traffic fines

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pages: 503 words: 131,064

Liars and Outliers: How Security Holds Society Together by Bruce Schneier

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airport security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, commoditize, corporate governance, crack epidemic, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, desegregation, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Hofstadter, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, George Akerlof, hydraulic fracturing, impulse control, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, iterative process, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Julian Assange, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, patent troll, phenotype, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, security theater, shareholder value, slashdot, statistical model, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, technological singularity, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, traffic fines, transaction costs, ultimatum game, UNCLOS, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y2K, zero-sum game

This is even more important when dealing with corporations; there are many examples of fines being so small as to be viewed as an incidental cost of doing business. We'll talk about this more in Chapter 13. Fixed financial penalties are regressive. Like everything else about the speeding trade-off, the cost of a speeding ticket is relative. If you're poor, a $100 speeding ticket is a lot of money. If you're rich, it's a minor cost of the trip.6 Finland, Denmark, and Switzerland address the problem by basing traffic fines on the offender's income. Wealthy people in those countries have regularly been issued speeding tickets costing over $100,000. You might disagree with the system as a matter of policy, but it certainly is a more broadly effective societal pressure. Jail time for speeders accomplishes much the same thing. There are two basic ways the law can prescribe financial penalties. It can pass a direct law, or it can institutionalize liabilities.

Wells (2000), “The Characteristics of Speeders,” Road Safety Division, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, TRL Report. Saranath Lawpoolsri, Jingyi Li, and Elisa R. Braver (2007), “Do Speeding Tickets Reduce the Likelihood of Receiving Subsequent Speeding Tickets? A Longitudinal Study of Speeding Violators in Maryland,” Traffic Injury Prevention, 8:26–34. uninsured drivers Ray Massey (23 Nov 2010), “Uninsured Drivers Kill 160 People a Year but Face Inadequate Fines as Low as £50,” Daily Mail. basing traffic fines British Broadcasting Corporation (14 Jan 2002), “Nokia Boss Gets Record Speeding Fine,” BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation (10 Feb 2004), “Finn's Speed Fine Is a Bit Rich,” BBC News. Jason Paur (8 Jan 2010), “Swiss Slap Speeder With $290K Fine,” Wired. British Broadcasting Corporation (12 Aug 2010), “Swede Faces World-Record $1m Speeding Penalty,” BBC News. tax the use of antibiotics Infectious Diseases Society of America (2011), “Combating Antimicrobial Resistance: Policy Recommendations to Save Lives,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, 52 (suppl. 5): S397–428.


pages: 207 words: 63,071

My Start-Up Life: What A by Ben Casnocha, Marc Benioff

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bonfire of the Vanities, business process, call centre, creative destruction, David Brooks, don't be evil, fear of failure, hiring and firing, index fund, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, Lao Tzu, Menlo Park, Paul Graham, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Sand Hill Road, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technology bubble, traffic fines

The 1990s technology bubble had burst and there were quite a few entrepreneurs doing some serious thinking . . . only theirs was disbelief over how they could have blown through $50M in a couple years, whereas mine was whether I wanted to really be someone different or instead spend more time with school friends talking about who were the hottest girls. (If you don’t remember sixth-seventheighth grades, this is the focus of most boy-to-boy conversations.) By August I realized I had learned a lot about how government works and how entrepreneurs create companies. Unlike the many Americans who aren’t sure how income taxes, property taxes, or traffic fines are spent, I had a growing understanding of our state and local government system. I appreciated the tireless, if sometimes inefficient, work of public servants, especially after a thirtyminute harangue from a traffic engineer who described in bloody detail how he had placed sensors under the road to time the red light exactly . . . all in response to my client’s complaint. On the business side, I learned the difference between a sole proprietorship and a corporation.


pages: 181 words: 50,196

The Rich and the Rest of Us by Tavis Smiley

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Corrections Corporation of America, Credit Default Swap, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, ending welfare as we know it, F. W. de Klerk, fixed income, full employment, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, job automation, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, mega-rich, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, traffic fines, trickle-down economics, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

In The New Jim Crow, Alexander details how those who are released from prison and lucky enough to land a minimum-wage job are automatically required to pay back accumulated child support incurred while in prison, the cost of imprisonment—including court costs and processing fees—and, in some states, the cost of representation. With these dues being 100 percent garnishable, it’s little wonder that 70 percent of former prisoners are returned to prison within three years.79 For decades, most Americans have turned a blind eye to the injustices of the justice system. What has not been given much thought, regrettably, is the link between poverty and prisons. Prison becomes a real possibility when people can’t pay traffic fines, miss child support payments and court dates, and start bouncing checks. As previously stated, more than 6 million people rely on food stamps as their only source of income. When faced with the decision to buy food or sell some of their stamps for gas, utility bills, or medicine, many honest Americans opt for the latter. In a Colorlines magazine article, “Selling Food Stamps for Kids Shoes” (February 16, 2010), writer Seth F.


pages: 257 words: 72,251

Nothing to Hide: The False Tradeoff Between Privacy and Security by Daniel J. Solove

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Albert Einstein, cloud computing, Columbine, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, invention of the telephone, Marshall McLuhan, national security letter, security theater, the medium is the message, traffic fines, urban planning

Athan surely wouldn’t supply it voluntarily. Over in New Jersey, where Athan was now living, he received a letter from the law firm Wingstrand Hargrove Kinner. He was happy to learn that he was entitled to some money. The letter stated: I 111 Constitutional Rights Dear Mr. Athan, A class action lawsuit has been filed against several Washington State counties and cities. These lawsuits are based on the over charging of traffic fines by local municipalities between the dates of 1987 and 1994. The records that we received indicate you may be due compensation from this over billing. The compensation may include reimbursement of fines paid, interest due and damages. You must respond by March 21, 2003 to confirm that you wish to be included in the class membership. You may consent to be a member by signing the enclosed form and mailing by the deadline date.


pages: 264 words: 79,589

Kingpin: How One Hacker Took Over the Billion-Dollar Cybercrime Underground by Kevin Poulsen

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Apple II, Brian Krebs, Burning Man, corporate governance, dumpster diving, Exxon Valdez, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, index card, McMansion, Mercator projection, offshore financial centre, packet switching, pirate software, Ponzi scheme, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, traffic fines, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zipcar

With credit for time served and good behavior, he’d be out just before Christmas 2018. Almost nine years in prison were still ahead of him. At the time it was the longest U.S. sentence ever handed out to a hacker. 36 Aftermath y the time Max was sentenced, the Secret Service had identified the mystery American hacker who’d made Maksik into the world’s top carder, and he was poised to get a sentence that would make Max’s look like a traffic fine. The big break in the case came from Turkey. In July 2007, the Turkish National Police learned from the Secret Service that Maksik, twenty-five-year-old Maksym Yastremski, was vacationing in their country. An undercover Secret Service operative lured him to a nightclub in Kemer, where police arrested Yastremski and seized his laptop. The police found the laptop hard drive impenetrably encrypted, just as when the Secret Service performed its sneak-and-peek in Dubai a year earlier.


pages: 339 words: 83,725

Fodor's Madrid and Side Trips by Fodor's

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Atahualpa, call centre, Francisco Pizarro, glass ceiling, Isaac Newton, traffic fines, young professional

Europcar (902/105030 in Spain | www.europcar.es). Hertz (800/654–3001, 902/402405 in Spain | www.hertz.com). National Car Rental/Atesa (800/227–7368, 902/100101 in Spain | www.atesa.es). Pepe Car(807/414243 in Spain | www.pepecar.com). Your own driver’s license is valid in Spain, but U.S. citizens are highly encouraged to obtain an International Driving Permit (IDP). The IDP may facilitate car rental and help you avoid traffic fines—it translates your state-issued driver’s license into 10 languages so officials can easily interpret the information on it. Permits are available from the American Automobile Association. Driving is the best way to see Spain’s rural areas. The main cities are connected by a network of excellent four-lane divided highways (autovías and autopistas), which are designated with the letter A and have speed limits—depending on the area—of between 80 kph (50 mph) to 120 kph (74 mph).


pages: 269 words: 104,430

Carjacked: The Culture of the Automobile and Its Effect on Our Lives by Catherine Lutz, Anne Lutz Fernandez

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barriers to entry, car-free, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, failed state, feminist movement, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, inventory management, market design, market fundamentalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, oil shock, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar

Gasoline alone can take a double-digit percentage of their income. They may drive with a broken windshield or a spare tire permanently on one wheel or they may periodically be without use of the car when it breaks down because they cannot afford the repairs. Parking tickets can push a person living on the edge out of automobility: a study of nondrivers in Milwaukee found that most of them lost their licenses or registrations due to unpaid traffic fines rather than for serious moving violations.8 In traffic court in Providence, Rhode Island, a large number of cases involve unpaid fines on cars needing repairs. As one of the defendants, a young Hispanic man in his early thirties, explained to the judge: “I received a ‘fix it’ ticket.” This was an $85 fine he was given because the policeman who pulled him over discovered his interior light was not working.


pages: 371 words: 110,641

On the Run: Fugitive Life in an American City by Alice Goffman

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ghettoisation, informal economy, mass incarceration, payday loans, traffic fines, unemployed young men, working poor

Beyond her efforts to protect the man in question, the police make it clear to a woman that many of her routine practices and everyday behaviors are grounds for arrest. Over the course of raids and interrogations, the officers make women realize that their daily lives are full of crimes, crimes the police are well aware of, and crimes that carry high punishments, should the authorities feel inclined to pursue them. When the police came for Mike’s cousin, they told his aunt that the property taxes she hadn’t paid and some long-overdue traffic fines constituted tax evasion and contempt of court. The electricity that she was getting from her neighbor two doors down, via three joined extension cords trailed through the back alley (because her own electricity had long been cut off, and for the use of which she was babysitting her neighbor’s two children three times a week), constituted theft, a public hazard, and a violation of city code. The police also explain to a woman that she can be charged for the man’s crimes.


pages: 549 words: 116,200

With a Little Help by Cory Doctorow

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autonomous vehicles, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, death of newspapers, don't be evil, game design, Google Earth, high net worth, lifelogging, margin call, Mark Shuttleworth, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Ponzi scheme, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, sensible shoes, skunkworks, Skype, traffic fines, traveling salesman, Turing test, urban planning, Y2K

McCavity should disavow any technical expertise, since that's what we've been saying all along. If she's getting stuck in traffic, it's because there's a lot of traffic. The ant-nets route five thousand percent more traffic than our nation's highways ever accommodated without them, and they've increased the miles-per-hour-per-capita-per-linear-mile by six thousand, four hundred percent. You're stuck in traffic? Fine. I get stuck sometimes too. But for every hour you spend stuck today, you're saving hundreds of hours relative to the time your parents spent in transit. 1123 "The other side of this debate are asking for something impossible: they want us to modify the structure of the network, which is a technical construct, built out of bits and equations, to accommodate a philosophical objective. They assert that this is possible, but it's like listening to someone assert that our democracy would be better served if we had less gravity, or if two plus two equaled five.


pages: 446 words: 138,827

What Should I Do With My Life? by Po Bronson

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back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, clean water, double entry bookkeeping, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, high net worth, job satisfaction, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, telemarketer, traffic fines, young professional

“He be here ten minutes or so.” Eleven thousand people live here. Unemployment is 12 percent, not bad. Cash advance shops outnumber bank branches. A trenchant crack problem plagues the neighborhood on the other side of the railroad tracks. You can’t get any men to work during bow hunting season. Conversations focus on hunting, football, and who’s screwing who. The local weekly newspaper lists every traffic fine and charge brought by the local police. Most of the jobs listed are for drivers. A truck driver takes home $8.50 an hour, the women at the catfish processing plant a little less, and the seining crew, which dredges the ponds, earns minimum wage. A straw boss earns anywhere from $40,000 to $100,000. Don gets up at four A.M. every morning to read. Almost every day, a shipment arrives from Amazon.com with more brain food.


pages: 387 words: 120,155

Inside the Nudge Unit: How Small Changes Can Make a Big Difference by David Halpern

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, availability heuristic, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, collaborative consumption, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, endowment effect, happiness index / gross national happiness, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, libertarian paternalism, light touch regulation, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, nudge unit, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, presumed consent, QR code, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, the built environment, theory of mind, traffic fines, World Values Survey

It was not just doctors that responded to the adapted messages – we found similar uplifts in payments in relation to other professional groups too (such as everyone’s favourite, plumbers). We found that even quite simple cues can have a significant impact. In another trial, led by Rory Gallagher in Sydney with the state of New South Wales, we adapted a letter reminding people to pay overdue traffic fines, the main addition being to add a stamp at the top of the letter reading ‘pay now’ in red letters. This led to repayments without further action rising from around 14 to 17 per cent, worth around $10 million a year and, equally importantly, saving residents around $4 million a year in extra penalties and preventing more than 8,000 drivers a year from having their driving licences cancelled or suspended.


pages: 698 words: 198,203

The Stuff of Thought: Language as a Window Into Human Nature by Steven Pinker

airport security, Albert Einstein, Bob Geldof, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, fudge factor, George Santayana, loss aversion, luminiferous ether, Norman Mailer, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, science of happiness, speech recognition, stem cell, Steven Pinker, Thomas Bayes, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, urban renewal, Yogi Berra

But if he does offer the bribe (second row), the stakes are much higher either way. If Maxim Man is lucky and is facing a dishonest cop, the cop will accept the bribe and send him on his way without a ticket. But if he is unlucky and is facing an honest cop, he will be handcuffed, read his rights, and arrested for bribery. The rational choice between bribing and not bribing will depend on the size of the traffic fine, the proportion of bad and good cops on the roads, and the penalties for bribery, but neither choice is appealing. Maxim Man is caught between the devil and the deep blue sea. But now consider a different driver, Implicature Man, who knows how to implicate an ambiguous bribe, as in “So maybe the best thing would be to take care of it here.” Suppose he knows that the officer can work through the implicature and recognize it as an intended bribe, and he also knows that the officer knows that he couldn’t make a bribery charge stick in court because the ambiguous wording would prevent a prosecutor from proving his guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.