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Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar
He picked his home to minimize travel. Despite all this, I didn’t entirely trust that I’d discovered anything useful about the future of transportation. I knew I felt good about walking and biking. But I also knew that I was supposed to feel good. Much of what I read now professionally is pro-cycling and pro-walking, sometimes embarrassingly so. Some of the most frequently published writers on the subject of smart transportation are practically messianic, and heresy, such as suggesting that privately owned automobiles might have any place at all in some ideal future transportation infrastructure, is severely punished. Support for cyclists and pedestrians was in tune with my political sympathies, my social contacts, and even my bank account, since my company is frequently hired by clients interested in transforming the world into a less automobile-centric place.
Anywhere under eight hundred people a square mile, there’s a two-thirds chance that a randomly selected voter went Republican; above it, that hypothetical voter pulled a Democratic lever two-thirds of the time. As the political prediction machine Nate Silver of 538.com tweeted in 2012, “If a place has sidewalks, it votes Democratic.” It’s not totally obvious whether people vote a certain way because of where they live, or whether they move to places where everyone votes the way they do. What is obvious though is that all the elements of a Street Smart transportation system depend on density. At first glance, this would appear to be a giant advantage for a Street Smart future, since every demographic indicator shows that America and the world are headed for a much more urbanized future. Between 1970 and 2000, the world’s urban areas grew by about 22,300 square miles, but in the three decades between 2000 and 2030, they are expected to grow by 590,000 square miles, and house nearly one-and-a-half billion more people than today.
Even in Republican states like Missouri, more than 80 percent of the electorate in a city like St. Louis votes Democratic. However, the exceptions to this rule are the really interesting ones. Two of the biggest cities that voted for Mitt Romney in the 2012 presidential election were Salt Lake City and Oklahoma City. Despite that, as we’ve seen, both cities recognize the critical importance of building the elements of a Street Smart transportation system, from walkable downtowns to multimodal grids. Ideologically driven politicians and think tanks can fulminate all they want about the creeping dangers of European-style urbanism in the land of the free and the home of the brave. But mayors and city managers all over the country, whatever their political affiliations, can’t afford to see transportation policies in those terms. They know that the only future that will keep their cities vital and attractive to Millennials and the generations that will follow them isn’t reachable without streetcars, sidewalks, and bike paths.
The Power of Pull: How Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things in Motion by John Hagel Iii, John Seely Brown
Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Black Swan, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, game design, George Gilder, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Louis Pasteur, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Maui Hawaii, medical residency, Network effects, old-boy network, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart transportation, software as a service, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs
Talking about our passions, in person or online, is one way to do it. Hidary writes a column for the Huffington Post. He also puts up simple websites organized around particular topics—such as clean technology—and tries to make them findable by search engines. “We often create websites that are four or five pages, very quick to put up,” he says. “It takes us a day or two and we update them every few months.”23 One example is AmericansForCleanEnergy.com. SmartTransportation.org—which focuses on converting the taxi fleet in New York City to hybrid vehicles—is another. These beacons work. People end up calling in or e-mailing. Maybe they’ll prove to be donors. Maybe they’ll turn out to be employees, or do something else that is useful. In an age of scalable collaboration, it’s essential to attract what you need, and beacons are a great way of doing so. “It’s not that they find us through an official government website or something like that,” says Hidary.
It’s simply Jack, a few twenty-somethings who either code software or perform analysis (for instance, on how many cars it takes to match the emissions of one container ship), a bunch of donors (most of them entrepreneurs), and a handful of websites that help support and organize a “guerrilla warfare” effort that simply wouldn’t be possible without the digital infrastructure. Jack uses social media to mobilize not just donors but also government officials, journalists, Facebook supporters, and NGO staffers behind particular causes, such as the “cash-for-clunkers” initiative he co-organized in the summer of 2009 and the “smart transportation” initiative aimed at getting the New York City taxi fleet converted to hybrid vehicles. The idea for cash for clunkers—in which the U.S. government offered citizens money to trade in their gas guzzlers for more fuel-efficient models—started off as a white paper written by Hidary and a colleague at the Center for American Progress utilizing data from the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, which they then managed to get read by key staffers and influencers on Capitol Hill.
Amazon Web Services, cloud computing, continuous integration, Debian, DevOps, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, general-purpose programming language, Infrastructure as a Service, job automation, pull request, side project, smart transportation, web application
Behavioral inventory parameters Name Default Description ansible_ssh_host name of host Hostname or IP address to SSH to ansible_ssh_port 22 Port to SSH to ansible_ssh_user root User to SSH as ansible_ssh_pass none Password to use for SSH authentication ansible_connection smart How Ansible will connect to host (see below) ansible_ssh_private_key_file none SSH private key to use for SSH authentication ansible_shell_type sh Shell to use for commands (see below) ansible_python_interpreter /usr/bin/python Python interpreter on host (see below) ansible_*_interpreter none Like ansible_python_interpreter for other languages (see below) For some of these options, the meaning is obvious from the name, but others require additional explanation. ansible_connection Ansible supports multiple transports, which are mechanisms that Ansible uses to connect to the host. The default transport, smart, will check to see if the locally installed SSH client supports a feature called ControlPersist. If the SSH client supports ControlPersist, Ansible will use the local SSH client. If the SSH client doesn’t support ControlPersist, then the smart transport will fall back to using a Python-based SSH client library called paramiko. ansible_shell_type Ansible works by making SSH connections to remote machines and then invoking scripts. By default, Ansible assumes that the remote shell is the Bourne shell located at /bin/sh, and will generate the appropriate command-line parameters that work with Bourne shell. Ansible also accepts csh, fish, and (on Windows) powershell as valid values for this parameter.
scalability, Ansible Scales Down scaling down, Ansible Scales Down scp_if_ssh connection, Default Settings script modules, Running Custom Python Scripts in the Context of the Application, Using the Script Module Instead of Writing Your Own secret variables, Variables and Secret Variables-Variables and Secret Variables security group rule parameters, Security Groupscidr_ip, Security Groups from_port, Security Groups proto, Security Groups to_port, Security Groups security groups, Auto-Generated Groups, Security Groups, Security Group Ports sensitive data, encrypting, Encrypting Sensitive Data with Vault-Encrypting Sensitive Data with Vault sequences, Lists serial clause, Running on One Host at a Time server(s)custom modules for checking reachability of, Example: Checking That We Can Reach a Remote Server for testing, Setting Up a Server for Testing-Simplifying with the ansible.cfg File inventory of, Inventory: Describing Your Servers-group_by viewing all facts associated with, Viewing All Facts Associated with a Server waiting for, in EC2, Waiting for the Server to Come Up server_name variable, Generating the Nginx Configuration Template service, Supervisor: The Process Manager service configuration files, Setting Service Configuration Files service discovery mechanism, Mezzanine service module, Modules setup module, Viewing a Subset of Facts set_fact, Using set_fact to Define a New Variable set_fs_attributes_if_different method, add_file_common_args shell module, Registering Variables, Custom Modules shorthand input, Bash modules, Implementing the Module in Bash simplejson library, Nothing to Install on the Remote Hosts size return value, The Assert Module smart transport, ansible_connection SoftLayer, Setting Up a Server for Testing, Amazon EC2 software, development mode vs. production mode, Why Deploying to Production Is Complicated-Supervisor: The Process Manager SQL databases, Introduction SSHagent forwarding, Agent Forwarding-Sudo and Agent Forwarding debugging, Debugging SSH Issues features of, SSH-Host Keys host keys, Host Keys-Host Keys native, Native SSH ssh-agent, SSH Agent-Linux, Mac OS X SSH key pairs, EC2 Key Pairs SSH multiplexing, SSH Multiplexing and ControlPersist-SSH Multiplexing Options in Ansible, SSH Multiplexing and ControlPersistControlMaster, SSH Multiplexing Options in Ansible ControlPath, SSH Multiplexing Options in Ansible ControlPersist, SSH Multiplexing Options in Ansible manually enabling, Manually Enabling SSH Multiplexing options in Ansible, SSH Multiplexing Options in Ansible ssh-agent program, Telling Ansible About Your Test Server ssh_args connection, Default Settings ssh_connectionscontrol_path, Default Settings pipelining, Default Settings scp_if_ssh, Default Settings ssh_args, Default Settings SSL, TLS vs., Getting Fancier: TLS Support staging environments, Example: Deploying a Django App stale data, Fact Caching start at task, Start-at-Task start of file, YAML syntax, Start of File stat module return values, The Assert Module state, dict instance, Adding a New Instance to a Group state_code, Adding a New Instance to a Group static assets, Nginx: The Web Server step flag, Limiting Which Tasks Run strings, YAML syntax, Strings su configuration, Default Settings subsets, fact, Viewing a Subset of Facts Sudo, Sudo and Agent Forwarding sudo clause, Adding the Sudo Clause to a Task sudo configuration, Default Settings sudo setting, Plays sudo_exe configuration, Default Settings sudo_flags configuration, Default Settings sudo_user configuration, Default Settings Supervisor, Setting Service Configuration Filesas Mezzanine process manager, Supervisor: The Process Manager Docker alternative to, Mezzanine supports_check_mode initializer argument, AnsibleModule Initializer Parameters surround_by_quote function, Writing Your Own Filter su_exe configuration, Default Settings su_flag configuration, Default Settings su_user configuration, Default Settings syncdb command, Running django-manage Commands syntax check, Syntax Check syntax, Ansible, Easy-to-Read Syntax syslog_facility configuration, Default Settings system-level packages, Using Iteration (with_items) to Install Multiple Packages system_warnings configuration, Default Settings T tag groups, Auto-Generated Groups tag(s)added to task/play for debugging, Tags applying to existing EC2 resources, Applying Tags to Existing Resources defining EC2 dynamic groups with, Defining Dynamic Groups with Tags-Nicer Group Names group names for, Nicer Group Names in EC2, Tags tagged_instances module, Adding a New Instance to a Group task queues, Introduction task(s), How Ansible Works, Plays, Putting It All Togetheradding sudo clause, Adding the Sudo Clause to a Task changed_when and failed_when clauses, Dealing with Badly Behaved Commands: changed_when and failed_when-Dealing with Badly Behaved Commands: changed_when and failed_when complex arguments in, Complex Arguments in Tasks: A Brief Digression-Complex Arguments in Tasks: A Brief Digression in playbooks, Tasks limiting, for debugging, Limiting Which Tasks Run listing in playbook, Listing Tasks in a Playbook running on control machine, Running a Task on the Control Machine running on machine other than host, Running a Task on a Machine Other Than the Host running on one host at a time, Running on One Host at a Time running only once, Running Only Once Taste Test: Puppet, Chef, Salt, Ansible (books), Is Ansible Too Simple?
The Orbital Perspective: Lessons in Seeing the Big Picture From a Journey of 71 Million Miles by Astronaut Ron Garan, Muhammad Yunus
Airbnb, barriers to entry, book scanning, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, global village, Google Earth, Indoor air pollution, jimmy wales, optical character recognition, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart transportation, Stephen Hawking, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber for X, web of trust
Pulling back to look at the situation from the orbital perspective, though, reveals that more than 1.2 million people are killed in traffic accidents each year—â•‰the equivalent of wiping out the entire population of a city the size of Dallas, Kampala, or Prague—â•‰and would view this situation as unacceptable. Such perspective would lead us to take a wider focus and to look for ways to incorporate information technology in the design of smart transportation systems that prevent cars from crashing in the first place.7 The orbital perspective also would take account of environmental and geopolitical issues, in addition to safety concerns. If by working together as a global community we can design an infrastructure that enables cars on the road to know the location of all other vehicles on the road, to know the road conditions, to employ sensors that react to any circumstance thousands of times faster than a human, we could, in effect, create a transportation system in which cars do not crash into each other or into anything else.
50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson
23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, digital map, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Mark Shuttleworth, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional
This reduces overall diversity, and essential services start to suffer because people working in the service support professions cannot afford to live in certain areas. Love them or loathe them, it seems fairly certain that cities are here to stay and that they will get much bigger in the future. They will also get much smarter, hopefully in terms of the people living in them, but certainly in terms of the way that smart transport and infrastructure are deployed across them, linking individual elements together to create intelligent and to some extent self-aware systems (see Chapter 13). the condensed idea More people in big cities timeline 1800 3 percent of the world’s people live in cities 1950s 83 cities worldwide with populations over 1 million 2000 Population of greater Tokyo area exceeds 35 million 2007 468 cities with populations over 1 million 2008 Over 50 percent of humanity lives an urban existence 2018 Detroit declared a “hollow city” with population falling 20 percent per year 2030 60 percent of the world’s people live in cities 2050 Half of Africa’s population live in cities 12 Local energy networks Local power, the idea of producing and distributing electricity in the future from local sources or networks, represents a radical shift in the balance of power away from the fossil fuel and nuclear-run power plants that currently dominate the power industry.
Money: The Unauthorized Biography by Felix Martin
bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Graeber, en.wikipedia.org, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, fixed income, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, invention of writing, invisible hand, Irish bank strikes, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, mobile money, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Plutocrats, plutocrats, private military company, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, South Sea Bubble, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail
In one town, they are told that all hotel beds are already allocated to a congress of visiting soil scientists; in another, to the construction workers building a new power station. Eventually, Bender is forced to resort to “what he used to do while the possessor of empty pockets. He began assuming false identities, such as engineer, medical officer, or tenor … to get a room.”25 The million roubles he lusted after for so long have turned out to be virtually useless—since in the command economy, there is virtually nothing for them to buy. Everything he dreamt of—smart transport, luxurious accommodation, fine food—is allocated by the Party and the Plan. Ilf and Petrov’s frustrated hero was a victim of the second generic strategy for fixing money’s failings: the strategy of containment. In the period of so-called “War Communism” immediately following the socialist revolution in Russia, the young Soviet Union had attempted the more radical Spartan solution of abolishing money completely.26 “In a socialist society,” the Commissar for Finance had explained in a bashful apology made to the inaugural All-Russian Congress of the Council of the National Economy in 1918, “finance is not supposed to exist, and therefore I beg to be excused for its existence and for my own appearance here.”27 The new regime had lost no time in working to spare the Commissar any further blushes.
Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low skilled workers, millennium bug, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, web application, WebRTC, WebSocket, Y2K
Furthermore, in some high-technology manufacturing, the number of employees involved in non-manufacturing roles, such as R&D, HR, office support, and IT, make up the large majority of employees. Industry 4.0 places high importance on the Internet of services, where manufacturers can create or consume available services within their value chain. These services, such as inventory control, logistics, and smart transportation, will reduce costs, improve efficiency, and ultimately productivity. A critical challenge for manufacturers will be to approach the era of digital manufacturing in a more pragmatic way. Certainly manufacturers involved in heavily labor-intensive sectors such as jewelry, textiles and toys, will stay on the lowwage path. However, others in more automated lines must weigh-in factors such as access to low-cost transportation, to consumer insights, or to skilled employees.
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, big-box store, blue-collar work, Donner party, edge city, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, side project, smart transportation, traveling salesman, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen
Put another way: "We wanted to see if we were building Lincolns when Fords would do," Rahn said. On some projects, old and new approaches achieve identical standards. On others, the differences are likely to be invisible. A highway through mountains might have a thinner bed of concrete where it rests on bedrock, for instance. A worn road might be patched, rather than reconstructed. In Pennsylvania, officials are beating the drum for "Smart Transportation," a program that calls on engineers to reexamine all of their assumptions about road building. "The old style was that if we had a road that was congested, we'd project the traffic out twenty-five years and add lanes to accommodate that future traffic," said Allen D. Biehler, the state's transportation secretary. "Well, guess what? We don't have enough money for that approach anymore." Thus, when Pennsylvania couldn't afford a long-planned, $465 million freeway in the northern Philadelphia suburbs, Biehler sought a cheaper alternative—and found it after brainstorming with communities along the 8.4-mile route: a smaller and more leisurely parkway, bordered with lawns, trees, and bike trails, and costing less than half as much.
Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, Build a better mousetrap, business process, cloud computing, computer vision, cyber-physical system, distributed generation, game design, Grace Hopper, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart transportation, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, the market place, Yogi Berra
They say, “Sure, go ahead and invent it.” Inventing at Xerox occurs within the prevailing domain of corporate focus. For years, Xerox was primarily committed to the development of printer technology. But a few years ago, we switched our focus from printer technology to business services. “Business services” can mean many different things. It can mean helping healthcare providers and insurers manage information, management of smart transportation networks, and aiding in processing information in the education system. Stating it simply, we changed from operating primarily in one field with its technology needs to many fields with more diverse needs. We researchers were given a great deal of leeway to invent in these new service areas and our managers challenged us to show what we could do. We assembled multiple teams, and launched projects that set off in several different directions.
Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham
airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence
With the possibility of ubiquitous road-pricing in the UK and EU being actively considered, the tracking of entire societies’ patterns of mobility seems set to radically intensify. 9.8 The Boundaries of the ‘Lower Manhattan Security Initiative’ and the ‘Ring of Steel’, established around London’s financial centre to stop IRA bombers in the 1990s. Similar efforts to build security tracking into ‘smart’ transport projects are underway in the US. In 2002, as we saw in Chapter 4, the well-established E-ZPass system, which facilitates access to faster lanes on highways in the US and Canada, was extended as a means of biometrically checking people crossing the border.121 Also in 2002, ITS America, a group of US corporations which designs and builds ‘intelligent transport’ equipment, set up its own homeland security task force to oversee the computerization of transport in ways that supported increased securitization of US urban life.122 In 2007 New York City announced a $100 million plan to turn Lower Manhattan into a ‘ring of steel’ – a much more advanced version of what was built around London’s financial centre in response to IRA bombings there in the 1990s (Figure 9.8).
ZeroMQ by Pieter Hintjens
anti-pattern, carbon footprint, cloud computing, Debian, distributed revision control, domain-specific language, factory automation, fault tolerance, fear of failure, finite state, Internet of things, iterative process, premature optimization, profit motive, pull request, revision control, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Skype, smart transportation, software patent, Steve Jobs, Valgrind, WebSocket
Plan your own retirement well before someone decides you are their next problem. Crazy, Beautiful, and Easy You need a goal that’s crazy and simple enough to get people out of bed in the morning. Your community has to attract the very best people, and that demands something special. With ØMQ, we said we were going to make “the Fastest. Messaging. Ever,” which qualifies as a good motivator. If we’d said we were going to make “a smart transport layer that’ll connect your moving pieces cheaply and flexibly across your enterprise,” we’d have failed. Then your work must be beautiful, immediately useful, and attractive. Your contributors are users who want to explore just a little beyond where they are now. Make it simple, elegant, and brutally clean. The experience when people run or use your work should be an emotional one. They should feel something, and if you’ve accurately solved even just one big problem that until then they didn’t quite realize they faced, you’ll have a small part of their soul.
Fighting Traffic: The Dawn of the Motor Age in the American City by Peter D. Norton
clean water, Frederick Winslow Taylor, garden city movement, invisible hand, jitney, new economy, New Urbanism, Ralph Nader, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal
The Kansas City Railways used pictures to show newspaper readers that “one street car has the carrying capacity of many automobiles and occupies very little of the pavement space” and urged them to “remedy” Traffic Efficiency versus Motor Freedom 159 congestion by riding street cars and buses.58 At cinemas in Birmingham, Alabama, audiences saw a short movie distributed by the local street railway, “Mrs. Birmingham Goes Shopping.” By making fun of the frustration of motorists fighting traffic and looking for a place to park, it cast the streetcar as the smart transportation mode for modern shoppers.59 Like the railways, streetcar manufacturers began to spread the traffic control word beyond the Chamber of Commerce, conference rooms and city engineering offices. Westinghouse bought full-page advertisements in national magazines, including the Saturday Evening Post, Forbes, and Nation’s Business. “Street cars relieve street congestion,” announced one, adding that “the larger the proportion of people using street cars, the faster the traffic moves.”