post-industrial society

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pages: 209 words: 80,086

The Global Auction: The Broken Promises of Education, Jobs, and Incomes by Phillip Brown, Hugh Lauder, David Ashton


affirmative action, barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, glass ceiling, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial robot, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market design, neoliberal agenda, new economy, pensions crisis, post-industrial society, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor

The growth of corporate bureaucracies and a burgeoning public sector accelerated the increase in white-collar employment, The False Promise 17 adding support to a model of technological evolution from a low-skill to high-skill economy. The growth of middle-class jobs was assumed to represent an ever-tighter relationship between human capital, jobs, and rewards, as it became more important to get the best minds working on the scientific and technological challenges of the age. In his classic study The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, published in the early 1970s, Daniel Bell highlighted the link between a rising meritocracy and economic efficiency. “The post-industrial society, in its initial logic, is a meritocracy. Differential status and differential income are based on technical skills and higher education. Without these achievements one cannot fulfill the requirements of the new social division of labor which is a feature of that society. And there are few high places open without those skills.”9 Bell’s book appeared to confirm the growing importance of human capital and the need to find new sources of economic competitiveness as American and British manufacturers were struggling to compete with leaner and more flexible competitors from Japan and Asian Tiger economies.

This is assumed to create more inequalities between workers as some contributed, through differences in ability and application, more than others. Moreover, it is not difficult to see how by sleight of hand “learning is earning” eliminated the inconvenient fact that you need to be in a job to earn (unless self-employed) and that some appear to be overpaid for their talents whereas many more are undervalued. 9. Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Penguin, 1973), 409. 10. Peter Drucker, Post-Capitalist Society (New York: HarperCollins, 1993), 22. 11. Sumantra Ghoshal and Christopher A. Bartlett, The Individualized Corporation: A Fundamentally New Approach to Management (London: Random House, 2000), 8. 12. Michael B. Arthur and Denise M. Rousseau (eds.), The Boundaryless Career: A New Employment Principle for a New Organizational Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996). 13.

Accenture, “The Kindest Cuts: The Vital Role of Cost Optimization in High Performance Financial Services,” The Point, 9, no. 2 (2009): 3. 23. China Today, “Chinese Cities and Provinces”; based on 2005 data from the Ministry of Construction. 24. See Walt Whitman Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1960) and Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Penguin, 1973). 25. Alexander Gerschenkron, Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective: A Book of Essays (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1962). See also Albert Fishlow’s review of Gerschenkron’s book published through Economic History Services (2003). shtml 26. See Oswaldo De Rivero, The Myth of Development: The Non-Viable Economies of the 21st Century (London: Zed Books, 2001). 27.


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From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner


1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

For a thorough, critical introduction to the information society debates, see Webster, Theories of the Information Society. 5. Bell, Coming of Post-Industrial Society, 13. 6. Bell himself acknowledged this connection. “One might well say that 1945 to 1950 were the ‘birth-years,’ symbolically, of the post-industrial society,” he wrote (ibid., 346). Yet, subsequent analysts have tended to downplay or ignore the role of cold war military research in shaping the network mode of production. 7. Ibid., 373. See, e.g., Lyon, Information Society; Zuboff, In the Age of the Smart Machine; Castells, Rise of Network Society; DeSanctis and Fulk, Shaping Organization Form. The impact of information technology on productivity per se remains an issue of substantial debate. See Gordon, “Does the ‘New Economy’ Measure Up?” 8. Bateson, Mind and Nature, 7. 9. Bell, Coming of Post-Industrial Society, 478, 480. 10. The classic statement of the power of loose connections to shape employment opportunities can be found in Granovetter, “The Strength of Weak Ties.” 11.

Since the early 1970s, a series of sociologists and geographers have chronicled the growth of a new, knowledge-based form of economic T h e Tr i u m p h o f t h e N e t w o r k M o d e [ 241 ] production.3 Their descriptions of the forces driving this shift and of its likely consequences have varied, largely in synch with technological and economic developments occurring as they wrote. Yet, despite their differences, these scholars have tended to agree that, starting sometime in the late 1960s or early 1970s, a postindustrial mode of development emerged as a dominant force in society.4 Within this mode, as Daniel Bell put it in his early and still-influential 1973 account The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, “theoretical knowledge” would serve as the “axial principle” of production.5 Under the industrial regime, he argued, major technological innovations such as telegraphy and aviation had arisen from individual tinkering. By contrast, under the postindustrial system then emerging, new technologies such as chemical synthesis had come about as a result of systematic scientific research. In the future, he explained, this trend would accelerate.

In part, that structure grew out of the need to take a comprehensive, systemic approach to weapons development, one that could see men and machines as twinned elements of a larger combat apparatus. And in part, that flexible, interdisciplinary mixing helped spawn a rhetoric of systematic knowledge (cybernetics) and the tools with which to model and manage such knowledge (computers). In other words, by the time Daniel Bell wrote The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, theoretical knowledge had already been serving as the central principle of military research and military-industrial production for some [ 242 ] Chapter 8 thirty years. Perhaps partially for this reason, Bell argued that “the decisive social change taking place in our time . . . is the subordination of the economic function to the political order.” As subsequent analysts such as David Harvey and Manuel Castells have convincingly demonstrated, Bell was wrong on this point.


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The end of history and the last man by Francis Fukuyama


affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, centre right, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, labour mobility, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, nuclear winter, open economy, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

The term "high mass consumption" was coined by Walt Rostow (in The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto [Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, I960]), "technetronic era" by Zbigniew Brzezinski (in Between Two Ages: Americas Role in the Technetronic Era, [New York: Viking Press, 1970)], and "post industrial society" by Daniel Bell. See the latter's "Notes on the PostIndustrial Society" I and II, The Public Interest 6 - 7 (Winter 1967a): 2 4 - 3 5 and (Spring 1967b): 1 0 2 - 1 1 8 , and his description of the origin of the concept of "post-industrial society" in The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Basic Books, 1973), pp. 3 3 - 4 0 . 3. Bell (1967), p. 25. 4. Figure cited in Lucian W. Pye, "Political Science and the Crisis of Au­ thoritarianism," American Political Science Review 84, no. 1 (March 1990): 3 - 1 7 . 5. Even in the case of these older industries, however, socialist economies NOTES, PAGES 9 4 — 1 0 0 357 have fallen considerably behind their capitalist counterparts in modernizing manufacturing processes. 6.

"From Paradigms to Research Programs: Toward a PostKuhnian Political Science." American Journal of Political Science 20, no. 1 (February): 1 5 1 - 1 7 7 . Barros, Robert. 1986. "The Left and Democracy: Recent Debates in Latin Amer­ ica." Telos 68: 4 9 - 7 0 . Bell, Daniel. 1967a. "Notes on the Post-Industrial Society I." The Public Interest no. 6: 2 4 - 3 5 . Bell, Daniel. 1967b. "Notes on the Post-Industrial Society II." The Public Interest no. 7: 1 0 2 - 1 1 8 . Bell, Daniel. 1973. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Fore­ casting. Basic Books, New York. Bell, Daniel. 1976. The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism. Basic Books, New York. Bell, Eric Temple. 1937. Men of Mathematics. Simon & Schuster, New York. Bellah, Robert N. 1957. Tokugawa Religion. Beacon Press, Boston. 391 392 BIBLIOGRAPHY Beloff, Max. 1990.

Today, they a r e hallmarks of an intermediate and, f o r the most advanced countries, long-sincebypassed phase of industrial development. W h a t has replaced it has been given a variety of titles: a "mature industrial society," the stage of "high mass consumption," the "technetronic era," the "information age," o r a "post-industrial society." W h i l e spe­ cific formulations differ, all stress the vastly increased role of in­ formation, technical knowledge, and services at the expense of heavy manufacturing. 2 M o d e r n natural science—in the familiar forms of technolog­ ical innovation and the rational organization o f labor—continues to dictate the character of "post-industrial" societies, much as it did that of societies entering the first stages of industrialization. Writing in 1 9 6 7 , Daniel Bell pointed out that the average time span between the initial discovery of a new technological innova­ tion and recognition of its commercial possibilities fell f r o m 3 0 years between 1 8 8 0 and 1 9 1 9 , to 1 6 between 1 9 1 9 and 1 9 4 5 , to 9 years from 1 9 4 5 to 1 9 6 7 .


pages: 385 words: 111,807

A Pelican Introduction Economics: A User's Guide by Ha-Joon Chang


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, discovery of the americas, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global value chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, post-industrial society, precariat, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, working-age population, World Values Survey

Even in the agricultural sector, productivity has been raised in some countries, such as the Netherlands (which is the third-largest exporter of agriculture in the world, after the US and France), through the application of manufacturing-style organizational knowledge, such as computer-controlled feeding. The rise of the post-industrial society? It has recently become fashionable to argue that the manufacturing sector does not matter very much any more, as we have entered the era of post-industrial society. In the early days of industrialization, many assumed that the manufacturing sector would keep growing. And for a long time, it looked to be the case. The share of manufacturing both in output and in employment was almost constantly rising in most countries. However, from the 1960s, some countries started experiencing deindustrialization – a fall in the share of manufacturing, and a corresponding rise in the share of services, in both output and employment. This prompted the talk of a post-industrial society. Many economists have argued that, with rising income, we begin to demand services, such as eating out and foreign holidays, relatively more than we demand manufactured goods.

They look to India, which is supposed to have become – through its success in the export of services like software, accountancy and the reading of medical scanning images – ‘the office of the world’ to China’s ‘workshop of the world’ (a title which had originally been conferred on Britain after its Industrial Revolution). Deindustrialization doesn’t mean that we are producing fewer manufactured products While many people, including key policy-makers, have been seduced by it, the discourse of post-industrial society is highly misleading. Most rich countries have indeed become ‘post-industrial’ or ‘deindustrialized’ in terms of employment; a decreasing proportion of the labour force in these countries is working in factories, as opposed to shops and offices. In most, although not all, countries this has been accompanied by a fall in the share of manufacturing in output. But this does not necessarily mean that those countries are producing fewer manufactured goods in absolute terms.

There is little recognition that different types of economic activity may bring different outcomes – not just in terms of how much they produce but more importantly in terms of how they affect the development of the country’s ability to produce, or productive capabilities. And in terms of the latter effect, the importance of the manufacturing sector cannot be over-emphasized, as it has been the main source of new technological and organizational capabilities over the last two centuries. Unfortunately, with the rise of the discourse of post-industrial society in the realm of ideas and the increasing dominance of the financial sector in the real world, indifference to manufacturing has positively turned into contempt. Manufacturing, it is often argued, is, in the new ‘knowledge economy’, a low-grade activity that only low-wage developing countries do. But factories are where the modern world has been made, so to speak, and will keep being remade.


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The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing


1960s counterculture, affirmative action, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey

Wilensky has written that the surveys Inglehart used have technical problems and their results show little significant change. Besides, Wilensky has argued, most of the trends identified by the post-materialists (women's rights, environmentalism) were in motion during the heyday of the industrial economy. Wilensky suggests that we "drop" terms such as "post-materialism" "from our vocabulary."65 Other scholars, however, acknowledge that society has changed focus. Daniel Bell announced the "coming of post-industrial society" in the title of his 1973 book. Working with Ronald Inglehart, the University of Chicago's Terry Nichols Clark has described a "new political culture" born of economic prosperity and a more democratic workplace.*66 Market researchers Paul Ray and Sherry Ruth Anderson have described a growing number of "cultural creatives," people who have many of the same interests and sociabilities as Inglehart's post-materialists and those Clark has identified in his new political culture.67 Ruy Teixeira and John Judis have predicted a new constituency for the Democratic Party in the fast-growing tech cities.

See also Ron Lesthaeghe and Lisa Neidert, "The Second Demographic Transition in the United States: Exception or Textbook Example?" Population and Development Review 32, no. 4 (December 2006): 669–98. 23. Émile Durkheim, Selected Writings, ed. Anthony Giddens (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972), pp. 142–44. 24. Ibid., pp. 186–88. 25. Ibid., p. 175. 26. Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Basic Books, 1999), pp. 287–88. 10. Choosing a Side 1. Alan Greenblatt, "What Makes ALEC Smart?" Governing, October 2003; Pauline Vu, "How ALEC, CPA Help Shape State Laws,", June 7, 2005, = 136 &languageId=1&contentId=35924. 2. Greenblatt, "What Makes ALEC Smart?" 3. Sarah A. Binder, "Elections and Congress's Governing Capacity," Extensions: A journal of the Carl Albert Congressional Research and Studies Center (Fall 2005). 10–14. 4.

News and World Report, November 15, 2004. Bartels, Larry M. "Partisanship and Voting Behavior, 1952–1996." American Journal of Political Science 44, no. 1 (January 2000): 35–50. ———. "What's the Matter with What's the Matter with Kansas?" Paper prepared for the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, September 2004. Bell, Daniel. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books, 1999. Berube, Alan, Audrey Singer, Jill H. Wilson, and William H. Frey. "Finding Exurbia: America's Fast-Growing Communities at the Metropolitan Fringe." Brookings Institution, October 2006. Bianco, Anthony. "The Vanishing Mass Market." BusinessWeek, July 12, 2004. Binder, Sarah A. "Elections and Congress's Governing Capacity."


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The End of Work by Jeremy Rifkin


banking crisis, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, cashless society, collective bargaining, computer age, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, general-purpose programming language, George Gilder, global village, hiring and firing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, Thorstein Veblen, Toyota Production System, trade route, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

The farmer will give way to the 'bio-manager' and observation will be replaced by "software." Biotechnology and information technologies therefore go hand in hand to create the new production process in agriculture. In this perspective, biotechnology and micro-electronics mark the end of the pre-history of the food industry and its incorporation within the broader dynamics of the industrial system and post-industrial society.47 Chemical companies are already investing heavily in indoor tissueculture production in the hope of removing farming from the soil by 124 THE DECLINE OF THE GLOBAL LABOR FORCE the early decades of the twenty-first century. Recently, two U.S.-based biotechnology firms announced they had successfully produced vanilla from plant-cell cultures in the laboratory. Vanilla is the most popular flavor in America.

Krugman, Paul, and Lawrence, Robert, "Trade, Jobs and Wages," Scientific American, April 1994, pp. 46, 47. 19. "The Myth of Manufacturing's Decline," Forbes, January 18,1993, p. 40; Judis, John, "The Jobless Recovery," The New Republic, March 15, 1993, p. 22. 20. Winpisinger, William w., Reclaiming Our Future (Boulder: Westview Press, 1989), pp. 150-151. 21. Masuda, Yoneji, The Information Society as Post-Industrial Society (Washington, D.G: World Future Society, 1980), p. 60. 22. "Price of Progress." 23. Churbuck, David, and Young, Jeffrey, "The Virtual Workplace," Forbes, November 23, 1992, p. 186; "New Hiring Should Follow Productivity Gains," Business Week, June 14,1993. 24. Harrison, Bennett, Lean and Mean: The Changing Landscape of Corporate Powerin the Age of Flexibility (New York: Basic Books, 1994), pp. 45-47, 51. 25.

Noble, David, Forces of Production: A Social History of Industrial Automation (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1984), p. 50; Fjermedal, Grant, The Tomorrow Makers p. 70; Davidow, William, and Malone, Michael, The Virtual Corporation: Restructuring and Revitalizing the Corporation for the 21st Century (New York: HarperColiins, 1992 ), p. 37· 18. Davidow and Malone, p. 37. 19. Masuda, Yoneji, The Information Society as Post-Industrial Society (Bethesda, MD: World Future Society, 1981), p. 49. 20. Kurzweil, p. 186. 21. Ceruzzi, Paul, ''An Unforeseen Revolution: Computers and Expectations, 1935-1985," in Corn, Joseph J., Imagining Tomorrow: History, Technology, and the American Future (Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1986), P·19 0 . 22. Ibid., PP.190-191. 23. Jones, Barry, Sleepers, Wake: Technology and the Future of Work (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), pp. 104-105' 24.


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Stuffocation by James Wallman


3D printing, Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Black Swan, BRICs, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Fall of the Berlin Wall, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, James Hargreaves, Joseph Schumpeter, Martin Wolf, McMansion, means of production, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, World Values Survey, Zipcar

Endnotes INTRODUCTION How We’ve Had Enough of Stuff Ryan Nicodemus and Joshua Fields Millburn The best way to find out about Ryan Nicodemus and Joshua Fields Millburn, their books, their book tour (coming to your city soon), and how they help people get rid of what doesn’t matter, is by visiting their fantastic website The Story of Stuff Watch the Story of Stuff and read Story of Stuff, Referenced and Annotated Script, which contains evidence for the video’s statements, at “Four out of five were materialistic in 1970” Ronald Inglehart, “The Silent Revolution in Europe: Intergenerational Change in Post-Industrial Societies”, American Political Science Review Vol. 65, No. 4, December 1971. For updates since then, see Ronald Inglehart, “Changing Values among Western Publics from 1970 to 2006”, West European Politics Vol. 31, Nos. 1–2, January–March 2008; also, the World Values Survey ( Many make sense of the shift to less materialistic values by referring to Abraham Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation”, Psychological Review Vol. 50, No. 4, 1943.

Using the Present to Forecast the Future For an excellent introduction to forecasting, read the first chapter of Martin Raymond, The Trend Forecaster’s Handbook (London: Lawrence King, 2010). I have Martin Raymond to thank for introducing me to the field of forecasting, and teaching me a great deal of what I know about it. For good examples of forecasting from the past, take a look at two prescient texts: Alvin Toffler, Future Shock (New York: Random House, 1970), and Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Basic Books, 1973). CHAPTER TWO The Original Mad Men and the Job of Creating Desire To understand where the ideas came from that influenced the original Mad Men – people like Edward Bernays and Earnest Elmo Calkins and Christine Frederick – read Wilfred Trotter, Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War (London: Macmillan, 1916); Gustave Le Bon, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (London: Unwin, 1903); Edward Bernays, Propaganda (New York: H Liveright, 1928, IG Publishing, 2005 edition); Edward Bernays, Crystallizing Public Opinion (New York: Liveright, 1923); Stuart Ewen, Captains of Consciousness (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976); Stuart Ewen, PR!

If you compare them you can see how social media is speeding the shift from materialism to experientialism – as people are more able than ever to get status from experiential rather than material goods. My reading, of course, is that conspicuous living is replacing conspicuous consumption in its importance for our status and our lives. Is Experientialism the Answer to Stuffocation? Ron Inglehart Again, Ron Inglehart, “The Silent Revolution in Europe: Intergenerational Change in Post-Industrial Societies”, American Political Science Review Vol. 65, No. 4, December 1971. To see the shift away from materialistic values, see the World Values Survey ( The changing make-up of our economy Compare the type of items in Simon Kuznets, National Income, 1929-32 (Cambridge, MA: NBER, June 1934) with those in today’s economies. Consider also, Francisco J Buera and Joseph P Kaboski.


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Mythology of Work: How Capitalism Persists Despite Itself by Peter Fleming


1960s counterculture, anti-work, call centre, clockwatching, corporate social responsibility, David Graeber, Etonian, future of work, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, neoliberal agenda, Parkinson's law, post-industrial society, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Results Only Work Environment, shareholder value, The Chicago School, transaction costs, working poor

This is one of the great ruses of neoliberal reason: it is able to impose an artificial regime based upon the pretext of organic self-preservation. And who can argue with that? I hope to demonstrate in the following pages that our workers’ society has little to do with material subsistence, although that doesn’t mean our jobs are any less real in terms of the influence and sway work holds over vast numbers of people around the world. The way work exploits us in post-industrial societies has taken on some specific attributes that this book aims to explore in more depth. Neoliberal class relations are distinct in that they transform exploitation into something that strongly resembles subsidization. We work, pay taxes, take care of the bills and commuting costs for one single reason: not to ‘survive’ but so that the governing elite gains its privileges for nothing. Our labour is designed to provide freedom to the rich.

But the main focus of this book is how we might push back and break the capitalist gridlock that has us hanging between an unliveable life and a future of more of the same. Given the above trends that have generalized some horrible principles in the form of human and social capital, this is more easily said than done. For how might we oppose the ‘I, Job’ function when it is now somehow tied up with our very sense of identity and personal worth? And what would a world without work actually look like? I argue that a new resistance movement is emerging in post-industrial societies and beyond that seeks to put work in its place. Unlike traditional conceptions of employee resistance (such as the strike or sabotage) which often functioned as a platform to demand more, better or fairer work, this novel form of opposition seeks to escape the paradigm of work altogether. It does not view our over-attachment to a job as an inevitable consequence of survival, but as a hypnotic political absurdity that we have come to live as if it has always been so.

This is why the idea of leadership still carries strong fascist connotations, since the call for strong leaders usually coincides with gratuitous acts of disempowerment and overt regulation. 3. Conflict-Seeking Behaviour While it might be tempting to view managerialism as a fundamentally defensive stance given the above analysis, it also displays an extremely strong attraction to conflict. Indeed, I suggest that it literally thrives on antagonism and actively seeks it out or instigates it. One obvious reason for this is the timing of its emergence in post-industrial societies. The birth of managerialism corresponded with the dissolution of labour unions in the 1980s and was crafted as the most suitable social technology for combatting workers and reforming their understanding of the employment relation, especially apropos abandonment, zero-hour contracts, so-called flexible employment arrangements, subcontracting and a stagnating wage packet. Evoking the rather neutral sounding language of ‘change management’, the discourse of managerialism was the second line of attack on the Fordist employment relationship following the state’s use of violence (i.e. the police and the military).


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Utopia for Realists: The Case for a Universal Basic Income, Open Borders, and a 15-Hour Workweek by Rutger Bregman


autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Branko Milanovic, cognitive dissonance, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Graeber, Diane Coyle, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Gilder, happiness index / gross national happiness, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, income inequality, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, precariat, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wage slave, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wikimedia commons, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey

Erik Rauch, “Productivity and the Workweek.” 49. For an overview of attitudes in various countries, see: Robert Skidelsky and Edward Skidelsky, How Much is Enough? The Love of Money and the Case for the Good Life (2012), pp. 29-30. 50. For an overview, see: Jonathan Gershuny and Kimberly Fisher, “Post-Industrious Society: Why Work Time Will Not Disappear for Our Grandchildren.” Sociology Working Papers. 51. Richard Layard, Happiness (2005), p. 64. See also: Don Peck, “How a New Jobless Era Will Transform America,” The Atlantic (March 2010). 52. Juliet Schor, “The Triple Dividend,” in: Anna Coote and Jane Franklin (eds), Time on Our Side.


pages: 484 words: 136,735

Capitalism 4.0: The Birth of a New Economy in the Aftermath of Crisis by Anatole Kaletsky


bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, global rebalancing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, market design, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, paradox of thrift, peak oil,, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, statistical model, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Washington Consensus

., Sources of Chinese Tradition: From 1600 Through the Twentieth Century, vol. 2, 507-510. 8 The key events in computer technology were the introduction of the first standardized IBM personal computers and Intel microprocessors in 1983, the addition of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) to the Apple Macintosh in 1984, the Windows GUI by Microsoft in 1986, and the release in 1990 of Windows 3.0, a much improved GUI developed for the IBM 386 computer. 9 See, for example, Edward Glaeser and Janet Kohlhase, “Cities, Regions and the Decline of Transport Costs,” and Nils-Gustav Lundgren, “Bulk Trade and Maritime Transport Costs: The Evolution of Global Markets,” Resources Policy 22:1-2 (March-June 1996): 5-32. 10 Jeffrey Frankel, “The Japanese Cost of Finance: A Survey,” Financial Management 20:1 (Spring 1991). Chapter Five 1 Quoted in New York Times, October 8, 2006. 2 John Naisbitt, Megatrends. 3 Toffler elaborated and popularized the idea of a post-industrial society. Although this term was invented by the sociologist Daniel Bell in The Coming of the Post-Industrial Society, its relationship to information technology was developed most convincingly by Toffler in his book The Third Wave. Ignored by “serious” academics, Toffler was the only modern Western economist or social scientist to appear in a list of “Fifty foreigners shaping China’s modern development” published by People’s Daily in 2006. 4 Martin Wolf, Why Globalization Works.

New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1897. Bank of England. Quarterly Inflation Report, February 11, 2009. Available from Bardo, Michael, and Barry Eichengreen, eds. A Retrospective on the Bretton Woods System: Lessons for International Monetary Reform. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. Bell, Daniel. The Coming of the Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books, 1973. Benedick, Richard. Ozone Diplomacy: New Directions in Safeguarding the Planet. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991. Benen, Steve. “What Has Government-run Health Care Ever Done for Us?” Washington Monthly, July 29, 2009. Bernanke, Ben. “Deflation: Making Sure ‘It’ Doesn’t Happen Here.” Remarks before the National Economists Club. Federal Reserve Board.


pages: 590 words: 153,208

Wealth and Poverty: A New Edition for the Twenty-First Century by George Gilder


affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, capital controls, cleantech, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, Home mortgage interest deduction, Howard Zinn, income inequality, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, medical malpractice, minimum wage unemployment, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, non-fiction novel, North Sea oil, paradox of thrift, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, price stability, Ralph Nader, rent control, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, volatility arbitrage, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, yield curve

Any definition must be somewhat arbitrary. In a sense all goods are services. When one buys a car or a television set, one could be said to acquire transportation or entertainment services, the rents for which are capitalized in the price. Nonetheless, when the term is used in the social sciences, as in an explanation of declining national rates of productivity or in a prediction of the shape of “post-industrial society,” phrases like “the revolution in services,” “the emerging service economy,” and “the low-productivity, people intensive services” refer to two groups of activities that minister to people’s needs without making anything themselves. Schools, hospitals, museums, retail shops, merchandising chains, restaurants, employment agencies, professions, and the like and unlike, comprise the smaller group.

As Theodore Levitt of the Harvard Business School wrote,Only recently have some of the traditional service industries and service occupations begun to think industrially. Only recently have they begun to look at “service” with the cognitive style of the industrialist instead of the humanist, much as people began, in the latter eighteenth century, to look at work in the style of the manufacturer rather than the craftsman.... The so-called post-industrial society is not industrially “post.” Industrialization is as possible in the service as in the goods producing industries, in the service occupations as in the craft occupations.5 Perhaps the epitome of the service sector as an inflationary problem is the hospital. In 1950 the average cost per patient per day was $16; by 1979 it had exceeded $200. But here, too, the phenomenon of the changing basket of goods arises in acute form.

San Francisco: Institute for Contemporary Studies, 1978. ———. “U.S. Inflation and the Choice of Monetary Standard.” Speech at University of Rochester, April 9, 1980. Bartlett, Bruce. A Walk on the Supply Side. New Rochelle, NY: Arlington House, Inc., 1981. Becker, Gary. “The Effect of the State on the Family.” Monograph prepared for the Mont Pelerin Society Meetings, September 1978. Bell, Daniel. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1973. ———. The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1975. ———. “The New Class: A Muddled Concept.” Transaction/Society 16 (2) Januray–February 1979. Reprinted in Bruce-Briggs, Barry, ed. The New Class. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1979. Berle, Adolph. American Economic Republic. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1963.


pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells


Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, British Empire, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, planetary scale, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl

The cultural nationalist regards the nation as the product of its unique history and culture and as a collective solidarity endowed with unique attributes.”32 Calhoun, although rejecting the historical newness of the phenomenon, has also emphasized the decisive role of identity in defining politics in contemporary American society, particularly in the women’s movement, in the gay movement, in the civil rights movement, movements “that sought not only various instrumental goals but the affirmation of excluded identities as publicly good and politically salient.” 33 Alain Touraine goes further, arguing that “in a post-industrial society, in which cultural services have replaced material goods at the core of production, it is the defense of the subject, in its personality and in its culture, against the logic of apparatuses and markets, that replaces the idea of class struggle.”34 Then the key issue becomes, as stated by Calderon and Laserna, in a world characterized by simultaneous globalization and fragmentation, “how to combine new technologies and collective memory, universal science and communitarian cultures, passion and reason?”

Thus, to understand the actual profile of the trans formation of employment in advanced societies we must now turn to the differential evolution of each type of service in the G-7 countries. To do so, I shall first comment on the evolution of each category of service in each country; then I shall compare the relative importance of each type of service vis-à-vis each other in each country; finally, I shall consider the trends of evolution of employment in those services that have been identified in the literature as characteristic of “post-industrial” societies. In proceeding with this analysis I must remind the reader that the further we go into the fine-grain analysis of specific categories of employment, the less solid the database becomes. The inability to obtain reliable data for some categories, countries, and periods will make it difficult to be systematic in our analysis across the board. Yet the observation of the tables presented here still suggests that there are some features that merit closer analysis and further elaboration on country-specific databases.

Downgraded labor, particularly in the entry positions for a new generation of workers made up of women, ethnic minorities, immigrants, and young people, is concentrated in low-skill, low-paid activities, as well as in temporary work and/or miscellaneous services. The resulting bifurcation of work patterns and polarization of labor is not the necessary result of technological progress or of inexorable evolutionary trends (for example, the rise of the “post-industrial society” or of the “service economy”). It is socially determined and managerially designed in the process of the capitalist restructuring taking place at the shopfloor level, within the framework and with the help of the process of technological change at the roots of the informational paradigm. Under these conditions, work, employment, and occupations are transformed, and the very notion of work and working time may be changed for ever.


pages: 289 words: 99,936

Digital Dead End: Fighting for Social Justice in the Information Age by Virginia Eubanks


affirmative action, Berlin Wall, call centre, cognitive dissonance, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of work, game design, global village, index card, informal economy, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low-wage service sector, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, race to the bottom, rent control, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, telemarketer, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban planning, web application, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

All that hardware, now linked from local area networks to the global Internet, along with a political regime of smaller government and lighter regulation, has unleashed forces of innovation and wealth creation like the world has never known before. Flatter hierarchies and more interesting work are the social payoffs; rising incomes and an end to slumps the economic payoffs. Quality replaces quantity, knowledge replaces physical capital, and flexible networks replace rigid organization charts” (Henwood 2003, 3–4). 14. Among the most popular are Daniel Bell’s The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (1976), Alvin Toffler’s The Third Wave (1980), John Naisbett’s Megatrends (1984), Peter Drucker’s Post-Capitalist Society (1993), Bill Gates’s The Road Ahead (1996), Kevin Kelly’s Out of Control (1995) and New Rules for the New Economy (1998), Esther Dyson’s Release 2.0 (1997), Thomas Friedman’s The World Is Flat (2005), and Don Tapscott’s Wikinomics (2006). 15. Volatility is increasingly the topic of policy discussions about inequality and development.

Education and Citizenship in the Digital Age. Techne: Research in Philosophy and Technology 9. Bastian, Michelle. 2006. Haraway’s Lost Cyborg and the Possibilities of Transversalism. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 31:1027–1049. Bastian, Sunil, and Nicola Bastian. 1996. Assessing Participation: A Debate from South Asia. New Delhi: Konark Publishers. Bell, Daniel. 1976. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books. Benhabib, Seyla. 1996. Democracy and Difference: Contesting the Boundaries of the Political. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Benner, Chris. 2002. Work in the New Economy: Flexible Labor Markets in Silicon Valley. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. Berger, Michele Tracy. 2004. Workable Sisterhood: The Political Journey of Stigmatized Women with HIV/AIDS. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.


pages: 327 words: 88,121

The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, McMansion, Nate Silver, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

fa=biospartnership. 3Nathan Gardels, “Lunch with the FT: He has seen the future,” Financial Times, August 19, 2006. 4Alvin Toffler, The Third Wave (New York: Bantam Books, 1981), 9–11. 5 6Judis, “Newt’s not-so-weird gurus.” 7Toffler, The Third Wave, 4. 8Toffler, The Third Wave, 14. 9An argument made along similar lines can be found in Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Basic Books, 1999). 10Marshall McLuhan and Bruce R. Powers, The Global Village (New York: Oxford University Press, 1970). 11Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005). 12Fareed Zakaria. The Post-American World (New York: W. W. Norton, 2009), 19–21. 13Lee Rainie and Barry Wellman, Networked: The New Social Operating System (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2012), Fig. 2.7, 28. 14, accessed November 2, 2012. 15Zakaria, The Post-American World, 3. 16Rainie and Wellman, Networked, Figure 2.5, 26. 17“Social Networking Site and Politics,” Pew Internet & American Life Project, March 12, 2012; “Social Networking Popular Across Globe,” Pew Research Center Global Attitudes Project, December 12, 2012. 18“Social Networking Popular Across Globe.” 19Interview with Eric Schmidt, Charlie Rose, March 6, 2009. 20Rainie and Wellman, Networked, Fig. 2.10, 31; Fig. 2.3, 24. 21Matt Richtel, “Attached to Technology and Paying a Price,” New York Times, June 6, 2010; Robert D.

., 4–5, 19, 48, 84, 149 Chicago, University of, 105 Chicago School, 83, 84, 86, 125 children, 12, 27–30, 70, 84, 101, 214–27 affirmation and, 106 health issues and, 51, 52, 58, 59, 198, 201 poor, 62 shopping and, 38–39, 41 urban, 83–86, 222 see also adolescents China, xiv, xvii, 19, 227, 230 Chinatown Bus effect, 33–49, 62, 73, 75, 101, 108, 126, 138 intimate relations and, 42–46, 49 neighborhoods and, 46–49 shopping and, 38–42, 49 Chinatowns, 33–35 choice, 48, 49, 68, 69, 73 affirmation and, 102, 103, 111, 112 cholera, 158–59 Christakis, Nicholas, 96 Christianity, 71, 147, 238 Cincinnati, Ohio, ix–xi, 38–39, 97, 240 City Year, 212–13 Civilization (Ferguson), 229 civil liberties, 227, 231, 232 civil rights movement, 23–24, 51, 68, 108–9 civil society (nonprofits), 150, 194, 201 Claritas, 41 class, 39, 41, 60, 79, 147, 191, 215, 231, 238 in Europe, 81, 232 Clinton, Bill, 10, 15, 20, 22, 52, 113, 114, 186, 198, 213, 255n Cohen, Lizabeth, 203 Cold War, 3, 6, 15, 56, 113, 141, 233 Coleman, James, 98–100, 170, 173 collaborative community model, xii–xiii, 176 collective efficacy, 149–51 Collins, Gail, 27 colonial period, xii–xiii, 81–82, 127 comfort, 52, 54, 60, 103, 104 Coming Apart (Murray), 45, 238, 250n Coming of Post-Industrial Society, The (Bell), 249n commerce, 18–19, 86, 228 Chinatown Bus effect and, 38–42 commitment, 20, 44, 45, 219, 231, 232, 239 communal narcissism, 111 communication, 18, 24–25, 91 community, 12, 79–89, 193–95 American exceptionalism and, 232–34 bedroom, 40, 129 Chinatown Bus effect and, 44, 45 decay of, 7, 66, 73, 113–19, 137–39, 146, 149 Dunbar’s research and, 94–98 monolithic, 46–47, 135, 147–48, 189, 191 networked, 143–53, 168–76, 191, 194–95, 210–11, 217, 235–41 online, 114–15, 116, 145, 250n politically homogeneous, 184 rebuilding of, 213–14 shifts in social architecture of, xii–xx, 75, 129, 211, 212–13, 217 social capital and, 98–101 traditional vs. modern, 128–29 vitality of, 149–51 competition, 47, 63, 229 foreign, xiv, 20, 236 computers, 18 confidants, 118–19 conformity, 4–7, 63–75, 101 Congress, U.S., xv–xvi, 4, 181–86, 191, 212 see also House of Representatives, U.S.; Senate, U.S.


The Future of Money by Bernard Lietaer


agricultural Revolution, banks create money, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, clean water, complexity theory, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, diversification, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, German hyperinflation, global reserve currency, Golden Gate Park, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the telephone, invention of writing, Lao Tzu, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Norbert Wiener, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, price stability, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, the market place, the payments system, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, working poor

.' - Henry Miller In less than two decades, what Daniel Bell originally called the Post- Industrial Society is now commonly referred to as the Information, Knowledge or Communications Age. As information becomes our critical resource, there are sweeping implications not only for our economy, but also for the very fabric of our society. We saw that our oldest information systems are money systems (chapter 1) remember, even writing was initially invented to record financial transactions. So it is no surprise that money is again in the forefront in computerized cyberspace. We can expect fundamental changes not only in payment systems for conventional currencies, but also the emergence of new types of money. Post Industrial Society = Knowledge Age In the 1940s, IBM's first Chairman, Thomas Watson, predicted a world market for 'maybe five computers'.


pages: 391 words: 22,799

To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise by Bethany Moreton


affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, global village, informal economy, invisible hand, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, price anchoring, Ralph Nader, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, walkable city, Washington Consensus, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, Works Progress Administration

The following very general sketch of management theory draws heavily on Mauro Guillén, Models of Management: Work, Authority, and Organization in a Comparative Perspective (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994), 30–90; and Waring, Taylorism Transformed. I am indebted to Rakesh Khurana for suggesting these guides. William H. Whyte Jr., The Organization Man (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1956), 37. Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation (New York: Basic Books, 1977), 23–25. Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting; Special Anniversary Edition with a New Foreword by the Author (New York: Basic Books, 1999), 17. W. Jack Duncan, Great Ideas in Management: Lessons from the Founders and Foundations of Managerial Practice (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1989), 187–89; Waring, Taylorism Transformed, 133–42. Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960).

., 120 Years of American Education: A Statistical Portrait (National Center for Education Statistics, 1993), 65–66, pubs93/93442.pdf. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Profile of the United States: 2000 (InterÂ�net Release) (2001), fig. 8-2, pop-profile/2000/profile2000.pdf. 48. Howard Brick, “Optimism of the Mind: Imagining Postindustrial Society in the 1960s and 1970s,” American Quarterly 44, no. 3 (September 1992): 348–80. 49. Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting; Special Anniversary Edition with a New Foreword by the Author (New York: Basic Books, 1999), 269. 50. Bergdahl, What I Learned from Sam Walton, 151. 51. College of the Ozarks, Bulletin (Clarksville, AR, 1969–70), 15. 52. Vernon McDaniel, “Milestone at Ozarks: Arkansas’s Oldest College Marks Its 125th Year This Week; New Era Dawns,” AG, October 25, 1959, 2E. 53.


pages: 429 words: 114,726

The Computer Boys Take Over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise by Nathan L. Ensmenger


barriers to entry, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, deskilling, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Grace Hopper, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, loose coupling, new economy, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, performance metric, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture, Y2K

By this point the rhetoric of crisis had become so commonplace in the computer industry literature that for many young programmers the software crisis was “less a turning point than a way of life.”16 This comes back to some of the central questions of this book: How can we explain the continued existence of a seemingly perpetual crisis in what is generally considered to be one of the most successful and profitable industries of all time? How can we understand the role of computer specialists—in many respects the paradigmatic “knowledge workers” of post-industrial society—within this troubled framework of crisis, conflict, and contested identity? If, as Shoshona Zuboff has suggested, computer-based technologies are not simply neutral artifacts, but rather “embody essential characteristics that are bound to alter the nature of work within factories and offices, and among workers, professionals, and managers,” then what are the “essential characteristics” of software and software development that shape our understanding of work, identity, and power in the information technology industry (and the many industries that rely on information technology)?

Library Quarterly 32 (1) (1962): 86–88. Beirne, Martin, and Harold Ramsay and Androniki Panteli. “Developments in Computing Work: Control and Contradiction in the Software Labour Process.” In Developments in Computing Work: Control and Contradiction in the Software Labour Process, ed. Paul Thompson and Chris Warhurst, 142–162. New York: Macmillan, 1998. Bell, Daniel. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books, 1973. Bemer, Robert. Computers and Crisis: How Computers Are Shaping Our Future. New York: ACM Press, 1971. Bendix Computer Division. “Is Your Programming Career in a Closed Loop?” (ad). Datamation 8 (9) (1962): 86. Benington, Herbert. “Production of Large Computer Programs” (reprint). IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 5 (4) (1983): 350–361. Berger, Raymond M.


Crisis and Leviathan: Critical Episodes in the Growth of American Government by Robert Higgs, Arthur A. Ekirch, Jr.


Alistair Cooke, clean water, collective bargaining, credit crunch, declining real wages, endowment effect, fiat currency, full employment, hiring and firing, income per capita, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, manufacturing employment, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, price discrimination, profit motive, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

Browning and Browning, Public Finance, pp. 29-34,42-44, 49-50; joseph P. Kalt, "Public Goods and the Theory of Government," Cato Journal 1 (Fall 1981): 565-584; Russell D. Roberts, "A Taxonomy of Public Provision," Public Choice 47 (1985): 267-303. Compare E. C. Pasour,jr., "The Free Rider as a Basis for Government Intervention," Journal of Libertarian Studies 5 (Fall 1981): 453-464. 21. Victor R. Fuchs, "The Economics of Health in a Post-Industrial Society," Public Interest (Summer 1979): 19, 13. For provocative variations on the theme, see Robert Nisbet, Twilight of Authority (New York: Oxford University Press, 1975), esp. pp. 230-287. 22. Wilhelm Ropke, A Humane Economy: The Social Framework of the Free Market, trans. Elizabeth Henderson (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1971), pp. 156, 164-165. Also Mancur Olson, The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1982), p. 174. 23.

Keeler, "Theories of Regulation and the Deregulation Movement," Public Choice 44 (1984): 130; Hardin, Collective Action, pp. 35-37. Lately even the mighty Pentagon has suffered defeat at the hands of a determined congressman. John J. Fialka, "Oregon Congressman Outflanks the Pentagon In Single-Minded, Single-Handed Weapon War," Wall Street Journal (Sept. 13, 1985): 54. 29. Victor R. Fuchs, "The Economics of Health in a Post-Industrial Society," Public Interest (Summer 1979): 16; Shultz and Dam, Economic Policy Beyond the Headlines, pp. 51-52; John Mark Hansen, "The Political Economy of Group Membership," American Political Science Review 79 (March 1985): 81. 30. See the related discussions of the "endowment effect" by Richard H. Thaler, "Illusions and Mirages in Public Policy," Public Interest (Fall 1983): 64-65; of "hysteresis" by Hardin, Collective Action, pp. 82-83; of "universalism and reciprocity" by Alt and Chrystal, Political Economics, pp. 196-197. 31.


pages: 219 words: 61,334

Brit-Myth: Who Do the British Think They Are? by Chris Rojek


British Empire, business climate, colonial rule, deindustrialization, demand response, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Isaac Newton, Khartoum Gordon, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, post-industrial society, Red Clydeside, Stephen Hawking, the market place, urban planning, Winter of Discontent

It weakens the hands of states to control information and regulate populations by making national boundaries essentially porous. 31 ‘C O O L BRITANNIA’ AND THE NATION Two main versions of globalization theory have emerged. The first emphasizes the standardization and regimentation of global culture that follows the creation and colonization of the global market by multinational corporations. This is akin to the return of mass society and post-industrial society theories of the 1960s and ’70s that portrayed the future of the world as some sort of global office in the sky. The second stresses the interplay of local conditions and global forces. The term glocalization has been coined to capture this process. Both versions raise a set of questions that cannot be tackled here. The point to emphasize is that globalization is typically associated with reducing the capacity for manoeuvre of national governments and, conversely, increasing the internationalization of social movements, commerce and communication.


On Anarchism by Chomsky, Noam


anti-communist, crowdsourcing, feminist movement, land reform, means of production, Occupy movement, post-industrial society, profit motive, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

The more so, since now society is such a complicated structure, based on abstract and difficult science, that only the highest intellectual acumen is capable of embracing, grasping and handling it. Should the working masses, from lack of insight, fail to acknowledge this need of superior intellectual lead, should they stupidly try to take the direction into their own hands, chaos and ruin will be the inevitable consequence. 2. See Daniel Bell, “Notes on the Post-Industrial Society: Part I,” Public Interest, no. 6 (1967), pp. 24–35. Albert Parry has suggested that there are important similarities between the emergence of a scientific elite in the Soviet Union and the United States, in their growing role in decision making, citing Bell’s thesis in support. See the New York Times, March 27, 1966, reporting on the Midwest Slavic Conference. 3. Letter to Herzen and Ogareff, 1866, cited in Daniel Guérin, Jeunesse du socialism libertoire (Paris: Librairie Marcel Rivière, 1959), p. 119. 4.


pages: 204 words: 67,922

Elsewhere, U.S.A: How We Got From the Company Man, Family Dinners, and the Affluent Society to the Home Office, BlackBerry Moms,and Economic Anxiety by Dalton Conley


3D printing, call centre, clean water, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, feminist movement, financial independence, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, oil shock, PageRank, Ponzi scheme, positional goods, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, principal–agent problem, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

v=KZASRm fUMOk; accessed August 9, 2003. 3. Rachel Sherman. Class Acts: Service and Inequality in Luxury Hotels (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007). CONVESTMENT 1. Ronald Inglehart, The Silent Revolution: Changing Values and Political Styles Among Western Publics (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1977). See also Ronald Inglehart, “The Silent Revolution in Post-Industrial Societies,” American Political Science Review 65 (1971): 991-1017. Ted Nordhaus and Michael Shellenberger elaborate on Inglehart’s concept in their book Break Through to suggest that we now live in a condition of “insecure affluence.” See, Ted Nordhaus and Michael Shellenberger, Break Through: From the Death of Environmentalism to the Politics of Possibility (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2007). 2.


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Private Island: Why Britain Now Belongs to Someone Else by James Meek


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, business continuity plan, call centre, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, Etonian, HESCO bastion, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, Mikhail Gorbachev, post-industrial society, pre–internet, price mechanism, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, Washington Consensus, working poor

The heirs of Adam Smith, writes Bell, assumed that the market was a sufficient arbiter of the public weal; there, the differential utilities of individuals and the scarcity of different goods would come to an equilibrium that harmonised the intensity of desires and the willingness to pay the asking price. Classical Marxism had an entirely different answer to the problem of relative justice in society. It assumed that competition, envy, and evil all resulted from scarcity, and that the abundance of goods would make such conflicts unnecessary. But what we have come to realise is that we will never overcome scarcity. In the post-industrial society … there would be new scarcities which nineteenth-century utopians could never envision. The selling off of Britain’s municipal housing without replacing it, which I write about in the last section of this book, was supposed to be a triumphant coming together of the individual and free market principles. It actually ended up as one of the most glaring examples of market failure in postwar history.


pages: 309 words: 78,361

Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth by Juliet B. Schor


Asian financial crisis, big-box store, business climate, carbon footprint, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, deskilling, Edward Glaeser,, Gini coefficient, global village, income inequality, income per capita, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, life extension, McMansion, new economy, peak oil, pink-collar, post-industrial society, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, smart grid, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Zipcar

.: Stanford University Press. Garment District, The. 2009. Dollar-a-pound clothing. Available from (accessed March 17, 2009). Gershenfeld, Neil. 2005. Fab: The coming revolution on your desktop; From personal computers to personal fabrication. New York: Basic Books. Gershuny, Jonathan. 2000. Changing times: Work and leisure in post-industrial society. New York: Oxford University Press. Ghertner, D. Asher, and Matthias Fripp. 2007. Trading away damage: Quantifying environmental leakage through consumption-based, life-cycle analysis. Ecological Economics 63: 563-77. Global Carbon Project. 2008. Carbon budget and trends 2007. Available from (accessed July 1, 2009). Global Ecovillage Network. 2009.


pages: 208 words: 67,582

What About Me?: The Struggle for Identity in a Market-Based Society by Paul Verhaeghe


Berlin Wall, call centre, cognitive dissonance, deskilling, epigenetics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, invisible hand, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Louis Pasteur, market fundamentalism, Milgram experiment, new economy, post-industrial society, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, stem cell, The Spirit Level, ultimatum game, working poor

In both cases, this requires considerable personal sacrifice. Believers must pray and work hard to attain God’s mercy. The ignorant must study hard, and if necessary seek psychological counselling in order to attain reason through the proper insights. The post-modern scientistic view is more pessimistic: we will have to wait for a genetic modification of the human race that will fit us better for the post-industrial society that we have created.* [* That this idea has become more widespread is evident from the fact that it represents the closest thing to an optimistic notion in the cynical world of The Elementary Particles, the book with which Michel Houellebecq achieved his international breakthrough. His first novel, Whatever, describes with painful beauty the origin of that cynicism.] In both cases, passion is prohibited; either it is sinful and we should resist it, or it is primitive and irrational and we should turn a blind eye to it (if needs be, with a bit of a snigger), but we certainly don’t need to take it seriously.


pages: 361 words: 83,886

Inside the Robot Kingdom: Japan, Mechatronics and the Coming Robotopia by Frederik L. Schodt


carbon-based life, computer age, computer vision, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, factory automation, game design, guest worker program, industrial robot, Jacques de Vaucanson, Norbert Wiener, post-industrial society, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, V2 rocket, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce

Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom has in the past heaped scorn on British manufacturers who fail to robotize, contrasting Japan's high number of robots and low unemployment with the opposite situation in Britain and noting that "the people who object to new technology will use their pay packets to buy the products of new technology from other countries."19 The advantages of using robotics are obvious, but why should the advanced nations even bother? Clearly, there are other ways besides manufacturing for nations to earn a living in the world community, whether through agriculture, finance, or the sale of resources. Why not accept the world trend of specialization and international division of labor and become, as many experts suggest, post-industrial societies based on software, design, and the service industries? First, nations with strong manufacturing industries have historically dominated other areas as well. Process and product technology have become much more closely linked today, so that to remain technologically advanced an industry requires a mastery of manufacturing technology equal to or greater than its mastery of design technology.


pages: 224 words: 69,494

Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg


active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

Whatever high levels of mobility have brought to enrich the lives of children or improve the quality of life of all of us, and the balance sheet is far from positive, it is clear that low mobility was associated with high level of satisfaction, enjoyment and developmental significance. The low mobility world of the 1950s was embedded in a wider life style and societal context that has been largely swept away in so-called developed societies or post-industrial societies. The Oldham of my childhood in the 1950s was characterised by large numbers of local shops within walking distance, a vigorous and enormous open air market and indoor market (Tommyfield) again within walking distance, local parks, a local library, a local swimming pool (Robin Hill Baths) and perhaps even more surprisingly a public wash house where my mother took the family washing and joined in with many other women to do the washing in an enormous, steamy room full of washing and drying facilities (and from the point of view of a 6 year old boy, full of very scary women).


The Economic Singularity: Artificial intelligence and the death of capitalism by Calum Chace


3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Elon Musk,, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lump of labour, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

In his 1962 book, The production and distribution of knowledge in the United States, he introduced the notion of the knowledge industry, by which he meant education, research and development, mass media, information technologies, and information services. He calculated that in 1959, it accounted for almost a third of US GDP, which he felt qualified the US as an information society. Alvin Toffler, author of the visionary books Future Shock (1970) and The Third Wave (1980), argued that the post-industrial society has arrived when the majority of workers are doing brain work rather than personally manipulating physical resources – in other words when they are part of the service sector. Services grew to 50% of US GDP shortly before 1940,[viii] and they first employed the majority of working Americans around 1950. We have seen that the start and end dates of the economic revolutions (agricultural, industrial and information) are unclear.


pages: 494 words: 28,046

Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri


Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, labour mobility, late capitalism, low skilled workers, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Scramble for Africa, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, urban planning, William of Occam

It seems to us that one could make a parallel argument about the changing social practices of the Chinese proletariat in the post-Mao era leading up to the ‘‘Cultural Fever’’ movement in the 1980s. See Xudong Zhang, Chinese Modernism in the Era of Reforms (Durham: Duke University Press, 1997). Zhang makes clear the fabulous creativity released during this period. 3.4 POSTMODERNIZATION 1. The texts that set the terms for an enormous literature that debates the periodization of the phases of modern production are Daniel Bell, Coming of Post-industrial Society (New York: Basic Books, 1973); and Alain Touraine, Post-industrial Society, trans. Leonard Mayhew (New York: Random House, 1971). 2. See Manuel Castells and Yuko Aoyama, ‘‘Paths towards the Informational Society: Employment Structure in G-7 Countries, 1920–90,’’ International Labour Review, 133, no. 1 (1994), 5–33; quotation p. 13. 3. On the false historical analogies that contributed to the debt crisis of Third World countries, see Cheryl Payer, Lent and Lost: Foreign Credit and Third World Development (London: Zed Books, 1991). 4.


pages: 287 words: 86,919

Protocol: how control exists after decentralization by Alexander R. Galloway


Ada Lovelace, airport security, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, computer age, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discovery of DNA, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, John Conway, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, linear programming, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, phenotype, post-industrial society, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, semantic web, SETI@home, stem cell, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, the market place, theory of mind, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Review, working poor

But more than being about fashion, the American middle-class youth culture Tron targeted was also one that existed during significant technological transformations, transformations we are still understanding today. The development of the personal computer, along with computer networks, has had a profound, stratified impact on the way in which social, political, and economic life is experienced. Recent discussions of the post-industrial society, the information society, the network society, disciplinary society, control society, informatization, scale-free networks, small worlds, and smart mobs are all ways of attempting to understand how social change is indissociable from technological development (research, design, use, distribution, marketing, naturalization, consumption)—though not determined by it. This last point is crucial.


pages: 309 words: 91,581

The Great Divergence: America's Growing Inequality Crisis and What We Can Do About It by Timothy Noah


autonomous vehicles, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, Branko Milanovic, call centre, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Gini coefficient, income inequality, industrial robot, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, low skilled workers, lump of labour, manufacturing employment, moral hazard, oil shock, pattern recognition, performance metric, positional goods, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, refrigerator car, rent control, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, upwardly mobile, very high income, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War

Schloss, “Why Working-Men Dislike Piece-Work,” Economic Review 1, no. 3 (July 1891), 311–26. 7. A decade after the Nobelists sent their letter, the Harvard sociologist (and onetime Fortune magazine journalist) Daniel Bell observed that it was “one more instance of the penchant for overdramatizing a momentary innovation and blowing it up far out of proportion to its actuality.” See Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting (New York: Basic Books, 1999; originally published in 1973), 463. 8. Frank Levy and Richard J. Murnane, The New Division of Labor: How Computers Are Creating the Next Job Market (Princeton, NJ.: Princeton University Press, 2004), 13–25; and Farhad Manjoo, “Will Robots Steal Your Job?,” Slate, Sept. 26–30, 2011, at


pages: 378 words: 110,518

Postcapitalism: A Guide to Our Future by Paul Mason


Alfred Russel Wallace, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, capital controls, Claude Shannon: information theory, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, deglobalization, deindustrialization, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Downton Abbey,, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, financial repression, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, Internet of things, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, means of production, Metcalfe's law, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, post-industrial society, precariat, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Transnistria, union organizing, universal basic income, urban decay, urban planning, wages for housework, women in the workforce

It’s not so far from the worker imagined in the Fragment to the ‘universal educated person’ predicted by Peter Drucker. Marx, I think, abandoned this thought experiment because it had scant relevance to the society he lived in. But it has massive relevance for ours. A THIRD KIND OF CAPITALISM? To the neoliberals, the emergence of info-capitalism seemed like their greatest achievement. They could barely conceive that it might contain flaws. Intelligent machines, they believed, would create a post-industrial society in which everybody did high-value, knowledge-based work and in which all the old social conflicts died out.47 Information would enable the idealized capitalism of the textbooks – with transparency, perfect competition and equilibrium – to become reality. In the late 1990s the literature of the mainstream – from Wired magazine to the Harvard Business Review – was filled with celebratory descriptions of the new system.


pages: 209 words: 89,619

The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class by Guy Standing


8-hour work day, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, deskilling, fear of failure, full employment, hiring and firing, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, mini-job, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nudge unit, pensions crisis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, precariat, presumed consent, quantitative easing, remote working, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, transaction costs, universal basic income, unpaid internship, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population, young professional

Chellaney, B. (2010), ‘China Now Exports Its Convicts’, Japan Times Online, 5 July. Available at [accessed 2 December 2010]. Choe, S.-H. (2009), ‘South Korea Fights Slump through Hiring, Not Firing’, International Herald Tribune, 2 April, pp. 1, 4. 184 BIBLIOGRAPHY 185 Coase, R. H. (1937), ‘The Nature of the Firm’, Economica, 4(16): 386–405. Cohen, D. (2009), Three Lectures on Post-Industrial Society, Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press. Cohen, N. (2010), ‘Now, More than Ever, the Poor Need a Voice’, Observer, 7 October, p. 33. Coleman, D. (2010), ‘When Britain Becomes “Majority Minority”’, Prospect, 17 November. Collison, M. (1996), ‘In Search of the High Life’, British Journal of Criminology, 36(3): 428–43. Crawford, M. (2009), Shop Class as Soulcraft: An Enquiry into the Value of Work, New York: Penguin.


pages: 299 words: 99,080

The Soul of a New Machine by Tracy Kidder


carbon-based life, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Mason jar, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, silicon-based life

Computers were everywhere, of course — in the cafe's beeping cash registers and the microwave oven and the jukebox, in the traffic lights, under the hoods of the honking cars snarled out there on the street (despite those traffic lights), in the airplanes overhead — but the visible differences somehow seemed insignificant. Computers had become less noticeable as they had become nailer, more reliable, more efficient, and more numerous. Surely this happened by design. Obviously, to sell the devices far and wide, manufacturers had to strive to make them easy to use and, wherever possible, invisible. Were computers a profound, unseen hand? In The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, Daniel Bell asserted that new machines introduced in the nineteenth century, such as the railroad train, made larger changes in "the lives of individuals than computers have. Tom West liked to say: "Let's talk bout bulldozers. Bulldozers have had a hell of a lot bigger effect on people's lives." The latter half of the twentieth century, some say, has witnessed an increase in social scale — in the size of organizations, for instance.


pages: 440 words: 108,137

The Meritocracy Myth by Stephen J. McNamee


affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, collective bargaining, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, failed state, fixed income, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, joint-stock company, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, occupational segregation, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, school choice, Scientific racism, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, white flight, young professional

The simple fact is that there is far more intelligence, talent, ability, and hard work in the population as a whole than there are people who are lucky enough to find themselves in a position to take advantage of these qualities. References Averitt, Robert T. 1968. Dual Economy. New York: Norton. Barnsley, R., and A. H. Thompson. 1988. “Birthdate and Success in Minor Hockey: Key to NHL.” Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science 20, no. 2: 167–76. Bell, Daniel. 1976. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Basic Books. Bernhardt, Annette, Martina Morris, Mark Handcock, and Mark Scott. 2001. Divergent Paths: Economic Mobility in the New American Labor Market. New York: Sage. Blau, Joel. 1999. Illusions of Prosperity: America’s Working Families in an Age of Economic Insecurity. New York: Oxford University Press. Bluestone, Barry, and Bennett Harrison. 2000. Growing Prosperity: The Battle for Growth with Equity in the Twenty-First Century.


pages: 327 words: 97,720

Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection by John T. Cacioppo


Alfred Russel Wallace, biofilm, butterfly effect, Celebration, Florida, corporate governance, delayed gratification, experimental subject, impulse control, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, Rodney Brooks, Ted Kaczynski, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Walter Mischel

In response, a pregnant female learns to solicit and have sex with the new alpha as soon as he takes office, tricking him into thinking that the child she already carries might be his. His reproductive objectives demand that he keep track of all females in the troop, any of whom may sneak away at any time to have sex with a male she prefers over the alpha. Among the !Kung we saw that violations of the pair bond for sexual fidelity were far from unusual within the human environment of evolutionary adaptation. In today’s post-industrial societies, DNA testing to sort out uncertain paternity is a thriving business. To stay on top, the alpha not only needs accurate information; he needs to refine his own manipulative use of it as his physical powers decline with age. On the other side of the equation, an upstart chimp, hoping to rise in status, learns to manipulate by dissembling. After being bested in a contest, the cagiest will engage in melodramatic displays of (sometimes faked) injury to gain sympathy and political support.


pages: 366 words: 94,209

Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff


3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar

Marvit, “How Crowdworkers Became the Ghosts in the Digital Machine,”, February 4, 2014. 41. Trebor Scholz, “Crowdmilking,”, March 9, 2014. 42. Andrew Keen, The Internet Is Not the Answer (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2015). 43. Vivek Wadhwa, “The End of Chinese Manufacturing and Rebirth of U.S. Industry,”, July 23, 2012. 44. Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting (New York: Basic Books, 1976). 45. David Rotman, “How Technology Is Destroying Jobs,”, June, 12, 2013. 46. Ibid. 47. Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press, 2014). 48. Bernard Lietaer, The Mystery of Money: Beyond Greed and Scarcity, 148 [PDF]. 49. Jeff Tyler, “Banks Demolish Foreclosed Homes, Raise Eyebrows,” Marketplace, American Public Media, October 13, 2011.


pages: 353 words: 91,211

The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History Since 1900 by David Edgerton


agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, British Empire, conceptual framework, deglobalization, dematerialisation, desegregation, deskilling, global village, Haber-Bosch Process, interchangeable parts, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, means of production, megacity, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, V2 rocket

.: Small is beautiful 191 science museums 28, 29, 38, 104 science parks 192 scientific revolution 3 scientists government 192–3 nature of xiii scramjet ix Scud missiles 154–5, 156 sea transport, cheap 115 Second World War 1, 34, 34, 127, 142, 155 artillery-intensive 144 battle of France 150 battleships x, 93, 148–9 casualty rates 146 conquest of Malaya 150–51 conventional and atomic bombing 12–18 dispersal of forces in space 147–8 horsepower x, 34, 35–6 motor torpedo boats 68 a physicist’s war 138 R&D 197 repair organisations 99 transfer machines 85 US atomic bomb project 198, 199 service industries 70–74 extension of 53 IKEA 72 shift from industry 52 Seversky, Alexander de 104 sewing, domestic 81 sewing machines 50, 55, 58–60 sexual revolution 22, 24 Shakuntala Express 96 shanty towns xii, 40–43, 49, 207 Sheffield 173 shellac records 7 Shenzhou-5 capsule 137 shipbreaking 207–8, 208 Shippingport nuclear reactor, Pennsylvania 20 ships container 74 cruise 49–50 efficiency 68 inventive activity in 190–91 lascar employment 135–6 maintenance 91–5 ocean-going x, 28 refits 91–2 reserve technologies 11 sailing 91, 95 world merchant fleet 73–4 Siemens 130, 196 significance 1–27 assessing aviation and nuclear energy 11–19 assessing technologies 4–5 malaria 25–7 small technologies and big effects 22–5 spin-off 19–22 technological choice 8–11 use is not enough 5–8 Silicon Valley, California, USA 133, 186, 195–6 Sinclair, Upton: The Jungle 168–9, 173–4 Singapore 91, 150 Singer Sewing Machine Company 57, 58, 59, 71, 130 Sino–Japanese War, second 140, 179 slaughterhouses 168–73, 171, 175 small arms 143–6, 190 smallpox 163 Smith, Kline French 196 Smithsonian Institution, Washington 104 Sobibor extermination camp, Poland 179 society civil 22 seen as slow to adapt to new technology vii, viii transition from industrial to post-industrial society 3 Soho, London 47 Solvay process 190 sound reproduction 7 South Africa national industrial development 118 output per head 207 petrol production 122 South America guerrilla rebellions 152–3 torture in 157 South Vietnamese army 152 Soviet bloc 118, 126, 129, 133, 145 Soviet Union agriculture 79 car production 69 China produces Soviet technology 44 dams and hydro-electric projects 127 economic growth 110, 112, 206, 207 engineers 102 entry into the Second World War 17 family farms 62–4 foreign technology and socialism 126–9 German invasion of 34, 35–6 Great Terror 179 hydrogenation 121 imitation of foreign technologies 112, 136–7 links with China (1949–60) 131 a multi-national state 131 R&D 110, 128, 137 rifles 144–5 soldiers’ deaths in Second World War 144 television 131 space rockets 1, 2 Spain 122 aviation 125, 126 economic growth 109, 112 executions 176 Francoist 118 imitation of foreign technologies 112 nationalistic and autarchic 131 R&D 109, 121–2 spare parts 79, 96 Speer, Albert 14, 18 spermicides 23, 25 spin-off 19–22, 190 Spin-off magazine (NASA) 21 Spindles Board 38 spinning ‘jenny’ 36 spinning mule 36–8, 47, 60 spinning wheels 54, 60, 63, 107 Sputnik 128, 189 SS 182 Stalin, Joseph 104, 125, 152 Stalinets (tracked Caterpillar 60) 126 Stalingrad tractor factory 126 Stalinism 73, 126, 127 ‘Stalin’s falcons’ 104 Standard Oil 121 Stanford University 186 Star Wars programme 155 state and boundaries 117 and engineers 101–2 funding of big, controversial technologies 22 television 131 statistical offices 5 steam engine 3 reciprocating 3, 29 steam power ix, 2, 3, 29, 105 steam turbine 3 steamships xiv, 113 steel ix, 2, 19, 44, 68, 73, 127, 208–9 sterilisation 23 Stopes, Marie 23–4 Suame Magazine, Ghana 83 Suez Canal 134 suicide, and reserve technologies 11 sulphonamides 163 Swift meat packers 171, 172 Switzerland 80 synthetic ammonia 119 System 360 196 T Ta 183 fighter aircraft 125 Tabun nerve gas 153, 164 Taiwan 45, 109, 136, 177, 207–8 Tamil Tigers 153 Tank, Kurt 125 tanks 159 tank warfare 141–2 tape recorders 7 tariffs 117 Taxol 187 Taylorism 72 TB (tuberculosis) 25 tea-making machines 38 techno-globalism 105, 113–17 techno-nationalism 103–8 Asia and 136–7 technological boosterism 4 technological choice 8–11 ‘technological dualism’ 44 technological futurism vii–viii, xiii–xiv technological importance, assessing 4–5 technological nationalism 117 technological retro x technological revolution 74 technological sharing 111 technology museums 28, 29, 38, 104 technology transfer 111, 127 Tefal 20 Teflon (PTFE) 19–21 Tehran, Iran 154 Telefunken 131 telegraphy xiv, 3, 6, 7, 19, 113, 193 telephone xiv, 6, 7, 55, 193, 195 telephony 3 television ix, 3, 7, 31, 32, 55, 59, 103, 111, 130–31 ‘terotechnology’ 77 Texas Instruments 195 textiles ix, 2, 28, 60, 65, 105 Thailand 177 Thermo-King 170 Three Gorges dam, China 128 tide predictors 7 time 28–51 creole technology 43–5 decline of the ‘mule’ spinning-machine 36–8 horses, mules and oxen 32–6 not Alphaville but bidonville: technology and the poor megacity 39–43 remodelling the boat 47–9 retro and reappearance 49–51 times are changing 31–2 transport 45–7 time between overhaul (TBO) 88, 89 Time magazine 170 timelines, technological vii, ix, x, 29, 31, 212 Tirpitz (battleship) 149 Titanic 50 Togliatti, Palmiro 127 Togliattigrad, Soviet Union 127 Tokaev, Colonel Grigory 125 tools disappearance of 29 Ghananian car repairers 83 of household production 56–7 and small trades 60–62 torture 156–7, 212 Trabant car 10, 129 tractors animal power replaces 36 displacement of horses xiii, 62 Fordson 62, 63, 126 maintenance 79 number on US farms 55 oxen replace 36, 207 USA 62 USSR 63, 126–7 trade global 115 interwar years 115 names 57 ‘traditional technology’ 28–9 trains see railways transfer machines 85–6 transistors 195 Treblinka extermination camp, Poland 179 trucks British truck production 69 Jiefang 126 Model AA 126 number on US farms 55 Tu 4 bombers 123 Tunisia 169 Turkish Navy 92 Tutsis 41–2, 182–3 typhus 26, 162, 163 Tyson Foods 175 U Ukraine: Carpathian foothills 48 Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation) 122 Unamuno, Miguel de 133 Unilever 166 Union Cold Storage 172 Union Stockyards, Chicago 168 United Arab Republic (UAR) 125 United Fruit Company 134 United Nations 18, 79, 122, 129 United States agricultural horsepower xiii, 33 attitude to blacks 132–3 aviation 104, 111 car production 111 domination of world production/innovation 112 economic growth 206 energy use levels 209 executions 165, 176, 178, 182 family farms 62 and guerrilla armies 153 horsepower in First World War 35 Korean War 13 mechanised agriculture 34 modification of cars 97–8 the most motorised nation in the world 69 patents 200 post-war atomic programme 18–19 R&D spending 108, 110 railways 5–6 rifles 144 space programme 19, 20 television 131 torture techniques 157 uptake of new technologies 32 wheat and cotton exports 65 universities 185–7, 192 University of Goettingen 186 University of Oxford 186 UNIX operating system 195 uranium bomb 164 urbanisation, new 40, 207 Uruguay 170–71, 171, 172, 173 Uruguay (liner) 124 US Air Force 95 US Army Air Force 12 US Army Corps of Engineers 11–12, 198 US Food and Drug Administration 201 US Navy 68 US Steel Corporation 127 US Strategic Bombing Survey (USSBS) 14–15 USAAF (United States Army Air Forces) 12, 18 use-centred history ix–xii alternatives for technologies x–xi appearance, disappearance and reappearance of technologies x genuinely global ix, xi–xii gives a radically different picture of technology ix involves rethinking of the history of all technology xii the most significant technologies x novel technological worlds xi–xii refutes some conclusions of innovation-centric history xii rethinking of the history of all technology xii V V-2 rocket x, 17–18, 142, 154, 181 V-agents 164 vacuum cleaners xiv, 55 vehicles, electric vs petrol-powered 9–10 Veinticinco de Mayo (aircraft carrier) 94–5 Venerable, HMS 94 Vengeance, HMS 95 Vestey family 172 Vickers 130, 154 video recorders 55 Vietcong 152, 163 Vietnam war 94, 145, 146, 151–2 Vikrant, INS 95 vinyl records 7, 50 Volkswagen Beetle 44, 70 Golf 70 VX agent 164 W Wal-Mart 71–2, 74, 137 Walla Walla County, Washington xiii Walter Rau floating factory 166 Walton, Sam 72 war 138–59, 212 casualty rates 146 civilianisation of 138–9, 145–6 the conventional story 139–42, 140 industrialisation of 138–9 Iraq and the past 153–6 old weapons and killing in war 142–6 paradoxes of lethality 146–8 power and effect – unused and unusable weapons 148–9 technological and economic determinism in war 150–53 torture 156–7 war, technology and the history of the twentieth century 157–9 Warsaw Pact powers 149 washing machines xiv, 4, 32, 55 water ancient dependence on the control of 76 treatment/supply systems 4 wax cylinders 7 Weber, Albert 165 Wehrmacht 35–6 Wellcome 196 Wells, H.


pages: 497 words: 143,175

Pivotal Decade: How the United States Traded Factories for Finance in the Seventies by Judith Stein


1960s counterculture, affirmative action, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, desegregation, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, payday loans, post-industrial society, post-oil, price mechanism, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yom Kippur War

Cited in Bayard Rustin, “The Blacks and the Unions,” Harper’s Magazine (May, 1971), 81. 57. Karen Orren, “Union Politics and Postwar Liberalism in the United Sates,” Studies in American Political Development 1 (1986), 215–52. 58. U.S. Bureau of Census, Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1976), 382–85. 59. Daniel Bell, “The Post-Industrial Society,” in Technology and Social Change, ed. Eli Ginzberg (New York: Columbia University Press, 1964), 44–49. 60. U.S. Bureau of Census, Labor Force Characteristics (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1970), 217. 61. Todd Gitlin, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage (New York: Bantam, 1987), 1–135; James Miller, Democracy Is in the Streets: From Port Huron to the Siege of Chicago (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1987), 1–126. 62.


pages: 286 words: 94,017

Future Shock by Alvin Toffler


Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, corporate governance, East Village, global village, Haight Ashbury, information retrieval, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog

.: World Resources Inventory, Southern Illinois University, 1963.) [147] Gabor, Dennis, Inventing the Future. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969.) [148] Gibson, Tony, Breaking in the Future. (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1965.) [149] Gordon, Theodore J., The Future. (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1965.) [150] Gordon, Theodore J., and Helmer, Olaf, Report on a Long-Range Forecasting Study. (Santa Monica, Calif.: The RAND Corporation, September, 1964.) [151] Gross, Bertram M., Space-Time and Post-Industrial Society. (Syracuse, N. Y.: Maxwell Graduate School, Syracuse University. Comparative Administration Group Occasional Paper, May, 1966.) [152] Gumucio, Mariano B., Los Dias Que Vendrán. (Caracas: Monte Avila Editores, 1968.) [153] Heilbroner, Robert, The Future as History. (New York: Grove Press, 1959.) [154] Helmer, Olaf, Gordon, Theodore J., Enzer, Selwyn, De Brigard, Raul, and Rochbert, Richard, Development of Long-Range Forecasting Methods for Connecticut.


pages: 436 words: 141,321

Reinventing Organizations: A Guide to Creating Organizations Inspired by the Next Stage of Human Consciousness by Frederic Laloux, Ken Wilber


Albert Einstein, augmented reality, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, failed state, future of work, hiring and firing, index card, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Rogoff, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, the market place, the scientific method, Tony Hsieh

Orange modernity, for instance, has harmed the planet in a way previous stages never could. Another way to avoid attaching judgment to stages is to recognize that each stage is well adapted to certain contexts. If we were caught in a civil war with thugs attacking our house, Impulsive-Red would be the most appropriate paradigm to think and act from so as to defend ourselves. On the other hand, in peaceful times in post-industrial societies, Red is not as functional as some of the later stages. The complexity of human evolution The discussion of stages and colors is only an abstraction of reality, just like a geographical map is only a simplified depiction of a territory; it gives us distinctions that facilitate understanding of a complex underlying reality, but it cannot claim to offer a full portrayal of reality. In the previous chapter, I took you on a whirlwind tour of human evolution, and by describing the stages one after the other, I may have given the impression that people (or even whole societies) operate neatly from just one paradigm.


pages: 494 words: 116,739

Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama


Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser,, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K

Personal Connections in the Digital Age. Polity. Behar, Anurag. (2010). Limits of ICT in education. LiveMint, Dec. 16, 2010, ———. (2012). Silver bullets in education. LiveMint, April 4, 2012, Bell, Daniel. (1999). The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. Basic Books. Bell, Genevieve. (2006). The age of the thumb: A cultural reading of mobile technologies from Asia. Knowledge, Technology, & Policy, Summer 2006, 19(2):41–57, Bendavid, E., and J. Bhattacharya. (2009). The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief in Africa: An evaluation of outcomes.


pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham


1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, means of production, megacity, megastructure, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks

., Situationist International Anthology, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981, pp. 78–9. 58Brian Dillon, ‘Decline and Fall’, Frieze Magazine 130, April 2010, cited in Beck, ‘Concrete Ambivalence’, p. 87. 59See Italo Calvino, Invisible Cities, London: Random House, 2010; Knabb, Situationist International. 60Situationist International, ‘The Bad Days Will End’, in Knabb, Situationist International, p. 197. 61See McKenzie Wark, The Beach Beneath the Street: The Everyday Life and Glorious Times of the Situationist International, London: Verso, 2011. 62Bradley Garrett, ‘Urban Exploration as Heritage Placemaking’, in Hilary Orange, ed., Reanimating Industrial Spaces: Conducting Memory Work in Post-industrial Societies, Oakland: Left Coast Press, 2013. 63Bradley Garrett, ‘Security Breach: The London Mail Rail’, 24 April 2011, available at See also Bradley Garrett, Explore Everything: Place-Hacking the City, London: Verso, 2013. 64Bradley Garrett, ‘Undertaking Recreational Trespass: Urban Exploration and Infiltration’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 39:1, 2014, pp. 1–13. 65The UE movement has also been criticised as being overly dominated, not by ideas of resistance, but by an exclusionary notion of ‘exploration’ based on old notions of the heroic male conqueror.


pages: 424 words: 115,035

How Will Capitalism End? by Wolfgang Streeck


accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Graeber, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization,, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial deregulation, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, income inequality, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, late capitalism, market bubble, means of production, moral hazard, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, open borders, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, post-industrial society, private sector deleveraging, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, savings glut, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Uber for X, upwardly mobile, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

Obviously the incumbent management of advanced and not-so-advanced capitalism is uniquely clueless: consider the senseless production of money to stimulate growth in the real economy; the desperate attempts to restore inflation with the help of negative interest rates; and the apparently inexorable coming apart of the modern state system on its periphery.57 But there is also the absence of a vision of a practically possible progressive future, of a renewed industrial or new post-industrial society developing further and at the same time replacing the capitalist society of today. Not just capital and its running dogs but also their various oppositions lack a capacity to act collectively. Just as capitalism’s movers and shakers do not know how to protect their society from decay, and in any case would lack the means to do so, their enemies, when it comes to the crunch, have to admit that they have no idea of how to replace neoliberal capitalism with something else – see the Greek SYRIZA government and its capitulation in 2015 when the ‘Eurogroup’ began to play hardball and SYRIZA, to mix metaphors, was forced to show its hand.


pages: 405 words: 117,219

In Our Own Image: Savior or Destroyer? The History and Future of Artificial Intelligence by George Zarkadakis


3D printing, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, anthropic principle, Asperger Syndrome, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, British Empire, business process, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, continuous integration, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Snowden, epigenetics, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, millennium bug, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

These ideas of cybernetic disembodiment feed into the contemporary narrative of advertising and media. They may not be discussed as explicitly as I have done here, but implicitly they are everywhere one looks. They inform fashion, military tactics, government policies, corporate cultures, video games and business models on the web. At the same time, social networks erode previous social structures and reintroduce tribalism into our post-industrial societies. Marketers nowadays talk about ‘tribes on the Internet’ when they plan the next marketing strategy using social media. Consumerism is transforming and adapting to this new paradigm, which is reminiscent of pre-industrial epochs. We are all different now and we all have individualised – or tribalised – needs. Accordingly, businesses are shifting from manufacturing massively replicated products and providing services distributed through traditional retail channels to producing personalised products and services distributed directly to customers connected on the web.


pages: 571 words: 162,958

Rewired: The Post-Cyberpunk Anthology by James Patrick Kelly, John Kessel


back-to-the-land, Columbine, dark matter, Extropian, Firefox, gravity well, haute couture, Internet Archive, pattern recognition, phenotype, post-industrial society, price stability, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, technological singularity, telepresence, the scientific method, Turing test, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Y2K, zero day

Sure, there’s the rage, and It, whatever It is, should indeed pay a terrible price for making us like this… If we were really able to get hold of Whatever-It-Is, we ought to be able to talk intelligibly, at least to our contemporaries, in our own voices, and be heard and understood, and even, possibly, appreciated. I don’t know what that kind of fiction would look like, but it would be the ‘native literature of a post-industrial society,’ and it would look right, and feel natural, and we’d be happy with it.” Kessel to Sterling, 8 May 1987: “I’ve come to feel that wasn’t such a bad fate, to acknowledge that all our ladders start there, in our mundane existence… You talk about just this with your understanding of the rage at the mundane world that lurks behind all our futures, be they brightly painted or grimly sketched….


pages: 828 words: 232,188

Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama


Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, invention of the printing press, iterative process, knowledge worker, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

Basic Interests: The Importance of Groups in Politics and in Political Science. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Baumgartner, Frank R., et al. 2009. Lobbying and Policy Change: Who Wins, Who Loses, and Why. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Beer, Lawrence W., and John M. Maki. 2002. From Imperial Myth to Democracy: Japan’s Two Constitutions, 1889–2002. Boulder: University Press of Colorado. Bell, Daniel. 1973. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture in Social Forecasting. New York: Basic Books. Berman, Sheri. 2013. “The Promise of the Arab Spring: In Political Development, No Gain Without Pain.” Foreign Affairs 92(1):64–74. Bernhardt, Kathryn, and Philip C. C. Huang, eds. 1994. Civil Law in Qing and Republican China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Berry, Sara. 1993. No Condition Is Permanent: The Social Dynamics of Agrarian Change in Sub-Saharan Africa.