corporate social responsibility

76 results back to index

The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power by Joel Bakan

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Berlin Wall, Cass Sunstein, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, energy security, Exxon Valdez, IBM and the Holocaust, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, new economy, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, South Sea Bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, urban sprawl

"We believe," said the report, "that corporate leadership should set the example for community service."58 Unfortunately, this paragon of corporate social responsibility, Enron, was unable to continue its good works after it collapsed under the weight of its executives' greed, hubris, and criminality. Enron's story shows just how wide a gap can exist between a company's cleverly crafted do-gooder image and its actual operations and suggests, at a minimum, that skepticism about corporate social responsibility is well warranted. There is, however, a larger lesson to be drawn from Enron's demise than the importance of being skeptical about corporate social responsibility. Though the company is now notorious for its arrogance and ethically challenged executives, the underlying reasons for its collapse can be traced to characteristics common to all corporations : obsession with profits and share prices, greed, lack of concern for others, and a penchant for breaking legal rules.

"Goodyear has all about her the human quality," he said, "and it has been to this human quality fully as much as to her business methods, that Goodyear owes her meteoric rise in the ranks of American Industry."" Corporate social responsibility blossomed again during the 1930s as corporations suffered from adverse public opinion. Many people believed at the time that corporate greed and mismanagement had caused the Great Depression. They shared Justice Louis Brandeis's view, stated in a 1933 Supreme Court judgment, that corporations were "Frankenstein monsters" capable of doing evil." In response, business leaders embraced corporate social responsibility. It was the best strategy, they believed, to restore people's faith in corporations and reverse their growing fascination with big government. Gerard Swope, then president of General Electric, voiced a popular sentiment among big-business leaders when, in 1934, he said that "organized industry should take the lead, recognizing its responsibility to its employees, to the public, and to its shareholders rather than that democratic society should act through its government" (italics added)."

Their concerns were different from those of post-Enron worriers, for whom shareholders' vulnerability to corrupt managers was paramount. But the two groups had something in common: they both believed the corporation had become a dangerous mix of power and unaccountability. Corporate social responsibility is offered today as an answer to such concerns. Now more than just a marketing strategy, though it is certainly that, it presents corporations as responsible and accountable to society and thus purports to lend legitimacy to their new role as society's rulers." Page 28 ~> w Business as Usual Business leaders today say their companies care about more than profit and loss, that they feel responsible to society as a whole, not just to their shareholders. Corporate social responsibility is their new creed, a self-conscious corrective to earlier greed-inspired visions of the corporation. Despite this shift, the corporation itself has not changed.


pages: 325 words: 90,659

Narconomics: How to Run a Drug Cartel by Tom Wainwright

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Airbnb, barriers to entry, bitcoin, business process, call centre, collateralized debt obligation, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, failed state, financial innovation, illegal immigration, Mark Zuckerberg, microcredit, price mechanism, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Skype

—“HOW TO LIE WITH STATISTICS,” DARRELL HUFF Contents INTRODUCTION Cartel Incorporated CHAPTER 1 Cocaine’s Supply Chain: The Cockroach Effect and the 30,000 Percent Markup CHAPTER 2 Competition vs. Collusion: Why Merger Is Sometimes Better Than Murder CHAPTER 3 The People Problems of a Drug Cartel: When James Bond Meets Mr. Bean CHAPTER 4 PR and the Mad Men of Sinaloa: Why Cartels Care About Corporate Social Responsibility CHAPTER 5 Offshoring: The Perks of Doing Business on the Mosquito Coast CHAPTER 6 The Promise and Perils of Franchising: How the Mob Has Borrowed from McDonald’s CHAPTER 7 Innovating Ahead of the Law: Research and Development in the “Legal Highs” Industry CHAPTER 8 Ordering a Line Online: How Internet Shopping Has Improved Drug Dealers’ Customer Service CHAPTER 9 Diversifying into New Markets: From Drug Smuggling to People Smuggling CHAPTER 10 Coming Full Circle: How Legalization Threatens the Drug Lords CONCLUSION Why Economists Make the Best Police Officers Acknowledgments Notes Index Photographs appear following p. 124.

Time and again, the most ruthless outlaws described to me the same mundane problems that blight the lives of other entrepreneurs: managing personnel, navigating government regulations, finding reliable suppliers, and dealing with competitors. Their clients have the same demands as other consumers, too. Like customers of any other industry, they seek out reviews of new products, increasingly prefer to shop online, and even demand a certain level of “corporate social responsibility” from their suppliers. When I found my way into the hidden “Dark Web” of the Internet, where drugs and weapons are anonymously bought with Bitcoins, I dealt with a trader of crystal-meth pipes who was as attentive as any Amazon representative. (Actually, I take it back. He was far more helpful.) The more I looked at the worldwide drug industry, the more I wondered what would happen if I covered it as if it were a business like any other.

In the past, Dominican gangsters have had few qualms about bumping off uncooperative associates or sending them to war against other gangs, as they have always had new employees on tap. If prisons in the Dominican Republic—and other places—can tighten that tap, gangs will have to behave more like Pete the patient Dutch dealer, anxious to hang on to what contacts they have, and more likely to resolve their problems peacefully. Chapter 4 PR AND THE MAD MEN OF SINALOA Why Cartels Care About Corporate Social Responsibility There is a carnival atmosphere in Culiacán, the capital city of Sinaloa, a drug-war-plagued Mexican state. Men, women, and children fill the streets, marching and chanting as trumpets and trombones play in the background. It is February 2014, and Mexico has just seen the news that many thought would never happen: Joaquín Guzmán, the leader of the Sinaloa cartel and one of the most wanted men in the world, is finally behind bars.


pages: 479 words: 133,092

The Coke Machine by Michael Blanding

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, Exxon Valdez, Gordon Gekko, Internet Archive, laissez-faire capitalism, market design, Naomi Klein, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, Upton Sinclair

See also Coca-Cola Colombia Corporate Accountability International (CAI) corporate campaigns. See also Campaign to Stop Killer Coke corporations accountability under Alien Tort Claims Act backlash against downsizing and overseas relocation as form of business obligation to shareholders power of See also CSR (corporate social responsibility) Correa, Javier Creative Artists Agency CSE (Centre for Science and Environment) CSPI (Center for Science in the Public Interest) CSR (corporate social responsibility) Coca-Cola Foundation code of conduct concept of environmental initiatives exercise program “halo effect,” philanthropic causes plastic bottle recycling rainwater harvest and farmer support school construction social branding Daft, Douglas D’Arcy, William D’Arcy Agency Dasani bottled water advertising and marketing backlash against brand image displacement of tap water environmental impact of plastic bottles market stagnation municipal water source overseas marketing price of production process purity claims safety and quality standards sales and profits secret formula Tap Water Challenge taste test Daynard, Dick DeRose, Dan diabetes Diet Coke Dobbs, Sam Domac, Jackie Domínguez, Juan Ignacio Dorfman, Lori Doss, Joe Downs, John Duggan, Keith Eisenhower, Dwight D.

On cue, employees circulate through the crowd, handing out pins in the shape of a green Coke bottle reading “Corporate Responsibility & Sustainability.” “CRS is all about making a difference wherever our business touches the world,” Cahillane continues. “We not only work here, we also live here, so we are doing everything we can to create sustainable communities.” The concept of socially responsible business practices isn’t new—though usually it’s called CSR, for “corporate social responsibility” (perhaps inverting the letters is a way for Coke to claim ownership of the concept). In fact, Coke’s environmental initiatives follow a script that dates back to the 1950s. It’s then that corporations, having survived the Progressive Era and FDR’s New Deal, began to proactively affirm the power of businesses to benefit society. “Business managers can more effectively contribute to the solution of many of the complex social problems of our time,” wrote Frank Abrams, chairman of Standard Oil of New Jersey—which would become Exxon—in 1951.

It’s that principle that has caused Joel Bakan to argue that corporations are essentially “pathological” entities—maximizing profit at the expense of any other good—whether workers’ rights, environmental improvements, or even its own customers’ pocketbooks. “The corporation’s legally defined mandate is to pursue, relentlessly and without exception, its own self-interest regardless of the often harmful consequences it might cause to others,” he writes. That’s not to say that corporations can’t do good, however, so long as their efforts align with their profit motive. The second wave of corporate social responsibility began in the 1970s, when, faced with challenges from consumer advocates like Ralph Nader (and CSPI’s Michael Jacobson), corporations realized that investing in social causes could serve as a kind of insurance against criticism. It was in this era that Coke’s Paul Austin pursued his “halo effect” with hydroponic shrimp farms, desalinization plants, and soybean beverages that he argued could help earn goodwill in the developing world at the same time they helped make Coke’s vision of global harmony a reality.


pages: 385 words: 133,839

The Coke Machine: The Dirty Truth Behind the World's Favorite Soft Drink by Michael Blanding

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, Exxon Valdez, Gordon Gekko, Internet Archive, laissez-faire capitalism, market design, Naomi Klein, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, Upton Sinclair

See also Campaign to Stop Killer Coke corporations accountability under Alien Tort Claims Act, 208 backlash against, 26, 48, 75 downsizing and overseas relocation, 204 as form of business, 21–22 obligation to shareholders, 134 power of, 22–23 See also CSR (corporate social responsibility) Correa, Javier, 179–80, 247, 272, 273–74, 276 Creative Artists Agency, 71, 96 CSE (Centre for Science and Environment), 241–42, 250 CSPI (Center for Science in the Public Interest), 84–85, 102, 109, 140, 141 CSR (corporate social responsibility) Coca-Cola Foundation, 134–35, 168–69, 259, 266, 272 code of conduct, 205–6 concept of, 133–34 environmental initiatives, 58, 132–33, 136, 137–39 exercise program, 99–100 “halo effect,” 58, 134, 151 philanthropic causes, 28, 134–35, 150–51, 287 plastic bottle recycling, 137–39 rainwater harvest and farmer support, 252–54, 256–59, 278 school construction, 168–69 social branding, 135–37 3 72 INDEX Daft, Douglas, 88, 103, 106, 223, 224–25 D’Arcy, William, 41, 46 D’Arcy Agency, 41, 45, 46, 94 Dasani bottled water advertising and marketing, 120–21, 125 backlash against, 119, 130–31, 139 brand image, 119 displacement of tap water, 129–30 environmental impact of plastic bottles, 128–29 market stagnation, 142 municipal water source, 120, 122, 125, 132 overseas marketing, 121–23 price of, 126–27, 130 production process, 119, 122–23 purity claims, 122, 125 safety and quality standards, 125–26 sales and profits, 119–20, 121, 125, 132 secret formula, 120 Tap Water Challenge taste test, 124, 127 Daynard, Dick, 108–9, 110, 112 DeRose, Dan, 92–93 diabetes, 80, 81, 158, 159–60 Diet Coke, 60–61, 82–83, 116 Dobbs, Sam, 24, 26–27, 29, 30, 31, 42 Domac, Jackie, 89–90, 97–98, 104, 108 Domínguez, Juan Ignacio, 159–60, 169 Dorfman, Lori, 101 Doss, Joe, 128–29 Downs, John, 96, 101–2, 105 Duggan, Keith, 35 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 50 The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), 269, 277–78 Enrico, Roger, 59, 61 Enviga, 140 environmental issues Coca-Cola Company initiatives, 132–33, 136, 137–39 contaminated sludge as fertilizer, 230–31, 232–33, 240–41, 245–47 pesticide residue in beverage products, 241–43, 250 plastic bottles, 128–29 See also water Ever Veloza, José, 174, 186 Flores, Domingo, 193–96, 198, 272 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of stevia, 142 on benzene in soft drinks, 83 bottled water labeling requirements, 132 on bromate in bottled water, 122–23 dismissal of aspartame concerns, 82 lax regulation of bottled water plants, 125 on perchlorate in spring water, 126 regulation of nutritional claims, 141 foreign markets Brazil, 148, 155 Coca-Cola Export Corporation, 147–48, 156, 164 in developing world, 142 forceful entry into, 148, 149 France, 105, 121, 149 franchise system, 147–48 growth and sales in, 66, 116 Guatemala, 148, 151–54, 283–85 political flexibility, 51–52, 57, 150–51, 154–55, 185 postwar expansion, 49–51, 147–48 soda consumption and profits, 150, 154, 155, 235 United Kingdom, 105, 121–23 See also Coca-Cola Colombia; Coca-Cola FEMSA; Coca-Cola India Fox, Vicente, 164–65, 166 France, 105, 121, 149 Gallegos, Carlos, 146–47 Galvis, Juan Carlos, 187–88, 189–90, 191, 199, 272 García, Laura Milena, 196, 198–99 García, Luis Eduardo, 194–97, 221, 272 Gardner, Stephen, 109, 141–42 Gay, Faith, 273, 281 Getman, Ross, 93 Gil, Isidro, 2–3, 176–77, 182, 187, 212 Giraldo, Luis Enrique, 174–75 Giraldo, Oscar, 175, 176, 180–81 Goizueta, Roberto, 60, 64–66, 69, 72, 135, 154 Gómez Carpio, María de la Asunción, 163 González, Álvaro, 192–97, 272 Great Depression, 47, 48 Guatemala, 148, 151–54, 283–85 Harry Potter movie sponsorship, 96 Hasbún, Raúl, 186–87 Hays, Constance, 72 health issues aspartame consumption, 82 benzene in diet sodas, 83 INDEX diabetes, 80, 81, 158, 159–60 nutritional claims, 140–42 pesticide residue in beverages, 241–43, 250 purity of bottled water, 122, 125–26 water as soda alternative, 121, 125 See also obesity Hennrich, Mary Lou, 113 high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), 66–67, 80, 161 Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Pvt.

On cue, employees circulate through the crowd, handing out pins in the shape of a green Coke bottle reading “Corporate Responsibility & Sustainability.” “CRS is all about making a difference wherever our business touches the world,” Cahillane continues. “We not only work here, we also live here, so we are doing everything we can to create sustainable communities.” The concept of socially responsible business practices isn’t new—though usually it’s called CSR, for “corporate social responsibility” (perhaps invert­ ing the letters is a way for Coke to claim ownership of the concept). In fact, Coke’s environmental initiatives follow a script that dates back to the 1950s. It’s then that corporations, having survived the Progressive Era and FDR’s New Deal, began to proactively affirm the power of businesses to benefit society. “Business managers can more effectively contribute to the solution of many of the complex social problems of our time,” wrote Frank Abrams, chairman of Standard Oil of New Jersey—which would become Exxon—in 1951.

It’s that prin­ ciple that has caused Joel Bakan to argue that corporations are essentially “pathological” entities—maximizing profit at the expense of any other good—whether workers’ rights, environmental improvements, or even its own customers’ pocketbooks. “The corporation’s legally defined mandate is to pursue, relentlessly and without exception, its own self-interest re­ gardless of the often harmful consequences it might cause to others,” he writes. That’s not to say that corporations can’t do good, however, so long as their efforts align with their profit motive. The second wave of corporate social responsibility began in the 1970s, when, faced with challenges from consumer advocates like Ralph Nader (and CSPI’s Michael Jacobson), corporations realized that investing in social causes could serve as a kind of insurance against criticism. It was in this era that Coke’s Paul Austin pursued his “halo effect” with hydroponic shrimp farms, desalinization plants, and soybean beverages that he argued could help earn goodwill in the developing world at the same time they helped make Coke’s vision of global harmony a reality.


pages: 872 words: 135,196

The Market for Force: The Consequences of Privatizing Security by Deborah D. Avant

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

barriers to entry, corporate social responsibility, failed state, hiring and firing, interchangeable parts, Mikhail Gorbachev, Peace of Westphalia, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, rolodex, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, trade route, transaction costs

It would be surprising if [Shell] is able to continue onshore resource extraction in the Niger Delta beyond 2008, whilst complying with Shell Business Principles.” 52 If there has been improvement in the control of force in Nigeria, then, it has been modest and Shell’s efforts should be seen as only part of this result. Tough choices for TNCs The corporate social responsibility movement – with Shell in Nigeria as an epitome – has led to a debate about what role TNCs should play in governance. This movement was designed to improve the behavior of TNCs, asserting that TNCs must be part of the solution to avoid being part of the problem.53 The logic behind corporate social responsibility is that corporations have many resources at their disposal that can be harnessed for the social good. It is true that Shell in Nigeria has much freedom of action – more than will be the case in either of the following INGO cases, where the reliance on donors or other fundraising limits their range of choices.

The idea that a corporation has responsibilities other than maximizing profits for its shareholders, according to Milton Friedman, undermines the fundamental tenets of a free economy.58 David Henderson made a similar argument in his liberal critique of corporate social responsibility, arguing that it is premised on intellectual misconceptions and is detrimental to the functioning of a market economy. “Welfare may be reduced, not only because businesses are compelled to operate less efficiently, but also because new forms of intervention arising out of the adoption of corporate social responsibility, including closer regulation, narrow the domain of competition and economic freedom.”59 More recently Marina Ottoway argues that oil companies are designed to find, extract, and distribute oil – not to guarantee democracy and respect for human rights – “taking on the role of imposing change on entire countries does not fit the nature of these organizations.” 60 Despite some general support for the notion of corporate social responsibility, this debate has yet to be resolved.

Private security and the control of force 51 presenting conceptions of the self and the situation. 43 This can be conservative, reminding actors of their proper role in the social system – professional militaries abide by the law of war44 – or it can aim at better behavior by presenting alternate conceptions of the self – for instance, the recent efforts to get businesses to abide by the principles of “corporate social responsibility.” Janowitz’s argument about military professionalism anticipates just this kind of logic. “He [the military officer] is subject to civilian control, not only because of rule or law and tradition, but also because of self-imposed professional standards and meaningful integration with civilian values.”45 Janowitz claimed that social, political, and technological changes so altered the use of force in international relations that it provided the basis for a radical alteration of the military profession – the constabulatory concept.


pages: 335 words: 104,850

Conscious Capitalism, With a New Preface by the Authors: Liberating the Heroic Spirit of Business by John Mackey, Rajendra Sisodia, Bill George

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, business process, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, Flynn Effect, income per capita, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, lone genius, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, Occupy movement, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, shareholder value, six sigma, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, women in the workforce

The positive outcomes may not be exactly what we had in mind. Depending on the quality of our actions and external factors, they could be different but far better. Conscious Capitalism Is Not Corporate Social Responsibility A good business doesn’t need to do anything special to be socially responsible. When it creates value for its major stakeholders, it is acting in a socially responsible way. Collectively, ordinary business exchanges are the greatest creator of value in the entire world. This value creation is the most important aspect of business social responsibility. The whole idea of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is based on the fallacy that the underlying structure of business is either tainted or at best ethically neutral. This is simply not the case. As we showed in chapter 1, free-enterprise capitalism has helped improve our world in numerous ways.

What is needed is a holistic view that includes responsible behavior toward all stakeholders as a core element of the business philosophy and strategy. Rather than being bolted on with a CSR mind-set, an orientation toward citizenship and society needs to be built in to the core of the business.15 Table 2-1 summarizes the key differences between Conscious Capitalism and CSR. TABLE 2-1 How Conscious Capitalism differs from Corporate Social Responsibility Corporate Social Responsibility Conscious Capitalism Shareholders must sacrifice for society Integrates the interests of all stakeholders Independent of corporate purpose or culture Incorporates higher purpose and a caring culture Adds an ethical burden to business goals Reconciles caring and profitability through higher synergies Reflects a mechanistic view of business Views business as a complex, adaptive system Often grafted onto traditional business model, usually as a separate department or part of public relations Social responsibility is at the core of the business through the higher purpose and viewing the community and environment as key stakeholders Sees limited overlap between business and society, and between business and the planet Recognizes that business is a subset of society and that society is a subset of the planet Easy to meet as a charitable gesture; often seen as “green-washing” Requires genuine transformation through commitment to the four tenets Assumes all good deeds are desirable Requires that good deeds also advance the company’s core purpose and create value for the whole system Implications for business performance unclear Significantly outperforms traditional business model on financial and other criteria Compatible with traditional leadership Requires conscious leadership A Way Forward Every human being is born relatively undeveloped, but holds the potential for virtually unlimited personal growth.

Andrew Savitz wrote an excellent book on this approach: The Triple Bottom Line: How Today’s Best-Run Companies Are Achieving Economic, Social, and Environmental Success—and How You Can Too.3 The idea caught on, and many companies now produce reports that provide detailed information on their triple bottom lines. It is certainly consistent with some of the most important principles of Conscious Capitalism, particularly in its emphasis on managing businesses on behalf of multiple stakeholders. We see the TBL movement as a fellow traveler in helping to evolve business and capitalism to a higher consciousness. Whereas the corporate social responsibility (CSR) mind-set attempts to graft social responsibility and environmental sustainability onto the profit maximization model as add-ons, the TBL movement wants to make them equal partners in the business with the investors. While TBL is definitely an improvement over the CSR model, the TBL movement tends to focus heavily on social responsibility and environmental sustainability as the major areas for business to concentrate on besides achieving economic success.


pages: 320 words: 86,372

Mythology of Work: How Capitalism Persists Despite Itself by Peter Fleming

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, anti-work, call centre, clockwatching, corporate social responsibility, David Graeber, Etonian, future of work, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, neoliberal agenda, Parkinson's law, post-industrial society, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Results Only Work Environment, shareholder value, The Chicago School, transaction costs, working poor

According to the Abbott government’s chief business adviser, Maurice Newman, the lies spread about global warming have resulted in Australia being totally unprepared for global cooling. So, within this bizarre context, the ‘Australians for Coal’ satire functions in a conventionally critical manner by revealing how ridiculous corporate lie telling can become in face of the facts. Indeed, a whole public relations industry has developed around the concept of ‘corporate social responsibility’ (CSR) to create a false image of multinational capitalism and its intimations towards a greener ‘conscious capitalism’, an ideal that is clearly at significant odds with everyday business activities. But the ‘Australians for Coal’ video sketch gets somewhat more interesting and complex midway through. The suited talking heads stop telling lies and begin to disclose some realistic truth-statements that reveal their authentic opinions: Tim Buckley: I am proud to announce the company’s new policy of ‘Fuck you.’

Roberts captures the tenor of these criticisms, especially those pertaining to claims about ‘ethics’ and the ‘triple bottom line’ in industries that can never realistically walk the talk, including those that make money from tobacco products, petroleum and the overpriced medicines in the Global South: My fear is that this talk of ethics is just that – talk; new forms of corporate self-presentation that have no reference to or influence on what is practiced in the name of the corporation, beyond those associated with good public relations. In this form, corporate social responsibility is cheap and easy; a sort of prosthesis, readily attached to the corporate body, that repairs its appearance but in no way changes its actual conduct. (Roberts, 2003: 88) And Roberts’s fears are shared by a growing number of analysts, including myself. The ideology of responsibility is wonderful in itself, but is so far removed from the structural principles of the multinational firm that it is difficult to view such calls without scepticism.

Outlining the limits of our relentless co-optation (or a threshold that corporate ideology cannot easily integrate into its own parlance without making its own existence untenable) is therefore central for the anti-work project today. Of course, when domination channels refusal through its own prism, it too changes to a certain degree, something we have learnt from studying colonialism. The key difference between this and cynical neoliberal truth telling, however, is that the latter’s apparent totality is only propagated rather than modified as a consequence. While, for example, ‘corporate social responsibility’ programs may imbue the firm with a facet of humanity, they add only a shallow genuflection to an otherwise unaltered universality that catapults us deeper into capitalist realism. How might we speak in power’s presence without simply withdrawing, as Adorno sadly recommends, and without supplying it with the attentional energies that it so craves from us? I Want This Too Much! Managerialism in the contemporary neoliberal enterprise necessitates clamorous public speech with denied or barred admission.

Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, linked data, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Having said this, wireless technology and high-speed connectivity will mean that the office will be anywhere, so we will increasingly work on holiday and in remote locations around the world. Previously work-neutral spaces such as planes, trains and cars will also resemble offices and nowhere will we be entirely free from work. Corporate social responsibility and governance Companies will have to work harder to attract and retain workers and issues such as ethical behavior and corporate social responsibility will be uppermost in the minds of potential recruits and customers alike. Indeed, marketing will be turned inwards as organizations fight to create company brands that appeal to potential and existing recruits. Trust and transparency will become more important and customers will also be driven more by values then by prices.

The Gen Xer was obviously expecting a debate about salary or holiday entitlements, but what transpired was a discussion about the ethical principles behind the firm and what it was doing in various areas ranging from poverty relief to recycling. 282 FUTURE FILES Whether or not companies engage with these issues remains to be seen, although there is anecdotal evidence to suggest that corporate social responsibility (CSR) is moving to center stage. The international standard for CSR (ISO 2600) will undoubtedly turn the heat up on firms when it comes to transparency and ethics. However, if past quality standards are anything to go by, this will be more a case of bureaucratic box ticking than a paradigm shift in the capitalist economy. The search by employees for more meaningful work lives and spirituality in their private lives does not necessarily equate with the moral transformation of work.

However, these shifts could also put a strain on the provision of everything from healthcare and housing to education and employment. Then again, perhaps it’s the other way around. Maybe you can see it as ageing creating vast opportunities in everything from healthcare and wellbeing to transport, leisure, retail and even education. Finally there’s the area of sustainability. I have read various predictions and forecasts claiming that ethics, corporate social responsibility, corporate governance and even spirituality will be key business trends in the future. While I accept that these ideas are becoming more important, I cannot see them competing with sustainability in the broadest sense in terms of being a global driver of change across all industries, sectors and countries. Taking a very long-term view, it is the beginning of the end for non-renewable Conclusions 299 resources; while climate change grabs the headlines, we should also be thinking in terms of everything from topsoil erosion and groundwater to packaging use and transport.


pages: 423 words: 149,033

The fortune at the bottom of the pyramid by C. K. Prahalad

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

barriers to entry, business process, call centre, cashless society, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, deskilling, disintermediation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, financial intermediation, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, income inequality, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, microcredit, new economy, profit motive, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, shareholder value, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, time value of money, transaction costs, working poor

That was the beginning of my journey to understand and motivate large firms to imagine and act on their role in creating a more just and humane society by collaborating effectively with other institutions. It was obvious that managers can sustain their enthusiasm and commitment to activities only if they are grounded in good business practices. The four to five billion people at the BOP can help redefine what “good business practice” is. This was not about philanthropy and notions of corporate social responsibility. These initiatives can take the process of engagement between the poor and the large firm only so far. Great contributions can result from these initiatives, but these activities are unlikely to be fully integrated with the core activities of the firm. For sustaining energy, resources, and innovation, the BOP must become a key element of the central mission for large private-sector firms.

Poverty alleviation will become a business development task shared among the large private sector firms and local BOP entrepreneurs. 6 The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid ❥ Second, the BOP, as a market, provides a new growth opportunity for the private sector and a forum for innovations. Old and tired solutions cannot create markets at the BOP. Third, BOP markets must become an integral part of the work of the private sector. They must become part of the firms’ core businesses; they cannot merely be relegated to the realm of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. Successfully creating BOP markets involves change in the functioning of MNCs as much as it changes the functioning of developing countries. BOP markets must become integral to the success of the firm in order to command senior management attention and sustained resource allocation. ❥ There is significant untapped opportunity for value creation (for BOP consumers, shareholders, and employees) that is latent in the BOP market.

Pandav, India’s Regional Coordinator for the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency (ICCIDD), NGOs have critical strengths: NGOs serve as an interface between people, especially those who are poor and needy, and the private sector/governments. In other words, they form a link between those who have and those who do not have. The strength of an NGO such as ours is competence, commitment, credibility, collaboration and advocacy. 4 Conversely, multinational corporations (MNCs) typically limit their involvement with the poor to corporate social responsibility. Although many MNCs have tapped into India’s wealthy, urban populations, few have attempted to reach the poor. MNCs have key capabilities, such as technological know-how, distribution networks, marketing experience, and financial backing, that enable them to combat public health problems such as IDD at a profit. Although nonprofit organizations are competent in dealing with such issues, it is rare for any one to have the same breadth as an MNC.


pages: 493 words: 139,845

Women Leaders at Work: Untold Tales of Women Achieving Their Ambitions by Elizabeth Ghaffari

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, business process, cloud computing, Columbine, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, dark matter, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, follow your passion, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, high net worth, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, performance metric, pink-collar, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trickle-down economics, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional

In 2003, she strategically developed, launched, and directed the Center, which now encompasses research, instruction, and experiential learning and outreach programs, including the first-ever student-managed Socially Respons-ible Investment Fund and the Sustainable Products & Solutions Program. Dr. McElhaney teaches multiple courses on strategic corporate social responsibility in MBA and executive education programs at Berkeley. She has been a visiting professor specializing in strategic corporate social responsibility (CSR) at the University of North Carolina Kenan-Flagler School of Business, as well as Institut d’administration des enterprises, Université de Poitiers in France and Escuela de Alta Dirección y Administración (EADA) in Barcelona, Spain. On the faculty of the Haas School of Business since 2002, Dr. McElhaney’s consulting and research are focused on corporate social responsibility strategies and aligning CSR with business objectives, core competencies, and business value; linkages between diversity and CSR, specifically using CSR as a hook to re-engage women with business as employees, consumers, and investors; and using social technology for good by advancing companies’ CSR strategies and impact.

What will be the value of this course?” Anyway, they let me teach the course. The first time the course was offered, I was put into the smallest classroom in the Business School, but I had forty sign-ups and a waitlist of fifty-eight students. It was clear that something big was happening—students were much farther ahead of the faculty or the university. The course was something like Corporate Social Responsibility and Projects. The students would work on a real-life challenge inside of a company. I was lucky to have some great companies surrounding me in Michigan. Dow Chemical Company was an early sponsor, as were Ford Motor Company and Herman Miller. Paul Murray was a fantastic pioneer inside of Herman Miller around the concept of sustainable development. They opted to not use virgin wood or virgin materials, and they recycled chairs once the customer finished with it.

McElhaney: I had this situation with high student demand, high company demand, and the Business School couldn’t really say no. I’d built a joint-degree program at Michigan and developed a new course around the theory of sustainable development and how to apply it—live—in company projects. The dean of the Haas School of Business at the University of California at Berkeley at the time was a woman named Laura Tyson. She recruited me to do something similar in corporate social responsibility [CSR] at Haas because there were no formal programs there, but there was a lot of student demand. I was very drawn to Berkeley. I’m always drawn to people that I like, even more than to opportunities. I was fascinated by a female dean. Up to that point, I had been in business and academia roles and never had worked for a female. A big factor in my coming out here was Laura herself.


pages: 397 words: 112,034

What's Next?: Unconventional Wisdom on the Future of the World Economy by David Hale, Lyric Hughes Hale

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, diversification, energy security, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global village, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, index fund, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Just-in-time delivery, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, payday loans, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Tobin tax, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, yield curve

Require a third-party certification of a compliance program (similar to the annual report certified by a public accounting firm). 4. Require an independently certified triple bottom-line audit of corporations for financial, environmental, and corporate social responsibility issues. This audit should be filed with the SEC in the United States or its equivalent in other countries. 5. Audits and certifications of the compliance program, the environmental program, and corporate social responsibility should be made transparent and available to investors and the public on the Internet. 6. Hire more personnel to the SEC—or its equivalent in other countries—to monitor suspicious activity reports (SARs), annual reports on compliance programs, environmental programs, corporate social responsibility reports, and financial reports. 7. Promote better cooperation between federal, state, and local law enforcement and regulators in the United States, including state attorney general’s offices, the Justice Department, the SEC, and police departments.

US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) standards should be updated to reflect the more holistic European GAAP standards to prevent, for example, the financial abuses of off-balance sheet, special purpose entities (SPEs). Moreover, the SEC, or its equivalent in other countries, should require independent certified triple bottom-line audits of corporations for financial, environmental, and corporate social responsibility issues, and the filing of these audits. Finally, the public should be aware that there is a connection between criminal activity, counterfeiting goods, money laundering, and terrorism. These elements frequently work together to promote their agendas. For example, the 1993 World Trade Center bombing was financed by counterfeit Hard Rock Café souvenirs. Checklist for Creating a Future of Transparency and Integrity in the Corporate World and Civil Society Listed below are the eighteen steps to creating a future of transparency and integrity in the corporate world and civil society: 1.


pages: 356 words: 103,944

The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy by Dani Rodrik

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, George Akerlof, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, night-watchman state, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, open economy, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, savings glut, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, tulip mania, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey

Can these networks go beyond narrowly technical areas and encompass broader social purposes? Yes, says John Ruggie, the Harvard scholar who coined the term “embedded liberalism” to describe the Bretton Woods regime. Ruggie agrees that transnational networks have undermined the traditional model of governance based on nation states. To right this imbalance, he argues, we need greater emphasis on corporate social responsibility at the global level. An updated version of embedded liberalism would move beyond a state-centered multilateralism to “a multilateralism that actively embraces the potential contributions to global social organization by civil society and corporate actors.” These actors can advance new global norms—on human rights, labor practices, health, anti-corruption, and environmental stewardship—and then enshrine them in the operations of large international corporations and policies of national governments.

It would alleviate the widespread concern that international competition creates a race to the bottom in labor and environmental standards at the expense of social inclusion at home. And it would allow the private sector to shoulder some of the functions that states are finding increasingly difficult to finance and carry out, as in public health and environmental protection, narrowing the governance gap between international markets and national governments.7 Arguments on behalf of new forms of global governance—whether of the delegation, network, or corporate social responsibility type—raise troubling questions. To whom are these mechanisms supposed to be accountable? From where do these global clubs of regulators, international non-governmental organizations, or large firms get their mandates? Who empowers and polices them? What ensures that the voice and interests of those who are less globally networked are also heard? The Achilles’ heel of global governance is lack of clear accountability relationships.

Moreover, the benefits did not necessarily flow to the poorest farmers, who are the landless indigenous growers.19 Other reports suggest that only a tiny share of the price premium for fair trade coffee finds its way to the growers.20 Fair trade or other labeling programs like RugMark may be doing some good on the whole, but we should be skeptical about how informative these labels are and the likely magnitude of their effects. And what is true of NGO-led efforts is all the more true of corporate social responsibility. Corporations, after all, are motivated by the bottom line. They may be willing to invest in social and environmental projects if doing so buys them customers’ goodwill. Yet we shouldn’t assume their motives align closely with those of society at large, nor exaggerate their willingness to advance societal agendas. The most fundamental objection to labeling and other market-based approaches is that they overlook the social dimension of standard-setting.

Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, financial innovation, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

And it explains how some pioneering firms are using techniques such as upcycling to combine and integrate the principles of the sharing and circular economies, thus paving the way for the “spiral economy”: a virtuous system that generates ever more value while reducing waste and the use of natural resources. Essential – not optional – sustainability For many years, companies only paid lip service to sustainability as part of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) and philanthropic activities. Recently, however, several factors have forced developed-world companies to take a more strategic approach to sustainability. Resource scarcity threatens the viability of businesses Paul Polman of Unilever notes that the world consumes 1.3 times more than the planet can replenish.2 Given current rates, by 2030 we would require two planets to supply the resources we need and to absorb our waste.

In fact many of them do care, but they lack the knowledge, skills, resources, or the right business model to tackle social challenges systematically and profitably. They may even be too proud to admit their ignorance or inexperience. Fortunately, many other companies seek help from non-profit organisations to forge hybrid value chains (HVCs). HVC is a business model that aims to create affordable products and services for the poor. It is more than corporate social responsibility (CSR) or philanthropy, as it works in win-win partnership with all stakeholders. Businesses gain access to profitable new markets, while non-profit organisations achieve their desired social impact. In this way, multinationals such as Citigroup, Essilor, GE and Unilever have served bottom-of-pyramid (BOP) customers in Africa, Asia and Latin America. They are now looking to do the same in Europe and the US, where millions of citizens can no longer afford basic health care and financial services.

Index 3D printers 18, 47–9, 50, 128, 132, 134, 152, 166 3D printing 9, 47–9, 50, 51, 52, 132, 151–2, 206 4D revolution 53–4 A Accor 172–6 Accountable Care Solutions 211 Active Health Management 211 adaptability 90, 154 additive manufacturing 47–9 ADEO Group 127, 128 advertising 24, 61–3, 71–2 aerosols 95, 96 Aetna 32, 208–13, 213, 215 Affinnova 31, 141 affordability 3, 82, 136, 153, 161, 172, 194, 216 in emerging markets 4, 56, 120, 198, 206 health-care innovations 202–3 and quality 1, 3, 9, 12, 75, 120–1, 198, 206 affordances 120–1 Africa 40, 56, 146, 161, 164, 197 financial services 198, 201 IBM in 200–2 innovation potential 200–2 as market 12, 169, 197–8, 199 ageing populations 109, 194 ageing workforce 13, 29, 49, 153 agility 26, 41, 69, 75, 143, 169–70 in innovation 21, 27, 33–4, 42–3, 72, 154, 167, 173, 176, 206 in manufacturing 44–5, 49, 52 Akerman, Dave 136 Air Liquide 205–7 air pollution 74, 78, 187, 200 Airbnb 10, 17, 85, 136, 140, 163, 173, 175 aircraft 68, 149 parts 48–9, 49, 121, 151–2 airlines 60, 121 Alteryx 32 Amazon 46, 60–1, 150 Amelio, Gil 68–9 AmEx (American Express) 161–2, 167, 215 Amgen 45 Anderson, Chris 18 Android operating system 130, 172 AOL 42 Apple 17, 24, 68–9, 71, 99, 150, 155, 172 Apple TV 62 apps 99, 106, 107, 108, 111–12, 124–5, 148 Arduino 135 Ariely, Dan 132 Arla Foods 37 artists 88, 93 ASDA 158–9, 159 Asia 161, 164, 200 aspirations 88–9, 119–20, 198 assets digitising 65–6 flexing see flexing assets reusing 92–3 sharing 159–61, 167 AT&T 21 ATMI 88 Auchan 13, 126, 128, 215 austerity 5, 6–7, 23 Australia 5, 62, 146, 200 Autodesk 48, 92, 132, 196–7 Automatic 131 automation 49–50 Avon 146 AXA 116 Ayed, Anne-Christine 75, 76 B B Corps (Benefit Corporations) 82 B2B (business-to-business) sectors 25–6, 34, 57, 142, 161, 175, 212 B2C (business-to-consumer) companies 25, 34, 212 Badrinath, Vivek 174 BAE Systems 48–9 Ban, Shigeru 93 Bangladesh 66 Bank of America 155 banking services 13, 17, 57, 161–2, 198 see also financial services Banner Health Network 210 Banzi, Massimo 135 Barber, Michael 181 Barclays 100, 115, 117, 215 Barry, Mike 183–4, 187 Bayer 66–7 Bazin, Sébastien 173 BBVA 125 Béhar, Yves 110 Belgium 103 Benefit Corporations (B Corps) 82 Benelux countries 7, 103 Benetton 67 Benoît, Paul 89 Berg 89 Bergh, Chip 122–3 Bertolini, Mark 208–9, 212, 213, 217 BHAGs (“big, hairy audacious” goals) 90–1, 158–9, 179, 191–2 Biasiotta, Bruno 123 big data 32–3, 117, 150 big-box retailers 9, 18, 137 “bigger is better” 2, 8, 14–15, 104 biomimetics (or biomimicry) 84 Birol, Jacques 163–4 BlaBlaCar 10, 85, 163 Blanchard, David 94, 96 Bloomberg, Michael 18, 79, 133 BMI (business model innovation) 192 BMW 47, 62–3, 86 BNP Paribas 168–9 Boeing 92, 144 Bolland, Marc 180–1, 186 Bontha, Ven 59 Booz & Company (now Strategy&) 6, 22, 23, 28, 171 Bosch 156 Boston Consulting Group 55, 64, 116, 145, 217 Botsman, Rachel 10 bottom-of-pyramid (BOP) customers 161, 203, 207 Bouygues Immobilier 90 BP 169 BPS (by-product synergy) 159 Brabeck-Letmathe, Peter 44, 78 brand ambassadors 143, 145 brand loyalty 46, 100, 204, 215 branding 15, 108, 119–20, 156 brands 1, 71, 139, 141, 143, 154, 165–6, 215 “conversations” with 129, 131–2 working together 154, 156–7 Braungart, Michael 82 Brazil 40, 74, 102, 146, 188, 199 emerging market 4, 12, 38, 146, 197, 199 Bretton Woods Conference (1944) 104 Brin, Sergey 63 BringBee 85 Bross, Matt 37–8, 171 Brown, Tim 121 Brusson, Nicolas 163 BT 37–8, 171 BTG (British Technology Group) 171 budgeting, personal 124–5 budgets 6–7, 36, 42 Buffett, Warren 138 buildings 196–7 bureaucracy 36, 63–4, 65, 70, 165, 169, 173, 182 business, primary purpose of 14 business model innovation (BMI) 192 business models 2, 34, 38, 80, 118, 205, 216, 217 changing 190–3, 213 business opportunities 36, 188–9, 190 business process re-engineering 192 business strategy 34 business-to-business see B2B business-to-consumer see B2C by-product synergy (BPS) 159 C C2C (cradle-to-cradle) design 75, 77, 82, 84, 97 Cacciotti, Jerry 22, 23 CAD (computer-aided design) 47, 65, 132, 165 California 79, 99 Calmes, Stéphane 127, 128 Camp, Garrett 163 Canada 5, 102 cannibalisation conundrum 15, 117–18 capital costs 45 car insurance 116 car sharing 10, 17, 85, 86, 108, 123, 163 car-related services 62–3, 116 Caravan Shop 89 carbon emissions 102, 103, 196 reducing 78–9, 106–7, 159, 160, 174 stabilising 184, 186 carbon footprint 94, 100, 102, 156, 184, 186 Carrefour 121–2, 157, 174 cars 89, 92, 116, 119–20, 144, 155, 156 electric 47, 86, 172 emissions 47, 106–7 fuel consumption 47, 106–7 fuel efficiency 8, 12, 24, 47, 78, 131, 197 low-cost 2–4 personalisation 129–30 related services 62–3 standards for 78–9 see also BMW; Ford; Nissan; Renault; Tesla; Toyota Caterpillar 31, 55 CellScope 110 Cemex 59 centralisation 9, 44, 51 CEOs 34, 40, 168, 203–5, 204 certification, sustainability 84 Chaparral Steel 159 chemical industry 33, 58, 66–7 chemical usage, reducing 79 Cheshire, Ian 185–6 Chesky, Brian 163 Chevron 170 China 44, 83, 102, 144, 213, 216 air pollution 187, 200 emerging market 4, 38, 169, 197, 205 innovation in 169, 200 mobile phones 198 R&D 40, 188, 206 selling into 187–8 shifting production from 55, 56 Christchurch (New Zealand) 93 Chrysler 166 circular economy 9, 76–7, 80–4, 159–60, 195–6 “Circular Economy 100” 76–7, 86 circular supply chains 193 Cisco 17, 29, 65, 110 CISL (University of Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership) 158–9 cities 107, 153 Citigroup 161 climate change 8, 100 closed-loop products 86, 91, 185, 192–3 cloud computing 60, 61, 157, 169 CMF-A car platform 4–5, 198–9 CNC (computer numerical control) cutters 128, 134, 152 co-branding 143 co-creation 126–9, 202–3, 206–7 see also collaboration; horizontal economy; prosumers co-distribution 143 co-marketing 143 co-operation 64–5, 69, 70–1 co-opetition 158–9 Coase, Ronald 133 Coca-Cola 57, 62, 142, 154 “cold chains” 57 CoLearnr 114 Collaborating Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production (CSCP) 193–4 collaboration 76, 114, 138–9, 176, 211, 217–18 cross-functional 36–8, 39, 71–2 see also hyper-collaboration; TechShop collaborative consumption see sharing economy collaborative manufacturing 50–1 collective buying platforms 137 Commonwealth Fund 110 communities of customers 129, 131, 132–3 local 52, 57, 146, 206–7 commuting 131 competition 22, 27, 102, 189 competitive advantage 15–16, 80, 195 competitors 19, 26, 148, 149–50, 172, 215 emerging markets 16, 205–6, 216 engaging 158–9, 167 frugal 16–18, 26, 216 complexity 24, 64 components 3, 67 computer numerical control see CNC computer-aided design (CAD) 47, 65, 132, 165 Comstock, Beth 40–1, 149, 150, 151, 170 concentration 96 Concept Lab 211 concept testing 25, 31, 72, 191 Cone, Carol 7 congestion 108, 201 constraints 4–5, 22, 34, 36, 42, 207, 217 consumer behaviour 3, 6, 97, 98–101 shaping xix, 99–101, 105–9, 125 Consumer Empowerment Index 103 consumer spending 103 consumers 8, 27, 37, 97, 105 developed-world 2, 7, 9, 102 dissatisfaction 130–1 empowerment 22, 105, 106 environmental awareness 101–2, 105 frugal 197–200 of the future 193–4 innovative ideas from 50–1 with particular needs 194–5 power 102–4, 139 social experience 139 and sustainability 95, 97, 101–4 trust of 143 young 16, 85, 86, 122, 124, 131 see also customers; prosumers consumption 85, 101–6, 115, 124, 193 continuous processing 44–5, 47, 50 Cook, Scott 19 core, focusing on 68–9 Cornillon, Paul 37 Corporate Home Exchange 175 corporate leaders 122–4, 180–1, 203–5 corporate social responsibility see CSR Cortese, Amy 138 cost effectiveness 12, 34, 149, 164, 172, 188, 190, 191 consumer energy use 53 customisation 67 health care 202 innovation 21, 173 micro-factories 52 Costco 18 costs 3D printers 48 capital costs 45 development costs 22, 36 distribution costs 54, 55, 96 electricity generation 104 energy costs 161, 190 environmental costs 11 fuel costs 121 of good-enough approach 27 health-care costs 13, 109 innovation costs 168, 171 inventory costs 54 life-cycle costs 12, 24, 196 maintenance costs 48–9, 66 manufacturing costs 47, 48, 52 operating costs 45, 215 production costs 9, 83 raw materials 153, 161, 190 reducing 11, 46, 47, 60, 84, 89, 160, 167, 200 resource costs 78, 203 shipping costs 55, 59 supply chain 58, 84 transaction costs 133 wage costs 48 Coughlin, Bill 167 Coursera 61, 112 Coye, Molly 202 cradle-to-cradle see C2C design creativity 88, 94, 128, 130, 135, 163–4, 199 in organisations 63–4, 70, 71 credit culture 115–16 CRM (customer relationship management) systems 59, 157 cross-functional collaboration 36–8, 39, 71–2 crowdfunding 17, 48, 132, 137–9, 152 crowdsourcing 28–9, 50–1, 126, 140, 143, 152, 202 platforms 142, 150–1, 151, 152 CSCP (Collaborating Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production) 193–4 CSR (corporate social responsibility) 77, 82, 94, 161 culture, organisational see organisational culture “culture of simplification” 170 curiosity 153–4 customer behaviour see consumer behaviour customer experience, enhancing 75 customer feedback 31–2, 33, 72, 152, 170, 192 customer immersion labs 31–2 customer loyalty 28, 68, 77, 80, 124, 129, 131–2, 215 customer needs 37, 58, 90, 139–40, 170, 192, 206 changing 28, 38, 51, 127, 150, 168, 205 diversity 38, 46, 51 R&D disconnect from 26, 38 customer preferences 58, 67, 75 customer relationship management see CRM customer satisfaction 65, 128, 130–1 customer service 25–6, 127–8, 147 customer visits 18, 20, 128 customers 19, 27, 46, 76, 148, 205 alienating 24–6 behaviour see consumer behaviour bottom-of-pyramid 12–13, 161, 203, 207 communities of 129, 131, 132–3 cost-conscious 3, 6, 7, 22, 26, 156, 189, 215 dreams 140–1 eco-awareness 22, 26, 54, 75, 78, 93, 156, 195–6, 215 in emerging markets 200 engaging with 20–1, 24–6, 27–33, 34, 35, 38–9, 42–3, 115, 128, 170 as experts 146 focus on 19–21, 43, 62, 157–8, 204 goodwill of 84 motivation for change 117 multiple roles 143–6 needs see customer needs outsourcing to 143 participation 128–9 profligate 115–16 R&D and 27–8, 31–2, 38, 43 rewards for 147–8 shared 156–8 used to motivate employees 205–7 young 16, 85, 86, 122, 124, 131 see also consumers; prosumers customisation 9, 46, 47, 48, 51–2, 57–8, 67, 72 CVS Health 7 D D2D Fund 162 Dacia 2–4, 156, 179 Dannon 141 Danone 66, 141, 184, 186 Darchis, François 205–6, 207 DARPA (Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency) 49 Darukhanavala, P.P.


pages: 421 words: 125,417

Common Wealth: Economics for a Crowded Planet by Jeffrey Sachs

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, Edward Glaeser, energy security, failed state, Gini coefficient, Haber-Bosch Process, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, low skilled workers, microcredit, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, Skype, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, unemployed young men, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population

Politicians should be pursued during election campaigns, through letter writing, visits to their offices, and at public rallies. Seventh, engage your workplace. Every company can add to global sustainable development. First and foremost, each company should abide by standards of corporate social responsibility, for example, by adhering to the norms and standards of the United Nations Global Compact. But more than that, each company has special technologies, organizational systems, employee skills, and corporate reputations that can contribute to meeting the Millennium Promises. We’ve emphasized that corporate social responsibility is not philanthropy but good business practice. Customers, suppliers, and, most important, employees themselves rally to the cause of companies that take these responsibilities seriously. Eighth, live personally according to the standards of the Millennium Promises.

The actual institutions delivering AIDS medicines include a bewildering array of market-based, public-sector, and not-for-profit nongovernmental actors, including the drug companies, NGOs such as Partners in Health and Doctors Without Borders, the Global Fund, national African governments, local communities, and volunteer village health workers. The common thread is not market returns but rather commitment to a common goal: AIDS treatment for all who need it, even the poorest of the poor. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY The overriding job of business is to make money for the owners, but that in no way precludes an active role for business in solving nonmarket problems such as access to HIV medicines. Indeed, CEOs understand that if they neglect the nonmarket side of their activities, they can risk the very success of the company. The reputational costs to business of blocking solutions to vital challenges can be devastating to shared values, customer loyalties, worker morale, the ability to recruit new employees, and even the social acceptability of their continued operations.

This is the general message that I give to all CEOs regarding the Millennium Promises. Each company needs to be part of the solution and needs to stretch its activities beyond normal market activities. This does not mean to turn the company upside down or into a charitable institution, but rather to identify the unique contribution the company may make as part of a broader effort to solve a major social challenge. This is the real meaning of corporate social responsibility: to operate in a manner that promotes broad social objectives, including nonmarket goals, in a way consistent with core business principles, values, and practices. It means much more than simple corporate philanthropy. It demands creativity. In most cases, a company’s main assets are its proprietary technologies, its supplier and customer networks, its good name, and its workforce.


pages: 283 words: 81,163

How Capitalism Saved America: The Untold History of Our Country, From the Pilgrims to the Present by Thomas J. Dilorenzo

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

banking crisis, British Empire, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, means of production, medical malpractice, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Hollander shows how socialist dictators around the world made fools of so many Western intellectuals who blindly embraced socialism because of their hatred of capitalism. Hood, John M. The Heroic Enterprise. New York: Free Press, 1996. Hood defends capitalism and capitalists against the forces of political correctness who want businesspeople to give away more and more of their (and their shareholders’) money to various liberal political causes in the name of “corporate social responsibility.” He explains in great detail why “corporate social responsibility” is socially irresponsible. Hoppe, Hans-Hermann. The Economics and Ethics of Private Property. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1993. A lucid discussion of the ethical and economic case in favor of private property and free-market capitalism. Huber, Peter. Liability: The Legal Revolution and Its Consequences. New York: Basic Books, 1988. Huber describes the causes and consequences of America’s crazy liability law system, in which people with deep pockets are often sued regardless of whether they are liable for harming anyone.

Indeed, this result is found so uniformly as to create a puzzle: one would expect to find, in all these studies, at least some government programs that do more good than harm.3 One manifestation of the bureaucratization of American capitalism is that American universities rarely teach anything about the practices or philosophy of entrepreneurship—the kind of entrepreneurship practiced by John D. Rockefeller, James J. Hill, and many other successful capitalists. Instead, schools of business offer numerous courses on “business law,” “administrative law,” and “corporate social responsibility,” which is mostly propaganda on behalf of even more regulation and higher taxation. In other words, American universities devote an inordinate amount of time and resources to teach potential business leaders not how to be capitalists but how to be corporate bureaucrats. This cannot be good for the future of American prosperity. All this regulation of American capitalism has had the side effect of stifling free speech.


pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, invisible hand, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

Broadman, “China and India Go to Africa,” Foreign Affairs, March/April 2008. 5. Michael Ross, “Blood Barrels,” Foreign Affairs, May/June 2008, 7. Chapter Nine: The Case Against Poverty 1. Tom Mitchell, “An Army Marching to Escape Medieval China,” Financial Times, April 16, 2009. 2. Sixty-five percent of BRAC’s revenue is generated from its own programs and 30 percent from direct private support. 3. “Just Good Business: Survey of Corporate Social Responsibility,” The Economist, January 19, 2008, 4. 4. Josh Ruxin, “Doctors Without Orders,” Democracy, Summer 2008. 5. Tahir Andrabi, Jishnu Das, C. Christine Fair, and Asim Ijaz Khwaja, “The Madrasa Myth,” ForeignPolicy.com, June 2009. 6. G. Pascal Zachary, “Inside Nairobi, the Next Palo Alto?” The New York Times, July 20, 2008. 7. Pritchett, Let Their People Come, 85. 8. Mukul G. Asher and Amarendu Nandy, “Remittances: Maximizing India’s Strategic Leverage,” Pragati, June 2007. 9.

Capitalism at the Crossroads: Aligning Business, Earth, and Humanity. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Wharton School Publishing, 2007. Held, David. The Global Covenant: The Social Democratic Alternative to the Washington Consensus. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2004. Held, David, and Anthony McGrew, eds. Governing Globalization: Power, Authority, and Global Governance. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2002. Henderson, David. Misguided Virtue: False Notions of Corporate Social Responsibility. London: Institute for Economic Affairs, 2001. Higgott, Richard A., Geoffrey R. D. Underhill, and Andreas Bieler, eds. Non-State Actors and Authority in the Global System. London: Routledge, 2000. Homer-Dixon, Thomas F. The Ingenuity Gap: Facing the Economic, Environmental, and Other Challenges of an Increasingly Complex and Unpredictable World. New York: Vintage, 2002. Jackson, Robert H.

Toynbee, Arnold. Civilization on Trial. New York: Oxford University Press, 1948. Trubek, David M., and Alvaro Santos. The New Law and Economic Development: A Critical Appraisal. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Tuchman, Barbara W. A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978. Vogel, David. The Market for Virtue: The Potential and Limits of Corporate Social Responsibility. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2005. Waddell, Steve. Societal Learning and Change: How Governments, Business, and Civil Society Are Creating Solutions to Multi-Stakeholder Problems. Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf Publishers, 2005. Wallerstein, Immanuel. The Modern World-System. New York: Academic Press, 1974. Webb, Adam K. Beyond the Global Culture War. New York: Routledge, 2006.


pages: 323 words: 89,795

Food and Fuel: Solutions for the Future by Andrew Heintzman, Evan Solomon, Eric Schlosser

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate social responsibility, David Brooks, deindustrialization, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, flex fuel, full employment, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, hydrogen economy, land reform, microcredit, Negawatt, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment

McDonald’s, for example, has yogurt and salads on its menu. Yet, as we have seen, it has indefinitely delayed in coming through on its promise to change cooking oils. And it has a massive budget to promote energy-dense foods to children. Some food companies devote considerable resources to publicizing healthier new products, hoping perhaps to escape the tidal wave of unhealthy food marketing. Creating the appearance of corporate social responsibility is now a priority, but whether appearance is matched by substance is yet to be determined. As the food industry faces new challenges, we can revisit important lessons learned from the deadly history of another industry, tobacco. Tobacco companies asked for the same privileges food companies now demand, namely, that their promotions be taken at face value. Tobacco companies, like the food industry, claimed concern for public health, pledged cooperation with the government and health authorities, introduced filtered cigarettes they claimed were better for consumers, and assured the public they had the best interests of children at heart.

In a paper I wrote with Kenneth Warner, examining tobacco and food industry responses to health crises, we noted striking similarities in the scripts (playbook) used by the food and tobacco industries to still public concern and stall or prevent policies that would hurt business.23 The fact the food industry has a script is indisputable. Trade associations, some of the same public relations and advertising agencies formerly used by tobacco, scientists funded by the industry, and of course company spokespersons — all have their parts in the playbook. The key features are as follows: • Introduce products perceived to be healthier. • Publicize corporate social responsibility. • Fund programs focusing on physical activity. • Claim that lack of personal responsibility is at the heart of the population’s unhealthy diet. • Plead that personal freedom is at stake, hence government should not contemplate regulation or legislation. • Vilify critics with totalitarian language, characterizing them as the food police, leaders of a nanny state, even “food fascists,” and accuse them of desires to strip people of civil liberties

• State there are no good or bad foods, hence no food or food type (soft drinks, fast foods, and so on) should be targeted for change. • Dispute the science to plant doubt. The first three items in the playbook may have positive consequences, but vigilance is in order. The industry often introduces products that are made to sound healthy. Examples are snacks and drinks with “fruit” in the name. Cynicism about corporate social responsibility is also natural, given the tobacco experience. In 2000, Philip Morris spent $115 million on social causes such as the arts, helping flood victims, and supporting shelters for abuse victims. The company spent $150 million publicizing these acts. The remaining six parts of the script are likely to have negative consequences. The food industry notes that food is different from tobacco, in that people have to eat.


pages: 390 words: 96,624

Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom by Rebecca MacKinnon

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, digital Maoism, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Firefox, future of journalism, illegal immigration, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, online collectivism, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks

Millions of companies worldwide have embraced this notion to varying degrees by building corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability strategies into the way they run their businesses. A growing number of investors are rewarding companies for moving in this direction. By 2010 the amount of assets held by US investors in some form of socially responsible investment funds, which choose stocks based on at least some criteria for sustainable and socially responsible business practices, had reached $3.07 trillion out of a total of $25.2 trillion in the US investment marketplace. A range of UN agencies, financial institutions, and nongovernmental groups have developed systems to benchmark companies based on various criteria for corporate social responsibility or sustainability. Meanwhile, a growing number of multinationals are moving beyond CSR programs to identify untapped business opportunities around growing public demand for cleaner, healthier, and more sustainable lifestyles in ways that can become a source of competitive advantage and improve the world at the same time.

CHAPTER 9: DO NO EVIL 131 In April 2011, Mike Lazaridis, co-CEO of Research in Motion (RIM), maker of BlackBerry, sat down for an interview with the BBC’s Rory Cellan-Jones: Full video of the exchange is at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/click_online/9456798.stm (accessed June 27, 2011). 133 Shi Tao: For a detailed account and list of sources related to the Shi Tao case and Yahoo, see Human Rights Watch, Race to the Bottom: Corporate Complicity in Chinese Internet Censorship, 2006, www.hrw.org/reports/2006/china0806; and Rebecca MacKinnon, “Shi Tao, Yahoo!, and the Lessons for Corporate Social Responsibility,” working paper, December 27, 2007, http://rconversation.blogs.com/YahooShiTaoLessons.pdf. 136 the year Microsoft launched MSN Spaces in China, 2005, was also the year the Chinese blogosphere exploded: For a detailed account of the evolution of the Chinese blogosphere and government controls, see Rebecca MacKinnon, “Flatter World and Thicker Walls? Blogs, Censorship, and Civic Discourse in China,” in D.

The Orbital Perspective: Lessons in Seeing the Big Picture From a Journey of 71 Million Miles by Astronaut Ron Garan, Muhammad Yunus

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Airbnb, barriers to entry, book scanning, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, global village, Google Earth, Indoor air pollution, jimmy wales, optical character recognition, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart transportation, Stephen Hawking, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber for X, web of trust

Poverty, inequality, corruption, and political instability multiply the negative effects of natural and human-caused disasters. Therefore, by reducing those social woes we greatly reduce the negative effects of disasters when they occur. Living in the worm’s eye view means putting the focus on the quarterly report, whereas the orbital perspective focuses on the twenty-year plan and beyond. The worm’s eye view treats corporate social responsibility as a tool to prop up a brand’s image, placing more emphasis on advertising social good than on contributing to that good. The orbital perspective makes the creation of social good a core business tenet throughout the entire organization, meaning the social, environmental, and ethical aspects of every business decision are carefully considered. This is done not only because the company has a responsibility to do so but also because in this age of transparency and openness, when the public has been empowered to scream from the digital mountaintops when corporations are not playing nice, not doing so will have a significant effect on the bottom line.

Our ability to solve our world’s greatest challenges is directly proportional to the extent that each of us, on a person-to-person basis, commits to contributing to progress and follows through on 166â•…    Co n c l u sio n that commitment, no matter how large or how small. The contribution a person makes, and his or her response to this call to action, is a personal decision. For me, it involves continuing to work in the development field and continuing to advocate for the pieces of the puzzle that I feel are critical, such as social business, social enterprise, and improved corporate social responsibility practices. It also involves looking for ways to apply the orbital perspective to existing and developing conflict resolution efforts. I am convinced that, rather than exclusively putting time and energy into projects I am personally involved with, I can make a much bigger impact by helping to propel the good that others are doing. To that end, I, along with an extremely talented group, have launched an effort called Impact CoLab.2 The goal of Impact CoLab is to use social media and digital marketing to create global grassroots movements to help propel and scale the good created by purpose-driven efforts around the world.


pages: 209 words: 63,649

The Purpose Economy: How Your Desire for Impact, Personal Growth and Community Is Changing the World by Aaron Hurst

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, big-box store, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, Elon Musk, Firefox, glass ceiling, greed is good, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, Ray Oldenburg, remote working, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, underbanked, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar

A generation of Purpose Economy pioneers, like Whole Foods Market’s John Mackey and Virgin’s Richard Branson, are challenging others to follow their lead and to create new frameworks both to do well and to do good, which raises the bar for the business community and turns successful theories into movements. Richard Branson launched the B Team, a coalition aiming to go beyond traditional corporate social responsibility, and instead embrace what they call Plan B: “a plan that puts people and the planet alongside profit.” John Mackey and his team are promoting a new model for business he calls Conscious Capitalism, which inspired his book of the same name. Other large corporations have shown signs of new, purpose-focused frameworks as well. Some of the most traditional companies like Deloitte and Pepsi have started to put their toes in the water, as their leaders recognize that while they can’t change overnight, they can develop long-term visions to make purpose a priority.

…Millennials [are] confident, self-expressive, liberal, upbeat and open to change.”4 Millennials were not only born into a world of much more perceived affluence than prior generations, but also into one in which these values and aspirations were gaining traction. Inspiring examples of Purpose Economy achievements could be seen all around them. As they came of age, the environmental movement was going mainstream; pioneering social entrepreneurs were popularizing the idea of “doing well by doing good,” with forerunners like Paul Hawken of Smith & Hawken, Ben & Jerry’s, and Anita Roddick of the Body Shop popularizing a new ethic of corporate social responsibility. Meanwhile, celebrities like Matt Damon, Angelina Jolie, and George Clooney were popularizing a new ethic of individual engagement, making it cool to be socially engaged. The excesses of Wall Street, the dot-com boom and bust, and the mentality that “greed is good” began to change the scope of the American Dream for many Millennials coming of age. Even as they saw their parents working harder and spending less time at home in order to afford the big house, three cars, and all the accoutrements of success, they were mostly turned off by these status symbols and began to challenge existing paradigms of success.


pages: 193 words: 11,060

Ethics in Investment Banking by John N. Reynolds, Edmund Newell

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, banking crisis, capital controls, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, discounted cash flows, financial independence, index fund, invisible hand, margin call, moral hazard, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, quantitative easing, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, stem cell, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail

Arranging finance would consist of preparing presentations to potential funders and securing financing (normally debt, but this can also include additional sources of equity finance) Bait and switch: investment banking practice of marketing a (senior) team of bankers to a client and then replacing them with more junior bankers once a mandate has been awarded Big cap: a quoted company with a large market capitalisation or share value Business ethics: an ethical understanding of business, applying moral philosophical principles to commerce Capital markets: collective term for debt and equity markets; reference to the businesses within an investment bank that manage activity in the capital markets Casino capitalism: term used to describe high-risk investment banking activities with an asymmetric risk profile Categorical imperative: the concept, developed by Immanuel Kant, of absolute moral rules CDS: credit default swap, a form of financial insurance against the risk of default of a named corporation CEO: chief executive officer, the most senior executive officer in a corporation viii Glossary ix Church Investors’ Group (CIG): a group of the investment arms of a number of church denominations, mainly from the UK and Ireland Code of Ethics: an investment bank’s statement of its requirements for ethical behaviour on the part of its employees Compensation: investment bankers’ remuneration or pay Compliance: structures within an investment bank to ensure adherence to applicable regulation and legislation Conflict of interest: situation where an investment bank has conflicting duties or incentives Corporate debt: loan made to a company Credit rating: an assessment of the creditworthiness of a corporation or legal entity given by a credit rating agency CSR: Corporate Social Responsibility DCF: discounted cash flow Debtor in Possession finance (DIP finance): secured loan facility made to a company protected from its creditors under chapter 11 of the US bankruptcy code Derivative: a security created out of an underlying security (such as an equity or a bond), which can then be traded separately Dharma: personal religious duty, in Hinduism and Buddhism Discounted cash flow valuation: the sum of: • the net present value (NPV) of the cash flows of a company over a defined timescale (normally 10 years); • the NPV of the terminal value of the company (which may be the price at which it could be sold after 10 years); and • the existing net debt of the company Distribution: the marketing of securities Dodd–Frank Act: the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act Downgrade: a reduction in the recommended action to take with regard to an equity; or a reduction in the credit rating of a corporation Duty-based ethics: ethical values based on deontological concepts EBITDA: Earnings Before Interest Tax Depreciation and Amortisation EIAG: the Ethical Investment Advisory Group of the Church of England Encyclical: official letter from the Pope to bishops, priests, lay people and people of goodwill x Glossary Enterprise value (EV): value of an enterprise derived from the sum of its financing, including equity, debt and any other invested capital, which should equate to its DCF value ERM: the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, an EU currency system predating the introduction of the euro ETR: effective tax rate EV:EBITDA: ratio used to value a company Exit: sale of an investment Free-ride: economic term for gaining a benefit from another’s actions Financial adviser: see Adviser Glass–Steagall: the 1933 Act that required a separation of investment and retail banking in the US Golden Rule: do to others as you would have them do to you Hedge fund: an investment fund with a specific investment mandate and an incentivised fee structure (see 2 and 20) High yield bond: debt sold to institutional investors that is not secured (on the company’s assets or cash-flows) HMRC: Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs, the UK’s authority for collecting taxes Hold-out value: value derived from the contractual right to be able to agree or veto changes Ijara: Shariah finance structure for project finance Implicit Government guarantee: belief that a company or sector benefits from the likelihood of Government intervention in the event of crisis, despite the fact that no formal arrangements are in place Initial Public Offering (IPO): the initial sale of equity securities of a company to public market investors Insider dealing: trading in shares in order to profit from possessing confidential information Insider trading: see Insider dealing Integrated bank: a bank offering both commercial and investment banking services Integrated investment bank: an investment bank that is both active in capital markets and provides advisory services Internal rate of return (IRR): the annualised return on equity invested.

Although investment banks claim to require ethical behaviour, empirical and anecdotal evidence very much contradicts this. Existing investment banking Codes of Ethics are, in practical terms, ineffective, and serve in the main to protect shareholders from abuse by employees, rather than protecting clients. Ethics and ethical behaviour should be inculcated throughout an investment bank, and not left to the realms of Compliance or Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) departments, or as the prerogative of senior executives, often at a significant distance from front-line bankers. Behaving ethically could result in an investment bank forsaking opportunities to take on profitable business. For example, an investment bank might decline to lead the Initial Public Offering (IPO) of a company if it did not “believe” in its long-term prospects, even if there was sufficient market demand to complete an initial offering.


pages: 293 words: 81,183

Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Make a Difference by William MacAskill

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

barriers to entry, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Cal Newport, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, effective altruism, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, follow your passion, food miles, immigration reform, income inequality, index fund, Isaac Newton, job automation, job satisfaction, labour mobility, Lean Startup, M-Pesa, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Nate Silver, Peter Singer: altruism, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, self-driving car, Skype, Stanislav Petrov, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, universal basic income, women in the workforce

It exploits the fact that even typical workers in developed countries are among the top income earners in the world and that there are some charities that do huge amounts to help the world’s poorest people for relatively little money. Moreover, unlike the conventional “ethical” careers guidance, earning to give is a path that’s open to everyone. The conventional advice is that if you want to make a difference you should work in the nonprofit or public sector or work in corporate social responsibility. But many people struggle to get a job, let alone find a job in a specific sector. However, many more people have the option to work overtime in order to earn more, or to work harder in order to get a raise or promotion, or to move toward a higher-paying career, or just to live on less. By doing this, and being smart about where you give, almost anyone in rich countries can do a tremendous amount to help others

This takes us to the next two aspects of the career effectiveness framework. Impact on the job The second issue in our framework is how much impact you’ll have within the job. Typical advice on making a difference through your career emphasizes this factor heavily. The most obvious way to do this is to work in the social sector: social-impact-focused-careers websites list job opportunities at charities, or in corporate social responsibility. However, like “following your passion,” this advice can be misleading. First, to make a difference in the social sector, the organization you work for must be effective. If your charity job was at PlayPumps International, then, no matter how enthusiastically or efficiently you worked, you’d have made very little positive impact. It’s difficult to assess how effective an organization is, but the frameworks given in the chapters on effective charities and effective causes can help you, as can the key questions described in the first part of this book.


pages: 98 words: 25,753

Ethics of Big Data: Balancing Risk and Innovation by Kord Davis, Doug Patterson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

4chan, business process, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Netflix Prize, Occupy movement, performance metric, side project, smart grid, urban planning

Only 2 of 50 policies stated any recognizably moral reason for having a privacy policy at all. Most polices said nothing, while a minority gave the nonmoral reason that people care about privacy and the company values their business. This is important because it directly raises the question of how to close the gaps in data-driven business models to structure their activities in alignment with moral motives. Those who believe in “corporate social responsibility” would say there are recognizably moral reasons for business to act in alignment with their values. Others, such as Friedman famously (or perhaps infamously), have stated that corporations have responsibilities only to their shareholders—the implication being that any legal action that generates a profit is justified if it results in returning value to shareholders (http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html).


pages: 412 words: 113,782

Business Lessons From a Radical Industrialist by Ray C. Anderson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, banking crisis, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, cleantech, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, dematerialisation, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, invisible hand, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, music of the spheres, Negawatt, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, renewable energy credits, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, supply-chain management, urban renewal, Y2K

Every person, every nation, every corporation on earth depends on nature’s uninterrupted services for its survival. If nature does not make it through the transition from the first industrial revolution to the next, none of us will. That’s the bad news. But we have some good news to consider, too. The trends in ethical awareness, and the development of the concepts of sustainability and corporate social responsibility, are rising. Small-scale local businesses and giant multinational corporations alike are discovering that applying an ethical sustainability filter to everything they do can add to their top and bottom lines, because the marketplace is rewarding good behavior. What it comes down to is this. You and I happen to be alive at a critical juncture of those two opposite trends. We have the power to destroy this living earth, and that destruction is ongoing, even accelerating.

Columbia University 6. Cornell University 7. Duquesne University 8. Yale University 9. New York University 10. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill The pace of this good trend is both positive and accelerating. A survey of ninety-one business schools released in October 2008 by the World Resources Institute and the Aspen Institute found that 54 percent require a course in ethics, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, or business and society. That’s up from just 34 percent in 2001. The Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania has created its Institute for Global Environmental Leadership, and Interface holds a position on its Advisory Board. A lot of people, both inside the academic world and out in business and industry, are paying close attention to this trend. Anita Roper, the sustainability director for Alcoa, said, “Whether it’s called sustainability education or not, there is definitely a demand for the skills you get from courses based on sustainability concepts.”

The old, flawed view of reality holds to the belief that business exists to make a profit, when we know in our hearts that business makes a profit to exist, and it must surely exist for some higher purpose. What CEO really expects to stand before her or his Maker someday and talk about shareholder value? Or market share? Or the clever manipulation of a gullible public? A sustainable society will realize that done right, the triple bottom line of corporate social responsibility—economy, environment, social equity—can come together under the banner of authenticity to create a truly superior, totally ethical, financial bottom line—a better way to bigger and more legitimate profits, a better business model. The old, flawed view of reality holds that the environment is a subset of the economy, the pollution part. In our new enlightenment we acknowledge that the economy is the wholly owned subsidiary of the environment, to quote the late U.S. senator Gaylord Nelson, who was quoting the archbishop of Canterbury.


pages: 407 words: 121,458

Confessions of an Eco-Sinner: Tracking Down the Sources of My Stuff by Fred Pearce

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

additive manufacturing, air freight, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, ghettoisation, Isaac Newton, Kibera, megacity, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, profit motive, race to the bottom, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

That is unethical.’ The system, she said, is run ‘so that everyone down the line is well enough off to have a nice house and a car – except for the women who make the clothes. Sometimes I even feel sympathy with Bangladeshi manufacturers, the way they are leant on by the Western brands.’ Soon after, I spoke to a top manager at one of the main garment makers. She said, ‘These big-brand companies have corporate social responsibility departments, but the people who place the orders don’t talk to them. We see it here all the time. The CSR people come in and stipulate basic standards. Then the next day the buyers come in and drive down prices and bring forward deadlines. These two things are usually completely incompatible. While the buyers are in charge, all this talk from the CSR people is just corporate window dressing, however well-meaning the people involved might be.’

I flew out of Dar feeling that my footprint was, for once, positive. 27 Unexpected Heroes: The Queen of Trash and Other Chinese Titans of Recycling CHENG SHENGCHAN IS an ebullient self-made man with curious habits, like rolling his trousers above his knees while making tea for his guests in his office. He runs what has a reasonable claim to be the greenest, most socially inclusive and ‘sustainable’ paper mill in the world. And the much-derided paper recyclers of Britain can claim a significant part in his success. Here is his checklist of achievement. It is enough to make any European executive in charge of corporate social responsibility green with envy. ‘My mill runs entirely on waste paper,’ he told me as he served tea. ‘It is fuelled entirely on biofuels; its labour force is made up of the disabled; and not a drop of effluent leaves the site.’ Cheng took over the loss-making CXXR United Paper Mill, outside the southern Chinese city of Xiamen, when the state decided to shut it down in 1994. He was a manager back then, though he says now that he had no control, no supplies of raw materials and few markets.

But I do believe we still have the ability, and maybe the foresight, to mend our ways. Politicians talk, apparently seriously, about reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 per cent and more by mid-century. Global corporations are responding to real market pressures when they declare that they are going carbonneutral and selling organic and fairly traded and environmentally certified produce. They have corporate social responsibility departments because they need them. There may be some cynicism involved, some greenwash. But I do believe that they increasingly recognize that these are jobs that have to be done. There will be false dawns and dead ends. Maybe putting a tiny wind turbine on your roof is a silly idea. Maybe it makes more sense to incinerate your old newspaper and make some energy than to drive it across the country for recycling.


pages: 237 words: 72,716

The Inequality Puzzle: European and US Leaders Discuss Rising Income Inequality by Roland Berger, David Grusky, Tobias Raffel, Geoffrey Samuels, Chris Wimer

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Branko Milanovic, Celtic Tiger, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, double entry bookkeeping, equal pay for equal work, fear of failure, financial innovation, full employment, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, Long Term Capital Management, microcredit, offshore financial centre, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, rent-seeking, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, time value of money, very high income

This does not sit at all well with ideas of fairness and social mobility. What practical actions, if any, should the private sector undertake to address rising inequality? A business cannot be successful in the long term if it does not act responsibly toward the environment and society. That is why sustainability is an integral part of BASF’s strategy. We have initiated a number of projects in the area of corporate social responsibility that could be broadly construed as efforts to improve access to education, health, and business opportunities. One example is a social business joint venture that we have established in Bangladesh with the Grameen Healthcare Trust together with Nobel Laureate Muhammad Yunus. The aim is to offer affordable solutions to meet the basic needs of the poor in Bangladesh. These solutions – sachets of vitamins and micronutrients, and impregnated mosquito nets – tie in with BASF’s product portfolio.

Taking issue with the goal that everyone should get a college degree, especially from a prominent university, he advocates more support for community colleges and vocational training to give high school graduates the skills to find jobs. He also recommends more economicallyfocused Federal funding and “the government should phase out Federal loans and support of higher education, except in the scientific disciplines where it can be justified on the basis of national security and economic wealth generation.” 170 T. Raffel and G. Samuels Mentoring Corporate Social Responsibility’s reputation has suffered the fate of many buzz words, more often honored in the breach, but some corporate mentoring programs have demonstrated effectiveness in reaching out to disadvantaged students of ability. “Money is not everything,” notes Ackermann, “you can and should, of course, invest time and talent, for example, in mentoring programs.” In 2005, BASF was a founding member of the Knowledge Factory that has expanded to sixty-five German companies supporting educational projects at the preschool, kindergarten, and elementary levels.


pages: 281 words: 95,852

The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application

Steven Horwitz, Making Hurricane Response More Effective: Lessons from the Private Sector and the Coast Guard during Katrina, policy comment, Global Prosperity Initiative (Vienna, VA: Mercatus Center, George Mason University, March 2008). 62. Robert Pear and Jackie Calmes, “Cost Concerns as Obama Pushes Health Issue,” New York Times, June 16, 2009. 63. Steve May, The Debate over Corporate Social Responsibility (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007); André Habisch, Corporate Social Responsibility across Europe (Berlin: Springer, 2005). 228 NOTES TO PAGES 43–53 64. Milton Friedman, “The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits,” New York Times Magazine, September 13, 1970. 65. For an early account of the ways a clumsily regulated Web would fail to foster democratic values if left to the tumult of market forces, see Andrew Chin, “Making the World Wide Web Safe for Democracy: A Medium-Specific First Amendment Analysis,” Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal (Comm/Ent) 19 (1996): 309. 66.


pages: 310 words: 91,151

Leaving Microsoft to Change the World: An Entrepreneur's Odyssey to Educate the World's Children by John Wood

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

airport security, British Empire, call centre, clean water, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, fear of failure, glass ceiling, high net worth, income per capita, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, microcredit, Own Your Own Home, random walk, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Ballmer

It would be like Exxon buying a gas-guzzling vehicle for a poor family, in hopes that they’d fill the tank every week. Our critics are having a field day by saying that we’re not a good Chinese corporate citizen. If we want to prove otherwise, we should think about doing something for seniors that does not involve computers. Can we improve their home? Serve them a hot and nutritious meal? Take them out on field trips?” My ideas were met with silence. To the meeting’s participants, corporate social responsibility was only relevant if it helped the business in the long term. I stopped arguing and reminded myself that philanthropy that extended beyond one’s family was still a relatively new concept in China. These young employees had been trained to act like capitalists. So it would be hypocritical of me to criticize them. Nevertheless, I continued to daydream about what it would be like the day I ran my own show and could relentlessly focus on helping those most in need.

Spotting Dinesh among the crowd, I startle him with a cry of “Bai!”—Nepali for younger brother. He happily shakes my hand, welcomes me back to Nepal, and in his usual “all-business” mode quickly hustles me through the crowd of porters offering their services. Once the car is rolling through the chaotic streets of Kathmandu, Dinesh and I begin exchanging news both big and small—my recent speech in Bangkok on corporate social responsibility, the current cease-fire between the Maoist rebels and Nepal’s government, the rumors of a potential coup d’état that are being taken so seriously that Nepal’s king is rumored to be returning early from a foreign holiday, Dinesh’s family, and our dinner plans at my favorite momo (steamed dumpling) restaurant. Then he springs a surprise on me. “This Friday will be a big day.” I remind him that I’m well aware of this fact, and that’s why I am here.


pages: 438 words: 109,306

Tower of Basel: The Shadowy History of the Secret Bank That Runs the World by Adam Lebor

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, central bank independence, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deindustrialization, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial independence, financial innovation, forensic accounting, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, haute cuisine, IBM and the Holocaust, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, price stability, quantitative easing, reserve currency, special drawing rights, V2 rocket

Commercial banks, might, for example, ask why they should adhere to the Basel Committee’s banking rules, when the host bank itself is arguably protecting a central bank against its creditors? For now, at least, the BIS can rely on its powerful friends. But if the political climate continues shifting toward transparency and accountability, the bank’s managers may find that their calls take longer to be returned and are briefer in duration. The bank needs to reform in three areas to ensure its survival: transparency, accountability, and corporate social responsibility. The first is the simplest. The BIS should hold a press conference after the bimonthly governors’ weekends and make it available on the Internet. The bank should publish the attendance list and the broad themes of discussion at the weekend meetings, in particular of the elite Economic Consultative Committee that meets for dinner on Sunday evenings; the Global Economy Meeting the next day, the BIS directors’ meeting that deals with the bank’s governance, and deliberations of the Markets Committee, which deals with the international financial markets.

In recent years, EGMs were called to change the bank’s unit of account from the gold franc to the Special Drawing Right, to forcibly buy back the shares held in private hands, and to distribute the shares held by the former Yugoslavia to its successor states. Voting is decided at EGMs by member central banks. If the governors and officials of the member central banks were mandated by their national governments to vote for the change and modernization, the bank would have to accede to the changes. Thirdly, such an EGM could also mandate the bank to spend some of its profits on corporate social responsibility and philanthropy. The bank has for decades reaped rich rewards of its stewardship of public funds. In the financial year 2011–2012 the BIS made tax-free profits of almost $100 million each month. It is time to return some of those profits to a wider society, beyond the annual dividends paid to the central bank shareholders. The bank refused to answer questions from the author on how much it spends on charity and philanthropic projects.


pages: 532 words: 139,706

Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, corporate social responsibility, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management

“We should be entitled to our representation in government.” Like Microsoft in the late nineties, the Google leadership, “composed of ideological technologists,” as Schrage put it in 2007, was slow to appreciate the political and the human dimensions of the technical decisions it made. Schrage’s resume spans a law degree, years of teaching, a senior executive position at The Gap, and work as an international consultant on corporate social responsibility. He acknowledged that Google engineers were new to the ways of Washington. “Some call that naivete. Some might criticize this; others might applaud it. No question that people here regularly discuss Microsoft’s experience and use that as a cautionary tale.” Later, meaning to explain rather than criticize, Schrage told me, “One can make the argument that the genes of technological innovation are frequently in conflict with emotional intelligence.

Social idealism has been a core value in the culture of the Internet, from the insistence of Tim Berners-Lee, who believed that the Web should be open and that he would not patent it or enrich himself; to the open-source movement; to Wikipedia, which follows a democratic faith in “the wisdom of crowds” and has adopted a nonprofit model. Before one dismisses these approaches as the gauzy thinking of left-wing populists, consider how often traditional companies now promote their own “corporate social responsibility”—in part to ecumenically emulate Andrew Carnegie, in part to bathe in the favorable publicity, in part to profit from some of these endeavors, and in part as a reaction against almost daily ethical business lapses. Companies like the Gap and Hallmark donate a portion of their profits to fight AIDS; Starbucks gave comprehensive health care to its employees, including part-timers. General Electric devised what it called an ecomagination strategy to address climate change and reap profits from it.


pages: 436 words: 141,321

Reinventing Organizations: A Guide to Creating Organizations Inspired by the Next Stage of Human Consciousness by Frederic Laloux, Ken Wilber

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, augmented reality, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, failed state, future of work, hiring and firing, index card, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Rogoff, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, the market place, the scientific method, Tony Hsieh

Green Organizations insist that there should be no such hierarchy among stakeholders. Businesses have a responsibility not only to investors, but also to management, employees, customers, suppliers, local communities, society at large, and the environment. The role of leadership is to make the right trade-offs so that all stakeholders can thrive. Every large organization today has to publish a corporate social responsibility report. Green Organizations consider their social responsibility an integral part of how they do business, contrary to their Orange counterparts who often deem such reports a distracting obligation. Social responsibility is often at the core of their mission, and it provides the motivation that spurs them on to innovate and become better corporate citizens. Green Organizations work with their suppliers in developing countries to improve local working conditions and prevent child labor; they try to reduce their carbon footprint and their use of water; they strive to recycle their products and reduce packaging.

But from a purpose perspective, we have much to gain by opening up to outsiders who can help us with feedback and expertise. Patagonia has gone that route with its “Footprint Chronicles,” an initiative aiming to provide total transparency to the outside world about its supply chain. Casey Sheahan, Patagonia’s current CEO, explains the journey the company took and its unexpected consequences: About four years ago, we took what was a traditional Corporate Social Responsibility report and we put everything online and it’s called the Footprint Chronicles. … We actually took video cameras, we took tape recorders and still cameras into the factories. We told our factories: we intend to show our customers where everything is made, how it’s made, what the conditions are like, what the impact of transportation and water usage is on the overall carbon footprint. The Footprint Chronicles talks about the good, the bad, and the ugly of everything we make.

Making Globalization Work by Joseph E. Stiglitz

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, capital controls, central bank independence, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, inventory management, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, microcredit, moral hazard, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil rush, open borders, open economy, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, statistical model, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Washington Consensus

MAKING GLOBALIZATION WORK It is easy to understand why multinational corporations have played such a central role in globalization: it takes organizations of enormous scope to span the globe, to bring together the markets, technology, and 198 MAKING GLOBALIZATION WORK capital of the developed countries with the production capacities of the developing ones. The question is how to ensure that developing countries get more benefits—and face fewer of the costs. In the following pages, I set out a five-pronged agenda that, though it will not eliminate all instances of corporate abuse, will I believe lessen them. Underlying most of these reforms is a simple objective: to align private incentives with social costs and benefits. Corporate social responsibility Though many corporations, especially in the United States, continue to argue that their sole responsibility is to shareholders, many do recognize that their responsibility goes further. There is an element of selfinterest here: doing good can be good for business, and doing bad can subject companies to expensive lawsuits. Bad behavior also can harm a company's image: the negative publicity surrounding the U.S. shoe company Nike after its suppliers in Vietnam mistreated local workers and the furor after Ken Saro-Wiwa was killed in Nigeria amid accusations that the Anglo-Dutch oil company Shell supported the military junta that murdered him were wake-up calls.

I have argued throughout this book that politics and economics are intricately interwoven: corporations have used their financial muscle to protect themselves from bearing the full social consequences of their actions. Why should we expect them to respond any more enthusiastically to these reforms than to any of the more modest attempts to temper their abuses? 210 MAKING GLOBALIZATION WORK One thing that makes me hopeful is the corporate social responsibility movement. There is an increasing number of firms who do not want to see a race to the bottom. It is firms like these, in the United States and other countries, that supported the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Civil society too is playing a more active role, by monitoring the actions of the large mining companies and of manufacturing firms that abuse their workers. The new technologies that have helped bring about globalization have been used to bring these abuses to the attention of the world, so that even those who have little moral compunction have been forced to account for their actions.

Culture and Prosperity: The Truth About Markets - Why Some Nations Are Rich but Most Remain Poor by John Kay

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, California gold rush, complexity theory, computer age, constrained optimization, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equity premium, Ernest Rutherford, European colonialism, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, failed state, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, George Gilder, greed is good, haute couture, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nash equilibrium, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pets.com, popular electronics, price discrimination, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, second-price auction, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, transaction costs, tulip mania, urban decay, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, yield curve, yield management

Bibliography { 399} Henderson, D. 1977. "Two British Errors: Their Probable Size and Some Possible Reasons." Oxford Economic Papers 29 (2): 159-205. ---. 1986. Innocence and Design: The Influence of Economic Ideas on Policy. Oxford: Blackwell. ---. 2000. "False Perspective: The UNDP View of the World." World Economics 1 (1) Ganuary-March). ---. 2001. "Misguided Virtue: False Notions of Corporate Social Responsibility." Hobart Paper 142. London: Institute of Economic Affairs. Henney, A. 1988. The Economic Failure of Nuclear Power in Britain. London: Greenpeace. Hensler, D. S. Carrol, M. White, and]. Cross. 2001. Asbestos Litigation. Santa Monica Calif.: U.S. Rand Institute for CivilJustice. Heston, A., and R Summers. 1991. "The Penn World Table (Mark 5): An Expanded Set of International Comparisons, 1950-1988."

Anarchy> State and Utopia. New York: Basic Books. Oakeshott, M.]. 1962. Rationalism in Politics and Other Essays. London: Methuen. OECD. 1975. The Polluter Pays Principle: Definition> Analysis> Implementation. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. ---. 1993. Improvement of Economic Forecasts. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. ---. 2001. Corporate Social Responsibility: Partners for Progress. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Olson, M. 1996. "Big Bills Left on the Sidewalk: Why Some Nations Are Rich, and Others Poor." journal ofEconomic Perspectives 10 (3): 3-24. Ormerod, P. 1998. Butterfly Economics: A New General Theory of Social and Economic Behavior. New York: Pantheon Books. Ortega, B. 1999. In Sam We Trust: The Untold Story of Sam Walton> and How Wal-Mart Is Devouring America.


pages: 207 words: 52,716

Capitalism 3.0: A Guide to Reclaiming the Commons by Peter Barnes

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, car-free, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, dark matter, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, hypertext link, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, jitney, new economy, patent troll, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra

They contend that corporations were once dedicated to public purposes, escaped their bounds, and can be put back in. They recall a time when companies were rooted in their communities, hired workers for life, and contributed to local charities. The trouble is, those days are irreversibly gone. Today, owners live nowhere near workers, labor and nature are costs to be minimized, and it’s hard to see what might displace profit as the organizing principle for publicly traded corporations. SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE SHAREHOLDERS Managers are ultimately responsible to shareholders, so if shareholders demanded social responsibility, perhaps managers would pay attention. That’s the thinking behind socially responsible investing. Could this tactic tame corporations? Partisans of this approach employ two techniques: screened investment (putting money in “good” companies and withholding it from “bad” ones) and shareholder activism.


pages: 171 words: 54,334

Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

I would now like to find a way to get Google on my side by convincing them that this is good business practice and if not profitable, then at least not cripplingly unsustainable to do.” * * * It’s hardly radical – at least, it’s not my kind of radical. It’s not the kind of radical that smokes cigarettes in squatted factory buildings plotting revolutions, or takes to the streets in glorious technicolour. It’s not glamorous, and it’s not easy. It doesn’t smash the system, it is the system. It is consumer politics, not citizen politics. It is corporate social responsibility. It is public relations. But then, if it is also a good solution to a pressing problem, what kind of hacker would I be to ignore it? * * * Chapter 8: Ciphers and Doppelgangers When I spoke to him at the Frontline Club, Ethan told me that, for now at least, he was hopeful for the US State Department’s internet freedom agenda. He knew the people who wrote Hillary Clinton’s January speech.


pages: 196 words: 57,974

Company: A Short History of a Revolutionary Idea by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, barriers to entry, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, business process, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, double entry bookkeeping, Etonian, hiring and firing, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, manufacturing employment, market bubble, mittelstand, new economy, North Sea oil, race to the bottom, railway mania, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, six sigma, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, tulip mania, wage slave, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Mark Hanna (1837–1904), a Cleveland steel magnate, became Republican National Chairman and helped to make William McKinley president. And companies began to hire public-relations advisers, notably Ivy Lee (1877–1934), who almost managed to smooth over the Rockefellers’ brutal suppression of the 1913–1914 miners’ strike against the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company.29 But it was not all just spin. The second thing was the growth of what would now be called corporate social responsibility. As we have already seen, Rosenwald thought it was good business to set up a pension fund for Sears workers. Many other big companies made positive efforts to cement the bond between capital and labor. U.S. Steel, for instance, spent $10 million a year on employee welfare programs—“to disarm the prejudice against trusts,” as the chairman of the board informed his colleagues. International Harvester established a profit-sharing plan.30 Company towns sprang up across America.


pages: 169 words: 56,250

Startup Communities: Building an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in Your City by Brad Feld

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

barriers to entry, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, Grace Hopper, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, labour mobility, Lean Startup, minimum viable product, Network effects, Peter Thiel, place-making, pre–internet, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, text mining, Y Combinator, Zipcar

I assumed that you started philanthropy when you got older, upon retirement. I was naïve due to my laser focus on my business. Brad Feld and his wife Amy Batchelor had the same realization several years earlier when I talked to him about it. He challenged me with the words, “If not us, who? If not now, when?” I began an exploration to understand what other people around the United States were doing to bring corporate social responsibility into their startups. I noticed the great work the Marc Benioff (Salesforce.com CEO) and Suzanne DiBanca (Salesforce.com Foundation Executive Director) were doing. They had a model of 1/1/1 where they gave 1 percent of equity, 1 percent of time, and 1 percent of product to the Salesforce.com Foundation contribute back to their community in exchange for the support their community had given them in launching their company.


pages: 230 words: 62,294

The Coffee Book: Anatomy of an Industry From Crop to the Last Drop by Gregory Dicum, Nina Luttinger

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

California gold rush, clean water, corporate social responsibility, cuban missile crisis, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, European colonialism, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, open economy, price stability, Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place

Ryan and Alan Thein Durning, Stuff: The Secret Lives of Everyday Things (Seattle, WA: Northwest Environment Watch, 1997), 7–12. 4 National Marketing Institute, “Organic Food and Beverage Sales Increase 18 Percent” Press release, February 22, 2005. 5 Datamonitor, “Natural Food and Drinks Report,” 2003. 6 Paul H. Ray, The Cultural Creatives: How 50 Million People Are Changing the World (New York: Harmony Books, 2000). 7 Natural Marketing Institute, 2005. Corporate Social Responsibility, Consumer Understanding and Influence. Press release, August 18, 2005. 8 Giovannucci, D. “Sustainable Coffee Survey of the North American Specialty Coffee Industry,” 2001. 9 National Coffee Association, personal interview with Joe DeRupo, Director of Communications and Public Relations, September 20, 2005. 10 SPINS, personal interview with David Browne, Director of Content Development, September 28, 2005. 11 National Coffee Association, “National Coffee Drinking Trends Report,” 2005. 12 Interviewed by TransFair USA, January, 2005. 13 Peter Fritsch, “An Oversupply of Coffee Beans Deepens Latin America’s Woes,” Wall Street Journal, July 8, 2002. 14 Fair Trade Federation, “Fair Trade Trends Report,” 2005. 15 Chris Willie, “The Birds and the Beans; Coffee Trees as Bird Habitats,” Audubon 96, no. 6 (November 1994): 58.


pages: 166 words: 49,639

Start It Up: Why Running Your Own Business Is Easier Than You Think by Luke Johnson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Grace Hopper, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, James Dyson, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, mittelstand, Network effects, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, patent troll, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, software patent, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, traveling salesman, tulip mania

Typically an apparatus builds up around divisions like HR to expand their role and cost more money. Compensation consultants are hired to come up with justifications for paying everyone more. Training advisors are employed to distract everyone from doing their job with pointless courses. Appraisal experts are contracted to critique staff relations. Experts are drafted in to devise an appropriate Corporate Social Responsibility Agenda – whatever that is. All this paraphernalia is accepted as essential good practice by modern-thinking corporate management. Most of it is an expensive, bureaucratic load of hogwash. Of course, senior executives understand that HR directors are powerful – a bit like Mossad or the CIA. Personnel know everyone’s salary and bonus and all their disciplinary records. Wily office politicians cultivate them, since they help decide who gets a pay rise and promotion, how contracts are drafted, how individuals are treated if there’s a restructuring and so on.


pages: 307 words: 17,123

Behind the cloud: the untold story of how Salesforce.com went from idea to billion-dollar company--and revolutionized an industry by Marc Benioff, Carlye Adler

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, business continuity plan, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, iterative process, Maui Hawaii, Nicholas Carr, platform as a service, Silicon Valley, software as a service, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs

Suzanne officially joined as the executive director of the Salesforce Foundation in 2000. Over the next few months, we researched established corporate foundations and personally met with dozens of foundation directors, including those at Cisco Systems, Hewlett-Packard, and Levi Strauss & Co. There was much to learn from the experiences of these companies, and it was our intention to unearth the best practices in corporate social responsibility. Play #66: Make Your Foundation Part of Your Business Model The insight we gained from other companies was tremendous. eBay, for example, had endowed its foundation with $1 million of corporate stock prior to the company’s 1998 initial public 140 The Corporate Philanthropy Playbook offering. It was one of the pioneers in providing company equity to fund philanthropic goals, and we were captivated by the power of this model.


pages: 236 words: 66,081

Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age by Clay Shirky

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Andrew Keen, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, citizen journalism, corporate social responsibility, Dean Kamen, experimental economics, experimental subject, fundamental attribution error, invention of movable type, invention of the telegraph, Kevin Kelly, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, social software, Steve Ballmer, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, ultimatum game

CHAPTER 7: Looking for the Mouse 185 notes in his book The Success of Open Source: Steven Weber, The Success of Open Source (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005): 272. 188 He got a loan to enter the indulgence-printing business: The British Library discusses Gutenberg’s printing of indulgences in its documentation of Gutenberg’s Bible: http://www.bl.uk/treasures/gutenberg/indulgences.html (accessed January 9, 2010). 188 John Tetzel, the head pardoner for German territories: Tetzel’s place in history was largely secured by Martin Luther’s objections to indulgences in 1517, but his name recently reappeared when the Catholic Church brought back indulgences in 2008; in discussing this change, John Allen references Tetzel’s phrase in the Room for Debate blog, http://roomfordebate.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/02/13/sin-and-its-indulgences (accessed January 7, 2010). 190 As Elizabeth Eisenstein notes in The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Elizabeth Eisenstein, The Printing Press as an Agent of Change: Communications and Cultural Transformations in Early-Modern Europe (Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1980). 192 a computer system called PLATO: Elisabeth Van Meer discusses this history in “PLATO: From Computer-Based Education to Corporate Social Responsibility,” Iterations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Software History (2003): 6-22. 196 “The behavior you’re seeing is the behavior you’ve designed for”: Joshua Porter, “The Behavior You’re Seeing Is the Behavior You’ve Designed For,” Bokardo, July 28, 2009, http://bokardo.com/archives/the-behavior-youve-designed-for (accessed January 10, 2010). 203 One of the most parsimonious examples of this pattern on the web is from JavaRanch: “Be Nice,” JavaRanch, http://faq.javaranch.com/java/BeNice (accessed January 10, 2010). 203 it sometimes upgraded its software every half hour: Nisan Gabbay, “Flickr Case Study: Still About Tech for Exit?”


pages: 275 words: 77,017

The End of Money: Counterfeiters, Preachers, Techies, Dreamers--And the Coming Cashless Society by David Wolman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, cashless society, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, Diane Coyle, fiat currency, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, German hyperinflation, greed is good, Isaac Newton, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, mental accounting, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, Steven Levy, the payments system, transaction costs

As of October 2011, Eko had opened more than 200,000 bank accounts, and had another 800,000 people using the service to send money. That may sound like a lot, but the heat is on for Sinha to ramp the operation up another notch if he’s going to prove the company’s worth. As big-hearted as this model may be for encouraging savings and all the rest of it, Eko and other mobile banking initiatives are still businesses. One pinstriped-suit wearing Indian telecom executive put it this way: “This is not about corporate social responsibility or public relations. We want to get paid.” In the same breath, however, he painted an idealistic picture of branchless banking, and of what this technology could mean for his country and for the hundreds of millions of people in India struggling against abject poverty. “The backward classes and all that shit has gone on too long,” he says. “Every man should be socially included. To do that, you need financial inclusion.”


pages: 369 words: 80,355

Too Big to Know: Rethinking Knowledge Now That the Facts Aren't the Facts, Experts Are Everywhere, and the Smartest Person in the Room Is the Room by David Weinberger

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, Debian, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of journalism, Galaxy Zoo, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, linked data, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, openstreetmap, P = NP, Pluto: dwarf planet, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, slashdot, social graph, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

There is, of course, a balance here, for you do not want local leaders to make decisions that work against the good of the whole. This is one reason that collaborative networks often structure themselves into fairly autonomous modules (as with Linux and Debian): Local expertise can have more effect, with less risk to the whole. Fifth, when decisions are made locally throughout the network, they are likely to express the interests of the local members who, typically, are volunteers. This is one way to make “corporate social responsibility” more than a bullet item on a corporate PowerPoint slide. Of course, all of the networked collaborative efforts we’ve looked at also have structures in place to ensure that local units or individuals don’t stray too far off the agreed-upon course. Sixth, hierarchical organizations that rest the pointy end of the pyramid on the back of a single human being are not as resilient as organizations that distribute leadership throughout a connected network.


pages: 193 words: 63,618

The Fair Trade Scandal: Marketing Poverty to Benefit the Rich by Ndongo Sylla

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

British Empire, carbon footprint, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Doha Development Round, Food sovereignty, global value chain, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mont Pelerin Society, Naomi Klein, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus

When addressing the problems faced by the world’s poor, the tone is at once dark and optimistic, hence reaching out to various audiences (consumers, solidarity movements, alterglobalists, politicians, etc.). In other words, when neoliberals talk about rights, choice and freedoms, Fair Trade actors use words such as ‘consum’actors’, ‘ethical consumption’, ‘responsible consumption’, ‘corporate social responsibility’, ‘sustainable development’, ‘a cart, a vote’, ‘buycott’, etc. While these materials are rich, it is difficult to extract any substance from them, or any arguments that are free from partisan ornaments. This type of literature is filled with confusing information, contradictory statements 4 Sylla T02779 01 text 4 28/11/2013 13:04 introduction and academic laziness: philosophers arguing that consumers have a moral imperative to buy Fair Trade products, while governments are morally bound to back the movement; social scientists not paying due attention to the specificities of the contexts under study; confused economists relying on the authority of simplistic theoretical arguments provided by economic textbooks; priests being seduced by marketing; marketing gurus being satisfied with statistics they do not understand; supporters of free trade ignoring the fact that free trade has more similarities to than differences from Fair Trade; the alterglobalist movement attempting to redeem the free market … But the greater irony is that the new advocates of the poor unknowingly work for the rich, being themselves part of this category.


pages: 224 words: 69,494

Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

Improvements in other transport modes will see people substituting air with rail travel, for example, when travelling from the UK to continental Europe. Businesses will replace physical travel with virtual meetings due to improved telecommunication. High speed internet will see video-conferencing and tele-presence systems commonplace in offices. The MI foresees a cultural-change in organisations towards travel through de-incentivising foreign travel and a stronger sense of corporate social responsibility. Constraining capacity: The BAU Scenario was based on DfT forecasts that included additional capacity at Stansted Airport and a third runway at Heathrow Airport. In the MI Scenario, we assume that the policy that sanctioned these additional runways would be reversed (as subsequently occurred under the 2010 Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government with respect to the third runway at Heathrow airport).


pages: 1,199 words: 332,563

Golden Holocaust: Origins of the Cigarette Catastrophe and the Case for Abolition by Robert N. Proctor

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

bioinformatics, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, facts on the ground, friendly fire, germ theory of disease, index card, Indoor air pollution, information retrieval, invention of gunpowder, John Snow's cholera map, language of flowers, life extension, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pink-collar, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, speech recognition, stem cell, telemarketer, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Upton Sinclair, Yogi Berra

Entirely ignored is the disinformation environment, the deliberate effort to confuse and befuddle. The industry’s historians have been led to produce testimony that is phantasmagoric from the point of view of basic human psychology: there is no effort to understand the feelings created by visually seductive tobacco ads, for example, or the impact of sponsoring sports, music, and the arts. Or how warnings are made invisible by “wear-out,” or how impressions of “corporate social responsibility” are created by conspicuous displays of sheltering the homeless and caring for battered women. A slanted, ahistorical account of popular tobacco culture is deployed in court, with the industry virtually absent as a historical actor. Louis Kyriakoudes in his review of the industry’s use of historians hits this nail on the head, concluding that the historians present “a skewed history of the cigarette in which the tobacco industry all but ceases to exist.”25 Of course it doesn’t take a great deal of talent to dig up “awareness” or “deluge” materials and to code these for storage in the industry’s computers.

Package design is an effective and ubiquitous form of advertising, and no cigarettes should be sold in anything but a plain white wrapper accompanied by a graphic warning. Advertising bans should cover not just the product but also the name of the company making that product, and manufacturers should be barred from sponsoring sports, music, or any other cultural event, including philanthropy designed to create an illusion of “corporate social responsibility.” 4. Make warning labels on cigarette packs large, graphic, and disgusting. Tobacco packs are miniature mobile ads and the most common way smokers encounter their cigarettes. Psychologists have studied warning labels and found that certain kinds are more effective than others; some of the most graphic are powerful enough to make people return their cigarettes, and different images will of course resonate differently in different cultures.

Torroella (Brown & Williamson) to K. Daily, “Lucky Strike Sponsorships and Parallel Communications,” May 10, 1983, Bates 660921173–1182. 33. National Cancer Institute, The Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use—Monograph 19 (Bethesda, MD: USDHHS, 2008). In 2000 Nottingham University accepted £3.8 million from British American Tobacco to create an International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility; see Derek Yach and Stella Aguinaga Bialous, “Junking Science to Promote Tobacco,” American Journal of Public Health 91 (2001): 1745–48. 34. Rogers & Cowan, “Final Report on Research for the RJR Social Responsibility Program,” Jan. 1984, Bates 502658739–8805. For “small business”: World Health Organization, “Tobacco Industry and Corporate Responsibility . . . An Inherent Contradiction,” Feb. 2003, WHO. 35.


pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

After all, competition through free enterprise and open markets may remain at the heart of a dynamic economy, but we can’t rely on competition and the pursuit of short-term economic gain alone to promote innovation and economic well-being. Vibrant markets rest on robust common foundations: a shared infrastructure of rules, institutions, knowledge, standards, and technologies provided by a mix of public and private sector initiative. 4. Integrity Years ago corporate social responsibility advocates coined the optimistic adage, “you do well by doing good.” They were trying to make a business case for good corporate behavior. Few were persuaded. The main reason for the lack of success in winning support for corporate responsibility was that the “doing well by doing good” adage was not true. Many companies did well by being bad. Creative accounting, unfair labor practices, corporate secrecy, monopolistic behaviors, externalizing costs to society, and shady environmental behaviors could help beef up the bottom line.

Lauber spends most of her days thinking about how Nike can reach a point at which it will never use another new raw material, ever again. Old shoes would be recycled and turned into new ones. T-shirts, handbags, and sports apparel would all be wholly recyclable too. Customers could come back for as many new designs as money can buy without Nike extracting another scarce resource or worrying about hundreds of millions of well-worn cross-trainers taking up space in the world’s landfills. “This isn’t just corporate social responsibility,” says Lauber. “Our lab is focused on much bigger industry shifts—we’re making investments in initiatives that will take us to the new green economy.” So far, so good, right? Except, here’s Lauber’s problem. Nike is developing a whole portfolio of sustainable technologies, many of which are not core to Nike’s business model. Lauber knows that countless other companies are investing in new green technologies too, but right now there is no easy way of sharing their discoveries.


pages: 337 words: 103,273

The Great Disruption: Why the Climate Crisis Will Bring on the End of Shopping and the Birth of a New World by Paul Gilding

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

airport security, Albert Einstein, BRICs, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, Climategate, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fear of failure, income inequality, Joseph Schumpeter, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, new economy, nuclear winter, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, University of East Anglia

At the other end of progressive financial markets are emerging institutions that are experimenting with not just a different investment focus, but different ownership structures and missions. Triodos Bank, started in the Netherlands in 1980, is a fine example, a pioneer of such approaches and one to watch. Their mission is all about social purpose: Triodos Bank finances companies, institutions and projects that add cultural value and benefit people and the environment, with the support of depositors and investors who want to encourage corporate social responsibility and a sustainable society. Triodos’s values and strategy run deep in this area, and they focus all their commercial activities on businesses and projects that have an overt social objective. Their mission continues, stating they seek to “help create a society that promotes people’s quality of life and that has human dignity at its core.” I met their CEO, Peter Blom, when I was living in Amsterdam with Greenpeace in 1994.


pages: 254 words: 14,795

Poorly Made in China: An Insider's Account of the Tactics Behind China's Production Game by Paul Midler

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

barriers to entry, corporate social responsibility, currency peg, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, full employment, illegal immigration, new economy, out of africa, price discrimination, unpaid internship, urban planning

He had once been an agent, just like Miss Lee, and when one of his biggest customers placed a sizable order along with a substantial deposit, he recognized his chance and delayed shipment of the order long enough until he had found a building to rent. He then purchased some equipment and filled the bulk of the order. In his office, Stanley delivered a small speech about all that he was doing for his employees. He had set up a karaoke lounge at the factory, he said, where workers could spend their evenings. He peppered his language with buzzwords like “corporate social responsibility” and said that he had initiated a profit-sharing plan. When we went onto the factory floor later, I buttonholed a few workers and asked them if they had anything like a profit-sharing scheme in place. Aside from the usual Chinese New Year bonus—the one that most companies gave out—the workers could not name any such arrangement. It may have been the amount of time I had already spent working other plants, but Stanley came off as disingenuous.


pages: 411 words: 108,119

The Irrational Economist: Making Decisions in a Dangerous World by Erwann Michel-Kerjan, Paul Slovic

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Andrei Shleifer, availability heuristic, bank run, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, endowment effect, experimental economics, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, George Akerlof, hindsight bias, incomplete markets, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Loma Prieta earthquake, London Interbank Offered Rate, market bubble, market clearing, moral hazard, mortgage debt, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, RAND corporation, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, statistical model, stochastic process, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, transaction costs, ultimatum game, University of East Anglia, urban planning

He holds a PhD in economics and an MA in applied mathematics from the Catholic University of Louvain. His current research ranges from decision theory under uncertainty to environmental economics, with a special focus on long-term effects. He has been a consultant for various industries and public institutions, on issues such as social security reforms, the economics of climate change, and corporate social responsibility. He has written and edited seven books on risk, including The Economics of Risk and Time (MIT Press, 2001), and was a lead author of the 2007 Report of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change. Among many prizes and honors, Professor Gollier has received several awards, including that of Junior Member of the “Institut Universitaire de France,” the Paul A. Samuelson award, and, in 2005, the “GSU-ARIA” award for the best paper presented at the first World Risk and Insurance Congress.


pages: 290 words: 87,084

Branded Beauty by Mark Tungate

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

augmented reality, Berlin Wall, call centre, corporate social responsibility, double helix, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, haute couture, invention of the printing press, joint-stock company, placebo effect, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, stem cell

This, then, was the Body Shop brand: the colourful products with their odd names (Banana Hair Conditioner, Dewberry Body Lotion), the ethical business practices, the succession of worthy causes, and corkscrew-curled Anita in the eye of it all, trekking to deserts and rainforests to bring us back new and exotic ways of scrubbing our skin and washing our hair. As Paul Vallely writes, ‘it was an extraordinary achievement – she had taken cruelty-free products out of hippie health-food shops and into the high street… she became a key figure in turning the idea of corporate social responsibility… from an idealistic fringe notion into a mainstream concern’. Roddick was a one-woman PR machine, but that does not mean she didn’t rely on outside help. The company established a formal marketing department around the time it moved into the United States; it also hired an advertising agency (‘Body Shop creates space for a voice in marketing’, Independent, 1 July 1995). Its ads maintained an activist tone, however.


pages: 339 words: 109,331

The Clash of the Cultures by John C. Bogle

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

asset allocation, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, diversification, diversified portfolio, estate planning, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, market bubble, market clearing, mortgage debt, new economy, Occupy movement, passive investing, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, profit motive, random walk, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, statistical arbitrage, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, Vanguard fund, William of Occam

During the next few years, we rounded out our index offerings, forming index funds to complete our participation in all nine Morningstar “style box” categories, namely: growth, value, and blended index funds for small-, mid-, and large-cap stocks. We formed more tax-managed index funds, along with a “social index” fund based on an external index of corporations said to honor the principles of “corporate social responsibility.” In 2004, we created index funds for the 10 industry segments of the S&P 500, including financial, health care, energy, and information technology. In 2006, recognizing the vital role of dividend income in shaping long-term stock market returns, we created two more index funds, one focused on dividend appreciation and one on high dividend yield. And in 2010, as the number of indexes proliferated, we created a series of six index funds reflecting the basic categories of the Russell indexes, mimicking those we had earlier created based on the S&P indexes.


pages: 299 words: 83,854

Shortchanged: Life and Debt in the Fringe Economy by Howard Karger

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

big-box store, blue-collar work, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, delayed gratification, financial deregulation, illegal immigration, labor-force participation, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, low skilled workers, microcredit, mortgage debt, New Journalism, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, payday loans, predatory finance, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, underbanked, working poor

FiSCA demanded that “the Federal Reserve Bank should require, as a condition to approving the acquisition, that Bank of America make commercial banking facilities available to check cashers and prohibit the bank from enforcing its discriminatory blanket withholding of services from the entire industry.”37 Lest one believe that BofA’s refusal to provide financial services to the check-cashing industry is grounded in corporate social responsibility, the bank charges $5 to cash checks in many states, which is the same as, if not more than, what many commercial check cashers charge. The fringe economy is clearly too profitable to be overlooked by mainstream financial institutions.15 17 Our customer base is very large, diverse, and rapidly growing–it’s really mainstream America. –ACE Cash Express, 2004 Annual Report 2 Why the Fringe Economy Is Growing The almost exponential growth of the fringe economy during the mid-1990s was baffling, especially since real incomes were rising and the numbers of people in poverty were dropping.


pages: 378 words: 110,518

Postcapitalism: A Guide to Our Future by Paul Mason

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Alfred Russel Wallace, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, capital controls, Claude Shannon: information theory, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, deglobalization, deindustrialization, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, financial repression, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, Internet of things, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, means of production, Metcalfe's law, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, post-industrial society, precariat, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Transnistria, union organizing, universal basic income, urban decay, urban planning, wages for housework, women in the workforce

This is what the cognitive capital theorists mean by the ‘socialized factory’. We are no longer in a world of clearly delineated production and consumption, but one in which ideas, behaviours and customer interactions with the brand are critical to generating profit; production and consumption are blurred. This partly explains why struggles against the new capitalism are often focused on consumer issues, or brand values (e.g. corporate social responsibility), and why protesters behave more like the ‘tribes’ in marketing demographics than a unified proletariat. For cognitive capital theorists – as for Drucker – the primary activity of the new workforce is ‘the production of knowledge by means of knowledge’.51 However, the cognitive capitalism theory contains a major flaw. It would be one thing to say ‘a new kind of info-capitalism has been born within late industrial capitalism’.


pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Galaxy Zoo, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator

A study by the G8 in 2013 estimates there are 688,000 social enterprises, generating $270 billion annually. These organizations come in many forms (Benefit or B Corporations, Triple Bottom Line, L3Cs, the Conscious Capital movement, the Slow Money movement) and leverage their MTPs to integrate social and environmental issues—as well as profits—into their business processes. This trend started with the rise of corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs in organizations. In 2012, 57 percent of the Fortune 500 published a CSR report—double the number from the previous year. The difference is that CSR initiatives are add-ons to most companies’ core business; for social enterprises, CSR initiatives are the core business. Martin Seligman, a leading expert on positive psychology, differentiates between three states of happiness: the pleasurable life (hedonistic, superficial), the good life (family and friends) and the meaningful life (finding purpose, transcending ego, working toward a higher good).


pages: 307 words: 94,069

Switch: How to Change Things When Change Is Hard by Chip Heath, Dan Heath

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Atul Gawande, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate social responsibility, en.wikipedia.org, fundamental attribution error, impulse control, medical residency, Piper Alpha, placebo effect, publish or perish, Richard Thaler, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs

For additional insight into this case, check out an article by Rao and Robert Sutton (September 2008), “The Ergonomics of Innovation,” The McKinsey Quarterly, http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/The_ergonom-ics_of_innovation_2197 (accessed May 17, 2009). Chapter Two In 1990, Jerry Sternin. The Vietnam story is compiled from various sources. An article by David Dorsey (December 2000), “Positive Deviant,” Fast Company, p. 42, first introduced popular audiences to Jerry and Monique Sternin’s work on positive deviance. Other details are from Jerry Sternin’s presentation at the Boston College Center for Corporate Social Responsibility in April 2008 and from interviews of Jerry Sternin by Chip Heath in March and April 2008 and of Monique Sternin in May 2009. “We were like orphans.” Most of the direct quotations in this section are from Dorsey, “Positive Deviant.” Bright spots. Sternin’s term for these outliers is positive deviants, which is based on a statistical analogy. Picture a statistical bell curve on which most people have outcomes around average.


pages: 329 words: 95,309

Digital Bank: Strategies for Launching or Becoming a Digital Bank by Chris Skinner

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, bank run, Basel III, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, demand response, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Google Glasses, high net worth, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, margin call, mass affluent, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, quantitative easing, ransomware, reserve currency, RFID, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Stuxnet, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, web application, Y2K

Perhaps you can give us a little background to start with as to why M-PESA has been so successful in Kenya and why did Vodafone get into this space? The product originally came into existence as a result of a pilot we operated in Kenya with its original conception dating back to 2004 – 2005. Back then Nick Hughes, who worked in Vodafone Group’s Corporate and Social Responsibility Unit, was looking at how to pilot mobile telephone payments for social inclusion and microfinance. Being in Corporate Social Responsibility, it’s was difficult to get access to Vodafone’s product development engine, - which focused on more mainstream products. However Nick was able to get agreement that if he could secure external funding, the project would be supported. Nick had a conversation with the UK’s Department for International Development (DFID) and that led to an application for funding from a Challenge Fund The application was approved and was awarded £1m, which Vodafone matched in terms of manpower, staff and marketing materials, and that started the pilot in Kenya in 2006-2007.


pages: 322 words: 84,752

Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

AccessNow, the main organization that lobbied corporations to keep communications networks running and pressured technology companies to stop selling software tools to dictators, organized the Silicon Valley Human Rights Conference in November 2011.23 The event was sponsored by Google, Facebook, Yahoo!, AT&T, Skype, and other technology firms, and it brought together the corporate leaders and foreign policy officials of major Western democratic nations to design policies for corporate social responsibility in the interest of international human rights. Similarly, the governments of the United States, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the European Union all created formal funding programs totaling more than $100 million to support digital activists working from within repressive regimes. At least seven conventions and conferences have been brokered by the foreign policy offices of key Western democratic countries since the Arab Spring.


pages: 324 words: 92,805

The Impulse Society: America in the Age of Instant Gratification by Paul Roberts

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, accounting loophole / creative accounting, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, business process, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, David Brooks, delayed gratification, double helix, factory automation, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, game design, greed is good, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, impulse control, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, low skilled workers, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, performance metric, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Walter Mischel, winner-take-all economy

Many firms made peace with labor unions. They began making long-term investments in their workforces (for example, offering extensive employee training so workers could keep pace with rapidly changing technology). Health care and benefits became increasingly common. More and more, large firms were coming to resemble private welfare states. Their executives and boards may not have bought into the rhetoric of corporate social responsibility from management gurus such as Peter Drucker, but as makers of products for consumers, companies seemed to have grasped that their own prosperity was inseparable from the prosperity of those consumers. When General Motors CEO Charles Wilson, nominated by President Eisenhower to be defense secretary, was asked during his Senate confirmation hearing whether he would be able to make policy decisions that might harm his former employer, Wilson said yes, but insisted that such a decision was unlikely to come up, since national interests and corporate interests were almost perfectly aligned.


pages: 207 words: 86,639

The New Economics: A Bigger Picture by David Boyle, Andrew Simms

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, delayed gratification, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, garden city movement, happiness index / gross national happiness, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, land reform, loss aversion, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, neoliberal agenda, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, peak oil, pensions crisis, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, working-age population

This is the difficulty when new economics encounters the mainstream. It is taken up, where it is taken up, by policy makers to solve specific problems, often without the ideological baggage that guaranteed its humanistic roots. Alternative economic indicators and social auditing, both developed at nef, became completely mainstream, but at some cost – government targets suffocated local initiative and social auditing pigeon holed corporate social responsibility in the public relations and accountancy departments. Energy taxation has been muddled by many of the governments that have enacted it – including the EU – but it is at least in place. Credit unions and community banks have sometimes bucked this trend, and remain a small but potent force. Other thinking, to underpin thriving local economies – local money flows, complementary currencies or the critique of the doctrine of comparative advantage – have barely filtered into mainstream assumptions at all, except among those creative and forward-thinking early adopters that exist in any government, however backward.


pages: 370 words: 102,823

Rethinking Capitalism: Economics and Policy for Sustainable and Inclusive Growth by Michael Jacobs, Mariana Mazzucato

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, balance sheet recession, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, business climate, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collaborative economy, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Detroit bankruptcy, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, facts on the ground, fiat currency, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Internet of things, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, new economy, non-tariff barriers, paradox of thrift, price stability, private sector deleveraging, quantitative easing, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the built environment, The Great Moderation, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, very high income

Post-democratic capitalism does not require a formal renunciation of democracy any more than corporate neoliberalism requires a renunciation of the market; indeed, democracy and the market continue to be used as the primary sources of legitimation of the evolving political system of dominant corporate power. Other sources are then used in a supplementary way.26 For example, anti-anti-trust theory provided a justification for protecting market-dominating corporations from market-making competition law. New public management theory legitimates the abolition of boundaries between public officials and corporate personnel seen as so important to an earlier age of liberal economy. Corporate social responsibility gives business leaders a social legitimation going beyond their role as profit-maximisers and suggests that public policy is not needed to tackle many market failures. In the absence of Keynesian demand management, the widespread desire for a high level of employment gives priority to the policy preferences of business interests. A discussion of the paradoxical and troublesome relationships between the market economy and the strategies of privatisation and public service outsourcing that apparently arise from it reveals broader tensions within contemporary political economy.


pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar

That may work for many of them—until the day that it doesn’t. That’s also the day that taxpayers could be handed the bill, which is why Washington needs to start asking some tough policy questions.”17 In October 2015, a diverse group of individuals signed a letter proposing portable benefits for sharing economy workers. The collective was spearheaded by the Peers co-founder Natalie Foster; a former White House senior advisor, Greg Nelson; a corporate social responsibility expert and freelancer, Libby Reder; and the former McKinsey consultant Lenny Mendoza. I was a signatory, as were the Freelancers Union founder Sara Horowitz and the coworker.org founder Michelle Miller, both of whom I discussed in chapter 7. The 40 or so other initial signatories included the CEOs of Etsy (Chad Dickerson), Handy (Oisin Hanrahan), and Instacart (Apoorva Mehta); Lyft’s president John Zimmer and its CEO Logan Green; the Silicon Valley icon Tim O’Reilly; the influential labor organizer and former SEIU president Andy Stern; the venture capitalists Brad Burnham, Simon Rothman, and Hunter Walk; as well as the leadership of the Aspen Institute, the Roosevelt Institute, the Institute for the Future, and a few other professors, from Berkeley, Harvard and Northwestern.


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Yet he also notes that while piracy signifies “a repudiation of information capitalism at one extreme,” it marks information capitalism’s “consummation” on the other.30 If Peter Sunde represents the first pole, Matt Mason, who took the conference stage at the Open Video Conference after Sunde’s image flickered out, embodies the second. Mason, author of the book The Pirate’s Dilemma: How Youth Culture Reinvented Capitalism, acknowledged that piracy can sometimes cut into profits. But in crisis, as they say, lies opportunity. He gave the example of drug companies distributing widely pirated copies of their patent medicines without charge. “They started winning corporate social responsibility awards,” Mason rhapsodized. “And all the advertising money in the world couldn’t help them do that.” Or take shoes; instead of suing a Japanese bootlegger for selling altered versions of their sneakers, Nike made a fortune appropriating the redesigns. “Pirates are taking over the good ship capitalism, but they’re not here to sink it. Instead they will plug the holes, keep it afloat, and propel it forward,” he promised.


pages: 441 words: 136,954

That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks

In 1971, the year I graduated from high school, Time magazine had a cover featuring then Minnesota governor Wendell Anderson holding up a fish he had just caught, under the headline “The Good Life in Minnesota.” It was all about “the state that works.” When the senators from your childhood were the Democrats Hubert Humphrey, Walter Mondale, and Eugene McCarthy, your congressmen were the moderate Republicans Clark MacGregor and Bill Frenzel, and the leading corporations in your state—Dayton’s, Target, General Mills, and 3M—were pioneers in corporate social responsibility and believed that it was part of their mission to help build things like the Tyrone Guthrie Theater, you wound up with a deep conviction that politics really can work and that there is a viable political center in American life. I attended public school with the same group of kids from K through 12. In those days in Minnesota, private schools were for kids in trouble. Private school was pretty much unheard of for middle-class St.


pages: 399 words: 155,913

The Right to Earn a Living: Economic Freedom and the Law by Timothy Sandefur

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

barriers to entry, big-box store, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Edward Glaeser, housing crisis, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, minimum wage unemployment, positional goods, price stability, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal

Coryell, 40–41 Cornwell, Jo Ann, 147–48 corporation, evolution, xvi, 17 general incorporation laws, 28–29 monopolistic corporate charters, 27–29 17th and 18th century, 26–29 19th century, 27–31, 48–49 see also monopoly, evolution corporations archaic vision of, 31–37 benefits of, 36–37 corporate charters, 27–31, 70–75 corporate privileges, 33–35 as creatures of the state, 29, 32–33 definition changes, 26–29, 37 Friedman on corporate social responsibility, 35 marriage analogy, 29 as monopolies, 29–31 as “persons,” 34–35 pooled resources, 35, 36 present-day antitrust laws, 50–55 protection from social legislation, 5–6 stakeholder theory and stakeholders, 35–36 see also monopolies Court of Federal Claims, raisin case and, 168–69 Craigmiles v. Giles, 151–53, 159 creative destruction, 126 creative faculty, aspect of humanity, 3 creative works, freedom of expression, 194–95 Crescent City Livestock Landing and Slaughterhouse Company, 42, 73 criminal law maxim (innocent until proven guilty), 130, 274 Curtis, Michael Kent, 288 DaimlerChrysler Corp. v.


pages: 501 words: 134,867

A Line in the Tar Sands: Struggles for Environmental Justice by Tony Weis, Joshua Kahn Russell

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Bakken shale, bilateral investment treaty, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial exploitation, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, Deep Water Horizon, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, global village, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, immigration reform, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, LNG terminal, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, profit maximization, race to the bottom, smart grid, special economic zone, working poor

These and other adverse health impacts affecting frontline communities in the vicinity of the Athabasca tar sands are documented in a report produced by the Sierra Club. See Gabriel DeRita and Tom Valtin, Toxic Tar Sands: Profiles from the Front Lines (2010). 3. World Health Organization, “Asphalt (Bitumen),” 2004, www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/cicad59_rev_1.pdf. 4. See Enbridge’s Environmental, Health and Safety and Corporate Social Responsibility Reports: csr.enbridge.com. 5. Statistics regarding the number of recent immigrants in Toronto census tracts are available from Stuart Thompson of York University. See Anna Mehler Paperny, “Interactive Map: Explore the data behind Toronto’s working poor,” The Globe and Mail, February 10, 2012, www.theglobeandmail.com/news/toronto/interactive-map-explore-the-data-behind-torontos-working-poor/article545650/. 6.


pages: 504 words: 143,303

Why We Can't Afford the Rich by Andrew Sayer

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, banking crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, decarbonisation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demand response, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, high net worth, income inequality, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, job automation, Julian Assange, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, mortgage debt, neoliberal agenda, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, patent troll, payday loans, Plutocrats, plutocrats, predatory finance, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor, Yom Kippur War

Peter Buffett, disillusioned son of billionaire philanthropist Warren Buffett, comments: As more lives and communities are destroyed by the system that creates vast amounts of wealth for the few, the more heroic it sounds to ‘give back.’ It’s what I would call ‘conscience laundering’ – feeling better about accumulating more than any one person could possibly need to live on by sprinkling a little around as an act of charity.130 And having one’s name or company brand attached to a good cause is good public relations; you don’t even have to declare how much you’ve given; for companies it buys an aura of ‘corporate social responsibility’. At the annual World Economic Forum in Davos, the super-rich gather to be seen at the sessions on philanthropy, and bathe in the glow of benevolence. Philanthropists don’t just want to give money and allow the recipients to use it as they see fit; they want to have some control over how it’s used, because, let’s face it, the rich, being so clever and successful, know best. And they consider their wealth, whatever its origins, as theirs to use as they wish.


pages: 413 words: 119,379

The Looting Machine: Warlords, Oligarchs, Corporations, Smugglers, and the Theft of Africa's Wealth by Tom Burgis

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, British Empire, central bank independence, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, F. W. de Klerk, Gini coefficient, Livingstone, I presume, McMansion, megacity, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, purchasing power parity, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transfer pricing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

‘Through these companies we get pieces from Shell,’ the General said, though I was not permitted to see the contracts. The General’s militia was also indirectly given work cleaning up oil spills, he said, splitting the proceeds fifty-fifty with an official contractor.41 Under Shell’s Global Memoranda of Understanding, introduced in 2006 following unrest in the Delta that crippled its installations to replace ad hoc corporate social responsibility projects with a more comprehensive approach to mollifying resentment, representatives of each settlement where the company operates inform Shell of their priorities. The projects Shell funds range from town halls to printing presses and scholarships, with each contract worth between 12 million and 60 million naira (US$80,000 to $400,000).42 Shell says the programme ‘represents an important shift in approach, placing emphasis on more transparent and accountable processes, regular communication with the grassroots, sustainability, and conflict prevention.’43 Before I met the General, a Port Harcourt go-between, well connected to the militants and whom we shall call Arthur, explained to me how Farah Dagogo and a fellow militia boss, who borrowed his nom de guerre from the American rapper Busta Rhymes, had diverted some of Shell’s largesse to their own war chest.44 Shell would send liaison officers for consultations with the Delta’s inhabitants on the projects they wanted, Arthur told me.


pages: 464 words: 121,983

Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks

TomDispatch, January 27, 2015, at tomdispatch.com. 26“Golden Dawn Seeks ‘One-Party State,’” EnetEnglish, June 19, 2014, at enetenglish.gr. 27Andrew Higgins, “Far-right Fever for a Europe Tied to Russia,” New York Times, May 20, 2014. 28Richard Schwartz, “Greek Jews Laud Leftist Win—Despite Chilly Stance on Israel,” Forward, February 3, 2015. 29Helena Smith, “Greek Prime Minister Facing Resignation Calls after Aide’s Golden Dawn Gaffe,” Guardian, April 4, 2014. 30Peter Beaumont and Patrick Kingsley, Guardian, October 1, 2014. 31Belen Fernandez, “Detention in Malta: Europe’s Migrant Prison,” Al Jazeera English, May 18, 2014. 32Apostolis Fotiadis, “New Operation Could Hide Major Shift in Europe’s Immigration Control Policy,” Inter Press Service, September 6, 2014, at ipsnews.net. 33Apostolis Fotiadis, “Officials Turn Blind Eye to Abuse of Asylum Seekers,” Inter Press Service, March 16, 2013, at ipsnews.net. 34Danai Angeli, “Prolonged Detention of Migrants Is Not Just Inhumane and Illegal, It’s Also Futile,” Press Project, October 11, 2014, at thepressproject.net. 35Apostolis Fotiadis, “Europe Sending Armies to Stop Immigrants,” Inter Press Service, December 3, 2013, at ipsnews.net. 36Apostolis Fotiadis and Claudia Ciobanu, “Closing Europe’s Borders Becomes Big Business,” Inter Press Service, January 9, 2013, at ipsnews.net. 37Apostolis Fotiadis and Claudia Ciobanu, “People Pay for Research Against Migrants,” Inter Press Service, January 11, 2013, at ipsnews.net. 38Apostolis Fotiadis, “Drones May Track Migrants in EU,” Al Jazeera English, November 11, 2010. 39“Eurodrones Inc.,” TNI Peace and Security, February 5, 2014. 40In an attempt to demonstrate its corporate social responsibility, G4S financially assists the Athens charity Ark of the World, providing support to children and single mothers. 41Apostolis Fotiadis, “Cecilia Malmstrom and the Fiasco of Detention Centres for Immigrants and Migrants,” Press Project, October 20, 2014, at thepressproject.net. 42“Greece Tops Eurozone Poverty Rate,” EnetEnglish, July 24, 2014, at enetenglish.gr. 43Razmig Keucheyan, “The French Are Right: Tear Up Public Debt—Most of It Is Illegitimate Anyway,” Guardian, June 10, 2014. 44Howard Schneider, “An Amazing Mea Culpa from the IMF’s Chief Economist on Austerity,” Washington Post, January 3, 2013. 45Nikos Konstandaras, “As Greece Goes, So Goes Europe?”


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

John Gattorna, author of Dynamic Supply Chains, believes the very concept of supply chains should be renamed “value networks” for the widespread benefits they bring, such as adapting essential products to the price points of local markets, building infrastructure that benefits small businesses, and training and educating local workers. Stanford Business School’s Value Chain Innovation Initiative manages a growing library around the social, environmental, and other positive impacts of modifying supply chain management. *2 As the reputation-building guru Simon Anholt explains, companies initially sign up for corporate social responsibility projects for cynical reasons—buttressing their image—but eventually they realize that doing good is how to improve their image. Anholt calls this the “loophole in human nature.” *3 Ashoka, the pioneering social enterprise organization, has launched the Hybrid Value Chain initiative to support businesses that deliver health care and housing to disenfranchised people and offer them “full economic citizenship


pages: 515 words: 132,295

Makers and Takers: The Rise of Finance and the Fall of American Business by Rana Foroohar

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, bank run, Basel III, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deskilling, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Emanuel Derman, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, gig economy, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, High speed trading, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, passive investing, pensions crisis, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vanguard fund

(Imagine how medical schools might respond if 80 percent of doctors said they’d do long-term harm to patients in order to get paid immediately.) While there was a hope after the 2008 meltdown that business schools might lead the charge toward a new and more sustainable kind of capitalism, academic leaders in the field have been largely silent, their efforts focused mostly on more marginal issues like promoting more corporate social responsibility or diversity within boardrooms. A few years ago at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, I interviewed Harvard Business School dean Nitin Nohria, who was at that point hoping to orchestrate a major post-financial-crisis shift in the MBA curriculum at Harvard. It’s been a slow process; the school is only just beginning to develop a curriculum that moves beyond efficiency theory and into more behavioral approaches to business.


pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social software, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

To them, “Integrity . . . on the part of individuals or organizations has enormous economic implications (for value, productivity, quality of life, etc.). Indeed, integrity is a factor of production as important as labor, capital, and technology.”29 Wall Street lost trust (and nearly killed capitalism) because of a set of integrity violations. But has it changed? And will it change? In the past, corporate social responsibility advocates argued that companies “do well by doing good.” We haven’t seen the evidence. Many companies did well by doing bad—by having bad labor practices in the developing world, by externalizing their costs onto society such as pollution, by being monopolies and gouging customers. The collapse of 2008 taught us for sure that companies “do badly by being bad.” The major banks found this out the hard way.


pages: 556 words: 46,885

The World's First Railway System: Enterprise, Competition, and Regulation on the Railway Network in Victorian Britain by Mark Casson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

banking crisis, barriers to entry, Beeching cuts, British Empire, combinatorial explosion, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, intermodal, iterative process, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, knowledge economy, linear programming, Network effects, New Urbanism, performance metric, railway mania, rent-seeking, strikebreaker, the market place, transaction costs

R. 367 Clitheroe as secondary natural hub 83 Tab 3.4 Clyde River 199 Clyde Valley 156 coal industry 1, 50 exports 5 see also regional coalfields coal traffic 53, 182–3, 270 coalfield railways 127, 167 Coalville 187 Coatbridge 157 Cobden, Richard 37 Cockermouth 219 Colchester 69, 107, 108 Coldstream 158, 159 Colebrook 198 Colonial Office, British 48 Combe Down Tunnel 144 commerce, industry and railways 308 Index Commercial Railway Scheme, London 152, 154 Commission on the Merits of the Broad and Narrow Gauge 228 Tab 6.2 company law 42–3 competing local feeders 204–7 competition adverse effects of 221 adversarial 316–19 concept applied to railways 258–60 Duopolistic on networks 492–4 and duplication of routes 94 and excess capacity 477–97 excessive 16–19 and fare reduction 261–2 individual/multiple linkages 266, 267 inter-town 323–4 and invasions by competing companies 268–9, 273 and invasions in joint venture schemes (large) 166–73 and invasions in joint venture schemes (small) 173–8 network effects 262–4 principle of 221 and territorial strategy 286–7 wastage/inefficiency 162, 166 compulsory purchase of land 30, 223, 288 concavity principle 72, 82 connectivity and networks 2–3 Connel Ferry 161 construction costs 16–17 consultant engineers see civil engineers; mechanical engineers contour principle 72 contractors 301–2 Conway River 136 cooperation between companies 324–6 core and peripheral areas, UK 85 Fig 3.8 Corn Laws, Repeal (1846) 37, 110 Cornwall 152 Cornwall Railway 141 corporate social responsibility 311–13 corridor trains 311 Cosham 147, 190 Cotswold Hills 110, 111, 114, 149 counterfactual map of the railway network East Midlands 90 Fig 3.10 North of England 92 Fig 3.12 South East England 90 Fig 3.10 Wales 91 Fig 3.11 West of England 91 Fig 3.11 counterfactual railway network 4–29, 58–104 bypass principle 80–2, 89 and cities 306 concavity principle 82 continuous linear trunk network with coastal constraints 74 Fig 3.2 503 continuous linear trunk network with no coastal constraints 73 Fig 3.1 contour principle 87, 88 Fig 3.9 core and periphery principle 82–6, 84 Tab 3.5, 85 Fig 3.8 coverage of cities, town and villages 62–3 cross-country linkages on the symmetric network 100 Fig 3.19 cross-country routes 274 cut-off principle 80, 81 Fig 3.7, 89 cut-off principle with traffic weighting 81 Fig 3.7 Darlington core hub 89 Derby core hub 89 frequency of service 65–6 Gloucester as corner hub 82 heuristic principles of 10–12, 71–2 hubs 439–71, 440–9 Tab A5.1 hubs, configuration of 89, 94–103 hubs, size and distribution 95 Fig 3.13 Huddersfield core hub 89 influence of valleys and mountains 88 Fig 3.9 iterative process 64 Kirkby Lonsdale core hub 89 Leicester core hub 89 Lincolnshire region cross-country routes 119 London as corner hub 82 London terminals 155 loop principle 86–7 Melrose core hub 89, 158–9 mileage 437 Tab A4.4 Newcastle as corner hub 82 North-South linkages 148 North-South spine with ribs 75 Fig 3.3 objections to 12–14 optimality of the system 91–3 performance compared to actual system 64–5, 65 Tab 3.2 performance metrics 63–6 quality of network 392 Tab A4.1 and rational principles 322 Reading core hub 89 role of network 392, 393 Tab A4.2 route description 392–438, 393–436 Tab A4.3 and Severn Tunnel 112–14 Shoreham as corner hub 82 Southampton as corner hub 82 space-filling principle 87–9 Steiner solution 76 Fig 3.4 Steiner solution with traffic weighting 78 Fig 3.5 Stoke-on-Trent as corner hub 89 timetable 8, 89–90, 472–6, 474–6 Tab A6.1 timetable compared with actual 315–16 504 Index counterfactual railway network (cont.) traffic flows 66–71 traffic-weighting principle 77, 78 Fig 3.5 trial solution, first 89–91, 90 Fig 3.10, 91 Fig 3.11, 92 Fig 3.12 triangle principle 77–80, 79 Fig 3.6, 89, 96 triangle principle without traffic weighting 79 Fig 3.6 Trowbridge core hub 89 Warrington as corner hub 82 Wetherby core hub 122 country towns avoided by railway schemes 307–9 Coventry 68, 118, 135 Coventry Canal 117 Crafts, Nicholas F.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra

In the 1950s my mom and dad got on an elevator and pressed the button labeled “MC,” got off on the middle-class floor, and stayed there their whole lives. I also grew up in a time and place where politics, though still partisan, worked, where, at the end of the day, the two major parties and community leaders collaborated and forged compromises to do big, hard things together. I grew up in a time and place where big businesses helped to pioneer corporate social responsibility by donating 5 percent of their gross revenues to the arts and education. I grew up in a time and place where my parents bought their first house on the GI Bill, thanks to my mother’s service in the U.S. Navy during World War II, where my dad never made more than twenty thousand dollars a year before he died in 1973, but where we still could afford to belong to a local golf club and just about all my friends lived in the same size rambler house as we did, went with me all the way through the same public school system, and drove the same kinds of cars—and if anyone was richer than anyone else, it didn’t seem to make that much difference.


pages: 708 words: 176,708

The WikiLeaks Files: The World According to US Empire by Wikileaks

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Snowden, energy security, energy transition, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, experimental subject, F. W. de Klerk, facts on the ground, failed state, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, high net worth, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, éminence grise

. … From posts’ perspectives, there are six main areas of action for the USG as it seeks to limit Chavez’s influence: •Know the enemy: We have to better understand how Chavez thinks and what he intends; •Directly engage: We must reassert our presence in the region, and engage broadly, especially with the “non-elites”; •Change the political landscape: We should offer a vision of hope and back it up with adequately-funded programs; •Enhance military relationships: We should continue to strengthen ties to those military leaders in the region who share our concern over Chavez; •Play to our strength: We must emphasize that democracy, and a free trade approach that includes corporate social responsibility, provides lasting solutions; •Get the message out: Public diplomacy is key; this is a battle of ideas and visions. Septel provides detailed suggestions. [07ASUNCION396] A second follow-up cable goes further into the specifics of how to keep Venezuela from deepening its relations with the countries of South America’s southern cone. The cable discusses pressuring governments belonging to the regional trade organization Mercosur in an effort to block Venezuela’s entry into the group: 9.


pages: 892 words: 91,000

Valuation: Measuring and Managing the Value of Companies by Tim Koller, McKinsey, Company Inc., Marc Goedhart, David Wessels, Barbara Schwimmer, Franziska Manoury

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

air freight, barriers to entry, Basel III, BRICs, business climate, business process, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, cloud computing, compound rate of return, conceptual framework, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, discounted cash flows, distributed generation, diversified portfolio, energy security, equity premium, index fund, iterative process, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market friction, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, p-value, performance metric, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, six sigma, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, technology bubble, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, transfer pricing, value at risk, yield curve, zero-coupon bond

And we agree that for most companies anywhere in the world, pursuing the creation of long-term shareholder value requires satisfying other stakeholders as well. You can’t create long-term value without happy customers, suppliers, and employees. We would go even further. We believe that companies dedicated to value creation are healthier and more robust—and that investing for sustainable growth also builds stronger economies, higher living standards, and more opportunities for individuals. Our research shows, for example, that many corporate social-responsibility initiatives also create shareholder value, and that managers should seek out such opportunities.5 For example, IBM’s free Webbased resources on business management not only help to build small and midsize enterprises; they also improve IBM’s reputation and relationships in new markets and develop relationships with potential customers. Similarly, Novo Nordisk’s “triple bottom line” philosophy of social responsibility, environmental soundness, and economic viability has led to programs to improve diabetes care in China.