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The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger
American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, commoditize, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight
Austin’s new airport is located to the east, while the favored quarter is to the northwest. EDGE CITIES The employment growth of the 1980s focused on what came to be called “edge cities,” a term devised by Joel Garreau in a 1989 book by the same name. “Edge city” was one of about thirty names coined to describe this new metropolitan place, but it was the one that stuck, describing Perimeter T H E R I S E O F D R I VA B L E S U B - U R B I A | 4 3 Center (Atlanta), Post Oak (Houston), and Sherman Oaks (Los Angeles), among many others. Edge cities were a new animal where regional-serving functions such as retail, hotels, and offices, came together in a drivable sub-urban manner. These edge cities were where the vast majority of relocating and new jobs concentrated in the 1970s and 1980s. The typical edge city has a regional mall at the major highway intersection, surrounded by surface parking lots.
Futurama had come to life, and a few malls, such as South Coast Plaza in Orange County, California, Somerset Mall I & II in Troy, Michigan, the Galleria Mall in northwest Atlanta, and Tyson’s Corner in Virginia just outside of the Washington, D.C., metro area, even had the Futurama elevated walkways. The new employment concentrating in edge cities quickly grew to be larger than the old central city downtown’s employment in most metropolitan areas. Most large and small corporate headquarters and regional offices, many banks, law and accounting firms, and even federal employment centers12 began a mass exodus to these edge cities in the 1970s and especially in the 1980s. The central city job loss was such that it would have had to increase its annual growth by a factor of two just to maintain its relative market share; many center cities lost jobs in absolute terms. The result was that downtowns, which had more than ninety percent of all occupied office space in the 1950s, saw their market share drop to under forty percent of the region’s occupied office space by the end of the 1980s.
For every one percent population growth in the 1990s and early 2000s, land use grew by probably ten to twenty percent, even faster geometric land use consumption than in the 1970s and 1980s.14 The country viewed from this perspective seemed like it would never stop sprawling to an ever-expanding fringe. What were once called edge cities in the 1980s were twenty to thirty miles inside the new edge of the metropolitan area by 2006, where they are now locations for redevelopment and in-fill. The 1980s term “edge city” lost its meaning. New York City and Philadelphia, Boston and Providence, and Washington, D.C. and Baltimore were all growing together. An urban center dubbed “Chattlanta” spread across northern Georgia and southern Tennessee. Greater Los Angeles had become 5,000 square miles in size, as large as the state of Connecticut.
The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test by Tom Wolfe
Asilomar, Bonfire of the Vanities, Buckminster Fuller, edge city, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, Menlo Park, Ronald Reagan, stakhanovite, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen
Now, you take Goldhill, who was just in here with the truth in his eyes. He will come closer than most. Kesey could see it. Goldhill was open... and into the pudding. He had his own fantasy, the League for Spi-ri-tu-al Dis-cov-ery, and yet he is the rare kind who might even be willing to move with their fantasy, his and the Pranksters'. It takes a rare kind. Because always comes the moment when it's time to take the Prankster circus further on toward Edge City. And always at that point some good souls are startled: Hey, wait! Like Ralph Gleason with his column in the Chronicle and his own clump of hipness. Gleason is one of those people ... Kesey can remember them all, people who thought he was great so long as his fantasy coincided with theirs. But every time he pushed on further—and he always pushed on further—they became confused and resentful . . .
—a huge crazy god-awful-powerful fantasy creature to begin with, 327 horsepower, shaped like twenty-seven nights of lubricious luxury brougham seduction— you're already there, in Fantasyland, so why not move off your smug-harbor quilty-bed dead center and cut loose—go ahead and say it—Shazam!—juice it up to what it's already aching to be: 327,000 horsepower, a whole superhighway long and soaring, screaming on toward ... Edge City, and ultimate fantasies, current and future ... Billy Batson said Shazam! and turned into Captain Marvel. Jay Garrick inhaled an experimental gas in the research lab ... ... AND BEGAN TRAVELING AND THINKING AT THE SPEED OF light as... The Flash .. . the current fantasy. Yes. The Kesey diamond-in-the-rough fantasy did not last very long. The most interesting person on Perry Lane as far as he was concerned was not any of the novelists or other literary intellectuals, but a young graduate student in psychology named Vic Lovell.
For one thing there was the old Drug Paranoia—the fear that this wild uncharted drug thing they were into would gradually... rot your brain. Well, here was the answer. Chief Broom! And McMurphy ... but of course. The current fantasy ... he was a McMurphy figure who was trying to get them to move off their own snug-harbor dead center, out of the plump little game of being ersatz daring and ersatz alive, the middle-class intellectual's game, and move out to ... Edge City ... where it was scary, but people were whole people. And if drugs were what unlocked the doors and enabled you to do this thing and realize all this that was in you, then so let it be ... Not even on Perry Lane did people really seem to catch the thrust of the new book he was working on, Sometimes a Great Notion. It was about the head of a logging clan, Hank Stamper, who defies a labor union and thereby the whole community he lives in by continuing his logging operation through a strike.
Planet of Slums by Mike Davis
barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, jitney, jobless men, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, liberation theology, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor
Architect David Glasser visited a former single-family villa in Quito, for example, that housed 25 families and 128 people but had no functioning municipal services.40 Although rapidly being gentrified or torn down, some of Mexico City's vedndades are still as crowded as Casa Grande, the famous tenement block housing 700 people which anthropologist Oscar Lewis made famous in The Children of Sanche% (1961).41 In Asia the equivalents are the decayed (and now municipalized) ^amindar mansions of Kolkata and the poetically named "slum gardens" of Colombo which constitute 18 percent of the city's rundown housing.42 The largest-scale instance, although now reduced in size and population by urban renewal, is probably Beijing's inner slum, the Old City, which consists of Ming and Qing courtyard housing lacking modern facilities.43 Often, as in Sao Paulo's once-fashionable Campos Eliseos or parts of Lima's colonial cityscape, whole bourgeois neighborhoods have devolved into slums. In Algiers's famous seaside district of Bab-elOued, on the other hand, the indigenous poor have replaced the colon working class. Although the dominant global pattern is the eviction of the poor from the center, some Third World cities reproduce US-style urban segregation, with the postcolonial middle classes fleeing from the core to gated suburbs and so-called "edge cities." This has long been the case in Kingston, where one quarter of a million poor people inhabit the crime-ridden but culturally dynamic Downtown, wThile the middle 40 David Glasser, "The Growing Housing Crisis in Ecuador" in Carl Patton (ed.), Spontaneous Shelter: International Perspectives and Prospects, Philadelphia 1988, p. 150. 41 Oscar Lewis, The Children of Sanche%: Autobiography of a Mexican Family, New York 1961. 42 Kalinga Tudor Silva and Karunarissia Athukorala, The Watta-Dwellers: A Sociological Study of Selected Urban Tow-Income Communities in Sri Tanka, Lanham (Md.) 1991, p. 20. 43 Feng-hsuan Hsueh, Beijing: The Nature and the Planning of the Chinese Capital City, Chichester 1995, pp. 182-84.
"township residents must walk to the foothills of the Shan mountains looking for firewood, and there are no industrial zones, garment factories, and other sweatshops to underemploy laborers as there are in some of Rangoon's relocated townships."99 International refugees and internally displaced people (IDPs) are often more harshly treated even than urban evictees — and some of the Third World's huge refugee camps have evolved into edge cities in their own right. Thus Gaza — considered by some to be the world's largest slum — is essentially an urbanized agglomeration of refugee camps (750,000 refugees) with two thirds of the population subsisting on less than $2 per day.10* Dadaad, just inside the Kenyan border, houses 125,000 Somalis, just as Goma in Zaire during the mid-1990s was a pitiful refuge for an estimated 700,000 Rwandans, many of whom died of cholera due to the appalling sanitation conditions.
Houses are turned into virtual fortresses by surrounding them with high walls topped by glass shards, barbed wire, and heavy iron bars on all windows. 75 This "architecture of fear," as Tunde Agbola describes fortified lifestyles in Lagos, is commonplace in the Third World and some parts of the First, but it reaches a global extreme in large urban societies with the greatest socio-economic inequalities: South Africa, Brazil, Venezuela, and the United States.76 In Johannesburg, even before the 73 Solomon Benjamin, "Governance, Economic Settings and Poverty in Bangalore," Environment and Urbanisation 12:1 (April 2000), p. 39. 74 Harald Leisch, "Gated Communities in Indonesia," Gties 19:5 (2002), pp. 341, 344-45. 75 Berner, Defending a Place, p. 163. 76 For a description of Lagos's fortress homes, see Agbola, Architecture of Fear, pp. 68-69. election of Nelson Mandela, big downtown businesses and affluent white residents fled the urban core for northern suburbs (Sandton, Rand burg, Rosebank, and so on) which were transformed into highsecurity analogues of American "edge cities." Within these sprawling suburban laagers with their ubiquitous gates, housing clusters, and barricaded public streets, anthropologist Andre Czegledy finds that security has become a culture of the absurd. The high perimeter walls are often topped by metal spikes, razor wire, and more recently, electrified wiring connected to emergency alarms. In conjunction with portable "panic button" devices, the house alarms are electronically connected to "armed response" security companies.
Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay
3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
And e-mail bound for customer service or colleagues in India is returned instantly. Edge City author Joel Garreau declared, “Cities are always created around whatever the state-of-the-art transportation device is at the time.” When the state of the art is shoe leather and donkeys, the result is the hilly paths of Jerusalem. When it’s men on horseback and sailing ships, it’s the ports of Lisbon, Hong Kong, or Boston, and the canals of Venice and Amsterdam. The birth of the railroad produced Kansas City, Omaha, and the stockyards of Chicago. And the mass production of the Model T led first to Los Angeles and later to Levittown. Today, the modern combination on the ground is the automobile and Internet, yielding Garreau’s exurban “edge cities,” which are everywhere and nowhere within America, and have since cropped up in Bangalore and beyond.
In the afternoons, passengers could hear their own footfalls echoing off the vaulted ceiling of Eero Saarinen’s main terminal. And still no one had thought to make any provisions for what should and what shouldn’t be built beyond the perimeter, because even in the year following Sputnik, no one could foresee what would happen next: Ronald Reagan’s blank checks for Star Wars and the contractors who cashed them would conspire to plow under the hillsides and erect the prototypical edge cities that redefined our urban landscapes. Dulles would be the anchor. The airport’s saving grace was its size, nearly four times the landmass of LAX, and more than all of greater LA’s airports combined. No one could build horse farms or McMansions close enough to complain about the noise, leaving the airport to operate in peace and (relative) quiet. It wouldn’t emerge from its torpor until Reagan took office in 1981.
Government outsourcing spawned one hundred thousand private-sector white-collar jobs in Fairfax County between 1990 and 2005, more than triple the number created in the District itself. By then, the number of residents had topped a million (nearly twice as many as Washington) and had been recognized as the nation’s wealthiest, with the median household income climbing above $100,000 for the first time in history. Fairfax was the birthplace of the original edge cities, Tysons Corner chief among them. It’s the second-richest county in the country; neighboring Loudon County, which shares the airport, is first. Fairfax isn’t officially a city—it doesn’t even have its own zip code—but if its size was measured in mall and office space, it would be the sixth-largest in the country. Fairfax today is wealthier than either Bangkok or New Delhi, and it hasn’t plateaued yet.
The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher
Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, commoditize, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, Zipcar
These areas emerged along major corridors like Route 128 in Boston, in Silicon Valley outside San Francisco, in developments alongside Aurora outside Denver, and, perhaps most notoriously, in Orange County, California, which grew to two million people in twenty-six low-density mini regions. Sprawl in Orange County is so vast that when discussing the suburbs with me one day, the financial blogger Felix Salmon gleefully proclaimed Orange County “a suburb without an urb!” In 1991, the author and scholar Joel Garreau famously coined the phrase “edge city,” his term for these concentrations of business, shopping, and entertainment that represented the new face of metropolitan growth. We would soon expand so far out that edge cities would lose their edge. But back then, they represented our official entry into sprawldom. In places like Atlanta, less than 10 percent of the metropolitan area’s residents lived in the city core. By 2000, metropolitan areas covered almost twice as much land as they did in 1970. That same year, a report written by Russ Lopez of the Boston University School of Publish Heath for Fannie Mae entitled Thirty Years of Urban Sprawl in Metropolitan America warned of the dangers of our settlement patterns.
Lang in a 2001 report for the Fannie Mae Foundation that identified fifty-three boomburbs, defined as incorporated places in the top fifty metropolitan areas in the United States with more than one hundred thousand residents that are not the core cities in their metropolitan areas and that maintained double-digit population growth over consecutive censuses between 1970 and 2010. See also: Robert E. Lang and Jennifer B. LeFurgy, Boomburgs: The Rise of America’s Accidental Cities (Brookings Institution Press, 2007). In 1991, the author and scholar: Joel Garreau, Edge City: Life on the New Frontier (Anchor, 1992). Perhaps the most famous coinage of the U.S. suburbs since the phrase “bedroom community” first appeared. In places like Atlanta: Demographia.com, U.S. Census Bureau; see also http://www.demographia.com/db-atl1960.htm. By 2000, metropolitan areas covered: U.S. Census Bureau. That same year: Russ Lopez, Thirty Years of Urban Sprawl in Metropolitan America: 1970–2000: A Report to the Fannie Mae Foundation.
See also New Urbanism background information, 115–17 on Pensacola Parking Syndrome, 63 post-disaster planning, 126 reactions to ideas of, 193–94 on sprawl, 40 on suburban benefits, 191–92 on teens in suburbia, 90 Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company (DPZ), 116–17 Duckworth, Jason, 36, 49, 62, 69–70, 135 on adolescent car independence, 110 on appeal of suburbia, 49 city, move to, 171 on Duany, 117 on McMansions, 69–70 Duckworth, Joe, 135 Dumbaugh, Eric, 83–84, 106–7 DUMBO, Brooklyn, 18, 163–64 Dump the Pump, 109 Dunham-Jones, Ellen, 103, 180, 181 East Passyunk, Philadelphia, 117–18 Edge cities, 45–46 Ehrenhalt, Alan, 166 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 38 Eisner, Michael, 197 Emerging adulthood, 153 Empty nesters, in cities, 172 Energy costs. See also Oil prices energy-efficient cars, 105, 108 and suburban excess, 21–22 England, suburban development in, 28 England, Don, Jr., 183 Environment destruction and suburban development, 47–48, 68 farmland, developments built on, 38, 68, 182 pollution and automobiles, 46, 99, 108 Euclid, Ohio, 40 Euclidean zoning, 41 Extell Development Company, 151 Families.
Emergence by Steven Johnson
A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, edge city, epigenetics, game design, garden city movement, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, pez dispenser, phenotype, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, slashdot, Socratic dialogue, stakhanovite, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush
There’s no rule for clustering that the businesses are directly obeying: their motives are strictly local. But those micromotives nevertheless combine to form macrobehavior, a higher order that exists on the level of the city itself. Local rules lead to global structure—but a structure that you wouldn’t necessarily predict from the rules. Krugman talks about his “plum pudding” polycentrism as a feature of the modern “edge city,” but his model might also explain an older convention: the formation of neighborhoods within a larger metropolitan unit. Neighborhoods are themselves polycentric structures, born of thousands of local interactions, shapes forming within the city’s larger shape. Like Gordon’s ant colonies, or the cells of a developing embryo, neighborhoods are patterns in time. No one wills them into existence single-handedly; they emerge by a kind of tacit consensus: the artists go here, the investment bankers here, Mexican-Americans here, gays and lesbians here.
In a dispersed, car-centric city like Los Angeles, highways are the connecting nodes, one of the few zones where the city’s different groups encounter each other—albeit at sixty-five miles an hour. Ever since Death and Life was first published in the early sixties, Jacobs-inspired critics have lambasted the dispersed communities of L.A. and Phoenix, and their even more anonymous descendants—the “edge cities” that have sprouted up around convenient freeway intersections or high-volume parking lots, the way towns once nestled up to harbors or major rivers. Progressive urbanists bemoaned the mallification of the American city, with vibrant public streets giving way to generic, private shopping complexes. The sidewalk carnivalesque that had so vividly been captured by Wordsworth and Baudelaire in the previous century seemed headed the way of the horse and buggy, and in each case, the culprit turned out to be the same: the automobile, which necessitated all the injuries of sprawl—mixed-use zoning, gated communities, deserted or nonexistent sidewalks.
This is the oft-noted paradox of the Web: the more information that flows into its reservoirs, the harder it becomes to find any single piece of information in that sea. Imagine the universe of HTML documents as a kind of city spread out across a vast landscape, with each document representing a building in that space. The Web’s city would be more anarchic than any real-world city on the planet—no patches of related shops and businesses; no meatpacking or theater districts; no bohemian communities or upscale brownstones; not even the much-lamented “edge city” clusters of Los Angeles or Tyson’s Corner. The Web’s city would simply be an undifferentiated mass of data growing more confusing with each new “building” that’s erected—so confusing, in fact, that the mapmakers (the Yahoos and Googles of the world) would generate almost as much interest as the city itself. And if the Web would make a miserable city, it would do even worse as a brain. Here’s Steven Pinker, the author of How the Mind Works, in a Slate dialogue with Wright: The Internet is in some ways like a brain, but in important ways not.
The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class?and What We Can Do About It by Richard Florida
affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbine, congestion charging, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Gini coefficient, Google bus, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, megacity, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, Paul Graham, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, superstar cities, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, young professional
Vernon later developed his classic product cycle model of industrial location to explain how the rise of standardized manufacturing technologies and automation were allowing factories to move to suburban green-field and foreign offshore locations, where land and labor were cheaper. Raymond Vernon, “International Investment and International Trade in the Product Cycle,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 80, no. 2 (May 1966): 190–207. On the edge city, see Joel Garreau, Edge City: Life on the New Frontier (New York: Anchor Books, 1991). Reflecting upon these changes in the postindustrial metropolis, urban theorists who came to be called the “LA School” argued that metropolitan areas such as LA and other Sunbelt regions no longer grew in a ring-like fashion from the urban center but in a less coherent and more spread-out pattern with a multiplicity of industrial, commercial, and residential zones.
About a decade after Hoyt originally outlined his sector model, two urban geographers, also trained at the University of Chicago, Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman, added their own tweaks, advancing their multiple nuclei model of an even more differentiated metropolis with several nodes of commercial and residential activity (see the third part of Figure 7.1).7 By the 1960s and 1970s, this outward-oriented pattern became so pronounced that the urban center began to be emptied of many of its core economic functions. In their 1959 study of Greater New York, Anatomy of a Metropolis, the economists Edgar Hoover and Raymond Vernon documented what they called the flight from density. Industry and commercial activity, as well as people, they said, were making a trek from the city to the suburbs. This outward shifting of people and jobs reached its pinnacle with the rise of the so-called edge city, in which exurban office parks and malls essentially replicated and replaced the functions of the increasingly deserted and dysfunctional urban center.8 By the late 1990s and early 2000s, as we have seen, the shape of our cities and metro areas began to change significantly, as affluent and educated people started returning to the urban cores and poverty began to be pushed outward into the suburbs.
By then, suburban malls had opened up in the nearby communities of Woodbridge and Livingston, and industrial parks and office complexes were springing up next to highway interchanges. The same thing was happening all over the country. By the 1970s and 1980s, high-technology industries were thriving in the suburbs outside of Boston, San Francisco, Austin, and Seattle. Many of those bedroom communities developed into full-blown edge cities—places where people lived, worked, and shopped without ever having to visit a real downtown. I didn’t set foot in Manhattan until I was in high school, even though it was just a few miles away. America had become a suburban nation, its urban centers in sharp decline. What a difference today. Affluent, educated, young, childless, white Americans are moving back to cities, while immigrants, minorities, and the poor are heading out to the suburbs.
A Man in Full: A Novel by Tom Wolfe
Albert Einstein, Bonfire of the Vanities, edge city, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, global village, hiring and firing, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Socratic dialogue, South of Market, San Francisco, walking around money
The commercial part of Buckhead, which not so long ago had seemed like the suburbs, was precisely that: an edge city, Atlanta's first. Then came Perimeter Center. Then Don Childress developed the Galleria out where Highways 75 and 285 crossed, and Frank Carter developed the Cumberland Mall, and another edge city grew up around them. All the edge cities were north of Downtown and Midtown Atlanta, and they were being built deeper and deeper into the immense ocean of trees. Already a new edge city was forming around Spaghetti Junction and another one northeast of there, out in Gwinnett County, known as the Gwinnett Place Mall. Already Forsyth County, farther north still, had turned from a sleepy Redneck Redman Chewing Tobacco rural outback into Subdivision Heaven, and one of the three fastest-growing counties in the United States. Bango! Charlie had envisioned a new edge city, due west of Forsyth and north of the Galleria, in Cherokee County.
Mack Taylor and Harvey Mathis had built an office park called Perimeter Center out among all those trees, which had been considered a very risky venture at the time, because it was so far from Downtown; and now Perimeter Center was the nucleus around which an entire edge city, known by that very name, Perimeter Center, had grown. Taylor and Mathis had proved to be geniuses. Edge city . Charlie closed his eyes and wished he'd never heard of the damn term. He wasn't much of a reader, but back in 1991 Lucky Putney, another developer, had given him a copy of a book called Edge City' by somebody named Joel Garreau. He had opened it up and glanced at it-and couldn't put it down, even though it was 500 pages long. He had experienced the Aha! phenomenon.' The book put into words something he and other developers had felt, instinctively, for quite a while: namely, that from now on, the growth of American cities was going to take place, not in the heart of the metropolis, not in the old Downtown or Midtown, but out on the, edges, in vast commercial clusters served by highways.
Charlie had envisioned a new edge city, due west of Forsyth and north of the Galleria, in Cherokee County. It would be an edge city bearing his name: Croker. Did he dare open his eyes and look down? He didn't want to, but he couldn't help himself Just as he feared,' the G-5 was in the perfect spot for an aerial view of, Croker Concourse. There; it was, the tower, the mall, the cineplex, the hotel-and-apartment complex, the immense swath of asphalt (conspicuously empty) for parking - a preposterously lonely island sticking up out of that ocean of trees. Croker's folly! Had to leapfrog the future, didn't you, Charlie! A few years down the line somebody would make a fortune off what he had put together there, once the outer perimeter highway was built, but for now - too far north, too far from the old city, Atlanta itself. For now Saddlebags!
The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells
Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game
America’s last suburban frontier The image of a homogeneous, endless suburban/ex-urban sprawl as the city of the future is belied even by its unwilling model, Los Angeles, whose contradictory complexity is revealed by Mike Davis’s marvelous City of Quartz.60 Yet it does evoke a powerful trend in the relentless waves of suburban development in the American metropolis, West and South as well as North and East, toward the end of the millennium. Joel Garreau has captured the similarities of this spatial model across America in his journalistic account of the rise of Edge City, as the core of the new urbanization process. He empirically defines Edge City by the combination of five criteria: Edge City is any place that: (a) Has five million square feet or more of leasable office space – the work place of the Information Age… (b) Has 600,000 square feet or more of leasable retail space… (c) Has more jobs than bedrooms (d) Is perceived by the population as one place… (e) Was nothing like ‘city’ as recently as thirty years ago.61 He reports the mushrooming of such places around Boston, New Jersey, Detroit, Atlanta, Phoenix, Texas, southern California, San Francisco Bay area, and Washington, DC.
Yet, for the purpose of my analysis, I will retain just two major points of this debate. First, the development of these loosely interrelated ex-urban constellations emphasizes the functional interdependence of different units and processes in a given urban system over very long distances, minimizing the role of territorial contiguity, and maximizing the communication networks in all their dimensions. Flows of exchange are at the core of the American Edge City.64 Secondly, this spatial form is indeed very specific to the American experience because, as Garreau acknowledges, it is embedded in a classic pattern of American history, always pushing for the endless search for a promised land in new settlements. While the extraordinary dynamism that this represents did indeed build one of the most vital nations in history, it did so at the price of creating, over time, staggering social and environmental problems.
Each wave of social and physical escapism (for example, the abandonment of inner cities, leaving the lower social classes and ethnic minorities trapped in their ruins) deepened the crisis of American cities,65 and made more difficult the management of an overextended infrastructure and of an overstressed society. Unless the development of private “jails-for-rent” in Western Texas is considered a welcome process to complement the social and physical disinvestment in American inner cities, the “fuite en avant” of American culture and space seems to have reached the limits of refusing to face unpleasant realities. Thus, the profile of America’s informational city is not fully represented by the Edge City phenomenon, but by the relationship between fast ex-urban development, inner- city decay, and obsolescence of the suburban built environment.66 European cities have entered the Information Age along a different line of spatial restructuring linked to their historical heritage, although finding new issues, not always dissimilar to those emerging in the American context. The fading charm of European cities A number of trends constitute together the new urban dynamics of major European metropolitan areas in the 1990s.67 The business center is, as in America, the economic engine of the city, networked in the global economy.
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar
As will be discussed ahead, true walkability depends dramatically upon so many other factors that Walk Score doesn’t measure—such as the size of the blocks and the speed of the cars—but its failure (so far) to measure these attributes doesn’t hurt it too much due to a convenient coincidence: almost all of the places in America with many different uses in close proximity tend to possess smaller blocks and slower-speed traffic. Mixed uses and pedestrian-friendly streets are both part of one common model (the traditional urban neighborhood), while isolated uses and unwalkable streets constitute the other (sprawl). Where the algorithm begins to fail is in high-intensity, commercial edge cities. Here, a preponderance of retail outlets cranks up the score, despite the fact that the only walking occurs in gigantic parking lots. For this reason, sprawl poster child Tysons Corner, Virginia—straight from the cover of Joel Garreau’s book Edge City—earns an impressive 87. This puts it two points ahead of my own U Street neighborhood in Washington, D.C., even though half my neighbors don’t own cars and walk to everything. Living car-free in Tysons Corner, if not actually illegal, is still a preposterous concept. Happily, the developers are hard at work refining the algorithm.
driving: accidents and, see car accidents; bicycling vs.; cities shaped around; costs of; decline in; health issues and; inner-city fees for; pollution and; productivity vs.; risks of Duany, Andres Duany-Plater Zyberk & Company (DPZ) Dumbaugh, Eric Duranton, Gilles Durning, Alan Dwell (magazine) Earth Day 2007 EcoDensity (Vancouver, B.C., initiative) Economist, The (magazine) EcoPass (Boulder, Colo.) Edge City (Garreau) “edge effect” Ehrenhalt, Alan electric cars Elephant in the Bedroom, The: Automobile Dependence and Denial (Hart and Spivak) El Nasser, Haya Emanuel, Rahm Emerson, Ralph Waldo Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) Energy Information Administration, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Evening Star (Washington, D.C.), Ewing, Reid Exxon Mobil Facebook Fallows, James FarmVille figural object vs. figural space Firestone Tire and Rubber “Five B’s” “Fixed and Hazardous Objects” (FHOs), street trees as Flat Earth Society Florida, Richard Ford, Henry Ford, Jane forest edge Forester, John Forest Service, U.S.
Cities,” published by Gilles Duranton and Matthew Turner at the University of Toronto, which finds that “extensions to public transit are not appropriate policies with which to combat traffic congestion” (34). ●Yonah Freemark, “An Extensive New Addition to Dallas’s Light Rail Makes It America’s Longest.” While some of the new station-area developments contain high density, not one of them has taken the form of a walkable neighborhood. Most are the conventional edge-city conglomerations of towers and parking lots, with nary an intimate street in sight. ●Charles Hales’s presentation at Rail-Volution, October 18, 2011. The “host of strategies” included Portland’s famous urban-growth boundary, which had contributed to a pent-up demand for real estate. ●Light Rail Now, “Status of North American Light Rail Projects,” 2002. The average cost of such projects is approximately $35 million per mile, excluding Seattle’s unusual system.
The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight
Organizations need internal investment to make smart external investments.66 HOUSTON AND THE IMAGINED FUTURE In his sweeping and irreverent travelogue through the edge cities that exploded on the American landscape in the 1970s and 1980s, the writer Joel Garreau finds America’s physical future in Houston. Garreau writes of the massive hotel-mall-office-residential conglomeration called the Galleria, which is about five miles to the north and west of Gulfton and Baker-Ripley: 05-2151-2 ch5.indd 108 5/20/13 6:52 PM HOUSTON: EL CIVICS 109 It raises questions that will resound across America well into the twenty-first century. . . . If Edge City is our new standard form of American metropolis . . . will these places ever be diverse, urbane, and livable? The answers to these questions are of no small moment, for as we push our lives into the uncharted territory of Edge Cities, places like them are becoming the laboratories for how civilized urban American will be for the rest of our lifetime.67 Twenty years later, metropolitan Houston is still a laboratory where urgent questions are tested and played out, but these questions are about people.
As Angela Blanchard has written, “Passion is insufficient to the task, and all the knowledge about neighborhoods will not be a substitute for good fiscal management. . . . It is essential to address the old nonprofit dilemma of choosing between more investment in programs or more investment in overhead: both are necessary.” Blanchard, “People Transforming Communities. For Good.” See also Angela Blanchard, “A Hierarchy of Needs: For Organizations,” 2012 (http:// angelablanchard.com/BlanchardModelofOrganizationalDevelopment.pdf). 67. Joel Garreau, Edge City: Life on the New Frontier (New York: Doubleday, 1991), p. 214. 68. Angela Blanchard, “Being United around a City,” presentation at the United Neighborhood Centers of America Neighborhood Revitalization Conference, Washington, D.C., July 2011 (www.youtube.com/watch?v=AjUCt07ZIBkO). 69. Angela Blanchard, “The First New Question?” presentation at TEDxHouston, 2011 (www.youtube.com/watch?v=XU_vVt298gw). 10-2151-2 notes.indd 226 5/20/13 7:00 PM NOTES TO PAGES 114–18 227 CHAPTER 6 The quotation at the beginning of the chapter comes from Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1992), pp. 220–21. 1.
Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar
When our great-grandparents first moved to residential enclaves outside the city core, we called such places suburbs. When suburbs began to scatter beyond the urban edge, some called them exurbs. When, in the 1980s, downtown businesses seemed to be moving en masse to freeway-fed business parks and megamalls, Washington Post reporter Joel Garreau dubbed these new agglomerations “edge cities.” But urban life has now been stretched to such an extent that suburbia, exurbia, and edge cities together form a distinct system that has transformed the way that entire city-regions function. This is the system that some have come to call sprawl. I will call it the dispersed city, for the characteristic that defines almost every aspect of it. While the world’s architectural critics and so-called thought leaders tend to focus their attention on iconic structures and rare designs, the journey to the happy city must begin out here, in the landscape of the infinitely repeated form, on the plains of dispersal.
more people had lost their homes: RealtyTrac staff, “Detroit, Stockton, Las Vegas Post Highest 2007 Metro Foreclosure Rates,” RealtyTrac, February 13, 2008, www.realtytrac.com/ContentManagement/pressrelease.aspx?ChannelID=9&ItemID=4119&accnt=64847 (accessed January 3, 2011). U.S. construction in the last three decades: Dunham-Jones, Ellen, “New Urbanism’s Subversive Marketing,” in Worlds Away: New Suburban Landscapes, ed. Andrew Blauvelt (Minneapolis: Walker Arts Center, 2008). “edge cities”: Garreau, Joel, Edge City: Life on the New Frontier (New York: Doubleday, 1991). commuters escaping high home prices: Roberts, Ronnie, “Southwest Stockton, Calif., Neighborhood Attracts Commuters,” The Record, accessed from High Beam Research, March 3, 2002, www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-120566678.html (accessed January 7, 2011). gas prices doubled: Cortright, Joe, “Driven to the Brink: How the Gas Price Spike Popped the Housing Bubble and Devalued the Suburbs,” white paper, CEOs for Cities, 2008.
The End of Men: And the Rise of Women by Hanna Rosin
affirmative action, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, delayed gratification, edge city, facts on the ground, financial independence, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Northern Rock, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, Results Only Work Environment, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, union organizing, upwardly mobile, white picket fence, women in the workforce, young professional
By the 1980s women were graduating from college at about the same rate as men; for pharmacy school the tipping point was 1985. If machines dealt the first blow to work as the exclusive realm of men, office life dealt the second. “Where would a sense of maleness come from for the worker who sat at a desk all day?” historian Elliott Gorn wrote. “Where was virility to be found in increasingly faceless bureaucracies?” Joel Garreau picks up on this phenomenon in his 1991 book, Edge City, which explores the rise of suburbs as home to giant swaths of office space along with the usual houses and malls. Companies began moving out of the city in search not only of lower rent but also of the “best educated, most conscientious, most stable workers.” They found their brightest prospects among “underemployed females living in middle-class communities on the fringes of the old urban areas.”
for pharmacy school the tipping point: According to data from the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, 1985 was the first year that female first professional degree recipients outnumbered males: 53.9 percent to 46.1 percent. “Where would a sense of maleness”: Elliott J. Gorn, The Manly Art: Bare-Knuckle Prize Fighting in America (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1986, 2010), p. 192 (2010 edition). Joel Garreau picks up on this phenomenon: Joel Garreau, Edge City: Life on the New Frontier (New York: Doubleday, 1991). “Once pharmacy shed the Victorian view”: Henderson, p. 106. Robots can count tablets more accurately”: Albert Wertheimer, foreword to Social Pharmacy: Innovation and Development (Philadelphia: Pharmaceutical Press, 1994), p. ix–xi. In a 2005 international study: Lex Borghans, Bas Ter Weel, and Bruce A. Weinberg, “People People: Social Capital and the Labor-Market Outcomes of Underrepresented Groups,” IZA Discussion Paper Series No. 1494, February 2005.
., 159 Divided Labours (Browne), 174 Divorce, 39–40, 49, 66–68, 94, 98, 101, 269 in Asia, 6, 238, 255 of breadwinner wives and unemployed husbands, 51, 81–82 and career opportunities for women, 152–53, 157 custody of children after, 125 financial impacts of, 68, 91, 283n murder as alternative to, 170, 172 regional differences in rates of, 92 Doctors, female, 59, 117, 132, 255–56 specialties chosen by, 118, 140 Domestic violence, 14, 170, 183 Drew, Ina, 202–3 Druggists’ Bulletin, 129 Drug Topics magazine, 131 Duke University, 43 Dunham, Lena, 43 Dushane, Melodi, 179 eBay, 224 Ebony magazine, 89 Economist, The, 253 Ecuador, 55 Edge City (Garreau), 133 Edin, Kathryn, 92–93 Education Department, U.S., 161, 224 Ehrenreich, Barbara, 41, 63 Eliot, George, 163 Eliot, Lise, 161, 174 Ellis, Bret Easton, 173 El-Scari, Mustafaa, 89–90 Empowerment, 30, 38, 45, 190 EMTs, 264 Engineers, 13, 54, 73, 80, 108, 150, 196 England, Paula, 24–25 Enlightened Power (Gergen), 199 Ericsson, Ronald, 11–13 Ernst & Young, 226 Erotic capital, 30, 37–38 Esteve, Albert, 237–38 Evans, Harry, 228 Evans, Jenelle, 179 Ewha University, 232–33, 239 Facebook, 181, 195, 197, 215, 224, 225, 230 Faludi, Susan, 9 Farber, Henry, 86 Farrell, Warren, 69, 72 Fast-food restaurants, female violence in, 179 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 176 Fels, Anna, 217 Feminism, 11, 12, 14–15, 21, 50, 60, 65–66, 75–76, 155, 182, 233 accusations against, 160 career opportunities and, 115, 124, 129, 152, 198, 215, 219 changing cultural norms in response to, 175 erotic capital and, 30 in Iceland, 202 motherhood and, 75–76, 93, 125 second-wave, 58 sexual norms and, 37–38, 41 Title IX complaints filed by, 17 in views of murders by women, 178 Financial planning, 118 Fiorina, Carly, 219 Fisher, Helen, 266 Flaubert, Gustave, 118 Flexibility, workplace, 140 Florida, Lottery, winners in, 94 Florida State University, 42 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 12 Food preparation, 118, 124 Forbes magazine, 205 Forensic pathology, 118 Fort Lauderdale (Florida), 81, 180 Fortune 500 companies, 81, 198 Fortune magazine, 205 Fox Television, 225 France, 117, 237, 251, 252 Frankel, Lois, 34, 209 Franklin, Bernard, 154, 156 Friedan, Betty, 53 From Chivalry to Terrorism (Braudy), 266–67 Fulbright scholarships, 255 G.I.
The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work by Richard Florida
banking crisis, big-box store, blue-collar work, car-free, carbon footprint, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, falling living standards, financial innovation, Ford paid five dollars a day, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labour mobility, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, McMansion, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, total factor productivity, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional, Zipcar
It’s a lovely, romantic notion, but it’s wrong. It’s a mistake to consider suburbanization a backward step and impugn it wholesale, with the catchall slur of “sprawl,” and to see only more compact, urban-style back-to-the-city development as a path to the future. This is no black-or-white, city-versus-suburb, winner-takes-all battle. Cities and suburbs alike are part of the new spatial fix. Neither our far-flung suburbs, the edge cities with their sprawling office complexes, housing subdivisions, and malls, nor even the distant exurbs will simply vanish. Companies are not likely to abandon the attractive suburban offices they’ve established, even as more and more are opening offices in more central urban locations. Many people will still commute to work by car, but those who prefer to take public transportation or walk or ride their bikes to work will also be able to.
Many people will still commute to work by car, but those who prefer to take public transportation or walk or ride their bikes to work will also be able to. One of the most promising trends I see is the redevelopment of older suburbs into denser, mixed-use communities. Such developments have sprouted up around Metro stations in Greater D.C. suburbs such as Arlington, Virginia, and Silver Spring, Maryland. And it’s happening in suburbs further out as well. Hailed not long ago as the example of a new era of car-oriented edge cities, even Tysons Corner, the giant shopping and business complex in Fairfax, Virginia, has an ambitious plan to reconfigure itself from a car-oriented suburb to a more pedestrian-friendly, live-work-play community located around a new rail line intended to free people from their cars. In Phoenix, a project called Green Street Development has bought a couple dozen foreclosed homes—small ranch houses of about 1,400 square feet—along mass transit lines close to downtown.
The War of Art: Break Through the Blocks and Win Your Inner Creative Battles by Steven Pressfield
When the lights came up, they fled like cockroaches into the night. Next day came the review in Variety: “. . . Ronald Shusett and Steven Pressfield; we hope these are not their real names, for their parents’ sake.” When the first week’s grosses came in, the flick barely registered. Still I clung to hope. Maybe it’s only tanking in urban areas, maybe it’s playing better in the burbs. I motored to an Edge City multiplex. A youth manned the popcorn booth. “How’s King Kong Lives?” I asked. He flashed thumbs-down. “Miss it, man. It sucks.” I was crushed. Here I was, forty-two years old, divorced, childless, having given up all normal human pursuits to chase the dream of being a writer; now I’ve finally got my name on a big-time Hollywood production starring Linda Hamilton, and what happens? I’m a loser, a phony; my life is worthless, and so am I.
Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck
A Pattern Language, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration
WHY TRAFFIC IS CONGESTED The first complaint one always hears about suburbia is the traffic congestion. More than any other factor, the perception of excessive traffic is what causes citizens to take up arms against growth in suburban communities. This perception is generally justified: in most American cities, the worst traffic is to be found not downtown but in the surrounding suburbs, where an “edge city” chokes highways that were originally built for lighter loads. In newer cities such as Phoenix and Atlanta, where there is not much of a downtown to speak of, traffic congestion is consistently cited as the single most frustrating aspect of daily life. Why have suburban areas, with their height limits and low density of population, proved to be such a traffic nightmare? The first reason, and the obvious one, is that everyone is forced to drive.
Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 1992. Franzen, Jonathan. “First City.” The New Yorker, February 19, 1996: 85-92. Gaines, Donna. Teenage Wasteland: Suburbia’s Dead-End Kids. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998. Garland, Michelle, and Christopher Bender. “How Bad Transportation Decisions Affect the Quality of People’s Lives.” Surface Transportation Policy Project Progress IX:2 (May 1999): 4-7. Garreau, Joel. Edge City: Life on the New Frontier. New York: Anchor, 1991. Gerstenzang, James. “Cars Make Suburbs Riskier than Cities, Study Says.” Los Angeles Times, April 15, 1996: A1, A20. Gladwell, Malcolm. “Blowup.” The New Yorker, January 22, 1996: 32-36. Goodman, Percival, and Paul Goodman. Communitas: Ways of Livelihood and Means of Life. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960. Gratz, Roberta Brandes, with Norman Mintz.
The Locavore's Dilemma by Pierre Desrochers, Hiroko Shimizu
air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, edge city, Edward Glaeser, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, intermodal, invention of agriculture, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, land tenure, megacity, moral hazard, mortgage debt, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, planetary scale, profit motive, refrigerator car, Steven Pinker, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl
If you love nature, stay away from it.”51 The journalist David Owen further observed that because spreading people thinly across the landscape would increase environmental damage, “even part-time agricultural self-sufficiency . . . would be an environmental and economic disaster.” 52 The basic point made by the likes of Huber, Mills, Glaeser, and Owen is thus that, by virtually any measure, residents of high-density urban areas drive, pollute, consume, and throw away much less than people living in greener surroundings.53 Apart perhaps from self-selected migrants to environmentalist meccas such as Portland, Oregon, or Missoula, Montana, urbanites are not intrinsically greener than rural inhabitants, but when space is at a premium, wastefulness turns out to be prohibitively expensive. True, growing cities have always been surrounded by lower density suburbs (suburbium originally referred to the area beyond the walls of Ancient Rome), but these always become denser in good economic times.54 This phenomenon has arguably accelerated in the last few decades with the development of “edge cities” (or suburban downtowns) and row housing and garden apartments in new residential developments located far from older urban centers. Actually, for quite a few years the densest metropolitan area in the United States (including both downtown and suburban areas) has been Los Angeles—and by a fair margin—a result that can be traced back to its numerous high-rise buildings spread out over its territory, high population numbers per individual housing unit, and costly water supply infrastructure.
Demand Denmark consumption per capita during World War II Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) Despommier, Dickson Detroit, Michigan Developing counties cities in exports and Diet balancing choice ethical vegans 100-mile politics and unhealthy vegetarian DiLorenzo, Thomas Disaster relief Disease livestock and monoculture and Distribution networks Diversification economic of food options monocultures versus See also Biodiversity Division of labor geographical monocultures and Dodd, George Domestication “Don’t End Agricultural Subsidies. Fix Them!” (Bittman) Dreher, Rod Drought E. coli O157: O157:H7 Easterbrook, Greg Eclogues (Virgil) Ecofeminism Economic development in China city development and Economics argument for local component of SOLE diversity local food during depression trade-offs in Economies of scale in food safety small producers Economists agricultural good versus bad Edessa Edge cities Eggs(table) large operations Empire Marketing Board Employment on farms in U.S. local Energy consumption forecasts Engels, Friedrich Entrepreneurship Environmental argument, for local component of SOLE Environmental misconceptions Erosion, trade and Essay on the Principles of Population as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society (Malthus) Estabrook, Barry Ethical vegans Ettlinger, Steve Europe biotechnology and food politics Irish potato famine and production and consumption substitutions in Western Medieval See also specific places Eutrophication Exports developing counties and food safety and oriented systems prohibitions on Faegri, Knut Faith, Nicholas Famine coping with Irish potato in Japan price controls and FAO.
Virtual Light by William Gibson
Hernandez stopped, turned, sighed. "Never been up to NoCal, right? San Francisco? Anybody know you up there?" "No." "IntenSecure's licensed in NoCal, too, right? Different state, different laws, whole different attitude, they might as well be a different fucking country, but We've got our shit up there. More office buildings, lot of hotels. Gated residential's not so big up there, not 'til you get out to the edge-cities. Concord, Hacienda Business Center, like that. We got a good piece of that, too." "But it's the same company. They won't hire me here, they won't hire me there." "Fucking 'A.' Nobody talking about hiring you. What this is, there's maybe something there for you with a guy. Works freelance. Company has certain kinds of problems, sometime they bring in somebody. But the guy, he's not IntenSecure.
He'd gone screeching around this big empty parking lot, just a few dead clunkers and old mattresses to get in the way, until he'd found a way out through the chain link. But there wasn't any highway there, just some deserted four-lane feeder, and it looked like Loveless had put a bullet into the navigation hardware, because the map was locked on downtown Santa Ana and just sat there, sort of flickering. Where he was had the feel of one of those fallen-in edge-cities, the kind of place that went down when the Euro-money imploded. Chevette Washington was curled up by the fridge with her eyes closed, and she wouldn't answer him. He was scared Loveless had put one through her, too, but he knew he couldn't afford to stop until he'd put at least a little distance between them and the mall. And he couldn't see any blood on her or anything. Finally he'd come to this Shell station.
Some Remarks by Neal Stephenson
airport security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, British Empire, cable laying ship, call centre, cellular automata, edge city, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, music of the spheres, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, packet switching, pirate software, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, Socratic dialogue, South China Sea, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method, trade route, Turing machine, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, X Prize
Under the TV lights, the chrome-plated bayonets spark like throwaway cameras at the Orange Bowl Halftime Show. And so it goes. Twenty clicks into the test I’ve left my fear behind, I’m Polysurfing like some incarnate sofa god, my attention plays like a space laser across the Spew’s numberless Feeds, each Feed a torrent, all of them plexed together across the panascopic bandwidth of the optical fiber as if the contents of every Edge City in Greater America have been rammed into the maw of a giant pasta machine and extruded as endless, countless strands of polychrome angel hair. Within an hour or so I’ve settled into a pattern without even knowing it. I’m surfing among 20 or so different Feeds. My subconscious mind is like a retarded homunculus sacked out on the couch of my reptilian brain, his thumb wandering crazily around the keypad of the world’s largest remote control.
“Maybe that’s a job you should apply for!” she exclaims. The other jaw of the trap closes faster than my teeth chomping down on my tongue: “I can take your application online right now!” says Raster. My sister-in-law is the embodiment of sugary triumph until the next evening, when I have a good news/bad news conversation with her. Good: I’m now a Metaverse customer-service rep. Bad: I don’t have a cubicle in some Edge City office complex. I telecommute from home—from her home, from her sofa. I sit there all day long, munching through my dwindling stash of tax-deductible jelly beans, wearing an operator’s headset, gripping the control unit, using it like a puppeteer’s rig to control other people’s Rasters on other people’s screens, all over the U.S. I can see them—the wide-angle view from their set-top boxes is piped to a window on my screen.
Peak Car: The Future of Travel by David Metz
autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Clayton Christensen, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Just-in-time delivery, Network effects, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, Skype, urban sprawl, yield management, young professional
Cities have a choice: they can house their expanding population in new low density suburbs on greenfield sites, where car use is attractive, or in higher density more central areas, often built on former used sites (‘brownfield’), where car use is constrained by road space and public transport is more effective. At one time it looked as though the predominant choice would be suburban or ‘exurban’, with US ‘edge cities’ growing just outside existing city limits to provide office space and new homes in proximity, leaving the old commercial centres to die. Recently, however, there has been a revival of city centre activity, with both business services and residences being newly built or converted from historic commercial properties. London is a leading example of inner city regeneration, both in the Docklands and the neighbourhoods just north of the financial ‘square mile’ of the old City, Clerkenwell and Shoreditch in particular.
The Gated City (Kindle Single) by Ryan Avent
big-box store, carbon footprint, deindustrialization, edge city, Edward Glaeser, income inequality, industrial cluster, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, offshore financial centre, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Silicon Valley, Thorstein Veblen, transit-oriented development, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Veblen good, white picket fence, zero-sum game
The Maryland suburban cities of Bethesda and Silver Spring have developed booming downtowns around their metro stations, and redevelopment is spreading outward along the Red Line. Maryland is currently planning to add to its transit capacity with a light rail line connecting Bethesda and Silver Spring, which will facilitate addition of density along a new axis. Boldest of all is the plan to transform Tysons Corner along a new Silver Line, currently under construction. Tysons is the archetypal edge city: a cluster of suburban office complexes scattered around a massive mall, Tysons sits atop acres of parking and is bordered by several major highways and thoroughfares. It is quite often a sea of red brake lights. Fairfax County, feeling the pressure for additional development and observing the success of TOD in neighboring Arlington, has adopted an ambitious growth strategy. Four stations of the new line running outward to Dulles Airport will cut through the heart of Tysons Corner.
City: Urbanism and Its End by Douglas W. Rae
agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business climate, City Beautiful movement, complexity theory, creative destruction, desegregation, edge city, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, manufacturing employment, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Works Progress Administration
David Nye suggests the following important historical progression: “Whereas the steamboat and the train had been used to create central arteries, nodes of intersection, and dense zones of public interaction (such as railroad stations and theatre districts), Americans combined automobiles and electrification to invent privatized spaces: suburban tracts, shopping malls, gated communities, pastoral corporate estates, and ‘edge cities’ beyond the urban core.”69 If I am able to evade differences, and conflicts, by seeking private escape, is it not possible that I will lose some of the skills once so useful in negotiating those differences and resolving those conflicts? Is it not likely that I will leave behind empty spaces which will, in Jacobs’ term, become jungles? This conjecture, supported by historical crime statistics, is a major reason to keep an eye on urbanism even after its passing.
When New York’s Regional Plan Association looked at that great city’s available futures, one of the questions asked concerned the availability of interesting, fairly affordable places for people to live outside the five boroughs and their immediate suburbs.61 One of the answers given was New Haven, a place with high-quality housing stock, an array of cultural amenities, and an appealing history stretching from 1637. If Metro-North commuter railroad can be induced to improve the speed and desirability of its service—some trains ran faster in 1946 than today—and if New Haven can provide the downtown amenities required by commuters (to Manhattan, or to edge-city places like Stamford), then the competitiveness of New Haven’s housing will make itself felt. The urbanist city was built upon its export industries, which brought skilled workers and investors and money to New Haven because her manufacturers— Winchester, Sargent, and the rest—were able to compete in national markets against the very best in their fields. The jobs they created were a material foundation on which the fabric of enterprise, the civic fauna, and even Frank Rice’s sidewalk republic could draw.
The Levittowners: Ways of Life and Politics in a New Suburban Community. New York: Columbia University Press, 1967, 1982. 482 B I B L I O G R A P H Y ———. “The Failure of Urban Renewal.” In Urban Renewal: The Record and the Controversy, edited by James Q. Wilson, 537–57. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1966. ———. “The Negro Family: Reflections on the Moynihan Report.” Commonweal, October 15, 1965. Garreau, Joel. Edge City: Life on the New Frontier. New York: Doubleday, 1988. Garvin, Alexander. The American City: What Works, What Doesn’t. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996. Gates, Henry Louis Jr. “Two Nations, Both Black.” Forbes 150 (1992): 132–35. Gaventa, John. Power and Powerlessness: Quiescence and Rebellion in an Appalachian Valley. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1980. Geismar, Ludwig L., and Jane Krisberg.
When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor by William Julius Wilson
affirmative action, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deliberate practice, desegregation, Donald Trump, edge city, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, jobless men, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, school choice, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration
You don’t have enough skilled and educated people to fill them. The increasing suburbanization of employment has accompanied industrial restructuring and has further exacerbated the problems of inner-city joblessness and restricted access to jobs. “Metropolitan areas captured nearly 90 percent of the nation’s employment growth; much of this growth occurred in booming ‘edge cities’ at the metropolitan periphery. By 1990, many of these ‘edge cities’ had more office space and retail sales than the metropolitan downtowns.” Over the last two decades, 60 percent of the new jobs created in the Chicago metropolitan area have been located in the northwest suburbs of Cook and Du Page counties. African-Americans constitute less than 2 percent of the population in these areas. In The Truly Disadvantaged, I maintained that one result of these changes for many urban blacks has been a growing mismatch between the suburban location of employment and minorities’ residence in the inner city.
American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andrew Wiles, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, call centre, correlation does not imply causation, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, edge city, Emanuel Derman, facts on the ground, fixed income, Gary Taubes, John Snow's cholera map, moral hazard, p-value, pattern recognition, profit motive, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, statistical model, the scientific method, traveling salesman
In total, traffic delays cost $63 billion a year while wasting 2.3 billion gallons of fuel. But these scary numbers miss the mark. Just ask the pileup of readers who sent grievances to Minneapolis Star Tribune. Those truly put off by a long trip to work every day either practice avoidance . . . “I chose to live in Minneapolis for transportation-related reasons: great access to transit and reverse commutes. . . . If people chose to live in Eden Prairie [an edge city southwest of Minneapolis], then I don’t have much sympathy for their complaints about traffic problems.” . . . or have made peace with the inevitable: “Every day, no matter how much traffic there is, it slows down right by McKnight [Road near Maplewood on I-94]. . . . There have been times when we have stopped and had a Coke somewhere because it gets so miserable sitting on the highway.” Commuters know what they are in for, and they take charge of the situation.
Distrust That Particular Flavor by William Gibson
AltaVista, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, edge city, informal economy, means of production, megastructure, pattern recognition, proxy bid, telepresence, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog
In the coastal city of Longkou, Shandong province, China (just opposite Korea), Singaporean entrepreneurs are preparing to kick off the first of these, erecting improved port facilities and a power plant, as well as hotels, residential buildings, and, yes, shopping centers. The project, to occupy 1.3 square kilometers, reminds me of “Mr. Lee’s Greater Hong Kong” in Neal Stephenson’s Snow Crash, a sovereign nation set up like so many fried-noodle franchises along the feeder routes of edge-city America. But Mr. Lee’s Greater Singapore means very serious business, and the Chinese seem uniformly keen to get a franchise in their neighborhood, and pronto. Ordinarily, confronted with a strange city, I’m inclined to look for the parts that have broken down and fallen apart, revealing the underlying social mechanisms; how the place is really wired beneath the lay of the land as presented by the Chamber of Commerce.
Everything Bad Is Good for You: How Popular Culture Is Making Us Smarter by Steven Johnson
Columbine, complexity theory, corporate governance, delayed gratification, edge city, Flynn Effect, game design, Marshall McLuhan, pattern recognition, profit motive, race to the bottom, sexual politics, Steve Jobs, the market place
Just as Tetris streamlines the fuzzy world of visual reality to a core set of interacting shapes, most games offer a fictional world where rewards are la rger, and more vivid, more clearly defined , than life. This is true even of games that have been rightly cele- E V "- R Y T H I N G B A D I S G O O D F O R Y o u 37 brated for their open-endedness. Sim City i s famous for not forcing the playe r along a preordained narrative line; you can build any kind of community you want: small farming villages , vast industrial Coketowns, high-centric edge cities or pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods. But the game has a subtle reward archi tecture that plays a m a j o r role in the game's addictiveness : the software withholds a trove of ob jects and activities until you 've reached certain predefined levels , either of population, money, or popularity. You can build pretty much any kind of environment you want play ing SimCity, but you can't build a baseball stadium until you have fifty thousand residents.
The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War by Robert D. Kaplan
Berlin Wall, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Honoré de Balzac, mass immigration, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, trade route, unemployed young men, Yom Kippur War
"Universities will have to become entrepreneurs, working with corporations on curriculum [emphasis mine] and other matters, or they will die." The California state university system, in particular the San Diego campus, is perhaps the best example of corporate-academic synergy, in which a school rises in prestige because its curriculum has practical applications for nearby technology firms. Corporations, which are anchored neither to nations nor to communities, have created strip malls, edge cities, and Disneyesque tourist bubbles. Developments are not necessarily bad: they provide low prices, convenience, efficient work forces, and, in the case of tourist bubbles, safety. We need big corpora- 86 / THE COMING ANARCHY rions. Our society has reached a level of social and technological complexity at which goods and services must be produced for a price and to a standard that smaller businesses cannot manage.
Everything Is Obvious: *Once You Know the Answer by Duncan J. Watts
active measures, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, East Village, easy for humans, difficult for computers, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, high batting average, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, industrial cluster, interest rate swap, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, medical malpractice, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, oil shock, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, prediction markets, pre–internet, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, school choice, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, urban planning, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize
The Romans abhorred and killed them; the Greeks tolerated them; the Navajo revered them; and the east African Pokot tribe regarded them simply as “mistakes,” to be kept around or discarded in the same way they might keep or throw out a flawed pot.11 Likewise, practices including human slavery, sacrifice, cannibalism, foot binding, and female genital mutilation that are reviled in most contemporary cultures have all been (and in some cases, still are) considered entirely legitimate in different times and places. Another important consequence of the socially embedded nature of common sense is that disagreements over matters of common sense can be surprisingly difficult to resolve. For example, it may seem remarkable to people who have grown up with the impression that New York is a crime-ridden cesspool, or at the very least a cold, hard-edged city full of people you can’t trust, that, according to a recent news story, there is a small cadre of Manhattan residents who don’t lock their doors. As the article makes clear, most people in the city think that the “no lock people” are crazy. As one woman said, “I live in a high-rise with a doorman, I’ve been there fifteen years, and I’ve never heard of a burglary in the building. But that has absolutely nothing to do with it—it’s common sense [to lock your door].”
call centre, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Dean Kamen, digital map, double helix, edge city, germ theory of disease, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, John Snow's cholera map, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, peak oil, side project, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, trade route, unbiased observer, working poor
As the environmental scholar Toby Hemenway argues: “Virtually any service system—electricity, fuel, food—follows the same brutal mathematics of scale. A dispersed population requires more resources to serve it—and to connect it together—than a concentrated one.” From an overall ecosystems perspective, if you’re going to have 10 million human beings trying to share an environment with other life-forms, it’s much better to crowd all 10 million of them into a hundred square miles than it is to spread them out, edge-city style, over a space ten or a hundred times that size. If we’re going to survive as a planet with more than 6 billion people without destroying the complex balance of our natural ecosystems, the best way to do it is to crowd as many of those humans into metropolitan spaces and return the rest of the planet to Mother Nature. By far, the most significant environmental cause that cities support is simple population control.
Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution by Janette Sadik-Khan, Seth Solomonow
autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Hyperloop, Induced demand, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, New Urbanism, place-making, self-driving car, sharing economy, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar
Instead of asphalt there are now pedestrian pavers lined with embedded shiny metal discs, which glint with the lights of Times Square, reflecting Broadway’s lights, energy, and excitement. Today there are 480,000 pedestrians, up from 356,000 a few years earlier. As work continues on the plazas, there’s room for many, many more. Times Square became a new touchstone in the annals of city streets, one that is already invoked on every habitable continent. Instead of nibbling around the edges, cities are attempting their own Times Squares—transformative projects not in the periphery but in the heart of their downtown districts, where the politics and competing traffic demands for streets are the most volatile. A high-profile example like Times Square transcends the crossroads where it is located and represents models for streets big and small, near and far. Cities can never succeed in transforming their streets if they never try.
Mysteries of the Mall: And Other Essays by Witold Rybczynski
additive manufacturing, airport security, Buckminster Fuller, City Beautiful movement, edge city, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Jane Jacobs, kremlinology, Marshall McLuhan, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, Peter Eisenman, rent control, Silicon Valley, the High Line, urban renewal, young professional
The latest census confirms that the United States has become a nation of suburbs: more people now live in the suburbs than in traditional central cities. And these suburbs are no longer dormitory communities but self-sufficient metropolitan areas, with retail and entertainment facilities and with employment opportunities. (Nationwide, only 19 percent of worker commutes are from suburb to city, while 37 percent are from suburb to suburb.) Moreover, the physical environment of these new suburban cities, or “edge cities,” as Joel Garreau christened them, resembles Broadacre City to an uncanny degree. It seems likely that in one way or another succeeding generations will continue to find their own meanings in Wright’s rich oeuvre. For example, his exploration of figurative ornament in the second and third decades of the twentieth century is surely something that current architects, many of whom are, once again, interested in decoration, would do well to study.
State of Emergency: The Way We Were by Dominic Sandbrook
anti-communist, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, David Attenborough, Doomsday Book, edge city, estate planning, Etonian, falling living standards, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, feminist movement, financial thriller, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, German hyperinflation, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, North Sea oil, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, sexual politics, traveling salesman, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Winter of Discontent, young professional
David Marquand, The Progressive Dilemma: From Lloyd George to Blair (London, 1999), pp. 170–71, 191–2, 212; Ben Pimlott, Harold Wilson (London, 1992), pp. 577–8. 57. Morgan, The People’s Peace, p. 394; The Times, 4 July 1975; ‘The Science Park Story’, www.cambridgesciencepark.co.uk/about/9/history-early-years; Whitehead, The Writing on the Wall, pp. 392–3; The Times, 11 September 1970; White, London in the Twentieth Century, p. 58. 58. The Times, 18 March 1970, 24 March 1972; Mark Clapson, A Social History of Milton Keynes: Middle England/Edge City (London, 2004), pp. 45–6, 54, 58, 65. 59. Clapson, A Social History of Milton Keynes, pp. 111–12; Daily Telegraph, 6 July 1974; Christopher Booker, The Seventies: Portrait of a Decade (London, 1980), pp. 145–8. 60. The Times, 17 May 1973, 23 October 1976; Andy Beckett, When the Lights Went Out: Britain in the Seventies (London, 2009), p. 430; Clapson, A Social History of Milton Keynes, pp. 112, 168. 61.
On a happier note, Paul Ferris, Sex and the British: A Twentieth-Century History (1993), Cate Haste, Rules of Desire: Sex in Britain,World War I to the Present (1994) and Hera Cook, The Long Sexual Revolution: English Women, Sex and Contraception 1800–1975 (2005) all make much more cheerful reading. The most useful book on London is Jerry White’s masterful London in the Twentieth Century (2001), while Mark Clapson’s books Invincible Green Suburbs, Brave New Towns (1998) and A Social History of Milton Keynes: Middle England/Edge City (2004) are terrific on suburbia. On pop music, see Barney Hoskyns, Glam! Bowie, Bolan and the Glitter Rock Revolution (1998), as well as Dave Harker’s indispensable essay ‘Blood on the Tracks: Popular Music in the 1970s’, in Bart Moore-Gilbert (ed.), The Arts in the 1970s: Cultural Closure? (1994). On football, Hunter Davies, The Glory Game (1972), is a classic, while I also relied on Eric Dunning, Patrick Murphy and John M.
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, big-box store, blue-collar work, Donner party, edge city, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, side project, smart transportation, traveling salesman, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen
But the dinner correctly recognized that the interstates had turned out to be more than fancy roads—that, often in ways unanticipated by their creators, they had been agents of far-reaching change and had reordered the American landscape. That we could thank the interstates for shrinking the distances between our cities, and the untidy growth of those cities beyond Lewis Mumford's worst nightmare; for the "Edge City" of shopping and office space springing up on beltways in any number of metropolitan areas, and the "big-box" stores that were fast becoming ubiquitous features of suburban interchanges. They'd tamed rivers and bays, high plains and remote reaches of blackwater swamp where earlier roads dared not venture. You could set your cruise control (an automotive feature that would have been needless had the interstates not come along) and at seventy miles per hour, in climate-controlled comfort, summit the Sierra Nevada pass that claimed the Donner party.
Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham
airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence
As well as being reorganized through the installation of check-points, strategic city cores, such as Washington, DC and New York, have had their street furniture and landscape architecture redesigned as stealthy means of counterterror ‘target hardening’59 (Figure 4.4). Many embassy districts are being similarly redesigned. In actions reminiscent of the Cold War, the US government has also encouraged some of its key central-city office complexes to bunker down in remote ‘edge cities’. In such places, Deborah Natsios worries, ‘civil space is becoming coincident with state security space – a threatscape’, which is to say a key domain of the multilayered informational battlespace of military control technologies and ‘network-centric warfare’. The ‘security accoutrements of bollards, barbed wire, blast-resistant and tinted glazing, closed-circuit cameras and confrontational signage’ in exurban militarized complexes, she writes, are merely ‘external clues of more covert technologies being deployed to manage the civilian milieu’.60 4.4 Jeremy Nemeth’s research on green zones and passage-point urbanism, Manhattan-style.
The Wrecking Crew: How Conservatives Rule by Thomas Frank
affirmative action, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, edge city, financial deregulation, full employment, George Gilder, guest worker program, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, P = NP, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Telecommunications Act of 1996, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, War on Poverty
Compare this to the similarly sized metro areas of Atlanta (five BMW dealers) and Cleveland (six BMW dealers, if we include Akron). 3. This includes the Ritz-Carlton “leadership center” in Chevy Chase, the Ritz-Carlton suburb in Loudoun County, and the metro area’s four Ritz-Carlton hotels. 4. I know because I read an article about the Reagan appointee who made it a showplace of outsourcing. John Rees, interview with Danford Sawyer, Review of the NEWS, July 7, 1982, pp. 39–50. 5. Joel Garreau, Edge City: Life on the New Frontier (New York: Doubleday, 1991), p. 351. Washington seems to exert a magnetic attraction on celebrators of suburbia. David Brooks’s rosy meditations on suburbia in his 2004 book, On Paradise Drive, instantly mark him as an inhabitant of the D.C. metro area. The latest priest of this faith is Richard Florida, a professor at a university located in the Virginia suburbs, who finds the city “a booming, far-flung region that’s a key node in what [he] call[s] the Creative Economy.”
Using general warrants, British soldiers were allowed to enter private homes, confiscate what they found, and often keep the bounty for themselves. The policy was reminiscent of today’s civil asset forfeiture laws, which allow police to seize and keep for their departments cash, cars, luxury goods, and even homes, often under only the thinnest allegation of criminality. Quartering itself—the specific burden of giving up a bed to a soldier, feeding him, and clothing him—was not what edged cities like Boston to the brink of war. The actual quartering of British troops in the private homes of colonists was rare, at least up until the start of the American Revolution.7 It was the predictable fallout from positioning soldiers trained for warfare on city streets, among the civilian populace, and using them to enforce laws and maintain order that enraged colonists. Contemporary newspaper accounts documented frequent and increasingly bitter altercations between soldiers and citizens.8 Bostonians were British subjects, but they were being treated like enemies of the state.
Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
Fuligni, Bruno, and Isabelle Hanne. Micronations. Diaphane, 2013. Galbraith, James K. The End of Normal: The Great Crisis and the Future of Growth. Simon & Schuster, 2014. ———. Inequality and Instability: A Study of the World Economy Just Before the Crisis. Oxford University Press, 2012. Garfield, Simon. On the Map: A Mind-Expanding Exploration of the Way the World Looks. Gotham, 2013. Garreau, Joel. Edge City: Life on the New Frontier. Anchor, 1992. ———. The Nine Nations of North America. Avon Books, 1982. Gattorna, John. Dynamic Supply Chains. Financial Times, 2015. Gayer, Laurent. Karachi: Ordered Disorder and the Struggle for the City. Oxford University Press, 2014. George, Rose. Ninety Percent of Everything: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry That Puts Clothes on Your Back, Gas in Your Car, and Food on Your Plate.
Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer
affirmative action, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional
The Los Angeles school of urbanism projects Los Angeles as the model of a post-modern city, lacking a strong centre. It views the city to be cellular in structure, divided into autonomous places by function, culture, and location. It envisages the growth impulse to work from the outside to the central core, reversing the conventional view. The city is fragmented into functional-sociocultural districts, such as edge cities, ethnoburbs, theme parks, gated communities, corporate citadels, and command and control centres.4 Such a city has many cores and is held together by political institutions and infrastructure. This West Coast view of the city is contrasted with what has been called the New York school, wherein the centre (e.g., Manhattan) holds strong, linking 58 Multicultural Cities together different classes, ethno-racial groups, and activities, the growth impulses radiate out, and city life has an edge over suburban living.5 The New York model does not envisage concentric zones, but visualizes a strong central city complemented by suburban communities of distinct identities and politics.
The Diamond Age by Neal Stephenson
British Empire, clean water, dark matter, defense in depth, digital map, edge city, Just-in-time delivery, Mason jar, pattern recognition, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Socratic dialogue, South China Sea, the scientific method, Turing machine, wage slave
He rode past nightclubs the size of stadiums; jaialai pits where stunned refugees gaped at the jostling of the bettors; side streets filled with boutiques, one street for fine goods made from alligators, another for furs, another for leathers; a nanotech district consisting of tiny businesses that did bespoke engineering; fruit and vegetable stands; a cul-de-sac where peddlers sold antiques from little carts, one specializing in cinnabar boxes, another in Maoist kitsch. Each time the density began to wane and he thought he must be reaching the edge of the city, he would come to another edge city of miniature three-story strip malls and it would begin again. But as the day went on, he truly did approach the limit of the city and kept riding anyway toward the west, and it became evident then that he was a madman and the people in the streets looked at him with awe and got out of his way. Bicycles and pedestrians became less common, replaced by heavier and faster military traffic. Hackworth did not like riding on the shoulder of highways, and so he directed Kidnapper to find a less direct route to Suzhou, one that used smaller roads.
USA Travel Guide by Lonely, Planet
1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, Donner party, East Village, edge city, El Camino Real, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, Golden Gate Park, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, intermodal, jitney, license plate recognition, Mars Rover, Mason jar, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, Menlo Park, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, off grid, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, stem cell, supervolcano, the built environment, The Chicago School, the High Line, the payments system, trade route, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, Zipcar
Three Weeks The Left Coast Geographically and politically, the West Coast couldn’t be further from Washington, DC. This is a trip for those who lean left, and who like their nature ancient and wild, and their horizons and beaches wide-open. Start in Seattle , taking in sprawling food markets, microbreweries and waterfront scenery. Heading south, visit Mt Rainier National Park , with superb hiking and relaxing inns nestled beneath the snow-covered peak. Continue on to the cutting-edge city of Portland , known for its sprawling parks, environmentally minded residents and progressive urbanism – plus food carts, coffeehouse culture and great nightlife to boot. After your culture fix, jump into nature’s bounty by driving east along the Columbia River Gorge. Then turn south and make for Mt Hood for winter skiing and summer hiking. Further adventures await in the Sisters , a trio of 10,000ft peaks, and the striking blue waters of Crater Lake .