began in September 1997 as a Web site covering technologyrelated news. Its angle, however, was a technology that enabled users to both comment upon the articles that got referenced, and comment upon the comments. The consequence of the second set of comments would be to filter out comments not thought useful. That meant the site could self-edit, and hence present to any reader 80706 i-xxiv 001-328 r4nk.indd 198 8/12/08 1:55:43 AM H Y BRID EC O NO MIE S 199 a high-quality public debate about issues important to the technology community. Today there are more than a quarter million people collaborating in just this way on Slashdot.30 Their work—work they don’t get paid for, don’t even get frequent-flier miles for—produced a site worth millions of dollars.

Today there are more than a quarter million people collaborating in just this way on Slashdot.30 Their work—work they don’t get paid for, don’t even get frequent-flier miles for—produced a site worth millions of dollars. In 1999, Slashdot was sold to Andover .net, and ads were added to the layout. So readers edit, and readers and Andover.net then profit. Collaboration here winnows a potentially endless array of comments to a relative few that people reading the site would or should want to see. The site adds a kind of collaborative editing to a news page that is RW to the tradition of RO news. This collaboration produces a high-quality RW site. Editing is value. This value is produced for free. Last.fm No doubt the industry that has squealed the most (think stuck pig) about the Internet is the traditional recording industry. As I’ve described, the Net competed (whether legally or not) with its model for profiting from music. It fought hard to limit that competition.

., 206 RW (Read/Write) culture, 28–29, 33, 34–35, 50, 51–83, 116, 252, 253, 274 copyright law and, 97, 100–105, 108 economic value promoted by, 88–90 importance and value of, 106–8 media in, 68–83 RO culture compared with, 84–114 text in, 57–68, 69 value of works created in, 90–97 values and, 85–88 Sadler, Sim, 72–73 Safari Books Online, 235–36 sampling, 53–54, 104, 273 San Francisco Chronicle, 190 Sanger, Larry, 156, 157 Saturday Night Live, 227–28 Scherf, Steve, 237–28 Scholastic, 206 Second Life, 213, 214–20, 236 Sefton-Green, Julia, 78 segregation, 257–58 SETI, 167 Sendmail, 163–64 sharecropping, 243–48 sharing economies, 116, 118–19, 143–76, 177, 223 commercial economies and, 145–51, 177–78, 225–26, 252 crossovers and, 227–28 hybrid economies and, 177–78, 225; see also hybrid economies on Internet, 119, 155–72 motivations for participation in, 151–54, 172–76, 291 parallel economies and, 225–26 thick, 152, 154 thin, 152–54 tools signaling, 226–27 Sherman, Cary, 114 Shuttleworth, Mark, 184–85 SilviaO, 15–17, 95 Sims, Charles, 91–92, 93, 95 8/12/08 1:56:33 AM 326 IND E X Six Apart, 233 Skype, 153 slander, 275 Slashdot, 198–99 Smith, Adam, 49–50 Smith, Marc, 201–2 Söderberg, Johan, 70, 73, 75, 273 software, 221 free and open-source, 163–66, 172, 173–75, 179–85, 219, 220, 240–43, 291 Sony, xxi, 2, 10, 40, 102, 241, 244, 249 Sousa, John Philip, 23–29, 31–33, 35, 36, 50, 56, 82, 132, 254, 280 Southwestern Bell, 181–82 spam, 58 Spears, Britney, 95–96 spillovers, 229–31 Stallman, Richard, 157, 163, 179, 182, 183 Star Wars, 245–46, 247 Sterling, Thomas, 180 stock markets, 152–53, 154 Stone, Victor, 75, 97 Success of Open Source, The (Weber), 174–75 Sun Microsystems, 181, 232 Sunstein, Cass, 126 Supreme Court, U.S., 102, 110, 123, 225, 291–92 MGM v.

Toast by Stross, Charles

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anthropic principle, Buckminster Fuller, cosmological principle, dark matter, double helix, Ernest Rutherford, Extropian, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, glass ceiling, gravity well, Khyber Pass, Mars Rover, Mikhail Gorbachev, NP-complete, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, performance metric, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, slashdot, speech recognition, strong AI, traveling salesman, Turing test, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Review, Y2K

Manfred takes it and heads for the back of the split-level bar, up the steps to a table where some guy with greasy dreadlocks is talking to a suit from Paris. The hanger-on at the bar notices him for the first time, staring with suddenly wide eyes: nearly spills his coke in a mad rush for the door. Oh shit, thinks Manfred, better buy some more server PIPS. He can recognize the signs: he's about to be slashdotted. He gestures at the table: “this one taken?” Be my guest,” says the guy with the dreads. Manfred slides the chair open then realises that the other guy -- immaculate double-breasted suit, sober tie, crew-cut -- is a girl. Mr Dreadlock nods. “You're Macx? I figured it was about time we met.” “Sure.” Manfred holds out a hand and they shake. Manfred realises the hand belongs to Bob Franklin, a Research Triangle startup monkey with a VC track record, lately moving into micromachining and space technology: he made his first million two decades ago and now he's a specialist in extropian investment fields.

Just then a bandwidth load as heavy as a pregnant elephant sits down on Manfred's head and sends clumps of humongous pixellation flickering across his sensorium: around the world five million or so geeks are bouncing on his home site, a digital flash crowd alerted by a posting from the other side of the bar. Manfred winces. “I really came here to talk about the economic exploitation of space travel, but I've just been slashdotted. Mind if I just sit and drink until it wears off?” “Sure, man.” Bob waves at the bar. “More of the same all round!” At the next table a person with make-up and long hair who's wearing a dress -- Manfred doesn't want to speculate about the gender of these crazy mixed-up Euros -- is reminiscing about wiring the fleshpots of Tehran for cybersex. Two collegiate-looking dudes are arguing intensely in German: the translation stream in his glasses tell him they're arguing over whether the Turing Test is a Jim Crow law that violates European corpus juris standards on human rights.

Meanwhile automated factories in Indonesia and Mexico have produced another quarter of a million motherboards with processors rated at more than ten petaflops -- about an order of magnitude below the computational capacity of a human brain. Another fourteen months and the larger part of the cumulative conscious processing power of the human species will be arriving in silicon. And the first meat the new AI's get to know will be the uploaded lobsters. Manfred stumbles back to his hotel, bone-weary and jet-lagged; his glasses are still jerking, slashdotted to hell and back by geeks piggybacking on his call to dismantle the moon. They stutter quiet suggestions at his peripheral vision; fractal cloud-witches ghost across the face of the moon as the last huge Airbuses of the night rumble past overhead. Manfred's skin crawls, grime embedded in his clothing from three days of continuous wear. Back in his room, aineko mewls for attention and strops her head against his ankle.


pages: 629 words: 142,393

The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, c2.com, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, commoditize, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, John Markoff, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, old-boy network, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Post-materialism, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Stacy Schiff, Know It All: Can Wikipedia Conquer Expertise?, NEW YORKER (July 21, 2006), available at http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2006/07/31/060731fa_fact. 24. Wikipedia, Nupedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nupedia (as of Apr. 30, 2007, 18:01 GMT). 25. Id. 26. Nupedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://nupedia.8media.org (last visited June 1, 2007). 27. Posting of Timothy to Slashdot, The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir, http://features.slashdot.org/features/05/04/18/164213.shtml (Apr. 18, 2005, updated Apr. 20, 2005 19:19 GMT). 28. Also known as the “robustness principle.” See INFO. SEI. INST., UNIV. OF S. CAL., TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL: DARPA INTERNET PROGRAM PROTOCOL SPECIFICATION (Jon Postel ed., Sept. 1981), available at http//rfc.sunsite.dk/rfc/rfc793.html. 29. See Wikipedia Meta-Wiki, Wikipedia, http://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia (as of June 1, 2007, 08:15 GMT). 30.

See FCC, Memorandum Opinion and Order in re Cablevision Systems Corporation’s Request for Waiver of Section 76.1204(a)(1) (Jan. 10, 2007), available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DA-07-48A1.pdf; FCC, Memorandum Opinion and Order in re Bend Cable Communications, LLC Request for Waiver of Section 76.1204(a)(1) (Jan. 10, 2007), available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DA-07-47A1.pdf However, others have been denied. FCC, Memorandum Opinion and Order in re Comcast Corporation, LLC Request for Waiver of Section 76.1204(a)(1) (Jan. 10, 2007), available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DA-07-49A1.pdf; Posting of Cowboy Neal to Slashdot, FCC Opens Market for Cable Boxes (Jan. 11, 2007, 21:51), http://hardware.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=07/01/12/0043249. See Press Release, FCC, Media Bureau Acts on Requests for Waiver of Rules on Integrated Set-Top Boxes and Clarifies Compliance of Downloadable Conditional Access Security Solution (Jan. 10, 2007), available at http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/DOC-269446A1.pdf, for information regarding decisions on integrated boxes, and Todd Spangler, FCC: Set-Top Fines Capped at $325K, MULTICHANNEL NEWS, Feb. 15, 2007, http://www.multichannel.com/article/CA6416753.html, for general information about the rulings. 29.

As mentioned earlier, a site popular with others—with lots of inbound links—is considered worthier of a high rank than an unpopular one, and thus search engines can draw upon the behavior of millions of other Web sites as they sort their search results.86 Sites like Amazon deploy a different form of ranking, using the “mouse droppings” of customer purchasing and browsing behavior to make recommendations—so they can tell customers that “people who like the Beatles also like the Rolling Stones.” Search engines can also more explicitly invite the public to express its views on the items it ranks, so that users can decide what to view or buy on the basis of others’ opinions. Amazon users can rate and review the items for sale, and subsequent users then rate the first users’ reviews. Sites like Digg and Reddit invite users to vote for stories and articles they like, and tech news site Slashdot employs a rating system so complex that it attracts much academic attention.87 eBay uses reputation to help shoppers find trustworthy sellers. eBay users rate each others’ transactions, and this trail of ratings then informs future buyers how much to trust repeat sellers. These rating systems are crude but powerful. Malicious sellers can abandon poorly rated eBay accounts and sign up for new ones, but fresh accounts with little track record are often viewed skeptically by buyers, especially for proposed transactions involving expensive items.


pages: 390 words: 114,538

Digital Wars: Apple, Google, Microsoft and the Battle for the Internet by Charles Arthur

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, gravity well, Jeff Bezos, John Gruber, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Network effects, PageRank, pre–internet, Robert X Cringely, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, software patent, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, the new new thing, the scientific method, Tim Cook: Apple, turn-by-turn navigation, upwardly mobile

The software – then Mac-only – was slick, and the auto-updating smooth. Yet, if Jobs had been expecting a rapturous reception from the technical press for the iPod’s design, he may have been disappointed. Hard-core technologists weren’t positive. The response by CmdrTaco – real name Rob Malda – head of the ‘news for nerds’ site Slashdot, then one of the most influential technology discussion sites, was typical: ‘No wireless. Less space than a Nomad. Lame.’6 Yet Slashdot denizens liked the idea of an ultraportable hard drive that could boot a Mac. Some began seeing iPods as a futuristic personal computer that would store your personal data in your pocket and plug in to any computer you liked and work with it – as long as the computer was a Mac, of course, though some geeks were considering whether they could reformat the disk to a Windows version.

Jobs called Universal’s bluff: completely withdrawing its songs would cost the record label around $200 million annually. Universal didn’t re-sign the contract – but the songs remained available on an ‘as is’ basis.) Word about the project started leaking out in June. Because it included Wi-Fi, an application for compliance testing had to be filed in August 2006 with the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC), where reporters immediately picked up on it. On Slashdot, news of the device’s capabilities earned the ironic comment: ‘Wireless. More space than a Nomad. Lame.’33 Technology reviewers liked some of the ideas of the Zune, but were dubious about its colour – brown – and limitations. The sharing limits in particular struck many as peculiar. Despite the undercurrents of unease – and the fact that Apple had sold more than 8 million iPods in each of the first three quarters of 2006– Allard sought to rally the troops.

atype=tp 42 http://www.businessinsider.com/microsoft-bing-losing-billions-2011-4 43 http://www.businessinsider.com/henry-blodget-bing-revisited-still-toast-but-slightly-less-burnt-2010-3 44 http://press.nokia.com/2011/04/21/nokia-and-microsoft-sign-definitive-agreement-ahead-of-schedule/ 45 http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2005/05/02/8258478/index.htm 46 http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/09/technology/09msn.html Chapter Four Digital music: Apple versus Microsoft 1 http://www.theregister.co.uk/2000/12/06/apple_to_fall_into/ 2 Walter Isaacson (2011) Steve Jobs, Little, Brown, London. 3 Private conversation with Gayle Laakmann. 4 http://www.wired.com/gadgets/mac/commentary/cultofmac/2006/10/71956?currentPage=all 5 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kN0SVBCJqLs 6 http://slashdot.org/story/01/10/23/1816257/Apple-releases-iPod 7 http://news.cnet.com/Apples-iPod-spurs-mixed-reactions/2100-1040_3-274821.html 8 Private conversation with Paul Griffin. 9 http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2002/jan/16results.html 10 Private conversation with Bob Ohlweiler. 11 http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/4.02/jobs_pr.html 12 http://www.macobserver.com/tmo/article/A_Few_Of_Her_Favorite_Things_Oprah_Gives_iPods_To_Everyone_In_Audience/ 13 Private conversation with Don Norman. 14 http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/showbiz/bizarre/165843/iCant-believe-Geri-hasntBRgot-an-iPod.html 15 http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2003/05/12/342289/index.htm 16 http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/features/2003/oct03/10-15MusicServices.mspx 17 http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2003/dec/14/gadgets.christmas 18 http://www.youtube.com/watch?


pages: 509 words: 92,141

The Pragmatic Programmer by Andrew Hunt, Dave Thomas

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A Pattern Language, Broken windows theory, business process, buy low sell high, c2.com, combinatorial explosion, continuous integration, database schema, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, general-purpose programming language, George Santayana, Grace Hopper, if you see hoof prints, think horses—not zebras, index card, loose coupling, Menlo Park, MVC pattern, premature optimization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, revision control, Schrödinger's Cat, slashdot, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, traveling salesman, urban decay, Y2K

In addition, the O'Reilly Nutshell series (www.ora.com) gives quick, comprehensive treatments of miscellaneous topics and languages such as perl, yacc, sendmail, Windows internals, and regular expressions. The Web Finding good content on the Web is hard. Here are several links that we check at least once a week. Slashdot. Billed as "News for nerds. Stuff that matters," Slashdot is one of the net homes of the Linux community. As well as regular updates on Linux news, the site offers information on technologies that are cool and issues that affect developers. ⇒ www.slashdot.org Cetus Links. Thousands of links on object-oriented topics. ⇒ www.cetus-links.org WikiWikiWeb. The Portland Pattern Repository and patterns discussion. Not just a great resource, the WikiWikiWeb site is an interesting experiment in collective editing of ideas. ⇒ www.c2.com Internet Resources The links below are to resources available on the Internet.

., 273 RCS, see Revision Control System Real-world data, 243 Refactoring, 5, 185 automatic, 187 and design, 186 testing, 187 time constraints, 185 Refactoring browser, 187, 268 Refinement, excessive, 11 Regression, 76, 197, 232, 242 Relationship has-a, 304 kind-of, 111, 304 Releases, and SCCS, 87 Remote Method Invocation (RMI), 128 exception handling, 39 Remote procedure call (RPC), 29, 39 Repository, 87 Requirement, 11, 202 business problem, 203 changing, 26 creep, 209 DBC, 110 distribution, 211 documenting, 204 in domain language, 58 expressing as invariant, 116 formal methods, 220 glossary, 210 over specifying, 208 and policy, 203 usability testing, 241 user interface, 203 Researching, 15 Resource balancing, 129 C++ exceptions, 132 checking, 135 coupled code, 130 dynamic data structures, 135 encapsulation in class, 132 Java, 134 nest allocations, 131 Response set, 141, 242 Responsibility, 2, 250, 258 Reuse, 33, 36 Reversibility, 44 flexible architecture, 46 Revision Control System (RCS), 250, 271 Risk management, 13 orthogonality, 36 RMI, see Remote Method Invocation Rock-n-roll, 47 RPC, see Remote procedure call Rubber ducking, 3, 95 Rules engine, 169 S Saboteur, 244 Samba, 272 Sample programs, see Example code Sather, 114, 268 SCCS, see Source code control system Schedule, project, 68 Schrödinger, Erwin (and his cat), 47 Scope, requirement, 209 Screen scraping, 61 Scripting language, 55, 145 Secure hash, 74 sed, 99 Sedgewick, Robert, 183 Self-contained components, see Orthogonality; Cohesion Semantic invariant, 116, 135 sendmail program, 60 Sequence diagram, 158 Server code, 196 Services, design using, 154 Shell, command, 77 vs. GUI, 78 see also Command shell “Shy code”, 40 Side effect, 124 SIGPLAN, 263 Simple loop, 180 Singleton object, 41 Slashdot, 265 SmallEiffel, 267 Smalltalk, 46, 186, 187, 268, 272 Software development technologies, 221 quality, 9 requirements, 11 Software bus, 159 “Software Construction”, 184 Software Development Magazine, 263 Software IC, 189n “Software rot”, 4 Solaris, 76 Source code cat eating, 3 documentation, see Comments downloading, see Example code duplication in, 29 generating, 103 reviews, see Code reviews Source code control system (SCCS), 86 Aegis, 246 builds using, 88 CVS, 271 development tree, 87 plain text and, 76 RCS, 250, 271 repository, 87 tools, 271 Specialization, 221 Specification, 58 implementation, 219 language, 62 as security blanket, 219 writing, 218 Spy cells, 138 Squeak, 268 Stand-alone mini-language, 62 “Start-up fatigue”, 7 Starting a project problem solving, 212 prototyping, 216 specifications, 217 see also Requirement Stevens, W.


Simple and Usable Web, Mobile, and Interaction Design by Giles Colborne

call centre, Firefox, HyperCard, Menlo Park, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy

vision Download from WoweBook.com Download from WoweBook.com Why you should ignore expert customers Most companies spend too much time listening to their expert customers—the ones who spend the most time using their products or services—because they’re easy to talk to. Expert customers are enthusiasts, they’re vocal and opinionated about how to improve what’s on offer. But experts aren’t typical customers and their judgment is often skewed. They don’t experience the problems that mainstream customers have. And they want things that mainstream customers don’t care about. Here’s what one responder on Slashdot (a blog run by experts and enthusiasts) had to say when the iPod was announced: “No wireless. Less space than a Nomad. Lame.” Another commenter wrote: “I don’t see many sales in the future of iPod.” And another: “All I can say is, as an Apple ‘fan’, I’m sad.” Commenters on another enthusiast blog, MacRumors, also wanted more: ”I still can’t believe this! All this hype for something so ridiculous!

See also design features changes, importance versus feasibility, 14–15 character and personality, 10 descriptions concise, clear, and complete, 46 experiences, 44 one-line, 18 dissatisfaction with complexity, 6 incorrect approaches, 66–67 fake simplicity of interfaces, 12–13 lightening users’ load, 84–85 guidelines, 18 overburdening users’ decisionmaking, 86–87, 94–95 needs poorly implemented features, 70–71 prioritizing features, 82–83 providing options and preferences, 92–93 smart defaults, 90–91 versus removing too many features, 104–105 control issues, 34 emotional, 32–33 of self and customers, 14–15, 36 strategies for achieving, 2 Skitch app, 154 Slashdot blog commenters on iPods, 26 Sless, David, 108 Standish Group poll, 64 versus satisfied users, 106–107 INDEX • 195 Download from WoweBook.com strategies for simplicity, 2 needs DVD remote controls, 56–59 for details, 182 displacing buttons, 60–61 emotional, 32–34 hiding buttons, 60–61 for simplicity, 184 organizing buttons, 60–61 self-knowledge, 14–15 removing buttons, 60–61 willing adopters, 24 SUV principle, 6 versus other users, 28 world/natural environment, 18–21 T homes, 22 Ta-da List (37signals), 174 interruptions, 22–23 Telewest, 52, 68–69 offices, 22 Tesler, Larry, 180 outdoors, 22 Things app, 32–34 37signals V Basecamp, 64 Volkswagen advertisement, 102–103 Ta-da List app, 174 VW Beetle (original), 4 Thompson, Debora Viana, 78 to-do list apps, 32–34, 174 touch interfaces, 127 travel planning software, 166–169 Tufte, Edward, 98 TUI Ski, 70 Tumblr’s blog service, 64, 180 W Whac-A-Mole game, 180–181 Which?


pages: 496 words: 154,363

I'm Feeling Lucky: The Confessions of Google Employee Number 59 by Douglas Edwards

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Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, barriers to entry, book scanning, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, business intelligence, call centre, commoditize, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, Googley, gravity well, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job-hopping, John Markoff, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, microcredit, music of the spheres, Network effects, P = NP, PageRank, performance metric, pets.com, Ralph Nader, risk tolerance, second-price auction, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, stem cell, Superbowl ad, Y2K

Microsoft had also asked for a cameo, but had not been pleased when Bill Gates was depicted crushing Homer's startup dreams and saying, "I didn't get rich by writing a lot of checks." [back] *** * CP+B won Microsoft's $300 million account in 2008 and created the "I'm a PC" campaign. [back] *** * The name was changed to "orkut" because the Eden.com domain was not for sale. It was intentionally not capitalized to distinguish orkut the service from Orkut the engineer. [back] *** * "Slashdotting" was a well-known online phenomenon: a site was mentioned on slashdot.com and all the users congregating there immediately went to check it out, causing the site's servers to crash under the sudden load. [back] *** * And in Finland for a brief time, because "orkut" in Finnish means "multiple sexual climaxes." Once people realized the site was not for romantic hookups, traffic quickly fell off. [back] *** * Google bought DoubleClick in 2007 for $3.1 billion.

We would use our own site to present our unfiltered messages in coordination with op-ed pieces in newspapers and executive speeches to select audiences. "I want to kill the perception that we're selling our search results ASAP," she told us. "Our brand has been injured and we need to fix it. We're Google! Let's be outrageous and daring and have some fun with this." Feelings ran deep on the subject of paid placement. When the topic of Google's refusal to sell placement came up on the geek bulletin board Slashdot, the first posted response was "I swear I want to make love to this company." A self-identified Overture employee didn't share those warm and fuzzy feelings. "As for the claim by Google that they are pure," he asked plaintively, "why are they getting into the ad search business?" His implication seemed to be that the whole business was tainted. I didn't think so. You could present useful ads, but you needed to make it clear they were ads.

Urs, our Google Fellow, raised his own questions about the timing. He had been hearing all day from engineers about unresolved issues: that orkut was running on a single machine with no easy way to scale, that there had been no proper load testing, no security review, and no agreement on the privacy policy. Clearly orkut would not be able to handle the influx of traffic once word got out to the geek news site Slashdot,* which would take about fifteen minutes. It would be smarter, he said, to clean things up for a few days, wait for the execs to return from Switzerland, and avoid a huge mistake. We all breathed a sigh of relief when Jonathan confirmed that he had spoken with most of the executive team and they had agreed with Urs it was better to delay the launch. It was a commendable idea to accelerate the launch process, but just too risky given all the red flags that had been raised.


pages: 267 words: 82,580

The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett

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3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, moral panic, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

The US court documents relating to the charges brought by Smart against Huffman: http://ia700703.us.archive.org/0/items/gov.uscourts.casd.404008/gov.us courts.casd.404008.1.0.pdf. p.32 ‘At the turn of the . . .’ SomethingAwful.com hosts a wide variety of funny and offensive content – especially blogs, videos and stories – written by editors and forum members; it also hosts several large forums. Fark.com is a satirical site with stories submitted by users of the site. Slashdot.com was more about open-source software and technology but also had a subversive edge and was opposed to censorship. Slashdot, founded in 2000, had a vast online community, many of them Usenetters, and celebrated user-generated in-jokes and memes. SomethingAwful forum members – those who posted regularly on the site called themselves ‘Goons’ – frequently targeted other more serious websites for raids and general mischief-making. p.35 ‘Out of this milieu came . . .’ http://www.thestar.com/life/2007/ 09/22/funny_how_stupid_site_is_addictive.html.

The internet was becoming more accessible and the speed of downloading (and more importantly, uploading) was slashed, enabling users to post more content online, including pictures and videos. Usenet, like most new and exciting technologies, had become outdated. At the turn of the millennium, trolls migrated from Usenet to a new breed of irreverent, user-driven, censorship-free sites, that were soon collectively labelled as ‘Not Safe For Work’ (NSFW), and often created by students or teenagers: SomethingAwful.com, Fark.com and Slashdot.com. Unlike traditional media, these sites were filled with stories, links, suggestions and comments from their readers. Whatever stories were the most read or shared by users would rise up the ranking system, meaning popularity was driven not by centralised editorial control but by whatever happened to capture the attention of the community. This created – as with many content-driven sectors online – a natural incentive to be outrageous.


pages: 263 words: 75,610

Delete: The Virtue of Forgetting in the Digital Age by Viktor Mayer-Schönberger

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en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, full text search, George Akerlof, information asymmetry, information retrieval, information trail, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, John Markoff, lifelogging, moveable type in China, Network effects, packet switching, pattern recognition, RFID, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Market for Lemons, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Vannevar Bush

See Schwartz, “Beyond Lessig’s Code for Internet Privacy”; Samuelson, “Privacy as Intellectual Property?”; Rotenberg, “Fair Information Practices and the Architecture of Privacy,” 80–90; see also Lemley, “Private Property,” 1547; Cohen, “DRM and Privacy,” 577. 25. Mayer-Schönberger, “Beyond Copyright: Managing Information Rights with DRM.” 26. Halderman, Waters, and Felten, “Privacy Management for Portable Recording Devices.” 27. Julian Togelius, comment on Slashdot, May 10, 2007, http://yro.slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=234167&cid=19065957. 28. Winter, “The Advantages of Amnesia.” 29. Schacter, How the Mind Forgets, 184–206. 30. Anderson and Schooler, “Reflections of the Environment in Memory.” 31. On the very extreme end of measures, drugs may be used to help such a cognitive adjustment. See in a different context, Kolber, “Therapeutic Forgetting: The Legal and Ethical Implications.” 32.

If we accept that digital memory—a set of information stored on digital media and thus frozen in time—is what our responses ought to address, a further, perhaps more fitting set of three possible approaches—based on norms, laws, and architecture—emerges. This set of three responses is more speculative than the more familiar set of three I have just described. But as they focus less on the relational dimension of information, they may conceivably be better suited to address the “time” challenge of digital remembering. Cognitive Adjustment When my initial paper on the demise of forgetting in the digital age was discussed at Internet site Slashdot, Julian Togelius, an artificial intelligence researcher in Europe agreed with my diagnosis, but suggested a very different remedy. “Instead,” he wrote, “we have to adapt our culture to the inevitable presence of modern technology. [ . . . ] We will simply have to assume that people can change and restrict ourselves to looking at their most recent behavior and opinions.”27 Togelius’ sentiments were echoed by Harvard Berkman Center fellow danah boyd, who is convinced that “[p]eople, particularly younger people, are going to come up with coping mechanisms.

Free as in Freedom by Sam Williams

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Asperger Syndrome, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, Debian, Douglas Engelbart, East Village, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John Markoff, Larry Wall, Marc Andreessen, Maui Hawaii, Murray Gell-Mann, profit motive, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software patent, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, urban renewal, VA Linux, Y2K

Ultimately, however, it is a tale of two cities: New York, New York, the book-publishing capital of the world, and Sebastopol, California, the book-publishing capital of Sonoma County. The story starts in April, 2000. At the time, I was writing stories for the ill-fated BeOpen web site (http://www.beopen.com/). One of my first assignments was a phone interview with Richard M. Stallman. The interview went well, so well that Slashdot (http://www.slashdot.org/), the popular "news for nerds" site owned by VA Software, Inc. (formerly VA Linux Systems and before that, VA Research), gave it a link in its daily list of feature stories. Within hours, the web servers at BeOpen were heating up as readers clicked over to the site. 158 For all intents and purposes, the story should have ended there. Three months after the interview, while attending the O'Reilly Open Source Conference in Monterey, California, I received the following email message from Tracy Pattison, foreign-rights manager at a large New York publishing house: To: sam@BeOpen.com Subject: RMS InterviewDate: Mon, 10 Jul 2000 15:56:37 -0400 Dear Mr.

"Never pick a fight with a man who buys his ink by the barrel," goes the old Mark Twain adage. In the case of Stallman, never attempt the definitive biography of a man who trusts his every thought to the public record. For the readers who have decided to trust a few hours of their time to exploring this book, I can confidently state that there are facts and quotes in here that one won't find in any Slashdot story or Google search. Gaining access to these facts involves paying a price, however. In the case of the book version, you can pay for these facts the traditional manner, i.e., by purchasing the book. In the case of the electronic versions, you can pay for these facts in the free software manner. Thanks to the folks at O'Reilly & Associates, this book is being distributed under the GNU Free Documentation License, meaning you can help to improve the work or create a personalized version and release that version under the same license.


pages: 25 words: 5,789

Data for the Public Good by Alex Howard

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23andMe, Atul Gawande, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Hernando de Soto, Internet of things, lifelogging, Network effects, openstreetmap, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, social web, web application

As Clive Thompson reported at Wired last year, public sector data can help fuel jobs, and “shoving more public data into the commons could kick-start billions in economic activity.” In the transportation sector, for instance, transit data is open government fuel for economic growth. There is a tremendous amount of work ahead in building upon the foundations that civil society has constructed over decades. If you want a deep look at what the work of digitizing data really looks like, read Carl Malamud’s interview with Slashdot on opening government data. Data for the public good, however, goes far beyond government’s own actions. In many cases, it will happen despite government action — or, often, inaction — as civic developers, data scientists and clinicians pioneer better analysis, visualization and feedback loops. For every civic startup or regulation, there’s a backstory that often involves a broad number of stakeholders.

Multitool Linux: Practical Uses for Open Source Software by Michael Schwarz, Jeremy Anderson, Peter Curtis

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business process, Debian, defense in depth, GnuPG, index card, indoor plumbing, Larry Wall, optical character recognition, publish or perish, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, slashdot, web application, x509 certificate

www.sourceforge.net Got an open source project? Want a free place to host the Web site and CVS archive? Do I need to continue? I think not. www.slashdot.org "News for Nerds. Stuff that matters." Need I say more? Not really, but I'm going to. Have you ever tried to get to a page on a Web site only to get a "timed out" error from your browser? Chances are the network is acting funny, the Web site is poorly designed or not working, or the page you are trying to access is being "slash-dotted." Slashdot.org is so popular that when particularly interesting news blurbs appear, its readers have this knack of saturating the Web sites the news blurbs refer to. If you need a daily dose of techie news, Slashdot.org is definitely for you. www.lwn.net News on Linux—lots of news on Linux. Where do they get all this stuff? My work is starting to suffer because there's so much to read on Linux.


pages: 597 words: 119,204

Website Optimization by Andrew B. King

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

AltaVista, bounce rate, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, information retrieval, iterative process, medical malpractice, Network effects, performance metric, search engine result page, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, Steve Jobs, web application

Send email to reporters, bloggers, and colleagues. Post media to Flickr and YouTube, add a page to Facebook, submit stories to Slashdot, and tag those stories on del.icio.us. Respond to Usenet and blog posts. In other words, use social networking to get your site out there. A link from one of these high PageRank sites drives a lot of traffic and is worth hundreds of links from lesser sites (refer back to Table 1-1). A little preparation can increase your odds when submitting to news sites such as Slashdot, Digg.com, and Yahoo! Buzz because such sites have an extremely large user base that is equally critical to the site's effect. First, make sure you submit to the proper category. Submit only your most newsworthy content, because sites such as Slashdot are inundated with submissions. Be sure to follow the headline and deck writing guidelines in this chapter, as well as in Chapter 5.

, Microsoft, and Everybody Else, Goals and Values, Goals and Values website focus and, Unprofessional design work cycle overview, The Pay-per-Click Work Cycle press releases, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion primacy effect, New visitors primary content consumption (metric), Website Success Metrics, Primary content consumption, Success Metrics = Reaching Goals PRNewsWire.com, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion product images, Factor #8: Deploy Persuasive, Benefit-Oriented Content, Factor #9: Use Illustrative Product and Service Images—The "Hero Shot", Factor #10: Use Interactive Elements to Engage Users professional website design, Unprofessional design, Make it linkworthy profit-per-impression equation, Measuring Ad Performance progressive enhancement (PE) strategy, Use progressive enhancement, Use progressive enhancement, Use progressive enhancement, Use progressive enhancement Prototype library, Relying on Ajax Libraries prototyping, Put it on paper and build graphical mockups ProxyPass directive, Using mod_cache ProxyScoring (metric), PathWeight and ProxyScoring PRWeb.com, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion psychographics, Discovering personas psychological reactance, The six persuaders psychology of persuasion, The six persuaders, The six persuaders, The six persuaders, The six persuaders, The six persuaders, The six persuaders, Building trust to close the sale, Optimize with persuasive copywriting, Optimize with persuasive copywriting authority, The six persuaders building trust, Building trust to close the sale, Optimize with persuasive copywriting consistency, The six persuaders CRO considerations, Optimize with persuasive copywriting liking, The six persuaders reciprocation, The six persuaders scarcity, The six persuaders social proof, The six persuaders PubSub.com, Delta encoding (delta compression) Q Quality Scores, Optimizing Pay-per-Click Ads optimizing ad groups, Optimizing Pay-per-Click Ads QuickTime Pro, Optimizing videos for the Web, Optimizing videos for the Web, Optimizing videos for the Web, Optimizing videos for the Web, Optimizing videos for the Web, Optimizing videos for the Web, Optimizing videos for the Web, Optimizing videos for the Web, Optimizing videos for the Web Compressor section, Optimizing videos for the Web Data Rate section, Optimizing videos for the Web Encoding area, Optimizing videos for the Web Frame Reordering box, Optimizing videos for the Web Key Frames area, Optimizing videos for the Web Motion section, Optimizing videos for the Web optimizing video, Optimizing videos for the Web Quality area, Optimizing videos for the Web Temporal slider, Optimizing videos for the Web R rankings, Natural Search Engine Optimization, Natural Search Engine Optimization, The Benefits of SEO, Duplicate content, Duplicate content, Best Practices, Tools for keyword research, Optimize key content, Acquire inbound links, Acquire inbound links, Summary, Step 1: Determine Your Keyword Phrases, Find your primary keyphrase, Tools for keyword research, Tools for keyword research, Tools for keyword research, Tools for keyword research, Find your primary keyphrase, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Step 3: Refine Keyword Phrases and Re-Sort, Right-size your keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually), Right-size your keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually), Right-size your keyphrases, Right-size your keyphrases, Target multiple keyphrases, Target multiple keyphrases, Target multiple keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually), Keywords trump company name (usually), Keywords trump company name (usually), Step 6: Write a Keywords Meta Tag, Write headlines that pop, Step 8: Add Keywords Tactically, Buy keyphrased domain names, Buy keyphrased domain names, Buy keyphrased domain names, Step 9: Create Valuable Keyword-Focused Content, Sharpen your keyword-focused content, Create search-friendly URIs, Write compelling summaries, Automatically categorize with blogs, Automatically categorize with blogs, Automatically categorize with blogs, Create tag clouds, Create tag clouds, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Summary, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Don't dilute your PageRank, Be leery of link exchange voodoo, Hurl harmful outlinks, Reduce risky redirects, Measuring inbound links, Measuring inbound links, Summary, Summary acquiring inbound links, Acquire inbound links adding keywords tactically, Buy keyphrased domain names, Buy keyphrased domain names best practices, Best Practices, Tools for keyword research, Tools for keyword research building inbound links, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Summary, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Measuring inbound links, Summary determining keyphrases, Step 1: Determine Your Keyword Phrases, Find your primary keyphrase, Tools for keyword research, Find your primary keyphrase duplicate website content and, Duplicate content Google factors, Step 2: Sort by Popularity importance of, Natural Search Engine Optimization, The Benefits of SEO keyword stuffing and, Step 2: Sort by Popularity keyword-focused content, Sharpen your keyword-focused content, Automatically categorize with blogs negative factors, Step 2: Sort by Popularity on-site optimization and, Natural Search Engine Optimization optimizing key content, Optimize key content positive factors, Step 2: Sort by Popularity re-sorting keyphrases, Right-size your keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually), Target multiple keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually) refining keyphrases, Right-size your keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually), Target multiple keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually) reinforcing site theme, Duplicate content steps for improving, Acquire inbound links, Summary, Tools for keyword research, Tools for keyword research, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Step 3: Refine Keyword Phrases and Re-Sort, Right-size your keyphrases, Right-size your keyphrases, Target multiple keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually), Step 6: Write a Keywords Meta Tag, Write headlines that pop, Step 8: Add Keywords Tactically, Buy keyphrased domain names, Step 9: Create Valuable Keyword-Focused Content, Create search-friendly URIs, Write compelling summaries, Automatically categorize with blogs, Automatically categorize with blogs, Create tag clouds, Create tag clouds, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Don't dilute your PageRank, Be leery of link exchange voodoo, Hurl harmful outlinks, Reduce risky redirects, Measuring inbound links, Summary RDF (Resource Description Framework), Summary reciprocation (persuader), The six persuaders Red Hat Enterprise platform, Target files by extension for caching reference movies, Step 3: Optimize Multimedia regional compression, Step 2: Resize and Optimize Images remote procedure calls, Load JavaScript on demand (remote procedure calls) remote scripting, Ajax Optimization repeat visitors (metric), Repeat visitors replication, Shorthand properties Resource Description Framework (RDF), Summary return statement, Avoid Optional Constructs and Kill Dead Code Fast revenue per visit (metric), Revenue per visit(or) RewriteEngine directive, How mod_rewrite works RewriteMap directive, How mod_rewrite works RewriteRule directive, How mod_rewrite works RFC 2397, Inline Images with Data URIs, Disadvantages of inline images Rhino JavaScript engine, Bundle Your Scripts, JavaScript Optimization and Packing RIAs (Rich Internet Applications), Ajax Optimization ROAS (return on advertising spend), Differences in Geotargeting, Web Server Log Analysis defined, Differences in Geotargeting web analytics support, Web Server Log Analysis robots exclusion protocol, Duplicate content ROI (return on investment), Summary of the Differences Among AdWords, adCenter, and YSM, Calculating Return on Investment, Pay-per-Click Return on Investment and Goals Summary calculating, Calculating Return on Investment PPC optimization and, Summary of the Differences Among AdWords, adCenter, and YSM, Pay-per-Click Return on Investment and Goals Summary root terms, The Right Keywords and the Myth of the Long Tail, The Right Keywords and the Myth of the Long Tail, Guidelines for Grouping ad group themes, Guidelines for Grouping broad matching, The Right Keywords and the Myth of the Long Tail unique keywords and, The Right Keywords and the Myth of the Long Tail RSS news feeds, Write compelling summaries headline summaries, Write compelling summaries rss2html.pl script, Example RSS cache S sales cycle, Goals and Values, Include multiple conversion points for different stages of the buying cycle, Building trust to close the sale, Factor #7: Include Appealing Offers and Calls to Action building trust, Building trust to close the sale calls to action, Factor #7: Include Appealing Offers and Calls to Action multiple conversion points, Include multiple conversion points for different stages of the buying cycle stages in, Goals and Values scarcity (persuader), The Psychology of Persuasion, The six persuaders scent, Factor #5: Use Benefit-Oriented Headlines script tag, Lazy-Load Your Code, Minimizing HTTP Requests, Load JavaScript on demand (remote procedure calls) scripting, Remap Built-in Objects, Delay Script Loading, Use progressive enhancement, Use progressive enhancement, Use an iframe for external JavaScript delaying loading, Delay Script Loading, Use progressive enhancement, Use progressive enhancement, Use an iframe for external JavaScript remapped objects and, Remap Built-in Objects Search Engine Marketing Professional Organization (SEMPO), Measuring SEM success search engines, Acquire inbound links, Tools for keyword research, Create search-friendly URIs, Original Site estimating search volume, Tools for keyword research ranking considerations, Acquire inbound links search parameters, Create search-friendly URIs simulating with Lynx, Original Site security policies, Minimizing HTTP Requests selectors (CSS), Top 10 Tips for Optimizing CSS replacing inline style with, Top 10 Tips for Optimizing CSS SEM (search engine marketing), Website Success Metrics, Measuring SEM success, Website Success Metrics, Popular Web Metrics, Popular Web Metrics, Measuring SEM success, Search Engine Marketing Metrics, Search Engine Marketing Metrics, Classes of Metrics, Unique visitors, Classes of Metrics, Content, Objectives, Means, Volume Metrics, Content Metrics: Measuring Each Component, Unique visitors, Unique visitors, Content Metrics: Measuring Each Component, Content Metrics: Measuring Each Component, Entries, Objectives, Understanding objectives classes of metrics, Classes of Metrics, Unique visitors, Classes of Metrics, Means, Unique visitors content metrics, Content, Entries, Understanding objectives measuring success, Popular Web Metrics metrics overview, Search Engine Marketing Metrics objectives for metrics, Objectives, Objectives strategies, Search Engine Marketing Metrics volume metrics, Volume Metrics, Content Metrics: Measuring Each Component, Unique visitors, Content Metrics: Measuring Each Component, Content Metrics: Measuring Each Component website success metrics, Website Success Metrics, Measuring SEM success, Website Success Metrics, Popular Web Metrics, Measuring SEM success Semphonic XChange, Unique visitors SEMPO (Search Engine Marketing Professional Organization), Measuring SEM success SEO (search engine optimization), Natural Search Engine Optimization, The Benefits of SEO, Common SEO Barriers, Reinforce the theme of your site, Inadequate inbound links, Drowning in splash pages, Flash fires, Flash fires, Unprofessional design, Unprofessional design, Obscure navigation, Duplicate content, Duplicate content, Reinforce the theme of your site, Step 1: Determine Your Keyword Phrases, Summary benefits, The Benefits of SEO common barriers, Common SEO Barriers, Reinforce the theme of your site, Reinforce the theme of your site duplicate content, Duplicate content, Duplicate content fixing focus, Unprofessional design Flash proliferation, Flash fires, Flash fires inadequate inbound links, Inadequate inbound links increased competition, Step 1: Determine Your Keyword Phrases JavaScript-only navigation, Obscure navigation metadata, Summary process components, Natural Search Engine Optimization splash pages, Drowning in splash pages unprofessional design, Unprofessional design SERPs (search engine result pages), Duplicate content, Keywords trump company name (usually), Buy keyphrased domain names company names in, Keywords trump company name (usually) keyphrased domain names, Buy keyphrased domain names two-URIs-per-hostname limit, Duplicate content server-side includes (SSIs), Eliminate (i)frames and JavaScript includes server-side optimization, Reduce DNS lookups, Caching Frequently Used Objects, Using mod_cache, Caching Frequently Used Objects, Three ways to cache in, Three ways to cache in, A specific caching example, Target files by extension for caching, Target files by extension for caching, Using mod_cache, Using mod_cache, Using HTTP Compression, Delta encoding (delta compression), Average compression ratios for HTTP compression, Average compression ratios for HTTP compression, Delta encoding (delta compression), The Benefits of a Content Delivery Network cache control, Caching Frequently Used Objects, Using mod_cache, Caching Frequently Used Objects, Three ways to cache in, Three ways to cache in, A specific caching example, Target files by extension for caching, Target files by extension for caching, Using mod_cache, Using mod_cache Content Delivery Network, The Benefits of a Content Delivery Network HTTP compression, Using HTTP Compression, Delta encoding (delta compression), Average compression ratios for HTTP compression, Average compression ratios for HTTP compression, Delta encoding (delta compression) parallel downloads, Reduce DNS lookups ServerAlias directive, Optimizing Parallel Downloads ServerTokens command, Target files by extension for caching service command, Target files by extension for caching service images, Factor #9: Use Illustrative Product and Service Images—The "Hero Shot", Factor #9: Use Illustrative Product and Service Images—The "Hero Shot", Factor #10: Use Interactive Elements to Engage Users session IDs, Create search-friendly URIs sessions, Volume Metrics Set-Cookie header, Three ways to cache in setRequestHeader( ) method, Method 3: Make Requests with an Old If-Modified-Since Header Shop.org study, Discovery sign-ups, Sign-ups simple engagement, Bounce rate (and simple engagement) Sistrix study, Buy keyphrased domain names Skip Intro links, Drowning in splash pages Skitz, Load JavaScript on demand (remote procedure calls) Slashdot, Employ social networking and user-generated content slogans, Best Practices for CRO, Factor #4: Write a Memorable Slogan sniffing, Step 4: Convert JavaScript Behavior to CSS , XSSI browser sniffing social networking, Employ social networking and user-generated content social norms, The six persuaders social proof (persuader), The Psychology of Persuasion, The six persuaders socket connections, Speed checklist, Request statistics, AOL Pagetest Solaris platform, Compressing content in Apache Sorenson codec, Optimizing videos for the Web Sorenson Video 3 Pro, Optimizing videos for the Web Souders, Switch to Semantic Markup source credibility, Source Credibility: Designing Gut Reactions, Factor #3: Optimize the Credibility of Your Logo spatial compression, Optimizing videos for the Web speed tax, Request statistics Speed Up Your Site, Average compression ratios for HTTP compression, Speed checklist Web Site Optimization, Average compression ratios for HTTP compression, Speed checklist splash pages, Drowning in splash pages Spontaneous personality type, Building trust to close the sale Start Render time metric, Load times, Reporting the Numbers, Start render Stefanov, Load JavaScript on demand (remote procedure calls) Sterne, Website Optimization Metrics strange attractors, Deploy strange attractors string constants, Use String Constant Macros structural assurance, Building trust to close the sale StuffIt, Speed checklist Sullivan, Don't dilute your PageRank sweetened traffic, Unique visitors T tag clouds, Create tag clouds, Deploy strange attractors, Create tag clouds, Deploy strange attractors taglines, Factor #4: Write a Memorable Slogan Telestream Episode Pro, Optimizing videos for the Web temporal compression, Optimizing videos for the Web ternary operator, Use JavaScript Shorthand testing, Testing ads the easy way: AdWords optimized ad serving, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Testing Landing Pages, Adjusting Bids, Adjusting Bids, Multivariate testing with Google Website Optimizer, User Experience Testing Software, Designing a Sample Test, IBM Page Detailer, IBM Page Detailer ads, Testing ads the easy way: AdWords optimized ad serving, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Adjusting Bids confidence interval, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Testing ads the hard way: Confidence interval testing, Adjusting Bids designing sample tests, Designing a Sample Test, IBM Page Detailer, IBM Page Detailer landing pages, Testing Landing Pages multivariate, Multivariate testing with Google Website Optimizer UX software, User Experience Testing Software Text-Link-Ads.com, Pay for links Textlinkbrokers.com, Step 10: Build Inbound Links with Online Promotion, Pay for links themed ad groups, Organizing and Optimizing Ad Groups, Guidelines for Grouping, Example Themed Ad Groups, Example Themed Ad Groups advantages, Organizing and Optimizing Ad Groups example, Example Themed Ad Groups, Example Themed Ad Groups guidelines, Guidelines for Grouping themes, Step 1: Look through your site and identify major themes TIFF format, Step 2: Resize and Optimize Images time to live (TTL), Three ways to cache in timeout mechanisms, Timeouts, Retries, and Ordering, Addressing Server and Content Error, Timeouts, Retries, and Ordering, Addressing Server and Content Error title tags, Step 2: Sort by Popularity, Target multiple keyphrases, Keywords trump company name (usually) trackPageview function, JavaScript Page Tagging trademarks, Trademark Issues, Summary, How do I stop advertisers from bidding on my trademark?


pages: 489 words: 148,885

Accelerando by Stross, Charles

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call centre, carbon-based life, cellular automata, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, Conway's Game of Life, dark matter, dumpster diving, Extropian, finite state, Flynn Effect, glass ceiling, gravity well, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, Kuiper Belt, Magellanic Cloud, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, means of production, packet switching, performance metric, phenotype, planetary scale, Pluto: dwarf planet, reversible computing, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, slashdot, South China Sea, stem cell, technological singularity, telepresence, The Chicago School, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, web of trust, Y2K, zero-sum game

Manfred takes it and heads for the back of the split-level bar, up the steps to a table where some guy with greasy dreadlocks is talking to a suit from Paris. The hanger-on at the bar notices him for the first time, staring with suddenly wide eyes: He nearly spills his Coke in a mad rush for the door. Oh shit, thinks Manfred, better buy some more server time. He can recognize the signs: He's about to be slashdotted. He gestures at the table. "This one taken?" "Be my guest," says the guy with the dreads. Manfred slides the chair open then realizes that the other guy – immaculate double-breasted Suit, sober tie, crew cut – is a girl. She nods at him, half-smiling at his transparent double take. Mr. Dreadlock nods. "You're Macx? I figured it was about time we met." "Sure." Manfred holds out a hand, and they shake.

Just then, a bandwidth load as heavy as a pregnant elephant sits down on Manfred's head and sends clumps of humongous pixilation flickering across his sensorium: Around the world, five million or so geeks are bouncing on his home site, a digital flash crowd alerted by a posting from the other side of the bar. Manfred winces. "I really came here to talk about the economic exploitation of space travel, but I've just been slashdotted. Mind if I just sit and drink until it wears off?" "Sure, man." Bob waves at the bar. "More of the same all round!" At the next table, a person with makeup and long hair who's wearing a dress – Manfred doesn't want to speculate about the gender of these crazy mixed-up Euros – is reminiscing about wiring the fleshpots of Tehran for cybersex. Two collegiate-looking dudes are arguing intensely in German: The translation stream in his glasses tell him they're arguing over whether the Turing Test is a Jim Crow law that violates European corpus juris standards on human rights.

Meanwhile automated factories in Indonesia and Mexico have produced another quarter of a million motherboards with processors rated at more than ten petaflops – about an order of magnitude below the lower bound on the computational capacity of a human brain. Another fourteen months and the larger part of the cumulative conscious processing power of the human species will be arriving in silicon. And the first meat the new AIs get to know will be the uploaded lobsters. Manfred stumbles back to his hotel, bone-weary and jet-lagged; his glasses are still jerking, slashdotted to hell and back by geeks piggybacking on his call to dismantle the moon. They stutter quiet suggestions at his peripheral vision. Fractal cloud-witches ghost across the face of the moon as the last huge Airbuses of the night rumble past overhead. Manfred's skin crawls, grime embedded in his clothing from three days of continuous wear. Back in his room, the Aineko mewls for attention and strops her head against his ankle.


pages: 525 words: 149,886

Higher-Order Perl: A Guide to Program Transformation by Mark Jason Dominus

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always be closing, Defenestration of Prague, Donald Knuth, Isaac Newton, Larry Wall, P = NP, Paul Graham, Perl 6, slashdot, SpamAssassin

Perl’s standard map() and grep() each take a function and a list and return a new list; for example: # returns 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 map {$_*2} (1..5); # returns 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 grep {$_ % 2 == 0} (1..10); Often it’s more convenient to have curried versions of these functions: sub cmap (&) { my $f = shift; my $r = sub { my @result; for (@_) { push @result, $f->($_); } @result; }; return $r; } sub cgrep (&) { my $f = shift; my $r = sub { my @result; for (@_) { push @result, $_ if $f->($_); } @result; }; return $r; } These functions should be called like this: $double = cmap { $_*2 }; $find_slashdot = cgrep { $_->{referer} =˜ /slashdot/i }; After which $double->(1..5) returns (2, 4, 6, 8, 10) and $find_slashdot ->(weblog()) returns the web log records that represent referrals from Slashdot. It may be tempting to try to make cmap() and cgrep() polymorphic, as we did with slope() (I was tempted, anyway.): sub cmap (&;@) { my $f = shift; my $r = sub { my @result; for (@_) { push @result, $f->($_); } @result; }; return @_ ? $r->(@_) : $r; } Then we would also be able to use cmap() and cgrep() like regular map() and grep(): @doubles = cmap { $_*2 } (1..5); @evens = cgrep { $_ % 2 == 0 } (1..10); Unfortunately, this apparently happy notation hides an evil surprise: @doubles = cmap { $_*2 } @some_array; If @some_array is empty, @doubles is assigned a reference to a doubling function. 7.2.1 Automatic Currying We’ve written the same code several times to implement curried functions: sub some_curried_function { my $first_arg = shift; my $r = sub { ... }; return @_ ?


pages: 607 words: 133,452

Against Intellectual Monopoly by Michele Boldrin, David K. Levine

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, cognitive bias, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, financial innovation, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jean Tirole, John Harrison: Longitude, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, linear programming, market bubble, market design, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, new economy, open economy, peer-to-peer, pirate software, placebo effect, price discrimination, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, the market place, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Y2K

Many people contributed examples, comments, and references, especially Serguey Braguinski, Tim Erickson, Jack Hirshleifer, Bronwyn Hall, Andrea Moro, G. Moschini, Ed Prescott, Paul Seabright, Malik Shukayev, Robert Solow, William Stepp, Stefano Trento, and Edward Welbourne. We learned an immense amount from our fellow bloggers at http:// www.againstmonopoly.org: John Bennett, Andrea Moro, Michael Perelman, Sheldon Richman, and William Stepp. We are grateful also to the Slashdot Web site (http://slashdot.org) and its many contributors for a set of detailed comments on an early version of some of the chapters. Many other people contributed thoughts, ideas, examples, vii P1: PDX head margin: 1/2 gutter margin: 7/8 CUUS245-FM cuus245 978 0 521 87928 6 May 21, 2008 19:26 viii Acknowledgments and discussion: Larry Ausubel, David Backus, Kyle Bagwell, Sandip Baliga, Gary Becker, Robert Becker, James Bessen, William Brock, Andres Bucio, Jorge Capapey, V.

The many sweeping statements we have made, here and in the previous chapter, in relation to the agricultural sector and the irrelevance of patents for its technological development, are based on the scientific research reported in Butler and Marion (1985), Campbell and Overton (1991), Griliches (1960), Kloppenburg (1988), McClelland (1997), among others. 25. June 25, 2000, article, available at http://www.biotech-info.net/basmati patent.html (accessed February 24, 2008). Additional detailed information about the Basmati rice patent is widespread on the Internet. For example, http://www.american. edu/TED/basmati.htm (accessed February 24. 2008), reports detailed, precise information about this and a dozen other cases. 26. Slashdot, http://politics.slashdot.org/article.pl?sid=04/11/13/2023220 (accessed February 24, 2008). The story about the Provisional Authority imposing agricultural IP on Iraq farmers is also widely documented elsewhere. 27. The copyright lawsuit over the Freedom Tower is discussed in Sadeghi (2004). 28. The discussion and quotations are from “Suit Claiming Similarities in Tower Design Can Proceed” New York Times Region Section, August 11, 2005. 29.

Practical OCaml by Joshua B. Smith

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cellular automata, Debian, domain-specific language, general-purpose programming language, Grace Hopper, hiring and firing, John Conway, Paul Graham, slashdot, text mining, Turing complete, type inference, web application, Y2K

The first file is the lexer, which would go into a file named uri_lexer.mll and be compiled with the following: $ ocamllex uri_lexer.mll $ ocamlc –c uri_lexer.ml { open Uri_parser } 620Xch11final.qxd 9/22/06 12:37 AM Page 143 CHAPTER 11 ■ PRACTICAL: A URI LIBRARY rule token = parse "http://" { HTTP } | "mailto://" { MAILTO } | "file://" { FILE } | ':' { SEP } | ['/' '\\'] { PATHSEP } | '@' { AT } | eof { EOF } | (['a'-'z' 'A'-'Z' '0'-'9' '%' '^' '&' '*' '(' ')' '-' '_' '+' '=' '?' '<' '>' '|' '{' '}' '[' ']' '!' '.' ',']+ as st) { STRING(st) } { let lb = Lexing.from_string "http://www.slashdot.org/index.html";; let _ = let res = Uri_parser.main token lb in Printf.printf "[%s %s]" (fst res) (snd res);; } The next file (uri_parser.mly) is shown as follows. This is an ocamlyacc file that must be processed by ocamlyacc before being compiled (much like the preceding ocamllex file). $ ocamlyacc uri_parser.mly $ ocamlc –c uri_parser.mli $ ocamlc –c uri_parser.ml %token HTTP MAILTO FILE SEP PATHSEP AT EOF %token<string> STRING %start main %type<string * string> main %% main: http EOF { $1 } | file EOF { $1 } ; path: STRING { $1 } | PATHSEP STRING { $2 } | path PATHSEP { $1 ^ "/" } | path STRING { $1 ^ "/" ^ $2 } ; 143 620Xch11final.qxd 144 9/22/06 12:37 AM Page 144 CHAPTER 11 ■ PRACTICAL: A URI LIBRARY http: HTTP STRING path { ($2,$3) } | HTTP STRING AT STRING path { ($4,$5) } | HTTP STRING SEP STRING AT STRING path { ($6,$7) } ; file: FILE PATHSEP PATHSEP path { ("",$4) } ; mailto: MAILTO PATHSEP PATHSEP STRING AT STRING { ($4,$6) } ; After you process these two files, you can compile them to a single executable by simply calling the compiler on both of the generated .cmo files. $ ocamlc –o parse_test uri_parser.cmo uri_lexer.cmo $ .

. $ ocamlyacc uri_parser.mly $ ocamlc –c uri_parser.mli $ ocamlc –c uri_parser.ml %token HTTP MAILTO FILE SEP PATHSEP AT EOF %token<string> STRING %start main %type<string * string> main %% main: http EOF { $1 } | file EOF { $1 } ; path: STRING { $1 } | PATHSEP STRING { $2 } | path PATHSEP { $1 ^ "/" } | path STRING { $1 ^ "/" ^ $2 } ; 143 620Xch11final.qxd 144 9/22/06 12:37 AM Page 144 CHAPTER 11 ■ PRACTICAL: A URI LIBRARY http: HTTP STRING path { ($2,$3) } | HTTP STRING AT STRING path { ($4,$5) } | HTTP STRING SEP STRING AT STRING path { ($6,$7) } ; file: FILE PATHSEP PATHSEP path { ("",$4) } ; mailto: MAILTO PATHSEP PATHSEP STRING AT STRING { ($4,$6) } ; After you process these two files, you can compile them to a single executable by simply calling the compiler on both of the generated .cmo files. $ ocamlc –o parse_test uri_parser.cmo uri_lexer.cmo $ ./parse_test www. slashdot.org /index.html $ Conclusion With this code under your belt, you should be well on your way to actually solving problems with OCaml. You have created a module to handle URIs in a platform-independent manner, including filenames. A module like this creates the ability to improve code maintenance because you can make changes at the module layer for handling different URIs. The next chapter discusses the ocamldoc system, which is a Javadoc-like tool that enables you to embed documentation in your code and output HTML, LaTeX, Texinfo, and man pages for your code. ocamldoc is a powerful and very useful tool that is widely used.

We can Center} and Left and } {R Right Align too} We can reference code with links like this: {!Chapter12.Docoff.bar}. Notice it has to be fully qualified. Source code can be inlined like this: [val source_code_style: string -> int] Or preformated like this: {[ let source_code_string x = String.length x;; ]} {v Verbatim text can be added, though you may still have to escape certain text in verbatim blocks. v} {{:http://www.slashdot.org} this text can be a link} We can also make L{_a}T{^e}X look (almost) correct. *) 149 620Xch12final.qxd 150 9/22/06 12:39 AM Page 150 CHAPTER 12 ■ USING OCAMLDOC Figure 12-1. Code transformed into HTML Lists There are shortcuts available, but they should not be used to define nested lists. {ol List} with {li list items} {ul List with {li list items} Sections and Headings From the basic formatting example, you can see one example of a section heading.


pages: 349 words: 114,038

Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens

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4chan, airport security, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, commoditize, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, intangible asset, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mega-rich, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, selection bias, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, union organizing, wealth creators, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law

This happens both on-line, with new communities springing up rapidly around new challenges and opportunities, and in the real world, with mobile crowds responding rapidly to events in the streets. The Economic Quickening Without protectionism, Germany sells the precision instruments to produce the optics, Japan designs the semiconductors, Taiwan fabs the chips and the Chinese assemble them with equipment bought from the West. Everyone benefits, is employed, and makes enough money to buy a $10 camera. -- 1stworld, on Slashdot The economic impact of seven billion citizens joining digital society is vast and only just starting to be understood. Where this will take us is not clear. We can however already see the trends: All markets have more participants. In any given area of activity, the number of people who participate and compete has greatly increased. Rather than creating a race to the bottom, we see increasing specialization and diversity of suppliers, and lucrative new businesses constantly emerge.

As a note, I'm shocked that my "teenager arrested for antisocial on-line comments, facing terrorism charges" line actually came true in 2013, multiple times. I wrote it several years ago as an absurd caricature. Kisses in the Park "According to a Sydney Morning Herald article, the Australia government has decided to take the controversial step of having Internet service providers filter web content at the request of parents, in a crackdown on on-line bad language, pornography and child sex predators."--Slashdot front page, 9 August 2007 Having our thoughts held captive under the influence of propaganda only lasts for so long. We eventually clear our minds and realize that things are not quite right. For longer-lasting results, the men in charge have a more solid argument against freedom. I'm not talking about terrorism. I'm talking about simple morality. When people have too much freedom, the argument goes, they do bad things.

If you were leaving the Spanish Netherlands of 2030, metaphorically speaking, would you go to a country with more or less freedom? Freedom of Organization Azmeen said: "Although I'm a Linux person, I must say that yeah, Microsoft does receive a lot of stick from us open source folks. Of course, MS do get a lot of things right at least in the technological and UI aspects." -- Microsoft sock puppet on Slashdot, February 2008 As I explained in “Faceless Societies”, human society in all its richness can be seen as a truth-mining machine. There are of course many kinds of truths in addition to the physical facts for which science searches. For example, there are truths about problems, such as: "Congress is going to pass a bill that will allow censorship of any website." There are truths about solutions, such as: "Emailing your congressman won't help; call him or send a paper letter, or better still, try to visit him."


pages: 52 words: 14,333

Growth Hacker Marketing: A Primer on the Future of PR, Marketing, and Advertising by Ryan Holiday

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Airbnb, iterative process, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, market design, minimum viable product, Paul Graham, pets.com, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Wozniak

In an effort to drive these sign-ups, the founders crafted a demo video that walked potential users through the service. They didn’t hire some production company to produce an expensive or elaborate video that they jammed down people’s throats through widespread ads. They made the video themselves and they made the right one for the right place. Knowing the outlets where they intended to post the video (Digg, Slashdot, and Reddit), they filled it with all sorts of allusions and references that those communities would love. As a result, this homemade video was enormously popular with these potential users. It immediately made the respective front pages, it drove hundreds of thousands of new visitors to the special page Dropbox had set up for this purpose (GetDropbox.com), and the waiting list went from 5,000 users to 75,000 users nearly overnight.


pages: 49 words: 12,968

Industrial Internet by Jon Bruner

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autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, commoditize, computer vision, data acquisition, demand response, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, job automation, loose coupling, natural language processing, performance metric, Silicon Valley, slashdot, smart grid, smart meter, statistical model, web application

Collaboration between machine makers and control makers is crucial, and the quality with which machines accommodate and respond to intelligent controls will become a key differentiator. Silicon Valley and industry adapting to each other Nathan Oostendorp thought he’d chosen a good name for his new startup: “Ingenuitas,” derived from the Latin for “freely born” — appropriate, he thought, for a company that would be built on his own commitment to open-source software. But Oostendorp, earlier a co-founder of Slashdot, was aiming to bring modern computer vision systems to heavy industry, where the Latinate name didn’t resonate. At his second meeting with a salty former auto executive who would become an advisor to his company, Oostendorp says, “I told him we were going to call the company Ingenuitas, and he immediately said, ‘bronchitis, gingivitis, inginitis. Your company is a disease.’” And so Sight Machine[42] got its name — one so natural to Michigan’s manufacturers that, says CEO and co-founder Jon Sobel, visitors often say “I spent the afternoon down at Sight” in the same way they might say “down at Anderson” to refer to a tool-and-die shop called Anderson Machine.


pages: 571 words: 162,958

Rewired: The Post-Cyberpunk Anthology by James Patrick Kelly, John Kessel

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back-to-the-land, Columbine, dark matter, Extropian, Firefox, gravity well, haute couture, Internet Archive, pattern recognition, phenotype, post-industrial society, price stability, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, technological singularity, telepresence, the scientific method, Turing test, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Y2K, zero day

” — Sterling to Kessel, 22 August 1986 1 The term “postcyberpunk” was first used by writer Lawrence Person, in an essay titled “Notes Toward a Postcyberpunk Manifesto” published in the critical magazine Nova Express in 1998. Person’s essay points toward some of the same developments we are pursuing in this anthology, but we do not use the term in exactly the same way that he sets it forth. As we go to press, Person’s essay is still available at the URL http://slashdot.org/features/99/10/08/2123255.shtml. Sterling-Kessel Correspondence IN THE WAKE of the publication of Neuromancer in 1984 there was a lot of talk about something called “cyberpunk” and a scurrilous fanzine called Cheap Truth, which apparently (I had never seen a copy) had been taking potshots at a number of writers I admired. In the spring of 1985, I wrote a letter to Bruce Sterling asking what all the fuss was about.

Manfred takes it and heads for the back of the split-level bar, up the steps to a table where some guy with greasy dreadlocks is talking to a suit from Paris. The hanger-on at the bar notices him for the first time, staring with suddenly wide eyes: nearly spills his Coke in a mad rush for the door. Oh shit, thinks Macx, better buy some more server PIPS. He can recognize the signs: he’s about to be slashdotted. He gestures at the table: “this one taken?” “Be my guest,” says the guy with the dreads. Manfred slides the chair open then realizes that the other guy—immaculate double-breasted suit, sober tie, crew-cut — is a girl. Mr. Dreadlock nods. “You’re Macx? I figured it was about time we met.” “Sure.” Manfred holds out a hand and they shake. Manfred realizes the hand belongs to Bob Franklin, a Research Triangle startup monkey with a vc track record, lately moving into micromachining and space technology: he made his first million two decades ago and now he’s a specialist in extropian investment fields.

Just then a bandwidth load as heavy as a pregnant elephant sits down on Manfred’s head and sends clumps of humongous pixellation flickering across his sensorium: around the world five million or so geeks are bouncing on his home site, a digital flash crowd alerted by a posting from the other side of the bar. Manfred winces. “I really came here to talk about the economic exploitation of space travel, but I’ve just been slashdotted. Mind if I just sit and drink until it wears off?” “Sure, man.” Bob waves at the bar. “More of the same all round!” At the next table a person with make-up and long hair who’s wearing a dress — Manfred doesn’t want to speculate about the gender of these crazy mixed-up Euros — is reminiscing about wiring the fleshpots of Tehran for cybersex. Two collegiate-looking dudes are arguing intensely in German: the translation stream in his glasses tell him they’re arguing over whether the Turing Test is a Jim Crow law that violates European corpus juris standards on human rights.


pages: 224 words: 64,156

You Are Not a Gadget by Jaron Lanier

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1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, call centre, cloud computing, commoditize, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, digital Maoism, Douglas Hofstadter, Extropian, follow your passion, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Conway, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Long Term Capital Management, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, social graph, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog

The ascendant tribe is composed of the folks from the open culture/Creative Commons world, the Linux community, folks associated with the artificial intelligence approach to computer science, the web 2.0 people, the anticontext file sharers and remashers, and a variety of others. Their capital is Silicon Valley, but they have power bases all over the world, wherever digital culture is being created. Their favorite blogs include Boing Boing, TechCrunch, and Slashdot, and their embassy in the old country is Wired. Obviously, I’m painting with a broad brush; not every member of the groups I mentioned subscribes to every belief I’m criticizing. In fact, the groupthink problem I’m worried about isn’t so much in the minds of the technologists themselves, but in the minds of the users of the tools the cybernetic totalists are promoting. The central mistake of recent digital culture is to chop up a network of individuals so finely that you end up with a mush.

Buyers and sellers on eBay are a little more civil, despite occasional disappointments, such as encounters with flakiness and fraud. Based on those data, you could conclude that it isn’t exactly anonymity, but transient anonymity, coupled with a lack of consequences, that brings out online idiocy. With more data, that hypothesis can be refined. Participants in Second Life (a virtual online world) are generally not quite as mean to one another as are people posting comments to Slashdot (a popular technology news site) or engaging in edit wars on Wikipedia, even though all allow pseudonyms. The difference might be that on Second Life the pseudonymous personality itself is highly valuable and requires a lot of work to create. So a better portrait of the troll-evoking design is effortless, consequence-free, transient anonymity in the service of a goal, such as promoting a point of view, that stands entirely apart from one’s identity or personality.


pages: 106 words: 22,332

Cancel Cable: How Internet Pirates Get Free Stuff by Chris Fehily

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Firefox, patent troll, peer-to-peer, pirate software, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, WikiLeaks

Besides, the studios might hire me to push broom as a piracy consultant after the book comes out. Ditto Music. It’ll have to be Cable. Lots of resentment to feed off. A how-to book. Who’ll publish it? The mainstream cowards won’t touch it. What the hell are these people clapping for now? Maybe I’ll self-publish and astroturf a story about being oppressed by Big Media. The idiots at the news aggregators always fall for that. Need to post a fake review on Slashdot. That works like a house on fire for O’Reilly. Position it as a gift that under-30s can give to their clueless parents. Maybe I’ll get sued and the whole thing will go Streisand. Some geezer singing. What the? You’ve Got a Friend in Me? Let me out. Chapter 2 – Understanding BitTorrent BitTorrent is the most popular communications protocol (set of standard rules) that pirates use to exchange files over the internet.


pages: 541 words: 109,698

Mining the Social Web: Finding Needles in the Social Haystack by Matthew A. Russell

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Climategate, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, full text search, Georg Cantor, Google Earth, information retrieval, Mark Zuckerberg, natural language processing, NP-complete, profit motive, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, text mining, traveling salesman, Turing test, web application

Given that you’re probably working with a relatively small collection of items and that you’ve been introduced to some other mechanisms for sorting in Chapter 3, you then simply sort the data on the client-side and apply a frequency threshold. Example output with a threshold of 15 is shown in Table 5-1 but also displayed as a chart in Figure 5-1 so that you have a feel for the underlying distribution. Table 5-1. Entities sorted by frequency from harvested tweets by @timoreilly Entity Frequency #gov20 140 @OReillyMedia 124 #Ebook 89 @timoreilly 77 #ebooks 55 @slashdot 45 @jamesoreilly 41 #w2e 40 @gnat 38 @n2vip 37 @monkchips 33 #w2s 31 @pahlkadot 30 @dalepd 28 #g2e 27 #ebook 25 @ahier 24 #where20 22 @digiphile 21 @fredwilson 20 @brady 19 @mikeloukides 19 #pdf10 19 @nytimes 18 #fooeast 18 @andrewsavikas 17 @CodeforAmerica 16 @make 16 @pkedrosky 16 @carlmalamud 15 #make 15 #opengov 15 Figure 5-1. The frequency of entities that have been retweeted by @timoreilly for a sample of recent tweets So, what’s on Tim’s mind these days?

Finding @mention tweet entities that are also friends (the_tweet__how_many_user_entities_are_friends.py) # -*- coding: utf-8 -*- import json import redis import couchdb import sys from twitter__util import getRedisIdByScreenName from twitter__util import getRedisIdByUserId SCREEN_NAME = sys.argv[1] THRESHOLD = int(sys.argv[2]) # Connect using default settings for localhost r = redis.Redis() # Compute screen_names for friends friend_ids = r.smembers(getRedisIdByScreenName(SCREEN_NAME, 'friend_ids')) friend_screen_names = [] for friend_id in friend_ids: try: friend_screen_names.append(json.loads(r.get(getRedisIdByUserId(friend_id, 'info.json')))['screen_name']) except TypeError, e: continue # not locally available in Redis - look it up or skip it # Pull the list of (entity, frequency) tuples from CouchDB server = couchdb.Server('http://localhost:5984') db = server['tweets-user-timeline-' + SCREEN_NAME] entities_freqs = sorted([(row.key, row.value) for row in db.view('index/entity_count_by_doc', group=True)], key=lambda x: x[1]) # Keep only user entities with insufficient frequencies user_entities = [(ef[0])[1:] for ef in entities_freqs if ef[0][0] == '@' and ef[1] >= THRESHOLD] # Do a set comparison entities_who_are_friends = \ set(user_entities).intersection(set(friend_screen_names)) entities_who_are_not_friends = \ set(user_entities).difference(entities_who_are_friends) print 'Number of user entities in tweets: %s' % (len(user_entities), ) print 'Number of user entities in tweets who are friends: %s' \ % (len(entities_who_are_friends), ) for e in entities_who_are_friends: print '\t' + e print 'Number of user entities in tweets who are not friends: %s' \ % (len(entities_who_are_not_friends), ) for e in entities_who_are_not_friends: print '\t' + e The output with a frequency threshold of 15 (shown in Example 5-6) is predictable, yet it brings to light a couple of observations. Example 5-6. Sample output from Example 5-5 displaying @mention tweet entities that are also friends of @timoreilly Number of user entities in tweets: 20 Number of user entities in tweets who are friends: 18 ahier pkedrosky CodeforAmerica nytimes brady carlmalamud pahlkadot make jamesoreilly andrewsavikas gnat slashdot OReillyMedia dalepd mikeloukides monkchips fredwilson digiphile Number of user entities in tweets who are not friends: 2 n2vip timoreilly All in all, there were 20 user entities who exceeded a frequency threshold of 15, and 18 of those turned out to be friends. Given that most of the people who appear in his tweets are also his friends, it’s probably safe to say that there’s a strong trust relationship of some kind between Tim and these individuals.

The listing in Table 5-2 also uses a threshold of 15, to juxtapose the difference. Table 5-2. Most frequent entities appearing in retweets by @timoreilly; additional columns to illustrate normalization of retweet counts by @timoreilly Entity Number of times @user retweeted by @timoreilly Total tweets ever by @user Normalized retweet score @monkchips 30 33215 0.000903206 @ahier 18 14849 0.001212203 @slashdot 41 22081 0.0018568 @gnat 28 11322 0.002473061 @mikeloukides 15 2926 0.005126452 @pahlkadot 16 3109 0.005146349 @oreillymedia 97 6623 0.014645931 @jamesoreilly 34 4439 0.007659383 @dalepd 16 1589 0.010069226 So, who does Tim retweet/compliment the most? Well, not so surprisingly, his company and folks closely associated with his company compose the bulk of the list, with @oreillymedia coming in at the top of the pack.


pages: 532 words: 139,706

Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta

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23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management, zero-sum game

Ideas rushed to Krane’s brain, and he made a surprising choice. He explained how to make a reed for a clarinet, how to file and test and tweak it so the musical tone was clear and warm. Brin listened, then quickly moved on to his second question: “Have you ever heard of Slashdot?” Slashdot was a technology news site that encouraged user-generated comments, a pioneer of what came to be known as blogging. Krane smiled and pulled from his pocket a geeky badge of honor: a Palm 7, which permitted a wireless Internet connection to one of his favorite sites, Slashdot .com. “I thought,” said Krane, “I had aced the interview!” Brin shook hands and left, and Page entered. “He greeted me in a very reserved way. He asked me the equivalent of a tell-me-about-yourself ice-breaker question.” Krane waltzed through his life, his interests, his passion for Google.


pages: 400 words: 94,847

Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science by Michael Nielsen

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Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Cass Sunstein, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kevin Kelly, Magellanic Cloud, means of production, medical residency, Nicholas Carr, publish or perish, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, University of East Anglia, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge

The most obvious benefit of widespread open access is to individual citizens: no more restrictions on the ability of people suffering diseases to download the latest research! But over the long run an even bigger benefit of open access will be that it enables the creation of other institutions bridging science and the rest of society. We’re already starting to see this happen. For example, user-generated online news sites such as Digg and Slashdot routinely link to the latest research in the arXiv and PLoS and other open access sources. These news sites enable ordinary people to collectively decide what the news is, and provide a space where they can discuss that news. Often, what people choose to discuss includes the latest papers at the arXiv on subjects such as cosmology and quantum teleportation, or the latest papers at PLoS on subjects such as genetics and evolutionary biology.

See data sharing shared praxis, 75–77, 78–82, 198 Sheppard, Alice, 133, 135 Shirky, Clay, 153, 154, 219 signaling. See scoring Simon, Herbert, 217, 223 Sinclair, Cameron, 46 Singh, Simon, 165–67 Skilling, Jeffrey, 165 Skunk Works, 36 Skype video chat, 41 sky surveys, 98 of Hipparchus, 104 of Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, 107, 151 of Palomar Observatory, 102 of Ptolemy, 98, 102, 104. See also Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Slashdot, 163 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), 96–105 data-driven intelligence and, 112, 114 data sharing by, 102–5, 108–10, 181 data web and, 111 Galaxy Zoo’s use of, 138, 139, 140 new pattern of discovery and, 106–7 potential of networked science and, 175 Schawinski’s use of, 134 spectra of galaxies in, 138 Sloan Great Wall, 97, 99, 100, 112, 116 small contributions, 33, 48, 63–64, 227.


pages: 313 words: 95,077

Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations by Clay Shirky

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Andrew Keen, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, c2.com, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, hiring and firing, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, Kuiper Belt, liberation theology, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Merlin Mann, Metcalfe’s law, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, Picturephone, place-making, Pluto: dwarf planet, prediction markets, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Vilfredo Pareto, Yogi Berra

Jehovah’s Witnesses enjoy advantages similar to those of other Christian sects, but ex-Witnesses turn to Meetup because they don’t enjoy that kind of socially supported coordination. The second category of Meetup groups includes the members of websites and services who would like to assemble with other users of those services in real life. This group includes Slashdot, LiveJournal, Bloggers, Fark, Ultima, and Bookcrossing. (Interestingly, the numbers show how clustered these groups are; though Slashdot and LiveJournal had more members than Witches did, they met in fewer cities; or put another way, Witches are more evenly distributed in U.S. society than are geeks or bloggers.) This is what the end of cyberspace looks like: the popularity of these Meetup groups suggests that meeting online isn’t enough and that after communicating with one another using these various services, the members become convinced that they share enough to want to get together in the real world.

The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences by Rob Kitchin

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Bayesian statistics, business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs

Strasser, C. (2013) ‘Closed data... excuses, excuses’, Data Pub: California Digital Library, 24 April, http://datapub.cdlib.org/2013/04/24/closed-data-excuses-excuses (last accessed 18 September 2013). Strohm, C. and Homan, T. (2013) ‘NSA spying row in Congress ushers in debate over big data’, Bloomberg, 25 July, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-07-25/nsa-spying-row-in-congressushers-in-debate-over-big-data.html (last accessed 25 July 2013). Strom, D. (2012) ‘Big data makes things better’, Slashdot, 3 August, http://slashdot.org/topic/bi/bigdata-makes-things-better/ (last accessed 24 October 2013). Sword, K. (2008) ‘Contribution to: The Promise of Digital History’ (roundtable discussion), Journal of American History, 95(2): 452–91. Taleb. N. (2012) Antifragile: Things That Gain From Disorder. Random House, New York. Taleb, N. (2013) ‘Beware the big errors of “big data”’, Wired, 2 February, http://www.wired.com/opinion/2013/02/big-data-means-big-errors-people/ (last accessed 9 February 2013).


pages: 407 words: 103,501

The Digital Divide: Arguments for and Against Facebook, Google, Texting, and the Age of Social Netwo Rking by Mark Bauerlein

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Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, centre right, citizen journalism, collaborative editing, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, disintermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, peer-to-peer, pets.com, Results Only Work Environment, Saturday Night Live, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technology bubble, Ted Nelson, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, web application

Taking their cue from old-school Internet discussion groups like Usenet, websites such as MetaFilter let people begin discussions about almost anything they’ve found online. Each conversation begins with a link, then grows as far as its participants can take it. This is the real beauty of hypertext, and it’s finally catching on. Although hackers have used bulletin board interfaces on sites such as Slashdot since the Web’s inception, more commercially minded endeavors—e.g., Plastic—are adopting the same model to generate dialogues about culture and media. On Yahoo! the biggest growth area is conversation. Yahoo! Groups, a set of bulletin board discussions and mailing lists, contains thousands of the best discussions happening online—and almost all of them have been started by real people. Based on an old but still widely used style of e-mail conversation called Listserv, it allows group members to read postings and add to the conversation without ever opening their browsers.

Seinfeld (television series) Self-portraits Self-publishing Self-realization Self-sufficiency Semantic priming Semiotic democracy Sensory deprivation September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks Serialization SERP. See Search Engine Results Page Sesame Street Shakesville (blog) Shirky, Clay Shoutcast Simulations Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age (Watts) Skrenta, Rich “Skyful of Lies” and Black Swans (Gowing) Slashdot Slatalla, Michelle Slate (magazine) Sleeper Curve Slingbox SLVR phone Small world experiment Social currency Social graph Social media Social mind The Social Network (film) Social networking sites. See also specific sites activism and advertising on amount of users on development of identity setup on learning and marketing on politicians on privacy dangers and self-exposure through self-portraits on spam on weak ties on Social rules and norms Social saturation Social skills Socrates Solitude Sony Soundscape, cell phones and SourceForge.net South Korea Spamming, on social network sites Speech recognition Speed, Net Geners and Spengler, Oswald Splash screens Spotlight (blog) Squarciafico, Hieronimo Standage, Tom Starbucks Starkweather, Gary Star Trek (television series) Star Wars Stone, Linda Street Fighter II (video game) “The Strength of Weak Ties” (Granovetter) StyleDiary.net Suburbanization Sundance Resort Suriowecki, James Survival of the fittest Survivor (television series) Swados, Harvey Swarm intelligence Switch costs Tagging TakingITGlobal Task management Task switching Taylor, Frederick Winslow Teachout, Zephyr Techgnosis Technics and Civilization (Mumford) Techno-brain burnout Technology Education and Design (TED) Technomadicity Technorati TED.


Gaming the Vote: Why Elections Aren't Fair (And What We Can Do About It) by William Poundstone

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Debian, desegregation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, global village, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, invisible hand, jimmy wales, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, manufacturing employment, Nash equilibrium, Paul Samuelson, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, slashdot, the map is not the territory, Thomas Bayes, transcontinental railway, Unsafe at Any Speed, Y2K

Last Man Standing 219 Orange County· John Wayne· American machismo· the Condorcet winner· Linux • Markus Schulze· CSSD • Wikipedia • trolls· Queen Elizabeth· Kim Jongil • sarcasm· simplicity· Ka-Ping Yee· Microsoft Windows· manipulative behavior • how ro prevent carjacking· Mathematics Awareness Week • lain Mclean· permanent pointlessness 231 14. Hot or Not? Hanging out· James Hong· Jim Young· gene survival· speed dating· Silicon Valley· Slashdot • Playboy· Michelin ratings· range voting· the Internet Movie Database· The Seventh Seal· Jennifer Anisron • cheating· Warren D. Smith· Bayesian regret· ignorance· honesty· guilt· quasi-spiritual acts· honeybees· Jan Kok • number phobia· pop culture 250 15. Present but Not Voting This Is Spinal Tap· Jeremy Bentham· faulty embalming· Lionel Robbins· eBay • Claude Hillinger • socialism· John Harsanyi • fiddling while Rome burns· what the impossibility theorem really means THE REALITY 261 16.

So we said. wouldn't it be funny if there was a website where you could see if someone is a 'perfect ten'?" Jim Young coded the site in just a few days. In October 2000, Young and Hong sent e-mails to friends telling them about the site. Pictures poured in, and site visits grew exponentially. On the eighth day, the site got 1.8 million hits. By early 2001, NetNielson listed it as one of the top twenty-five sites for Web advertising. It was soon being written up in Slashdot and Playboy. By adding the matchmaking feature, the site went commercial. Hong, now the site's CEO, reports that about a marriage a day results from people who meet on the site. More than twelve 232 Hot or Not? billion votes have been cast. That is more than four times the votes cast in every presidential election in the history of the United States. The type of voting used on Hot or Not is called range voting, and it has become the favored voting method of the Internet.


Starstruck: The Business of Celebrity by Currid

barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Donald Trump, income inequality, index card, industrial cluster, labour mobility, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, natural language processing, place-making, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Florida, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, slashdot, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban decay, Vilfredo Pareto, winner-take-all economy

Maynard, a computer programmer and denizen of Fairmont, Minnesota (population 11,000), went from geek to Internet celebrity after pictures of him in a luminescent costume inspired by the Disney science-fiction movie Tron showed up all over the Internet. Maynard actually never intended on becoming a celebrity but capitalized on his star power when it came around. “I think everyone wants to become famous kind of idly. I never expected to become famous,” he said. “What happened was that I submitted a story to Slashdot [a technology news website]. It was a follow-up to other stories about other Tron fan costumes…I thought maybe a couple of people would be interested…The story just spread across the Internet instantly…People were making pretty seriously derogatory comments. Like ‘that guy in spandex.’ They didn’t think that anybody that was my shape should ever put on tights. I knew darn well going in that I wasn’t shaped like Bruce Boxleitner, the guy who plays Tron.”

Ono, Yoko Oppenheimer, Jerry Oscars, see Academy Awards Owl and Weasel (newsletter) Oxford University Page, Larry Pakistan Palencia, Francisco Palin, Sarah Paltrow, Gwyneth paparazzi Paramount Pictures Pareto Principle Paris Park City (Utah) Parliament, British participatory culture path dependency Pattinson, Robert Peake, John Penguin Press Penn, Sean People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) People magazine PepsiCo PerezHilton.com; see also Hilton, Perez personal digital assistant (PDA) applications Pew Research Center Peyton-Jones, Julia Phoenix, River Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living, The (Hirst) Picasso, Pablo Pinsky, Drew Pitt, Brad Pittsburgh Playboy Polaroid Scene Politico newspaper and blog politics; academic; British; celebrity residual in; geography of stardom and; networks in Ponzi schemes pop art Popeye Series (Koons) Pop Idol (TV show) Pop magazine Portman, Natalie Posen, Zac Price, Katie (“Jordan”) Princeton University Proenza fashion house Project Runway (TV show) publicists; democratic celebrities and; fees of; geography of stardom and; lack of, in Bollywood Puppy (Koons) Putnam, Robert Queen Latifah Radar magazine Rainie, Lee RateMyProfessors.com Ravid, Gilad RCA Records Reader, The (film) reality TV; British; financial celebrities on; narcissism of; relative celebrities on; stars of; see also specific shows Real Madrid Real World, The (TV show) Reed, David Reed, Lou Reid, Tara Rein, Irving Reinhardt, Doug relative celebrities; in academia; in art world; characteristics of,; mainstream celebrities versus; networks of Reliance film company Renaissance Technologies Republican Party residual, see celebrity residual Reuters Reynolds, Jamie Richards, Mark Richter, Gerhard Ripa, Kelly Ritchie, Guy Rivera, Mariano Roberts, Julia Rodarte fashion house Rodriguez, Alex (A-Rod) ROFLCon Rogers and Cowan Rolling Stone Roman Empire Romer, Paul Ronaldinho (Ronaldo de Assis Moreira) Ronaldo, Cristiano Ronson, Samantha Rose, Jessica Rosen, Sherwin Rosenfield, Stan Ross, Andrew Roubini, Nouriel Rousing, Hans Rousseau, Jean-Jacques Royal Festival Hall (London) Ruscha, Ed Ruth, Babe Saatchi, Charles Sachs, Jeffrey Salomon, Rick Salomon Brothers Samuels, David Sandler, Adam San Francisco 49ers São Paulo, traffic in Schouler fashion house Schroeder, Alice Science magazine Scientific American Scientologists Scorsese, Martin Scotland Seacrest, Ryan Seattle Mariners Secret Service Sedgwick, Edie Seipp, Catherine Senate, U.S. Serpentine Gallery (London) Shaw, David short message service (SMS) text messaging Sigler, Jamie-Lynn Silicon Valley Simons, James Simple Life, The (TV series) Simpson, O. J. Sinatra, Frank Sitrick, Michael Slashdot Slumdog Millionaire (film) Smart, Barry Smith, Will Snowball (Schroeder) soccer Soccernomics (Kuper and Szymanski) Social Issue Research Center social media; democratic celebrities and; see also Facebook; MySpace; Twitter social networks; in Bollywood; see also networks, celebrity Solow, Robert M. Sontag, Susan Sotheby’s South Beach (Florida) Southern California, University of South Korea South Park (TV show) So You Think You Can Dance (TV show) Spears, Britney; bad behavior of; celebrity residual of; comments on blog postings on,; economic impact of; paparazzi and; volume of media mentions of Spears, Jamie Lynn Spice Girls; see also Beckham, Victoria Spielberg, Steven Spitzer, Eliot sports; celebrity residual in; networks in; relative celebrity in; see also baseball; football; soccer Sports Illustrated Sports Network SPPS Clementine Springsteen, Bruce Stallabrass, Julian Staller, Ilona (Cicciolina) Starbucks starlets Starr, Freddie Starr, Ringo Star Search (TV show) Star Trek TV shows and movies Stiller, Ben Streep, Meryl Stuckism art movement Studdard, Ruben Studio 54 (New York) Style Rookie subcultures Submission (film) Sudan Summers, Harvard Sun (tabloid) Sun Country Classic Sundance Film Festival Sunday Times supermodels superstar effect Surowiecki, James Sutton, Willie Szymanski, Stefan tabloids; American Idol winners in; Aniston in; bad behavior coverage in; British; covers; events covered by; Hilton in; Indian; paparazzi and; publicists and; sports stars in; superstar effect and; among top two hundred best selling magazines talent; in art world; celebrity residual versus; geography of stardom and; networks and; relative celebrity and; Star Currency and Talese, Gay Talley, André Leon Target stores Tate Modern (London) Tatler magazine Tavistock Group Taylor, Elizabeth Teixeira, Mark Teller, Juergen Tequila, Tila Texas Rangers Thakoon fashion house Thousand Years, A (Hirst) Timberlake, Justin Tipping Point, The (Gladwell) TLC TMZ Tokyo; World Cup in Tonight Show, The Topshop Torre, Joe Torvalds, Linus Total Request Live (TRL) trainers Transformers (film) Treasury bonds TriBeCa Film Festival Tron (film) Tron Guy Trump, Donald Trump, Melania Tucker, Ken Turner, Graeme Turner Prize Tussaud, Madame (Marie Grosholtz) Twentieth Century-Fox Twilight Saga films Twitter Underwood, Carrie Ungaro Union Square Cafe (New York) United Kingdom; art scene in; awards shows in; fantasy war games in; film premiers in; political elite in; press in; publicists in; reality TV in; sports celebrities in; see also London United Talent Agency Universal Pictures Urban Decay US Weekly; casual shots of stars in; circulation of; endorsement deals announced in; mentions of Winslet versus Aniston in U2 Vaccaro, Sonny Van Gogh, Theo Vanity Fair magazine; Oscar party hosted by Vaughn, Vince Verardi, Vincenzo VH1 Vicious, Sid Viper Room (Los Angeles) Virgin brand Vogue magazine; online Voltaire von Furstenberg, Diane Von Teese, Dita Walker, Kara Walk of Fame (Hollywood) Wallace, David Foster Wall Street Journal Wal-Mart Warhammer Warhol, Andy Warhol Economy, The (Currid-Halkett) Washington, D.C.


pages: 132 words: 31,976

Getting Real by Jason Fried, David Heinemeier Hansson, Matthew Linderman, 37 Signals

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

call centre, collaborative editing, David Heinemeier Hansson, iterative process, John Gruber, knowledge worker, Merlin Mann, Metcalfe's law, performance metric, premature optimization, Ruby on Rails, slashdot, Steve Jobs, web application

Post to your blog about the development. Stay vague but plant the seed. Also, get a site up where you can collect emails from folks who are interested. At this stage, you should also start seducing mavens and insiders. These are the folks on the cutting edge. They're the tastemakers. Appeal to their vanity and status as ahead-of-the-curvers. Tell them they're getting an exclusive sneak preview. If a site like Boing Boing, Slashdot, or Digg links up your app, you'll get loads of traffic and followers. Plus, your page rank at Google will go up too. Preview A few weeks ahead of launch, start previewing features. Give people behind-the-scenes access. Describe the theme of the product. For Basecamp, we posted screenshots and highlighted reminders, milestones, and other features. Also, tell people about the ideas and principles behind the app.


pages: 624 words: 180,416

For the Win by Cory Doctorow

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

barriers to entry, Burning Man, creative destruction, double helix, Internet Archive, inventory management, loose coupling, Maui Hawaii, microcredit, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, Post-materialism, post-materialism, random walk, RFID, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave

Perry looked at Suzanne, who was videoing this exchange with her keychain. Then he looked back at Tjan, “Yeah, of course. Sorry—force of habit. No harm done, though, right?” That footage got downloaded a couple hundred times that night, but once it got slashdotted by a couple of high-profile headline aggregators, she found her server hammered with a hundred thousand requests. The Merc had the horsepower to serve them all, but you never knew: every once in a while, the web hit another tipping point and grew by an order of magnitude or so, and then all the server-provisioning—calculated to survive the old slashdottings—shredded like wet kleenex. From: kettlewell-l@skunkworks.kodacell.com To: schurch@sjmercury.com Subject: Re: Embedded journalist? This stuff is amazing. Amazing! Christ, I should put you on the payroll. Forget I wrote that.

He was enormous, not just tall but fat, as big around as a barrel. His green tee-shirt read IT’S FUN TO USE LEARNING FOR EVIL! in blocky, pixelated letters. He took her hand and shook it. “I love your blog,” he said. “I read it all the time.” He had three chins, and eyes that were nearly lost in his apple cheeks. “Meet Lester,” Perry said. “My partner.” “Sidekick,” Lester said with a huge wink. “Sysadmin slash hardware hacker slash dogsbody slashdot org.” She chuckled. Nerd humor. Ar ar ar. “Right, let’s get started. You wanna see what I do, right?” Perry said. “That’s right,” Suzanne said. “Lead the way, Lester,” Perry said, and gestured with an arm, deep into the center of the junkpile. “All right, check this stuff out as we go.” He stuck his hand through the unglazed window of a never-built shop and plucked out a toy in a battered box.


pages: 398 words: 120,801

Little Brother by Cory Doctorow

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

airport security, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, citizen journalism, Firefox, game design, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, mail merge, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas Bayes, web of trust, zero day

EFF has a huge, deep website with amazing information aimed at a general audience, as do the American Civil Liberties Union (aclu.org), Public Knowledge (publicknowledge.org), FreeCulture (freeculture.org), Creative Commons (creativecommons.org) -- all of which also are worthy of your support. FreeCulture is an international student movement that actively recruits kids to found their own local chapters at their high schools and universities. It's a great way to get involved and make a difference. A lot of websites chronicle the fight for cyberliberties, but few go at it with the verve of Slashdot, "News for Nerds, Stuff That Matters" (slashdot.org). And of course, you have to visit Wikipedia, the collaborative, net-authored encyclopedia that anyone can edit, with more than 1,000,000 entries in English alone. Wikipedia covers hacking and counterculture in astonishing depth and with amazing, up-to-the-nanosecond currency. One caution: you can't just look at the entries in Wikipedia. It's really important to look at the "History" and "Discussion" links at the top of every Wikipedia page to see how the current version of the truth was arrived at, get an appreciation for the competing points-of-view there, and decide for yourself whom you trust.


pages: 472 words: 117,093

Machine, Platform, Crowd: Harnessing Our Digital Future by Andrew McAfee, Erik Brynjolfsson

3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Airbnb, airline deregulation, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backtesting, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, British Empire, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, complexity theory, computer age, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, discovery of DNA, disintermediation, distributed ledger, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, family office, fiat currency, financial innovation, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, law of one price, Lyft, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, multi-sided market, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precision agriculture, prediction markets, pre–internet, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, transportation-network company, traveling salesman, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, yield management, zero day

Wikipedia, “Wikipedia:Five Pillars,” last modified February 6, 2017, at 10:52, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Five_pillars. †† Larry Sanger left the Wikipedia community in the early years of the twenty-first century over differences about its governance. He came to feel that it was harmfully antiauthoritarian. Larry Sanger [timothy, pseud.], “The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia, Part II,” Slashdot, April 19, 2005, https://slashdot.org/story/05/04/19/1746205/the-early-history-of-nupedia-and-wikipedia-part-ii. ‡‡ Wikipedians are not paid for their contributions and are mostly anonymous, so fame is of limited power as an incentive. As shown in a clever field experiment by Jana Gallus, they do seem to respond well to recognition, even if it’s just from fellow Wikipedians. Jana Gallus, Fostering Voluntary Contributions to a Public Good: A Large-Scale Natural Field Experiment at Wikipedia, Natural Field Experiments 00552 (2016), https://ideas.repec.org/p/feb/natura/00552.html.


pages: 216 words: 61,061

Without Their Permission: How the 21st Century Will Be Made, Not Managed by Alexis Ohanian

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Airbnb, barriers to entry, carbon-based life, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Hans Rosling, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Justin.tv, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, Occupy movement, Paul Graham, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, software is eating the world, Startup school, Tony Hsieh, unpaid internship, Y Combinator

Long before most people realized the power of online software, he knew the Internet offered tremendous potential for an idea to spread as never before. When a customer only needs a browser and an Internet connection to access your product, unprecedented growth is possible. He asked us about frustrations we had using the Internet, which had just recently seen the launch of a college-only site called TheFacebook.com. Steve was an avid reader of Slashdot, a news website with editorial oversight and a robust community of commenters as well as a moderation system. I had too many tabs open every day—they showed me a range of news websites, but I had no way to filter signal from noise. At the time, a website called del.icio.us (pronounced “delicious”; ignore the dots) let people bookmark websites online, so if you hopped between computers, your reference material followed you.


pages: 226 words: 75,783

In the Land of Invented Languages: Adventures in Linguistic Creativity, Madness, and Genius by Arika Okrent

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

British Empire, centre right, global village, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, slashdot, software patent, Stephen Hawking

Dungeons & Dragons players, ham radio operators, robot engineers, computer programmers, comic book collectors—they all look down on Klingon speakers. Even the most ardent Star Trek fanatics, the Trekkies, who dress up in costume every day, who can recite scripts of entire episodes, who collect Star Trek paraphernalia with mad devotion, consider Klingon speakers beneath them. When a discussion of Klingon appeared on Slashdot.org—the Web site billed as “News for Nerds”—the topic inspired comments like “I'm sorry but it's people like this that give science fiction a bad name.” Another said that Klingon speakers “provide excellent reasons for forced sterilization. Then again being able to speak Klingon pretty much does this without surgery.” Mark Shoulson, who has a wife and two children, doesn't enjoy being talked about this way.


pages: 378 words: 67,804

Learning Android by Marko Gargenta

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

create, read, update, delete, database schema, Firefox, loose coupling, slashdot, web application

-- --> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent"> <!-- --> <LinearLayout android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_width="fill_parent"> <!-- --> <TextView android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1" android:id="@+id/textUser" android:text="Slashdot" android:textStyle="bold" /> <!-- --> <TextView android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1" android:gravity="right" android:id="@+id/textCreatedAt" android:text="10 minutes ago" /> </LinearLayout> <!-- --> <TextView android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:id="@+id/textText" android:text="Firefox comes to Android" /> </LinearLayout> The main layout for the entire row.


pages: 411 words: 80,925

What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer rental, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar

What Lessig and the Creative Commons have done is to create a significant culture of online socializing that encourages us to share. Through our digital experiences, we are recognizing that by providing value to the community, we enable our own social value to expand in return. When we post photos on Flickr; our knowledge on the likes of Wikipedia, Open Street Map, and Citizendium; our news on Public News and Slashdot; and our research on Bepress and NeuroCommons, we learn that we need to “give to get” in these communities. As David Bollier writes in Viral Spiral, “The commons—a hazy concept to many people—is a new paradigm for creating value and organizing a community of shared interests.”21 Collaborative Consumption is tied to how these principles are being applied to other parts of our lives, beyond media or content, by tapping into an innate quest to be part of a solution or even a movement of people with similar interests.


pages: 238 words: 73,824

Makers by Chris Anderson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Airbnb, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, business process, commoditize, Computer Numeric Control, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, factory automation, Firefox, future of work, global supply chain, global village, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, profit maximization, QR code, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Rubik’s Cube, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, South of Market, San Francisco, spinning jenny, Startup school, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize, Y Combinator

They were actually pretty amazing, and it occurred to me that those were exactly the same sensors that you’d need to make an airplane autopilot. We could kill two birds with one stone: invent something cool with Lego that had never been done before and get the robot to fly the plane! It was sure to be a better pilot than me. The moment I got home, I prototyped a Lego autopilot on the dining room table, and my nine-year-old helped write the software. We took some pictures, posted them, and it was on the front page of Slashdot by that evening. We put it in a plane—the world’s first Lego UAV, I think—and took it out a few weekends later. It almost kinda worked—it was definitely staying aloft and steering on its own, albeit not exactly where we had intended. At that point I went down the rabbit hole and resolved to improve it until it worked as I’d dreamed, a quest that I’m still on years later. (The kids, sadly, lost interest within days, and returned to their usual staple of video games and YouTube, both of which offer more immediate gratification.)


pages: 231 words: 71,248

Shipping Greatness by Chris Vander Mey

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

corporate raider, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fudge factor, Google Chrome, Google Hangouts, Gordon Gekko, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, minimum viable product, performance metric, recommendation engine, Skype, slashdot, sorting algorithm, source of truth, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, web application

In situations where you can’t roll back, your best bet is to make sure that you have the team capacity to keep moving forward very quickly for a couple of days, because it may take you that long to find and fix your problems—and as you’re fixing them, customers are having a bad day. On the other hand, if rollback is possible, you can turn off the changes, fix things at a leisurely pace, and try again. Handle Any Production Crises Sometimes the world explodes. Maybe you got slashdotted. Or maybe there was a security hole, privacy violation, or pricing mishap. Or maybe an intern redirected the production website to his or her desktop instead of the datacenter (true story!). In cases like these, there’s a good script you can follow. And like all good reactive measures, it’s inspired by the Boy Scouts: you start by being prepared. Part of being prepared means having an on-call rotation and pagers.


pages: 326 words: 74,433

Do More Faster: TechStars Lessons to Accelerate Your Startup by Brad Feld, David Cohen

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

augmented reality, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, hiring and firing, Inbox Zero, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, software as a service, Steve Jobs

Usage Is Like Oxygen for Ideas Matt Mullenweg Matt is the founder of Automattic which makes WordPress.com, Akismet, bbPress, BuddyPress, and now Intense Debate, a TechStars company that Automattic acquired in 2008. I like Apple because they are not afraid of getting a basic 1.0 out into the world and iterating on it. A case in point: “No wireless. Less space than a nomad. Lame.”—cmdrtaco, Slashdot.org, 2001, when reviewing the first iPod. I remember my first iPhone. I stood in line for hours to buy it, and like a great meal, you have to wait for in a long line outside a hot night club, the wait made the first time I swiped to unlock the phone that much sweeter. I felt like I was on Star Trek and this was my magical tricorder—a tricorder that constantly dropped calls on AT&T's network, had a headphone adapter that didn't fit any of the hundreds of dollars worth of headphones I owned, ran no applications, had no copy and paste, and was slow as molasses.


pages: 1,280 words: 384,105

The Mammoth Book of the Best of Best New SF by Gardner Dozois

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, Columbine, congestion charging, dark matter, Doomsday Book, double helix, Extropian, gravity well, Mason jar, offshore financial centre, out of africa, pattern recognition, phenotype, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, Turing machine, Turing test, Winter of Discontent, Y2K, zero-sum game

Manfred takes it and heads for the back of the split-level bar, up the steps to a table where some guy with greasy dreadlocks is talking to a suit from Paris. The hanger-on at the bar notices him for the first time, staring with suddenly wide eyes: nearly spills his Coke in a mad rush for the door. Oh shit, thinks Macx, better buy some more server PIPS. He can recognize the signs: he’s about to be slashdotted. He gestures at the table: “this one taken?” “Be my guest,” says the guy with the dreads. Manfred slides the chair open then realizes that the other guy – immaculate double-breasted suit, sober tie, crew-cut – is a girl. Mr. Dreadlock nods. “You’re Macx? I figured it was about time we met.” “Sure.” Manfred holds out a hand and they shake. Manfred realizes the hand belongs to Bob Franklin, a Research Triangle startup monkey with a VC track record, lately moving into micromachining and space technology: he made his first million two decades ago and now he’s a specialist in extropian investment fields.

Just then a bandwidth load as heavy as a pregnant elephant sits down on Manfred’s head and sends clumps of humongous pixellation flickering across his sensorium: around the world five million or so geeks are bouncing on his home site, a digital flash crowd alerted by a posting from the other side of the bar. Manfred winces. “I really came here to talk about the economic exploitation of space travel, but I’ve just been slash-dotted. Mind if I just sit and drink until it wears off?” “Sure, man.” Bob waves at the bar. “More of the same all round!” At the next table a person with make-up and long hair who’s wearing a dress – Manfred doesn’t want to speculate about the gender of these crazy mixed-up Euros – is reminiscing about wiring the fleshpots of Tehran for cybersex. Two collegiate-looking dudes are arguing intensely in German: the translation stream in his glasses tell him they’re arguing over whether the Turing Test is a Jim Crow law that violates European corpus juris standards on human rights.

Meanwhile automated factories in Indonesia and Mexico have produced another quarter of a million motherboards with processors rated at more than ten petaflops – about an order of magnitude below the computational capacity of a human brain. Another fourteen months and the larger part of the cumulative conscious processing power of the human species will be arriving in silicon. And the first meat the new AI’s get to know will be the uploaded lobsters. Manfred stumbles back to his hotel, bone-weary and jet-lagged; his glasses are still jerking, slashdotted to hell and back by geeks piggybacking on his call to dismantle the moon. They stutter quiet suggestions at his peripheral vision; fractal cloud-witches ghost across the face of the moon as the last huge Airbuses of the night rumble past overhead. Manfred’s skin crawls, grime embedded in his clothing from three days of continuous wear. Back in his room, Aineko mewls for attention and strops her head against his ankle.


pages: 1,201 words: 233,519

Coders at Work by Peter Seibel

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Ada Lovelace, bioinformatics, cloud computing, Conway's Game of Life, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, fault tolerance, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Guido van Rossum, HyperCard, information retrieval, Larry Wall, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Perl 6, premature optimization, publish or perish, random walk, revision control, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ruby on Rails, Saturday Night Live, side project, slashdot, speech recognition, the scientific method, Therac-25, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, type inference, Valgrind, web application

The multithreaded stuff, frankly, scares me because before I was married and had kids it took a lot of my life. And not everybody was ready to think about concurrency and all the possible combinations of orders that are out there for even small scenarios. Once you combine code with other people's code it just gets out of control. You can't possibly model the state space in your head. Most people aren't up to it. I could be like one of these chest-thumpers on Slashdot—when I blogged about “Threads suck” someone was saying, “Oh he doesn't know anything. He's not a real man.” Come on, you idiot. I got a trip to New Zealand and Australia. I got some perks. But it was definitely painful and it takes too long. As Oscar Wilde said of socialism, “It takes too many evenings.” Seibel: How do you design code? Eich: A lot of prototyping. I used to do sort of high-level pseudocode, and then I'd start filling in bottom up.

That's much easier to absorb than, “Here's a whole new way of thinking about programming.” That said, I think that if we're specifically discussing functional programming then I do think that we have seen a qualitative sea change in people's attitude. Many more people have heard about functional programming than ever used to. Suddenly rather than always having to explain what Haskell is, sometimes people say, “Oh, I've heard about that. In fact I was reading about it on Slashdot the other week and I gather it's rather cool.” That just didn't happen a few years ago. But what's underlying that? Is it just a random popularity thing? Or maybe part of it is that more students have been taught about functional programming in university and are now in managerial or seniorish positions. Perhaps. But perhaps it's also to do with as we scale up software dealing with the bad consequences of unrestricted side effects and as we want to deal with more verification and parallelism, all those issues become more pressing.


pages: 666 words: 181,495

In the Plex: How Google Thinks, Works, and Shapes Our Lives by Steven Levy

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23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business process, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, discounted cash flows, don't be evil, Donald Knuth, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, El Camino Real, fault tolerance, Firefox, Gerard Salton, Gerard Salton, Google bus, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Googley, HyperCard, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, one-China policy, optical character recognition, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Potemkin village, prediction markets, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, search inside the book, second-price auction, selection bias, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, trade route, traveling salesman, turn-by-turn navigation, Vannevar Bush, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

He had grown up just outside Rochester, New York, a typical hacker kid driven by silicon and curiosity, and by the time he entered Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, he was full of ideas and projects, one of them being a web-based email program. After graduation, he took a job with Intel. But the chipmaker was big and bureaucratic. “I wasn’t really loving Intel,” he later said, meaning he hated it. He started looking around for an interesting start-up. He’d read about Google on Slashdot, an online discussion site that was like Entertainment Tonight for geeks, and started using its search engine. He was impressed by Google’s imaginative stab at an interesting technical problem. He sent his résumé to jobs@google.com. The email bounced—the server was down—but he persisted and eventually was granted a phone screener, followed by a face-to-face interview. Unlike at the other companies he was talking to, the Google people asked smart, technical questions.

., 140 Playboy, 153–54, 155 pornography, blocking, 54, 97, 108, 173, 174 Postini, 241 Pregibon, Daryl, 118–19 Premium Sunset, 109, 112–13, 115 privacy: and Book Settlement, 363 and browsers, 204–12, 336–37 and email, 170–78, 211–12, 378 and Google’s policies, 10, 11, 145, 173–75, 333–35, 337–40 and Google Street View, 340–43 and government fishing expeditions, 173 and interest-based ads, 263, 334–36 and security breach, 268 and social networking, 378–79, 383 and surveillance, 343 Privacy International, 176 products: beta versions of, 171 “dogfooding,” 216 Google neglect of, 372, 373–74, 376, 381 in GPS meetings, 6, 135, 171 machine-driven, 207 marketing themselves, 77, 372 speed required in, 186 Project Database (PDB), 164 property law, 6, 360 Python, 18, 37 Qiheng, Hu, 277 Queiroz, Mario, 230 Rainert, Alex, 373, 374 Rajaram, Gokul, 106 Rakowski, Brian, 161 Randall, Stephen, 153 RankDex, 27 Rasmussen, Lars, 379 Red Hat, 78 Reese, Jim, 181–84, 187, 195, 196, 198 Reeves, Scott, 153 Rekhi, Manu, 373 Reyes, George, 70, 148 Richards, Michael, 251 robotics, 246, 351, 385 Romanos, Jack, 356 Rosenberg, Jonathan, 159–60, 281 Rosenstein, Justin, 369 Rosing, Wayne, 44, 55, 82, 155, 158–59, 186, 194, 271 Rubin, Andy, 135, 213–18, 220, 221–22, 226, 227–30, 232 Rubin, Robert, 148 Rubinson, Barry, 20–21 Rubinstein, Jon, 221 Sacca, Chris, 188–94 Salah, George, 84, 128, 129, 132–33, 166 Salinger Group, The, 190–91 Salton, Gerard, 20, 24, 40 Samsung, 214, 217 Samuelson, Pamela, 362, 365 Sandberg, Sheryl, 175, 257 and advertising, 90, 97, 98, 99, 107 and customer support, 231 and Facebook, 259, 370 Sanlu Group, 297–98 Santana, Carlos, 238 Schillace, Sam, 201–3 Schmidt, Eric, 107, 193 and advertising, 93, 95–96, 99, 104, 108, 110, 112, 114, 115, 117, 118, 337 and antitrust issues, 345 and Apple, 218, 220, 236–37 and applications, 207, 240, 242 and Book Search, 350, 351, 364 and China, 267, 277, 279, 283, 288–89, 305, 310–11, 313, 386 and cloud computing, 201 and financial issues, 69–71, 252, 260, 376, 383 and Google culture, 129, 135, 136, 364 and Google motto, 145 and growth, 165, 271 and IPO, 147–48, 152, 154, 155–57 on lawsuits, 328–29 and management, 4, 80–83, 110, 158–60, 165, 166, 242, 254, 255, 273, 386, 387 and Obama, 316–17, 319, 321, 346 and privacy, 175, 178, 383 and public image, 328 and smart phones, 216, 217, 224, 236 and social networking, 372 and taxes, 90 and Yahoo, 344, 345 and YouTube, 248–49, 260, 265 Schrage, Elliot, 285–87 Schroeder, Pat, 361 search: decoding the intent of, 59 failed, 60 freshness in, 42 Google as synonymous with, 40, 41, 42, 381 mobile, 217 organic results of, 85 in people’s brains, 67–68 real-time, 376 sanctity of, 275 statelessness of, 116, 332 verticals, 58 see also web searches search engine optimization (SEO), 55–56 search engines, 19 bigram breakage in, 51 business model for, 34 file systems for, 43–44 and hypertext link, 27, 37 information retrieval via, 27 and licensing fees, 77, 84, 95, 261 name detection in, 50–52 and relevance, 48–49, 52 signals to, 22 ultimate, 35 upgrades of, 49, 61–62 Search Engine Watch, 102 SearchKing, 56 SEC regulations, 149, 150–51, 152, 154, 156 Semel, Terry, 98 Sengupta, Caesar, 210 Seti, 65–67 Shah, Sonal, 321 Shapiro, Carl, 117 Shazeer, Noam, 100–102 Sheff, David, 153 Sherman Antitrust Act, 345 Shriram, Ram, 34, 72, 74, 79 Siao, Qiang, 277 Sidekick, 213, 226 signals, 21–22, 49, 59, 376 Silicon Graphics (SGI), 131–32 Silverstein, Craig, 13, 34, 35, 36, 43, 78, 125, 129, 139 Sina, 278, 288, 302 Singh, Sanjeev, 169–70 Singhal, Amit, 24, 40–41, 48–52, 54, 55, 58 Siroker, Dan, 319–21 skunkworks, 380–81 Skype, 233, 234–36, 322, 325 Slashdot, 167 Slim, Carlos, 166 SMART (Salton’s Magical Retriever of Text), 20 smart phones, 214–16, 217–22 accelerometers on, 226–28 carrier contracts for, 230, 231, 236 customer support for, 230–31, 232 direct to consumer, 230, 232 Nexus One, 230, 231–32 Smith, Adam, 360 Smith, Bradford, 333 Smith, Christopher, 284–86 Smith, Megan, 141, 158, 184, 258, 318, 350, 355–56 social graph, 374 social networking, 369–83 Sogou, 300 Sohu, 278, 300 Sony, 251, 264 Sooner (mobile operating system), 217, 220 Southworth, Lucinda, 254 spam, 53–57, 92, 241 Spector, Alfred, 65, 66–67 speech recognition, 65, 67 spell checking, 48 Spencer, Graham, 20, 28, 201, 375 spiders, 18, 19 Stanford University: and BackRub, 29–30 and Book Search, 357 Brin in, 13–14, 16, 17, 28, 29, 34 computer science program at, 14, 23, 27, 32 Digital Library Project, 16, 17 and Google, 29, 31, 32–33, 34 and MIDAS, 16 Page in, 12–13, 14, 16–17, 28, 29, 34 and Silicon Valley, 27–28 Stanley (robot), 246, 385 Stanton, Katie, 318, 321, 322, 323–25, 327 Stanton, Louis L., 251 State Department, U.S., 324–25 Steremberg, Alan, 18, 29 Stewart, Jon, 384 Stewart, Margaret, 207 Stricker, Gabriel, 186 Sullivan, Danny, 102 Sullivan, Stacy, 134, 140, 141, 143–44, 158–59 Summers, Larry, 90 Sun Microsystems, 28, 70 Swetland, Brian, 226, 228 Taco Town, 377 Tan, Chade-Meng, 135–36 Tang, Diane, 118 Taylor, Bret, 259, 370 Teetzel, Erik, 184, 197 Tele Atlas, 341 Tesla, Nikola, 13, 32, 106 Thompson, Ken, 241 3M, 124 Thrun, Sebastian, 246, 385–86 T-Mobile, 226, 227, 230 Tseng, Erick, 217, 227 Twentieth Century Fox, 249 Twitter, 309, 322, 327, 374–77, 387 Uline, 112 Universal Music Group, 261 Universal Search, 58–60, 294, 357 University of Michigan, 352–54, 357 UNIX, 54, 80 Upson, Linus, 210, 211–12 Upstartle, 201 Urchin Software, 114 users: in A/B tests, 61 data amassed about, 45–48, 59, 84, 144, 173–74, 180, 185, 334–37 feedback from, 65 focus on, 5, 77, 92 increasing numbers of, 72 predictive clues from, 66 and security breach, 268, 269 U.S.


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The Art of Community by Jono Bacon

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barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), collaborative editing, crowdsourcing, Debian, DevOps, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Guido van Rossum, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Jono Bacon, Kickstarter, Larry Wall, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, openstreetmap, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, software as a service, telemarketer, union organizing, VA Linux, web application

I joined Creative Commons in April 2003, a few months after the first Creative Commons licenses were released. We were in the basement of the Stanford Law School, as that’s where Lawrence Lessig was. Various people had been involved over the preceding year, but essentially there were three staff [members] just before I joined. There was a very loose community initially, based on the notoriety of Lessig and other founders and some friendly coverage in the usual (for the time) geek outlets such as Slashdot—more a variety of well-wishers than a community. What kind of community did you set out to grow? The other person Creative Commons hired in April 2003 was our first international coordinator, based in Berlin. One community that we set out to grow, initially via this position, was a network of legal scholars around the world, who could collectively figure out how Creative Commons licenses work with copyright law in various jurisdictions around the world.

The cofounders of the Humble Indie Bundle originally headed up an indie game studio called Wolfire Games, where they learned a lot about making games and the state of the industry. They had an indie game called Lugaru, and they wanted to find a way to promote it alongside the games made by their friends in the indie game community. They had assessed—as Cory Doctorow and others have said—that an independent creator’s number one challenge is obscurity. As indie game developers and geeks themselves, they had observed various trends through sites like Reddit, Slashdot, Ars Technica, and so on. It was clear that the gaming communities didn’t like DRM. Online sales that were package deals were very popular. Pay-what-you-want seemed to be somewhat hit-or-miss, but was almost always newsworthy. They were inspired by these various promotions and set out to combine all of the ideas into one, big, blowout Internet-melting event. That’s essentially how the Humble Indie Bundle was born.


pages: 240 words: 109,474

Masters of Doom: How Two Guys Created an Empire and Transformed Pop Culture by David Kushner

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Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, book scanning, Columbine, corporate governance, game design, glass ceiling, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Marc Andreessen, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software patent, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, X Prize

Stuart Fischoff, founder of the Media Psychology lab at California State University in Los Angeles, said in an address to the American Psychological Association later in 1999, “but because two phenomena are both disturbing and coincident in time does not make them causally connected… There is not, I submit, a single research 211 study which is even remotely predictive of [events like] the Columbine massacre.” Murderers, after all, had proven that they could find inspiration in anything–the White Album, Taxi Driver, Catcher in the Rye. How many acts of violence had the Bible inspired? After Columbine, however, few had the nerve or the knowledge to defend games. Jon Kate, a writer for Rolling Stone and the tech community Slashdot, posted several essays that assailed the media’s stereotypes of geeks and gamers. “This is so crazy and hysterical,” he told the San Francisco Chronicle. “The real issue should be how teenagers get their hands on machine guns and bombs–not about a Web site and video games.” Others offered backhanded defense at best. “Violence has always been a big thing in the U.S.,” wrote Time, “and there are good constitutional reasons why we can’t legislate that out of our entertainment products.


pages: 353 words: 104,146

European Founders at Work by Pedro Gairifo Santos

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business intelligence, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, fear of failure, full text search, information retrieval, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, natural language processing, pattern recognition, pre–internet, recommendation engine, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, subscription business, technology bubble, web application, Y Combinator

Not for a couple years after that did we have a really good recommender system. Music recommendation never really was my field, but I had a go at it, and then later on we hired somebody who knew what they were doing. I was kept quite busy just with keeping the service alive. We moved it around between hosts several times. I was getting free hosting from the university originally. And then there was a Slashdot article and I had a word with the university sys admin and he told me about how to properly index my MySQL database, that kind of thing. Then other people contributed free hosting. So I would move the site every couple of months to a new server. So it jumped around all over the place at the beginning. Santos: How did you come into contact with the other co-founders from Last.fm? Jones: Felix [Miller] and Martin [Stiksel].


pages: 379 words: 109,612

Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

If we want to spend hours reading books, we still possess that freedom. Only philosophical argument could establish that information overload has deprived us of our agency; the claim, at root, is philosophical, not empirical. My interlocutors might cleverly reply that in the age of Facebook and Wikipedia we do still deliberate, but collectively. In other words, for example, we vote stuff up or down on Digg, del.icio.us, and Slashdot, and then we might feel ourselves obligated—if we’re participating as true believers—to pay special attention to the top-voted items. Similarly, we attempt to reach “consensus” on Wikipedia, and—again, if participating as true believers—we endorse the end result as credible. To the extent that our time is thus directed by social networks engaged in collective deliberation, we are subjugated to a “collective will,” something like Rousseau’s notion of a general will.


pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

No one needed to ask permission to publish. Anyone with an internet connection could post their work and gather an audience; it was the end of publishers controlling the gates. This was a revolution! And since it was a revolution, Wired published “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace” announcing the end of old media. New media was certainly spawning rapidly. Among them were the link aggregators such as Slashdot, Digg, and later Reddit that enabled users to vote up or down items and to work together as a collaborative consensus filter, making mutual recommendations based on “others like you.” Rheingold believed that Wired would get further faster by unleashing people with strong voices, lots of passion, and the willingness to write without any editors to thwart them. Today we’d call those contributors “bloggers.”


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

The National Center for Women and Information Technology reports that of the top one hundred tech companies, only 6 percent of chief executives are women.16 The numbers for Asians who ascend to the top are comparable despite the fact that they make up a third of all Silicon Valley software engineers.17 In 2010, not even 1 percent of the founders of Silicon Valley companies were black.18 Data on gender within online communities, routinely held up as exemplars of a new, open culture, are especially damning. First, consider Wikipedia. One survey revealed that women write less than 15 percent of the articles on the site, despite the fact that they use the resource in equal numbers to men. Collaborative filtering sites like Reddit and Slashdot, heralded by the digerati as the cultural curating mechanisms of the future, cater to users who are up to 90 percent male and overwhelmingly young, wealthy, and white.19 Reddit, in particular, has achieved notoriety for its misogynist culture, with threads where rapists can recount their exploits without fear of reprisal and photos of underage girls are posted under headings like “Chokeabitch,” “Niggerjailbait,” and “Creepshots” (“When you are in public, you do not have a reasonable expectation of privacy,” moderators posted.


pages: 503 words: 131,064

Liars and Outliers: How Security Holds Society Together by Bruce Schneier

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airport security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, commoditize, corporate governance, crack epidemic, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, desegregation, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Hofstadter, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, George Akerlof, hydraulic fracturing, impulse control, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, iterative process, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Julian Assange, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, patent troll, phenotype, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, security theater, shareholder value, slashdot, statistical model, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, technological singularity, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, traffic fines, transaction costs, ultimatum game, UNCLOS, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y2K, zero-sum game

The eBay feedback mechanism is a reputational system that requires security to ensure the system can't be hacked and manipulated by unscrupulous merchants. Other examples are letters of introduction, tribal clothing, employee background checks, sex offender databases, diplomas posted on walls, and U.S. State Department travel advisories. Informal online reviews of doctors allow us to trust people we don't know anything about, with our health. Online reputational systems allow us to trust unknown products on Amazon, unknown commenters on Slashdot, and unknown “friends” on Facebook. Credit-rating systems codify reputation. In online games, security systems are less of an enhancement to, and more of a replacement of, moral and reputational pressures for ensuring game fairness. Security-augmented institutional pressure. A community might install cameras to help enforce speed limits. Or a government might use correlation software to analyze millions of tax returns, looking for evidence of cheating.

Python Web Development With Django by Jeff Forcier

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create, read, update, delete, database schema, Debian, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, full text search, Guido van Rossum, loose coupling, MVC pattern, revision control, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, slashdot, web application

Once you’ve set up the table, your CACHE_BACKEND setting becomes CACHE_BACKEND = “db://cache/” This is a very simple table with only three columns: cache_key (the table’s primary key), value (the actual data being cached), and expires (a datetime field; Django sets an index on this column for speed). Memcached Memcached is the most powerful caching option that Django provides. Not surprisingly, it is also more complicated to set up than the others. But if you need it, it’s worth it. It was originally created at Livejournal.com to ease the load that 20 million page views per day were putting on their database servers. It has since been adopted at Wikipedia.org, Fotolog.com, Slashdot.org, and other busy sites. Memcached’s home page is located at http://danga.com/memcached. The major advantage Memcached offers over the other options listed here is easy distribution across multiple servers. Memcached is a “giant hash table in the sky”; you use it like a key-value mapping such as a Python dictionary, but it transparently spreads the data across as many servers as you give it.


pages: 470 words: 144,455

Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World by Bruce Schneier

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Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, business process, butterfly effect, cashless society, Columbine, defense in depth, double entry bookkeeping, fault tolerance, game design, IFF: identification friend or foe, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, pez dispenser, pirate software, profit motive, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, slashdot, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, the payments system, Y2K, Yogi Berra

In 1990, the Secret Service raided the headquarters of a role-playing game company, Steve Jackson Games, because the company was working on a role-playing game (not even a computer program) that had something to do with “cyberpunks” and hackers, and because they believed an employee, Loyd Blankenship, was a member of the “Legion of Doom” hacker group. In 1999, the DVD Copy Control Association tried to gag 500 Web sites whose only crime was writing about the DVD encryption break. And in 2000, Microsoft tried to force Slashdot to delete postings about its proprietary extensions to the Kerberos protocol. This is also not meant to be a call for overreaction, which we saw a lot of in the 1990s. David Smith, the author of the Melissa virus, faces five to ten years in prison. Kevin Mitnick got (and served) almost five years, and was prohibited from using a computer for another three. (All his skills are related to computers, and he has been prohibited from lecturing on the subject.

Django Book by Matt Behrens

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Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), create, read, update, delete, database schema, distributed revision control, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, full text search, loose coupling, MVC pattern, revision control, Ruby on Rails, school choice, slashdot, web application

Each time a user requests a page, the Web server makes all sorts of calculations – from database queries to template rendering to business logic – to create the page that your site’s visitor sees. This is a lot more expensive, from a processing-overhead perspective, than your standard read-a-file-off-the-filesystem server arrangement. For most Web applications, this overhead isn’t a big deal. Most Web applications aren’t washingtonpost.com or slashdot.org; they’re simply small- to medium-sized sites with so-so traffic. But for medium- to high-traffic sites, it’s essential to cut as much overhead as possible. That’s where caching comes in. To cache something is to save the result of an expensive calculation so that you don’t have to perform the calculation next time. Here’s some pseudocode explaining how this would work for a dynamically generated Web page: given a URL, try finding that page in the cache if the page is in the cache: return the cached page else: generate the page save the generated page in the cache (for next time) return the generated page Django comes with a robust cache system that lets you save dynamic pages so they don’t have to be calculated for each request.

Jennifer Morgue by Stross, Charles

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call centre, correlation does not imply causation, disintermediation, dumpster diving, Etonian, haute couture, interchangeable parts, Maui Hawaii, mutually assured destruction, planetary scale, RFID, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, stem cell, telepresence, traveling salesman, Turing machine

So I duly issue Pete with a 1.4 gigahertz Toshiba Sandwich Toaster, enlist his help in moving my stuff into the new office, nail a WiFi access point to the door like a tribal fetish or mezuzah ("this office now occupied by geeks who worship the great god GHz"), and park him on the other side of the spacious desk so I can keep an eye on him. The next day I've got a staff meeting at 10:00 a.m. I spend the first half hour of my morning drinking coffee, making snide remarks in e-mail, reading Slashdot, and waiting for Pete to show up. He arrives at 9:35. "Here." I chuck a fat wallet full of CD-Rs at him. "Install these on your laptop, get on the intranet, and download all the patches you need. Don't, whatever you do, touch my computer or try to log onto my NWN server — it's called Bosch, by the way. I'll catch up with you after the meeting." "Why is it called Bosch?" he whines as I stand up and grab my security badge off the filing cabinet.

Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by Dariusz Jemielniak

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Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), citation needed, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Debian, deskilling, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, moral hazard, online collectivism, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Ostrom’s principles related to smaller communities, and it can be assumed that Wikipedia is a pioneer in addressing many of the social organization problems of scale and that not all principles of open-collaboration communities may be fully applicable to it. C h a p t er 5 1.  Essjay’s original talk page no longer exists, but this post has been archived at http://www.wikipedia-watch.org/essjay.html. 2.  This post is archived at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User_talk:Ess jay&oldid=112480415#Slashdot. 3. This post is archived at http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User_ talk:Essjay&oldid=112480415. No t e s t o C h a p t er 6   2 3 3 C h a p t er 6 1. For a useful taxonomy of contributions to Wikimedia projects, see “Research:Contribution Taxonomy Project,” 2012. 2.  I wrote these words two days after I was appointed one of seven members of the FDC, and I was later elected chair. I hope that this book’s organizational analysis is unaffected by this role, but the reader should be aware of a potential bias.


pages: 496 words: 174,084

Masterminds of Programming: Conversations With the Creators of Major Programming Languages by Federico Biancuzzi, Shane Warden

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Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, cloud computing, commoditize, complexity theory, conceptual framework, continuous integration, data acquisition, domain-specific language, Douglas Hofstadter, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, Firefox, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, general-purpose programming language, Guido van Rossum, HyperCard, information retrieval, iterative process, John von Neumann, Larry Wall, linear programming, loose coupling, Mars Rover, millennium bug, NP-complete, Paul Graham, performance metric, Perl 6, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Renaissance Technologies, Ruby on Rails, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software as a service, software patent, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, traveling salesman, Turing complete, type inference, Valgrind, Von Neumann architecture, web application

But consider that our industry has literally transformed the world in, essentially, one generation. To me, that’s fast, not slow. How can we transmit experience in the software field? Grady: In the Middle Ages, guilds served as a primary mechanism for the transmission of tribal memory; today, we lack such apprenticeships in software. Still, a considerable amount of experience is transmitted via the Web (consider Slashdot, for example), books, blogs, and technical meetings. It is also that case that raw, running, naked source code is a source of knowledge from the past—and this is one of the reasons I’ve worked with the Computer History Museum to preserve the code of classic software for future generations. What should today’s students study more? Grady: I’ll answer that question in two ways. From the lens of software, any good course of study will teach you the basic skills of programming and design.


pages: 728 words: 182,850

Cooking for Geeks by Jeff Potter

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3D printing, A Pattern Language, carbon footprint, centre right, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, crowdsourcing, Donald Knuth, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, fear of failure, food miles, functional fixedness, hacker house, haute cuisine, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, iterative process, Parkinson's law, placebo effect, random walk, Rubik’s Cube, slashdot, stochastic process, the scientific method

Part of that is due to not wanting to waste the food or the money, but the other part is they haven’t gotten to the point where they’re enjoying doing it over until they get it right. Have there been any particular recipes whose success has caught you off-guard? Tiramisu is the recipe that launched Cooking for Engineers. I posted the tiramisu recipe, and three days later I was getting maybe 100 page views a day on that article. Enough people saw it that I got attention from Slashdot, which wrote an article about this new cooking website geared toward geeky people. Boom, I got a lot of readership. So much so that I had a little trouble keeping up with the number of people who were looking at the web pages on the little server that I was running on. The tiramisu recipe that we have on Cooking for Engineers is a bit more simplified than many of the other tiramisu recipes. I spent a lot of time developing it.


pages: 468 words: 233,091

Founders at Work: Stories of Startups' Early Days by Jessica Livingston

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8-hour work day, affirmative action, AltaVista, Apple II, Brewster Kahle, business process, Byte Shop, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, don't be evil, fear of failure, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, game design, Googley, HyperCard, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, Justin.tv, Larry Wall, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, nuclear winter, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, software patent, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, web application, Y Combinator

So I traveled around a lot, got really bored, and realized—I had been around computers all my life, that is really what I like doing, so why am I depriving myself of the fun of working on startups? It really came down to solving a need of mine. I had started another company—an anti-spam company—called Trustic, and that wasn’t going very far. But as I was starting that, I was doing this other thing on the side, which became Bloglines. I had a bookmark list of about 100 sites that I went to every day just to see if there was new stuff. Things like Slashdot, CNN, my friends’ blogs. It was taking a long time; I figured there had to be a better solution to 233 234 Founders at Work this, and that’s how I found out about RSS. At that time, there were a couple of desktop-based aggregators—programs that you could download. But those weren’t really applicable to me because I’m on several different computers every day and the quality of the programs weren’t very good.


pages: 786 words: 195,810

NeuroTribes: The Legacy of Autism and the Future of Neurodiversity by Steve Silberman

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Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, assortative mating, crowdsourcing, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental subject, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Larry Wall, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mother of all demos, neurotypical, New Journalism, pattern recognition, placebo effect, scientific mainstream, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

(He later became a successful software entrepreneur, selling his interactive sheet music app, Etude, to Steinway & Sons, the venerable piano company, while Plank became a consultant for the popular TV series The Bridge, helping actress Diane Kruger develop the character of Sonya Cross, a detective with Asperger’s syndrome.) For two young men generally too shy to ask a girl out to the local multiplex on Saturday night, they proved adept at promoting their creation in social media, buying placement in Google’s AdSense and AdWords so a reporter new to the autism beat would inevitably be directed to Wrong Planet while generating a healthy income stream for the site. The community grew slowly and steadily until Slashdot, the preeminent tech news aggregator, linked to Plank’s interview with Bram Cohen, the autistic creator of BitTorrent, a peer-to-peer file-sharing protocol estimated to account for a third of all Internet traffic in the United States. New members poured in by the thousands. Young people on the spectrum flocked to online communities like Wrong Planet to announce their diagnoses as cause for celebration rather than as occasions for mourning, because their lives had at last come into focus.


pages: 834 words: 180,700

The Architecture of Open Source Applications by Amy Brown, Greg Wilson

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8-hour work day, anti-pattern, bioinformatics, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, David Heinemeier Hansson, Debian, domain-specific language, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, Firefox, friendly fire, Guido van Rossum, linked data, load shedding, locality of reference, loose coupling, Mars Rover, MVC pattern, peer-to-peer, Perl 6, premature optimization, recommendation engine, revision control, Ruby on Rails, side project, Skype, slashdot, social web, speech recognition, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, WebSocket

The rendering engine started as an experiment, simply to see if I could write one. whisper was written over the course of a weekend out of desperation to solve a show-stopper problem before a critical launch date. carbon has been rewritten more times than I care to remember. Once I was allowed to release Graphite under an open source license in 2008 I never really expected much response. After a few months it was mentioned in a CNET article that got picked up by Slashdot and the project suddenly took off and has been active ever since. Today there are dozens of large and mid-sized companies using Graphite. The community is quite active and continues to grow. Far from being a finished product, there is a lot of cool experimental work being done, which keeps it fun to work on and full of potential. Footnotes http://launchpad.net/graphite There is another port over which serialized objects can be sent, which is more efficient than the plain-text format.


pages: 1,758 words: 342,766

Code Complete (Developer Best Practices) by Steve McConnell

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Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, choice architecture, continuous integration, data acquisition, database schema, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, fault tolerance, Grace Hopper, haute cuisine, if you see hoof prints, think horses—not zebras, index card, inventory management, iterative process, Larry Wall, late fees, loose coupling, Menlo Park, Perl 6, place-making, premature optimization, revision control, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, slashdot, sorting algorithm, statistical model, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing machine, web application

JavaScript JavaScript is an interpreted scripting language that is loosely related to Java. It is used primarily for client-side programming such as adding simple functions and online applications to Web pages. Perl Perl is a string-handling language that is based on C and several UNIX utilities. Perl is often used for system administration tasks, such as creating build scripts, as well as for report generation and processing. It's also used to create Web applications such as Slashdot. The acronym "Perl" stands for Practical Extraction and Report Language. PHP PHP is an open-source scripting language with a simple syntax similar to Perl, Bourne Shell, JavaScript, and C. PHP runs on all major operating systems to execute server-side interactive functions. It can be embedded in Web pages to access and present database information. The acronym "PHP" originally stood for Personal Home Page but now stands for PHP: Hypertext Processor.


pages: 1,318 words: 403,894

Reamde: A Novel by Neal Stephenson

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air freight, airport security, crowdsourcing, digital map, drone strike, Google Earth, industrial robot, informal economy, large denomination, megacity, new economy, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, ransomware, side project, Skype, slashdot, South China Sea, the built environment, the scientific method, young professional

There’s yours right there.” And he rolled clear of a window and pointed toward one marked UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. “What’s going on?” Zula asked. Csongor shrugged. “Some kind of conference maybe?” “Taiwan,” Peter said. “I heard about this! It’s something to do with Taiwan.” Zula goggled, not out of skepticism but because she didn’t normally look to Peter to be up to speed on current events. He shrugged. “Slashdot. There’s been some kind of hassle, connected with this. Denial-of-service attacks against Taiwanese ISPs.” “Okay, yes! I did hear something about this,” Csongor said. “They are having diplomatic talks. But I didn’t realize it was happening in Xiamen.” But this was the last they saw before Sokolov ordered that all the shades be pulled down. After they came to a stop, Ivanov emerged from the aft cabin, talking on a phone, and exited the plane.