centre right

105 results back to index


Unhappy Union by The Economist, La Guardia, Anton, Peet, John

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, debt deflation, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Flash crash, illegal immigration, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Northern Rock, oil shock, open economy, pension reform, price stability, quantitative easing, special drawing rights, supply-chain management, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, transaction costs, éminence grise

Thus Greece has seen the rise not just of Golden Dawn, an explicitly extreme-right party, but also of Syriza, an anti-austerity left-wing party that is running ahead of the ruling New Democracy party in opinion polls. Spain and Portugal have, so far, escaped the rise of populist parties of the right, but the more extreme United Left party is doing well in Spain and support for the two mainstream centre-right and centre-left parties has collapsed. Italy has seen the spectacular rise of Beppe Grillo’s Five Star movement, which took almost 25% of the vote in the election of February 2013, forcing the centre-left and centre-right parties into an uneasy coalition. In France, Marine Le Pen’s National Front is running close to 20% in the opinion polls. The rise of populists and extremists is not confined to troubled euro-zone countries alone.

On this the key person was the new German chancellor, Angela Merkel, who took office in late 2005 at the head of a “grand coalition” between her Christian Democrats and the Social Democrats. She was determined to revive as much as she could from the constitution, not least because the new voting system that it proposed at long last recognised that Germany’s population is larger than that of other EU countries. After her fellow centre-right leader, Nicolas Sarkozy, became French president in mid-2007, the two pressed ahead with what later became the Lisbon treaty, which incorporated most of what had been in the constitution but in a disguised and less comprehensible fashion. Critics complained that reviving the treaty in this way was a backdoor route around the negative votes in France and the Netherlands.

Europe à I’Hollandaise The election on May 6th 2012 of a Socialist president in France, François Hollande, who had campaigned on an anti-austerity platform, was greeted with mixed feelings: hope that the Merkozy diktat would end, but also worry that the untested Merkhollande might lead to paralysis or worse. There was not much of a honeymoon. On the same day, Greek voters crushed both main centrist parties, the centre-right New Democracy and especially the Socialist Pasok. The old giants barely mustered 30% of the vote between them. It was, in a sense, as if the abortive referendum that cost George Papandreou his job had been held after all. But having expressed their revulsion with the political elite, Greek voters were less clear about what should replace it.

 

pages: 475 words: 155,554

The Default Line: The Inside Story of People, Banks and Entire Nations on the Edge by Faisal Islam

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, capital controls, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, dark matter, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, energy security, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, forensic accounting, forward guidance, full employment, ghettoisation, global rebalancing, global reserve currency, hiring and firing, inflation targeting, Irish property bubble, Just-in-time delivery, labour market flexibility, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market clearing, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mini-job, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, mutually assured destruction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, paradox of thrift, pension reform, price mechanism, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, reshoring, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, shareholder value, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, the payments system, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, two tier labour market, unorthodox policies, uranium enrichment, urban planning, value at risk, working-age population

So, despite the appointment of a technocratic government in Athens, the rich north of the Eurozone still did not trust Greek democracy to carry through the bailout deal. All of this was to reach a crashing crescendo with the twin elections in May and June 2012. The parties that had enforced the recent Troika reform programmes were obliterated in May. The winners were New Democracy, a centre-right party in office just before the crisis, and partly responsible for it. But ND and PASOK combined, the duopoly of Greek politics that typically accounted for 80 per cent of Greek votes, slumped to below a third of total votes cast. In PASOK’s place Syriza, a radical left party headed by the 38-year-old Alexis Tsipras stormed into second place.

Of course, right now it seems absurd to think that Golden Dawn could ever top the polling in a Greek election. But in 2011 it was absurd to suggest they could have any MPs at all. In 1928 the Nazis won 2.8 per cent of the vote. By 1933 Hitler was chancellor. What propelled the surge in support for the Nazis? A strong showing by the far left, which drove the centre-right to Hitler. It is not unthinkable that history could repeat itself, in a situation where hundreds of thousands of young men and women have been left desperate and desolate. Greece is not just about economics. When I visited his local polling booth, Alexis Tsipras was mobbed by supporters and non-supporters alike.

In August 2010, he was at his peak – a colossus confident in his argument, bestriding government with his spending review, and displaying a missionary zeal for his fiscal plans. ‘It’s an absolute fundamental belief of mine that there is nothing progressive about losing control of the public finances, there’s nothing fair about it,’ he told me in his office at the Treasury, before listing centre-left and centre-right parties from the USA to Sweden that had cut back large deficits. The Apprentice Chancellor had some advantages. He had carefully won the argument for some sort of spending cuts in advance of the election, although he had given very little detail of his plans for raising tuition fees, slashing the housing budget, cutting non-pensioner benefits, raising VAT, freezing public pay and hiking train fares.

 

pages: 497 words: 150,205

European Spring: Why Our Economies and Politics Are in a Mess - and How to Put Them Right by Philippe Legrain

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, Diane Coyle, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Irish property bubble, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidity trap, margin call, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, price stability, private sector deleveraging, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, savings glut, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, working-age population, Zipcar

The ratio of 15–64s to over-64s is 3.86 in 2010 and 2.45 in 2030. 21 The incumbents thrown out include: Conservative New Democracy in Greece in October 2009 and then the Socialists in May 2012, the Socialists in Hungary in April 2010, Labour in Britain in May, Fianna Fail in Ireland in February 2011, the Centre-Party-led coalition in Finland in April, the Socialists in Portugal in May, the centre-right coalition in Denmark in September, the Socialists in Spain in November, the government in Slovenia in December, the centre-right in Slovakia in March 2012, President Nicolas Sarkozy in France in May, and both the Communists in Cyprus and Mario Monti, Italy’s technocratic prime minister turned politician, in February 2013. 22 Sweden’s centre-right coalition, which was re-elected in 2010, faces an uphill battle in 2014. The Dutch prime minister, Mark Rutte, only scraped through in 2012, albeit with a different coalition partner. Poland’s centre-right coalition, which was re-elected in 2011, is lagging in the polls.

It should also hold confirmation hearings for each individual commissioner and have the right to reject any individual, as the US Senate can do with many senior US officials. Another way to make the European elections more significant would be for the Parliament to behave more like a proper legislature. Instead of splitting top jobs (two-and-a-half years for the centre-right, two-and-a-half for the centre-left), one grouping should battle to get it for the full five-year term. Like in most national parliaments, bigger parties should get more committee chairs. To make the Parliament itself more representative and legitimate, party lists should be opened up so that a wider range of candidates can contest elections.

France’s President Hollande might see it as a way of countervailing German power and setting out a distinct social democratic agenda. Britain’s David Cameron might make it one of his objectives. Smaller countries could see it as an opportunity to make their voices heard. Within the Parliament, even the centre-right European People’s Party (EPP) might be persuaded that change is essential if the new Parliament throws up a big constituency of extremists, populists and Eurosceptics. From the Commission’s point of view, delegating technical powers – for instance, spinning off its antitrust powers to a European Competition Authority – and refocusing it as a more political actor would greatly enhance its diminished stature.

 

pages: 160 words: 46,449

The Extreme Centre: A Warning by Tariq Ali

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, BRICs, British Empire, centre right, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, full employment, labour market flexibility, land reform, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage debt, North Sea oil, obamacare, offshore financial centre, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck

Throughout the heartlands of capital we witnessed the emergence of effective coalitions: as ever, the Republicans and Democrats in the United States; New Labour and Tories in Britain; Socialists and a medley of conservatives in France; the German coalitions of one variety or another, with the Greens differentiating themselves largely as ultra-Atlanticists; the virtually identical Scandinavian centre-right and centre-left, competing in cravenness before the Empire. In almost every case the two/three-party system morphed into an effective national government. A new market extremism came into play. The entry of capital into the most hallowed domains of social provision was touted as a necessary ‘reform’.

It is premature to imagine that capitalism is on the verge of dissolution; however, its political cover is a different story. The democratic shell within which Western capitalism has, until recently, prospered is showing a number of cracks. Since the nineties democracy has, in the West, taken the form of an extreme centre, in which centre-left and centre-right collude to preserve the status quo; a dictatorship of capital that has reduced political parties to the status of the living dead. How did we get here? Following the collapse of communism in 1991, Edmund Burke’s notion that ‘in all societies consisting of different classes, certain classes must necessarily be uppermost’, and that ‘the apostles of equality only change and pervert the natural order of things’, became the wisdom of the age, embraced by servant and master alike.

Many were given consultancies as soon as they left office, as part of a ‘sweetheart deal’ with the companies concerned. Throughout the heartlands of capital we have witnessed the convergence of political choices: Republicans and Democrats in the United States, New Labour and Tories in Britain, Socialists and Conservatives in France; the German coalitions, the Scandinavian centre-right and centre-left, and so on. In virtually each case the two-party system has morphed into an effective national government. The hallowed notion that political parties and the differences between them constitute the essence of modern democracies has begun to look like a sham. Cultural differences persist, and the issues raised are important; but the craven capitulation on the fundamentals of how the country is governed means that cultural liberals, in permanent hock to the US Democrats or their equivalents, have helped to create the climate in which so many social and cultural rights are menaced.

 

Top 10 Prague by Schwinke, Theodore.

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

centre right, Defenestration of Prague, New Urbanism

Maps Dominic Beddow, Simonetta Giori (Draughtsman Ltd) Additional Editorial Assistance Emma Anacootee, Sherry Collins, Michelle Crane, Integrated Publishing Solutions, Tomás Kleisner, Maite Lantaron, Marianne Petrou, Filip Polonsky, Beth Potter, Quadrum Solutions, Rada Radojicic, Ellen Root, Sands Publishing Solutions, Sadie Smith, Susana Smith, Leah Tether, Conrad van Dyk Picture Credits t-top, tl-top left; tlc-top left centre; tc-top centre; tr-top right; cla- centre left above; ca-centre above; cra-centre right above; cl-centre left; c-centre; cr-centre right; clb-centre left below; cb-centre below; crb-centre right below; bl-bottom left, b-bottom; bc-bottom centre; bcl-bottom centre left; br-bottom right; d-detail. 157 Acknowledgements Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders of images, and we apologize in advance for any unintentional omissions.

 

pages: 209 words: 89,619

The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class by Guy Standing

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

8-hour work day, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, deskilling, fear of failure, full employment, hiring and firing, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, mini-job, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nudge unit, pensions crisis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, precariat, presumed consent, quantitative easing, remote working, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, transaction costs, universal basic income, unpaid internship, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population, young professional

Antipublic sector critics were helped by media stories of a few former senior public employees living in opulence on their pensions. The United States is only the harbinger. The attack on the public sector is part of the post-2008 adjustment across all industrialised countries. In Greece, under a centre-right government, 75,000 civil servants were added to the already huge public sector between 2004 and 2009. Once the crunch came in 2010, the public salariat was slashed, feeding the Greek precariat. The government also announced it would remove barriers to entry to some professions, lowering their wages to reduce public spending.

In the European Union elections of 2009, average turnout was 43 per cent, the lowest since 1979. Left-of-centre parties did badly almost everywhere. Labour took 16 per cent of the vote in the United Kingdom. Right-wing parties did well everywhere. Socialists were crushed in Hungary, while the extreme right-wing Jobbik won almost as many seats. In Poland, the ruling centre-right Civic Platform won. In Italy, the centre-left gained 26 per cent of the vote, seven percentage points less than in the 2008 general election before the crisis, against 35 per cent for Berlusconi’s People of Liberty Party. In the German elections of 2009, there was a record low turnout of 71 per cent; the right did well.

Then they came for the Jews, and I didn’t speak up because I wasn’t a Jew. Then they came for me and by that time no one was left to speak up. A POLITICS OF PARADISE 183 The warning is relevant because the dangerous class is being led astray by demagogues like Berlusconi, mavericks like Sarah Palin and neo-fascists elsewhere. While the centre-right is being dragged further to the right to hold its constituents, the political centre-left is giving ground and haemorrhaging votes. It is in danger of losing a generation of credibility. For too long, it has represented the interests of ‘labour’ and stood for a dying way of life and a dying way of labouring.

 

pages: 934 words: 135,736

The Divided Nation: A History of Germany, 1918-1990 by Mary Fulbrook

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, centre right, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, first-past-the-post, full employment, joint-stock company, land reform, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, Sinatra Doctrine, union organizing, unorthodox policies

The USPD share grew from 7.6% to 17.8% while the KPD (which had not contested the 1919 elections) won 2% of the vote; on the right, the German People's Party (DVP) increased its poll from 4.4% to 13.9%, and the German National People's Party (DNVP) gained 15%, compared to its earlier 10.3% share of the vote. The SPD-led coalition government was replaced by a centre-right coalition. From 1921 to the summer of 1923, governmental policies served to exacerbate Germany's political and economic difficulties. Wirth's government of 19212 pursued a so-called 'policy of fulfilment' which, by attempting to fulfil Germany's reparations obligations, served to demonstrate that the German economy was in fact too weak to pay reparations as envisaged.

However, given the lack of experience and resources down to the level of typewriters and functioning telephones for most East German parties, the real issue became that of which East German political forces would gain the support of the major West German parties. In the event, the forces which had spearheaded the autumn revolution in particular New Forum were swamped and consigned to political oblivion by the entrance of the West German juggernauts. Kohl's CDU finally threw its not inconsiderable weight behind the centre-right 'Alliance for Germany'. This was made up of the Democratic Awakening (DA), the German Social Union (DSU), which had been founded as a sister party to the Bavarian CSU, and the old East German CDU, now supposedly free of any taint of its forty-year compromise with the Communist regime. The West German SPD supported the East German SPD, which was founded the previous autumn, and which had attempted to resist being infiltrated or flooded by former SED members.

As the prospect of unification became ever more immediate, with West German entrepreneurs exploring the possibilities of acquiring East German enterprises, and West Germans with Page 339 legal claims to expropriated properties in the East beginning to institute legal proceedings, many East Germans began to be more concerned about safeguarding certain fundamental elements of their existence, particularly in connection with low rents, guaranteed employment, and extensive provisions for child care. In the event, the vote of 18 March 1990 was a decisive one in favour of rapid unification and the introduction of the West German Deutschmark under conservative auspices. The scale of the centre-right victory, with over forty-eight per cent of the vote, was decisive, even though a coalition would be required for putting through key constitutional changes. The masses, who for decades had suffered in passivity or retreated into their private niches of 'grumbling and making do', finally had their hour; and once again, the dissident intellectuals found themselves isolated.

 

pages: 632 words: 159,454

War and Gold: A Five-Hundred-Year History of Empires, Adventures, and Debt by Kwasi Kwarteng

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Atahualpa, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, California gold rush, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Etonian, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, German hyperinflation, hiring and firing, income inequality, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, market bubble, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, new economy, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, quantitative easing, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, War on Poverty, Yom Kippur War

‘From 1800 to well after World War II, Greece found itself virtually in continual default,’ noted Carmen Reinhart and Kenneth Rogoff in their important history of financial crises, This Time is Different.40 Such a history would perhaps have disqualified Greece automatically from ever being considered as a full participant in the euro. But it became such a participant, because political considerations were paramount in the promotion of the European single currency; economics played only a minor part. The Greek panic began when Papandreou, to discredit his political rivals, the nominally centre-right New Democracy, soon after taking office revealed that the budget deficit had reached 12.5 per cent in 2009. By contrast, the outgoing government had estimated its 2009 budget deficit at 3.7 per cent. In reality, the figure turned out to be closer to 14 per cent.41 Greece had joined the euro in 2001, a couple of years later than other participant countries.

The election campaign was particularly tense, since one of the principal parties, Syriza, was an avowedly left-wing party which stood on a platform of rejecting the austerity imposed upon Greece as a condition for receiving a bailout. Syriza’s thirty-seven-year-old leader, Alexis Tsipras, was young and charismatic. The first Greek elections of 2012, which had taken place in May, had produced inconclusive results. The centre-right party, New Democracy, had won just under 19 per cent of the vote. After a month during which Tsipras and Antonis Samaras, the leader of New Democracy, had attempted to form a government, new elections were called. Tsipras was an engineer by training, but had spent most of his adult life as a political activist, first as a Communist and eventually as head of Syriza, a motley collection of smaller parties on the Greek left.

He stressed, ‘We want somebody from our country to oversee our economic system.’2 There had been a genuine fear that, if Tsipras became Prime Minister, Greece would ‘crash out of the euro and Europe’s ambitious experiment with a common currency could collapse’.3 Such fears seemed to be fantastic to many people at the time, but the victory of New Democracy in the June 2012 elections did turn out to be a buying signal for Greek assets. The coming to power of an overtly pro-European party of the centre-right was exactly the reassurance that Greece’s international investors wanted. As if to demonstrate how closely international capital movements were now tied to politics, money started to flow into Greece; new deals were forged; the atmosphere of panic and collapse experienced at the beginning of 2012, when many observers feared Greece might actually abandon the euro, was slowly dissipated.

 

pages: 357 words: 99,684

Why It's Still Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions by Paul Mason

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

back-to-the-land, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, capital controls, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, informal economy, land tenure, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Occupy movement, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rising living standards, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, union organizing, We are the 99%, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, young professional

., just as the last Molotovs are being thrown, Merkel abandons the idea that banks should lose money as a result of giving Greece leeway on its debt repayments. Shortly afterwards, the EU and IMF agree to waive conditions on the €12 billion tranche of bailout money that will tide Greece over until September 2011. Papandreou, meanwhile, is in a panic. First, he attempts to create a government of national unity. He invites the centre-right opposition party, New Democracy, into a coalition and even offers to stand down as prime minister. But who would want to govern Greece? New Democracy spurns Papandreou’s offer, so he declares the formation of a ‘new government’, reshuffling the cabinet. For hours, one insider tells me, he fails to achieve even this: ‘nobody will pick up the phone’.

There is not even much of that ‘anomie’ activism anymore; the movement that defied road tolls in 2011 is tiny in 2012. If anything captures the buzz of late 2012 in Greece, it is the person who sprayed the slogan ‘Love or Nothing’. It’s less about anomie, more about depression and fear. What has depressed and frightened much of Greek society—from the liberal centre-right to the liberal left—is the rapid rise of Golden Dawn. In the two elections of May/June 2012 this party scored between 6–7 per cent. That is nothing like a 1930-style breakthrough. But once its MPs were in parliament, while austerity gnawed away at the fabric of society, its support leapt to 14 per cent.

 

pages: 311 words: 168,705

The Rough Guide to Vienna by Humphreys, Rob

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

centre right, ghettoisation, Peace of Westphalia, strikebreaker, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban sprawl

Newspapers and magazines Heavily subsidized by the state, the Austrian press is for the most part conservative and pretty uninspiring. Nearly half of newspaper readers read the populist Kronen Zeitung tabloid, commonly known as the Krone, while plenty of the rest read the slightly more centrist tabloid, Kurier. Of the qualities, Der Standard, printed on pink paper, is centre-left while the rather straight-laced Die Presse is centre-right. One peculiarly Austrian phenomenon is the bags of newspapers you’ll find hung from lampposts. Law-abiding citizens take one and put their money in the slot provided. Vienna boasts a good weekly listings tabloid, Falter (W www.falter.at), which is lively, politicized and critical, and comes out on Wednesday.

On this one night the majority of Jewish shops and institutions in the Third Reich – and all but one of the synagogues in Vienna – were destroyed by the Nazis. k.u.k. kaiserlich und königlich (Imperial and Royal) – a title used after 1867 to refer to ÖVP (Österreichische Volkspartei). Austrian People’s Party, the postwar descendant of the Christian Socials, and the principal postwar centre-right party. Pan-German This adjective covers a whole range of far-right political parties that advocated Anschluss with Germany, many of whom came together in the 1920s under the banner of the Greater German People’s Party (Grossdeutsche Volkspartei, GDVP). | Glossary Habsburg Royal dynasty whose power base was Vienna from 1273 to 1918.

 

pages: 414 words: 119,116

The Health Gap: The Challenge of an Unequal World by Michael Marmot

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Bonfire of the Vanities, Broken windows theory, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Doha Development Round, epigenetics, financial independence, future of work, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Kenneth Rogoff, Kibera, labour market flexibility, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, New Urbanism, obamacare, paradox of thrift, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Simon Kuznets, Socratic dialogue, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor

Set the wealth producers free and we will all benefit, runs the argument. But what if such a policy made health inequality worse? In Britain, a senior Labour politician said that he was ‘intensely relaxed’ about how much the rich earned.12 Governments of the centre-right and centre-left have both contrived to do very little to reduce economic inequality. The centre-left wants to reduce poverty; the centre-right appears to believe that if they get the incentives right, and the economy grows, poverty will look after itself. But neither has seen economic inequality as a problem, although that is now changing. We should change our focus.

 

pages: 651 words: 161,270

Global Spin: The Corporate Assault on Environmentalism by Sharon Beder

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

battle of ideas, business climate, centre right, clean water, corporate governance, Exxon Valdez, Gary Taubes, global village, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, oil shale / tar sands, price mechanism, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban planning

The think tanks themselves are seldom investigated by the media.12 Most cited think-tanks in 1999, by media13 Think-Tank Political Orientation No. of Citations Brookings Institution centrist 2,883 Cato Institute conservative/libertarian 1,428 Heritage Foundation conservative 1,419 American Enterprise Institute conservative 1,263 Council on Foreign Relations centrist 1,231 Center for Strategic and International Studies conservative 1,205 RAND Corporation centre-right 950 The editor of the Heritage Foundation’s journal observed that by the end of the 1980s, editorial pages were dominated by conservatives. Media commentator and progressive columnist Norman Solomon also notes that the mainstream media in the 1990s tends to offer either experts who support the status quo or “populists of the right-wing variety”.

He points out that nowadays it is unusual for media forums to include “unabashedly progressive critiques of the negative effects of corporate power”.14 A study by Lawrence Soley in his book The News Shapers found that the evening news broadcasts by the three major television networks tended to have a centre-right bias—using ex-government officials, conservative think-tank experts and corporate consultants as analysts rather than left-wing activists or progressive think-tank experts. Economist Dean Baker says news stories on trade, for example, almost always rely on sources in government and business, without questioning the vested interests that these sources might have in the issues.

 

pages: 476 words: 144,288

1946: The Making of the Modern World by Victor Sebestyen

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, illegal immigration, imperial preference, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, operation paperclip

In every country where elections were permitted the communists did badly, except in Czechoslovakia. Before the first free Hungarian elections in November 1945, Rákosi told Stalin that the communists could, with the socialists, win between 60 and 70 per cent of the vote and form a ‘popular front’ government. But they each won around 17 per cent, while the centre-right Small-holders Party won a plurality. The Soviets did not wish to risk further such humiliations so they resorted to more tried and tested methods to get their way: bribery, intimidation, threats and, eventually, violence. Stalin was deeply suspicious of local communists who had remained underground in their own countries during the German Occupation.

In regrettable armed confrontations on the front of political struggles in Poland some Jews, unfortunately, perish, but the number of Poles perishing is incomparably greater.7 The second-ranking Polish prelate, Archbishop Sapieha in Kraków, was described even by some of his own priests and fellow bishops as ‘a virulent Jew hater’. Emmanuel Mournier, an eminent French Catholic, and founder of the centre right political and cultural newspaper L’Esprit, met Sapieha when he visited Poland in 1946 and was baffled by ‘an anti-Semitism so vivid, even amongst the high ranking Catholics . . . as if the extermination of the Jews never happened.’ The Bishop of Kielce and his priests blamed the government and the police.

 

pages: 473 words: 132,344

The Downfall of Money: Germany's Hyperinflation and the Destruction of the Middle Class by Frederick Taylor

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, falling living standards, fiat currency, full employment, German hyperinflation, housing crisis, Internet Archive, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, mittelstand, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, quantitative easing, rent control, risk/return, strikebreaker, trade route

Since the left was not prepared to take on the responsibility of the chancellorship, however, the new leader had to come from one of the ‘bourgeois’ parties, and Stresemann was recognised as highly competent, a skilled political negotiator and a convincing, even inspiring, orator. And, after all, other powerful and capable figures on the business-orientated nationalist centre-right had veered towards an extreme, sometimes violently, anti-republican position during the post-war years (Karl Helfferich being perhaps the most spectacular example), but Stresemann had gone in the other direction. When forced to choose, the tavern-keeper’s son from Berlin had moved steadily in the direction of acceptance of the Republic as an accomplished fact and of the parliamentary system as the one most capable of uniting the majority of Germans.

Grocers’ and butchers’ shops looted. The French turn back all food shipments from the Reich to the occupied area that do not have customs duties paid on them, causing widespread hunger. By presidential decree, trading in German marks outside the Reich is made illegal. Cuno loses a vote of confidence in the Reichstag. Centre-right politician Gustav Stresemann becomes chancellor. Plans made to abandon ‘passive resistance’ in the Ruhr. One gold mark now equals 1,000,000 paper marks. In December 1922 it was 1,000. The fall continues and accelerates. On 20 August a loaf of bread in Berlin costs 200,000 marks. Unemployment in Germany almost doubles in one month from 3.5 to 6.3 per cent. 4,620,455 September.

 

pages: 388 words: 125,472

The Establishment: And How They Get Away With It by Owen Jones

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, housing crisis, inflation targeting, investor state dispute settlement, James Dyson, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, stakhanovite, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transfer pricing, union organizing, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent

He had been intrigued by the Business for Sterling movement of the late 1990s and early 2000s, which mounted a high-profile campaign against joining the European single currency. That was a campaign which, he stresses, ‘involved not being a think tank’. Rather, ‘it involved quite savvy campaigning involving lots of people on the centre-right – but without explicitly being a centre-right campaign’. This was a step change in strategy from the original outriders, who were explicitly ideological think tanks. The TaxPayers’ Alliance would instead be a campaigning organization, cleverly presenting itself as a non-partisan mass movement. For Elliott, the trick was to be unashamedly populist.

 

pages: 424 words: 115,035

How Will Capitalism End? by Wolfgang Streeck

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Graeber, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, en.wikipedia.org, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial deregulation, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, income inequality, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, late capitalism, market bubble, means of production, moral hazard, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, open borders, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, post-industrial society, private sector deleveraging, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, savings glut, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Uber for X, upwardly mobile, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

Since this might become a problem if it became all-too-obvious, the champions of the Brussels non-parliament took for last year’s ‘European election’ – the first since the European ramifications of the global ‘financial crisis’ were felt – to some of the same devices that have long been used in national democracies to make voters believe they have a choice.18 Rather than asking for a vote for or against ‘Europe’ or the euro, the leaders of the two centrist blocs, the centre-right and the centre-left, who had never been able to discover even the slightest difference in their interests and political persuasions, decided to personalize the election and present themselves as Spitzenkandidaten competing for the presidency of the European Commission (which, of course, is filled not by the ‘Parliament’ but by member state governments) – an exercise in Fassadendemokratie (Habermas) if there ever was one.

Furthermore, that their desperate efforts to revive inflation have up to now failed testifies to the effective destruction of trade unions in the course of the neoliberal revolution – another channel of political participation through which the asymmetry of power in a capitalist political economy has sometimes been redressed. We also observe an emerging new political configuration pitting Grand Coalitions of centre-left and centre-right TINA parties – parties that subscribe to the There Is No Alternative rhetoric of the age of globalization – against so-called ‘populist’ movements cut off from official policymaking: an opposition excluded from ever becoming the government, and easy to discredit as insufficiently responsible due to being improperly or unrealistically responsive to those that feel railroaded by developments that established democratic parties tell them they can do nothing about.6 Why is it so difficult, in spite of a veritable plethora of alarming symptoms, for people to understand the crisis of contemporary democracy and take it as seriously as it deserves?

 

Cold Hands by John J. Niven

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

centre right, Firefox, hiring and firing, Mason jar, Maui Hawaii

‘OK, see you boys tonight,’ Sammy said, straightening up. ‘Remember, we need that review by lunchtime.’ ‘Yes, boss.’ She leaned in to peck me on the cheek and whispered close to my ear, ‘Check all the outbuildings and call the neighbours again, huh?’ I nodded and clapped my hands, turning to Walt. ‘Come on then, trooper. Front and centre right now or we’re gonna miss your bus.’ Looking back now, the sheer normality of that weekday morning – the three of us in the kitchen with our goodbyes, our last-minute instructions and half-eaten toast – seems utterly blissful. 2 WALT AND I waved to Sammy’s anthracite Range Rover as it vanished around the grove of pine trees at the bottom of the drive before we turned and took the path that ran along the woods bordering the Franklin place; the short cut we always used to get down to the bus stop on Tamora.

 

pages: 515 words: 142,354

The Euro: How a Common Currency Threatens the Future of Europe by Joseph E. Stiglitz, Alex Hyde-White

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cashless society, central bank independence, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency peg, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, housing crisis, income inequality, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market friction, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, mortgage debt, neoliberal agenda, new economy, open economy, paradox of thrift, pension reform, pensions crisis, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, working-age population

In describing the potential electoral victory of Syriza, after observing that “analysts said politicians have been reluctant to loosen the tycoons’ grip on the economy, since they rely on their handouts to finance election campaigns and pay party workers,” the paper went on to observe: “Among the criticisms of prime minister Antonis Samaras’ handling of the bailout by troika officials has been his reluctance to go after the vested interests of his centre-right New Democracy party.” Indeed, the article notes that even some “in the troika feel that there has been too little burden sharing of Greece’s austerity programme, with the working classes bearing the brunt of spending cuts and tax rises while wealthier citizens and politically connected businesses were shielded by New Democracy.”

The same is true, to some degree, in economics. I have been traveling to Europe since 1959—in recent decades, multiple times a year—and spent six years teaching and studying there. I have worked closely with many of the European governments (mostly in the center-left, though not infrequently with the center-right). As the 2008 global financial crisis and the euro crisis brewed and broke out, I interacted closely with several of the crisis countries (serving on an advisory council for Spain’s former prime minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero and as a long-term friend and adviser to Greece’s former prime minister George Papandreou).

Perhaps the worst instance of this “nondemocratic” stance became evident after Greece elected a leftist government in January 2015, headed by 41-year-old Alexis Tsipras, that had run on an antiausterity platform—not a surprise given five years of failed prior programs, with GDP falling by a quarter and youth unemployment peaking above 60 percent. Conditions and terms that had been proposed to the previous center-right government of Antonis Samaras (from the New Democracy Party, closely linked to the oligarchs, and a party that had been engaged in some of the deceptive budgetary practices that brought on the Greek crisis) were withdrawn. Harsher conditions were imposed. As support for Tsipras and his unconventional finance minister, Yanis Varoufakis (who is an excellent economist, having come from a teaching stint at the University of Texas at Austin), grew, if anything the eurozone negotiators took a still harder stance.

 

pages: 302 words: 97,076

The Trigger: Hunting the Assassin Who Brought the World to War by Tim Butcher

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

centre right, colonial rule, land reform, Scramble for Africa, trade route, urban sprawl, éminence grise

The whole tone of Jevdjević’s testimony was very negative regarding Princip, and when the statement had been read out the defendant objected fiercely that many of Jevdjević’s assertions were wrong. ‘It is true that I had a conflict with him,’ Princip announced to the court. A key event took place in 1908, a year after Princip started school: a political and diplomatic crisis that was centred right there in Sarajevo, but soon spread far beyond Bosnia. It would change fundamentally the character of Bosnian youth politics, launching quiet students like Princip on a much more radical path. It would also give final proof that the country’s remote geographical location did not stop it from playing a role in high European diplomacy.

 

pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

Shared between all of these is a belief that the abstraction and sheer scale of the modern world is at the root of our present political, ecological and economic problems, and that the solution therefore lies in adopting a ‘small is beautiful’ approach to the world.69 Small-scale actions, local economies, immediate communities, face-to-face interaction – all of these responses characterise the localist worldview. In a time when most of the political strategies and tactics developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries appear blunted and ineffectual, localism has a seductive logic to it. In all its diverse variants, from centre-right communitarianism70 to ethical consumerism,71 developmental microloans, and contemporary anarchist practice,72 the promise it offers to do something concrete, enabling political action with immediately noticeable effects, is empowering on an individual level. But this sense of empowerment can be misleading.

 

pages: 318 words: 85,824

A Brief History of Neoliberalism by David Harvey

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business climate, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, debt deflation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, financial repression, full employment, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, labour market flexibility, land tenure, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, new economy, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Chicago School, transaction costs, union organizing, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent

And it responded accordingly.36 From the mid-1970s onwards, the Swedish Employers’ Federation (doubtless emulating its counterpart in the US) increased its membership, mobilized a massive war-chest, and launched a propaganda campaign against excessive regulation and for the increasing liberalization of the economy, the reduction of the tax burden, and the rolling back of excessive welfare state commitments which, in its view, caused economic stagnation. But when a centre-right Conservative Party came to power in 1976, replacing the Social Democrats for the first time since the 1930s, it failed to act on the employers’ proposals. The labour unions were too strong and the public was not persuaded. When it became clear that direct confrontation with the labour unions through lock-outs and non-collaboration in wage negotiations did not work either, the employers moved more towards undermining rather than confronting the institutional arrangements of the corporatist state.

 

France (Lonely Planet, 8th Edition) by Nicola Williams

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

active transport: walking or cycling, back-to-the-land, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information trail, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Murano, Venice glass, pension reform, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

The constitutional reform also gave the green light to local referenda – to better hear what the people on the street were saying (though the first referendum subsequently held – in Corsica – threw up a ‘No’ vote, putting Paris back at square one; for details Click here). Spring 2003 ushered in yet more national strikes, this time over the government’s proposed pension reform, which was pushed through parliament in July. ‘We are not going to be intimidated by protestors’ was the tough response of centre-right Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin, in office since May 2002. An extreme heatwave that summer, sending temperatures in the capital soaring above 40° and claiming 11,000 predominantly elderly lives, did little to cool rising temperatures. * * * SUITE FRANÇAISE The story behind literary stunner Suite Française is as incredible as the novel itself.

Once wrapped around the curvaceous buttocks of 1950s sex-bomb Brigitte Bardot on St-Tropez’ Plage de Pampelonne, there was no looking back. The bikini was born. * * * More cracks appeared in France’s assured countenance and silky-smooth veneer during 2004. Regional elections saw Chirac’s centre-right UMP party sent to the slaughterhouse by the socialists; European elections two months later were equally disastrous. Strikes against various pension, labour and welfare reforms proposed by the government continued and in May 2005 the voice of protest was injected with a new lease of life thanks to French voters’ shock rejection of the proposed EU constitution in a referendum.

Discredited French president Le Grand Jacques, now in his 70s and with a twinset of terms under his presidential belt, did not stand again. Then there was ‘Sarko’, as the French press quickly dubbed the dynamic, high-profile and highly ambitious Nicolas Sarkozy (b 1955) of Chirac’s UMP party. Interior minister and ruling party chairman, the centre-right candidate Sarkozy spoke – extremely smoothly and an awful lot – about job creation, lowering taxes, crime crackdown and helping the country’s substantial immigrant population, which, given he himself was the son of a Hungarian immigrant, had instant appeal. On polling day, punters even appeared to forgive him for his hardline comments slamming ethnic minorities in the Parisian suburbs as ‘scum’ during the 2005 riots and for his role (albeit that of innocent victim) in the Clearstream scandal.

 

pages: 270 words: 132,960

Use of Weapons by Iain M Banks

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

centre right, double helix, gravity well, job satisfaction, oil shale / tar sands, trade route

'Calm down, dammit.' 'Sma,' the drone said, voice almost languid, 'I am calm. I'm just trying to communicate to you the enormity of the planet-ary cock-up Zakalwe has managed to concoct here. TheVery Little Gravitas Indeed has blown a fuse; even as we talk, Contact Minds in an ever-expanding sphere centred right here are clearing their intellectual decks and trying to work out what the hell to do to tidy this stunningly ghastly mess. If that GSV hadn't been on its way here anyway, they'd have diverted it because of this. An asteroid belt-sized pile of shit is about to hit a fan exactly the size of this planet, thanks to Zakalwe's ludicrous good-guy schemes, and Contact is going to have to try and field all of it.'

 

pages: 669 words: 150,886

Behind the Berlin Wall: East Germany and the Frontiers of Power by Patrick Major

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, falling living standards, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, open borders, Post-materialism, post-materialism, refrigerator car, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Sinatra Doctrine

This, too, partly explains the growing prevalence of the slogan ‘No violence’ among the more law-abiding protestors who felt that ‘their’ demonstration was being hijacked. On 9–10 September oppositionists formed ‘New Forum’, and on 19 September applied for recognition, the first of several civil rights groups such as Democracy Now and the more centre-right Democratic Awakening to emerge over the autumn, all prompted to go public ⁸¹ Hertle, Fall der Mauer, 109. ⁸² 13 Mar. 1989 in Mitter and Wolle (eds), ‘Ich liebe euch’, 28. ⁸³ Johannes B., 10 May 1989, SAPMO-BArch, DY30/1094, fos. 11–12. ⁸⁴ Maier, Dissolution, 136. 244 Behind the Berlin Wall by the opening of the Hungarian border.

 

The Rough Guide to Prague by Humphreys, Rob

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, clean water, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Peace of Westphalia, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile

The state-run Český rozhlas broadcasts numerous stations including ČR1 (94.6FM), mainly made up of current affairs programmes, ČR2 (91.3FM), which features more magazine-style programming, and ČR3 Vltava (105FM), a culture and arts station that plays a fair amount of classical music. The three top commercial channels are the French-owned Evropa 2 (88.2FM), Rádio Bonton (99.7FM) and Kiss 98 FM (98FM), which dish out bland Euro-pop. More interesting is Radio 1 (91.9FM), which plays a wide range of alternative music. BASICS under the First Republic) is now a populist centre-right daily, while the orange-coloured Hospodářské noviny is the Czech equivalent of the Financial Times or Wall Street Journal. The country’s most popular newspaper is Blesk (Lightning), a sensationalist tabloid with lurid colour pictures, naked women and reactionary politics. If all you want, however, is yesterday’s (or, more often than not, the day before yesterday’s) international sports results, pick up a copy of the daily Sport.

 

pages: 543 words: 147,357

Them And Us: Politics, Greed And Inequality - Why We Need A Fair Society by Will Hutton

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cloud computing, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, debt deflation, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, discovery of the americas, discrete time, diversification, double helix, Edward Glaeser, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, inflation targeting, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Pasteur, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price discrimination, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, railway mania, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, unpaid internship, value at risk, Washington Consensus, working poor, éminence grise

Both main political groupings need to attract the centre ground to win a simple first-past-the-post election, but too many voters with above-average and even average incomes – middle class or aspirational middle class – will always fear that a centre-left party will revert back to its egalitarian roots and raise redistributive taxes. The worst a centre-right party might do is move right and cut taxes and spending. So politics is systematically pulled to the right. Furthermore, the 24/7 media requires a constant flow of initiatives to retain the political agenda, and a strong media operation within the government system to manage the pressure. Political advisers understand these exigencies in a way that civil servants do not, hence ministers come to rely on them.

 

pages: 387 words: 120,155

Inside the Nudge Unit: How Small Changes Can Make a Big Difference by David Halpern

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, availability heuristic, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, collaborative consumption, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, endowment effect, happiness index / gross national happiness, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, libertarian paternalism, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, nudge unit, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, presumed consent, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, the built environment, theory of mind, traffic fines, World Values Survey

The 2010 government launches the Nudge Unit Squeezed between Steve Hilton and Rohan Silva, the new Prime Minister’s political advisers, in the back of a Paris taxi was not somewhere I thought I’d find myself in the early summer of 2010. It was still the very early days of the new Coalition Government, and we had come to Paris to see if the centre-right administration of Nicolas Sarkozy shared the interest in approaches to government of the new Cameron–Clegg government in the UK, including nudging, Big Society and well-being. It turned out that they didn’t. Richard Thaler was with us, over from Chicago for a few days while we sought to put into action the plan to create the world’s first nudge unit.

 

pages: 612 words: 200,406

The Last Spike: The Great Railway, 1881-1885 by Pierre Berton

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

banking crisis, business climate, California gold rush, centre right, Columbine, financial independence, Khartoum Gordon, transcontinental railway, unbiased observer, young professional

The ties were unloaded first, on either side of the track, to be picked up by the waiting wagons and mule teams – thirty ties to a wagon – hauled forward and dropped all the way along the graded embankment for exactly half a mile. Two men with marked rods were standing by, and as the ties were thrown out they laid them across the grade, exactly two feet apart from centre to centre. Right behind the teams came a handtruck hauled by two horses, one on each side of the grade, and loaded with rails, fishplates, and spikes. Six men marched on each side of the truck, and when they reached the far end of the last pair of newly laid rails, each crew seized a rail among them and threw it into exact position.

 

pages: 683 words: 203,624

The Victorian City: Everyday Life in Dickens' London by Judith Flanders

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

anti-work, centre right, Corn Laws, John Snow's cholera map, Ralph Waldo Emerson, traveling salesman, urban sprawl, working poor

Street boys ordering a pennyworth of the Wednesday soup and a halfpenny-worth of bread ‘could go in the strength of that meal for twenty-four hours’. Scharf sketched the streets at Sunday dinnertime: the people in the top row are collecting their dinner beer, and a potboy with a wooden frame makes deliveries; the other two rows show dinners being carried home from the cookshops. Note the enthusiasm of the boy, centre right, who is carrying a pie. Coffee shops were of two sorts: those for the working classes and those for City gents. Some working-class coffee shops had a temperance tinge to them; many were used by working men as a meeting place, where communal newspapers could be read and political discussions held.

 

pages: 177 words: 50,167

The Populist Explosion: How the Great Recession Transformed American and European Politics by John B. Judis

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, means of production, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, Winter of Discontent

In those years, Socialist, Social Democratic, and labour parties shared power relatively equitably with Christian Democrats, Tories, Gaullists, and other centrist and center-right parties. In France and Italy, even Communist parties had a subordinate role. The parties and their supporters in business, labor, and the middle classes, eager to avoid the clashes of the 1920s, cooperated to expand social programs. Countries established universal access to healthcare, generous unemployment benefits and family allowances, and free college education. The center and center-right parties held power more often than not, but a politics borne of reform-minded social democracy and Keynesian economics predominated in the same way that New Deal liberalism held sway in the United States even during Republican administrations.

In addition, Podemos dropped its demand for an audit of the federal debt, which might have justified selective defaults, and for a universal living wage. But after the spectacle of the Greeks rejecting and then Syriza accepting the Troika’s demands, Podemos plunged in the polls to as low as 10 percent, falling behind a new center-right anti-corruption party Ciudadanos, or Citizens. The PP expected to win reelection. While unemployment was still 23.7 percent on the eve of the election, the economy had started growing, thanks in part to the ECB curiously ignoring a center-right government running deficits that exceeded the 3 percent limit. But Spain’s political system was rife with bribes and kickbacks and as the election approached, 40 PP officials were scheduled to stand trial for a kickback scheme.

In France, inflation had climbed to 14 percent by the 1981 presidential election, and 1.5 million were unemployed. That allowed François Mitterrand to be elected the first Socialist Party president of the Fifth Republic. Mitterrand tried to develop an alternative to Thatcher’s neoliberalism. Elected in 1981 after a center-right government had failed to halt France’s slide, Mitterrand and his advisors assumed that the downturn had exhausted itself and that global demand would soon be picking up. With a parliamentary majority, Mitterrand and the Socialists enacted a huge boost in social spending aimed at redistributing wealth and fuelling consumer demand, and they undertook extensive nationalizations to assure that the profits businesses received were reinvested.

 

pages: 868 words: 149,572

CSS: The Definitive Guide by Eric A. Meyer

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

centre right, conceptual framework, Ralph Waldo Emerson

Horizontal Alignment Even more basic than text-indent is the property text-align, which affects how the lines of text in an element are aligned with respect to one another. The first three values are pretty straightforward, but the fourth and fifth have a few complexities. text-align CSS2.1 values: left | center | right | justify | inherit CSS2 values: left | center | right | justify | <string> | inherit Initial value: User agent-specific; may also depend on writing direction Applies to: Block-level elements Inherited: Yes Computed value: As specified Note: CSS2 included a <string> value that was dropped from CSS2.1 due to a lack of implementation The quickest way to understand how these values work is to examine Figure 6-5.

Every background that includes an image starts with a single image that is then repeated (or not) according to the value of background-repeat. This starting point is called the origin image. background-position Values: [[<percentage> | <length> | left | center | right] [<percentage>] | <length> | top | center | bottom]?] || [[left | center | right] || [top | center | bottom]] | inherit Initial value: 0% 0% Applies to: Block-level and replaced elements Inherited: No Percentages: Refer to the corresponding point on both the element and the origin image (see explanation in "Percentage values" later in this chapter) Computed value: The absolute length offsets, if <length> is specified; otherwise, percentage values The placement of the origin image is accomplished with background-position, and there are several ways to supply values for this property.

Values: <uri> | none | inherit Initial value: none Applies to: All elements Inherited: No Computed value: Absolute URI background-position This property sets the position of the background's origin image (as defined by background-image); this is the point from which any background repetition will occur. Values: [[<percentage> | <length> | left | center | right] [<percentage>] | <length> | top | center | bottom]?] | [[left | center | right] || [top | center | bottom]] | inherit Initial value: 0% 0% Applies to: Block-level and replaced elements Inherited: No Percentages: Refer to the corresponding point on both the element and the origin image Computed value: The absolute length offsets, if <length> is specified; otherwise, percentage values background-repeat This defines the tiling pattern for the background image.

 

Lonely Planet France by Lonely Planet Publications

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

banking crisis, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, Murano, Venice glass, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

But in the subsequent run-off ballot, Chirac enjoyed a landslide victory, echoed in parliamentary elections a month later when the president-backed coalition UMP (Union pour un Mouvement Populaire) won a healthy majority, leaving Le Pen’s FN without a seat in parliament and ending years of cohabitation. SARKOZY’S FRANCE Presidential elections in 2007 ushered out old-school Jacques Chirac (in his 70s with two terms under his belt) and brought in Nicolas Sarkozy. Dynamic, ambitious and media-savvy, the former interior minister and chairman of centre-right party UMP wooed voters with policies about job creation, lower taxes, crime crackdown and help for France’s substantial immigrant population – issues that had particular pulling power coming from the son of a Hungarian immigrant father and Greek Jewish-French mother. However, his first few months in office were dominated by personal affairs as he divorced his wife Cecilia and wed Italian multimillionaire singer Carla Bruni a few months later, and his popularity plummeted.

 

pages: 135 words: 53,708

Top 10 San Diego by Pamela Barrus, Dk Publishing

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

California gold rush, centre right, East Village, El Camino Real, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Silicon Valley, the market place, transcontinental railway, urban renewal

Photographer Chris Stowers Additional Photography Max Alexander, Geoff Dann, Frank Greenaway, Derek Hall, Neil Mersh, Rob Reichenfeld, Neil Setchfield, Scott Suchman Factchecker Paul Skinner AT DK INDIA: Managing Editor Aruna Ghose Art Editor Benu Joshi Project Editors Anees Saigal, Vandana Bhagra Editorial Assistance Pamposh Raina Project Designer Bonita Vaz Senior Cartographer Uma Bhattacharya Cartographer Suresh Kumar Picture Researcher Taiyaba Khatoon Indexer & Proofreader Bhavna Seth Ranjan DTP Co-ordinator Shailesh Sharma DTP Designer Vinod Harish 126 AT DK LONDON: Publisher Douglas Amrine Publishing Manager Lucinda Cooke Senior Art Editor Marisa Renzullo Senior Cartographic Editor Casper Morris Senior DTP Designer Jason Little DK Picture Library Richard Dabb, Romaine Werblow, Hayley Smith, Gemma Woodward Production Rita Sinha Picture Credits t-top, tl-top left; tlc-top left center; tc-top center; tr-top right; clacenter left above; ca-center above; cra-center right above; cl-center left; c-center; cr-center right; clbcenter left below; cb-center below; crb-center right below; blbottom left, b-bottom; bc-bottom center; bcl-bottom center left; brbottom right; d-detail. Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders of images, and we apologize in advance for any unintentional omissions. We would be pleased to insert the appropriate acknowledgements in any subsequent edition of this publication.

Exhibitions feature paintings, drawings, photography, sculptures, and custom furniture from artists such as Mario Uribe, Gail Roberts, Paul Henry, and Johnny Coleman. The glowing, spiritual landscapes of Nancy Kittredge merit special notice. d Map H2 BO U.S. Naval Hospital 5 East Village 12th & Market 8 v Gaslamp Quarter 1 43 San Diego’s Top 10 Left San Diego County Administration Center Right Hotel del Coronado Architectural Highlights San Diego County Administration Center Four architects responsible for San Diego’s look collaborated on this civic landmark. What began as a Spanish-Colonial design evolved into a more “Moderne” 1930s style with intricate Spanish tile work and plaster moldings on the tower. d Map H3 • 1600 Pacific Hwy • Open 8am–5pm Mon–Fri California Building & Tower Bertram Goodhue designed this San Diego landmark for the California-Panama Exposition of 1915–16, using Spanish Plateresque, Baroque, and Rococo details.

 

Culture of Terrorism by Noam Chomsky

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, Bretton Woods, centre right, clean water, David Brooks, failed state, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, union organizing

The central feature of the plan, the New York Times observed approvingly, is that “Nicaragua would ‘democratize’ and the United States would stop aid to the contras,” but the Sandinistas “have long refused to accept an election process that jeopardized their power”12—in contrast to El Salvador, where “the masses,” who “were with the guerrillas” when the terror began according to Duarte (see p. 103, above), were permitted to choose within a narrow center-right spectrum controlled by the military and oligarchy after the murder of the political opposition and the intimidation or outright destruction of its popular base by terror. The reaction was similar throughout, including the doves. The Arias plan made no mention of Nicaragua. It called for moves towards democracy throughout the region while insisting upon “the right of all nations to freely choose their own economic, political and social system.”13 Little attention was given to the fact that as part of its efforts to sabotage the Arias plan, the Reagan administration made it clear that “if the administration felt its views and interests were not reflected in the regional arrangements it would continue to fund the Nicaraguan contra rebels despite agreements reached by the [Central American] leaders,” so Reagan “peace emissary” Philip Habib informed “high-ranking senators and their aides.”14 Within Central America, there is no difficulty in understanding that the U.S. and its allies were disturbed over the Arias plan, and why this should be so: “Neither Salvadoran President José Napoleón Duarte or the US administration is comfortable at the prospect of an amnesty and cease-fire arrangement with the FMLN [guerrillas], as called for by the Arias plan.”15 A careful search through the small print reveals that the national media in the U.S. are also aware of this fundamental problem with the Arias plan, and the reason why no plan calling for internal freedom and democracy can possibly be implemented except in some formal sense within the U.S.

“With this panel Duarte has closed the political spaces for dialogue.”49 The signing of the agreement was also followed by a wave of repression to which we return, arousing no comment here. The contrast to the appointment of the Nicaraguan Commission is striking in two respects: (1) while the Nicaraguan Commission was headed by the most outspoken critic of the regime and was broadly based, the Salvadoran Commission was restricted to the center-right and headed by the U.S. candidate for president; (2) while the appointment of the Nicaraguan Commission elicited an immediate outburst of abuse against the treacherous Sandinistas, Duarte’s moves passed in silence, not suggesting that Duarte is failing to live up to the spirit of reconciliation and only paying lip service to the Central American accord.

Guatemala did proceed to establish a Commission on September 9, selecting the Vice-President, the leader of the Conservative Party, a Bishop, and as private sector delegate, the co-owner of the most rightist newspaper in the country, reputed to have been a personal friend of General Ríos Montt, perhaps the most extreme of the recent batch of mass murderers. The government did not appoint Guatemala City Archbishop Prospero Penados del Barrio, “a highly regarded and ardent critic of human rights violations.”51 The Commission of Reconciliation, then, will deal with problems arising within the spectrum from ultra-right to center-right, in the most violent country of the region, the one with the longest-running guerrilla struggle. All of this too appears to have passed without notice. As U.S. allies or outright clients, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador are exempt from the conditions of any agreement they might sign, which the U.S. government will ensure is “directed at Nicaragua” (James LeMoyne).

 

pages: 137 words: 43,960

Top 10 Maui, Molokai and Lanai by Bonnie Friedman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

airport security, centre right, Maui Hawaii, polynesian navigation, Ronald Reagan

Take the road down into the valley, but do not cross the inlet as the other side is private property. d Map D5 Beyond Maui – Moloka‘i and L…na‘i Left Kaunakakai Harbor Right Moa‘ula Falls D6 & B5 • To visit first call the Nature Conservancy of Hawai‘i: 553 5236 St. Joseph’s Church Located off of Highway 450 at mile marker 11, this small rural church was built in 1876 by Belgian priest Father Damien, who was best known for his work at the St. Joseph’s Church 97 Beyond Maui – Moloka‘i and L…na‘i Left Moloka‘i Museum and Cultral Center Right Kalaupapa Peninsula Moloka‘i Museum and Cultural Center Also known as the Sugar Mill Museum, this 19th-century industrial building was the work of R.W. Meyer, a German immigrant engineer. When the mill first turned in 1878, it used real horsepower and a steam engine to crush and process sugar cane.

Book a Non-Ocean View Room Oceanfront rooms are the most expensive accommodations in Hawai‘i. Next come ocean view rooms and then partial ocean view rooms. In high-rise hotels, the upper floors are also priced at a premium. Booking a mountain or garden room view could save you hundreds of dollars on your accommodations bill. 109 Streetsmart Left Cash point Center left Pay phone Center right Postal stamps Right Newspapers Banking & Communications Banks Bank of Hawai‘i and First Hawaiian Bank are Hawai‘i’s largest, with branches throughout the islands, some of them inside supermarkets. In general, all banks are open: Mon–Thu 8:30am– 3pm or 4pm, Fri 8:30am– 6pm. Some branches have Saturday hours.

She previously contributed to the DK Eyewitness Travel Guide to Hawai‘i. Picture Credits Dorling Kindersley would like to thank all the churches, museums, hotels, restaurants, bars and other sights for their assistance and kind permission to photograph. Placement Key t=top; tl=top left; tr=top right; tc=top center; tcl=top center left; l=left; c=center; cr=center right; ca=center above; cb=center below; r=right; b=bottom; bl=bottom left; br=bottom right BIEGEL COMMUNICATIONS INC: 52tr; RON DAHLQUIST: 30b, 32c, 33r, 34tr, 36tl/tr/c/b, 44c/b, 46c/b, 47, 63b 114tl; PETER FRENCH: 32tr courtesy of HAWAIIAN AIRLINES: 106tc; LEONARDO MEDIA LTD: 116tc; MAUI ARTS & CULTURAL CENTER: Tony Novak-Clifford 13clb; DOUGLAS PEEBELS: 26–7, 37br, 48c, 50tl/b, 53br; Michael Nolan/Wildlife Images 49bl; Darrell Wong 76–7; THE PLANTATION INN: 119C; ALAN SEIDEN: 30tl/tr, 31tr/br, 32tl, 35r All other images © Dorling Kindersley.

 

Guide to LaTeX by Helmut Kopka, Patrick W. Daly

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

centre right, framing effect, hypertext link, invention of movable type, Menlo Park

The longtable environment takes the same column formatting argument as tabular and array, but has additional row entries at the start to determine: • those rows that appear at the start of the table, terminated by \endfirsthead; this often includes the main \caption; • those at the top of every continuation page, terminated by \endhead; these normally include an additional \caption and the column headers; • those at the bottom of each page, terminated by \endfoot; • and those rows at the end of the table, terminated by \endlastfoot. An example of a long table is: \begin{longtable}{|l|c|r|} \caption[Short title]{Demonstration of a long table}\\ \hline Left & Center & Right \\ \hline \endfirsthead \caption[]{\emph{continued}}\\ \hline Left & Center & Right \\ \hline \endhead \hline \multicolumn{3}{r}{\emph{continued on next page}} \endfoot \hline\endlastfoot Twenty-two & fifty & A hundred and eighty \\ 22 & 50 & 180 \\ . . . . . . \end{longtable} The \caption command normally may only appear within table and figure environments (Section 7.4) but may also be used within longtable which never goes into a table environment; in a continued row, \caption must have an empty optional argument [] to prevent multiple entries in the list of tables.

The text ‘center’ is centered both horizontally and vertically. UL = 0.8 cm. 6 center 1.2 UL ? 2.5 UL - (1.5,1.2) The effect of the text positioning argument is made clear with the following examples (UL = 1 cm): (3.0,3.2) center right @ R @ top center bot. left @ I @ (0.0,1.95) (2.0,0.3) @ I @ (3.0,1.95) center @ R @ stretch \put(0.0,1.95){\framebox(2,1.0) [t]{top center}} \put(3.0,1.95){\framebox(2,0.8) [lb]{bot. left}} \put(3.0,3.2){\framebox(2,0.6) [r]{center right}} \put(2.0,0.3){\framebox(2,0.6) [s]{stretch\hfill center}} The picture element \makebox is exactly the same as the \framebox command but without the rectangular frame. It is most often employed with the dimensional pair (0,0) in order to place text at a desired location.

It inserts enough space at that point to force the text on either side to be pushed over to the left and right margins. With Left\hfill Right one produces Left Right Multiple occurrences of \hfill within one line will each insert the same amount of spacing so that the line becomes left and right justified. For example, the text Left\hfill Center\hfill Right generates Left Center Right If \hfill comes at the beginning of a line, the spacing is suppressed in accordance with the behavior of the standard form for \hspace. If a rubber space is really to be added at the beginning or end of a line, \hspace*{\fill} must be used instead. However, LATEX also offers a number of commands and environments to simplify most such applications (see Section 4.2.2).

 

pages: 278 words: 93,540

The Full Catastrophe: Travels Among the New Greek Ruins by James Angelos

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

bank run, Berlin Wall, centre right, death of newspapers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, income inequality, moral hazard, Plutocrats, plutocrats, urban planning

Yet the magnitude of Greece’s revision, and the fact that it had made often-sizable upward revisions every year since it had joined the eurozone, confirmed for Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union, that the Greek government had engaged in “widespread misreporting” of its deficit and debt figures. Big accounting revisions had become a custom in Greece, particularly following elections. In 2004, the new party in power, the center-right New Democracy, said that the previous ruling party, center-left PASOK, had badly messed up the statistics, revealing that Greece’s eurozone entry—which was based on meeting “convergence criteria” like keeping an annual deficit no greater than 3 percent of GDP—had been based on false numbers. Then, in 2009, when PASOK regained power, it said the big revision at the time was due to New Democracy’s massive concealment of its true spending.

Greek right-wing voters took a far more extreme turn toward Golden Dawn—a neo-Nazi party that denied being neo-Nazi—which was expanding its popularity beyond the ragged central Athens neighborhood where it had unleashed assault squads to hunt dark-skinned immigrants on the streets. Many Greeks reacted positively to Golden Dawn’s assertions of Hellenic superiority, and its pledge to put the nation above all else. In the May election, Syriza came in second just behind the center-right New Democracy party, and Golden Dawn won its way into parliament. No party, however, had enough votes to form a government, and so a new election was called for the following month. In the interim, the country seemed to be succumbing to ungovernable chaos. Global financial markets convulsed in fear of an impending win for Syriza, whose young, necktie-averse leader, a former communist youth activist, threatened to renege on Greece’s debt obligations.

“I will personally take them all to the district attorney and I will ask for all the money that they took back,” he said. “I’m not retreating. This corruption in Greece can’t continue.” Everything will be “brought to light,” he added, because the path of justice was an obligation. For a Greek politician, he struck me as suspiciously noble. He singled out the former prefect, a member of the center-right New Democracy party, and the local ophthalmologist as the main players in the scheme. The ophthalmologist, he told me, I could find at the hospital. As for the prefect, he’d “gotten lost.” That turned out not to be true. Later that afternoon I found Dionysios Gasparos, the former prefect, a urologist, in his nearby office on the ground floor of a pink, three-story building with several balconies.

 

pages: 502 words: 82,170

The Book of CSS3 by Peter Gasston

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

centre right, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, web application, wikimedia commons

As before, the best way to illustrate the differences between the two syntaxes is with a demonstration; for that, I’ll use the following code: .gradient-1 { background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(left, black, white, black); background-image: -webkit-gradient(linear, left center, right center, from(black), color-stop(50%,white), to(black)); } .gradient-2 { background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(left, black, white 75%, black); background-image: -webkit-gradient(linear, left center, right center, from(black), color-stop(75%,white), to(black)); } .gradient-3 { background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(bottom, black, white 20px, black); background-image: -webkit-gradient(linear, center bottom, center top, from(black), color-stop(0.2,white), to(black)); } .gradient-4 { background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(45deg, black, white, black, white, black); background-image: -webkit-gradient(linear, left bottom, right top, from(black), color-stop(25%,white), color-stop(50%,black), color- stop(75%,white), to(black)); } You can see the output in Figure 11-3.

Using Linear Gradients Keeping the differences between the two syntaxes in mind, I’m going to present five different examples and then walk you through the code required to create them. Here’s the relevant CSS snippet: .gradient-1 { background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(left, white, black); background-image: -webkit-gradient(linear, left center, right center, from(white), to(black)); } .gradient-2 { background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(right, white, black); background-image: -webkit-gradient(linear, right center, left center, from(white), to(black)); } .gradient-3 { background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(50% 100%, white, black); background-image: -webkit-gradient(linear, 50% 100%, 50% 0%, from(white), to(black)); } .gradient-4 { background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(0% 100%, white, black); background-image: -webkit-gradient(linear, 0% 100%, 100% 0%, from(white), to(black)); } .gradient-5 { background-image: -moz-linear-gradient(225deg, white, black); background-image: -webkit-gradient(linear, 100% 0%, 0% 100%, from(white), to(black)); } These examples are shown in Figure 11-2.

The Firefox syntax will evenly distribute the color-stops along the length of the gradient unless otherwise specified. In this example, the white color-stop will be exactly halfway between the two blacks. In WebKit, the same effect is achieved with the following syntax: div { background-image: -webkit-gradient( linear, left center, right center, from(black), color-stop(50%,white), to(black) );} Notice here that I declare the color-stop using a color-stop() function, which requires two values: the position along the gradient where the stop should be implemented and the color. Unlike Firefox, the distribution of colors is not automatically calculated.

 

pages: 364 words: 99,613

Servant Economy: Where America's Elite Is Sending the Middle Class by Jeff Faux

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, McMansion, medical malpractice, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, working poor, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

“The fact is, despite all the problems, America’s future is exceedingly bright.”7 Leaving aside that there are no facts about the future, Brooks is an intelligent, widely read center-right pundit. We can trust him to give us the best available arguments for an optimistic tomorrow. Two books impressed him: Rebound: Why America Will Emerge Stronger from the Financial Crisis by economist Stephen Rose and The Next Hundred Million: America in 2050 by Joel Kotkin, whom Brooks calls an “über-geographer.” Rose and Kotkin are smart analysts. They are both former left-leaning thinkers who have moved to the center-right in the last twenty years. Rose begins his case in Rebound with a statistical argument about living standards in the recent past.

As the investment and ethos of the business corporation further infuses U.S. education, teachers will be treated less like professionals with a calling and more like the employees of other for-profit enterprises—that is, judged by their contribution to the bottom line. There is no reason to believe that the Republicans and their center-right Democratic allies will not continue their attacks on teachers’ unions and, by strong inference, on public schools. They will not have to win every political battle, but they will be on the offense, and teachers and other public workers will be on the defense. Arne Duncan’s notion that newly minted and highly motivated fantastic teachers would compensate for large class sizes will prove hollow.

 

pages: 319 words: 95,854

You Are What You Speak: Grammar Grouches, Language Laws, and the Politics of Identity by Robert Lane Greene

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

anti-communist, British Empire, centre right, discovery of DNA, European colonialism, facts on the ground, haute couture, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, Steven Pinker, Yogi Berra

Not only that, but allowing the la would only exacerbate the notion that men and women ministers were different. La ministre was an affront to equality. Man or woman, said the Academy, everyone had the right to be le ministre. But the government did not change its practice. In 2007 the BBC was at it again, reporting that “a new French resistance” was under way. A center-right member of parliament was arguing publicly that the invasion of English words was very dangerous, because “the French language is the spirit of France and of every Frenchman.” A union leader bemoaned the fact that 7 percent of French companies were using English as their official language. The article cited les e-mails, le web, and l’Internet as proof that the English were invading back across the Channel.

The attempt to eradicate la ministre can be defended on grounds of French tradition (“We have always done it this way”) or on the basis of universalism and equality (“Le ministre can be a man or a woman”). Though France is internally politically divided between left and right, language policy is an area of broad agreement: from right to left, there is a national concord on the need to promote and defend French. The Academy’s members include a former center-right president, Valéry Giscard d’Estaing, and a well-known socialist (and formerly Communist) journalist, Max Gallo. The right and the nationalists support French language planning in the name of national prestige, while the left argues that French is a key to universal values like liberty, equality, and fraternity.

De Gaulle developed a nuclear bomb for France, yanked his country out of NATO’s military command, and booted the alliance’s headquarters out of Paris. He believed in a strong Europe, with France its undisputed leader, an independent pole of power between the Soviet- and American-led blocs. The main center-right party in France, which has changed offical names repeatedly, is still universally known as the “Gaullist” party, and its leaders—notably Jacques Chirac in recent years—share the America-wary DNA of the general himself. So what greets the visitor arriving at Charles de Gaulle airport today? Among other things, signs reading “The department store capital of fashion,” “Only the brave,” “I ♥ Italian shoes,” and “Duty free like nowhere else.”

 

Crisis and Dollarization in Ecuador: Stability, Growth, and Social Equity by Paul Ely Beckerman, Andrés Solimano

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, central bank independence, centre right, clean water, currency peg, declining real wages, disintermediation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labor-force participation, land reform, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, offshore financial centre, open economy, pension reform, price stability, rent-seeking, school vouchers, seigniorage, trade liberalization, women in the workforce

As of mid-2001, representatives of 10 parties sit in the (unicameral) national Congress. The parties are difficult to classify ideologically. Populism figures heavily in their styles and substance. Of the four largest, two are relatively, if inconsistently, center-right and center-left parties based mainly in the Sierra and two are relatively center-right and centerleft parties based mainly in the Costa.6 Another party (Pachakutik) claims exclusively to represent indigenous ethnic minorities. During 1998 and 1999, party fragmentation made it difficult to pass emergency legislation that was essential precisely because of the limitations of the central government’s executive and administrative powers (see Part 4). 22 CRISIS AND DOLLARIZATION IN ECUADOR A paradoxical consequence of Ecuador’s regionalism has been a longstanding failure to develop effective subnational governments.

Some indigenous groups have lived in self-governing village communities. Over the 20th century, however, after revised constitutions afforded them political rights, Ecuador’s indigenous peoples gradually increased their political participation, more and more through specifically indigenous organizations and parties. 6. The center-right parties are the Sierra-based Democracia Popular and the Costa-based Partido Social Cristiano; the more center-left parties are the Sierrabased Izquierda Democrática and the populist Costa-based Partido Roldosista Ecuatoriana. It is only fair to note that the “right, center, and left” labels can often be highly misleading. 7.

 

pages: 291 words: 90,200

Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age by Manuel Castells

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

access to a mobile phone, banking crisis, call centre, centre right, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, housing crisis, income inequality, microcredit, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Port of Oakland, social software, statistical model, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, young professional

Yet, when social movements do exist and the state institutions are open to change, the transformative potential of social movements may find an institutional expression, as in Chile and Brazil. In most countries of Europe, the crisis of political legitimacy, deepened by the economic crisis, prompted right-wing populist political reactions, always ultra-nationalist, often xenophobic, that threaten to undo the European Union and are calling into question the duopoly of center-right and center-left blocks in the political system. The European parliamentary elections of May 25, 2014, were a turning point in this regard. The ultra-nationalist, anti-European UKIP became the top vote getter in the UK. The extreme right Front National of Marine Le Pen was the winner of the elections in France, and opinion polls in the Fall of 2014 were predicting the victory of Le Pen in the presidential elections of 2016.

On February 22, 2013, hundreds of thousands gathered in Piazza San Giovanni in Roma to listen to the inflammatory speech of Beppe Grillo. At the ballot box, M5S became the most voted-for party for the Chamber of Deputies, with 25.6 percent of the vote, although the center-left coalition, led by the Democratic Party, and the center-right coalition, led by Berlusconi, obtained more deputies and barred access of M5S to government. The movement became the largest political force in a number of regions, including Liguria (the home of Grillo), Sicily and Sardinia. It also elected 54 senators, second only to the Democratic Party, and played a significant role in enacting or blocking legislation and appointments, such as the appointment of the President of the Republic.

However, in political terms, perhaps more significant than the defeat of Silva’s candidacy was the success of the conservative candidates in the parliamentary elections that were held simultaneously with the presidential election. Major states, such as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, and Minas Gerais, elected or re-elected center-right or right-wing politicians, including some who had been directly challenged by the movement. Yes, the PT lost ground in the Congress, but it was to the benefit of the centrist PSDB, the rightist and corrupt PMDB, and a number of extreme-right candidates. As a result, the Brazilian Congress resulting from the 2014 election was the most conservative Congress since the end of the military regime.

 

State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st Century by Francis Fukuyama

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, centre right, corporate governance, demand response, Doha Development Round, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, Hernando de Soto, Nick Leeson, Potemkin village, price stability, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, structural adjustment programs, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Washington Consensus

The collapse of the most extreme form of statism, communism, gave extra impetus to the movement to reduce the size of the state in noncommunist countries. Friedrich A. Hayek, who was pilloried at midcentury for suggesting that there was a connection between totalitarianism and the modern welfare state (Hayek 1956), saw his ideas taken much more seriously by the time of his death in 1992—not just in the political world, where conservative and center-right parties came to power, but in academia as well, where neoclassical economics gained enormously in prestige as the leading social science. Reducing the size of the state sector was the dominant theme of policy during the critical years of the 1980s and early 1990s, when a wide variety of countries in the former communist world, Latin America, Asia, and Africa were emerging from authoritarian rule after what Huntington (1991) labeled the “third wave” of democratization.

Europe could certainly spend money on defense at a level that would put it on a par with the United States, but it chooses not to. Europe spends barely $130 billion collectively on defense—a sum that has been steadily falling— compared to U.S. defense spending of $300 billion, which is due to rise sharply. Despite Europe’s turn in a more conservative direction in 2002, not one rightist or center-right candidate is campaigning on a platform of significantly raising defense spending. Europe’s ability to deploy its power is of course greatly weakened by the collective action problems posed by 112 state-building the current system of EU decision making, but the failure to create more useable military power is clearly a political and normative issue.

 

pages: 267 words: 71,123

End This Depression Now! by Paul Krugman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

airline deregulation, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, centre right, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, debt deflation, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gordon Gekko, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, moral hazard, mortgage debt, paradox of thrift, price stability, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Upton Sinclair, We are the 99%, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Let me start by talking about the possibility of a decisive change in policy direction. Nothing Succeeds like Success Pundits are always making confident statements about what the American electorate wants and believes, and such presumed public views are often used to wave away any suggestion of major policy changes, at least from the left. America is a “center-right country,” we’re told, and that rules out any major initiatives involving new government spending. And to be fair, there are lines, both to the left and to the right, that policy probably can’t cross without inviting electoral disaster. George W. Bush discovered that when he tried to privatize Social Security after the 2004 election: the public hated the idea, and his attempted juggernaut on the issue quickly stalled.

., 153 Treasury bills, 153 Trichet, Jean-Claude, 186, 188, 195, 196 Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP), 116 trucking industry, deregulation of, 61 Two-Income Trap, The (Warren and Tyagi), 84 Tyagi, Amelia, 84 UBS, 86 unemployment, 114, 198, 208 austerity policies and, xi, 189, 203–4, 207, 237–38 churning and, 9 college graduates and, 11–12, 16, 37, 144–45 confidence and, 94–96 definitions of, 7–8 demand and, 33, 47 in depression of 2008–, x, 5–12, 24, 110, 117, 119, 210, 212 in Europe, 4, 17, 18, 172, 176, 229, 236 government spending and, 209, 212 in Great Depression, 38 historical patterns of, 128–29 as involuntary, 6 lack of skills and, 35, 36–38 liquidity traps and, 33, 51, 152 Obama administration and, 110, 117 post-2009 decreases in, 4, 210, 211, 211, 229 prosperity and, 9 sense of well-being and, 6 stagflation and, 154 wages and, 52–53, 164–65 among youth, 11, 18, 229 see also job-creation policies unemployment, long-term, 9–10 in Great Depression, 38 health insurance and, 10 loss of skills in, 144 self-esteem and, 10–11 stigma of, 10, 15–16, 144 unemployment insurance, 10, 120, 121, 144, 216, 229 in Europe, 176 unionization, decline in, 82 United Kingdom, 59, 183 austerity programs in, 190, 199–202 depression of 2008– in, 199–202 EEC joined by, 167 government debt as percentage of GDP in, 139, 140, 140, 192 interest rates in, 182–83, 201 lend-lease program and, 39 turn to right in, 83 United States: as “center-right” country, 224 China’s trade with, 221 government debt as percentage of GDP in, 139, 140, 192 net international investment position of, 44 post-2009 recovery in, 4 pre-World War II military buildup in, 35, 38–39 risk of default by, 139 S&P downgrade of, 140 social safety net in, 10, 216 turn to right in, 83 universal health care, 18 Vanity Fair, 71 Very Serious People, xi, 190, 205 wages: devaluation and, 169–70, 180–81 downward nominal rigidity of, 164–65, 181 unemployment and, 52–53, 164–65 Wall Street (film), 80 Wall Street Journal, 134, 138 Warren, Elizabeth, 84 wars, economies and, 233–37 Weill, Sandy, 85 well-being, sense of, 5–6 unemployment and, 6 workers: as lacking skills, 35, 36–38 layoffs of, 41 technology as creating redundancies of, 36 see also unemployment Works Progress Administration, 121 World War II, 50, 107 government spending in, 148, 234–35, 235 lend-lease program in, 39 military buildup prior to U.S. entry into, 35, 38–39 U.S. debt after, 141 Yale University, 93 Yardeni, Ed, 132 Yglesias, Matthew, 87–88, 225 youth, unemployment among, 11, 18, 229 zero lower bound, of interest rates, 33–34, 51, 117, 135–36, 147, 151, 152, 163, 231, 236 Zimbabwe, 150 Zuckerberg, Mark, 78 Zuckerman, Mort, 95 Copyright © 2012 by Melrose Road Partners All rights reserved First Edition For information about permission to reproduce selections from this book, write to Permissions, W.

 

pages: 183 words: 17,571

Broken Markets: A User's Guide to the Post-Finance Economy by Kevin Mellyn

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, index fund, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, lump of labour, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, mobile money, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative easing, Real Time Gross Settlement, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, seigniorage, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, the payments system, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, underbanked, Works Progress Administration, yield curve, Yogi Berra

What went terribly wrong with finance is that it became too complacent, too complicated, and too concentrated at the same time over the course of the Great Moderation. New, quantitative approaches to managing and pricing risk, elegant computer simulations, and highly liquid global markets to distribute risk promised to move finance out of the dark ages of boom and bust. Governments of both the center-left and center-right embraced the financedriven economy because it delivered the goods in the form of economic growth and job creation.The so-called Anglo-Saxon economies with their dynamic capital markets and global investment banks outpaced other developed economies in Europe and Asia. Bill Clinton and Tony Blair both enjoyed long periods in office and in return delivered “light-touch” regulation to the bankers who were among their largest financial supporters.

The term solidarity is often evoked in Europe as the moral foundation of this economic and social setup. Since 2008, the United States has swung toward the European model for two reasons. The first and probably least important was the election of a government that finds it attractive on grounds of “fairness,” something akin to solidarity. America remains too much of a center-right country for that tendency to go uncontested, as the congressional election of 2010 proved, so the political system remains gridlocked.The second and more intractable reason is that a long, disguised drift toward structural unemployment has become a riptide. The Hollowing Out of America The credit-fueled consumption and growth of the quarter-century leading up to the crisis obscured a profound hollowing out of the American economy.

 

pages: 283 words: 73,093

Social Democratic America by Lane Kenworthy

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, David Brooks, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, full employment, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, labor-force participation, manufacturing employment, market bubble, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, school choice, shareholder value, sharing economy, Skype, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, universal basic income, War on Poverty, working poor, zero day

Thomas Mann and Norman Ornstein point to another indicator of the rightward shift among Republican legislators: the size of the House GOP’s right-wing caucus, the Republican Study Committee, or RSC. Paul Weyrich and other conservative activists created the committee in 1973 as an informal group to pull the center-right party much further to the right. It had only 10 to 20 percent of Republican representatives as members as recently as the 1980s, a small fringe group. In the 112th Congress [2011–12], the RSC had 166 members, or nearly seven-tenths of the caucus.52 FIGURE 5.7 Voting by Republicans and Democrats in the House and Senate Average “dimension 1 DW-nominate” scores for Republican legislators and Democratic legislators in the House of Representatives and the Senate.

If the Tea Party remains vibrant, it will continue to push Republicans toward the extreme.56 The same is true of Grover Norquist and his “taxpayer protection” pledge, which most congressional Republicans have felt obliged to sign. But if history is any guide, these barriers to moderation eventually will be eclipsed or disappear. In the long run, the center of gravity in the Republican Party probably will be similar to that of center-right parties in Western Europe, most of which accept a generous welfare state and relatively high taxes. Veto Points Impede Backsliding In the race to the good society, America is a tortoise.57 We advance slowly, but we do advance. While our veto-point-heavy political system impedes progressive change, it also makes it difficult for opponents of government social programs to dilute or do away with them once they are in place.

 

pages: 131 words: 22,892

Canvas Pocket Reference: Scripted Graphics for HTML5 by David Flanagan

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

centre right, Firefox

float miterLimit When the lineJoin property is “miter”, this property specifies the maximum ratio of miter length to half the line width. The default is 10. See the individual reference page for this property for further details. String textAlign Specifies the horizontal alignment of text and the meaning of the X coordinate passed to fillText() and strokeText(). Legal values are “left”, “center”, “right”, “start”, and “end”. The meaning of “start” and “end” depend on the dir (text direction) attribute of the <canvas> tag. The default is “start”. String textBaseline Specifies the vertical alignment of text and the meaning of the Y coordinate passed to fillText() and strokeText(). Legal values are “top”, “middle”, “bottom”, “alphabetic”, “hanging”, and “ideographic”.

 

pages: 443 words: 112,800

The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World by Jeremy Rifkin

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar

I was already scheduled to be in Rome a few weeks later on September 27 to deliver a speech before members of the Italian Parliament on the need to lay the groundwork for an empathic civilization and biosphere consciousness. Gianfranco Fini, the moderate center-right speaker of the lower house of the Parliament, had read my book, The Empathic Civilization, and was taken by the alternative narrative of the history of human consciousness and anxious to give the book a wider political audience. I decided to combine my visit with a face-to-face meeting with Epifani. So, I spent September 27 with Italy’s center-right parliamentary leader and the leader of the Italian trade union movement—whose political affiliations couldn’t be more different.

ALL NODES CONNECT WITH ROME Prime Minister Zapatero is a socialist and his administration is one of the leading socialist powers in the world today. But the Third Industrial Revolution vision doesn’t belong to any particular political party affiliation. In Rome, Mayor Gianni Alemanno is with the People of Freedom party and part of the center-right Berlusconi coalition government. But his vision of a Third Industrial Revolution for Rome aligns him far more closely with Prime Minister Zapatero’s thinking than with that of his own prime minister, Silvio Berlusconi. The mayor’s attention is focused on two goals: breathing fresh life into the Rome economy by becoming a leader among the world’s great cities in sustainability, and securing the 2020 Olympics games for the city (Rome has not hosted the Olympic games since 1960).

 

pages: 497 words: 143,175

Pivotal Decade: How the United States Traded Factories for Finance in the Seventies by Judith Stein

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, desegregation, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, payday loans, post-industrial society, post-oil, price mechanism, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yom Kippur War

Had that been done, we would probably already be seeing the first signs of frenetic imbalances in the economy and growing threats to the emerging prosperity that we now all see on the horizon.”110 The exuberance of Ford and his advisers was puzzling, considering that all of the participating political leaders—including Ford—were under attack and vulnerable.111 France’s center-right government was challenged by the “Union of the Left,” formed in 1972 by the Socialists, Communists, and Left Radicals, and also from the right by the Gaullists who resisted cooperation with the United States. Germany’s Helmut Schmidt, a Social Democrat, faced strong opposition by a center-right coalition led by Helmut Kohl in the upcoming October 1976 elections. Japan’s prime minister Takeo Miki was an accidental leader, achieving his position in the wake of bribery allegations and the inability of warring factions of the ruling Liberal Democratic Party to resolve their differences.

Germany continued to run a surplus of about $2 billion; Japan’s was huge, $10 billion, while the United States had a $31-billion deficit.28 Why were Germans and Japanese less enamored of demand stimulation or Keynesianism? In neither case were free-market predilections the cause.29 After World War II, the Christian Democrats, a center-right party, shepherded the German miracle under the banner of fiscal orthodoxy, not Keynesianism. German governments of the 1950S ran budget surpluses and maintained high interest rates. These policies depressed demand and forced companies to export. The government practiced austere finance but active microeconomics.

 

pages: 934 words: 232,651

Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1945-1956 by Anne Applebaum

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, language of flowers, means of production, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, price mechanism, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Slavoj Žižek, stakhanovite, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning

Only later did he understand why: It was impossible for Stalinism to permit the creation by independent initiative from below of anti-Fascist, Socialist or Communist movements or organizations, because there was the constant danger that such organizations would escape its control and try to resist directives issued from above … It was the first victory of the apparat over the independent stirrings of the anti-Fascist, left-inclined strata of Germany.18 But if Ulbricht and his Soviet partners did not want spontaneous committees, they did want young people to join sanctioned groups that had been properly registered with the Soviet authorities. Because Germany was deemed a “bourgeois” democracy, and noncommunist political parties were still allowed to exist, they did let some noncommunist youth groups register themselves, provided they subjected themselves to full regulation. The center-right Christian democrats were allowed to register an official “youth wing” of the Christian Democratic Party in July. In 1946, Soviet administrators would issue instructions allowing the formation of certain artistic and cultural groups as well.19 The communist party also set up its own youth section, optimistically assuming that many young Germans would want to join.

This is an important point, often overlooked and worth repeating: though the sincerity of this expectation varied from country to country, most of the parties in the region held elections soon after the war’s end because they thought they would win, and they had some good reasons for that belief. In the immediate aftermath of the war, almost all of the political parties operating in Europe advocated policies which, by modern standards, were very left wing. Even the center-right Christian democrats in West Germany and the Conservatives in Britain were willing to accept a heavy role for the state in the economy in the late 1940s, up to and including the nationalization of some industries. Across the continent, just about everyone advocated the creation of extensive welfare states.

The Soviet ambassador in Belgrade praised this exercise effusively, telling Vyacheslav Molotov that these elections had “strengthened” the country. He reckoned them a great success.11 In Bulgaria, the communist party also organized several left-leaning parties into a coalition called the Fatherland Front in November 1945 elections.12 In both countries the genuine opposition—parties of the center and the center-right that refused to join the coalition—called upon their countrymen to boycott the vote, and many did. The communist parties declared victory anyway. Yet despite the best efforts of the NKVD and the local communists, not all of the region’s politicians were willing to enter a unified electoral coalition, and not all of the working class became rapidly conscious of its destiny either.

 

pages: 263 words: 20,730

Exploring Python by Timothy Budd

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

c2.com, centre right, general-purpose programming language, index card, random walk, sorting algorithm, web application

Accessing Puzzle Data Having decided on the representation of the puzzle, the next step is to define functions that will return an individual row, and individual column, and an individual block. Each of these will return a list containing the indicated data. Both the column and block are converted into a list; for example the center right block of the puzzle is represented by the list [0,0,5,3,4,0,0,0,9]. The methods to compute these values will take the puzzle matrix as argument, since in a moment we will introduce a second matrix and will eventually want to perform the same data access on both. There is a slight complication in that Python indexes lists starting from 0, and so the set of legal index values is 0 through 8, while the set of data values of interest is 1 through 9.

Since values cannot be repeated in any row, column, or block the set of possibles is determined by starting with the values one through nine, then eliminating any value that occurs elsewhere in the row, column or block. We can [1,7,8] [1,6,7] [] once again use a list to represent the set of values. The initial [] [] [1,6] possible sets for the center right block of our Sudoku is [1,2,8] [1,6] [] shown at right. The computation of the possibles matrix illustrates another hallmark of functional program; the creation of general purpose functions that can be mixed and matched with each other to produce a variety of effects. The function missing takes as argument a list, and returns the list containing the values between 1 and 9 that are not in the argument list. def missing (lst): return [x for x in r19 if x not in lst] By separating the computation of the missing data from the collection of the row, column or block data we make it possible to mix these operations, by passing different arguments to the function.

 

pages: 576 words: 105,655

Austerity: The History of a Dangerous Idea by Mark Blyth

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency peg, debt deflation, deindustrialization, disintermediation, diversification, en.wikipedia.org, ending welfare as we know it, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Irish property bubble, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, price stability, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, savings glut, short selling, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, too big to fail, unorthodox policies, value at risk, Washington Consensus

When the crisis hit, the United States may have been on the right ideologically, but it was very much on the left in terms of economic policy. Europe, in contrast, was populated by left-leaning Social Democrats and center-right Christian Democrats who had spent the previous decade building a currency union that viewed monetary stability plus strict debt and deficit controls as the only policies worth bothering about. Thus, when the crisis hit, the European left (with the exception of the British under New Labour) and center-right argued and behaved in ways that we would normally expect from American Republicans: they championed financial stability, inflation control, and budget cutting as the way to get out of the crisis.

 

pages: 126 words: 37,081

Men Without Work by Nicholas Eberstadt

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Carmen Reinhart, centre right, deindustrialization, financial innovation, full employment, illegal immigration, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, moral hazard, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population

His many books and monographs include A Nation of Takers: America’s Entitlement Epidemic (Templeton Press, 2012). Eberstadt earned his AB, MPA, and PhD at Harvard and his MSc at the London School of Economics. In 2012, he was awarded the Bradley Prize. HENRY OLSEN, currently a Senior Fellow at the Ethics and Public Policy Center, has worked in senior executive positions at many center-right think tanks. He most recently served from 2006 to 2013 as vice president and director of the National Research Initiative at the American Enterprise Institute. He previously worked as vice president of programs at the Manhattan Institute and president of the Commonwealth Foundation. Mr. Olsen’s work has been featured in many prominent publications, including the Wall Street Journal, the Washington Post, National Review, and the Weekly Standard.

 

pages: 492 words: 70,082

Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

These early institutional structures against discrimination and racism have repeatedly been criticized for their relative ineffectiveness (Bertossi, 1999; Audebrand et al., 2001; IGAS, 2000). While many critics expected the new center-right government to abandon what is called in France ‘‘the fight against discrimination’’ (la lutte contre les discriminations) this turned out not to be the case. Instead, the center-right government set up the High Authority for the Fight against Discrimination (HALDE) as required by the European directives. In addition, Nicolas Sarkozy turned out to be open toward measures of affirmative action as well as other measures to increase diversity and repeatedly started a national debate on the issue, which many French consider to be in complete contradiction with the republican ideals.

Studies on the voting behavior of migrant groups with Maghrebian and Caribbean background showed that these groups have lower turnout rates, especially if they live in disadvantaged urban areas (Maxwell, 2009), while a study of the political attitudes and activities of naturalized French with Maghrebian, other African, and Turkish origin had shown very little if any difference compared to other French citizens (Brouard & Tiberj, 2005). The question of attributing voting rights to third country nationals in local elections has been brought up many times, even by center-right politician Yves Jego (UMP) but these initiatives were always blocked by the argument that in order to get voting rights, immigrants should acquire French citizenship. Statistics from the INSEE (National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies) showed that in 2007 the unemployment rate among the active immigrant population was about twice as high as for the active nonimmigrant population, namely 15.2% compared to 7.3%.

A couple of other studies followed since 2004, but because of this initial intervention of the extremist right FN, these studies always have to confront doubts about their underlying motifs and are not commissioned by the government as 91 it is the case in neighboring countries such as Germany and the Netherlands. With the arrival of the center-right administration led by Nicolas Sarkozy such analyses might return to more neutral grounds although even the government-commissioned studies in the neighboring countries have shown that cost-and-benefit analyses are more than most other studies in the field of immigration subject to the political opinion of the author.

 

pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra

Into this vacuum, this empty room, stepped populists with easy answers—the Democratic presidential hopeful Bernie Sanders promised to make it all right by taking down “the Man,” and Donald Trump promised to make it all right by personally holding back the hurricane of change because he was “the Man.” Neither the center-left nor the center-right in America or Europe had the self-confidence required for the level of radical rethinking and political innovating demanded by the age of accelerations. On May 16, 2016, The New York Times carried a story about a divisive Austrian election, featuring two quotes that spoke for so many voters across the industrialized world.

In safe districts a Republican, most of the time, can lose only to another, more conservative Republican and a Democrat can lose only to a more liberal Democrat. The result is a Congress made up of more people from the far right or far left than the true disposition in the country. With more center-left Democrats and more center-right Republicans, it should be possible to build more legislative coalitions from the center out rather than from the extremes in. She would also introduce ranked-choice voting in all Senate and House elections. In this system, instead of voting for just one candidate, you rank each candidate in order of preference.

First, as I explained at the outset, a column has to combine three things: your own value set, how you think the Machine works, and what you have learned about how the Machine affects people and culture and vice versa. Well, my value set and my affinity for a politics that embraces inclusion, pluralism, and always trying to govern with Mother Nature’s best ideas—a mix of center-left and center-right—was instilled in me by the community where I grew up. And second, because those values seem more relevant today than ever in America as a whole, and in the world at large. At a time of rising racial tensions and political debates tearing at the fabric of our country, I grew hungry to understand what made that little suburb where I came of age politically such a vibrant community, anchoring and propelling me and many others.

 

pages: 828 words: 232,188

Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, invention of the printing press, iterative process, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

These social conflicts left deep divisions within Greek society and increased the overall level of distrust.20 What is notable about the evolution of Greek political institutions is that economic modernization did not, as in the case of Britain and the United States, lead to a middle-class coalition whose object was reform of the state itself and elimination of the pervasive system of clientelism. Rather, the emergence of a stable electoral democracy after 1974 led to the rollback of merit-based bureaucracy and the steady widening of a more sophisticated form of clientelism by the two dominant parties, the center-right New Democracy (ND) and the Pan-Hellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK). The restoration of formal democracy in Greece after the fall of the colonels has been rightly celebrated as an opening move in Huntington’s Third Wave of democratizations. But insufficient attention has been paid to the quality of democratic government in Greece, the fact that Greece never created a truly modern, impersonal public sector.

By 1945, Europe’s exhausted elites were ready to concede both liberal democracy and redistributive welfare states to ensure social peace. While Latin America’s elites faced the threat of social upheaval, especially after the Cuban Revolution, it was never severe enough to promote either state building or redistribution on a European scale. There was no European-style social consensus built around moderate center-left and center-right parties, but rather sharp polarizations between rich and poor. Only in the 2000s does a more European type of political order appear to be emerging in Chile and Brazil. Geography, climate, and colonial legacies do not explain present-day outcomes across the board. Argentina, whose climate and colonial history freed it from the inequality and slow growth of the rest of the continent during the nineteenth century, should have continued to flourish.

The working classes through unionization and political struggle won greater privileges for themselves and became middle class in political outlook. Fascism discredited the extreme Right, and the emerging cold war and threat from Stalinist Russia discredited the Communist Left. This left politics to be played out among center-Right and center-Left parties that largely agreed on a liberal democratic framework. The median voter—a favorite concept of political scientists—was no longer a poor person demanding systemic changes to the social order but a middle-class individual with a stake in the existing system. Other regions were not so lucky.

 

Atlas Obscura: An Explorer's Guide to the World's Hidden Wonders by Joshua Foer, Dylan Thuras, Ella Morton

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, centre right, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, cosmic microwave background, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, double helix, East Village, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, horn antenna, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index card, Jacques de Vaucanson, Kowloon Walled City, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mutually assured destruction, phenotype, Pluto: dwarf planet, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Tunguska event, urban sprawl, Vesna Vulović, wikimedia commons, working poor

Atlas Obscura Contributors: Michael Bukowski & Jeanne D’Angelo p. 86 (all); Christine Colby p. 13; Ryan Crutchfield p. 14; Peter Dispensa p. 40; Michelle Enemark pp. 73, 87 (top); Ophelia Holt p. 36 (top); Daniel Kovalsky p. 15 (btm), p. 18; Michael Magdalena p. 49 (top); Roger Noguera i Arnau p. 80; Jaszmina Szendrey, pp. 19, 77 (btm). ASIA age fotostock: Stefan Auth/imageBROKER p. 174; David Beatty p. 133 (btm); Angelo Cavalli p. 176; Deddeda p. 179 (top); Jose Fuste Rage p. 180; Tony Hassler p. 131; JTB Photo p. 149 (center right); Ivonne Peupelmann p. 170; Topic Photo Agency IN p. 167. Alamy Stock Photo: Aflo Co. Ltd p. 162; age fotostock pp. 137 (full page), 168 (btm); Asia Images Group Pte Ltd p. 141; roger askew p. 129; Oliver Benn p. 181 (btm); ColsTravel p. 151; Paul Doyle p. 120 (btm); epa european pressphoto agency b.v. p. 140 (btm); NPC Collection p. 159; Eddie Gerald p. 118; Michelle Gilders p. 166 (btm); Simon Grosset p. 152; Gavin Hellier p. 166 (top); Marc F.

Creative Commons: The following images from Wikimedia Commons are used under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) and belong to the following Wikimedia Commons user: Peter Campbell p. 234. Atlas Obscura Contributors: Jonatan Jansson p. 226; Céline Meyer p.240 (btm); Amanda Olliek p. 235 (top). CANADA Alamy Stock Photo: 914 Collection p. 258 (btm); All Canada Photos pp. 260, 261, 263 (center right), 267; Alt-6 p. 274 (top); blickwinkel p. 265; Yvette Cardozo pp. 262 (btm), 273 (top); Cosmo Condina p. 269; INTERFOTO p. 264 (btm); Andre Jenny pp. 259 (btm), 273 (btm); Lannen/Kelly Photo p. 274 (btm); Ilene MacDonald p. 266; Mary Evans Picture Library p. 268; Susan Montgomery p. 271 (btm); Radharc Images p. 264 (top); Randsc p. 272; Michael Wheatley p. 257.

Alamy Stock Photo: Irene Abdou p. 365; Nathan Allred p. 302–303; Gay Bumgarner p. 367 (btm); Pat Canova p. 340 (top); Danita Delimont pp. 313 (btm), 361; Design Pics Inc p. 380; Don Despain p. 307; dpa picture alliance p. 303 (top); Richard Ellis p. 349; Peter Elvin p. 309 (top); epa european pressphoto agency b.v. pp. 321 (btm), 366 (top); Everett Collection Historical p. 359; Flirt p. 302 (top); Franck Fotos p. 326 (top); joseph s giacalone p. 289; Michelle Gilders p. 311 (top); jay goebel p. 306; Bill Gozansky p. 292; Jeff Greenberg p. 341 (btm); Blaine Harrington III p. 299 (right); Janet Horton p. 294; Independent Picture Service p. 334; Inge Johnsson p. 300; Dan Leeth p. 346; Ilene MacDonald p. 299 (left); Mary Evans Picture Library pp. 345 (top), 374; Luc Novovitch p. 297 (top); Peter Tsai Photography p. 308; Edwin Remsberg p. 356 (top); RGB Ventures/SuperStock p. 293; Philip Scalia p. 354; SCPhotos p. 379; James Taylor p. 286 (top); Washington Imaging p. 328; Jim West p. 314–315 (btm); ZUMA Press, Inc. pp. 277, 305 (btm), 341(top), 355, 371 (btm). Brad Andersohn: p. 288 (top). AP Photo: Wilfredo Lee p. 342; Douglas C. Pizac p. 310. Boston Athenæum: p. 371 (top). Cushing Center, Harvey Cushing/John Hay Whitney Medical Center Library, Yale University: p. 367 (center right). Brendan Donnelly: 280 (illustrations). Zach Fein: p. 333. fotolia: davidevision p. 363; Sean Pavone Photo p. 343; valdezrl p. 301 (btm). Getty Images: John B. Carnett/Bonnier Corporation p. 351; Bryan Chan/Los Angeles Times p. 284; Harry Fisher/Allentown Morning Call/MCT p. 364; Paul Hawthorne p. 326 (btm); Kevin Horan / The LIFE Images Collection p. 327 (btm); Keith Philpott/The LIFE Images Collection p. 330; Joel Sartore/National Geographic p. 352.

 

Necessary Illusions by Noam Chomsky

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, full employment, Howard Zinn, Khyber Pass, land reform, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, union organizing

The 1984 elections in Nicaragua were dismissed with derision or ignored, while studies by highly qualified observers and analysts were, and remain, beyond the pale, because they consistently reached the wrong conclusions: for example, the detailed examination by a delegation of the professional association of Latin American scholars (LASA), probably the most careful study of any Third World election, and the supporting conclusions by an Irish Parliamentary delegation drawn primarily from the center-right, among many others, all passing without mention. The media even permitted themselves to be duped by a transparent fraud, the well-timed “discovery” of a shipment of MiG fighter planes to Nicaragua, which predictably turned out to be fanciful and was later attributed to Oliver North’s shenanigans, but which admirably served its purpose of helping to efface the unwanted Nicaraguan elections.

Throughout, Lemann is particularly incensed by attention to fact, as his derisive comments about “tabular lingo” indicate. Thus he writes that we “dismiss the standard sources on the countries they write about,” as in discussing coverage of the Nicaragua election, making use instead of such absurd sources as the report of the Irish Parliamentary Delegation of largely center-right parties and the detailed study of the professional association of Latin American scholars (whom we call “independent observers,” he adds derisively, apparently regarding Latin American scholars as not “independent” if their research does not conform to his prejudices). Asked by Herman to explain why he finds our use of sources inadequate in this or any other case, he writes: “By standard sources, I mean the American press, which usually weighs the government handouts against other sources.”

Alexander Cockburn, Nation, Aug. 27/Sept. 3, 1988, citing a story by journalist Marc Cooper, Los Angeles Weekly, May 27-June 2. After Cockburn’s column appeared, the Times published an “editors’ note” (Sept. 15) stating that the story “fell short of The Times’s reporting and editing standards” because it gave the impression of firsthand interviewing while in fact it “was based on a report in El Mundo, a center-right newspaper, which attributed the information to the Salvadoran military command,” and on “a representative of a leading human rights organization,” unidentified and unmentioned in LeMoyne’s story (and probably nonexistent), who allegedly said she believed the report to be true, later retracting this judgment.

 

pages: 371 words: 36,271

Libertarian Idea by Jan Narveson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

centre right, invisible hand, means of production, Menlo Park, night-watchman state, Peter Singer: altruism, prisoner's dilemma, psychological pricing, rent-seeking

...................................................... 1 PROLOGUE: The Knock at the Door ........................................................ 2 CHAPTER 1: Liberalism, Conservatism, Libertarianism .......................... 6 A Preliminary Definition ........................................................................ 6 Liberal/Conservative............................................................................... 6 Left, Center, Right .................................................................................. 9 Liberal Individualism as One Kind of Conservatism ............................. 9 CHAPTER 2: Liberty ............................................................................... 12 Another Preliminary Definition ............................................................ 12 The Subject of Liberty .......................................................................... 12 Liberty and Autonomy .......................................................................... 14 The Nonatomic Individual .................................................................... 16 What Is Liberty?

The liberal need not deny the truth of liberalism in that or any context: but her liberalism requires her to move over and accommodate the conservative and the radical nevertheless—not because their views are true, nor even because they are “just as true as one‟s own” (they aren‟t, after all); but rather, because the conservative and the radical are entitled to hold them; their right to hold their views is to be respected just because the views are theirs. Further implicit attachment to and explicit articulation of this outlook will be found throughout these pages. But the reader is referred to Nagel‟s brilliant essay for an insightful account of the issue in its own right. Left, Center, Right This is a good place to enter an initial complaint about the use of the terms „left‟, „right‟, and „center‟ in current political discussions. The usage implies that there is a single spectrum along which any particular packet of political views may be located. Are you in favor of free trade and against high import duties?

 

pages: 398 words: 31,161

Gnuplot in Action: Understanding Data With Graphs by Philipp Janert

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

bioinformatics, business intelligence, centre right, Debian, general-purpose programming language, iterative process, mandelbrot fractal, pattern recognition, random walk, Richard Stallman, six sigma

That’s what labels are for. 6.3.3 Text labels Text labels are a natural companion to arrows: the arrow shows the observer where to look, and the label explains what is happening. There are fewer options for labels compared to arrows, so let’s discuss them quickly. set label [{idx:tag}] [ [ [ [ [ [ "{str:text}" ] [ at {pos:location} ] left | center | right ] rotate [ by {int:degrees} ] | norotate ] font "{str:name}[,{int:size}]" ] [no]enhanced ] [ front | back ] textcolor | tc [ {clr:colorspec} | lt {idx:type} | ls {idx:style} ] ] [ point lt|pt {idx:pointtype} | ps {idx:pointsize} | nopoint ] [ offset {pos:off} ] The label text is typically a constant, but it can also be a string variable or any stringvalued expression (see chapter 4 for more information about string handling in gnuplot).

. ■ inverse reverses the vertical stacking of all items in the key. ■ autotitle columnheader takes the explanations from the first noncomment line in the data file. Full documentation: section 6.4. label Places a text label on the graph. set label [{idx:tag}] [ [ [ [ [ [ "{str:text}" ] [ at {pos:location} ] left | center | right ] rotate [ by {int:degrees} ] | norotate ] font "{str:name}[,{int:size}]" ] [no]enhanced ] [ front | back ] textcolor | tc [ {clr:colorspec} | lt {idx:type} | ls {idx:style} ] ] [ point lt|pt {idx:pointtype} | ps {idx:pointsize} | nopoint ] [ offset {pos:off} ] Comments ■ left, center, and right control the text alignment. ■ point places a symbol at the position named in the label.

 

Global Financial Crisis by Noah Berlatsky

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, energy security, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, market bubble, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, new economy, Northern Rock, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, working poor

The motley alliance of protesting professors, nurses, steel workers and students lacked a shared list of economic and political demands. Their banners made a case for wage increases, purchasing power parity or the repeal of tax reforms for the rich. At the same time, however, the protests revealed a deep-seated malaise that penetrates deeply into the conservative electorate of the governing UMP [Union for a Popular Movement, a center-right political party]. The overwhelming majority of the French are plagued by fears of unemployment, lower incomes and shrinking savings. The galloping decline in the economy has further damaged the president’s standing. Now that his approval rating has dropped to only 39 percent, Sarkozy is very much on edge.

 

pages: 225 words: 55,458

Back to School: Why Everyone Deserves a Second Chance at Education by Mike Rose

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

blue-collar work, centre right, delayed gratification, income inequality, new economy, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the built environment, urban renewal, War on Poverty

What we lack in the reports is the blending of the statistical table with the portrait of a life. Without 53 BAC K TO S C HO OL both, we’ll get one-dimensional policy fixes driven by numerical data removed from the daily lives of the people from whom the data are abstracted. Along the top of the north wall of the Independent Learning Center, right over a row of computer terminals, Maria has written out in big script her five goals for the program: Each student will be a lifelong learner . . . and a critical thinker . . . ending with a new goal that she is trying to enact through public events—a clothes drive, visiting senior centers—put on by the adult school: Each student will be able to participate and contribute as a citizen of his/her community.

 

pages: 231 words: 61,172

Babel-17 by Samuel R. Delany

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

centre right, East Village, index card

In her cabin she grabbed up her translation. Her eyes fled down the pages. She banged the button for the Navigators. Ron, wiping whipped-cream from his mouth, said, "Yes, Captain? What do you want?" "A watch," said Rydra, "and a—bag of marbles!" "Huh?" asked Calli. "You can finish your shortcake later. Meet me in G-center right now." "Mar-bles?" articulated Mollya wonderingly. "Marbles?" "One of the kids in the platoon must have brought along a bag of marbles. Get it and meet me in G-center." She jumped over the ruined skin of the bubble seat and leapt up the hatchway, turned off at the radial shaft seven, and launched down the cylindrical corridor toward the hollow spherical chamber of G-center.

 

pages: 226 words: 75,783

In the Land of Invented Languages: Adventures in Linguistic Creativity, Madness, and Genius by Arika Okrent

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

British Empire, centre right, global village, slashdot, software patent, Stephen Hawking

All of these adjustments infuriated Bliss, because he thought he had invented a universal language. After the OCCC administration told Bliss he was not welcome anymore, his level of interference increased tenfold, and he started threatening lawsuits. Twice, legal agreements were reached where he granted the center rights to use his symbols (under the terms of one agreement, the center was required to mark all symbols in its publications that he had not personally approved with a ), but he always found an excuse to break the agreements and begin fresh attacks on its progress. He sent an open letter to all institutions in Europe that worked with disabled children in order to “voice my flaming protest against the machinations and perversions of my work by an irresponsible and irrational woman, Mrs.

 

pages: 278 words: 82,069

Meltdown: How Greed and Corruption Shattered Our Financial System and How We Can Recover by Katrina Vanden Heuvel, William Greider

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, capital controls, carried interest, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Exxon Valdez, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, kremlinology, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, McMansion, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, pushing on a string, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K

A photo op Obama arranged with his economic advisers a few weeks before the election tells the story. Arrayed on either side were policy leaders from the old order. Former Federal Reserve chair Paul Volcker collaborated in the initial deregulation of banking in 1980 and presided over the initial bail-outs of banks deemed “too big to fail.” Robert Rubin was the architect of Clinton’s center-right economic strategy and is now senior counselor at Citigroup, itself endangered and the recipient of $25 billion in public aid. Lawrence Summers, disgraced as president of Harvard, is now managing partner of D. E. Shaw, a $39 billion private-equity firm and hedge fund that specializes in es-oteric mathematical investing strategies.

 

pages: 222 words: 50,318

The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight

The broad variety inherent in these two patterns of development is discussed below, but in the end, the two represent stark alternatives, each with different implications for the future of growth in the United States.3 These two development patterns do not function in isolation. In fact, walkable urbanism and drivable sub-urbanism can be and almost always are immediately adjacent to one another. Witness the small-lot, single-family homes next to thriving downtown Birmingham, Michigan; a big-box power center right next to Reston Town Center, Virginia; and low-density neighborhoods a few blocks from downtown Palo Alto, California. The edge between drivable sub-urbanism and walkable urbanism is where the great battles over development will increasingly be fought as the demand for more walkable urbanism continues to change the character of the places where it can best be built.

 

pages: 232

Planet of Slums by Mike Davis

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, jitney, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor

After the ouster of Perez Jimenez and before the election of Romulo Betancourt, the governing provisional junta suspended evictions in the barrios and offered public relief to the unemployed; as a result, 400,000 mosdy poor people moved to Caracas in little more than a year. Afterward, the intense competition for votes between the two major political parties, the center-left Accion Democratica and the center-right COPEI, opened the floodgates (which Perez Jimenez had tried to close) to the explosive expansion of informal barrios in the hills around the city. Caracas and other Venezuelan cities consequently grew at African velocity: during the 1960s, the country went from being 30 percent urban to 30 percent rural.31 In Mexico City, Uruchurtu's anti-slum, controlled-growth strategy proved ultimately incompatible with the needs of industrialists and foreign investors for cheap labor, as well as workers' demands for cheap housing.

 

pages: 267 words: 106,340

Europe old and new: transnationalism, belonging, xenophobia by Ray Taras

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, energy security, full employment, illegal immigration, immigration reform, low skilled workers, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, North Sea oil, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, World Values Survey

But unlike in the Iberian state, even though Islam is the next-largest faith in Italy it does not receive any state support. By contrast, other religions, such as Judaism and small Protestant denominations, have concluded agreements with the state making them eligible to receive a percentage of revenues from the national religion tax. From 2001 to 2006, Silvio Berlusconi, founder of the center-right movement Forza Italia, served at the head of a coalition government. One of his coalition partners was the Northern League (Lega Nord), which regularly engaged in anti-Muslim discourse. The Lega even sponsored a bill to restrict the building of mosques. One of its leaders inveighed that mosques “aren’t simple places of prayer” but sometimes serve as “centers of recruitment for terrorists and for propagation of hatred for the West.”12 As in other countries in old Europe, headscarves and burkas worn by Muslim women also became a lightning rod in Italy’s politics.

 

pages: 322 words: 99,066

The End of Secrecy: The Rise and Fall of WikiLeaks by The "Guardian", David Leigh, Luke Harding

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

4chan, banking crisis, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, Downton Abbey, eurozone crisis, friendly fire, global village, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Mohammed Bouazizi, offshore financial centre, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

With high-profile events like the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) prep-com next spring, and Sarkozy preparing to lead France’s chairmanship of the G-8/G-20 in 2011, we believe we can best secure our interests across a broad front through continued close consultations with our French partners (including, and perhaps especially, at the highest levels), with an eye to leveraging Sarkozy’s strong political standing, desire for action, and willingness to make difficult decisions into force multipliers for our foreign policy interests. End Summary. DOMESTIC DRAMA BUT NO DOMESTIC OPPOSITION 2. (C/NF) Sarkozy’s domestic standing is virtually unchallenged despite lagging opinion polls which place his personal approval ratings at 39 percent. His center-right UMP party controls both houses of parliament, and opposition leaders in France have spent the past two years fighting among themselves rather than mounting any serious political challenge to the incumbent president. Sarkozy’s policy of “openness” in appointing opposition politicians to high-profile positions has contributed to the leadership drain on the left.

 

pages: 344 words: 96,690

Groundswell: Winning in a World Transformed by Social Technologies by Charlene Li, Josh Bernoff

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

business process, call centre, centre right, citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, demand response, Donald Trump, estate planning, Firefox, knowledge worker, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Tony Hsieh

(One patient reported that when she brought up information she found online, her doctor responded, “Stay off the Internet!”) But it’s now abundantly clear to doctors at NCCN cancer centers that they must have an Internet strategy, and the Communispace community is helping them figure it out. Ellen Sonet is helping build Web resources for her cancer center right now. She knows that patients go to cancer organizations like the American Cancer Society more, WebMD a little less, and cancer center Web sites even less than that. She even knows (since Communispace asked) which search terms people use—you could guess that it makes sense for her to buy “breast cancer” keywords on Google, but would you have guessed that lots of people search on “metastatic”?

 

pages: 366 words: 100,602

Sextant: A Young Man's Daring Sea Voyage and the Men Who ... by David Barrie

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

centre right, colonial exploitation, Edmond Halley, Eratosthenes, Fellow of the Royal Society, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, lone genius, Maui Hawaii, Nicholas Carr, polynesian navigation, South China Sea, trade route

It is also unusual in having a pole that fits into a socket on the observer’s belt to help support its weight. A page from a journal showing Charles Green’s lunar distance observations taken aboard the Endeavour off the Great Barrier Reef (box, center left). The latitude is prominently recorded (center right) and beneath it Green notes the unusual circumstances: “These Obs[ervations] very good the Limbs very distinct, a good Horizon. We were about a 100 yards from a Reef where we expected the Ship to strike every minute it being Calm & no soundings the swell heaving us right on.” Louis-Antoine de Bougainville.

 

pages: 324 words: 92,805

The Impulse Society: America in the Age of Instant Gratification by Paul Roberts

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, accounting loophole / creative accounting, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, business process, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, David Brooks, delayed gratification, double helix, factory automation, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, game design, greed is good, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, impulse control, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, low skilled workers, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, performance metric, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Walter Mischel, winner-take-all economy

23 What is interesting is that, in the wake of the Tea Party meltdown, we’re already seeing conservative thought leaders shifting toward the center—and away from the brand conservatism of Impulse politics. As Ross Douthat, one of The New York Times’ conservative columnists, has pointed out, a pragmatic, solutions-oriented “reform conservatism” has recently been emerging from center-right think tanks and from pragmatic conservative politicians concerned with the movement’s currently suicidal trajectory. Reform conservatism’s ideas—promoting early childhood education, for example, allowing states to manage their own transportation projects with their own fuel taxes—emphasize the brass tacks realism of traditional conservatism that has always appealed to Middle America.

 

pages: 391 words: 102,301

Zero-Sum Future: American Power in an Age of Anxiety by Gideon Rachman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sinatra Doctrine, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent

So, for example, the Green Revolution in agriculture had confounded the neo-Malthusians of the twentieth century. The magazine continued: “Today the mother of all scares is global warming. Here the jury is still out.” But it was pretty clear what the Economist expected the eventual verdict to be: “Every other environmental scare has been either wrong or badly exaggerated,” it argued.14 If even a center-right magazine published in Europe took this position, American conservatives could be expected to be even more skeptical about global warming and bullish about the prospects for new technology cracking the problem. President George W. Bush typified both trends. In his first term in office he was notably reluctant to make a fuss about global warming.

 

pages: 344 words: 93,858

The Post-American World: Release 2.0 by Fareed Zakaria

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, interest rate derivative, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, new economy, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Washington Consensus, working-age population, young professional

The percentage of people holding a favorable view of the United States has gone up considerably since the election of Barack Obama, but in many countries it is still below the levels seen in 2000. Josef Joffe, one of Germany’s leading international affairs commentators, observes that, during the Cold War, anti-Americanism was a left-wing phenomenon. “In contrast to it, there was always a center-right that was anti-communist and thus pro-American,” he explains. “The numbers waxed and waned, but you always had a solid base of support for the United States.” In short, the Cold War kept Europe pro-American. The year 1968, for example, saw mass protests against American policies in Vietnam, but it was also the year of the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.

 

pages: 407 words: 103,501

The Digital Divide: Arguments for and Against Facebook, Google, Texting, and the Age of Social Netwo Rking by Mark Bauerlein

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, centre right, citizen journalism, collaborative editing, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, disintermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, pets.com, Results Only Work Environment, Saturday Night Live, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technology bubble, Ted Nelson, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, web application

“It’s not healthy for us if there are certain decisions that are simply removed from the democratic realm and are just ‘the Supreme Court says so,’ ” he argues. “I would even say this about abortion, although I’m a big pro-choice guy. It’s not clear to me that it’s such a great thing to have removed it completely from politics.” Politically, Wales cops to various libertarian positions but prefers to call his views “center-right.” By that he means that he sees himself as part of a silent majority of socially liberal, fiscally conservative people who value liberty—“people who vote Republican but who worry about right-wingers.” The Libertarian Party, he says, is full of “lunatics.” But even as he outlines all the reasons why he prefers to stay close to the American political mainstream, Wales delicately parses the various libertarian positions on intellectual property and other points of dispute without breaking a sweat.

 

pages: 441 words: 136,954

That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks

The toll we’re taking on ourselves is just getting bigger and bigger, said Murphy, who is not running political campaigns anymore. “Our politics [today] is almost like a parasite eating at the national interest for short-term gratification—so that your team can cheer and feel good for a few minutes,” he told us. “If we don’t save the store, the questions between the center right and center left, between apples and oranges, will be irrelevant. We will all be working at TGI Friday’s in Beijing.” Murphy then paused for a moment to recall one of the best pieces of advice he ever got from a wise old hand in the ad business. “Negative ads work,” the old hand told Murphy, but then added a word of caution: “Do you know why McDonald’s never ran a negative ad against Burger King, saying their burgers were all full of maggots?

 

pages: 637 words: 128,673

Democracy Incorporated by Sheldon S. Wolin

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, illegal immigration, invisible hand, mutually assured destruction, new economy, offshore financial centre, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, single-payer health, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen

Midway through the 2004 Democratic presidential primary elections the New York Times suggested that all of the candidates except the two front-runners should abandon the race. This would have meant that the viewpoints represented by the left wing of the party would lack a public forum, and that the electorate would be denied the opportunity to hear views other than those of the party establishment. It was only after the center-right candidate of the Times, Senator Lieberman, withdrew for lack of support that the paper issued its call for the Left to commit hari-kari. 32. For an illuminating discussion of the various political roles played by ordinary people, slaves, and Indians in the years leading up to and including the revolution of 1776, see Gary Nash, The Unknown American Revolution: The Unruly Birth of Democracy and the Struggle to Create America (New York: Viking, 2005). 33.

 

pages: 523 words: 143,639

Red November: Inside the Secret U.S.-Soviet Submarine War by W. Craig Reed

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, cable laying ship, centre right, cuban missile crisis, en.wikipedia.org, nuclear winter, operation paperclip, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, upwardly mobile

Author’s collection Top-secret listening station sites resembled large “elephant cages” and were positioned along the Pacific and Atlantic rims near Imperial Beach, California (above), Okinawa, Japan (below), and more than a dozen other locations. Author’s collection During the early 1960s, William J. Reed helped deploy top-secret listening stations around the world in an effort to locate Soviet submarines. gnu Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 The USS Thresher (SSN-593) was lost with all hands on April 10, 1963. center right: Navy divers aboard the bathyscaphe USS Trieste (DSV-0) descended to 8,400 feet to search for her remains. U.S. Navy photographs Navy diver Nihil Smith—whose best friend, Joe Walski, was aboard the Thresher when she sank—brought up a pipe found by the Trieste in 1963, validating the sub’s location on the bottom. below right: The Trieste found other remains, including the crushed sonar dome.

 

pages: 458 words: 135,206

CTOs at Work by Scott Donaldson, Stanley Siegel, Gary Donaldson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Amazon Web Services, bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, centre right, cloud computing, computer vision, connected car, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, distributed generation, domain-specific language, glass ceiling, pattern recognition, Pluto: dwarf planet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, thinkpad, web application, zero day

And if you look at what's going on with cloud right now, all the big vendors are bringing it in-house. Cisco's building it in-house. All the big vendors are doing it themselves. We had a big shortage of data centers in '90, 2007–8. Now we're having a large data center constructed. In some areas you're oversupplied with data centers right now. In some areas you're not. But, Cisco, Google, the big guys are building their own data centers. They're not outsourcing it to Rackspace or what have you. The folks who are doing that are startups. I guess, midsized probably, but here, if I took you back to my machine room, you'd say, “No wonder you're not really worried about the cloud.”

 

pages: 411 words: 127,755

Advertisers at Work by Tracy Tuten

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

accounting loophole / creative accounting, centre right, crowdsourcing, follow your passion, Mark Zuckerberg, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, the High Line

I said, “David would be so pleased to know that we have this interview today and I’m here frequenting his client.” Oakley: It’s Bo time! [The tag line for Bojangles’ campaign.] You were probably going through the drive-through while I was sitting at corporate headquarters. Actually, it’s not known as a corporate headquarters. It’s known as the support center, right? That’s what it’s called. It’s not called corporate headquarters. It’s called support center because they’re there to support all of the individual franchises and owners. Tuten: What led you to advertising as a profession? Did you grow up ­wanting to work in this field? Oakley: Both of my parents were potters, which was great.

 

pages: 497 words: 123,718

A Game as Old as Empire: The Secret World of Economic Hit Men and the Web of Global Corruption by Steven Hiatt; John Perkins

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate personhood, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, financial deregulation, financial independence, full employment, global village, high net worth, land reform, large denomination, Long Term Capital Management, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Germany provides a case in point: in 2000, the newly elected Social Democrat-Green Party government pledged in its coalition agreement to reform German export finance “along socially, environmentally, and developmentally sustainable lines.” However, strong domestic pressures exerted by major transnational company clients of the German ECA Hermes, and the government ministries they influenced, effectively blocked all reform. The German center-right government elected in 2005 is even less likely to challenge “Germany Incorporated.” Similar scenarios (often without even pretenses of reform) are common in most industrialized exporting nations, as well as in emerging industrial exporting countries such as China, Brazil, and India. Through 2006, the OECD ECAs are reviewing and revising both the 2003 “Common Approaches” environmental agreement as well as a hitherto toothless 2000 OECD “Action Statement on Bribery,” which in typical ECA fashion was more a declaration of inaction than of action.

 

pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, Zipcar

Every destination in Mableton was an island, isolated by those formidable swaths of asphalt and grass. Everywhere we looked, parking space exceeded building footprints by at least three to one. You’d be crazy to walk from the post office to the library behind the gas station, or the shopping plaza beyond that, or even to the arts center right across Floyd Road. “That would be a death march,” Meyer said, referring to both the frying rays of the Georgia summer sun and Floyd Road itself, which has grown over the years into a commuter highway, speeding people between distant mega-schools, power centers, business parks, and dollar stores.

 

pages: 466 words: 146,982

Venice: A New History by Thomas F. Madden

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

big-box store, buy low sell high, centre right, colonial rule, Columbine, Costa Concordia, double entry bookkeeping, facts on the ground, financial innovation, indoor plumbing, invention of movable type, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Murano, Venice glass, spice trade, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning

A host of alternative solutions were presented, ranging from the raising of Venice’s pavements, to the erection of barriers along the islands, to the pumping of groundwater back into the aquifer. All were rejected. The question became more bedeviled by the close association between Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi and MOSE. The prime minister had laid the first stone of the project in 2003 and he remained its strong proponent. Those who opposed Berlusconi and his center-right party tended also to oppose MOSE. Nonetheless, the project continued to move forward. When (or if) it will ever be completed is currently anyone’s guess. Despite the dire warnings, acqua alta did nothing to slow Venice’s tourist industry—an industry that now produces more than half the area’s revenues.

 

pages: 380 words: 118,675

The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon by Brad Stone

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, airport security, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, bank run, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Black Swan, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, facts on the ground, game design, housing crisis, invention of movable type, inventory management, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kodak vs Instagram, late fees, loose coupling, low skilled workers, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, optical character recognition, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, quantitative hedge fund, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Rodney Brooks, search inside the book, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, Skype, statistical arbitrage, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, Tony Hsieh, Whole Earth Catalog, why are manhole covers round?

* * * When you have fit yourself snugly into Jeff Bezos’s worldview and then evaluated both the successes and failures of Amazon over the past two decades, the future of the company becomes easy to predict. The answer to almost every conceivable question is yes. Will Amazon move to free next-day and same-day delivery for Prime members? Yes, eventually, when Amazon has so many customers in each urban area that placing a fulfillment center right outside every city becomes practical. Bezos’s goal is and always has been to take all the inconvenience out of online shopping and deliver products and services to customers in the most efficient manner possible. Will Amazon one day own its own delivery trucks? Yes, eventually, because controlling the so-called last-mile delivery to its customers can help fulfill that vision and improve the company’s ability to meet the precise delivery promises it relishes making to customers.

 

pages: 393 words: 115,263

Planet Ponzi by Mitch Feierstein

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disintermediation, diversification, Donald Trump, energy security, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, frictionless, frictionless market, high net worth, High speed trading, illegal immigration, income inequality, interest rate swap, invention of agriculture, Long Term Capital Management, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, pensions crisis, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, value at risk, yield curve

François Hollande wants to create 300,000 public sector jobs. And French voters appear to be partial to this nonsense. Almost three-fifths of the population want higher trade barriers to be erected unilaterally. The same number think trade with India and China has been bad for the country.14 Nicolas Sarkozy, supposedly a politician of the center-right, came to power promising sweeping structural reform and has delivered almost nothing. His popularity at home is bumping along the seafloor, yet from a bond market perspective he still looks like the least bad of the possible leaders.15 In Spain, the political dangers come from the street. In May 2011, tens of thousands of Spaniards, mostly young ones, took over central squares in sixty cities across the country.

 

pages: 513 words: 141,963

Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs by Johann Hari

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Airbnb, centre right, failed state, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, McJob, Naomi Klein, placebo effect, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, Steven Pinker, traveling salesman, War on Poverty

You inject yourself, while a friendly trained nurse waits unobtrusively in the background. The booths are small and neat and lit from above. Once you have injected yourself, you can walk through to get medical treatment or counseling or just to talk about your problems. Any time you are ready to stop, there is a detox center right upstairs, with a warm bed waiting for you. Because of the uprising by VANDU, and a conservative mayor who listened to the facts, opened his heart, and changed his mind, Vancouver now has the most progressive drug policies on the North American continent. But many people had understandable fears about this experiment.

 

pages: 466 words: 127,728

The Death of Money: The Coming Collapse of the International Monetary System by James Rickards

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, complexity theory, computer age, credit crunch, currency peg, David Graeber, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, George Akerlof, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, jitney, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market design, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, risk-adjusted returns, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, Stuxnet, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, working-age population, yield curve

The Venezuelans, Germans, and Swiss may be the most prominent exemplars of the gold-repatriation movement, but they are not alone in raising the issue. In 2013 the sovereign wealth fund of Azerbaijan, a major energy exporter, ordered its gold reserves moved from JPMorgan Chase in London to the Central Bank of Azerbaijan in Baku. The gold-repatriation issue was also raised publicly in 2013 in Mexico. In the Netherlands, members of the center-right Christian Democratic Appeal Party and the leftist Socialist Party have petitioned De Nederlandsche Bank, the Dutch central bank, to repatriate its 612 tonnes of gold. Only 11 percent of the Dutch gold, or 67 tonnes, is actually in the Netherlands. The remainder is divided with about 312 tonnes in New York, 122 tonnes in Canada, and 110 tonnes in London.

 

pages: 493 words: 132,290

Vultures' Picnic: In Pursuit of Petroleum Pigs, Power Pirates, and High-Finance Carnivores by Greg Palast

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

anti-communist, back-to-the-land, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, centre right, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Donald Trump, energy security, Exxon Valdez, invisible hand, means of production, offshore financial centre, random walk, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes, transfer pricing, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, Yogi Berra

My neighbor hadn’t yet swept up the crack vials (she made them into art objects). I had coffee in one hand, a bagel with scallion cream cheese in the other, and I could hear my phone ringing and ringing upstairs. I paid the guy in the box his toll (fifty cents), ran up the flight (Doesn’t anyone sweep these steps?), and got the message to get to the World Trade Center “right now, Palast.” Hill, Betts and Nash is one of those quiet white-shoe firms that provide discreet representation for Her Majesty and the Lloyd’s list on matters of Admiralty Law. They made certain Britannia ruled the waves, including handling the last little mess BP made in the Torrey Canyon crack-up.

 

How I Became a Quant: Insights From 25 of Wall Street's Elite by Richard R. Lindsey, Barry Schachter

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Andrew Wiles, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, asset allocation, asset-backed security, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, Black-Scholes formula, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, business process, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, diversification, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, implied volatility, index fund, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, John von Neumann, linear programming, Loma Prieta earthquake, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market friction, market microstructure, martingale, merger arbitrage, Nick Leeson, P = NP, pattern recognition, pensions crisis, performance metric, prediction markets, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, six sigma, sorting algorithm, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, stochastic process, systematic trading, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, the scientific method, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, transfer pricing, value at risk, volatility smile, Wiener process, yield curve, young professional

He had decided to branch off and create a personal family-and-friends fund that would combine the existing systematic trading strategies we were using with an overlay of fundamental stock and commodity analyses. He had all the capital he needed and asked me to join him in his new venture. Ever the opportunist, I agreed. We crossed the Hudson and setup shop under the auspices of ED&F Man in the World Financial Center, right in the heart of downtown New York City. As a two-person operation, my first task was simple—recreate, from scratch, everything that the previous 30-person fund had done, but in a way that could be wholly automated and required no additional staff. Over that next year I coded day and night, and even purchased a $20,000 Sun SparcStation laptop (that’s right, a laptop) so I could code during my two-hour-per-day train commute.

 

pages: 566 words: 163,322

The Rise and Fall of Nations: Forces of Change in the Post-Crisis World by Ruchir Sharma

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Asian financial crisis, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business climate, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, dark matter, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, moral hazard, New Economic Geography, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working-age population

The positive side of the debt rule is that a large decrease in the debt-to-GDP ratio can set up a country for a new round of lending and growth, and in the five years between 2011 and 2015, private debt fell by 30 percentage points as a share of GDP in Spain, one of the sharpest drops in the developed world. Wages and labor costs also came down as Spaniards paid down debt. During this period, with global manufacturers expanding plants in Spain, it was one of the few developed countries to see its share of global export manufacturing expand. By last year, however, Mariano Rajoy’s center-right government had lost most of its enthusiasm for tough reform, and then in the December 2015 elections it lost its parliamentary majority and its leverage. With progress stymied, Spain’s progress now rests on the momentum of past reforms, and its prospects have slipped. France is also trending downward according to the rules, particularly on the perils of the state.

 

The Fugitive Game: Online With Kevin Mitnick by Jonathan Littman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, centre right, computer age, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Kevin Kelly, Menlo Park, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Steven Levy, telemarketer

I knew it'd work. I was right." "Why don't they do more?" "I think probably soon, like the year 2010, they'll probably have it where you might have to get a full set of prints," Mitnick prophesizes. "And then when you get stopped by Mo Jo Cop, he scans it and it checks NCIC [the National Crime Information Center] right away. Wouldn't that be scary? And how about when the government decides we don't want cash. We want to put it all on a plastic card. Your net worth. Then whenever the IRS wants to tax you, they just take it out. "Hold on a sec, this guy's gonna take my stuff." Mitnick's talking to somebody else.

 

Killing Hope: Us Military and Cia Interventions Since World War 2 by William Blum

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bolshevik threat, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, kremlinology, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, nuremberg principles, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, trickle-down economics, union organizing

In other words, to watch over the population of their country with the means offered by technology. This is what I call technofascism.15 120 William Colby, later Director of the CIA, arrived in Italy in 1953 as station chief and devoted the next five years of his life to financing and advising center/right organizations for the express purpose of inducing the Italian people to turn away from the leftist bloc, particularly the Communist Party, and keep it from taking power in the 1958 elections. In his account of that period he justifies this program on the grounds of supporting "democracy" or "center democracy" and preventing Italy from becoming a Soviet satellite.

 

pages: 411 words: 114,717

Breakout Nations: In Pursuit of the Next Economic Miracles by Ruchir Sharma

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, cloud computing, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, eurozone crisis, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inflation targeting, informal economy, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, land reform, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population

But its foreign debts were manageable, in large part owing to its solid domestic banks and well-managed government. The core of Czech banking and bureaucracy is so sound that the economy has grown steadily through long years of political turmoil, with weak coalition governments ever since the Velvet Revolution overthrew the Communist regime in 1989. A victory by center-right parties in the 2010 elections raised the prospect of a strong legislative majority for the first time, but at this point Czech society has such sturdy permanent institutions that it can thrive even with weak elected governments. These former Soviet satellites also have a much greater chance than Russia does to emerge as impact players in global industrial competition.

 

pages: 446 words: 578

The end of history and the last man by Francis Fukuyama

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, centre right, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, labour mobility, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, nuclear winter, open economy, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

T h e last Francoist Cortes did a remarkable thing: it overwhelmingly passed a law in November 1 9 7 6 that in effect constituted its own suicide by stip­ ulating that the next Cortes be democratically elected. A s in Por­ tugal, the Spanish population as a whole p r o v i d e d the ultimate ground for democracy by supporting a democratic center, first by giving strong support to the December 1 9 7 6 r e f e r e n d u m a p p r o v ­ ing democratic elections, and then by calmly voting Suarez's center-right party into office in J u n e 1 9 7 7 . 9 1 0 1 1 In the cases of the G r e e k and A r g e n t i n e turns to democracy in 1 9 7 4 and 1 9 8 3 , respectively, the military in both countries was not forcibly ousted f r o m power. T h e y gave way to civilian authority instead through inner divisions within their ranks, reflecting a loss of belief in their right to rule.

 

pages: 728 words: 182,850

Cooking for Geeks by Jeff Potter

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, A Pattern Language, carbon footprint, centre right, Community Supported Agriculture, crowdsourcing, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, fear of failure, food miles, hacker house, haute cuisine, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, iterative process, Parkinson's law, placebo effect, random walk, slashdot, stochastic process, the scientific method

Because maltodextrin is water soluble, however, water would dissolve the starch granules. And, luckily, maltodextrin can soak up a lot more oil per volume than sand can soak up water, making it useful for conveying flavors in a nonliquid form. Powdered Brown Butter Whisking any fat such as browned butter (upper left) with maltodextrin (center right) creates a powdered form (bottom) that can be used to create a surprising texture as the powder "melts" back into browned butter when placed in the mouth. Try using this browned butter powder as a garnish on top of or alongside fish, or making a version with peanut butter and sprinkling on desserts.

 

pages: 708 words: 196,859

Lords of Finance: The Bankers Who Broke the World by Liaquat Ahamed

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, centre right, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Etonian, full employment, German hyperinflation, index card, invisible hand, Lao Tzu, large denomination, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mobile money, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, purchasing power parity, pushing on a string, rolodex, the market place

His recommendations were still very orthodox, designed to prevent an exchange crisis rather than to address the growing problem of unemployment. Three weeks later, the government with which he had broken split over the unemployment question and fell, the Socialists wanting to finance an expansion in unemployment benefits by more foreign borrowing, the center parties to cut the budget deficit. A new center-right coalition, excluding the Socialists, took office and was led by a new chancellor, Heinrich Brüning, a dour Catholic, former army officer, and staunch monarchist. Unable to get anything through a divided parliament, Brüning was forced to rule by decree, moving Germany in a more authoritarian direction by his reliance on the constitution’s provisions for emergency powers.

 

Frommer's Egypt by Matthew Carrington

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

airport security, centre right, colonial rule, Internet Archive, land tenure, Maui Hawaii, open economy, rent control, rolodex, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, Yom Kippur War

Desert Divers, Masbat (& 069/3640500; www.desert-divers.com), is a great, locally owned and run business in Dahab that’s becoming a center for free diving and yoga. It pioneered the idea of “camel dive safaris,” where you trek up the coast with camels to do the shore dive. Big Blue’s (& 069/3640045 or 010/1945466; www.bigbluedahab.com) logo says it all: It’s time to chill out and dive. Big Blue is a brand-new dive center right next to the water, which means a great combination of uptight standards and chilled-out diving. The dive center at the Nessima Resort, Mashraba (& 069/3640320; fax 069/ 3640321; www.nesima-resort.com), not only has a first-class reputation, but is conveniently located in one of the nicest places to stay and eat in the middle of Dahab.

 

pages: 678 words: 216,204

The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom by Yochai Benkler

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Brownian motion, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, clean water, dark matter, desegregation, East Village, fear of failure, Firefox, game design, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of radio, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, market bubble, market clearing, Marshall McLuhan, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, random walk, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software patent, spectrum auction, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs

Only after a few days, when the boycott was crystallizing, would opponents have reason to point out the boycott effort and discuss it. This interpretation also well characterizes the way in which the Trent Lott story described later in this chapter began percolating on the liberal side of the blogosphere, but then migrated over to the center-right. 462 The third claim was that money would reemerge as the primary source of power brokerage because of the difficulty of getting attention on the Net. Descriptively, it shares a prediction with the second-generation claims: Namely, that the Internet will centralize discourse. It differs in the mechanism of concentration: it will not be the result of an emergent property of large-scale networks, but rather of an old, tried-and-true way of capturing the political arena--money.

 

pages: 558 words: 168,179

Dark Money: The Hidden History of the Billionaires Behind the Rise of the Radical Right by Jane Mayer

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Bakken shale, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, centre right, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, David Brooks, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, energy security, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, George Gilder, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, invisible hand, job automation, low skilled workers, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, More Guns, Less Crime, Nate Silver, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, Renaissance Technologies, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, Unsafe at Any Speed, War on Poverty, working poor

The think tank personnel wrote model bills, which they previewed for legislators, and boasted of their clout in the general assembly. Pope was proud of the achievement, telling the conservative Philanthropy Roundtable, “In a generation, we’ve shifted the public-policy debate in North Carolina from the centerleft to the center-right.” Besides the $60 million that Pope and his family foundation put into this ideological infrastructure, they gave more than $500,000 to state candidates and party committees in 2010 and 2012. In addition, Pope’s company, Variety Wholesalers, gave nearly $1 million more to outside groups running independent campaigns during that period.

 

pages: 1,051 words: 334,334

Gravity's Rainbow by Thomas Pynchon

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

centre right, Eratosthenes, experimental subject, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Plutocrats, plutocrats, random walk

Rockets are supposed to be like artillery shells, they disperse about the aiming point in a giant ellipse—the Ellipse of Uncertainty. But Pokier, though trusting as much as any scientist in uncertainty, is not feeling too secure here. It is after all his own personal ass whose quivering sphincter is centered right on Ground Zero. And there is more to this than ballistics. There is Weissmann. Any number of chemists and materials people know as much about insulation as Polder . . . why should he have been picked, unless . . . somewhere in his brain now two foci sweep together and become one . . . zero ellipse ... a single point ... a live warhead, secretly loaded, special bunkers for everyone else . . . yes that's what he wants ... all tolerances in the guidance cooperating toward a perfect shot, right on top of Pokier ... ah, Weissmann, your end game lacks finesse—but there were never spectators and judges not in all this time, and who ever said the end could not be this brutal?