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affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, energy security, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, immigration reform, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, North Sea oil, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, World Values Survey
Measuring Success in the EU “Fathoms, inches, feet, yards, miles, acres, ounces, gallons, pounds, therms—all will be banished by a diktat of the European Commission.” Source: Neil Hamilton, “Do We Really Want 0.454 kg of Apples and Not 1 lb?” Daily Mail, February 26, 1995. Transnationalism goes hand in hand with postnationality. The first presumes the erosion of nationally anchored identity. Postnationality seems conceivable only in circumstances under which transnational identity has spread. Balibar put it this way: “if we are justified in speaking of an end of the nation or a decline in its importance, this phenomenon would have to be illustrated in specific, concrete situations. Particular nations or groups of nations, for example, would have to be crossing the ‘threshold’ of postnationality together; certain societies would have to be becoming progressively ‘denationalized’ or ‘transnationalized.’”44 The French philosopher was persuaded that this was indeed happening in western Europe, but he reserved judgment on its progress in eastern Europe.
John Hooper, “Italian Woman’s Murder Prompts Expulsion Threat to Romanians,” The Guardian, November 2, 2007. 25. Adam Luedtke, “The European Union Dimension: Supranational Integration, Free Movement of Persons, and Immigration Politics,” in Immigration and the Transformation of Europe, eds. Craig A. Parsons and Timothy M. Smeeding (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 439. The Politics of Phobias 115 26. Demetriou, “Towards Post-Nationalism?” 9. 27. Krishnan Kumar, “The Idea of Europe: Cultural Legacies, Transnational Imaginings, and the Nation-State,” in Europe Without Borders: Remapping Territory, Citizenship, and Identity in a Transnational Age, eds. Mabel Berezin and Martin Schain (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999), 50. 28. More on how I operationalize liberal and illiberal values can be found in Ray Taras, Liberal and Illiberal Nationalisms (London, Palgrave, 2002), chapter 7. 29.
See also antiAmericanism Amis, Martin, 221 L’amour humain (Makine), 182 Amsterdam Treaty: asylum seekers under, 127; culture in, 63; European Parliament effect of, 23; goals of, 51 Anderson, Benedict, 87 anti-Americanism, 9, 169; European, 162–63, 164–66, 167; global, 165–66; types of, 167–68 anti-Semitism: Islamophobia and, 104; in Poland, 140–41 apartheid, 64–65 Arendt, Hannah, 163 Ash, Timothy Garton, 3 asylum seekers: Chechen, 128; under EU, 126, 127, 128; German attitudes towards, 127, 136; under Lisbon Treaty, 127, 128; in Sweden, 145 Austria: Chechen asylum seekers in, 128; citizenship in, 132; immigrant discrimination in, 125; xenophobic politics in, 101–2. See also Vienna, Austria Austrian Freedom Party, 101, 102 Aznar, José Mariá, 3 Bakhtin, Mikhail, 93 Bakunin, Michael, 194 Balibar, Étienne, 13–14, 33; on democracy, 83; on European apartheid, 64–65; on 241 242 Index Europeanization, 104–5; on Europe’s praxis of translation, 58; on phobias, 93; on postnationality, 70 Balkans: Kadare, history and, 208–9; as lower classes, 199–200; transnationalism in, 176–77 barbarians, 195n27 Barcelona process. See EuroMediterranean process Barnes, Julian, 190 Barroso, Josè Manuel, 26, 47; on EU guiding principles, 76; free trade stance, 48; on new Europe, 75; on openness, 77; on Poland, 111 Basic Law, 130 Bauböck, Rainer, 125 Bauman, Zygmunt, 13; on European identity, 149; on xenophobia, 94–95, 115n48 BBC, 200 BDV.
Rush Hour by Iain Gately
Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, blue-collar work, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, car-free, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clapham omnibus, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, connected car, corporate raider, DARPA: Urban Challenge, Dean Kamen, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, don't be evil, Elon Musk, extreme commuting, Google bus, Henri Poincaré, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, Marchetti’s constant, postnationalism / post nation state, Ralph Waldo Emerson, remote working, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, telepresence, Tesla Model S, urban planning, éminence grise
When British Railways was created on 1 January 1948, its 632,000 employees became both public servants and the equals of the people that they served. Although the narrow pre-war class consciousness that had existed between commuters and those who sold them tickets and sandwiches or drove their trains was presumed to have been extinguished, it persisted. The passengers still expected deference, and were offended if staff failed to leap to attention. A new indifference was perceived in the attitudes of railway staff post-nationalization, later satirized in verse by John Betjeman: I’m paid by the buffet at Didcot For insulting the passengers there. The way they keeps rattlin’ the doorknob Disturbs me in doin’ my hair. Prejudice was also alive and well between the commuters themselves. Passengers in first and third classes stayed aloof from each other, and looked down on anyone who appeared to be out of place. When Paul Vaughan, the BBC science broadcaster, travelled on the 08.32 from Wimbledon to Holborn Viaduct en route to work at a pharmaceutical company in the 1950s, it seemed a step backwards in time: ‘In one carriage there would be four men, always in exactly the same seats in their sober business suits, and they would spread a cloth over their knees for a daily game of whist, which I suppose they played all the way to the City’.
Collaborative Futures by Mike Linksvayer, Michael Mandiberg, Mushon Zer-Aviv
4chan, Benjamin Mako Hill, British Empire, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative economy, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, informal economy, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, late capitalism, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Naomi Klein, Network effects, optical character recognition, packet switching, postnationalism / post nation state, prediction markets, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, stealth mode startup, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application
Networked Solidarity “There is no guarantee that networked information technology will lead to the improvements in innovation, freedom, and justice that I suggest are possible. That is a choice we face as a society. The way we develop will, in signiﬁcant measure, depend on choices we make in the next decade or so.” —Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom Postnationalism Catherine Frost, in her 2006 paper Internet Galaxy Meets Postnational Constellation: Prospects for Political Solidarity A er the Internet evaluates the prospects for the emergence of postnational solidarities abe ed by Internet communications leading to a change in the political order in which the responsibilities of the nation state are joined by other entities. Frost does not enumerate the possible entities, but surely they include supernational, transnational, international, and global in scope and many diﬀerent forms, not limited to the familiar democratic and corporate.
Brave New World of Work by Ulrich Beck
affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, basic income, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, full employment, future of work, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job automation, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, McJob, means of production, mini-job, postnationalism / post nation state, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game
The idea of (both spatial and cultural) mobility – which was originally associated with modernity – is now triggered by the pressures of geographical labour mobility and transfers of wealth. Its distinctive cultural meaning may thus be elucidated and verified anew, and in the process it may be possible to scale down spatial mobility and the resulting transport chaos.16 Two things become clear from this example. First, we can see how important it is in the paradigm of the second modernity to raise the question of the future of work at once transnationally and post-nationally. Just to continue thinking within the old schema of work specialization, and to ask how the ‘cancer of unemployment’ can be finally overcome, is to remain trapped within the major misconceptions of the national paradigm of the first modernity. Second, it becomes apparent that a new division of labour between economics and politics is establishing itself in the second modernity. Willy-nilly the economy is becoming the locus and arm of transnational politics.
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, corporate governance, David Brooks, East Village, friendly fire, haute couture, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, medical residency, New Journalism, obamacare, payday loans, postnationalism / post nation state, pre–internet, uranium enrichment, yellow journalism, young professional
One reason why the Times’ immigration reporting sounds so off is the success of lobbying groups such as the National Association of Hispanic Journalists. There’s also anxiety about “feeding a backlash” against poor Third Worlders. But scorn for patriotism—not nationalism or jingoism, but patriotism—is certainly a factor too, along with an agenda to deconstruct the idea of citizenship. At the Times, cosmopolitan postnationalism trumps the traditional notion of American community, and “the cult of ethnicity” that Arthur Schlesinger warned about in The Disuniting of America has overshadowed the commonweal. The diversity to which the Times is so committed has had mixed blessings for the United States, which the paper has not bothered to investigate. As the Harvard social scientist Robert Putnam found, places with the most ethnic and racial diversity are also places with low civic engagement and social trust.
The Idea of Israel: A History of Power and Knowledge by Ilan Pappe
affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, double helix, facts on the ground, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, mass immigration, New Journalism, one-state solution, postnationalism / post nation state, stem cell, urban planning, Yom Kippur War
Like those I have named the trailblazers, these early disputants, too, left behind them the comfort zone of consensual Zionism because its actions and ambitions clashed with the universal values they believed in as Jews and as human beings. So why not call them anti-Zionists? First and foremost, most of them refused to be identified as such and marketed themselves as post-Zionists, a choice that should be respected. According to an explanation frequently offered by some of them, they chose this term because it fitted the ‘post-’ era in which they lived, with its postcolonialism, post-nationalism, post-structuralism and postmodernism. All these ‘posts’ were ways of asserting a certain degree of break from a thesis – the -ism – but not a total negation of it. Whether this can be done or not is another question, and in fact, quite a few self-defined post-Zionists would later call themselves anti-Zionists. Watching this phenomenon both from the inside, as I was one of these people, and from the outside, as a historian of the movement, I think the prefix ‘post-’ signalled a measure of caution and a sense of insecurity about the project the dissenters had undertaken.
The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power by Daniel Yergin
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, Columbine, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, energy security, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, fudge factor, informal economy, joint-stock company, land reform, liberal capitalism, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old-boy network, postnationalism / post nation state, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Thomas Malthus, Yom Kippur War
Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams
3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population
Without tabulae rasase or miraculous events, it is within the tendencies and affordances of our world today that we must locate the resources from which to build a new hegemony. While this book has focused on full automation and the end of work, there is a broad palette of political options for a contemporary left to choose from. This would mean, most immediately, rethinking classic leftist demands in light of the most advanced technologies. It would mean building upon the post-nation-state territory of ‘the stack’ – that global infrastructure that enables our digital world today.26 A new type of production is already visible at the leading edges of contemporary technology. Additive manufacturing and the automation of work portend the possibility of production based on flexibility, decentralisation and post-scarcity for some goods. The rapid automation of logistics presents the utopian possibility of a globally interconnected system in which parts and goods can be shipped rapidly and efficiently without human labour.
Radicals Chasing Utopia: Inside the Rogue Movements Trying to Change the World by Jamie Bartlett
Andrew Keen, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, brain emulation, centre right, clean water, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, failed state, gig economy, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, life extension, Occupy movement, off grid, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, QR code, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rosa Parks, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism
Bitnation allows you to take a system of law—modelled on common law, Sharia law or even a law code you’ve designed yourself—write it up as a private contract, put it on that unchangeable blockchain, and invite others to sign up and live by it, tying any digital assets to the agreements made. This is the outer reaches of libertarian thought: polycentric legal systems that live alongside each other and even compete with each other. ‘I want to talk about my vision for a post–nation state,’ she explained. ‘I believe nation states are going away. The only thing we can do is make sure it happens in the right way. The future will either be a one-world government run by the United Nations, which will be a world of perpetual terror, or a world of millions of competing nations.’ Someone in the crowd asked what will happen when there are disputes between people, and no central authority to resolve it.
The Social Life of Money by Nigel Dodd
accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, David Graeber, debt deflation, dematerialisation, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kula ring, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mental accounting, microcredit, mobile money, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, predatory finance, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, remote working, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Veblen good, Wave and Pay, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, yield curve, zero-coupon bond
Taking their cue from Deleuze and Guattari, Hardt and Negri suggest that this force is simultaneously a globalization of desire whose consequences for capitalism are double-edged. This is globalization working against itself. To capture this ambivalence, they take on the difficult—because it is inherently speculative—task of developing a conceptual vocabulary for describing economic, social, political, and cultural forms in a post–nation-state era in order to address what kind of society this would be, what major forms of association will emerge, and how questions such as law, justice, and citizenship will arise. We need to grasp where money might feature in such a world. Money has played a key role in the dynamics of globalization as Hardt and Negri conceive it. Operating on capital’s plane of immanence through relays and networks of domination, money makes the immeasurable space of global capitalism what it is.