Kitchen Debate

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pages: 376 words: 110,321

Consider the Fork: A History of How We Cook and Eat by Bee Wilson

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Albert Einstein, British Empire, Fellow of the Royal Society, haute cuisine, Kitchen Debate, Louis Pasteur, refrigerator car, sexual politics, the scientific method, Upton Sinclair, Wall-E

It was the most high-profile exchange between Soviets and Americans since the Geneva Summit of 1955, but far more informal. Laughing and sometimes jabbing fingers at one another, the two men debated the merits of capitalism and communism. Which country had the more advanced technologies? Which way of life was better? The conversation—which has since been christened the Kitchen Debate—hinged not on weapons or the space race but on washing machines and kitchen gadgets. The occasion was the opening day of the American National Exhibition at Sokolniki Park, a municipal park of “leisure and culture.” This was the first time many Russians had encountered the American lifestyle firsthand: the first time they tasted Pepsi-Cola or set eyes on big American refrigerators.

On chopsticks, see Barthes (1982), Chang (1977), Coe (2009), Hosking (1996), Ishige (2001). Bill Clinton’s speech about sporks is available at http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/63940-I, accessed July 2011. Also on sporks, see Koerner (2006), Lawrence (2010), and www.spork.org. CHAPTER SEVEN: ICE Much has been written about the Kitchen Debate. See, for example, Reid (2002), Reid (2005), Reid (2009), Oldenziel and Zachmann (2009), Larner (1986). For a contemporary account, see Salisbury (1959). On the history of ice, see David (1994a), Beckmann (1817), Masters (1844). The greatest book on America and refrigeration is the panoramic and phenomenally scholarly Anderson (1953).

Kurti, Nicholas, and Kurti, Giana, eds. (1988). But the Crackling Is Superb: An Anthology on Food and Drink by Fellows and Foreign Members of the Royal Society. Bristol, Hilger. Lamb, Charles (2011). A Dissertation upon Roast Pig and Other Essays. London, Penguin. Larner, John W. (1986). “Judging the Kitchen Debate.” OAH Magazine of History, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 25–26. Larson, Egon (1961). A History of Invention. London, Phoenix House. Lawrence, Keith (2010). “Costs Add Up for Jail’s ‘Sporks,’ Other Items.” McClatchy-Tribune Business News, July 6. Leach, Helen M. (1982). “Cooking Without Pots: Aspects of Prehistoric and Traditional Polynesian Cooking.”


pages: 356 words: 91,157

The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class?and What We Can Do About It by Richard Florida

affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbine, congestion charging, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Gini coefficient, Google bus, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, megacity, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, Paul Graham, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, superstar cities, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, young professional

Plurality service-class tracts are negatively correlated with average income (–0.49) and the share of adults who are college graduates (–0.45). Plurality working-class tracts are also negatively correlated with average income (–0.56) and the share of adults who are college graduates (–0.78). CHAPTER 8: SUBURBAN CRISIS 1. Dis, “The Nixon-Khrushchev ‘Kitchen Debate,’” Everything2, April 26, 2000, http://everything2.com/title/The+Nixon-Khrushchev+%2522Kitchen+Debate%2522. 2. On dead malls, see Nelson D. Schwartz, “The Economics (and Nostalgia) of Dead Malls,” New York Times, January 3, 2015, www.nytimes.com/2015/01/04/business/the-economics-and-nostalgia-of-dead-malls.html. The term slumburbia is from Timothy Egan, “Slumburbia,” New York Times, February 10, 2010, http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/02/10/slumburbia. 3.

Shortly before our move, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev and Vice President Richard Nixon had met in a brand-new, fully furnished kitchen of a model home. Although it looked like one that could be in any suburb in America, the home was built in Moscow’s Sokolniki Park as part of a cultural exchange program. On July 24, 1959, while television cameras rolled, the two world leaders held an impromptu “kitchen debate.” “Any steel worker could buy this house,” Nixon pointed out.1 “They earn $3 an hour. This house costs about $100 a month to buy on a contract running 25 to 30 years.” “In Russia, all you have to do to get a house is to be born in the Soviet Union,” Khrushchev fired back. The subject soon shifted to global politics and nuclear weapons, but Nixon’s words, no less than the house itself, vividly encapsulated the postwar American Dream: a private home, complete with a television set, dishwasher, clothes washer and dryer, and a car or two in the driveway, all accessible to members of the working class like my parents.


pages: 83 words: 23,805

City 2.0: The Habitat of the Future and How to Get There by Ted Books

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, big-box store, carbon footprint, cleantech, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, demand response, housing crisis, Induced demand, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, Zipcar

Molly Turner, director of public policy for the short-term rental lodging website Airbnb, pins the turning point to an iconic image: Richard Nixon, in Moscow, introducing Nikita Khrushchev to the modern marvel of the washing machine available for private consumption in every American home. Beginning with the era of that washing machine, Turner argues, we forgot how to share. In the so-called Kitchen Debate, Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev dispute their countries’ relative merits while touring the United States exhibit in Moscow in 1959. Image: Associated Press We came to prize instead personal ownership — of multiple cars, of large homes with private backyards and space inside for appliances that would never fit in a modest city walk-up.


pages: 320 words: 86,372

Mythology of Work: How Capitalism Persists Despite Itself by Peter Fleming

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1960s counterculture, anti-work, call centre, clockwatching, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, David Graeber, Etonian, future of work, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, neoliberal agenda, Parkinson's law, post-industrial society, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Results Only Work Environment, shareholder value, The Chicago School, transaction costs, wealth creators, working poor

The peasant knowledge we mentioned in Chapter 2 allows us to remember the present and see the unseen extremism of our domination. But how does such ‘dissenting consent’ work in the context of dialogical exchange? The paradoxical ‘visible intrigue’ of cold war politics presents a myriad of examples of this cat and mouse game. The famous ‘Kitchen Debate’ might serve as a useful illustration. When, during the early 1960s, the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev was shown around a model American kitchen at a trade exhibition in Moscow by US vice-president Richard Nixon, an unexpected debate ensued before the world’s media. Nixon knew full well that the press in the Soviet Union was highly censored.

capitalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 General Motors plant (Michigan) ref1 Goffee, R. ref1 Goldman Sachs ref1 The Good Soldier Svejk (Hasek) ref1 Gordon, D. ref1 Gorz, A. ref1, ref2 Graeber, D. ref1 Groundhog Day (Ramis) ref1 Guattari, F. ref1, ref2, ref3 on criticism/criticality ref1 and de-subjectification ref1 language ref1, ref2 Gujarat NRE ref1 Gulf of Mexico oil spill (2010) ref1 Hamper, B. ref1 Hanlon, G. ref1 Hardt, M. ref1 Hart, A. ref1 Harvard Business Review (HBR) ref1 Harvey, D. ref1, ref2 Hayek, F. ref1, ref2, ref3 health and safety ref1, ref2 ‘Help to Buy’ support scheme ref1 Hirschhorn, N. ref1 Hodgkinson, T. ref1 holiday policy ref1 Houellebecq, Michel ref1, ref2, ref3 human capital ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 human relations movement ref1 Human Resource Management (HRM) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 humour ref1 ‘I, Job’ function ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and biopower ref1, ref2 and death drive ref1, ref2 as escape into work ref1 and illness ref1, ref2, ref3 resisting ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 see also escape; totality refusal see also work, as all-encompassing; working hours illegal immigrants, deportations ref1 illness ref1, ref2 collective ref1, ref2 see also Social Patients’ Collective as desirable experience ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 of managers ref1, ref2 and productive power ref1, ref2 as weapon against capitalism ref1 ‘immersion room’ exercise ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 imperceptibility ref1 see also invisibility incentivization ref1 indexation process ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 informality and authoritarianism ref1, ref2 see also deformalization insecurity ref1 Institute of Leadership and Management (ILM) ref1, ref2, ref3 invisibility ref1, ref2 ‘Invisible Committee’ ref1, ref2 Italian autonomist thought ref1, ref2 Jameson, F. ref1 Jones, G. ref1 Junjie, Li ref1 Kamp, A. ref1 Kein Mensch ist illegal ref1 Kellaway, L. ref1 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) ref1 Keynes, J.M. ref1, ref2 Khrushchev, Nikita ref1, ref2 Kim, Jonathan ref1 King, Stephen ref1 ‘Kitchen Debate’ ref1 Kramer, M. ref1, ref2 labour unions ref1 dissolution of ref1, ref2 language, evolution of ref1 Larkin, P. ref1 Latour, B. ref1, ref2 Laval, C. ref1, ref2 Lazzarato, M. ref1, ref2 leaders backgrounds ref1 remuneration and bonuses ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 see also managers Lefebvre, H. ref1 Leidner, R. ref1 Lewin, D. ref1 liberation management ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 life itself, enlisting ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 lines of flight ref1, ref2 Lordon, F. ref1, ref2, ref3 Lucas, R. ref1, ref2 Lukács, G. ref1 Lynch, R. ref1 McChesney, R. ref1 McGregor, D. ref1 management ref1, ref2 and class function ref1, ref2 as co-ordination ref1 and inducement of willing obedience ref1, ref2 information deficit ref1 and power ref1, ref2 self-justification rituals ref1 as transferable skill ref1, ref2 managerialism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and abandonment ideology ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and boundary management ref1 and conflict-seeking behaviour ref1 division between managers and managed ref1, ref2 general principles of ref1 and leadership ref1 profligate management function ref1 refusing ref1 and securitization ref1 as self-referential abstraction ref1 managers as abandonment enablers ref1, ref2 and deformalization ref1 and engagement of workers ref1, ref2 lack of practical experience ref1 overwork ref1, ref2 see also leaders Marcuse, H. ref1 Market Basket supermarket chain ref1 Marx, K. ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Maslow, A. ref1 Matten, D. ref1 meat consumption ref1 Meek, J. ref1 Meyerson, D. ref1 Michelli, J. ref1 Miller, W.I. ref1 Mitchell, David ref1 mobile technology ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Modafinil ref1, ref2 Monaghan, A. ref1 money ref1, ref2 see also accumulation Mooney, G. ref1 Moore, A.E. ref1 Moore, Michael ref1, ref2 music industry ref1 Naidoo, Kumi ref1 NASA ref1 Natali, Vincenzo ref1 Negri, A. ref1, ref2 neoliberal capitalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and bureaucracy ref1 and ideal worker ref1, ref2 and non-work time ref1, ref2 and paranoia ref1, ref2 resisting ref1, ref2 see also post-labour strategy and threat of abandonment ref1, ref2 and truth telling ref1, ref2, ref3 neoliberalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and class relations ref1, ref2, ref3 and disciplinary power ref1 and human-capital theory ref1 and impossibility ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 and micro-fascism ref1 and reign of technocrats ref1 role of state ref1 and truth telling ref1, ref2 and worker engagement ref1, ref2, ref3 Nestlé ref1 New Public Management ref1, ref2 New Zealand, and capitalist deregulation ref1 New Zealand Oil and Gas (NZOG) ref1 Newman, Maurice ref1 Nietzsche, Friedrich ref1, ref2 Nixon, Richard ref1, ref2 Nyhan, B. ref1 obsession ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Onionhead program ref1 overcoding ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 The Pain Journal (Flanagan) ref1, ref2, ref3 paranoia ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 overwork/paranoia complex ref1, ref2 Paris Commune ref1, ref2 Parkinson’s Law ref1 Parnet, C. ref1 Parsons, T. ref1 Peep Show (TV comedy) ref1 pensions ref1, ref2 personnel management ref1 see also Human Resource Management Peters, T. ref1 Philip Morris ref1 Pike River Coal mine (New Zealand) ref1 Pollack, Sydney ref1 Pook, L. ref1 Porter, M. ref1, ref2 post-labour strategy, recommendations ref1 postmodernism ref1, ref2, ref3 power ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and truth telling ref1 Prasad, M. ref1 Price, S. ref1 private companies, transferring to public hands ref1 privatization ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 profit maximization ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 quantitative easing ref1 Rand, Ayn ref1 rationalization ref1, ref2, ref3 Reifler, J. ref1 reserve army of the unemployed ref1 Ressler, C. ref1 results-only work environment (ROWE) ref1, ref2, ref3 Rimbaud, A. ref1 Rio+20 Earth Summit (2012) ref1 ‘riot grrrl’ bands ref1 rituals of truth and reconciliation ref1 Roberts, J. ref1 Roger Award ref1 Roger and Me (Moore) ref1 Rosenblatt, R. ref1 Ross, A. ref1, ref2 Ross, K. ref1 Rudd, Kevin ref1 ruling class fear of work-free world ref1, ref2 and paranoia ref1, ref2 Sade, Marquis de ref1 Sallaz, J. ref1 Saurashtra Fuels ref1 Scarry, E. ref1 Securicor (G4S) ref1 Segarra, Carmen ref1 self-abnegation ref1 self-employment ref1 self-management ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 self-preservation ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 self-sufficiency ref1, ref2, ref3 shareholder capitalism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 shift work ref1, ref2 see also working hours Shragai, N. ref1 sleep and circadian rhythms ref1 as form of resistance ref1 working in ref1, ref2, ref3 smart drugs ref1, ref2 Smith, Roger ref1 smoking and addiction ref1 dangers of ref1, ref2 scientific research ref1 sociability ref1, ref2 ‘the social’ ref1, ref2 social factory ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and structure of work ref1 social media ref1 Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission ref1 Social Patients’ Collective (SPK) ref1, ref2, ref3 social surplus (commons) ref1, ref2, ref3 socialism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Sontag, S. ref1 Spicer, A. ref1 stakeholder management ref1, ref2 Starbucks ref1 state, theory of ref1 subcontracting ref1, ref2, ref3 subsidization ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 suicide as act of refusal ref1 Freud’s definition ref1 work-related ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 surplus labour ref1, ref2 surplus living wage ref1 ‘tagged’ employees ref1 ‘tagged’ prisoner ref1 Tally, Richard ref1 taxation ref1, ref2, ref3 Taylor, F.W. ref1 Taylor, S. ref1 Taylorism ref1 technological progress, and emancipation from labour ref1 Thatcher, Margaret ref1 Thatcherism ref1 They Shoot Horses Don’t They?


pages: 840 words: 202,245

Age of Greed: The Triumph of Finance and the Decline of America, 1970 to the Present by Jeff Madrick

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Bretton Woods, capital controls, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, financial deregulation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Akerlof, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, inventory management, invisible hand, John Meriwether, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, locking in a profit, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, price stability, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, rent control, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, technology bubble, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, union organizing, V2 rocket, value at risk, Vanguard fund, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

He was stoned by angry crowds in South America, gaining him headlines at home and winning him more sympathy as America’s defender. Late in his second term, he again made sensational headlines for a televised impromptu discussion in 1959 with the Russian leader, Nikita Khrushchev. The confrontation took place in the up-to-date American model home built for an exposition in Moscow. Captured on color videotape, the “kitchen debate” showed a still young Nixon strongly defending American material plenty and holding his own against the older, experienced Soviet head of state. His critics resented his mix of opportunism and pandering, and Nixon was indeed easy to ridicule. Helen Gahagan Douglas had tagged him years earlier as Tricky Dick, and the name stuck.

He and Nancy had bought a lovely new house in Pacific Palisades and GE furnished it with its latest appliances. He occasionally hosted the program from the house, proud of his possessions. It is hard to imagine Richard Nixon proud of a GE refrigerator. Nixon never lived the American way of life he extolled in the kitchen debates with Khrushchev. Reagan did, and admired it. The former liberal critic was turning into a full-fledged outspoken conservative. A decade later, he wrote that he was greatly relieved he had recovered from the liberal disease. He had been, as he put it in Where’s the Rest of Me?, a “near hopeless hemophilic liberal.

., 2.1, 3.1, 3.2; anticommunism of, prl.1, 3.3, 3.4; background of, 3.5; congressional campaign of (1946), 3.6; economic policies of, 1.1, 1.2, 2.2, 2.3, 3.7, 4.1, 6.1, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 10.1, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 14.1; foreign policy of, 3.8, 3.9, 3.10, 3.11; gubernatorial campaign of (1962), prl.1, 3.12, 7.1; inflation policies of, 3.13, 3.14, 3.15, 11.4; “kitchen debate” of, 3.16, 7.2; New Economic Policy of, 3.17; as president, prl.1, prl.2, 3.18, 16.1; presidential campaign of (1960), prl.1, prl.2, 3.19, 7.3, 10.2; presidential campaign of (1968), 3.20; presidential campaign of (1972), 2.4, 3.21, 3.22, 3.23, 3.24; Reagan compared with, 7.4, 7.5, 7.6, 7.7; as Republican, prl.1, prl.2, 3.25, 3.26; reputation of, 3.27, 3.28, 3.29; resignation of, 3.30, 3.31, 7.8, 14.2; Senate campaign of (1950), 3.32, 7.9; vice-presidential campaign of (1952), 3.33; vice-presidential campaign of (1956), 3.34; Vietnam policy of, 3.35, 3.36, 3.37, 3.38, 3.39, 3.40; Watergate scandal and, 3.41, 3.42, 3.43, 3.44, 3.45, 9.5, 10.3, 14.3 Nobel Prize, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 7.1, 9.1, 14.1, 15.1, 15.2 Noryl, 12.1, 12.2 NOW (negotiable order of withdrawal) accounts nuclear power, 2.1, 5.1, 5.2 Obama, Barack, 2.1, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), prl.1, 3.1, 11.1 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Office of the Comptroller of the Currency oil industry, 1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6.1, 8.1, 8.2, 9.1, 9.2, 13.1, 15.1, 17.1, 17.2 oil prices, 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 9.1, 9.2, 12.1, 14.1, 15.1, 15.2, 15.3, 19.1, 19.2 Okun, Arthur Olson, John Onassis, Aristotle O’Neal, Stan, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4 “open society,” 253–4 Open Society Institute Oppenheimer, J.


pages: 544 words: 168,076

Red Plenty by Francis Spufford

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, asset allocation, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, cognitive dissonance, computer age, double helix, Fellow of the Royal Society, John von Neumann, Kitchen Debate, linear programming, market clearing, New Journalism, oil shock, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, RAND corporation, Simon Kuznets, the scientific method

Helen Szamuely (London: Bantam, 1989) and G.I.Khanin, ‘1950s: The Triumph of the Soviet Economy’, Europe– Asia Studies vol. 55 no. 8 (December 2003), pp. 1187–1212; for the way in which the 1950s and 1960s saw the successful fulfilment of promises made in the 1930s, see Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism, pp. 67–114. 3 The Soviet economy had grown at 6%, 7%, 8%: for the vexed question of Soviet growth rates, see below, introduction to part II. I have chosen here for Khrushchev, as seems likely, to believe the official Soviet figures, which naturally gave the highest rate. 4 Let’s compete on the merits of our washing machines: this is the famous ‘kitchen debate’. See Taubman, Khrushchev, pp. 417–18; and the coverage in the New York Times, vol. CVIII no. 37,072, 25 July 1959, pp. 1–4. 5 Without me, they’ll drown you like kittens: for this prophecy of Stalin’s, see Taubman, Khrushchev, p. 331. For the pipe-emptying and forehead-tapping episodes, see pp. 167–8 and 230. 6 For the time being, you are richer than us: see Taubman, Khrushchev, p. 427. 7 If I’d known there would be pictures like these: see Taubman, Khrushchev, p. 426. 8 Were you in the war, Mr Lodge?

Helen Szamuely (London: Bantam, 1989) and G.I.Khanin, ‘1950s: The Triumph of the Soviet Economy’, Europe– Asia Studies vol. 55 no. 8 (December 2003), pp. 1187–1212; for the way in which the 1950s and 1960s saw the successful fulfilment of promises made in the 1930s, see Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism, pp. 67–114. 3 The Soviet economy had grown at 6%, 7%, 8%: for the vexed question of Soviet growth rates, see below, introduction to part II. I have chosen here for Khrushchev, as seems likely, to believe the official Soviet figures, which naturally gave the highest rate. 4 Let’s compete on the merits of our washing machines: this is the famous ‘kitchen debate’. See Taubman, Khrushchev, pp. 417–18; and the coverage in the New York Times, vol. CVIII no. 37,072, 25 July 1959, pp. 1–4. 5 Without me, they’ll drown you like kittens: for this prophecy of Stalin’s, see Taubman, Khrushchev, p. 331. For the pipe-emptying and forehead-tapping episodes, see pp. 167–8 and 230. 6 For the time being, you are richer than us: see Taubman, Khrushchev, p. 427. 7 If I’d known there would be pictures like these: see Taubman, Khrushchev, p. 426. 8 Were you in the war, Mr Lodge?

Ziegelbaum, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Astronautics Information Translation 22, 1 May 1961 (JPL, Calfornia Institute of Techology) – Gagarin’s first flight Life Magazine vol. 47 no. 6 (10 August 1959), pp. 28–35 – pictures of the American exhibition Literaturnaya Gazeta no. 27 (1969), p. 10 – trial of deputy director of pig farm New York Times vol. 108 no. 37,072 (25 July 1959), pp. 1–4 – Khrushchev and Nixon’s ‘kitchen debate’ at the American exhibition Time Magazine, 12 February 1965, ‘Borrowing from the Capitalists’ – Liberman and economic reform Websites Banknotes http://commons.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category: Banknotes_of_the_Soviet_ Union,_1961 Russian cars www.autosoviet.com Alexander [Aleksandr] Galich www.galichclub.narod. ru/biog. htm The Jewish Women’s Archive http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/berg-raissa-lvovna Soviet literature www.sovlit.com Michael Swanwick’s blog http://floggingbabel.blogspot.com/2008/02/khrushchev-isnt-he-russian-novelist. html [sic] Unrealised Moscow http://www.muar.ru/ve/2003/moscow/index_e. htm Film and television Adam Curtis, dir., ‘The Engineers’ Plot’ (TV documentary), programme 1 of Pandora’s Box, BBC TV 1992 Georgii Daniela, dir., Ya shagayu po Moskve (‘I Walk around Moscow’), 1964 Marlen Khutsiev, dir., Zastava Ilicha/Mne Dvadtsat’ Let (‘Ilich’s Gate’/‘I Am Twenty’), 1961 released 1965 Marlen Khutsiev, dir., Iyulskii Dozhd’ (‘July Rain’), 1967 Mikhail Romm, dir., Devyat’ dnei odnogo goda (‘Nine Days in One Year’), 1962 About the Author Francis Spufford, a former Sunday Times Young Writer of the Year (1997), has edited two acclaimed literary anthologies and a collection of essays about the history of technology.


pages: 497 words: 124,144

Red Moon Rising by Matthew Brzezinski

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, Kitchen Debate, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, skunkworks, trade route, V2 rocket, Vanguard fund, walking around money, white picket fence

Visiting a mockup of an American kitchen displayed at the fair, the two leaders launched into an impromptu argument over missiles that ended with the red-faced first secretary jabbing a pudgy finger in the vice president’s chest and growling: “You want to threaten? We will answer threats with threats.” Nixon’s eventual opponent, John F. Kennedy, would make much of the unstatesmanlike buffoonery of the “kitchen debate,” and he would owe a large debt to the continued fallout from Sputnik and the missile gap for his electoral victory the following year. But it would be Nixon who would preside over the White House when Kennedy’s pledge to put a man on the moon was finally realized in 1969. Some would say this was fitting since he had advocated, as vice president, for Ike to shoot for the moon.

., 277 KGB (formerly NKVD), 18, 27, 29, 32, 62, 64, 67, 75, 109, 111–12, 123, 145, 152, 199, 200 Khrushchev, Nikita apartments built by, 19–20 arms race and Soviet economy and, 36–39 background and education of, 20–23 coup attempt and, 109–13, 190 Cuba and, 101, 270–72 de-Stalinization and, 41–42 Explorer launch and, 268 fall of, 271–72 fear of nuclear attack and, 23–26 Korolev honored by, 203–4 legacy of, 274–75 military spending and, 54, 191–92 Nixon and “kitchen debate,” 275 OKB-1 and, 278 R-7 development and, 21–23, 26–30, 34–44, 54, 56, 64–65, 71–72, 98, 101, 128–29, 191–92, 204–6, 269 R-16 development and, 246–47, 271 rise to power of, 18–20, 28, 41–42 satellite program and, 42–44, 114, 143–44, 148–50 secret speech of, on Stalin’s crimes, 18, 30–33, 41–42, 60, 62–64, 73, 75, 93–94, 128 Sputnik I and, 160, 180, 184, 187–89, 195–96, 199–206 Sputnik II and, 209–12, 216–17, 245 summit of 1955 and, 24 U-2 and, 124–27, 129–31 uprisings of 1956 and, 62–64, 73–77 Vanguard failure and, 241, 257 “we will bury you” speech of, 109–10 Zhukov ouster by, 188–95 Khrushchev, Sergei career of, 100–101, 272 father’s political life and, 41, 111, 192, 194, 195 R-7 and, 18, 20–22, 27–29, 34, 36, 39–40, 42–44, 98 Sputnik and, 195–96, 203, 205 U-2 and, 125, 130–31 Killian, James, 53, 93, 135, 218–19, 223–24, 243, 249–50 Killian report, 53, 117 Kim Il Sung, 88–89 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 137 Kirichenko, Aleksei, 18, 27–38, 195 Knerr, Hugh, 9 Kodak company, 116 Kolyma mines, 66, 100 Korean War, 24, 47, 80, 89–90, 183 Korolev, Sergei, 186, 195, 220, 261, 266 background and early career of, 103–9 death and legacy of, 273–75 dog in space with Sputnik II and, 209–12, 217 honors awarded to, 203–4 illness of, after Sputnik II and doubts about R-7, 245–47 Khruschev okays projects of, 27–29, 33–36, 39–44, 56 known only as Chief Designer, 27 marries Ksenia, 106–8 marries Nina, 99–100 Nobel Prize denied to, 203 orbital velocity problem and, 262 overselling of R-7 and Glushkov cause problems for, 64–72 R-7 delays and, 95–103 R-7 first successful flight and, 113–14, 129 R-7 loading problem and, vs.


pages: 372 words: 115,094

Reagan at Reykjavik: Forty-Eight Hours That Ended the Cold War by Ken Adelman

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Haight Ashbury, Kitchen Debate, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, Sinatra Doctrine, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra

That deceit gave the Soviets an edge that lasted right up to the present. “In fact, we are still behind.” Once embarked on this roll of Soviet duplicity, Ronald Reagan proved unstoppable. Consequently, at Reykjavik on that Sunday morning came the most remarkable debate over American and Soviet social and political systems, even exceeding the Nixon-Khrushchev “kitchen debate” in the summer of 1959. The president identified the basic problem: “Each side has mistrusted the other.” But each side has not been equally at fault. “The evidence is all on our side.” The mistrust started with Lenin. With growing unease at where this latest Reagan stream of consciousness was taking them, Gorbachev tried to divert it with a wisecrack about Reagan’s previous talk of Karl Marx.

Fix-It”), 123, 224 The Meetings of President Reagan and General Secretary Gorbachev, Reykjavik (briefing book), 11–13 Momper, Walter, 277 Mondale, Walter, 67 Montblanc pen, 294, 361n294 Morris, Edmund, 322–23 Moscow summit of 1988 agreement to, 73, 253 arrival of Reagans, 256–59 discussions and public activities, 260–61, 262–65 human rights objectives, 263 press coverage, 259–60 Reagan objectives, 265 Reagan “walkabout,” 261–62 Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 202 MS Baltika (ship), 47 MS George Ots (ship), 47, 91, 187 Muggeridge, Malcolm, 341 MV Sirius (ship), 47 National Security Council (NSC) Adelman attendance, 20 appointment of Carlucci, 227 appointment of Powell, 243 arms control meetings, 68 post-Reykjavik review, 217–20 at Reykjavik, 34, 120, 163 Newton, Wayne, 339 New York Times, 17, 20, 32, 49, 66–67, 114, 210, 215, 223, 257, 262, 271, 276, 308, 335–36 Nicaragua, 224–27, 232, 241–42 Nitze, Paul, 96, 101, 114–24, 129, 131, 173, 231, 235, 308, 341 Nixon, Richard/Nixon administration arms control talks, 59–60, 73, 175 assessment of Reykjavik, 3, 297–98 Khrushchev “kitchen debate,” 143 Kissinger role in, 18 political resurrection, 27 relations with China, 260 relations with Soviets, 26, 119 SALT I talks, 116–17 visit to Iceland, 42 visit to Moscow, 258 Nobel Peace Prize Gorbachev (1990), 327–28 Kissinger–Le Duc Tho (1973), 327 Mandela–de Klerk (1993), 327 Reagan considered for, 156, 327 Sakharov (1975), 264 Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968, 59 North, Oliver, 194, 224–25 North Korea, 59, 131, 155, 307, 311–12 nuclear testing, 56–57, 130, 143–44, 255–56, 303, 306–7 Nunn, Sam, 201–2, 308 Obama, Barack, 120, 250, 303–4, 309 Oberdorfer, Don, 2, 242, 314, 321 O’Connor, Sandra Day, 338 October 9 (Thursday) Reagan arrival, 34, 41–44 Reagan briefing book, 11–13 White House departure, 7–9 October 10 (Friday) Gorbachev arrival, 46–47 Gorbachev visit to Bessastidir, 48 Reagan visit to Bessastidir, 44–45 U.S. media reporting, 51 October 11 (Saturday a.m.)


pages: 252 words: 80,636

Bureaucracy by David Graeber

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3D printing, a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, David Graeber, George Gilder, High speed trading, hiring and firing, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, means of production, music of the spheres, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Parkinson's law, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, price mechanism, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, transcontinental railway, union organizing, urban planning, zero-sum game

One was a conscious policy: the Cold War saw frenetic efforts by U.S. industrial planners91 to find ways to apply existing technologies to consumer purposes, to create an optimistic sense of burgeoning prosperity and guaranteed progress that, it was hoped, would undercut the appeal of radical working-class politics. The famous 1959 “kitchen debate” between Richard Nixon and Nikita Khrushchev made the politics quite explicit: “your communist ‘worker’s state’ may have beat us into outer space,” Nixon effectively argued, “but it’s capitalism that creates technology like washing machines that actually improve the lives of the toiling masses.”


pages: 296 words: 82,501

Stuffocation by James Wallman

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3D printing, Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Black Swan, BRICs, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Fall of the Berlin Wall, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Hargreaves, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, McMansion, means of production, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Paul Samuelson, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, World Values Survey, Zipcar

They decided to do so by creating a real-life suburban home, the sort of house Richie Cunningham lived in, in the television series Happy Days. It was in this home’s kitchen that Nixon met Khrushchev. If you look up the CIA transcript it reads like a comedy sketch where the director has asked one to be reasonable, and the other to act the defensive, blustering ruddy-cheeked oaf. Can you tell who was given which directions? The Kitchen Debate - transcript 24 July 1959 [Both men enter kitchen in the American exhibit.] Nixon: I want to show you this kitchen. It is like those of our houses in California. [Nixon points to dishwasher.] Khrushchev: We have such things. Nixon: This is our newest model. This is the kind which is built in thousands of units for direct installations in the houses.


pages: 341 words: 89,986

Bricks & Mortals: Ten Great Buildings and the People They Made by Tom Wilkinson

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Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, experimental subject, false memory syndrome, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, housing crisis, Kitchen Debate, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, megacity, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

The blood-soaked Stalin era weighed heavily on his conscience, for a start, and it seems he genuinely wanted to make amends by delivering the happiness that communism had always held out to its adherents. But this was as much a response to international as domestic politics. In 1959 the world’s two superpowers had locked horns on one of the most bizarre battlegrounds in history, a show kitchen at the American National Exhibition in Moscow. The famous ‘kitchen debate’ that took place there between Khrushchev and Vice-President Nixon was a pivotal moment in the Cold War, when the Fordist American dream of mass consumerism went head to head with the Soviet ideal of Red Plenty. The American show kitchen was consciously intended as propaganda by white goods – or rather pastel pink and canary-yellow goods, for in true late Fordist style the units and appliances supplied by General Electric were available in a wide variety of colours.


The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations by Christopher Lasch

cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, feminist movement, full employment, George Santayana, impulse control, Induced demand, invisible hand, Kitchen Debate, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Norman Mailer, road to serfdom, Scientific racism, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, yellow journalism

, 80 : The Culture cf Narcissism he be- performance from a poor one, as in the Hiss case, when came certain that Whittaker Chambers was telling the truth " because "I did not feel that [his performance] was an act. watching the Army-McCarthy hearings on television, After he re" I prefer professionals to amateur actors. During his famous kitchen debate with Nikita Khruschchev, marked scornfully, " " Nixon was sure that Khruschchev "was going through an act, and he later reproached Marshal Georgi Zhukov with underestimating tlje intelligence of the Soviet people. They aren't dumb. They know when somebody is acting and when it s the real thing-particularly when the acts have been so amateurish.


pages: 1,351 words: 404,177

Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America by Rick Perlstein

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affirmative action, Alistair Cooke, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, East Village, European colonialism, full employment, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, immigration reform, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, indoor plumbing, Kitchen Debate, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, walking around money, War on Poverty, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog

This hucksterism. Hadn’t Richard Nixon worked as a carnival barker as a boy in Prescott, Arizona? Hadn’t the organizer of the Committee of 100, an advertising executive, proclaimed, upon discovering Richard Nixon in 1946, “This is salable merchandise!”? They would laugh at Nixon’s line from the so-called Kitchen Debate with Nikita Khrushchev in Moscow in 1959: “There are some instances where you may be ahead of us, for example, in the development of the thrust of your rockets for the investigation of outer space; there may be some instances in which we are ahead of you—in color television, for instance.” Soft-drink CEO Donald Kendall would later get Nixon his job at a New York law firm in 1963 as quid pro quo for the vice president’s arranging for Khrushchev to be photographed with a bottle of Pepsi.

Everything was political. His job itself had roots in a chit: Mudge, Stern, Baldwin, and Todd was the first firm to take Don Kendall up on his offer to throw Pepsi’s international legal work to whichever firm offered Richard Nixon a job (that repaid Nixon for having Nikita Khrushchev drink Pepsi during the 1959 Kitchen Debate visit). When a columnist wrote that Nixon spent only one day a week at the law office and the rest scheming politics, Nixon wrote each of his clients individually to say it wasn’t true. In fact it was only half-true. His office—a museum of political kitsch: silver plates engraved with testimonials, commemorative gavels, keys to cities, a long walnut cabinet filled with signed photographs of heads of state in the line of sight of visitors sitting across from Nixon at the polished walnut desk—was where he did his politics.

Safire appealed to Salisbury’s news sense (more absurd still: if its importance was its newsworthiness, a front-page article about it would do just as well). Finally, Safire pulled out his final argument. He appealed to the halcyon memories they shared of Moscow, in 1959, when Salisbury had been the pool reporter for the Kitchen Debate, and Safire was flacking the American exhibition. Salisbury reminded Safire that for him to even consider the request the appraisal would have to be submitted before the afternoon deadline. If so, he promised to read and consider it. A gaggle of reporters gathered in the Nixon, Mudge antechamber awaiting the promised document.


pages: 366 words: 119,981

The Race: The Complete True Story of How America Beat Russia to the Moon by James Schefter

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Berlin Wall, Burning Man, cuban missile crisis, Kitchen Debate, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, V2 rocket

Vice President Richard Nixon was there for the unveiling, and so was Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev. When Nixon showed the premier through the U.S. exhibit, he extolled the virtues of American society. Khrushchev listened for only a few moments before challenging him in front of reporters and cameras. The so-called Kitchen Debate turned into a loud, finger-wagging confrontation over the merits of socialism versus American-style democracy. Then a funny thing happened. When the verbal imbroglio ended, reporters and photographers wandered away. Nixon took Khrushchev behind the exhibit’s panels and kitchen equipment, where they had a polite and respectful conversation.


pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

But from the vantage point of the real East – from the Middle East to the Far East – the world seemed simply to have been carved up between two rival Wests, a capitalist one and a communist one. The people in charge looked roughly similar. Indeed, in many ways the Soviet Union longed to imitate the United States, to build the same weapons – and also the same consumer goods. As Khrushchev made abundantly clear in his ‘kitchen debate’ with Nixon, the Soviets aspired to match the Americans product for product. Sartorially there was little to choose between the two men. Clad in perfect black and white, as if to confound the colour television technology he was supposed to be marketing, Nixon looked like the dour Californian lawyer he was.


pages: 598 words: 172,137

Who Stole the American Dream? by Hedrick Smith

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbus A320, airline deregulation, anti-communist, asset allocation, banking crisis, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, business process, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, family office, full employment, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, index fund, industrial cluster, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, mega-rich, mortgage debt, negative equity, new economy, Occupy movement, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ponzi scheme, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Vanguard fund, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K

Nixon to Khrushchev: The United States Is a “Classless Society” In Washington, a bipartisan political consensus gave its blessing to sharing America’s wealth democratically and to linking corporate profits to the American Dream of steady work, rising pay, and generous benefits. In 1959, at the heart of the Cold War, Richard Nixon, as vice president under Dwight Eisenhower, bragged about America’s shared prosperity in his “kitchen debate” with Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev at the U.S. exhibition in Moscow. Nixon rattled off to his Communist adversary the bounty enjoyed by the American middle class—three-fourths of America’s 44 million families owned their own homes, and collectively they owned 56 million cars, 50 million television sets, and 143 million radios.


pages: 762 words: 206,865

Berlin 1961: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Most Dangerous Place on Earth by Frederick Kempe

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Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, index card, Kitchen Debate, Mikhail Gorbachev, open borders, Ronald Reagan, trade liberalization, traveling salesman, zero-sum game

Now he was working impatiently through multiple channels to land an early summit meeting with Kennedy in hopes it would solve his Berlin problem. During the campaign, the Soviet leader’s instructions to his top officials had been clear, regarding both his desire for a Kennedy win and his distaste for Richard Nixon, who as Eisenhower’s anticommunist vice president had humiliated him in Moscow during their so-called Kitchen Debate over the relative advantages of their two systems. “We can also influence the American presidential election!” he had told his comrades then. “We would never give Nixon such a present.” After the election, Khrushchev had crowed that by refusing to release the airmen he had personally cost Nixon the few hundred thousand votes he would have required for his victory.


pages: 1,152 words: 266,246

Why the West Rules--For Now: The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal About the Future by Ian Morris

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Doomsday Clock, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Flynn Effect, Francisco Pizarro, global village, God and Mammon, hiring and firing, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, market bubble, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, out of africa, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pink-collar, place-making, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Sinatra Doctrine, South China Sea, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, upwardly mobile, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

McCloy (1945), cited from Judt 2005, p. 39. 534 “atomic bomb itself”: Churchill, cited from Reynolds 2000, p. 36. 534 “create on the whole”: Internal Kremlin report (1953), cited from Holloway 1994, p. 337. 534 “Strange as it”: Churchill, speech to the House of Commons (1955), cited from Gaddis 2005, p. 65. 536 “Let’s be frank”: Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, speech at Bedford (July 20, 1957), cited from Sandbrook 2005, p. 80. 536 “residents from raw estates”: Philip Larkin, “Here” (1964), reprinted in Larkin 2004, p. 79. 537 “Snub-nosed monsters”: John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath (1939), chapter 5. 540 “if allowed to”: Riesman 1964 (first published 1951), p. 64. 541 “Anything that makes” etc.: Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev, the “Kitchen Debate” (Moscow, July 24, 1959), cited from http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=176. 542 “Flog the driver!” etc.: joke cited from Reynolds 2000, p. 541n. 544 “The dearest people”: China Youth Journal (September 27, 1958), cited from Becker 1996, p. 106. 544 “The Party Secretary”: Bo Yibo, Retrospective of Several Big Decisions and Incidents (1993), cited from Becker 1996, pp. 107–108. 544 “It is not”: Lu Xianwen (autumn 1959), cited from Becker 1996, p. 113. 544 “The air is filled”: Report from Jiangxi (autumn 1958), cited from Spence 1990, p. 580. 545 “Communism is paradise”: Song by Kang Sheng (1958), cited from Becker 1996, p. 104. 545 “No one in our family”: Informant, cited from Becker 1996, p. 136. 545 “The worst thing”: Informant, cited from Becker 1996, p. 138. 546 “It was class hatred”: “Li XX,” public poster in Beijing (September 2, 1966), cited from MacFarquhar and Schoenhals 2006, p. 127. 546 “This was the week”: President Richard Nixon, toast at a dinner in Shanghai (February 27, 1972), cited from Reynolds 2000, p. 329. 547 “bookworms who”: Zhang Tiesheng (1973), cited from Spence 1990, p. 638.


pages: 1,242 words: 317,903

The Man Who Knew: The Life and Times of Alan Greenspan by Sebastian Mallaby

airline deregulation, airport security, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, balance sheet recession, bank run, barriers to entry, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bretton Woods, central bank independence, centralized clearinghouse, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency peg, energy security, equity premium, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, full employment, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, inventory management, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, Nixon shock, Northern Rock, paper trading, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, Plutocrats, plutocrats, popular capitalism, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, savings glut, secular stagnation, short selling, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, unorthodox policies, upwardly mobile, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, yield curve, zero-sum game

And yet there was something about Nixon that still left Greenspan with an odd feeling. The candidate’s syntax was too exquisite; his attire was too impeccable; there was an impression of stiffness.28 Eight years earlier, on a visit as vice president to Moscow, this same Nixon had had the panache to hold an impromptu “kitchen debate” against Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev before an array of flashbulbs. But now, in the comfort of his own office, he seemed almost wooden. Sincerity, Greenspan would learn, did not come easily to Nixon. • • • Beyond the calm of the candidate’s office, America was broiling. The Newark violence was only one of forty-six riots in that summer of 1967.29 A total of eighty-one people died in the mayhem, and the destruction of property ran into the millions of dollars.30 Polls suddenly found “crime and lawlessness” rocketing toward the top of citizens’ concerns, displacing the cost of living and unemployment.31 Undeterred by the moderates on the campaign staff, Greenspan pressed his libertarian diagnosis more forcefully than ever.