New Urbanism

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pages: 296 words: 76,284

The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher

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Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

Others say they aren’t solving the problems posed by the suburbs because they build on large plots often in the middle of nowhere, which has led to the nickname “New Suburbanism” (one blogger described New Urbanism as a “pretty veil over common suburbia”). New Urbanism communities can be expensive to build and their homes expensive to buy. Getting over conventional zoning codes is often problematic and requires lots of patience, and often compromise: FHA loan rules still limit the percentage of commercial real estate in vertical apartment units, making it hard for New Urbanism developers to secure financing for the mixed-use buildings they say are a critical ingredient in their neighborhoods. Nevertheless, New Urbanism principles have been followed and copied over the years. In 1996, Disney opened Celebration, Florida, its five-thousand-acre master-planned community near Orlando, largely on New Urbanism principles, though it did not bill it a New Urbanist community.

During the conference’s main stage sessions, Le Corbusier, the French pioneer of modernist architecture who envisioned a high-rise city, is invoked as many times as the movement’s enemy as Jane Jacobs is as their hero. The main principles of New Urbanism have not changed much since its founding twenty years ago. New Urbanism is not a rating or rule book like, say, LEED, the third-party green building accreditation that requires structures adhere to a set of specific standards to earn its label; rather, it’s a set of basic principles and guidelines—a sort of neighborhood DNA code—for developers, planners, designers, and policy makers who wish to design neighborhoods based on traditional town planning methods. Most New Urbanism developments have certain identifying characteristics: narrower or more “modest-sized” streets, an easily identifiable town center, a Main Street lined with buildings that mix commercial and residential spaces, and a mixture of housing types throughout the rest of the neighborhood—single-family detached houses, attached town houses, and apartments—all commingled together.

Most New Urbanism developments have certain identifying characteristics: narrower or more “modest-sized” streets, an easily identifiable town center, a Main Street lined with buildings that mix commercial and residential spaces, and a mixture of housing types throughout the rest of the neighborhood—single-family detached houses, attached town houses, and apartments—all commingled together. New Urbanism is not architecture; New Urbanists are almost agnostic to what the houses’ exteriors look like, or even to the architectural style of the neighborhood. In the same way Clarence Perry, whose neighborhood unit helped transform suburban design, had nothing to do with the design of homes in those neighborhoods, New Urbanism theories relate primarily to a community’s bones, or the design and layout of the neighborhood itself. As it was with Seaside, the goal of New Urbanism is to create neighborhoods whose design serves a social as well as a physical purpose. The mix of housing stock, for instance, ensures that a wide range of economic classes lives in the same neighborhood (which also makes homes easier to sell, since the housing stock appeals to a broader range of the market), while the pleasing, diverse streetscapes are designed to be both safe for foot traffic and also appealing enough to bring people out of their homes and into the public space.

 

pages: 321 words: 85,267

Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck

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A Pattern Language, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

One obvious neotraditional product is the Mazda Miata, a car that looks, sounds, and handles like a British roadster but maintains the rate-of-repair record of a Honda Civic. The typical neotraditional house, which populates many New Urban neighborhoods, has an airy, freeflowing interior enclosed within a colonial shell. Neotraditionalism is an apt term to describe the New Urbanism, because the New Urbanism’s intention is to advocate what works best: what pattern of development is the most environmentally sensitive, socially responsible, and economically sustainable. As is often the case, what seems to work best is a historic model—the traditional neighborhood—adapted as necessary to serve the needs of modern man. The commonsense nature of the New Urbanism bodes well for its future. The fact that it was not invented, but selected and adapted from existing models, dramatically distinguishes it from the concepts of total replacement that preceded it.

The fact that it was not invented, but selected and adapted from existing models, dramatically distinguishes it from the concepts of total replacement that preceded it. It took many years and many failures for planners and architects to reach this point, but so many new inventions have fared so badly that designers have been forced to put some faith in human experience. Further experience will no doubt modify the precepts and techniques of the New Urbanism, but that is as it should be. THE CHARTER OF THE NEW URBANISM INTRODUCTION The Congress for the New Urbanism views divestment in central cities, the spread of placeless sprawl, increasing separation by race and income, environmental deterioration, loss of agricultural lands and wilderness, and the erosion of society’s built heritage as one interrelated community-building challenge. We stand for the restoration of existing urban centers and towns within coherent metropolitan regions, the reconfiguration of sprawling suburbs into communities of real neighborhoods and diverse districts, the conservation of natural environments, and the preservation of our built legacy.

Architectural Design (October—November 1981) (full double issue). Stilgoe, John R. Borderland: Origins of the American Suburb, 1820-1939. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988. Steuteville, Robert. The New Urbanism and Traditional Neighborhood Development: Comprehensive Report and Best Practices Guide. Ithaca, N.Y: New Urban Press, 1999. Surface Transportation Policy Project. “Campaign Connection.” Surface Transportation Policy Project Progress IX.2 (May 1999): 8. ————. Tea-21 User’s Guide: Making the Most of the New Transportation Bill. Report, 1998. Swift, Peter. “Residential Street Typology and Injury Accident Frequency.” Report by Swift Associates, 1997. Tu, Charles, and Mark Eppli. Valuing the New Urbanism: The Case of Kentlands. Report by the George Washington University Department of Finance, 1997. Unwin, Raymond. Town Planning in Practice.

 

pages: 282 words: 69,481

Road to ruin: an introduction to sprawl and how to cure it by Dom Nozzi

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business climate, car-free, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, Parkinson's law, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, skinny streets, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban decay, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city

Homogenized, banal “icon architecture“ (also known as “cookie cutter” or “franchise” architecture), which immediately conveys a corporate image to the passerby—McDonald’s golden arches, Kentucky Fried Chicken’s red-and-white stripes—diminishes a city’s unique identity and creates what Jim Kunstler calls the “geography of nowhere.”37 A WOLF IN SHEEP’S CLOTHING We should be on guard not to allow projects touted as New Urbanist that deliver New Urbanism‘s principles only in a skin-deep way, such as those that perpetuate car dependence, or that fail to provide a mix of housing affordability, even if the houses have front porches or other forms of window dressing. NEW URBANISM AND THE POOR I am always astounded when people attack New Urbanism as elitist and not in the best interests of poor people. It seems as obvious to me that an auto-dominated community is as detrimental to poor people as it seems obvious that community designrecommended by New Urbanism reduces the need for car travel and is beneficial. New Urbanism seems to be the best chance to reduce car dependency through urban design, which is an important reason why I am so enthusiastic about it.

The most effective, desirable strategy is to establish context-sensitive community regulations that transition from walkable to auto-oriented to rural and wildlife preserve (a concept New Urbanists call a “transect“ system). For the walkable portion of the community, the leading design paradigm today is the New Urbanism. New Urbanism is a set of development practices that creates more people-oriented communities—attractive, efficient, sociable, and pedestrian friendly—at the same time that it significantly reduces car dependence. According to Duany, a leader in this design strategy: “Since its founding in 1992, New Urbanism has been the antithesis of sprawl, because it designs communities that are balanced in function; creates inclusive housing; supports home-based business; spa-tially defines the public realm; facilitates pedestrian accessibility; minimizes use of the car; supports transit; and builds on infill [in-town] as well as greenfield [newly developed] sites.”1ONE SIZE DOES NOT FIT ALL: THE TRANSECT SYSTEM You can choose any color you want, Henry Ford notably told early car buyers, as long as it is black.

I would resign myself, along with everyone else, to increasingly unlivable communities, more time trapped in my car on the road, more frustration and isolation, more inescapable congestion, until the economic and social and emotional costs of being car dependent became unbearable for a critical mass of people. Twenty more years? Fifty? But there is hope. An important subcategory of smart growth is the “New Urbanism,” a strategy of community and neighborhood design that uses timeless, traditional development principles at the same time it incorporates contemporary technology and values; the pedestrian, not the car, is the design imperative (see chapters 9 and 10). As Marvin Harris pointed out in Cultural Materialism (1979), it is not ideas that determine our behavior and values, but the environmental and economic conditions we must cope with each day.

 

pages: 222 words: 50,318

The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger

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American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight

Its best-known, iconic projects, such as Seaside, Florida; Kentlands, Maryland; and Stapleton, Colorado,7 are second-home or bedroom communities (neighborhood-serving) that may or may not become regional-serving someday. “TND” as a term tends to be interchangeable with “New Urbanism” and focuses on neighborhoodserving places. New Urbanism and TNDs have played pivotal roles in the rebirth of neighborhood-serving places in suburban greenfields. Use of this type of development has demonstrated that walkable neighborhood demand can be built from scratch. Andres Duany, one of the founders of the Congress of the New Urbanism and a leading thinker and architect, has justified New Urbanism suburban development by saying that most future development will go to the suburban greenfield sites, so they might as well be walkable. THE FIVE KINDS OF REGIONAL- SERVING WALKABLE URBAN PLACES Based upon my recent experience throughout the country, there appear to be five kinds of regional-serving walkable urban places in U.S. metropolitan areas as of the mid-2000s.

Many readers familiar with recent trends in the built environment will notice that I have not used some terms common over the past fifteen years, such as “transit-oriented development,” “New Urbanism,” and “traditional neighborhood development” (TND). The description “transit-oriented development” can and does apply to most regional-serving, walkable urban places. (It is possible, but not ideal, to be nontransit-served and still create 118 | THE OPTION OF URBANISM walkable urbanism, as some of the examples below demonstrate). Transitoriented development can occur in any density that supports transit. In general, New Urbanism has played out on the ground as neighborhood-serving walkable urbanism. Its best-known, iconic projects, such as Seaside, Florida; Kentlands, Maryland; and Stapleton, Colorado,7 are second-home or bedroom communities (neighborhood-serving) that may or may not become regional-serving someday.

City planning— United States. 6. Sustainable development—United States. I. Title. HT384.U5L45 2008 307.760973—dc22 2007026186 Printed on recycled, acid-free paper Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Search terms: urban, suburban, sprawl, auto-dependent, real estate product development types, transportation, Futurama, affordable housing, inclusionary zoning, impact fees, New Urbanism, transit-oriented development, American Dream, S&L crisis, walkable urbanism, drivable sub-urbanism, global warming, carbon load, obesity, asthma, favored quarter, metropolitan, regionalism, urbanization, population growth, REIT For Helen, Lisa, and Tom Also for Bob, Gadi, Joe, Pat, and Robert C ONTENTS Preface | ix INTRODUCTION 1 FUTU RAMA | AND THE 1 2 0 TH- C E N T U RY AMERICAN DREAM | 12 2 TH E R I S E 3 T H E S TA N D A R D R E A L E S TAT E OF D R I VA B L E S U B - U R B I A | P R O D U C T TY P E S : W H Y E V E R Y P L A C E LO O K S L I K E EV E RY PL AC E EL S E 4 CONSEQUENCES OF D R I VA B L E SUB - URBAN GROW TH 5 63 TH E M A R K E T R E D I S C OV E R S WA L K A B L E U R B A N I S M 6 | | 86 D E F I N I N G WA L K A B L E U R B A N I S M : WH Y M O R E IS BETTER | 113 vii | 45 31 viii | CONTENTS 7 UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES WA L K A B L E U R B A N I S M 8 ACH I EVI NG LEVELING THE THE | OF 13 8 NEX T AMERICAN DREAM : P L AY I N G F I E L D AND I M P L E M E N T I N G WA L K A B L E U R B A N I S M N OT ES INDEX | | 177 2 01 | 15 0 P REFACE When I was a young child my mother took me to Center City, Philadelphia from our inner-suburban home to visit my father in his office and to go shopping.

 

pages: 342 words: 86,256

Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck

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A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

Josh Dorner, “NBC Confirms That ‘Clean Coal’ Is an Oxymoron.” 4. Bill Marsh, “Kilowatts vs. Gallons.” 5. Firmin DeBrabander, “What If Green Products Make Us Pollute More?” 6. Ibid. 7. Michael Mehaffy, “The Urban Dimensions of Climate Change.” 8. David Owen, Green Metropolis, 48, 104. 9. A Convenient Remedy, Congress for the New Urbanism video. 10. Witold Rybczynski, Makeshift Metropolis, 189. 11. The study was prepared by Jonathan Rose Associates, March 2011. 12. New Urban Network, “Study: Transit Outperforms Green Buildings.” 13. Kaid Benfield, “EPA Region 7: We Were Just Kidding About That Sustainability Stuff.” 14. Ibid. 15. Dom Nozzi, http://domz60.wordpress.com/quotes/. 16. Owen, 19, 23. 17. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation, 7–12. 18. Edward Glaeser, “If You Love Nature, Move to the City.” 19.

“Remove It and They Will Disappear: Why Building New Roads Isn’t Always the Answer.” Surface Transportation Policy Project Progress VII: 2 (March 1998): 5, 7. Kuang, Cliff. “Infographic of the Day: How Bikes Can Solve Our Biggest Problems.” Co.Design, 2011. fastcodesign.com/1665634/infographic-of-the-day-how-bikes-can-solve-our-biggest-problems. Langdon, Philip. “Parking: A Poison Posing as a Cure.” New Urban News, April/May 2005. _____. “Young People Learning They Don’t Need to Own a Car.” New Urban News, December 2009. Lehrer, Jonah. “A Physicist Solves the City.” The New York Times Magazine, December 17, 2010. Leinberger, Christopher B. “Federal Restructuring of Fannie and Freddie Ignores Underlying Cause of Crisis.” Urban Land, February 1, 2011. _____. “Here Comes the Neighborhood.” The Atlantic Monthly, June 2010. _____. “Now Coveted: A Walkable, Convenient Place.”

RADIO, TELEVISION, FILM, AND SLIDESHOWS A Convenient Remedy. Congress for the New Urbanism video. Aubrey, Allison. “Switching Gears: More Commuters Bike to Work.” NPR Morning Edition, November 29, 2010. Barnett, David C. “A Comeback for Downtown Cleveland.” NPR Morning Edition, June 11, 2011. Equilibrium Capital. “Streetcars’ Economic Impact in the United States.” PowerPoint presentation, May 26, 2010. Gabriel, Ron. “3-Way Street by ronconcocacola.” Vimeo. WebMD. “10 Worst Cities for Asthma.” Slideshow. webmd.com/asthma/slideshow-10-worst-cities-for-asthma. LECTURES AND CONFERENCES Brooks, David. Lecture. Aspen Institute, March 18, 2011. Frank, Lawrence. Lecture to the 18th Congress for the New Urbanism, Atlanta, Georgia, May 20, 2010. Gladwell, Malcolm. Remarks. Downtown Partnership of Baltimore Annual Meeting, November 17, 2010.

 

pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

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1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

This pragmatic focus on street-level performance led the Boston Globe Magazine to dub him in 1994, “the urban mechanic.”44 Unlike cities where the mayor’s tech stars were busy launching apps contests, publishing open data, or running analytics, in Boston the mayor focused them on building tools for citizen engagement. “Technology is not part of our mission,” explained Chris Osgood, a veteran civil servant who previously worked for New York City’s Department of Parks and Recreation and who, as Jacob’s cochair, made up the other half of the Office of New Urban Mechanics. “It is to connect people and government better.” Consider Boston’s approach to the snow problem, as compared to Chicago or New York. Just as those cities were opening up their snowplow maps in January 2012, New Urban Mechanics launched “Adopt-A-Hydrant,” a Web app that allowed neighborhood volunteers to claim local fireplugs as their own winter wards. On top of responding to over five thousand fires each year, the Boston Fire Department is responsible for shoveling out over thirteen thousand hydrants after every major snowstorm.

You’re talking about weeks versus months.”49 Above all, “Urban Mechanics is an experimental laboratory,” he told me.50 All of these factors—the focus on citizens, the substantial human resources, the severe constraints on project scope, the political reality that Menino doesn’t have to grab headlines with every tech initiative—united to chart a markedly different path for Boston, an almost guerrilla approach to smart-city building. Like the minutemen of the Massachusetts rebellion, the New Urban Mechanics team picked its targets carefully, and struck fast with a tiny force. It’s a point not lost on the team. Jacob saw early on that the contestants in city apps contests were “basically developing solutions for themselves. Which makes sense, right? Because that’s how you scratch your itch.” Boston chose not to follow that path. As Osgood saw it, Menino’s focus on accountability to his constituents dictated a more engaged approach to apps. “Because of our mayor, we take very seriously the responsibility that government has to understand the problems that residents have, and to try and solve those particular problems.” Ensuring that the apps New Urban Mechanics built were both useful to Boston residents and “piloting something interesting and creative” perhaps results in fewer apps, he says, but apps that will be “sustained and evolved and resonate more.”51 Unlike other cities, where technology is seen as the catalyst of change, Menino made technology subservient.

As Jacob explained to me later, in August 2012 he had taken on a new role advising his peers in several other American cities on how to replicate the success of the Office of New Urban Mechanics. Philadelphia, the first to come knocking “actually called and asked ‘Can we just franchise what you guys do?’ ” Jacob proudly said.53 He was also working to help spread to other cities some of the projects kick-started in Boston. One such tool, Community PlanIt, was an online game designed by Eric Gordon, a visual and media arts professor at Emerson College, to enhance the value of community meetings. When we spoke, Community PlanIt had been successfully rolled out in two of Boston’s suburbs as well as Detroit. Although it was poised to go viral, can New Urban Mechanics survive a change of leadership at home in Boston? Menino will finally leave office after the 2013 mayoral election, having served a record five terms.

 

pages: 232

Planet of Slums by Mike Davis

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barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, jitney, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor

Shanghai, whose growth was frozen for decades by Maoist policies of deliberate underurbanization, could have as many as 27 million residents in its huge estuarial metro-region. Mumbai (Bombay), meanwhile, is projected to attain a population of 33 million, although no one knows whether such gigantic concentrations of poverty are biologically or ecologically sustainable.10 The exploding cities of the developing world are also weaving extraordinary new urban networks, corridors, and hierarchies. In the Americas, geographers already talk about a leviathan known as the Rio/Sao Paulo Extended Metropolitan Region (RSPER) which includes the medium-sized cities on the 500-kilometer-long transport axis between Brazil's two largest metropolises, as well as the important industrial area dominated by Campinas; with a current population of 37 million, this embryonic megalopolis is already larger than TokyoYokohama.11 Likewise, the giant amoeba of Mexico City, already having consumed Toluca, is extending pseudopods that will eventually incorporate much of central Mexico, including the cities of Cuernavaca, Puebla, Cuautla, Pachuca, and Queretaro, into a single megalopolis with a mid-twenty-first-century population of approximately 50 million — about 40 percent of the national total.12 Even more surprising is the vast West African conurbation rapidly coalescing along the Gulf of Guinea with Lagos (23 million people by 9 UN-HABITAT Urban Indicators Database (2002). 10 Far Eastern Economic Review, Asia 1998 Yearbook, p. 63. 11 Hamilton Tolosa, "The Rio/Sao Paulo Extended Metropolitan Region: A Quest for Global Integration," The Annals of "Regonal Science 31:2 (September 2003), pp. 480, 485. 12 Gustavo Garza, "Global Economy, Metropolitan Dynamics and Urban Policies in Mexico," Cities 16:3 (1999), p. 154. 2015 according to one estimate) as its fulcrum.

continuous urban corridor stretching from Japan/North Korea to West Java."17 As it takes shape over the next century, this great dragon-lice sprawl of cities will constitute the physical and demographic culmination of millennia of urban evolution. The ascendency of coastal East Asia, in turn, will surely promote a Tokyo—Shanghai "world city" dipole to equality with the New York—London axis in the control of global flows of capital and information. The price of this new urban order, however, will be increasing inequality within and between cities of different sizes and econo ic specializations. Chinese experts, indeed, are currently debating whether the ancient income-and-development chasm between city and count yside is now being replaced by an equally fundamental gap between small, particularly inland cities and the giant coastal metropolises.18 However, the smaller cities are precisely where most of Asia will soon live.

Before the Second World War, most poor urban Latin Americans lived in inner-city rental housing, but in the late 1940s import-substitution industrialization spurred a dramatic wave of squatter invasion on the outskirts of Mexico City and other Latin American cities. In response to the burgeoning of shantytowns, authorities in several countries, ardently supported by the urban middle classes, launched massive crackdowns on informal settlement. Since many of the new urban immigrants were indigenistas or descendants of slaves, there was often a racial dimension to this "war on squatting." The postwar dictator of Venezuela, Marcos Perez Jimenez, was a particularly notorious enemy of informal housing. According to three UCLA authors: "[His] government's solution to the fem'wwas the bulldozer. On a given morning, policemen and trucks would arrive at the barrio-, an official would direct the loading of the residents' belongings onto the truck; policemen would deal with any objections; when the belongings and the residents had been removed to the new apartments, 12 Dorothy Solinger, Contesting Citizenship in Urban China: Peasant Migrants, the State and the Logc of the Market, Berkeley 1999, pp. 2, 41. 13 Table 1, Fabre, "La Chine," p. 196.

 

pages: 281 words: 86,657

The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt

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anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, McMansion, New Urbanism, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional

Many public officials and planning professionals were first introduced to the principles of New Urbanism through the vehicle of lectures and slide shows documenting the ugliness of suburban sprawl and the intelligence of urban design as practiced in many places in the preautomobile era. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Peter Calthorpe, and a handful of coconspirators carried these slides to countless audiences all over the country in the early and mid-1990s. As a model of their intentions, they offered Seaside, the residential community in north Florida that was designed by Duany and Plater-Zyberk in the 1980s, complete with sidewalks, front porches, a town square, and a whole array of other reminders of the old-fashioned, pedestrian-friendly American small town. The first half of the 1990s brought the New Urbanism a reputation and a following far beyond what its founders could have predicted.

This does not make newly wealthy inner-city neighborhoods unattractive, but it is a limitation they must face and a problem that no city has fully solved. Finally, we have learned from both the Financial District and Bushwick (as we did from Sheffield) that the relative importance of travel time compared to other commodities is increasing as the years go by. To repeat the succinct aphorism of the Bushwick real estate broker, “These days, convenience trumps aesthetics.” This is likely to become even more important as a new urban generation emerges. It is an idea we will continue to pursue in the remaining chapters of the book. CHAPTER FOUR THE NEW SUBURBIA IT MAY SEEM FAR-FETCHED to compare the Hispanic construction workers of modern suburban Atlanta to the peasants from southern France who built Baron Haussmann’s Parisian boulevards. But it reinforces an important point about the ways in which the American suburbs of the present mirror the European suburbs of 150 years ago: They are, in large part, the gateways to which newcomers come from far away to perform the entry-level work the society wishes to have performed.

They will need to have transit stations integrated into the very fabric of the developments. Whether this is possible, I don’t know. The suburban retrofits are, despite the number of examples that multiply every year, in only the earliest stages. But if urbanized suburbia is going to be the answer for this generation, or even a large part of it, density—somewhere—is the only real choice. DENSITY HAS BEEN, in many ways, the principal theme of New Urbanism, the movement that is now two decades old and has had a profound if not quite revolutionary impact on the shape of cities all over the Western world. In 1990, the New Urbanists were a small, close-knit coterie of architects and planners with a simple and heretical message: The automobile, and four decades of building homes, streets, and suburbs for the automobile’s convenience, had drained American places of the community and intimacy that human beings naturally desire.

 

Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer

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affirmative action, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional

Mollenkopf and Sonenshein, “The New Urban Politics of Integration,” in Bringing Outsiders In, 75. Patricia Pessar and Pamela Graham, “Dominicans: Transnational Identities and Local Politics,” in New Immigrants in New York, ed. Nancy Foster (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001), 264. Mollenkopf and Sonenshein, “The New Urban Politics of Integration,” in Bringing Outsiders In, 76. Ibid. While isolated examples of Black councillors elected in Los Angeles can be traced back to 1915, a consistent pattern of Blacks elected councillors started after 1965. John H. Laslett, “Historical Perspectives: Immigration and the Rise of a Distinctive Urban Region, 1900–1970,” in Ethnic Los Angeles, ed. Roger Waldinger and Mehdi Bozorgmehr (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1996), 68. Mollenkopf and Sonenshein, “The New Urban Politics of Integration,” in Bringing Outsiders In, 75.

John Mollenkopf and Raphael Sonenshein, “The New Urban Politics of Integration: A View from the Gateway Cities,” in Bringing Outsiders In, ed. Jennifer Hochschild and John Mollenkopf (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2009), 74–93. Good, “Patterns in Canada’s Immigrant-Receiving Cities,” 267–8. A narrow view of political incorporation refers only to how an immigrant or minority group finds a place in a political structure. For a comprehensive account see Jennifer Hochschild and John Mollenkopf. “Modeling Immigrant Political Incorporation,” in Bringing Outsiders In, 16. Jennifer Hochschild and John Mollenkopf, “Understanding Immigrant Political Incorporation through Comparison,” in Bringing Outsiders In, 303–4. This paragraph draws on John Mollenkopf and Raphael Sonenshein, “The New Urban Politics of Integration,” in Bringing Outsiders In, 75–7.

Even recent theories of urban structure use these variables as the basis of their models. The technological, economic, and social changes of the late twentieth century have made the urban structure malleable. Cities have spread out, suburbs have grown into veritable cities, shopping malls have realigned the commercial order, and the electronic revolution has drastically diminished the resistance of distance. These changes have realigned the urban structure and given rise to new urban theories. The Los Angeles school of urbanism projects Los Angeles as the model of a post-modern city, lacking a strong centre. It views the city to be cellular in structure, divided into autonomous places by function, culture, and location. It envisages the growth impulse to work from the outside to the central core, reversing the conventional view. The city is fragmented into functional-sociocultural districts, such as edge cities, ethnoburbs, theme parks, gated communities, corporate citadels, and command and control centres.4 Such a city has many cores and is held together by political institutions and infrastructure.

 

pages: 422 words: 113,525

Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand

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agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working-age population, Y2K

Everyone in the forty-nine houseboats on the dock passed each other on foot daily, trundling to and from the parking lot on shore. Everyone knew each other’s faces and voices and cats. It was a community, Calthorpe decided, because it was walkable. Building on that insight, Calthorpe became one of the founders of New Urbanism, along with Andrés Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and others. In 1985 he introduced the concept of walkability in “Cities Redefined,” an article in the Whole Earth Review. Since then, New Urbanism has become the dominant force in city planning, promoting high density, mixed use, walkability, mass transit, eclectic design, and regionalism. It drew one of its major ideas from a squatter community. There are a lot more ideas where that one came from. For instance, shopping areas could be more like the lanes in squatter cities, with a dense interplay of retail and services—one-chair barbershops and three-seat bars interspersed with the clothes racks and fruit tables.

It’s a place where your caste doesn’t matter, where a woman can dine alone at a restaurant without harassment, and where you can marry the person of your choice. For the young person in an Indian village, the call of Mumbai isn’t just about money. It’s also about freedom. By 2004 I knew something important was up with the rampant urbanization of the developing world, but I couldn’t find much in the way of ground truth about it until the publication of Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, a New Urban World, by journalist Robert Neuwirth. His research strategy was to learn the relevant language and then live for months as a slum resident—in Rocinha (one of seven hundred favelas in Rio de Janeiro), in Kibera (a squatter city of 1 million outside Nairobi), in the Sanjay Gandhi Nagar neighborhood of Mumbai, and in Sultanbeyli, a now fully developed squatter city of 300,000 with a seven-story city hall, outside Istanbul.

Chances are you’ve come across Sausalito waterfront creativity in the writings of Annie Lamott, Alan Watts, Paul Hawken, or Green architect Sim Van Der Ryn; in the cartoons of Shel Silverstein or Phil Frank; in Otis Redding’s “Sittin’ on the Dock of the Bay”; in the Antenna Theater- produced Audio Tours that guide you around the world’s museums and historic sites; in the biological paintings of Isabella Kirkland; and in any town or city reshaped by what is called New Urbanism. That last item is my example. • In 1983, architect Peter Calthorpe gave up on San Francisco, where he had tried and failed to organize neighborhood communities, and moved to a houseboat on the end of South Forty Dock, where I live. He found he was in a place that had the densest housing in California, where no one locked their doors—where most of the doors didn’t even have locks. Without trying, it was an intense, proud community.

 

pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

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3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Yogi Berra

It was six years ago to the week, he noted absently, as if remembering an old friend’s birthday, that construction on Tellinghuisen’s house had begun. We got to talking about what made this place tick and, by extension, how one would go about building it anew someplace else. It was something he’d thought about before briefing visting members of Parliament on how they might go about rehabbing Heathrow. “ ‘New Urbanism’ is a funny term, because it’s really the old urbanism,” he said. “Peter [Calthorpe] would tell you you can have New Urbanism anywhere.” And so would Gleason’s boss, Jon Ratner. The youngest member of the Ratner clan is arguably its most radical. Having started work at Stapleton in his twenties, he’d since risen to the post of director of sustainability, in charge of the firm’s triple bottom line: “people, planet, and profit.” “We’re hoping to use the ingenuity of the private sector and the fiscal resources of the public one to build a new vision for what a city can be,” he told me.

After the city agreed to rezone the land, the firm promised to build the downtown Mesa never had, an exercise in “twenty-first-century desert urbanism”—New Urbanism with stucco flourishes. The plan depends on Gateway living up to its name and winning flights from the region’s hub, Phoenix–Sky Harbor. Impressed by their ambitions, The Economist dubbed their aerotropolis the “city of the future” and name-checked John Kasarda as its architect. We want to live near airports, even if we don’t care to admit it—even to ourselves. Stapleton, Reunion, and the Mesas offer compelling evidence. We flock to them because that’s where the jobs are, next door or at the end of a flight. So how do we build a better aerotropolis than the ones we have now? One of the best tools in our kit is something called “transit oriented development,” an idea coined by Peter Calthorpe the same year he helped found the Congress for the New Urbanism. The name says it all: neighborhoods and cities built along the splines of public transit.

., 185 New Silk Road, 24, 315–17; Africa as terminus for, 319; Chinese cities built along, 360; Dubai as terminus on, 297; as example of Jevons Paradox, 329; SAM traders on, 319–21 New Songdo City, 3–6, 10, 23, 353–58, 411; as aerotropolis template, 5, 354, 357; airport links to, 355;carbon footprint of, 357; design of, 355;as green city, 4, 356–57; master plan for, 354–57; popularity of, 357; as ’smart’ city, 357; as Western style city, 355 New Suburbanism, as illustrated by Reunion, 140–44 New Urbanism, Detroit as testcase for, 195–96 New York, N.Y.: carbon footprint of residents in, 356; cities in style of, 20–21 NextGen traffic control system, 352 Nigeria, 321 Nilekani, Nandan, 281–82, 283 NIMBY groups, 29 noise pollution: in areas around airports, 28–29, 86, 187–88; designs to reduce, 350; lawsuits regarding, 29 Nong Ngu Hao, 245 North Carolina, University of, 7, 8 Northrup, Jack, 27 Northrup Grumman, 27, 40 “nowhere,” invention of, 96–98 Obama, Barack, 18; on China’s infrastructure spending, 388; on health care reforms, 268; on new economic foundations, 37; new urban vision of, 194–95 Observer, The, 343 O’Donnell, Robert, 137 Ofa, Ilaiasi, 92, 129 O’Hare Modernization Program (OMP), 49–52; opposition to, 51 oil: consumed by transport, 341–42; urbanization dependent on, 12, 21; from whaling, 327 oil consumption, global rate of, 342 oil prices, 331, 334, 340–41 oil shocks, 341–42 Okay Airways, 403, 404–406, 407–408 Okazaki, Akira, 226 O’Leary, Michael, 335 Olympics, Beijing, 386, 406 Omnivore’s Dilemma, The (Pollan), 232 One Laptop Per Child, 370 Open Skies agreement, 43–44, 282, 402–403, 433 opium wars, 385 Orange County, Calif., 35–37; opposition to airport expansion in, 36–37 outsourcing: boom in India, 276; in floral industry, 211; GE as leader in, 202–203; in global food chains, 236–38 Owen, David, 356–57 Pacific Rim, economic development in, 244 Packard, David, 365 Pakistan, Chinese construction of cities and airports in, 360, 400 Palmdale, Calif., 31 Panyarachun, Anand, 246 Park, Robert E., 424 Patel, Praful, 282–84; Inidian aviation overhauled by, 429 Patterson, L.

 

pages: 537 words: 200,923

City: Urbanism and Its End by Douglas W. Rae

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agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business climate, City Beautiful movement, complexity theory, desegregation, edge city, ghettoisation, income per capita, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, manufacturing employment, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Works Progress Administration

The notion of urbanism provides a useful perspective for critical study of such hierarchies. Third, the New Urbanism school of design is among the most important movements afoot in our current debate on the future of American city life.72 This movement harks back to design patterns from what I am calling the urbanist era (in truth, that is, the old urbanism), and does so for reasons having everything to do with the desire to recapture urbanism’s power to order and govern social space humanely and well. New Urbanist designs encourage public interaction, engagement, and grounded living through features such as open porches, which look very like features found in abundance in houses from about 1910. But design alone is apt not to suffice in isolation from other features. The extent to which the New Urbanism’s design strategy can be integrated with cultural, economic, and governmental requirements for success in real city neighborhoods remains largely for the future to decide.

This dramatic assertion of City Hall’s authority met with summary rejection in court, and the strike precipitated the loss of the city’s major remaining industrial base. I carry a few major strands of economic and social and political change right up to the present in order to show what is meant by urbanism’s ending. The third and last resonance of the term “urbanism” attaches to the vibrant recent movement that announced itself as the New Urbanism. Centering especially on the Miami design studio of Andres Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, this movement seeks to recapture the look, feel, and function of a more humane era. New Urbanist design encourages front porches, carefully rendered sidewalks, and scores of other details that evoke what this movement means by “urxviii P R E F A C E banism.” The movement presents the intriguing hope that some of the strengths I find in the old urbanism may live again.

It was, however, a strong signal, as the city’s population share fell from about 80 percent to just over 60 percent. More ominously, the city’s share of the regional grand list dropped from almost 85 percent to just over 61 percent. The suburban architecture of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries is quite often handsome, and the best of it has strong appeal to this day (figures 7.4 and 7.5). At least superficially, it often seems to define the housing ideal of the New Urbanism.32 The numbing sameness of later tract development is often avoided, and the appeal to essentially urban sensibilities is very strong. GROCERY RETAILING, 1913–50 The retail grocery of Frank Rice’s day was remarkable for three reasons: its being grounded in a specific urban neighborhood market, its role as an element of social organization in even the smallest neighborhoods, and its economic survival in so localized and competitive a setting.

 

pages: 717 words: 150,288

Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham

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airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, McMansion, megacity, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight

New York: Berg, 2003, 26. 76 Jean Servielle, ‘Cities and War’, Doctrine 3, 2004, 43–44. 77 Keith Dickson, ‘The War on Terror: Cities as the Strategic High Ground’, unpublished paper, 2002. 78 Defense Intelligence Reference Document (DIRC), The Urban Century: Developing World Urban Trends and Possible Factors Affecting Military Operations, MCIA-1586–003-9, Quantico, VA: United States Marine Corps, 1997, 11. 79 Kelly Houlgate, ‘Urban Warfare Transforms the Corps’, The Naval Institute: Proceedings, November 2004, available at www.military.com. 80 See Nathan Canestaro, ‘Homeland Defense: Another Nail in the Coffin for Posse Comitatus’, Washington University Journal of Law & Policy 12, 2003, 99–144. 81 See Phil Boyle, ‘Olympian Security Systems: Guarding the Games or Guarding Consumerism?’, Journal for the Arts, Sciences, and Technology 3: 2, 2005, 12–17. 82 Deborah Cowen, ‘National Soldiers and the War on Cities’, Theory and Event 10: 2, 2007, 1. 83 See, for example, Siobhan Gorman, ‘Satellite-Surveillance Program to Begin Despite Privacy Concerns’, Wall Street Journal, 1 October 2008. 84 Max Manwaring, Street Gangs: The New Urban Insurgency, Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2005 available at www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army mil. 85 David Murakami Wood and Jonathan Coaffee, ‘Security Is Coming Home: Rethinking Scale and Constructing Resilience in the Global Urban Response to Terrorist Risk, International Relations 20:4, 2006, 503. 86 Eyal Weizman, ‘Lethal theory’, LOG Magazine, April 2005, 53. 87 Jeremy Packer, ‘Becoming Bombs: Mobilizing Mobility in the War of Terror’, Cultural Studies 20: 4–5, 2006, 378. 88 The US Posse Comitas act, for example, which explicitly forbade the domestic deployment of US troops within the US mainland.

Maybe they cling to religion there.’54 Such a discourse camouflages the way in which the Republican Party has long been dominated by a cabal of billionaires, CEOs, and corporate and military lobbyists who have successfully shaped policy to subsidize their class interests while dramatically undermining services and subsidies for America’s working and lower-middle classes. VOICES OF THE CITY (JOURNAL) A flick through the pages of the United States’ leading ‘new urban right’ magazine the City Journal, published by the Manhattan Institute, intellectual architects of both George W. Bush’s neoconservatism and Giuliani’s right-wing ‘counter-revolution’ in 1990s New York, is telling.55 Celebrations of positive economic, cultural, political or social aspects of metropolitan mixing are absent here. Instead, there are streams of anti-urban invective highlighting the purported failures, threats, pathologies and vulnerabilities of the nation’s central metropolitan areas.

Eyal Weizman, for instance, has shown how certain Israeli generals have appropriated the radical, post-structuralist writings of the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze to fashion new military doctrine for taking and controlling the labyrinthine spaces of Palestinian refugee camps.102 Here, writes Weizman, ‘contemporary urban warfare plays itself out within a constructed, real or imaginary architecture, and through the destruction, construction, reorganization, and subversion of space’.103 By breaking through the linked walls of entire towns and thus creating paths, the Israeli military seeks to ‘create operational “space as if it had no borders”, neutralizing the advantages accorded by urban terrain to opponents of occupation’.104 Many of the new urban-warfare techniques used by state militaries – which Goonewardena and Kipfer label ‘colonization without occupation – are imitations of techniques of urban resistance used against state militaries in earlier centuries. ‘This non-linear, poly-nucleated and anti-hierarchical strategy of combat in urban areas’, they point out, ‘in fact plagiarises the tactics of the defenders of the Paris Commune, Stalingrad and the Kasbahs of Algiers, Jenin and Nablus’.105 Techniques of urban militarism and urbicidal violence serve to discipline or displace dissent and resistance.

 

pages: 369 words: 94,588

The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce

He could do this in part because of new building technologies (iron and glass construction, gas lighting and the like) and new forms of organisation (the omnibus companies and the department stores). But he also needed new financial institutions and debt instruments (the Crédit Mobilier and Immobilier). He helped resolve the capital surplus disposal problem in effect by setting up a Keynesian-style system of debt-financed infrastructural urban improvements. All of this entailed the co-evolution of a new urban way of life and a new kind of urban persona. Paris became ‘the city of light’, the great centre of consumption, tourism and pleasure. The cafés, the department stores (also brilliantly described in another Zola novel, The Ladies’ Paradise (1883)), the fashion industry, the grand expositions, the opera and the spectacle of court life all played their part in creating new profit opportunities through consumerism.

Shopping malls, multiplexes and box stores proliferate (the production of each has become big business), as do fast food and artisanal market places, boutique cultures, coffee shops, and the like. And it is not only in the advanced capitalist countries where this style of urbanisation can be found – you will find it in Buenos Aires, Sao Paulo and Mumbai as well as in almost every Asian city you can think of. Even the incoherent, bland and monotonous suburban tract development that continues to dominate in many parts of the world now gets its antidote through a ‘new urbanism’ movement that touts the sale of community (supposedly intimate and secure as well as often gated) and a supposedly ‘sustainable’ boutique lifestyle as a developer product to fulfil urban dreams. The impacts on political subjectivity have been huge. This is a world in which the neoliberal ethic of intense possessive individualism and financial opportunism has become the template for human personality socialisation.

The darker side of surplus absorption through urban transformation entails, however, repeated bouts of urban restructuring through ‘creative destruction’. This highlights the significance of crises as moments of urban restructuring. It has a class dimension since it is usually the poor, the underprivileged and those marginalised from political power that suffer primarily from this process. Violence is often required to make the new urban geography out of the wreckage of the old. Haussmann tore through the old Parisian slums, using powers of expropriation for supposedly public benefit, doing so in the name of civic improvement, environmental restoration and urban renovation. He deliberately engineered the removal of much of the working class and other unruly elements, along with insalubrious industries, from Paris’s city centre, where they constituted a threat to public order, public health and, of course, political power.

 

pages: 252 words: 13,581

Cape Town After Apartheid: Crime and Governance in the Divided City by Tony Roshan Samara

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conceptual framework, deglobalization, ghettoisation, global village, illegal immigration, late capitalism, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, structural adjustment programs, unemployed young men, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, working poor

Neoliberal urban governance is the result of bundling these related security and development agendas into a coherent governance ideology and related set of practices in which so-called free markets provide guiding principles and reference points for ordering urban life. The situation in Cape Town mirrors that in other prominent cities in South Africa and beyond. In these cities, distinct interests have converged to produce a somewhat new urban reality in which pursuit of “world city” status establishes the basic constraints and possibilities for urban development.7 Cities in many countries have been cut loose from receding social welfare states—where one existed at all—and have been left to make their own way, so to speak, in the global economy as part of a neoliberal growth strategy pioneered in North America in the 1970s, marked by a sharpening of intercity competition for resources.

For those youth who do come into conflict with the law, either because they have committed a crime or because they are falsely arrested, the criminal justice system only exposes them to another round of trauma before they are released. The context in which so many children are brought into contact with the criminal justice system, or simply confronted with the force of urban security structures, is no longer racial apartheid, but a form of security governance that is rooted in a new urban politics, in which the transgressive presence of black youth remains central. In the next section we look at how neoliberal governance through urban revitalization of the city’s core contributes to this criminalization of black youth. Securing the Core: Street Children and Moral Panic in the Central Business District The city government of Cape Town has openly endorsed a market-driven approach to economic growth since at least the mid-1990s, over the objections of many urban residents and community organizations, and this commitment exercises a profound influence on urban governance.

We can therefore expect to see continual increases in public and private resources being channeled into forms of social control to fill the gaps left by ill-conceived renewal strategies and contain the poor within the peripheries of developed urban cores. By evoking the emotional issue of crime, a very real problem for Cape Town, an urban renewal agenda that serves a very narrow slice of the city’s population can introduce this new urban segregation under the guise of development. The response to street children in the CBD constitutes a moral panic that rearticulates race and class tensions in terms of threats to order and mobilizes resources (emotional, organizational, and financial) to confront these threats. That public and private security forces become central to the city’s response is far from surprising given that even under the best of circumstances, insufficient time has passed to overcome patterns that are more than a century old.

 

pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, Zipcar

In 1993 Duany, Plater-Zyberk, and a group of like-minded architects and planners came together to wage war against the rules and practices that had produced sprawl. They called their movement the Congress for the New Urbanism—the name a cheeky reference and reaction to the CIAM—Congrès Internationaux d’architecture moderne—the fraternity formed by Le Corbusier and other European modernists in 1928. The New Urbanists were determined to undo the modernists’ work. They wrote a manifesto calling for compact, mixed-use, mixed-income neighborhoods of walkable street networks, with transit and attractive public spaces, all framed by buildings that responded to the local culture and climate. The Congress for the New Urbanism has now grown into a powerful movement with thousands of members. Their ideas, which incorporate much of what Jane Jacobs and Christopher Alexander and Jan Gehl first proposed decades ago, have become accepted thinking among new generations of city planners.

This is the system that some have come to call sprawl. I will call it the dispersed city, for the characteristic that defines almost every aspect of it. While the world’s architectural critics and so-called thought leaders tend to focus their attention on iconic structures and rare designs, the journey to the happy city must begin out here, in the landscape of the infinitely repeated form, on the plains of dispersal. For every new urban plaza, starchitect-designed tower, or sleek new light-rail network, there are a hundred thousand cul-de-sacs out in the dispersed city. This is the environment that, more than any other, defines how Americans and millions of people in wealthy cities across the globe move, live, work, play, and perceive the world, and how millions more will live if cities return to the trajectory they were on before the crash.

The region came to exhibit a classic case of what transportation analysts call induced traffic, a phenomenon in which new highway lanes invariably clog up with hundreds of thousands of cars driven by new drivers on their way to new neighborhoods fed by new road capacity, a tendency that creates entirely new traffic jams faster than the time it takes to finish paying off a new car.* The average time it takes for new urban highway capacity to fill up with new demand? Five to six years. Now, although it has bloated to twelve lanes in many sections, Atlanta’s Perimeter still grinds to a standstill during peak hours.* The driver who once prayed for congestion-easing highway lanes and got them is still stuck in traffic. Through the windshield view of presentism, he may have forgotten the futility of his old wish for more road space, and now he might well demand that engineers build a few more lanes to solve the problem.

 

pages: 422 words: 131,666

Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff

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affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional

Birkdale was meant to serve as an antidote to the dislocation of the regular suburbs, and an application of a theory known as New Urbanism to the real world. The approach was first pioneered by the urbanist Jane Jacobs, a vocal critic of the land-use policies of the 1950s. Jacobs believed that the common practice of separating residences from businesses dislocated people from the real, vibrant spaces of more naturally developed towns and destroyed any opportunity for community. She often held up Manhattan’s Greenwich Village as an example of a thriving urban community. Its confusing streets exemplified the delightfully messy mixed use she so admired. Keeping stores and workshops adjacent to schools and homes allows for random interactions between people and keeps the sidewalks busy and safe late into the night. It’s hard to plan a town from scratch according to the principles of New Urbanism. Greenwich Village happened over a couple of centuries.

You can’t just open part of a town when that town is supposed to seem like a preexisting “destination,” whose charm and attraction is based on its vibrancy and cohesiveness. The whole place needed to be activated at the same moment—every store leased, and as many apartments as possible rented in advance. Only then could the ribbon be cut, and Birkdale set into motion. Dunning is the first to admit that he bent the rules of New Urban-ism to fit the realities of his development situation. “Strict New Urbanism is dogmatically sustainable and ecologically friendly development. But there are market forces, developer mind-sets, retail mind-sets, and economic realities that don’t always merge easily with what we’d really like to happen,” he says. While Dunning first conceived Birkdale as a real residential community with a few small shops, its financiers required a level of funding that only big anchor stores could provide.

Towns like Birkdale—and there are a few dozen now in full swing—refocus people on how they’re living instead of just where they’re getting, and create destinations off the highway where the most jaded automotive suburbanites can get a taste of what it’s like to walk around outside with other people. Isn’t reconnecting to a fake town better than not connecting at all? Although the New Urbanism aesthete will deride the people of Birkdale for responding to the cues embedded in its absolutely planned and artificial re-creation of small-town life, where does such orthodoxy get us? Is Birkdale just a cynical application of watered-down New Urbanism to make the Gap look and feel more like a local business? Or does it help transform the otherwise alienating landscape of the suburbs into a healthier, more potentially social setting? Perhaps it is the latter. But these master-planned faux villages would stand no chance at all of endearing themselves to people who weren’t already, and by design, disconnected and alienated from the places where they live.

 

pages: 399 words: 116,828

When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor by William Julius Wilson

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affirmative action, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deliberate practice, desegregation, Donald Trump, edge city, ending welfare as we know it, full employment, George Gilder, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, income inequality, informal economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, school choice, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

., New York, in 1996. The Library of Congress has cataloged the Knopf edition as follows: Wilson, William J., [date] When work disappears : the world of the new urban poor / William Julius Wilson.—first ed. p. cm. 1. Urban poor—United States. 2. Afro-Americans—Employment. 3. Inner cities—United States. 1. Title HV4045.W553 1996 362.′0973′091732—dc20 96–11803 eISBN: 978-0-307-79469-7 Random House Web address: http://www.randomhouse.com/ v3.1 To Beverly CONTENTS Cover About the Author Other Books by This Author Title Page Copyright Dedication ACKNOWLEDGMENTS INTRODUCTION PART I THE NEW URBAN POVERTY CHAPTER 1 From Institutional to Jobless Ghettos CHAPTER 2 Societal Changes and Vulnerable Neighborhoods CHAPTER 3 Ghetto-Related Behavior and the Structure of Opportunity CHAPTER 4 The Fading Inner-City Family CHAPTER 5 The Meaning and Significance of Race: Employers and Inner-City Workers PART 2 THE SOCIAL POLICY CHALLENGE CHAPTER 6 The American Belief System Concerning Poverty and Welfare CHAPTER 7 Racial Antagonisms and Race-Based Social Policy CHAPTER 8 A Broader Vision: Social Policy Options in Cross-National Perspective APPENDIXES A.

The third study is a 1989–90 survey of a representative sample of black mothers and up to two of their adolescent children (ages 11 to 16) in working- and middle-class neighborhoods and high-poverty neighborhoods. The respondents from the households in the high-poverty neighborhoods included 383 mothers and 614 youths. Those from the households in the working- and middle-class neighborhoods were represented by 163 mothers and 273 youths. I have integrated the data from these three studies with census-type information and relevant findings from the research of other scholars. PART I THE NEW URBAN POVERTY CHAPTER 1 From Institutional to Jobless Ghettos An elderly woman who has lived in one inner-city neighborhood on the South Side of Chicago for more than forty years reflected: I’ve been here since March 21, 1953. When I moved in, the neighborhood was intact. It was intact with homes, beautiful homes, mini mansions, with stores, laundromats, with cleaners, with Chinese [cleaners].

Of course, they had no way of anticipating the rapid social and economic deterioration of communities like Bronzeville that would begin in the next decade. The most fundamental difference between today’s inner-city neighborhoods and those studied by Drake and Cayton is the much higher levels of joblessness. Indeed, there is a new poverty in our nation’s metropolises that has consequences for a range of issues relating to the quality of life in urban areas, including race relations. By “the new urban poverty,” I mean poor, segregated neighborhoods in which a substantial majority of individual adults are either unemployed or have dropped out of the labor force altogether. For example, in 1990 only one in three adults ages 16 and over in the twelve Chicago community areas with ghetto poverty rates held a job in a typical week of the year. Each of these community areas, located on the South and West Sides of the city, is overwhelmingly black.

 

pages: 532 words: 155,470

One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness

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active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War

Miriam van Bree, a member of the Dutch Cyclists Union (Fietsersbond), underscores this point in an interview from 2005: “Everyone thinks the netherlands is a cycling paradise, but if we didn’t put bikes on the agenda they’d be forgotten. it’s natural to cycle, but it’s not natural to make policy.”53 The provo sought to reverse this trend in the midst of its progression by politicizing both the automobile and the entire ideological framework it felt they symbolized. Former situationist architect and amsterdam native Constant nieuwenhuys (known simply as Constant) greatly influenced the provo’s proto- situationist critique of urbanism; Henri lefebvre even referred to him as one of the primary instigators of the youth movement.54 in his essay “new Urbanism,” published in Provo (no. 9), Constant argues that the use of urban space as a conduit for automobiles destroys the possibilities for authentic, non-consumer spaces: Traffic’s wholesale invasion of social space has led, almost imperceptibly, to violation of the most fundamental human rights. The traffic code has degraded the individual who proceeds by the only natural means of locomotion to the rank of “pedestrian,” and has curtailed his freedom of movement to such an extent that it now amounts to less than that of a vehicle.

This is an implicit acknowledgement that high-speed traffic is king of the road.55 Constant’s position is significant not only because he challenged the automobile as a usurper of social/material space but also because he revived and recontextualized the situationist critique in the struggle for sustainable transportation. The potentially practical applications of Schimmelpenninck’s bicycle plan and Constant’s “new Urbanism” paradigm were nonetheless ruthlessly attacked by the situationists, who saw the provo as an ineffectual youth uprising lacking a revolutionary program: “There is a modern revolution, and one of its bases could be the provos—but only without their leaders and ideology. if they want to change the world, they must get rid of these who are content to paint it white.”56 Despite the situationists’ scathing criticism— which they conveniently reserved for everyone except themselves—the provo effectively politicized the bicycle as a symbol of resistance against car culture, situating the White Bicycle plan within a radical critique of capitalism, public space, and environmental pollution. at a pragmatic level, the provo simultaneously pioneered the first public-use bicycle program in amsterdam, a model since replicated in European cities like Copenhagen (Denmark), Milan (italy), Helsinki (Finland), and rennes (France). in the United States, activists and bike enthusiasts similarly embraced the provo philosophy by constructing yellow bikes, pink bikes, checkered bikes, and green bikes out of salvaged materials, leaving them on the streets for anyone to use.57 While these programs have been largely unsuccessful due to bike theft and vandalism, their appearance in cities like portland, Minneapolis–St. paul (Minnesota), Boulder (Colorado), Olympia (Washington), austin (Texas), and princeton (new Jersey) inspired a new generation of cyclists and simultaneously introduced americans to the very idea of public bike-sharing programs that have the potential to become a vibrant part of the urban transportation schema in the United States.58 Ecotactiques and Anti-automobile Shows The provo demonstrated how bicycles could be symbolically and pragmatically incorporated into public protests as well as a sustained critique of car culture. in doing so, it pointed to the bicycle as a utopian mode of transportation, one ideally suited for a more egalitarian and ecologically sustainable society.

roelof Wittink, “planning for Cycling Supports road Safety,” in Sustainable Transport: Planning for Walking and Cycling in Urban Environments, ed. rodney Tolley (Cambridge, UK: Woodhead, 2003), 175. Dara Colwell, “riding to the rescue,” Village Voice, august 29, 2005. Kristin ross and Henri lefebvre, “lefebvre on the Situationists: an interview,” October 79 (1997): 71. Constant nieuwenhuys, “nieuw Urbanisme,” translated as “new Urbanism,” in BAMN, 2–6 (originally published in Provokatie, no. 9 [1966]). Situationist international with students at the University of Strasbourg, “On the poverty of Student life,” in Situationist International Anthology, ed. Ken Knabb (Berkeley, Ca: Bureau of public Secrets, 1981), 328 (originally published in paris in 1966). Emphasis is my own. in the same essay, the Si lambasts the provo’s conceptualization of the provotariat as a “politico-artistic salad knocked up from the leftovers of a feast they had never known.”

 

pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

Like the earlier European experience of industrialisation, dispossessed rural workers have migrated to urban areas to find jobs. And in Europe, too, this process sometimes led to slum-dwelling and destitution for the new urban proletariat.98 But this is where the similarities end, as in Europe the transition involved creating sufficient numbers of jobs, the emergence of a strong industrial working class, and the eventual provision of housing for migrants.99 Under conditions of postcolonial development, this narrative has been broken. Rather than a scarcity of labour, recent industrialisation has occurred in the context of a large and global labour force.100 The result has been little development of anything resembling a traditional working class, continually weak job prospects and a lack of adequate housing.101 New urban migrants have been left in a permanent state of transition between peasantry and proletarianisation, and sometimes in seasonal circulation between rural existence and urban poverty.102 Slums and other improvised housing therefore represent a dual expulsion from the land and from the formal economy.103 This surplus humanity, having been deprived of its traditional means of subsistence yet left without employment, has been forced to create its own non-capitalist subsistence economies.

Baptist, Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism (New York: Basic Books, 2014); Silvia Federici, ‘Wages Against Housework’, in Revolution at Point Zero: Housework, Reproduction, and Feminist Struggle (Oakland, CA: PM Press, 2012). 32.In terms of global unemployment, women have faced the brunt of the crisis in recent years. ILO, World Employment and Social Outlook: The Changing Nature of Jobs (Geneva: International Labour Organization, 2015), p. 18. 33.For example, black males in the United States were particularly affected by the automation and outsourcing of manufacturing. William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Vintage Books, 1997), pp. 29–31. 34.Michael McIntyre, ‘Race, Surplus Population, and the Marxist Theory of Imperialism’, Antipode 43:5 (2011), p. 1500–2. 35.These draw broadly upon the divisions Marx drew between the floating/reserve army, latent and stagnant, but are here offered as an updating of his historical example. 36.Gary Fields, Working Hard, Working Poor: A Global Journey (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012), p. 46. 37.This is what Kalyan Sanyal describes as ‘need economies’.

, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Spring 2014. 86.Loïc Wacquant, ‘The Rise of Advanced Marginality: Notes on Its Nature and Implications’, Acta Sociologica 39: 2 (1996), p. 125; Richard Florida, Zara Matheson, Patrick Adler and Taylor Brydges, The Divided City and the Shape of the New Metropolis, Martin Prosperity Institute, 2014, at martinprosperity.org. 87.William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Vintage Books, 1997), p. 15. 88.Loïc Wacquant, ‘Class, Race and Hyperincarceration in Revanchist America’, Socialism and Democracy 28: 3 (2014), p. 46. 89.Frances Fox Piven and Richard Cloward, Poor People’s Movements: Why They Succeed, How They Fail (New York: Random House, 1988), p. 191. 90.Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow (New York: New Press, 2012), p. 218. 91.The number of black males working in manufacturing was nearly cut in half between 1973 and 1987.

 

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Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

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1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, means of production, megacity, megastructure, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks

Their hyperfunctional connectivity over a plane vertically separated above or below the traditional street, she argues, works to ‘create an extreme form of stratification in a context better suited for mixture, the integration of people from all different races and classes.’21 Poor urban minorities, Terranova writes, have often been relegated to residualised and exteriorised street levels ‘where retail has tended to languish and reserving the walkway system for white-collar workers.’ Conversely, the world within the interior complexes is, at best, private/public space organised overwhelmingly around the imperatives of consumption. The move from outside to inside is a passage between worlds. ‘Step from the wind and cold on the street outside into the new urban realm’, invites architecture critic Trevor Boddy. ‘As the glass doors firmly close, the mental realm changes. We are inside, contained, separate, part of the system, a consumer, a pursuer, a cruiser.’22 There is certainly strong evidence that interior cities in North America often ‘accommod[ate] those activities (and people) that can be commercially exploited, expelling the rest.’23 In many cities, the raised up (or subterranean) system has become the dominant means for pedestrians to move around the downtown area.

It is also particularly thick beneath old industrial cities which have experienced many cycles of construction and destruction. The cycle here is as old as urbanisation itself, although the scale of the processes involved has multiplied massively in the last two centuries. Fire, disaster, war, replanning, obsolescence, ruination or simply the desire for improvement leads to the demolition or destruction of buildings or infrastructure, or simply to their absorption into a higher level of ground, aided by gravity. New urban soils are gradually created from ‘trash, construction debris, coal ash, dredged sediments, petrochemical contamination, green lawns, decomposing bodies, and rock ballast.’6 Such accretions, in turn, are flattened to create a new, raised, surface level, which then becomes the building surface and the new ‘ground’ level. Over centuries, large cities thus literally rise up on ground of their own making.

By this date, a body of material weighing 200 times as much as the Empire State Building – that’s 9 kg for very person on Earth – will be dumped on the fringes of coastal cities, largely in China, Latin America, the Caribbean and Africa, to be dismantled and processed by hand, by armies of poor labourers, often in appalling conditions. Once the valuable metals and parts are removed the rest will sediment itself into new urban ground.19 The ‘Archaeosphere’ The science of geology has evolved to study the stratigraphic accumulation of rocks and materials through ‘natural’ processes. Archaeology, by contrast, developed to understand the evolution of human societies through their preserved material legacies in the ground. Is manufactured ground the preserve, then, of the geologist or the archaeologist? Well, both: the proliferation of artificial ground is drawing the two disciplines into unprecedented collaboration.

 

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The Empathic Civilization: The Race to Global Consciousness in a World in Crisis by Jeremy Rifkin

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, planetary scale, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey

Adams of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, in their landmark paper on the subject, published in the journal Science more than a half-century ago, concluded that[p]robably there is no historical event of this magnitude for which a single explanation is adequate, but that growing soil salinity played an important part in the breakup of Sumerian civilization seems beyond question.71 It should be noted that increasing salinity of soil led to massive crop failures and a similar entropy crisis in the Indus Valley 4,000 years ago.72 Likewise, archaeologists have found evidence of soil salinity leading to catastrophic crop failure and the abandonment of territory in the ancient Mayan hydraulic civilization in Central America.73 In point of fact, salinization of soil and entropic buildup have been a precipitating factor in the weakening and collapse of complex hydraulic civilizations throughout history, reaffirming the inescapable relationship between increasing energy throughput and a rising entropy debt.74 ALL OF THE GREAT axial movements stressed the importance of the Golden Rule. But it was in Rome that the full impact of the new dictum came to the fore with the rise of a new urban religious sect that would be known as Christianity. The early Christian eschatology represented both the final flowering of the empathic surge of ancient theological times and the bridge to the modern era of humanism and the secularization of empathic consciousness. SEVEN COSMOPOLITAN ROME AND THE RISE OF URBAN CHRISTIANITY THE ROMAN EMPIRE represents the “high watermark” for ancient hydraulic civilizations.

They offered a spiritual universalism, but only by becoming a part of the Jewish nation. The Romans, by contrast, offered a political and judicial universalism, but their civic gods were too cold and distant to address the angst of an increasingly individualized Roman population in search of personal identification within a larger cosmic story. Neither the Jews nor the cult of the Roman pantheon of gods could provide the new urban population of Rome the very personal spiritual succor they so desperately craved. Rome was ready for the Christian story. Erich Kahler eloquently sums up the historic significance of the rise of Christianity in Rome in the first three centuries of the AD era. The fundamental innovation of this whole epoch is that the individual stands forth, the lonely private individual, with all his ancestral, tribal bonds broken off, the earthly individual standing on his own feet, under the vast sky of universality.

., in his book The Making of the Modern Mind, notes that the reverse flow back from the countryside to the newly emerging towns, with their own unique “vows and obligations,” was to have a profound impact on the whole future course of history. He writes:The rise of the urban civilization, first primarily commercial and later more and more industrial, was the outstanding social force in the later Middle Ages; from it can be traced practically everything that, beginning with the renaissance . . . created modern times.1 The new urban civilization brought with it an empathic surge that would take European consciousness to new heights. The late medieval empathic surge began with a technological revolution in agriculture and a novel harnessing of biological and inanimate energy. The introduction of the horse into agriculture greatly increased agricultural productivity. While draught horses were used in a very limited way as far back as antiquity, it wasn’t until the invention of the shoulder harness, iron horseshoes, and the harnessing of horses, one behind the other, that horses could be effectively utilized for plowing and other chores.

 

pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells

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Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, British Empire, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, planetary scale, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl

On the other hand, the emphasis on interactivity between places breaks up spatial patterns of behavior into a fluid network of exchanges that underlies the emergence of a new kind of space, the space of flows. On both counts, I must tighten the analysis and raise it to a more theoretical level. The Transformation of Urban Form: the Informational City The Information Age is ushering in a new urban form, the informational city. Yet, as the industrial city was not a worldwide replica of Manchester, the emerging informational city will not copy Silicon Valley, let alone Los Angeles. On the other hand, as in the industrial era, in spite of the extraordinary diversity of cultural and physical contexts there are some fundamental common features in the transcultural development of the informational city.

America’s last suburban frontier The image of a homogeneous, endless suburban/ex-urban sprawl as the city of the future is belied even by its unwilling model, Los Angeles, whose contradictory complexity is revealed by Mike Davis’s marvelous City of Quartz.60 Yet it does evoke a powerful trend in the relentless waves of suburban development in the American metropolis, West and South as well as North and East, toward the end of the millennium. Joel Garreau has captured the similarities of this spatial model across America in his journalistic account of the rise of Edge City, as the core of the new urbanization process. He empirically defines Edge City by the combination of five criteria: Edge City is any place that: (a) Has five million square feet or more of leasable office space – the work place of the Information Age… (b) Has 600,000 square feet or more of leasable retail space… (c) Has more jobs than bedrooms (d) Is perceived by the population as one place… (e) Was nothing like ‘city’ as recently as thirty years ago.61 He reports the mushrooming of such places around Boston, New Jersey, Detroit, Atlanta, Phoenix, Texas, southern California, San Francisco Bay area, and Washington, DC.

They are both working areas and service centers around which mile after mile of increasingly dense, single-family dwelling residential units organize the “home centeredness” of private life. He remarks that these ex-urban constellations are: tied together not by locomotives and subways, but by freeways, jetways, and rooftop satellite dishes thirty feet across. Their characteristic monument is not a horse-mounted hero, but the atria reaching for the sun and shielding trees perpetually in leaf at the core of corporate headquarters, fitness centers, and shopping plazas. These new urban areas are marked not by the penthouses of the old urban rich or the tenements of the old urban poor. Instead, their landmark structure is the celebrated single-family detached dwelling, the suburban home with grass all around that made America the best housed civilization the world has ever known.62 Naturally, where Garreau sees the relentless frontier spirit of American culture, always creating new forms of life and space, James Howard Kunstler sees the regrettable domination of the “geography of nowhere,” 63 thus reigniting a decades-long debate between partisans and detractors of America’s sharp spatial departure from its European ancestry.

 

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Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

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affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Royal Institute of British Architects. 214 “a monstrous carbuncle on the face”: Ibid. 214 “Why has everything got to be vertical”: Ibid. 214 “a giant glass stump”: Ibid. 214 but the prince won, sort of: “Victoriana vs. Mies in London,” New York Times, May 3, 1984, p. C18. 214 “an early Victorian market town”: Worsley, “A Model Village Grows Up Gracefully.” 214 forces behind the New Urbanist movement: Watson et al., Learning from Poundbury, 8. 214 New Urbanism “stand[s] for . . . our built legacy”: Charter of the New Urbanism, www.cnu.org/charter. 214 more conservationist than the New Urbanist communities of America: Compare the Web site of Poundbury, www.duchyofcornwall.org/designanddevelopment_poundbury_livinginpoundbury.htm, with its note that “It is intended to be a sustainable development” and that it is “designed to maintain the quality of the environment” and its photographs of green space, with the Web site of Celebration, Florida, www.celebration.fl.us/towninfo.html, with its emphasis on its “strong sense of self ” and photographs of people at play. 215 In Celebration, 91 percent of people who leave their homes to work take cars: U.S.

Prince Charles’s fight for traditional British architecture continues unabated, as does his fight for his “model community” of Poundbury. In his agricultural estates in Cornwall, the prince is building his vision of an ideal English town, which has been described as looking like “an early Victorian market town, as if architecture stopped in 1830.” His royal patronage has given a great boost to Leon Krier, Poundbury’s planner, who is also one of the intellectual forces behind the New Urbanist movement. The New Urbanism “stand[s] for the restoration of existing urban centers and towns within coherent metropolitan regions, the reconfiguration of sprawling suburbs into communities of real neighborhoods and diverse districts, the conservation of natural environments, and the preservation of our built legacy.” Poundbury is considerably more conservationist than the New Urbanist communities of America, such as Seaside, Florida; Kentlands, Maryland; Breakaway, North Carolina; and the Disney Corporation’s town of Celebration, Florida.

Bradley Milwaukee Minneapolis Missouri Mitchell, George Phydias Mittal, Lakshmi Mobutu Sese Seko Mohammed, Sheikh Monkkonen, Eric Montreal Moses, Robert Moving to Opportunity Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus Mumbai building restrictions in crime in Dharavi neighborhood of disease in traffic congestion in transportation network in Mumford, Lewis murder Murthy, Narayana museums music Mysore Nagasaki Napoléon I, Emperor Napoléon III, Emperor Nashville National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) National Labor Relations Act (1935) Native Son (Wright) neighborhood preservation, see preservation Netherlands Nevins, Allan New Brighton New Deal New Orleans Hurricane Katrina in poor in New Urbanism New York City African Americans in age statistics in Bloomberg as mayor of building construction in Central Park commuting in crime in death rates in decline of entrepreneurs in environmental footprint of fair-housing law in Fifth Avenue Commission in finance in founding of garment and fashion industries in garment worker strike in Giuliani as mayor of globalization and Greenwich Village Harlem Children’s Zone in Harlem Renaissance in health in Hell’s Kitchen housing in immigrants in industries in Koch as mayor of Lindsay as mayor of Lower East Side marital statistics in Midtown Manhattan Penn Station in poor in population explosion in port of preservation in Promise Academy in public transportation in publishing industry in rebirth of restaurants in reverse commuting and rise of September 11 attack on social connections in sprawl in streets in subways in suicides in Tammany Hall in taxes in theater in transit and income zones in travel between Boston and Upper East Side wages in Washington Square water supply for zoning regulations in New York Panorama New York Philharmonic New York State energy consumption in parkway system of New York Times NIMBYism Nimitz, Chester 9/11 attacks Norberg, Karen Obama, Barack Oklahoma City Old Vic Theatre Company Olivier, Laurence Olmsted, Frederick Law Otis, Elisha O’Toole, Peter Otto, Nikolaus Owen, David Paris building regulations in bus transit in Eiffel Tower in housing in La Défense in Montparnasse Tower in paving of planning of police force formed in restaurants in schools in sewage system in transit and income zones in parks Pascal, Blaise patent citations Patni Computers Pedro II, Emperor Penn Station Pennsylvania Railroad Pericles Perlman, Philip Philadelphia Main Line in transit and income zones in water supply in Philip Augustus Phoenix Phukan, Ruban Pinker, Steven Pirelli, Giovanni Battista Pittsburgh plague Plato police policies, see public policies politics ethnic power and social groups and Ponti, Gio populations: loss of new building and wages and Potemkin villages Poulsen, Valdemar Poundbury poverty rural suburban poverty, urban African Americans and and attraction of poor to cities education and in favelas and helping people vs. places in megacities path to prosperity from public policies’ magnification of in Rio slums and ghettos transportation and Prada, Miuccia preservation in New York City printing press prisons Procopius productivity education and geographic proximity and impact of peers on skills and wages and Promise Academy property rights prosperity and wealth education and environmentalism and path from urban poverty to urbanization and Protestantism public policies building restrictions consumer cities and education and environmental; see also environmentalism helping people vs. places immigration and industrial land-use regulations level playing field in national NIMBYism and poverty magnified by preservation, see preservation suburban living encouraged by urban poverty and zoning ordinances, see zoning ordinances public spaces publishing: in New York printing technology and Pulitzer, Joseph quality of life Quigley, John Raffles, Thomas Stamford rail travel Ramsay, Gordon Rand, Ayn Ranieri, Lewis Raytheon recession Reformation Renaissance restaurants Richardson, Ralph Richmond right-to-work states Rio de Janeiro favelas in transportation in riots River Rouge plant Riverside roads asphalt paving for highways New York City streets traffic congestion and, see traffic congestion Robson Square Rochester (Minnesota) Rochester (New York) Rockefeller, Nelson Rogers, Richard Roman Empire Roosevelt, Franklin D.

 

pages: 313 words: 92,907

Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are Thekeys to Sustainability by David Owen

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A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city

“After growing up in a small town in Massachusetts,” he writes in his preface, “I went off to pastoral Vermont to study and then work, all the while developing an appreciation and concern for the fragile state of the world’s ecology. But as easy as it is to don a green hat up in Vermont, the beast that is New York City has the tendency to tear that noble lid off and throw it into a puddle of mud. Upon arriving in the big city I struggled to reconcile the environmentally concerned mind-set that comes so effortlessly in a place like Vermont with my new urban lifestyle. Of course sustainable living is easier in a Vermont township, where local produce is plentiful and every backyard is equipped with a compost bin.”12 But this is exactly wrong. “Sustainable living” is actually much harder in small, far-flung places than it is in dense cities. Jervey cites New Yorkers’ “overactive dependence” on fresh water as an example of their supposed wastefulness, and he marvels that the city’s total use “amounts to well over one billion gallons per day.”13 A billion is a big number, to be sure, but New York City’s population is more than thirteen times that of the entire state of Vermont, so the city’s total consumption figures in any category will appear overwhelming in any direct comparison.

Los Angeles is at or near the top of almost everyone’s list of the examples of automobile-dependent development, but L.A. is actually quite dense, as American cities go, with an average concentration, inside the city limits, of just over 8,200 people per square mile, or nearly 13 people per acre. This is fairly close to Zupan and Pushkarev’s critical transit threshold of seven dwellings per acre—and it exceeds the density of many developments that have been promoted as examples of New Urbanism, or Smart Growth—yet only a microscopic percentage of Angelenos travel to work in anything but a car, and, largely because of the separation of uses mandated by local zoning regulations, there are very few parts of the city where transit, bicycling, or walking are feasible as regular means of getting around, no matter what the price of gasoline. Uninhibited car use invariably undermines the noblest of environmental intentions—always, everywhere.h In the early 1900s, Los Angeles, like many other American cities, actually had a thriving streetcar system—a variety of the type of transit that, nowadays, is usually referred to as light rail.

A brochure shows the cars being charged by rooftop solar panels and hydrogen-powered fuel cells. Ryan Chin, a Ph.D. candidate and the project’s coordinator, said, “The idea is to have the vehicle work in unison with its urban surroundings, taking advantage of existing infrastructure, such as subway and bus lines. Ultimately we see this as an effective way to merge mass transit with individualized mobility, creating a new urban transportation ecosystem.”52 But the City Car, as described by its inventors, is a good idea only if you believe that not being able to find a parking space is an environmental problem, and that dense urban areas have something to gain from getting pedestrians off their feet and into cars. Residents of dense urban cores largely get by without individual vehicles now; what would be gained by turning those people into drivers of high-tech golf carts?

 

pages: 297 words: 89,206

Social Class in the 21st Century by Mike Savage

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call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clapham omnibus, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, deskilling, Downton Abbey, financial independence, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, precariat, psychological pricing, The Spirit Level, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, very high income, winner-take-all economy, young professional

But nonetheless, this north–south divide constituted a force field in which the two classes recognized themselves and each other through a range of powerful reference points. However, just as we have argued that the fundamental class boundaries lie at the top of the social hierarchy, so the power of this regional divide has now broken down. It has been replaced by two other dynamics: firstly, the power of highly segregated urban cores as elite zones. The process of intense elite segregation can be detected in all major British cities – and that new urban investment has generated more powerful manifestations of this. Secondly the dominance of central London is now paramount and overwhelms that of the north–south divide. These two shifts generate a more powerful urban–rural division than used to be the case. Cities (especially London, but the process extends to other cities) are the centres of accumulation. The countryside is defined in terms of the repose – the rest and recuperation – it offers in the context of these voracious urban driving belts.

Figure 8.5 Percentage Shares of the Elite within Just One Quartile of Postal Sectors in 10 Major Built-up Areas in Britain Source: GBCS data Class and inequality are central to how we conceive of and construct our cities. Class has an interactive relationship with space because those with greater economic capital have greater choice about where. They possess freedoms which the housing market does not extend to those of lesser means. The elite class also have the power to transform and colonize new urban spaces both physically and socially, through processes of top-end ‘gentrification’.13 Mapping where those in the elite live in a detailed way is instructive because it opens up the different forms of ‘elective belonging’ that people hold – the emotional, economic and other reasons that bind them to particular places.14 The Manchester elite exemplifies this geography well, because this is the most segregated in class terms according to GBCS data of British cities.

There is therefore an unequal geography in the cultural and social domains as well as in the economic. These overlap, but imperfectly, showing that the wider identities of places cannot be read from their economic capital and prosperity alone. A powerful urban–rural divide, as much as a regional one between north and south, is marked in terms of the way urban centres operate as foci of cultural capital (especially emerging cultural capital) and social capital. And marking out these new urban spaces, we see the power of the elite as having a profound geographical imprint, as this is fundamentally an urban class. The old aristocratic class with roots in the land, at the apex of the class structure, has given way to a more fundamentally urbanized class – though one quite possibly with second homes tucked away in areas of repose. This, as Piketty has demonstrated, is an aspect of the profound shift in the organization of capital towards residential property and away from agricultural land.24 Underscoring all this is London itself.

 

pages: 364 words: 102,225

Instant City: Life and Death in Karachi by Steve Inskeep

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battle of ideas, British Empire, call centre, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, illegal immigration, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Kibera, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, urban planning, urban renewal

Some plans worked, and some didn’t. Many of the new public housing projects in America destroyed intricate communities to make room for buildings designed on an inhuman scale. Still other plans were swiftly defeated by the relentless pressure of human nature. In Tokyo, which was flattened during World War II, planners saw a chance to erase the ancient and convoluted street grid and build what one scholar called “an entirely new urban form,” with a series of dense downtowns “nestled against a background of green space, green corridors and broad tree-lined boulevards.” It didn’t happen. American bombs destroyed buildings, but didn’t destroy the claims of property owners, who resisted giving up their land. It was quicker and easier to build along the old streets. A glance at history might have shown this would happen; the world’s most famous example of urban planning, Sir Christopher Wren’s redesign of central London after a great fire in 1666, was never put in place.

Ayub Lays Foundation of Korangi Satellite Town,” Times of Karachi, December 6, 1958, 1, 5. 88 “rely on their wits to thrive”: Jean Gottmann, Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1961), 46. 88 “migration and employment growth... thereby drawing more migrants”: Peter Morrison, “Migration from Distressed Areas: Its Meaning for Regional Policy” (New York: Ford Foundation, 1973), 17–18. 88 four million people in 1950 to 6.5 million in 1960: United Nations Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2009 Revision Population Database, http://esa.un.org/wup2009/unup/index.asp?panel=2. 88 “furnaces, sliding doors, mechanical saws”: Jane Jacobs, The Economy of Cities (New York: Random House, 1969), 152. 88 “an entirely new urban form”... “broad tree-lined boulevards”: Andrei Sorensen, The Making of Urban Japan: Cities and Planning from Edo to the Twenty-first Century (New York: Routledge, 2002), 162. 89 Constantinos Doxiadis caught the midnight flight: Doxiadis’s diary, December 15, 1958. 89 Ford had been assisting with planning and development: Doxiadis’s diary, December 15, 1958; also “Design for Pakistan: A Report on Assistance to the Pakistan Planning Commission by the Ford Foundation and Harvard University” (New York: Ford Foundation, February 1965). 89 Doxiadis snapped photos of arid land: Doxiadis’s diary, December 17, 1958. 89 The philosopher Plato spoke to him: Constantinos Doxiadis, Between Dystopia and Utopia (Hartford, CT: Trinity College Press, 1966), x–xi. 90 They worked everywhere from Baghdad to Rio de Janeiro: Doxiadis Associates archive, archive .doxiadis.org; also Between Dystopia and Utopia. 90 “helped resettle 10 million humans in 15 countries”: Time, November 4, 1966. 90 “Several aspects of the problem begin to worry me,”...

Nadeem, Azhar Hassan. Pakistan: The Political Economy of Lawlessness. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. Nasr, Vali. The Shia Revival: How Conflicts Within Islam Will Shape the Future. New York: W. W. Norton, 2006. ———. The Vanguard of the Islamic Revolution: The Jama’at-I Islami of Pakistan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994. Neuwirth, Robert. Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, a New Urban World. New York: Routledge, 2006. Orangi Pilot Project–Research and Training Institute. Katchi Abadis of Karachi, vol. III. Karachi: OPP-RTI, 2009. Owen, David. Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less are Keys to Sustainability. New York: Riverhead, 2009. Raman, T. A. Report on India. New York: Oxford University Press, 1943. Richter, Linda K. The Politics of Tourism in Asia.

 

pages: 202 words: 59,883

Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel

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Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, Kickstarter, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, Zipcar

They are changing the character and flavor of their cities, and their concerns for raising children are helping them lead charges for safer streets and better education where contextual tools play a part. These New Urbanists reverse a trend followed by each generation since the end of World War II. For more than 60 years, people migrated out of cities, into suburbs. Today, instead of opting for freestanding single-family homes surrounded by lawns, fences and chirping birds, this emerging generation is massively opting for less pastoral—and more stimulating—urban settings. New Urbanism is changing American demographic trends. Multiple reports, including those from the U.S. Census Bureau and the Brookings Institution, see multiyear trends where cities are growing younger and more affluent, while suburbs are shrinking, aging and experiencing increases in poverty. New Urbanists lead contextual lives in cities being planned, designed and rebuilt with contextual technologies.

However, when we look at a few forward-thinking municipal governments we see glimmers of hope. New Urbanists are active proponents of safer streets, reduced pollution, transparent government and neighborhood activism. They are using contextual technologies as power tools for change. Their shopping—even when local—is becoming mobile device-centric. They are encouraging and adopting new services that allow local merchants to deliver goods to urban doors. New Urbanism is not only taking hold in such cultural centers as New York and San Francisco, but also in previously forsaken places like Pittsburgh, Detroit and Youngstown, Ohio, which is reporting a significant growth in young adults, spawned in part by a tech center that employs more than 300 people, mostly recent college grads. Even Cleveland, which in 2010 was voted America’s most miserable city, is enjoying a resurgence of energy from this desirable demographic.

 

pages: 224 words: 69,494

Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg

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active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

Just as stories about life in the 1950s reveal the emptiness and sham of stories around the wonderful things that flow from higher mobility so the same stories tell us that there are many examples of sustainable cities and child friendly cities and they did exist and we did destroy them. If we really do want to restore this kind of world with all its benefits we can only do so if we redefine our love affair with mobility, redefine it as an historical blip, show how lower mobility produces magnified benefits and embed 21st century “new” urban thinking in a strong low mobility context. That is the objective of this book. During the development of these ideas in the next 14 chapters it will be important to keep uppermost in our minds the very clear implication of “low mobility”. Low mobility is a decoupling concept. This book argues that we must decouple mobility from its association with progress, happiness and quality of life. The consumption of ever-increasing amounts of distance does not increase happiness or improve quality of life and is associated with a growing list of negative consequences.

This will not “sit well” with the world view of most of us in 2015 but the point of this book is to demonstrate that a low mobility world has a great deal to offer and its opposite is a logical impossibility. We cannot accommodate an annual average percentage increase in distance travelled for all 7 billion of us so we may as well start explaining, designing and delivering a low mobility alternative. It could not be clearer that most governmental statements in the UK about new urban design or so-called “active” transport (this means walking and cycling) are meaningless unless we engineer this paradigm shift from high mobility to low mobility. Such a paradigm shift also involves a shift in language. The phrase “low mobility” whilst accurately describing a world characterized by fewer kilometres travelled per person per annum fails to convey the richness of a world characterised by many more destinations opportunities within a much smaller physical area and a world where enormous amounts of time and money (and pollution) are not devoted to the business of accessing distant places.

 

pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

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Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, invisible hand, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

New York City’s economy alone is larger than most of sub-Saharan Africa’s. Port cities and entrepôts such as Dubai act like twenty-first-century Venice: They are “free zones” where products are efficiently re-exported without the hassles of government red tape. Such mega-cities as Rio, Istanbul, Cairo, Mumbai, Nairobi, and Manila are the leading urban centers of their countries and regions, yet each teems with hundreds of thousands of new urban squatters each year. The migrant underclass lives not in chaos and “shadow economies” but often in functional, self-organizing ecosystems, the typical physical stratification of medieval cities. Whether rich or poor, cities, more than nations, are the building blocks of global activity today. Our world is more a network of villages than it is one global village. Alliances of these agile cities, like the medieval Hanseatic League of the Baltic Sea, are forming.

.: Brookings Institution Press, 2007. Moss, Todd J. African Development: Making Sense of the Issues and Actors. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 2007. Mueller, John. The Remnants of War. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2004. Munzele Maimbo, Samuel, and Dilip Ratha, eds. Remittances: Development Impact and Future Prospects. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2005. Neuwirth, Robert. Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, a New Urban World. New York: Routledge, 2006. Newman, Edward, Ramesh Thakur, and John Tirman. Multilateralism Under Challenge? Power, International Order, and Structural Change. Tokyo: United Nations University Press, 2006. Nicolson, Harold. Diplomacy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1939. ———. The Evolution of Diplomatic Method. London: Cassell, 1954. Nilekani, Nandan. Imagining India: The Idea of a Renewed Nation.

 

pages: 423 words: 129,831

The Big Roads: The Untold Story of the Engineers, Visionaries, and Trailblazers Who Created the American Superhighways by Earl Swift

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, big-box store, blue-collar work, Donner party, edge city, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, side project, smart transportation, traveling salesman, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen

Interregional Highways included no maps of routes through cities, and no description of them beyond a catalog of possibilities, because the problems of extending four- and six-lane highways through dense settlement were simply too complicated and too local to generalize—besides which, it was a decision best made by the states and municipal authorities. " How near they should come to the center of the area, how they should pass it or pass through it, and by what courses they should approach it, are matters for particular planning consideration in each city," the committee decided, though it observed that surface streets carrying the heaviest traffic loads generally " pass through or very close to the existing central business areas." Fairbank again did most, if not all, of the writing, and this time his passages on urban expressways included a cautionary note. However they were located, the new urban highways would do more than simply carry traffic; they would be " a powerful influence in shaping the city," the report predicted, and " should be located so as to promote a desirable development or at least to support a natural development rather than to retard or to distort the evolution of the city. " In favorable locations, the new facilities, which as a matter of course should be designed for long life, will become more and more useful as time passes; improperly located, they will become more and more of an encumbrance to the city's functions and an all too durable reminder of planning that was bad."

Or in the second installment, when he castigated highway engineers for behaving "as if motor transportation existed in a social vacuum" and "building more roads, bridges, and tunnels so that more motorcars may travel more quickly to more remote destinations in more chaotic communities, from which more roads will be built so that more motorists may escape from these newly soiled and clotted environments." "Our transportation experts are only expert whittlers," he wrote, "and the proof of it is that their end product is not a new urban form but a scattered mass of human shavings. Instead of curing congestion, they widen chaos." Or in the series' third part, where he pointed out that the "fancy cures that the experts have offered for New York's congestion are based on the innocent notion that the problem can be solved by increasing the capacity of the existing traffic routes, multiplying the number of ways of getting in and out of town, or providing more parking space for cars," when the reality was that the city screamed for redesign and the dispersal of its crowd-generating employers, stores, and public amenities.

"In the utopia that highway engineers have been busily bulldozing into existence, no precinct of the city and no part of the surrounding countryside are to remain inaccessible to automobile traffic on a large scale," he wrote. "As a formula for defacing the natural landscape and ruining what is left of our great cities, nothing could be more effective." *** The most surprising critic of the new urban highways was the man who'd spurred their financing. It's hard to imagine how Dwight Eisenhower could have been unaware that the interstate system was designed to venture into cities, what with all the fuss in San Francisco, the controversies unfolding in Baltimore and other towns, and newspaper chatter on the paths of proposed freeways just blocks from the White House—not to mention that he'd signed the 1956 act and presumably read something about it beforehand.

 

pages: 421 words: 120,332

The World in 2050: Four Forces Shaping Civilization's Northern Future by Laurence C. Smith

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Bretton Woods, BRICs, clean water, Climategate, colonial rule, deglobalization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, energy security, flex fuel, global supply chain, Google Earth, guest worker program, Hans Island, hydrogen economy, ice-free Arctic, informal economy, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, land tenure, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Y2K

The reason that the world’s rural people are moving into cities is that they can make more money in town. This is partly because of the described growth of urban economies, and partly because demand for farm labor falls as agriculture commercializes, mechanizes, and becomes export-oriented. Worldwide employment in agriculture is falling fast and in 2006, for the first time ever, it was surpassed by employment in the services sector.46 And because every new urban resident is also a new urban consumer, the cycle is self-reinforcing. More urbanites buy more electronics, services, and imported processed food, prepared and served to them by others. More entry-level jobs for new migrants are created. More managerial posts are needed. Ladders rise and the urban economy grows .47 This urban shift is driving major demographic changes around the globe. City dwellers are projected to roughly double in number by 2050, rising from 3.3 billion in 2007 to 6.4 billion in 2050.48 However, the geography of this is not uniform.

Under the conservative ground rules of our thought experiment, it’s hard to envision how so many problems can be eliminated overnight. By 2050 I imagine much of sub-Saharan Africa—the cradle of our species—to be a dilapidated, crowded, and dangerous place. Shifting Economic Power Not only is the geography of the world’s urban population shifting, so also is its wealth. The economic impact of nearly two billion new urban consumers in Asia has not gone unexamined by economists. Unlike the situation in Africa, there is every indication that the rising Asian cities will be modern, globalized, and prosperous. In a thoughtful, forward-looking assessment the U.S. National Intelligence Council writes:65 The international system—as constructed following the Second World War—will be almost unrecognizable by 2025. . . .

 

pages: 372 words: 152

The End of Work by Jeremy Rifkin

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banking crisis, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, cashless society, collective bargaining, computer age, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, general-purpose programming language, George Gilder, global village, hiring and firing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, Thorstein Veblen, Toyota Production System, trade route, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

In Chicago it was nearly 19 percent. 23 In the 1980s many of the nation's northern cities partially revived by becoming hubs for the new information economy. Scores of downtown areas made the transition from "centers of production and distribution of material goods to centers of administration, information exchange and higher order service provision."24 The emerging knowledge-based industries have meant increased jobs for highskilled white collar and service workers. For large numbers of AfricanAmericans, however, the new urban renaissance has only served to accentuate the ever widening employment and income gap between highly educated whites and poor unskilled blacks. The only Significant rise in employment among black Americans in the past twenty-five years has been in the public sector: more than 55 percent of the net increase in employment for blacks in the 1960s and 1970S occurred there. 25 Many black professionals found jobs in the federal programs spawned by the Great Society initiatives of President Lyndon Johnson.

Millions of unskilled workers and their families became part of what social historians now call an underclass-a permanently unemployed part of the population whose unskilled labor is no longer required and who live hand-to-mouth, generation-to-generation, as wards of the state. A second smaller group of black middle-class professionals have been put on the public payroll to administer the many publicassistance programs designed to assist this new urban underclass. The system represents a kind of "welfare colonialism" say authors Michael Brown and Steven Erie, "where blacks were called upon to administer their own state of dependence."28 It is possible that the country might have taken greater notice of the impact that automation was having on black America in the 1960s and 1970s, had not a significant number of Mrican-Americans been absorbed into public-sector jobs.

Notes 303 21. Judis, John, "The Jobless Recovery," The New Republic, March 15, 1993, p. 20. 22. Boggs, James, "The Negro and Cybernation," in Lauda, Donald P., Advancing Technology: Its Impact on Society (Dubuque: W. G Brown Company, 1971) p. 154. 23. Wilson, Declining SignifICance of Race, pp. 111-112. 24. Kasarda, John D., "Urban Change and Minority Opportunities," in Peterson, Paul E., ed., The New Urban Reality (Washington D.G: The Brookings Instutition, 1985), p. 33· 25. Brown, Michael, and Erie, Steven, "Blacks and the Legacy of the Great Society," Public Policy, vol. 29, #3, Summer 1981, p. 305. 26. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Census of the Population, 1960 and 1970, Subject Reports, Occupational Characteristics, in Wilson, William Julius, Declining Significance of Race, p. 103. 27. Lemann, p. 201. 28.

 

pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, Zipcar

The takeaway lesson is that a democratic form of self-management and governance designed to pool and share “commons” resources proved to be a resilient economic model for surviving a despotic feudal system that kept people locked in bondage. The great Enclosure Movements across Europe that led to the downfall of feudal society, the rise of the modern market economy, and eventually the capitalist system, put an end to rural commons but not the sharing spirit that animated them. Peasant farmers took their lessons learned to the new urban landscapes where they faced an equally imposing foe in the form of factory overlords of the industrial revolution. Urban workers and an emerging middle class, like their peasant serf forbearers, pooled their common resources—this time in the form of wages and labor skills—and created new kinds of self-governing Commons. Charitable societies, schools, hospitals, trade unions, cooperatives, and popular cultural institutions of all kinds began to take root and flourish, creating the foundation for what came to be known as the civil society in the nineteenth century.

This period saw the flowering of what historians call the Northern Renaissance—an awakening of the arts, literature, scientific experimentation, and exploration of new worlds. By the late medieval era, more than a thousand towns had sprung up across Europe, each bustling with economic activity. Aside from providing granaries, lodging, and shops, these urban centers became the gathering place for craftsmen of all stripes and shades. These new urban jurisdictions were often called free cities, as they were deemed independent of the reach of local lords. For example, it was customary practice that if a serf were to escape the feudal commons and take refuge in a nearby town for a year and a day, he would be deemed free, having safely left one jurisdiction and taken up residence in another.21 The craftsmen in the new towns organized themselves into guilds by trade—metalworkers, weavers and dyers, armorers, masons, broiders and glaziers, scriveners, hatters, and upholsterers—in order to establish quality standards for their goods, set fixed prices for their products, and determine how much to produce.

Private property exchanged in the market economy was henceforth “taken for granted as the fundamentals upon which social organization was to be based, and about which no further argument was admissible.”7 Max Weber was even more harsh, arguing that the replacement of spiritual values with economic ones in the changeover from a Christian-centered universe to a materialist one represented “the disenchantment of the world.”8 In fairness, it should be noted that despite the terrible toll in human suffering brought on by the enclosure of the commons and the letting loose of millions of peasants from their ancestral land to make their own way in a new urban world not yet ready to absorb their labor, the shift to a market economy did eventually improve the lot of the average person in ways that would be unfathomable to families living on the feudal commons. The shift from a purely market-exchange economy in the late medieval era to a capitalist economy by the mid-nineteenth century posed serious problems in regard to the notion of property. Recall Locke’s natural right theory that what a person adds to nature by his own labor belongs to him alone in the form of private property.

 

pages: 304 words: 88,773

The Ghost Map: A Street, an Epidemic and the Hidden Power of Urban Networks. by Steven Johnson

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call centre, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, Dean Kamen, double helix, edge city, germ theory of disease, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, John Snow's cholera map, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, megacity, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, peak oil, side project, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, trade route, unbiased observer, working poor

Those newly free-floating laborers became another, equally essential, energy source for the Industrial Revolution, filling its cities and coketowns with a nearly inexhaustible supply of cheap labor. In a sense, the Industrial Revolution would have never happened if two distinct forms of energy had not been separated from the earth: coal and commoners. The dramatic increase of people available to populate the new urban spaces of the Industrial Age may have had one other cause: tea. The population growth during the first half of the eighteenth century neatly coincided with the mass adoption of tea as the de facto national beverage. (Imports grew from six tons at the beginning of the century to eleven thousand at the end.) A luxury good at the start of the century, tea had become a staple even of working-class diets by the 1850s.

London Labour and the London Poor. New York: Penguin, 1985. Mekalanos, J. J., E. J. Rubin, and M. K. Waldor. “Cholera: Molecular Basis for Emergence and Pathogenesis.” FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 18 (1997): 241–48. Mumford, Lewis. The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations and Its Prospects. New York and London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1961. Neuwirth, Robert. Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, a New Urban World. New York: Routledge, 2005. Nightingale, Florence. Notes on Nursing: What It Is, and What It Is Not. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1992. Owen, David. “Green Manhattan.” The New Yorker, October 18, 2004. Paneth, Nigel. “Assessing the Contributions of John Snow to Epidemiology: 150 Years After Removal of the Broad Street Pump Handle.” Epidemiology 15 (2004): 514–16. Picard, Liza. Victorian London: The Life of a City, 1840–1870.

 

pages: 265 words: 15,515

Nomad Citizenship: Free-Market Communism and the Slow-Motion General Strike by Eugene W. Holland

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capital controls, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, deskilling, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, price mechanism, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, slashdot, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, wage slave, working poor

But many activists, Follett included, treated these problematic developments as an opportu­ nity to revitalize American democracy from below. New to the post-Civil War industrial city was a growing spatial separation of work from the home, and this gave rise to a new configuration of city space, which now combined a set of predominantly industrial or commercial zones with a patchwork of specifically residential neighborhoods. Whether through settlement houses, community centers, or neighborhood organizations, the new urban residential space became a locus of intense grassroots politi­ cal activism. “We can never reform American politics from above,. . . by charters and schemes of government,” Follett warned: Political progress must be by local communities. Our municipal life will be just as strong as the strength of its parts. We shall never know how to be one of a nation until we are one of a neighborhood. . . .

South Atlantic Quarterly 104, n o . 2 (2005): 3 4 9 -5 7 . W eber, M ax . Politics as a Vocation. P hiladelphia: F ortress Press, 1965. ----------. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization . N ew York: Free Press, 1964. W hyte, W illiam Foote, a n d K athleen K ing W hyte. Making Mondragon: The Growth and Dynamics of the Worker Cooperative Complex. Ith aca, N.Y.: ILR Press, 1991. W illiam s, M ichael. Neighborhood Organization: Seeds of a New Urban Life. W estport, C onn.: G reen w o o d Press, 1985. W illiam s, R ay m o n d . “ Base an d S u p erstru ctu re in M a rx ist C ritical T heory.” In Problems in Materialism and Culture, 3 1 -4 9 . L ondon: V erso, 1980. W illiam son, Oliver. Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implica­ tions. N ew York: Free Press, 1975. W illiam son, O liver E., a n d Sidney G . W inter, ed s. The Nature o f the Firm: Origins, Evolution, and Development.

 

pages: 332 words: 89,668

Two Nations, Indivisible: A History of Inequality in America: A History of Inequality in America by Jamie Bronstein

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

The development of canals and railroads meant that shipping goods inland from the Eastern seaboard ports, which had been almost impossible in the eighteenth century, now took less than a week.6 Americans could communicate with unprecedented ease due to the development of the telegraph and the steam-powered printing press.7 The rate of growth of gross domestic product per capita doubled from 0.5 percent per year to almost 1 percent per year. At the same time, the concentration of populations in new urban areas presented problems of crowding, disease, lack of clean water, and lack of sanitation.8 The demand for, and possibility of producing, ever more cotton with slave labor led to the physical expansion of the United States. It also led to the increasing significance of the United States in the share of the world’s cotton production. From 1791 to 1851, the cotton production of the United States expanded from 469 million bales to 2.5 billion bales, and from less than 1 percent of the world production of that staple to 67 percent.

But he chalked these up to the pernicious impact of poverty and racism; “If all the laws were framed to provide equal opportunity, a majority of the Negroes would not be able to take full advantage of the change. There would still be a vast, silent, and automatic system directed against men and women of color,” he wrote.33 Not everyone agreed that the causes of African American poverty were environmental rather than internal. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan’s report The Negro Family: The Case for National Action (1965) sparked a debate about the social pathologies of the new “urban underclass.” The report, which at least in part blamed female-led families, single mothers, and welfare dependency for black urban poverty, produced an uproar because it was viewed as both patronizing and incorrect. Moynihan hoped that following his prescriptions would lead to a greater focus on providing jobs for African American men and increase the number of families with two parents, but his ideas were lost in the controversy over affixing blame.34 WAR ON POVERTY The discourse on inequality in the 1960s coincided with, and encouraged, major government efforts to counter its effects.

 

pages: 162 words: 34,454

Mad Mobs and Englishmen? Myths and Realities of the 2011 Riots by Steve Reicher, Cliff Stott

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Deng Xiaoping, Fellow of the Royal Society, New Urbanism

See http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/commentators/sir-hugh-orde-water-cannon-make-for-good-headlines-ndash-and-bad-policing-2335676.html. 219. For an account of the violence, see http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2004/jun/16/euro2004.sport19. For a description and analysis of the faciliatory strategy, see O. Adang and C. Cuvelier, (2001) Op cit. (note 23). 220. D.O. Sears and J.B. McConahay, The Politics of Violence: The New Urban Blacks and the Watts Riot (Boston, Mass: Houghton-Mifflin, 1973). 221. See D.O. Sears, (1994) Op cit (note 5) 222. See J. Baldwin, The Fire Next Time (London: Penguin, 1963/1964). Table of Contents Title page Copyright page Contents Acknowledgements Dedication page Preface Chapter 1: A Story Full of Sound and Fury Chapter 2: Lessons from the History of Riots Chapter 3: Understanding Urban Riots Chapter 4: Four Days in August Chapter 5: Conclusion References

 

pages: 641 words: 182,927

In Pursuit of Privilege: A History of New York City's Upper Class and the Making of a Metropolis by Clifton Hood

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affirmative action, British Empire, David Brooks, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, family office, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, jitney, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Scientific racism, Steven Levy, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, urban planning, We are the 99%, white flight

The ascendancy of the northeastern region of the United States ended in the second half of the twentieth century, as manufacturing centers like Pittsburgh and Detroit withered and as cities in other regions such as Atlanta, Houston, Phoenix, and San Diego surged, becoming hubs of information technology, aerospace, the military, and leisure activities. By 1990 only four of the ten largest cities—and none of the fastest-growing ones—were located in the northeast.47 New York City remained the primary economic center of the nation, but decentralization brought new urban rivalries. Because New York comprised a decreasing share of the U.S. population and was remote from the fastest-growing regions of the country, its manufacturers and retailers were at a disadvantage in serving national markets. And while the damage to the New York City corporate headquarters complex slowed after the 1970s, the enlargement of southern and western cities offered corporations more alternatives to Manhattan for their home office sites.48 Great wealth became more broadly dispersed.

Social Register Association, Social Register, New York, 1949, (New York: Social Register Association, 1948). 93. N = 201. Ibid. 94. N = 338, HHEP. 95. This residential pattern of a new uptown neighborhood arising simultaneously with new suburbs was not unique to New York. In Pittsburgh in the 1880s and 1890s, some upper-class families moved from their old quarters downtown and in Allegheny City to new urban neighborhoods in the East End of the city that boasted large houses and mansions positioned closely together on rectilinear blocks. At the same time, others relocated to Sewickley, an upper-class railroad suburb. In Boston, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, Chicago, Buffalo, New Orleans, and Milwaukee, urban upper-class residential districts survived until at least the mid-twentieth century, even as elite suburbs sprouted on the outskirts.

., 343 Knickerbocker Club, 201 Knickerbocker Greys, 321–22 Knox, General Henry, 42–43, 68 Ladies’ Mile, 212–14, 213 Lafayette Place-Bond Street neighborhood, 110–12, 111, 116–17 Laight, William E., 105 Lamont, Thomas W., 271 late-17th-century New York, 14–15 late-18th-century New York, 66–69 late-19th-century New York. See Gilded Age (late-19th century) late-20th-century New York: accrued social power in, 329–42; antielitist turn, 316–21; apparent decline of, 311–13; economic changes in, 313–14; new urban rivalries, 314–15; responses to antielitism, 321–29; transition to modernism, 300–311 Lawrence, John L., 198–99 Lay, Julia, 136–37 Lee, Richard Henry, 68 lesser merchants, 16–17 levees, Washington’s institution of, 70, 71–73 Lewis, Sinclair, 289 liberation movements, 303 Lincoln, Abraham, 145 literary works: on the dangers of Wall Street, 93–96; histories of New York, 154–55 Liu, Alex, 354 Lives of American Merchants (Hunt), 85 Livingston, Kathryn, 326 Livingston, Maria, 52, 53 Livingston, Philip, 77 Livingston, Robert R., 45, 51 Livingston, William, 1–2, 13–14, 51–53 Livingston Manor, 52–53 Livingston party (patriots), 18, 51–53 Lodge, Abraham, 26 London Gazette, 15, 40, 367n32 Lord & Taylor’s department store, 213, 214 Lorillard, George, 97 Lorillard, Peter, 97–98 Lorillard, Pierre, IV, 289 low-income families.

 

pages: 441 words: 135,176

The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful--And Their Architects--Shape the World by Deyan Sudjic

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, megastructure, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, Victor Gruen

He was arrested and jailed in Brescia, where he organized a mass breakout:260 political prisoners escaped. A pen-and-ink self-portrait in beard and glasses survives from his prison days. He was recaptured in September 1944, and died in Mauthausen in the last days of the war, a casualty of totalitarianism whose death was a lesson in the nature of courage to all of us, not least Albert Speer. Leon Krier, the architect best known for his role in planning Seaside, the outpost of New Urbanism on the Florida panhandle, and the Prince of Wales’s village of Poundbury, has been the most active voice in attempting to rehabilitate Speer. Why, he wondered, was it considered necessary to destroy the inoffensive street lights that Hitler’s architect had designed for Berlin? Why, Krier asked, did Speer end up as Spandau’s penultimate prisoner? Long after Werner von Braun, who devised the highly destructive V2 rockets that were built using slave labour and which killed so many Londoners, had bypassed the prisoner-of-war camps and flown to the USA to build the arsenal of democracy, Speer was still in jail.

Mao’s Tiananmen was the most ubiquitous image of China, the icon by which the country was recognized all over the world. Not surprisingly, such a charged arena has also been used by those who have challenged the repression with which the Communists have maintained their hold on power. It has become the most contested of spaces, a representation of the authority of Mao and his successors, but also a reminder of the tragic massacre of 1989 and the events leading up to it. And it is now being supplanted as the new urban iconography of Beijing is manufactured with astonishing speed. Before the Boxer Rebellion, the area in front of Tiananmen was the administrative centre of the imperial city. The emperor’s more distant kin lived in this buffer zone between the palace and the merchant city beyond, fringed by shops and narrow lanes, muddy underfoot, dotted with little groves of trees, and still enclosed by walls.

 

pages: 467 words: 116,902

The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

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affirmative action, cognitive bias, Columbine, deindustrialization, desegregation, ending welfare as we know it, friendly fire, illegal immigration, land reform, large denomination, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

., 56; see also Julian Roberts, “Public Opinion, Crime and Criminal Justice,” in Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, vol. 16, ed. Michael Tonry (University of Chicago Press, 1992). 72 Beckett, Making Crime Pay, 53, citing Executive Office of the President, Budget of the U.S. Government (1990). 73 Ibid., citing U.S. Office of the National Drug Control Policy, National Drug Control Strategy (1992). 74 Ibid. 75 Ibid., 56. 76 See William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Vintage, 1997). 77 Ibid., 31 (citing John Kasarda, “Urban Industrial Transition and the Underclass,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 501, no. 1 (1990): 26-47. 78 Ibid., 30 (citing data from the Chicago Urban Poverty and Family Life Survey conducted in 1987 and 1988). 79 Ibid., 39. 80 Ibid., 27. 81 Robert Stutman, Dead on Delivery: Inside the Drug Wars, Straight from the Street (New York: Warner Books, 1992), 142. 82 See Craig Reinarman and Harry Levine, “The Crack Attack: America’s Latest Drug Scare, 1986-1992,” in Images of Issues: Typifying Contemporary Social Problems (New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 1995). 83 Ibid., 154. 84 Ibid., 170-71. 85 Doris Marie Provine, Unequal Under Law: Race in the War on Drugs (University of Chicago Press, 2007), 111, citing Congressional Record 132 (Sept. 24, 1986): S 13741. 86 Provine, Unequal Under Law, 117. 87 Mark Peffley, Jon Hurwitz, and Paul Sniderman, “Racial Stereotypes and Whites’ Political Views of Blacks in the Context of Welfare and Crime,” American Journal of Political Science 41, no. 1 (1997): 30-60; Martin Gilens, “Racial Attitudes and Opposition to Welfare,” Journal of Politics 57, no. 4 (1995): 994-1014; Kathlyn Taylor Gaubatz, Crime in the Public Mind (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1995); and John Hurwitz and Mark Peffley, “Public Perceptions of Race and Crime: The Role of Racial Stereotypes,” American Journal of Political Science 41, no. 2 (1997): 375-401. 88 See Frank Furstenberg, “Public Reaction to Crime in the Streets,” American Scholar 40 (1971): 601-10; Arthur Stinchcombe, et al., Crime and Punishment in America: Changing Attitudes in America (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1980); Michael Corbett, “Public Support for Law and Order: Interrelationships with System Affirmation and Attitudes Toward Minorities,” Criminology 19 (1981): 337. 89 Stephen Earl Bennett and Alfred J.

., 151 65 Ibid. 66 See Musto, American Disease, 4, 7, 43-44, 219-20; and Doris Marie Provine, Unequal Under Law, 37-90 67 Eric Schlosser, “Reefer Madness,” Atlantic Monthly, Aug. 1994, 49. 68 Mauer, Race to Incarcerate, 149. 69 The most compelling version of this argument has been made by Randall Kennedy in Race, Crime and the Law (New York: Vintage Books, 1997). 70 Tracy Meares, “Charting Race and Class Differences in Attitudes Toward Drug Legalization and Law Enforcement: Lessons for Federal Criminal Law,” 1 Buffalo Criminal Law Review 1 (1997): 137; Stephen Bennett and Alfred Tuchfarber, “The Social Structural Sources of Cleavage on Law and Order Policies,” American Journal of Political Science 19 (1975): 419-38; and Sandra Browning and Ligun Cao, “The Impact of Race on Criminal Justice Ideology,” Justice Quarterly 9 (Dec. 1992): 685-99. 71 Meares, “Charting Race and Class Differences,” 157. 72 Glenn Loury, “Listen to the Black Community,” Public Interest, Sept. 22, 1994, 35. 73 Meares, “Charting Race and Class Differences,” 160-61. 74 See William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Vintage Books, 1997), 22, citing Delbert Elliott study. 75 Glenn C. Loury, Race, Incarceration and American Values (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008), 81, commentary by Tommie Shelby. 76 See Troy Duster, “Pattern, Purpose, and Race in the Drug War: The Crisis of Credibility in Criminal Justice,” in Crack in America: Demon Drugs and Social Justice , ed. Craig Reinarman and Harry G.

 

pages: 464 words: 116,945

Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism by David Harvey

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, California gold rush, call centre, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, falling living standards, fiat currency, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Food sovereignty, Frank Gehry, future of work, global reserve currency, Guggenheim Bilbao, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, peak oil, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wages for housework, Wall-E, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

If there are no particularly unique features to hand, then hire some famous architect, like Frank Gehry, to build a signature building (like the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao) to fill the gap.6 History, culture, uniqueness and authenticity are everywhere commodified and sold to tourists, prospective entrepreneurs and corporate heads alike, yielding monopoly rents to landed interests, property developers and speculators. The role of the class monopoly rent that is then gained from rising land values and property prices in cities like New York, Hong Kong, Shanghai, London and Barcelona is hugely important for capital in general. The gentrification process that is then unleashed is, worldwide, a critical part of an economy based as much on accumulation through dispossession as on creating wealth through new urban investments. In cultivating monopoly power, capital realises far-reaching control over production and marketing. It can stabilise the business environment to allow for rational calculation and long-term planning, the reduction of risk and uncertainty. The ‘visible hand’ of the corporation, as Alfred Chandler terms it, has been and continues to be just as important to capitalist history as Adam Smith’s ‘invisible hand’.7 The ‘heavy hand’ of state power exercised broadly in support of capital also plays its part.

Dispossession and destruction, displacement and construction become vehicles for vigorous and speculative capital accumulation as the figures of the financier and the rentier, the developer, the landed proprietor and the entrepreneurial mayor step from the shadows into the forefront of capital’s logic of accumulation. The economic engine that is capital circulation and accumulation gobbles up whole cities only to spit out new urban forms in spite of the resistance of people who feel alienated entirely from the processes that not only reshape the environments in which they live but also redefine the kind of person they must become in order to survive. Processes of social reproduction get re-engineered by capital from without. Everyday life is perverted to the circulation of capital. The coalition of the unwilling in relation to this forced redefinition of human nature constitutes a pool of alienated individuals that periodically erupts in riots and potentially revolutionary movements from Cairo to Istanbul, from Buenos Aires to São Paulo, and from Stockholm to El Alto.

 

pages: 286 words: 94,017

Future Shock by Alvin Toffler

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Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, corporate governance, East Village, global village, Haight Ashbury, information retrieval, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog

But by 1960, there were 141, and today world urban population is rocketing upward at a rate of 6.5 percent per year, according to Edgar de Vries and J. P. Thysse of the Institute of Social Science in The Hague. This single stark statistic means a doubling of the earth's urban population within eleven years. One way to grasp the meaning of change on so phenomenal a scale is to imagine what would happen if all existing cities, instead of expanding, retained their present size. If this were so, in order to accommodate the new urban millions we would have to build a duplicate city for each of the hundreds that already dot the globe. A new Tokyo, a new Hamburg, a new Rome and Rangoon—and all within eleven years. (This explains why French urban planners are sketching subterranean cities—stores, museums, warehouses and factories to be built under the earth, and why a Japanese architect has blueprinted a city to be built on stilts out over the ocean.)

Because societies in the past had been spatially and locally structured, and because urban societies used to be exclusively city-based, we seem still to assume that territoriality is a necessary attribute of social systems." This, he argues, leads us to wholly misunderstand such urban problems as drug addiction, race riots, mental illness, poverty, etc. See his provocative essay, "The Post-City Age" in Daedalus, Fall, 1968, pp. 1091-1110. 93 Average residence duration is taken from "New Urban Structures" by David Lewis in [131], p. 313. CHAPTER SIX 96 References to Weber, Simmel and Wirth are from [239], pp. 70-71. 98 Cox on limited involvements: [217], pp. 41-46. 102 On the number of people who preceded us, see "How Many People Have Lived on Earth?" by Nathan Keyfitz in Demography, 1966, vol 3, #2, p. 581. 104 Integrator concept and Gutman quote from "Population Mobility in the American Middle Class" by Robert Gutman in [241], pp. 175-182. 106 Crestwood Heights material is from [236], p. 365. 107 Barth quote from [216], pp. 13-14. 109 Fortune survey in [84], pp. 136-155. 110 I am indebted to Marvin Adelson, formerly Principal Scientist, System Development Corp., for the idea of occupational trajectories. 110 The quote from Rice is from "An Examination of the Boundaries of Part-Institutions" by A.

 

pages: 409 words: 145,128

Fighting Traffic: The Dawn of the Motor Age in the American City by Peter D. Norton

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clean water, Frederick Winslow Taylor, garden city movement, invisible hand, jitney, new economy, New Urbanism, Ralph Nader, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal

Motordom, however, had effective rhetorical weapons, growing national organization, a favorable political climate, substantial wealth, and the sympathy of a growing minority of city motorists. By 1930, with these assets, motordom had redefined the city street. In the new model, some users of once unquestioned legitimacy (notably pedestrians) were restricted. Traffic engineers no longer burdened motorists with the responsibility for congestion; their goal now was to ease the flow of motor vehicles, either by restricting other users or by rebuilding city thoroughfares for cars. New urban roads were treated as consumer commodities bought and paid for by their users and to be supplied as demanded. On this basis, over the following four decades, the city was transformed to accommodate automobiles. Overview The book is divided into three parts, named for the perspectives or technological frames of leading social groups. Perspectives on safety and legitimate access to the streets are featured in part I.

These routes were almost exclusively rural in 1920, but as the new highway funds poured in, counties and states began to extend them into and through cities. Beginning in the late 1920s and at an accelerating pace thereafter, counties and states turned to highway engineers to solve city traffic problems. Highway engineers brought highways into the cities, reducing the role of city traffic control engineers in the congestion problem. The new urban thoroughfares were largely bought and paid for by motorists with gasoline tax money. State and local governments were quick to recognize revenue possibilities in the growing number of motorists. License and registration fees were universal by 1913.111 Motorists and their auto clubs resisted. Through the early 1920s, most auto interests fought for low fees, for the use of general revenues supplemented by federal aid in state highway projects, and for the use of bond issues and special assessments of property holders to pay for city streets and county roads.

 

pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

As the hub for several of Saudi Arabia’s new city developments, Jeddah is emerging as the country’s Red Sea capital. From its humble origins as an ancient fishing village and entrepôt for trading tortoise shells, spices, and frankincense, Jeddah was anointed the gateway to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina in the seventh century. Over time, this mellow seaside oasis has become a bustling city of over five million residents and the hub for an archipelago of new urban developments stretching hundreds of kilometers. The city’s modern and moderate commercial class, like the maritime city itself, is intrinsically open to the world. The business of religion is also providing a major boost to the Jeddah region. Driving east, I witnessed a construction bonanza aimed at creating jobs, diversifying the economy, and managing the twelve million and growing annual visitors to Mecca and Medina each year, one-quarter of whom come for hajj.

Warm thanks to Avner de-Shalit and participants in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem workshop on the “spirit of cities”: Jeremy Adelman, Gilles Campagnolo, Kateri Carmola, and Susan Clarke. From Tianjin Eco-city to Guangzhou Knowledge City, thank you to the many dozens of officials who have hosted me at “smart cities” and special economic zones in China. I am similarly grateful to the managers of many other new urban developments on all continents for sharing their ambitious plans with me. Your projects are not yet on the map but surely will be thanks to your tireless efforts. Thanks also to Tony Reynard and Lincoln Ng of the Singapore Freeport for an insightful tour and conversation. At the Barcelona Smart City Expo 2014, I’d like to thank Ugo Valenti, Álvaro Nicolás, and Folc Lecha Mora. I appreciate learning about the inner workings of the City of London and its global strategy from Mark Boleat, Giles French, Anita Nandi, and Andrew Naylor.

 

pages: 222 words: 60,207

Circus Maximus: The Economic Gamble Behind Hosting the Olympics and the World Cup by Andrew Zimbalist

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airline deregulation, carbon footprint, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, New Urbanism, principal–agent problem, race to the bottom, urban planning, young professional

To understand this, one must understand that the underlying characteristic of the Spanish tradition, from dictatorship to democracy, was one of forgetting—wiping out the past and ignoring the responsibility of Francoism…. This programmed amnesia was similarly applied to urbanism…. The aim being to erase the city's working class memory, by demolishing popular and cooperative centers, old social housing and factories…and the total absence of any sustainability objectives…. In no building project…were any ecological criteria or sustainability standards implemented.9 Barcelona's new urban zones were redeveloped with improved public services and, in some cases, direct access to the sea. These parts of the city became gentrified, and hand in hand with gentrification came higher prices. Higher prices meant that lower-income people had to relocate, and, more generally, plans for public housing were underfulfilled.10 One study noted the following impacts: —Strong increases in the prices of housing for rent and for sale (from 1986 to 1993 the cumulative increase was 139% for home sale prices and nearly 145% in home rentals) —A drastic decrease in the availability of public housing (from 1986 to 1992 there was a cumulative decrease of 5.9%) —A gradual decrease in the availability of private houses for rent (from 1981 to 1991 the cumulative decrease was 23.7%)11 Thus, like the experience with mega-events elsewhere, hosting the games in Barcelona was accompanied by a redistribution of living standards to the detriment of lower-income groups.12 Finally, it is noteworthy that Barcelona made a major investment to host the 2004 Universal Forum of Cultures.

 

Top 10 Prague by Schwinke, Theodore.

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centre right, Defenestration of Prague, New Urbanism

You might have trouble with large luggage. d Seminářská 4 • Map K4 • 222 221798 • www. clementin.cz • KKK U staré paní ( Hotel A no-frills affair, but the clean, modern building is staffed with an amiable crew. Each of the 18 rooms has a minibar and satellite TV, but for better entertainment, catch the acts at the club downstairs. d Michalská 9 • Map L5 • 224 228090 • www. ustarepani.cz • No air conditioning • KKK Josef ) Hotel Modern and trendy in design, Hotel Josef fits in with Prague’s new urban chic image with its simple clean-cut interiors and spacious rooms. d Rybná 20 • Map N2 • 221 700111 • www. hoteljosef.com • KKK Note: Unless otherwise stated, all hotels accept credit cards, and have en-suite bathrooms and air conditioning Price Categories For a standard, K double room per KK night (with breakfast KKK if included), taxes KKKK and extra charges. KKKKK under Kč1,500 Kč1,500–Kč3,000 Kč3,000–Kč4,500 Kč4,500–Kč6,000 over Kč6,000 Malá Strana and Hradčany Hotels Pštrosů !

 

pages: 263 words: 61,784

Patricia Unterman's San Francisco Food Lover's Pocket Guide by Patricia Unterman, Ed Anderson

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Golden Gate Park, New Urbanism, place-making, South of Market, San Francisco

Try octopus salad, grilled sardines, roasted whole fish, a plate of Portuguese cheeses with a tasting flight of port, and vibrant Portuguese wines with your meal. LA TOQUE 1340 McKinstry Street (in the Westin Verasa Hotel), Rutherford; 707-257-5157; Open nightly first seating 5:30 P.M. to 6:45 P.M., second seating 7:45 P.M. to 9:30 P.M.; Expensive; Credit cards: AE, MC, V La Toque has moved to sleek new urban quarters in Napa’s Westin Verasa Hotel. Chef Ken Frank’s voluptuous prix fixe menu brings many courses that showcase rich ingredients—artisanal cheeses, wild mushrooms, and foie gras—that go particularly well with wine. MARTINI HOUSE 1245 Spring Street (at Oak), St. Helena; 707-963-2233;www.martinihouse.com; Friday through Sunday 11:30 A.M. to 3 P.M., Sunday through Thursday 5:30 P.M.

 

pages: 236 words: 66,081

Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age by Clay Shirky

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Andrew Keen, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, citizen journalism, corporate social responsibility, Dean Kamen, experimental economics, experimental subject, fundamental attribution error, invention of movable type, invention of the telegraph, Kevin Kelly, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, social software, Steve Ballmer, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, ultimatum game

Selling gin was made illegal; women sold from bottles hidden beneath their skirts, and some entrepreneurial types created the “puss and mew,” a cabinet set on the streets where a customer could approach and, if they knew the password, hand their money to the vendor hidden inside and receive a dram of gin in return. What made the craze subside wasn’t any set of laws. Gin consumption was treated as the problem to be solved, when it fact it was a reaction to the real problem—dramatic social change and the inability of older civic models to adapt. What helped the Gin Craze subside was the restructuring of society around the new urban realities created by London’s incredible social density, a restructuring that turned London into what we’d recognize as a modern city, one of the first. Many of the institutions we mean when we talk about “the industrialized world” actually arose in response to the social climate created by industrialization, rather than to industrialization itself. Mutual aid societies provided shared management of risk outside the traditional ties of kin and church.

 

pages: 216 words: 69,480

Sweetness and Light: The Mysterious History of the Honeybee by Hattie Ellis

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back-to-the-land, haute couture, New Urbanism, the scientific method, urban decay

But by the time of the Victorians, insects were avidly collected. Specialist groups sprung up, most notably the Entomological Society of London, of which Charles Darwin was a lifelong member. During the summer months, working-class men would find rare species and sell them to enthusiasts. The natural history writer David Elliston has suggested this rise in interest was perhaps a symbol of the new urban middle classes’ need for nature; trapped in their new towns and cities, these fledgling city dwellers needed a memory of freedom and flight. Writers on bees tended to divide into those who were absorbed by the science and those who were commercial beekeepers, who were often down-to-earth people making a living in a rural economy. Both sides had much to learn from each other in this age of improvement: beekeepers found applications for the scientific theories; and those exploring the science—frequently clergymen—were beekeepers themselves and therefore practical in bent, if not explicitly commercial.

 

pages: 212 words: 80,393

Getting By: Estates, Class and Culture in Austerity Britain by Lisa McKenzie

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British Empire, call centre, credit crunch, delayed gratification, falling living standards, full employment, income inequality, low skilled workers, New Urbanism, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, unpaid internship, urban renewal, working poor

Strange, J. (2007) Twentieth-century Britain: Economic, social and cultural change, London: Pearson. Townsend, P. (1954) ‘Measuring poverty’, The British Journal of Sociology, vol 5, no 2, June, pp 130-7. Toynbee, P. (1998) ‘The estate they’re in’, The Guardian, 15 September. Tyler, I. (2013) Revolting subjects: Social abjection and resistance in neoliberal Britain, London: Zed Books. Wacquant, L. (1994) ‘The new urban colour line: the state and fate of the ghetto in post-Fordist America’, in C. Calhoun (ed) Social theory and the politics of identity, Oxford: Blackwell, pp 232-4. Wacquant, L. (2008) Urban outcasts: A comparative sociology of advanced marginality, Cambridge: Polity. Wacquant, L. (2009) Punishing the poor: The neo-liberal government of social insecurity, London: Duke University Press. Wacquant, L. (2010) ‘Crafting the neoliberal state: workfare, prison fare and social insecurity’, Sociological Forum, vol 25, no 2, pp 197-220.

 

pages: 797 words: 227,399

Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bill Joy: nanobots, blue-collar work, borderless world, clean water, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, cuban missile crisis, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Grace Hopper, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, private military company, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Yogi Berra

In short, explains Davis, the population trends have us on the pathway to, as one of his books is entitled, a Planet of Slums. These “megaslums” house literally millions of young, urban poor, where the losers of globalization and the new warriors are concentrated together in shanties and high-rises. Adding fuel to the fire are “the diverse religious, ethnic, and political movements competing for the souls of the new urban poor.” These range from Hindu fundamentalism in the slums of Mumbai, Islamist movements in Casablanca, Pentecostalists in San Salvador, and revolutionary populists in Caracas. These megaslums, really just “stinking mountains of shit,” are “volcanoes waiting to erupt.” Cities are the new hotspots for conflict. Sometimes this violence may have a crossover with crime, but the outcome is often the same.

Imagine the video game Sim City crossed with Google Earth. It would give soldiers the ability to zoom into any neighborhood or even individual structure to see what is going on in real time. According to one report, “You have continuous coverage, around corners and through walls. You would never, for example, lose those mortar bombers who got out of their car and ran away.” By sending in robots that navigate the new urban battlefield, DARPA is hoping to completely rewrite the script of Black Hawk Down. According to DARPA’s director, Dr. Anthony J. Tether, it will give U.S. forces “unprecedented awareness that enables them to shape and control [a] conflict as it unfolds.” Some, though, doubt that it will work out the way the military hopes. Peters, for instance, thinks robots have their role, and that the urban warfare trends will drive their use, but we should not expect too much.

 

pages: 650 words: 203,191

After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire Since 1405 by John Darwin

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agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, deglobalization, deindustrialization, European colonialism, failed state, Francisco Pizarro, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, price mechanism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade

Thus Nagasaki was not so much a closed door as a narrow gateway and a listening post where the bakufu collected information from visiting ships (whose captains were required to write ‘news reports’ for transmission to Edo) and through which it imported books. ‘Dutch knowledge’ percolated slowly among the samurai, teachers and savants. The regime of political seclusion did not mean economic stagnation. Japanese economic growth after 1600 was driven by a remarkable double revolution. Firstly, the political system created a large new urban economy as daimyo and samurai settled in castle towns. The most spectacular case was Edo itself. The sankin kotai rules brought to Edo hundreds of daimyo and their families and vast retinues of samurai.116 By 1700 half of Edo’s 1 million people were samurai retainers living in the great clan compounds that made up nearly three-quarters of the city area. Together the daimyo and the samurai formed a huge concentration of elite consumption for the services and manufactures of the urban merchants, artisans and day-labourers.

Nasser stood forth as an Arab Napoleon. His prestige was matchless: he was the rais (boss). With its large middle class, its great cities and seaports, its literature and cinema, its journalists and teachers, Egypt was the symbol of Arab modernity. Nasser’s pan-Arab nationalism (formally inscribed in Egypt’s newconstitution) chimed with a phase of sharp social change in most Middle Eastern states. To the new urban workers, the growing number of students, the expanding bureaucracy, the young officer class, it offered a political creed and a cultural programme. It promised an end to the Palestinian grievance, through the collective effort of a revitalized nation. Within less than two years of his triumph at Suez, Nasser drewSyria into political union, to form the United Arab Republic. The same year (1958) sawthe end of Hashemite rule in Iraq.

 

pages: 777 words: 186,993

Imagining India by Nandan Nilekani

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affirmative action, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, distributed generation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, joint-stock company, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, land reform, LNG terminal, load shedding, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, pension reform, Potemkin village, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, smart grid, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

Bombay city, once called “Bombay the Beautiful,” an urban vision against the Arabian Sea, atrophied so rapidly postindependence that such a label is now unimaginable. The complicated layers of state administration made it especially difficult to manage such rapid urban growth. This administrative weakness had been in full view during India’s Partition, that intense, bloody amputation of the Indian subcontinent which saw the displacement of hundreds of thousands from the northwest into India. While this mass migration led to the creation of new urban spaces that resettled these people—such as Faridabad, Kalyani and Nilokheri—the bureaucracy impeded the growth of these cities, throttling any strategy for planned growth with its “everything in triplicate” sentiment and its snail-like pace. L. C. Jain, former member of the planning commission who participated in the building of Faridabad, tells me, “We had angry refugees, trigger-happy Pathans, and chaos at the government level.

To figure out if our urban policies have changed in recent years, I meet Ramesh Ramanathan, the other half of Janagraaha’s leadership, over coffee one sunny afternoon in Bangalore. I reach late for our meeting thanks to traffic, but there could not be a more understanding audience for my apologies. Ramesh is in his forties, and his boyish smile under a head of silver hair is both incongruous and charming. I ask him about the possibilities of a new urban vision and he says, “We are making progress in the typical Indian way—two steps forward, one step back.” India’s urban transformation, as Ramesh points out, had begun with the policies of Rajiv Gandhi’s government. Rajiv represented a dynamic shift for Indian policy on a number of fronts, and one of them was his attempt to give cities in independent India a measure of power. With his Nagarpalika bill, Rajiv pushed for the empowerment of local bodies both in the cities and in the villages.

 

pages: 269 words: 104,430

Carjacked: The Culture of the Automobile and Its Effect on Our Lives by Catherine Lutz, Anne Lutz Fernandez

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barriers to entry, car-free, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, failed state, feminist movement, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, inventory management, market design, market fundamentalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, oil shock, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar

McLay, “The Economic Impact of Obesity on Automobile Fuel Consumption,” Engineering Economist, 2006, 51 (4): 307–23. John Pucher and Lewis Dijkstra, “Promoting Safe Walking and Cycling to Improve Public Health: Lessons from the Netherlands and Germany,” American Journal of Public Health, 2004, 93 (9): 1509–16. Ann Forsyth, Reforming Suburbia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005); Peter Katz, The New Urbanism: Toward an Architecture of Community (New York: McGraw-Hill Professional, 1994). Jeff Gearhart, Hans Posselt, Claudette Juska, and Charles Griffith, The Consumer Guide to Toxic Chemicals in Cars, A Report by the Ecology Center, March 2007. Ibid. Douglas Houston, Jun Wu, Paul Ong, and Arthur Winer, “Structural Disparities of Urban Traffic in Southern California: Implications for Vehicle-Related Air Pollution Exposure in Minority and High-Poverty Neighborhoods,” Journal of Urban Affairs, 2004, 26 (5): 565–92.

 

pages: 300 words: 65,976

The Gospel of Food: Everything You Think You Know About Food Is Wrong by Barry Glassner

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Gary Taubes, haute cuisine, income inequality, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, placebo effect, profit motive, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Saturday Night Live, stem cell, urban sprawl, working poor

But waves of Italian, Chinese, Japanese, and Mexican immigrants during the nineteenth century had provided plenty of opportunities for earlier generations of food adventurers. Trillin, p. 71; Pillsbury, p. 158; Gabaccia, p. 7. 21. Gabaccia, pp. 99–105 (contains Sermolino quote); Barbas. 22. Gabaccia, pp. 231. 23. Barbas. 24. Heldke. For the longer history of the term “social capital,” see Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001), pp. 19–20. 25. David Bell, “Fragments for a New Urban Culinary Geography,” Journal for the Study of Food and Society 6 (2002): 10–21. 26. Samantha Kwan, “Consuming the Other: Ethnic Food, Identity Work, and the Appropriation of the Authentic Self,” paper presented at the meeting of the American Sociological Association, August 2003. 27. Sylvia Ferrero, “Comida sin Par: Consumption of Mexican Food in Los Angeles,” pp. 194–219 in Warren Belasco and Philip Scranton, eds., Food Nations (New York: Routledge, 2002; quotes are from p. 215). 28.

 

pages: 142 words: 18,753

Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There by David Brooks

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Community Supported Agriculture, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban planning, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra

Intimate authority isn’t mainly about writing down formal codes and laws; it is about setting up patterns, instilling habits, and creating contexts so that people are most likely to exercise individual responsibility. It means setting up welcome wagons so that new people feel part of an interdependent community. It means volunteering at the youth center so teenagers will have a place to go and be minded. It can be as trivial as the penny jar near the cash register so that the next person will have a penny handy if it’s needed. Or it can be as pervasive as residential projects along the lines of the New Urbanism movement, which are designed to make sure there are eyes on the street, people watching out for each other and subtly upholding community standards of behavior and decency. In true reconciling fashion, intimate authority is a Third Way between excessive individualism on the one hand and imposed formal authority on the other. This is not authority as physics—one powerful body exerting pressure on a smaller body.

 

pages: 306 words: 94,204

Farm City: The Education of an Urban Farmer by Novella Carpenter

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back-to-the-land, crack epidemic, David Attenborough, dumpster diving, Golden Gate Park, haute cuisine, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Mason jar, McMansion, New Urbanism, Port of Oakland, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, urban decay, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog

New York: William Morrow & Company, 1992. Cronon, William. Nature’s Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West. New York: W. W. Norton, 1991. Fernald, Anya; Serena Milano; and Piero Sardo, eds. A World of Presidia: Food, Culture, and Community. Bra, Italy: Slow Food Editore, 2004. Gibbons, Euell. Stalking the Wild Asparagus: Field Guide Edition. New York: David Mackey, 1970. Hough, Michael. City Form and Natural Process: Towards a New Urban Vernacular. London: Routledge, 1984. Johnson, Marilynn. The Second Gold Rush: Oakland and the East Bay in World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. Lawson, Laura. City Bountiful: A Century of Community Gardening in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. MacDonald, Betty. The Egg and I. New York: Harper & Row, 1945. Pellegrini, Angelo. The Unprejudiced Palate: Classic Thoughts on Food and the Good Life.

 

pages: 353 words: 98,267

The Price of Everything: And the Hidden Logic of Value by Eduardo Porter

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Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, means of production, Menlo Park, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, New Urbanism, pension reform, Peter Singer: altruism, pets.com, placebo effect, price discrimination, price stability, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, ultimatum game, unpaid internship, urban planning, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War, young professional

The commentary on the different views on fairness and luck in Europe and the United States draws from Roland Benabou and Jean Tirole, “Belief in a Just World and Redistributive Politics,” NBER Working Paper, March 2005; and World Values Survey, 2005-2008 wave (http://www.wvsevsdb.com/wvs/WVSAnalizeStudy.jsp, accessed 08/09/2010). The discussion on racial diversity and support for redistributive policies draws from William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Vintage Books, 1997), p. 202. Data on tipping patterns in the United States come from Daniel Kahneman, Jack Knetsch, and Richard Thaler, “Fairness as a Constraint on Profit Seeking: Entitlements in the Market,” American Economic Review, Vol. 76, September 1986, pp. 728-741; and Michael Lynn, “Tipping in Restaurants and Around the Globe: An Interdisciplinary Review,” in Morris Altman, ed., Handbook of Contemporary Behavioral Economics, Foundations and Developments (Armonk, N.Y.: M .E.

 

pages: 340 words: 91,387

Stealth of Nations by Robert Neuwirth

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, big-box store, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, full employment, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, pirate software, profit motive, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, thinkpad, upwardly mobile

., System D income in, 8.1 watches, counterfeit, 5.1 water system, Lagos government monitoring of, 12.1 lack of municipal supply, 3.1–3.2 wealth gap, 9.1–9.2, 9.3, 12.1 Wealth of Nations, The (Smith), 1.1, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 6.1, 7.1, 8.1, 9.1, 9.2, 10.1, 11.1, 12.1 Weber, Max, 3.1 Wei, Alex, 2.1, 10.1, 11.1, 11.2, 11.3, 11.4 Wen, 4.1–4.2 Whimzies: or, a New Cast of Characters (Braithwaite), 8.1 Whole Foods, 8.1 wholesalers, 7.1 Wholesome Bakery, 8.1 Windows, 5.1 Winstanley, Gerrard, 9.1 women, 12.1 Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO), 11.1, 12.1 World Bank, 9.1 World War II, profiteering in, 6.1 XYG (Xinyi Glass), 3.1 Zara, 7.1–7.2 see also Inditex Zeltner, Louis, 8.1 Zhang, Ethan, 2.1–2.2, 4.1–4.2, 5.1–5.2 Zigas, Caleb, 8.1, 8.2 Zulehner, Carl, 5.1 ABOUT THE AUTHOR ROBERT NEUWIRTH is the author of Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, a New Urban World. He has worked as a business reporter and an investigative reporter, and has covered cops, courts, and political campaigns. His articles have appeared in a variety of publications, including The New York Times, The Washington Post, Scientific American, Dwell, Fortune, Forbes, The Nation, and Wired. Neuwirth has also taught in the college program at Rikers Island, New York City’s jail, and at Columbia University’s School of Journalism.

 

pages: 299 words: 83,854

Shortchanged: Life and Debt in the Fringe Economy by Howard Karger

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big-box store, blue-collar work, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, delayed gratification, financial deregulation, illegal immigration, labor-force participation, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, low skilled workers, microcredit, mortgage debt, New Journalism, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, payday loans, predatory finance, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, underbanked, working poor

CHAPTER 11: WHAT CAN BE DONE TO CONTROL THE FRINGE ECONOMY? 1 John P. Caskey, Lower Income American, Higher Cost Financial Services (Madison, WI: Filene Research Institute, 1997). 2 Industry Pages, “Check Cashing—Federally Regulated, State Regulated or Unregulated?” April 24, 2003, www.industrypages.com/clmman/publish/article_33.shtml.235 3 For a fuller discussion of poverty see William J. Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Vintage, 1997); Dalton Conley, Being Black, Living in the Red (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999); Katherine Newman, No Shame in My Game (New York: Vintage, 2000); Thomas Shapiro and Edward Wolff, Assets for the Poor: The Benefits of Spreading Asset Ownership (New York: Russell Sage Foundation Publications, 2001); David Shipler, The Working Poor (New York: Vintage, 2005); and Matthew Lee, City Limits (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981).

 

pages: 349 words: 114,038

Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens

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4chan, airport security, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, union organizing, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law

In 1815, as the Industrial Revolution peaked, British landowners (the old money) enacted the Corn Laws to block the transfer of power to the new middle classes by taxing industrialization. The historian David Cody writes, "After a lengthy campaign, opponents of the law finally got their way in 1846 -- a significant triumph which was indicative of the new political power of the English middle class." By 1850, the Industrial Revolution was over and across Europe, power shifted away from landowners and towards the new urban middle classes. In the early twenty-first century, the upper classes are business and political elites who accumulated their wealth and power over the last fifty years. The middle classes are all those who "got connected," soon to be most of world's population, and the lower classes are the shrinking few who cannot yet get on line. We will, over the next decades, see similar attempts by this generation of old money to throttle the growing power of this global digital middle class.

 

pages: 346 words: 101,255

The Big Necessity: The Unmentionable World of Human Waste and Why It Matters by Rose George

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American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Anton Chekhov, Celtic Tiger, clean water, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, informal economy, job satisfaction, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, land reform, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Steven Pinker, urban planning

It is easier to lay pipe networks because the distances are less daunting, and people generally have enough money to pay for them. Sanitation is a central feature of the concept of the city, at least since the days of the nineteenth century when the medieval, chaotic urban environment was tamed by sanitarians and engineers, and the city came to be defined as a living environment that successfully separates humans from their waste. Historians refer to this new urban template as “the sanitarian city,” or, if they’re more engineering-minded, the hydraulic city. Even the engineers don’t call it the brick or road city, because it was sanitary infrastructure that was the mark of successful urban living. It made successful urban living possible. Slums defy this logic. They defeat urban planners. They are so shifting, changing, and chaotic that experts don’t even dare give them a firm definition.

 

pages: 459 words: 103,153

Adapt: Why Success Always Starts With Failure by Tim Harford

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Andrew Wiles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, Deep Water Horizon, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, food miles, Gerolamo Cardano, global supply chain, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Harrison: Longitude, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Netflix Prize, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, PageRank, Piper Alpha, profit motive, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, rolodex, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, web application, X Prize

fta=y&pagewanted=all; and a press release from the Taiwan International Orchid Show 2010, http://www.tios.com.tw/tios_test/eng/5_2taiwan.php 148 Silicon Valley venture capitalists need lose little sleep: Jim Pickard, ‘Venture capital fund turned £74m into £5m’, Financial Times, 9 March 2010, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/76859892-2ae1-11df-886b-00144feabdc0.html; and Josh Lerner’s opening statement in The Economist debate on Industrial Policy: http://www.econo-mist.com/debate/overview/177/Industrial%20policy 149 The Holy Roman Emperor himself: Sebastian Mallaby, ‘The politically incorrect guide to ending poverty’, The Atlantic, July/August 2010, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2010/07/the-politically-incorrect-guide-to-ending-poverty/8134/1/; Wikipedia; Simon Heffer, ‘Lübeck: the town that said no to Hitler’, Daily Telegraph, 2 June 2009, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/city-breaks/5428909/Lübeck-The-town-that-said-no-to-Hitler.html 151 Romer has pushed the charter city concept: Paul Romer, ‘For richer, for poorer’, Prospect, issue 167, 27 January 2010. 151 Before turning down the job of Chief Economist of the World Bank: David Warsh, ‘Learning by doing’, Economic Principals, 19 July 2009, http://www.economicprincipals.com/issues/2009.07.19/571.html 151 He argues that foreign ownership: author interview with Paul Romer, 20 September 2010. 152 It’s a free economic zone: Sean Campbell, ‘Metropolis from scratch’, Next American City, issue 8, April 2005, http://americancity.org/magazine/issue/i08/; and Greg Lindsay, ‘Cisco’s big bet on New Songdo: creating cities from scratch’, Fast Company, 1 February 2010, http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/142/the-new-new-urbanism.html 5 Climate change or: Changing the rules for success 154 ‘I think we’re going to find’: Prince Charles, interview with the BBC, October 2005, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4382264.stm 154 ‘Evolution is cleverer than you are’: obituary: Professor Leslie Orgel, The Times, 6 December 2007, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/obituaries/article3006557.ece 154 A dazzling lecturer at London’s Royal Insttution: Gabrielle Walker & Sir David King, The Hot Topic (Bloomsbury, 2008), pp. 14–18; Wikipedia entry on John Tyndall, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Tyndall; & James Rodger Fleming, Historical Perspectives on Climate Change (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 68–71. 155 Earth’s atmosphere contains traces of other gases: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report, Table 6.1, http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_tar/?

 

pages: 369 words: 98,776

The God Species: Saving the Planet in the Age of Humans by Mark Lynas

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back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Haber-Bosch Process, ice-free Arctic, invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Negawatt, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, planetary scale, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, special drawing rights, Stewart Brand, University of East Anglia

This challenges much conventional wisdom, however. It suggests that rural depopulation should not necessarily be opposed with “sustainable development” schemes aimed at improving rural life to stop people migrating to cities. Equally, instead of encouraging low-tech traditional farming methods it may be preferable to focus on improving high-yield mechanized agriculture on the most fertile farmland to feed the new urban residents, while allowing mountainsides and other marginal lands to revert to forest. This is already happening by default in Latin America and elsewhere: In Vietnam, forest area has been increasing since the 1990s after small-scale, unproductive agriculture was made uncompetitive by more intensive, larger-scale farming in the more open market economy. The environment has benefited as extensive areas were abandoned by people moving to take up jobs in the expanding cities.69 This trend should be cause for optimism that we can make progress in meeting the biodiversity planetary boundary.

 

pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, call centre, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, payday loans, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

Sarah O’Connor, “Amazon Unpacked,” Financial Times, February 8, 2013, http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/ed6a985c-70bd-11e2-85d0-00144feab49a.html#slide0. 9. Don Peck, “How a New Jobless Era Will Transform America,” The Atlantic, March 2010, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2010/03/how-a-new-jobless-era-will-transform-america/307919/?single_page=true. 10. Jim Clifton, The Coming Jobs War (New York: Gallup Press, 2011). 11. William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor, 1st ed. (New York: Vintage, 1997). 12. Charles Murray, Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960–2010 (New York: Crown Forum, 2013, repr.). 13. Murray argues that harmful changes in values are the most important explanatory factor. As he writes, “The deterioration of social capital in lower-class white America strips the people who live there of one of the main resources through which Americans have pursued happiness.

 

pages: 314 words: 83,631

Tubes: A Journey to the Center of the Internet by Andrew Blum

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air freight, cable laying ship, call centre, global village, Hibernia Atlantic: Project Express, if you build it, they will come, inflight wifi, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mercator projection, Network effects, New Urbanism, packet switching, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, urban planning, WikiLeaks

What was the physical path in there? And what might that tell me about how everything else connected? What was the reductio ad absurdum of the tubes? The Internet was a human construction, its tendrils spreading around the world. How was all that stuff shoehorned into what was out there already? Did it seep under buildings or along “telephone” poles? Did it take over old abandoned warehouses or form new urban neighborhoods? I didn’t want a PhD in electrical engineering, but I hoped what was going on inside the black box and along the yellow wires could be ever so slightly, well, illuminated. Hankins was perpetually on the road and couldn’t stop. But he had a guy in San Jose who could tell me something about the power of light. Brocade’s headquarters was in a mirror-windowed building in the shadow of the San Jose airport, in Silicon Valley.

 

pages: 341 words: 89,986

Bricks & Mortals: Ten Great Buildings and the People They Made by Tom Wilkinson

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Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, experimental subject, false memory syndrome, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, housing crisis, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

One of the most outrageous is Grauman’s Chinese Theatre on Hollywood Boulevard. With its handprint-studded forecourt and lurid oriental decor, it’s an opium den of the masses. Cinema’s theatrical drag act was popular in Germany too, albeit not with everyone. Siegfried Kracauer, a well known journalist who had trained as an architect (and was a childhood friend of Adorno’s), frequently wrote on the topic of popular entertainment, which he thought distracted the new urban classes from Germany’s febrile political situation, lulling them into a false sense of security. In a 1926 article entitled ‘Cult of Distraction’ Kracauer criticised the pretensions of cinemas to the fake unity of theatres – to the status of the Wagnerian Gesamtkunstwerk. Instead, he wanted cinemas to expose the cracks. ‘In the streets of Berlin,’ he wrote ominously, ‘one is not seldom struck by the momentary insight that one day all this will suddenly burst apart.

 

pages: 323 words: 95,939

Present Shock: When Everything Happens Now by Douglas Rushkoff

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algorithmic trading, Andrew Keen, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, big-box store, Black Swan, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, cashless society, citizen journalism, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, disintermediation, Donald Trump, double helix, East Village, Elliott wave, European colonialism, Extropian, facts on the ground, Flash crash, game design, global supply chain, global village, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, Inbox Zero, invention of agriculture, invention of hypertext, invisible hand, iterative process, John Nash: game theory, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, Law of Accelerating Returns, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Merlin Mann, Milgram experiment, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, passive investing, pattern recognition, peak oil, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nelson Elliott, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing test, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K

Ironically, perhaps, an invention designed to affirm the primacy and ubiquity of the sacred ended up becoming a tool for the expansion of the secular economy. Trade had been expanding for a century or two already, and keeping track of things numerically—as well as temporally—had become much more important. If the previous era was characterized by the calendar, this new clockwork universe would be characterized by the schedule. The bells of the monastery became the bells of the new urban society. Trade, work, meals, and the market were all punctuated by the ringing of bells. In line with other highly centralizing Renaissance inventions such as currency and the corporation, bells were controlled by central authorities. This gave rise to distrust, as workers were never sure if their employers were measuring time fairly. The emergence of the clock tower gave everyone access to the same time, allowing for verification while also amplifying time’s authority.

 

pages: 320 words: 96,006

The End of Men: And the Rise of Women by Hanna Rosin

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affirmative action, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, delayed gratification, edge city, facts on the ground, financial independence, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, Results Only Work Environment, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, union organizing, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, young professional

In 1950, roughly one in twenty men: According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey, the employment-population ratio for men between twenty-five and fifty-four was 95.3 percent in 1950 and 81.4 percent in 2011. When asked by The New York Times: Andrew Goldman, “Larry Summers, Un-king of Kumbaya,” The New York Times Magazine, May 12, 2011. reveals the real McDowell County: Bill Bishop, The Big Sort (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2008), p. 128. Starting in the 1970s: William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Knopf, 1996). African-American boys whose fathers: Keith Finlay and David Neumark, “Is Marriage Always Good for Children? Evidence from Families Affected by Incarceration,” Journal of Human Resources 45, no. 4 (2010): 1046–1088. the greatest gender gap in college graduation rates: Ralph Richard Banks, Is Marriage for White People? How the African American Marriage Decline Affects Everyone (New York: Dutton, 2011).

 

pages: 355 words: 63

The Elusive Quest for Growth: Economists' Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics by William R. Easterly

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Andrei Shleifer, business climate, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, interchangeable parts, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, large denomination, manufacturing employment, Network effects, New Urbanism, open economy, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

Wetzel, Deborah L. 1995. ”The Macroeconomics of Fiscal Deficits in Ghana: 1960-94.” Ph.D. dissertation, Oxford University. White, Joseph, and Aaron Wildavsky. 1989.The Deficit and the Public Interest: The Search for Responsible Budgeting in the 1980s. Berkeley: University of California Press. Wiles, Peter. 1953. ”Soviet Economy Outpaces the West.” 580. Wilson, W. 1996. When Work Disappears: Knopf. Foreign Afairs (July): 566- The World of the New Urban Poor. New York: Winkler, Max. 1933. Foreign Bonds: An Autopsy. Philadelphia: Roland Swain Company. Wood, Adrian. 1988. ”Global Trends in Real Exchange Rates: 1960-84.” World Bank discussion paper 35. References Readingand Further 331 World Bank. 1975. Kenya: Into the Second Decade. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. World Bank. 1979. World Debt Tables 2979. Washington, D.C. World Bank. 1981.

 

pages: 309 words: 100,573

Cockpit Confidential: Everything You Need to Know About Air Travel: Questions, Answers, and Reflections by Patrick Smith

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airline deregulation, airport security, Atul Gawande, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, collective bargaining, inflight wifi, low cost carrier, Maui Hawaii, Mercator projection, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, race to the bottom, Skype, Tenerife airport disaster

If you think that’s bad, a 727 once suffered an engine separation after ingesting a frozen chunk of its own leaked toilet waste, inspiring the line “when the shit hits the turbofan.” At the end of a flight, the blue fluid, along with your contributions to it, are vacuumed into a tank on the back of a truck. (The truck driver’s job is even lousier than the copilot’s, but it pays better.) The driver then wheels around to the back of the airport and furtively offloads the waste in a ditch behind a parking lot. In truth I don’t know what he does with it. Time to start a new urban legend. Before boarding, we were told our flight was weight restricted because of a malfunctioning system. Whose decision is it to take off when something important isn’t working? Airplanes can depart with inoperative components—usually nonessential equipment carried in duplicate or triplicate—only in accordance with guidelines laid out in two thick manuals called the Minimum Equipment List (MEL) and Configuration Deviation List (CDL).

 

pages: 297 words: 89,176

Cheese and Culture: A History of Cheese and Its Place in Western Civilization by Paul Kindstedt

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agricultural Revolution, New Urbanism, trade route

Initially the reclaimed lands were turned into arable fields that were planted with bread cereals, resulting in a dramatic rise in grain production between 1000 and 1300; dairying in contrast continued to be practiced on a small scale in the salt-marsh regions as it had been in the past. The new peasant farms on reclaimed lands prospered, and the population of Holland grew steadily. Grain surpluses produced on the small farms supported the growth of new urban settlements including Leiden, Haarlem, Amsterdam, the Hague, Delft, Rotterdam, and Gouda. At the same time, Holland’s strategic location on the North Sea and near the mouth of the Rhine River encouraged the development of maritime trade that brought new prosperity to the rising coastal towns and cities. The reclaimed Dutch countryside of the fourteenth century, oriented around cereal production to feed the growing domestic urban population, appeared to be poised for steady growth and prosperity.

 

pages: 267 words: 79,905

Creating Unequal Futures?: Rethinking Poverty, Inequality and Disadvantage by Ruth Fincher, Peter Saunders

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barriers to entry, ending welfare as we know it, financial independence, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, open economy, pink-collar, positional goods, purchasing power parity, shareholder value, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

Nieuwenhuysen, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, pp. 71–102 Kohl, J. 1990 Minimum Standards in Old Age Security and the Problem of Poverty in Old Age, Luxembourg Income Study Working Paper No. 50, CEPS/INSTEAD, Luxembourg Lamb, Stephen 1996 Completing School in Australia: Trends in the 1990s LSAY Report No 1, Australian Council of Educational Research, Melbourne ——1997 School Achievement and Initial Education and Labour Market Outcomes LSAY Report No 4, Australian Council of Educational Research, Melbourne Langmore J. and Quiggin, J. 1994 Work for All: Full Employment in the Nineties, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne Latham, M. 1998 Civilising Global Capital, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards Lee, P. 1994 ‘Housing and spatial deprivation: relocating the underclass and the new urban poor’ Urban Studies vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1191–209 238 PDF OUTPUT c: ALLEN & UNWIN r: DP2\BP4401W\MAIN p: (02) 6232 5991 f: (02) 6232 4995 36 DAGLISH STREET CURTIN ACT 2605 238 REFERENCES Leibfried, S. 1993 ‘Towards a European welfare state’ New Perspectives on the Welfare State in Europe ed. C. Jones, Routledge, London Lydall, H. 1968 The Structure of Earnings, Oxford University Press, London Maher, C. 1999 ‘Locational disadvantage and concentrations: a review and the evaluation of the findings’ Houses and Jobs in Cities and Regions: Research in Honour of Chris Maher ed.

 

pages: 322 words: 88,197

Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson

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Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Landlord's Game, lone genius, megacity, Minecraft, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern

By the end of the nineteenth century, a new kind of wonderland became imaginable, one that took the cosmopolitan ethos that had been growing for the preceding two centuries and turned it into a weekend attraction. The wellsprings that fed this new form were multiple: the new interest in nature as spectacle; the runaway popularity of Great Exhibitions, like the Crystal Palace of 1851, that showcased objects of wonder from around the world; the new urban parks being designed in New York and Paris and Boston; and the roving circuses of Barnum and Bailey. Many of these environments derived from conventions that had first been developed behind the fences of royal estates and other aristocratic properties: follies, gardens—nature sculpted and arranged for the amusement of an idle stroll or a carriage ride. The public zoos that first appeared in European and American cities in the middle of the nineteenth century embodied these many influences: the newfound interest in experiencing nature; the global vistas of an imperial age; the private menageries of royal courts now opened to the public.

 

pages: 452 words: 110,488

The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans Are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead by David Callahan

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, corporate governance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, forensic accounting, full employment, game design, greed is good, high batting average, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, market fundamentalism, McMansion, microcredit, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, Thorstein Veblen, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, young professional

See Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000);Robert K. Fullinwider, ed., Civil Society, Democracy, and Civic Renewal (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 1999);and Theda Skocpol and Morris P. Fiorina, eds., Civic Engagement in American Democracy (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution/The Russell Sage Foundation, 1999). [back] 10. This section on sprawl and new urbanism draws heavily from David Callahan and Stephen Heintz, eds., Quality of Life 2000: The New Politics of Work and Community (New York: Demos, 2002), 77–118. Relevant essays in the book include Robert Liberty, "Is the American Dream Endless Sprawl?"; Philip Langdon, "New Development, Traditional Patterns"; "Growth: New Challenges and Opportunities in a New American Landscape—An Interagency Report by the Clinton/Gore Administration"; and Ray Oldenburg, "Our Vanishing 'Third Places.'"

 

pages: 440 words: 108,137

The Meritocracy Myth by Stephen J. McNamee

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, collective bargaining, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, failed state, fixed income, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, joint-stock company, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, occupational segregation, pink-collar, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, school choice, Scientific racism, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, white flight, young professional

New York: Times Books. Wilson, Kenneth L., and Alejandro Portes. 1980. “Immigration Enclaves: An Analysis of the Labor Market Experiences of Cubans in Miami.” American Journal of Sociology 86:295–319. Wilson, William Julius. 1987. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ———. 1996. When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor. New York: Knopf. Chapter 5 Making the Grade Education and Mobility To those of you who received honors, awards, and distinctions, I say, well done. And to the C students, I say, you too can be president of the United States. —George W. Bush, Yale commencement address, thirty-three years after his graduation According to the American Dream, education identifies and selects intelligent, talented, and motivated individuals and provides educational training in direct proportion to individual merit.

 

pages: 261 words: 86,905

How to Speak Money: What the Money People Say--And What It Really Means by John Lanchester

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asset allocation, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Black Swan, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, Dava Sobel, David Graeber, disintermediation, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, estate planning, financial innovation, Flash crash, forward guidance, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, high net worth, High speed trading, hindsight bias, income inequality, inflation targeting, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kodak vs Instagram, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, loss aversion, margin call, McJob, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, Nikolai Kondratiev, Nixon shock, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, paradox of thrift, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, working poor, yield curve

To worry about these consequences of extreme inequality has nothing to do with being envious of the rich and everything to do with the fear that rapidly growing top incomes are a threat to the wellbeing of everyone else.85 This issue just isn’t going to go away, and I would add that it is a problem not just for the Western world but for the emerging world too, perhaps especially for China, which had historically gone a long way towards abolishing inequality, at what must be admitted was a very high price, but has now taken a long stride towards prosperity, at the cost of greatly increasing inequality. The danger facing China comes from the fractures caused by that inequality. We already see rising tensions between this new urban workforce, the new Chinese middle class, and the rural poverty it’s leaving behind. In addition there is friction between the coast and the center, between the factories and the farms, and increasing problems with corruption and maladministration. All this matters for the rest of the world, because of China’s centrality to the world economy as a producer of so much and increasingly as a consumer too, especially of luxury goods.

 

When the Money Runs Out: The End of Western Affluence by Stephen D. King

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Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, congestion charging, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, endowment effect, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, loss aversion, market clearing, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, railway mania, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population

At the same time, economies with low per capita incomes and rising income inequality may be able to expand relatively easily 159 4099.indd 159 29/03/13 2:23 PM When the Money Runs Out if, for example, there is support for political reform to allow a faster rate of economic growth. Think, for example, of China’s economic success – thanks to reforms launched by Deng Xiaoping – since the 1980s. Even with high levels of income inequality, rapid growth can keep Smith’s melancholy at bay. Indeed, China’s success has been accompanied by a persistent rise in income inequality. Fast-­developing economies typically go through a period of rapidly rising inequality as the new urban ‘rich’ see their incomes fast outstripping those of the rural poor, thanks to higher levels of productivity in manufacturing than in rural endeavours. Eventually, however, this process should go into reverse: a rapid reduction in the number of people working on the land leads to an increase in productivity for the remainder, allowing their incomes to catch up with those available in the distant metropolis.

 

pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

The choices they make can segregate us further or create new connections; the algorithms they devise can exclude voices or bring more people into the fold; the interfaces they invent can expand our sense of human possibility or limit it to the already familiar. Online and off, the people who create social structures need to be aware of and sensitive to human difference. This difference is crucial to realizing the democratizing potential of technology. The range of voices and perspectives exposed must be expanded; cultural diversity and cultural democracy are intertwined. In a powerful sense, programmers are the new urban planners, shaping the virtual frontier into the spaces we occupy, building the boxes into which we fit our lives, and carving out the routes we travel—which is why more of us need to learn to write code. What vision of a vibrant, thriving city informs their view? Is it a place that fosters chance encounters or somewhere that favors the predictable? Are the communities mixed or gated? Are they full of privately owned shopping malls and sponsored billboards or are there truly public squares?

 

pages: 471 words: 97,152

Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism by George A. Akerlof, Robert J. Shiller

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affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, market bubble, market clearing, mental accounting, Mikhail Gorbachev, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

Wentura, Dirk. 2005. “The Unknown Self: The Social Cognition Perspective.” In Werner Greve, Klaus Rothermund, and Dirk Wentura, eds., The Adaptive Self: Personal Continuity and Intentional Self-Development. Cambridge, Mass.: Hogrefe and Huber, pp. 203–22. Wilson, William J. 1987. The Truly Disadvantaged. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ———. 1996. When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor. New York: Knopf. “Wilson Insistent.” 1913. Washington Post, June 15, p. 4. Wolk, Carel, and Loren A. Nikolai. 1997. “Personality Types of Accounting Students and Faculty: Comparisons and Implications.” Journal of Accounting Education 15(1):1–17. Woodford, Michael. 2001. “Imperfect Common Knowledge and the Effects of Monetary Policy.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 8673, December.

 

The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape by Brian Ladd

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, full employment, New Urbanism, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, urban planning, urban renewal

They did not want to restore the Communists to power (though in this case there probably were a few more exceptions), but they sought to hold onto certain memories and experiences of life in the Communist state. A third group that wanted to wipe the square clean and start anew might present itself as free from these longings, but others have imputed to it yet another nostalgia: for the heroic architecture of the 1920s that claimed the ability to create a new urban world. The motivations on all sides deserve more careful attention, which will help us better understand what is at stake in their polemics. The palace mockup that stood during 1993 and 1994 probably marked the high point of the debate. The scaffolding extended westward from the empty Palace of the Republic; a team of Parisian art students painted Schlüter's and Eosander's facades on strips of canvas which were then mounted on the outside.

 

pages: 385 words: 105,627

The Man Who Loved China: The Fantastic Story of the Eccentric Scientist Who Unlocked the Mysteries of the Middle Kingdom by Simon Winchester

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Berlin Wall, British Empire, David Attenborough, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Etonian, Fellow of the Royal Society, index card, invention of gunpowder, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, New Urbanism, Ralph Waldo Emerson, stakhanovite, Stephen Hawking, Ted Kaczynski, trade route

The population of 38 million puts it in a league not so much with other cities as with entire respectably sized countries—it is more populous than Iraq, for instance, bigger than Malaysia, bigger than Peru. The arithmetic is relentless. Every day 800 babies are born in Chongqing and 500 people die—many of them from emphysema, since the air quality is so bad, or by their own hand, so firmly have the new urban phenomena of angst and anomie taken hold. Thirteen hundred of the rural poor stream into the city each day to try to grab for themselves some of the riches that are so clearly being generated within. Thus some 1,600 new people every day are added to the population—the equivalent of all the people of Luxembourg welding themselves onto the city every year. To accommodate these numbers new skyscrapers are being flung up with furious abandon.

 

pages: 1,797 words: 390,698

Power at Ground Zero: Politics, Money, and the Remaking of Lower Manhattan by Lynne B. Sagalyn

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affirmative action, airport security, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, estate planning, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, informal economy, intermodal, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, place-making, rent control, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, the High Line, time value of money, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional

When they are not united, developers are able to exploit the fissures among government agencies to their advantage. Similarly, a foundation of trust between the public sector and private developer is essential to resolving the inevitable problems that crop up continually in the development of complex large-scale city-building projects. It is essential to success. Ambition worked against an identity of interests at Ground Zero. Though complicated and protracted, the struggles did bring forth a new urban precinct. Aspirations for revitalization of the city’s historical business center had been on the forefront of city policymaking for decades. Ironically, it took tragedy and the opportunity it begat to transform the historic fundamentals of lower Manhattan. Power at Ground Zero chronicles the role of politics and money in rebuilding the Trade Center site after 9/11 and how the alliances, compromises, and personalities of those involved shaped the achievements (and disappointments) of this most significant challenge to the city of New York and the nation.

Eckstut had designed the well-regarded master plan for Battery Park City with Alex Cooper in his former firm. To reconstruct the underground, the PA needed to understand what was going to be built above on the site, and Eckstut was asked to develop a transportation and infrastructure master plan that would allow the PA to connect what it was doing below with what would happen above. His agenda was to connect the two levels and make them seamless. The work was driven by the idea of creating a new urban district, a strong pedestrian public realm that related to the streets surrounding the site. A sequence of public spaces would connect transit on and adjacent to the site, the Winter Garden at Battery Park City, and a potential new commuter rail connection by way of concourses and arcades lined with retail shops. He developed a full-scale model of the site, above and below ground, which the Port Authority insisted would yield far more specific and detailed engineering plans than those of the LMDC teams, even though those teams were also working with extensive models of the underground as a necessary tool to plan the retail shops, bus depots to accommodate the crowds expected to visit the memorial, and transportation terminal the Port Authority demanded.30 Those who saw Eckstut’s plans reported that they resembled the rejected Beyer Blinder Bell schemes.

The transforming neighborhood was no longer Ground Zero, though the moniker for the Trade Center site would be hard to let go for many citizens and the media alike. For so many years, political language served as a stand-in for substance. Rhetorical language in particular had become a form of political action throughout the stages of planning and in the troubled interlude of controversy and conflict before construction on the site transformed the sixteen acres into a new urban place populated with daily activity. Far from inactive, the interlude could only deliver promises and more promises but now it had ended. The interlude was over. Enough was in place so the future rebuild of the whole was foreseeable, even though several pieces of the master plan were yet to come, and even though what was delivered was not the exact vision that had been promised, and even though the full urban fabric of the place was still evolving and the security issues of this twice-targeted site had yet to be tested.

 

pages: 913 words: 299,770

A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn

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affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, death of newspapers, desegregation, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, friendly fire, full employment, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, land reform, Mercator projection, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, very high income, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

There were no sewers in the slums, and filthy water drained into yards and alleys, into the cellars where the poorest of the poor lived, bringing with it a typhoid epidemic in 1837, typhus in 1842. In the cholera epidemic of 1832, the rich fled the city; the poor stayed and died. These poor could not be counted on as political allies of the government. But they were there—like slaves, or Indians—invisible ordinarily, a menace if they rose. There were more solid citizens, however, who might give steady support to the system—better-paid workers, landowning farmers. Also, there was the new urban white-collar worker, born in the rising commerce of the time, described by Thomas Cochran and William Miller (The Age of Enterprise): Dressed in drab alpaca, hunched over a high desk, this new worker credited and debited, indexed and filed, wrote and stamped invoices, acceptances, bills of lading, receipts. Adequately paid, he had some extra money and leisure time. He patronized sporting events and theaters, savings banks and insurance companies.

He planned a “Poor People’s Encampment” in Washington, this time not with the paternal approval of the President. And he went to Memphis, Tennessee, to support a strike of garbage workers in that city. There, standing on a balcony outside his hotel room, he was shot to death by an unseen marksman. The Poor People’s Encampment went on, and then it was broken up by police action, just as the World War I veterans’ Bonus Army of 1932 was dispersed. The killing of King brought new urban outbreaks all over the country, in which thirty-nine people were killed, thirty-five of them black. Evidence was piling up that even with all of the civil rights laws now on the books, the courts would not protect blacks against violence and injustice: In the 1967 riots in Detroit, three black teen-agers were killed in the Algiers Motel. Three Detroit policemen and a black private guard were tried for this triple murder.

 

pages: 341 words: 116,854

The Devil's Playground: A Century of Pleasure and Profit in Times Square by James Traub

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Anton Chekhov, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, fear of failure, Jane Jacobs, jitney, megastructure, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, rent control, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal

The rest of Times Square, for all its seediness, was a functioning entertainment district. And so whatever was lost of Times Square in the process of development did not have to be sacrificed for the good of the neighborhood. Indeed, the angriest critics of the new Times Square felt that the very act of “developing” such a place was a profanation, a blow against urbanness itself. Writing in The New Yorker in 1991, Brendan Gill described Times Square as the heart of a new urban Disneyland. In place of “a gaudy, tawdry medley of theatres, restaurants, rehearsal halls, hotels,” and so on, Gill wrote, public officials and private developers had fostered “a cold-blooded corporate simulacrum of an amusement park, designed to contain millions of square feet of offices filled with tens of thousands of office drones.” The Municipal Art Society’s simulation had persuaded Paul Goldberger that Times Square’s spirit of “contained chaos” would evaporate amid the office towers.

 

pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

“Ethnocomputing: ICT in Cultural and Social Context.” Communications of the ACM 49, no. 1 (2006): 130. Teich, Albert H., ed. Technology and the Future. 9th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson, 2003. Thorne, K., and A. Kouzmin. “Cyberpunk-Web 1.0 ‘Egoism’ Greets Group-Web 2.0 ‘Narcissism’: Convergence, Consumption, and Surveillance in the Digital Divide.” Administrative Theory & Praxis 30, no. 3 (2008): 299-323. Thrift, N. “New Urban Eras and Old Technological Fears: Reconfiguring the Goodwill of Electronic Things.” Urban Studies 33, no. 8 (1996): 1463. Van Dijck, J., and D. Nieborg. “Wikinomics and Its Discontents: A Critical Analysis of Web 2.0 Business Manifestos.” New Media & Society 11, no. 5 (2009): 855. Verheul, Jaap, ed. Dreams of Paradise, Visions of Apocalypse: Utopia and Dystopia in American Culture. Amsterdam: VU University Press, 2004.

 

pages: 391 words: 22,799

To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise by Bethany Moreton

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, global village, informal economy, invisible hand, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, price anchoring, Ralph Nader, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, walkable city, Washington Consensus, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, Works Progress Administration

Almost evÂ�eryÂ�one who wants a job has one,” and the state was just a bumbling, Â�risible tax collector.15 In this imagined homeland, rural white virtue offered a hiding place from the twentieth century’s tempests of creative destruction. Throughout most of the preceding century, the Ozarks periÂ�odically offered the same comfort to a nation deeply ambivalent about the modern incorporation of America. Urbanites dazed by sudden, unchecked industrialization in the early 1900s often located the new urban€pathologies in the polyglot work force that staffed the factories and filled the€ tenements. The Ozarks presented a dramatic contrast. Northwest Arkansas and Southern Missouri have historically been among the whitest places in the country—over 95 percent white as late as 1996. The African-American proportion of the population in Wal-Â�Mart’s Benton County has stayed under 1 percent since the close of the Civil War.16 Moreover, the oldest waves of American immigration predominated— eighÂ�teenth-Â�century EnÂ�glish and Scotch-Â�Irish, pre–Civil War Germans. 10 OUR FATHERS’ AMER I CA Like much of the South’s rural interior, the region remained virtually untouched by the Southern and Eastern European immigration waves of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, the Catholics and Jews who made up the industrial work force in the North.

 

Beginning R: The Statistical Programming Language by Mark Gardener

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correlation coefficient, distributed generation, natural language processing, New Urbanism, p-value, statistical model

For example, if you wanted to reverse their order you would type the following: > cbind(bird, bird.extra)[ii,6:1] Using cbind() is easier than the matrix() command because you retain the row and column names in the newly created matrix. It is possible to use the matrix() command, but you would then have to re-establish the names. In the following example a new matrix is created using the existing data and the new Urban data: > matrix(c(bird, Urban), ncol = 6)[ii,] [,1] [,2] [,3] [,4] [,5] [,6] [1,] 4 0 6 0 0 1 [2,] 9 3 0 0 2 9 [3,] 19 3 5 0 2 8 [4,] 46 16 8 4 0 28 [5,] 47 10 40 2 2 11 [6,] 50 0 10 7 0 9 The sort index is applied to re-order the rows. You see that the names are lost; you can add them afterwards using the rownames() and colnames() commands or you might add the dimnames = instruction to the matrix() command much as you saw previously.

 

pages: 484 words: 131,168

The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey

The division was "not to be distinguished by any of the old lines of doctrinal or denominational cleavage," Strong wrote in 1913. "Their difference is one of spirit, aim, point of view, comprehensiveness. The one is individualist; the other is social." The one staged revivals; the other sought to reform the world.*10 Walter Rauschenbusch was the most well-known proponent of the Social Gospel. Rauschenbusch pastored a church in New York's Hell's Kitchen neighborhood, and from that vantage point in the new urban slum, he watched the modern industrial order rub raw against humanity. He was an optimist, believing in the "immense latent perfectibility of human nature."11 Perfection, however, required social intervention. Rauschenbusch wrote in 1908 that a "sense of equality is the basis for Christian morality." And to reach that equality, the Social Gospel theologian promoted legislation: a minimum wage, shorter workdays, better food, and cleaner air.

 

pages: 482 words: 117,962

Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, microcredit, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

The mass movement toward cities has historically accompanied industrialization and economic development as more people were displaced from rural areas and sought their fortune in growing industries based in urban areas. These “Great Migrations” off the land are now being mirrored in major source countries of international migrants, like China, Mexico, and Turkey. About 1.3 billion people are still employed in agriculture, and over the next half-century, 500 million farmers are expected to abandon the countryside for cities.32 New urban residents may not intend to migrate overseas when they first move to the city, but the process of urbanization brings them closer to the networks, resources, income, and education that enable international mobility. Moving to a city, or living in one, markedly increases the propensity for people to migrate abroad. The example of mobility in China helps to illustrate how urbanization and international migration help to reinforce each other.

 

pages: 504 words: 143,303

Why We Can't Afford the Rich by Andrew Sayer

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, banking crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, decarbonisation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demand response, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, high net worth, income inequality, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, job automation, Julian Assange, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, mortgage debt, neoliberal agenda, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, patent troll, payday loans, Plutocrats, plutocrats, predatory finance, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor, Yom Kippur War

See also van Staveren, I., Elson, D., Grown, C. and Cagatay, N. (eds) (2007) The feminist economics of trade, London: Routledge. 25 This was suggested to me by Erik Olin Wright. 26 Royal Society (2012) People and the planet report, London: Royal Society, http://royalsociety.org/uploadedFiles/Royal_Society_Content/policy/projects/people-planet/2012-04-25-PeoplePlanet.pdf. 27 Morgan, K.J. (2014) ‘The new urban foodscape’, in Bohn, K. and Viljoen, A. (eds) Second nature urban agriculture: Designing productive cities, London: Routledge. For more details see http://www.esrc.ac.uk/news-and-events/videos/celebrating-impact-prize-winners-2013.aspx?media-component=tcm:8-26076&type=video. 28 Pizzigati, S. (2012) The rich don’t always win, New York: Seven Stories Press. 29 Marquand, D. (2014) Mammon’s kingdom: An essay on Britain, now, London: Allen Lane. 30 Huffington Post (2012) ‘Rupert Murdoch pushed Tony Blair over Iraq war, claims Alastair Campbell’, 16 June, http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2012/06/16/rupert-murdoch-pushed-tony-blair-over-iraq-war-claims-alastair-campbell_n_1602091.html. 31 Aitchison, G. (2012) ‘How capitalism is turning the internet against democracy and how to turn it back’, OpenDemocracy, http://www.opendemocracy.net/guy-aitchison/how-capitalism-is-turning-internet-against-democracy-and-how-to-turn-it-back.

 

pages: 414 words: 119,116

The Health Gap: The Challenge of an Unequal World by Michael Marmot

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active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Bonfire of the Vanities, Broken windows theory, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Doha Development Round, epigenetics, financial independence, future of work, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Kenneth Rogoff, Kibera, labour market flexibility, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, New Urbanism, obamacare, paradox of thrift, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Simon Kuznets, Socratic dialogue, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor

The two most plausible pathways for the green-space effect on reducing the social gradient in mortality were reduction of stress and promotion of physical activity. Both are plausible and both may be playing a role. Either way, making access to green space a priority for urban environments should be a priority. In Britain the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment estimates that if the budget for new road building were diverted, it could provide for 1,000 new urban parks at an initial capital cost of £10 million each. Creating 1,000 new parks would save around 74,000 tons of carbon from being emitted.39 Options are available that would create a greener and more health-equitable urban environment. Active transport, usually travelling by bike or foot, but also including any form of transport that involves exercise, should be the complement to spending more on parks and less on roads.

 

pages: 366 words: 123,151

The Routes of Man: How Roads Are Changing the World and the Way We Live Today by Ted Conover

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airport security, Atahualpa, carbon footprint, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, financial independence, Google Earth, megacity, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Ronald Reagan, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, urban renewal

Western observers, perhaps rightly, seem to fear it, linking it to the possibility of apocalyptic disease or massive civil unrest. Nigeria, writes Jeffrey Tayler in The Atlantic, “is lurching toward disaster.” Rapid urban growth, argues Mike Davis in Harper’s, “has been a recipe for the inevitable mass production of slums. Much of the urban world, as a result, is rushing backward to the age of Dickens.” It could also be said that many of the people in the new urban world, driven by need but also by ambition, are fashioning inventive new ways to get by. Despite the congestion and chaos in Lagos, its pollution and absence of infrastructure (most neighborhoods lack running water, central sewage, and dependable electric power), many millions of people survive there. The hundreds and thousands who arrive each day evidently believe their prospects to be better there than in the places they left behind.

 

pages: 447 words: 142,527

Lustrum by Robert Harris

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land reform, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats

demanded Rabirius, getting to his feet. 'Where am I?' Catulus gently pressed him down into his seat. 'Calm yourself, Gaius. We're your friends.' 'But no jury is going to find him guilty,' objected Cicero quietly. 'The poor fellow's clearly lost his brains.' 'Perduellio isn't heard before a jury. That's what's so cunning. It's heard before two judges, specially appointed for the purpose.' 'Appointed by whom?' 'Our new urban praetor, Lentulus Sura.' Cicero grimaced at the name. Sura was a former consul, a man of great ambition and boundless stupidity, two qualities which in politics often go together. 'And whom has Old Sleepy-Head chosen as judges? Do we know?' 'Caesar is one. And Caesar is the other.' 'What?' 'Gaius Julius Caesar and his cousin Lucius are to be selected to hear the case.' 'Caesar is behind this?'

 

pages: 505 words: 137,572

Dr. Johnson's London: Coffee-Houses and Climbing Boys, Medicine, Toothpaste and Gin, Poverty and Press-Gangs, Freakshows and Female Education by Liza Picard

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clean water, double entry bookkeeping, joint-stock company, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, South Sea Bubble

This difficult matter was referred to four different surveyors, who gave four different answers. The Thames watermen’s complaint was only a revised version of a centuries-old grievance. (The Gentleman’s Magazine, July 1767). Unfortunately, this riveting story was not followed up in subsequent issues, but I can say that the water-wheels stayed until 1822, and the Thames Water Authority is still liable under the 1582 grant. Rosemary Weinstein, ‘New urban demands in early modern London’, Medical History, Supplement no. 11, 1991. 30. Phillips, op. cit. 31. Entick, op. cit. 32. Pennant, op. cit.: in describing the building of Westminster Bridge he gave the figure as 22 feet. Discrepancies in figures can happen in even the most carefully researched works. 33. London Chronicle, 4 January 1763. 34. Weinstein, op. cit. The new river began to flow in 1609. 35.

 

Falling Behind: Explaining the Development Gap Between Latin America and the United States by Francis Fukuyama

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Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus

Those who settled British America, by contrast, were political participants from the beginning with a self-interest in maintaining a democratic political order. Social cleavage lies at the root of Argentina’s weak rule of law. The military coup in 1930, which represented the first major break in Argentina’s constitutional order, occurred because the country’s landed oligarchy feared the rise of new urban middle and working classes. The undermining of the rule of law started at the top as the Supreme Court was made to retroactively endorse the legality of the coup. Suppression of popular forces then paved the way for the rise of Peronism, which, once in power, showed just as little respect for rules and laws as the oligarchs it replaced. Class differences that were mitigated by political inclusion in European countries like Britain and Sweden were exacerbated by the Argentine political system.

 

pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

To migrate is to defeat the geographic, cultural and socio-economic distances that otherwise separate us from others. For migrants themselves, and for their sending and receiving societies, the impact is profound. Their journeys—whether from the country to the city (urbanization) or from home to abroad—are often heroic stories of courage in the face of great odds. The last Renaissance bore witness to a marked increase in migrant flows, and so does the New. Urbanization In the pre-Columbus world, on average, only about 10 percent of Europe (with wide country-by-country variation) lived in towns of five thousand people or more. Trading nations like Italy topped the urbanization charts (15–16 percent); countries stuck on Europe’s margins (such as Spain, Portugal, the British Isles) scored in the low single digits.42 But with the new maps, the margins became gateways and their cities caught up quickly.

 

pages: 1,205 words: 308,891

Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can't Explain the Modern World by Deirdre N. McCloskey

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, BRICs, British Empire, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, clockwork universe, computer age, Corn Laws, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, European colonialism, experimental economics, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, greed is good, Howard Zinn, income per capita, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Economic Geography, New Urbanism, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, tulip mania, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, V2 rocket, very high income, working poor, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

How the Dismal Science Got Its Name: Classical Economics & the Ur-Text of Racial Politics. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Lillo, George. 1731. “The London Merchant.” Pp. 287-343 in Quintana, Eighteenth-Century Plays. Lindberg, Tod. 2004. “Neoconservatism’s Liberal Legacy.” Hoover Institution Policy Review Oct/Nov http://www.hoover.org/publications/policyreview/3436416.html Luciani, Patrick. 2004. “Do Cities Create Wealth? A Critique of New Urban Thinking and the Role of Public Policy for Cities.” The AIMS Urban Futures Series (Paper #2). Atlantic Institute for Market Studies Halifax, Nova Scotia. June. At http://www.aims.ca/library/Luciani.pdf Lyovin, Anatole V. 1997. An Introduction to the Languages of the World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Macaulay, Thomas Babbington. 1830. “Southey’s Colloquies on Society.” Edinburgh Review, Jan.

 

pages: 444 words: 138,781

Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City by Matthew Desmond

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affirmative action, Cass Sunstein, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, desegregation, dumpster diving, ending welfare as we know it, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, late fees, New Urbanism, payday loans, price discrimination, profit motive, rent control, statistical model, superstar cities, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, working poor, young professional

Quoted in Beryl Satter, Family Properties: How the Struggle over Race and Real Estate Transformed Chicago and Urban America (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2009), 215. 42. “Exploitation” appears but twice in William Julius Wilson’s The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy, 2nd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012 [1987]), when Wilson summarizes orthodox Marxist accounts, and again twice in Wilson’s When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Knopf, 1996), when he describes blacks’ aversion to it. In Loïc Wacquant’s Urban Outcasts: A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality (Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2008), you can find four instances of “exploitation,” only one of which refers to the exploitation of the poor by the rich (page 123n7). The word makes a single appearance in Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton’s American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993), on page 176, in reference to sexual liaisons between inner-city residents; a single appearance in Sudhir Venkatesh’s American Project: The Rise and Fall of a Modern Ghetto (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000), on page 150, in reference to housing project tenants being exploited by gangs; and a single appearance in Harrington’s The Other America (page 32).

 

pages: 468 words: 123,823

A People's History of Poverty in America by Stephen Pimpare

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affirmative action, British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, East Village, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, payday loans, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Department of Commerce, 1997, 8). 31 Luxembourg Income Study (LIS), “LIS Key Figures: Relative Poverty Rates for the Total Population, Children and the Elderly,” www.lisproject.org. 32 Howard Glennerster, “United States Poverty Studies and Poverty Measurement: The Past Twenty-Five Years,” Social Service Review (March 2002): 83–107; State of Working America 2002–03, epinet.org. 33 Katz, Undeserving Poor, 181. 34 John Kenneth Galbraith, The Affluent Society (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1958), 323. 35 Dwight Macdonald, “Our Invisible Poor,” New Yorker, January 19, 1963, 132. 36 In Hunter, Poverty, 1. 37 In Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (New York: Modern Library, 1776 [1994]). 38 Ibid. 39 Charles Murray, “What to Do About Welfare,” Commentary, December 1994. 40 William Julius Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Vintage, 1996), 160. 41 U.S. Census Bureau, “Service Annual Survey 2004,” April 2006. 42 B.A. Botkin, ed., Sidewalks of America: Folklore, Legends, Sagas, Traditions, Customs, Songs, Stories and Sayings of City Folk (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1954), 56. 43 Smeeding, “Public Policy, Economic Inequality, and Poverty,” 955–83. 44 Quoted in Macdonald, “Our Invisible Poor,” 86. 45 George Gilder, Wealth and Poverty (San Francisco: ICS, 1981 [1993]), 78. 46 Smeeding, “Public Policy, Economic Inequality, and Poverty,” 955–83. 47 Lawrence Mishel, Jared Bernstein, and John Schmitt, The State of Working America 1996–1997 (New York: Economic Policy Institute/M.E.

 

pages: 525 words: 153,356

The People: The Rise and Fall of the Working Class, 1910-2010 by Selina Todd

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call centre, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, credit crunch, deindustrialization, deskilling, Downton Abbey, financial independence, full employment, income inequality, manufacturing employment, New Urbanism, Red Clydeside, rent control, rising living standards, strikebreaker, The Spirit Level, unemployed young men, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, young professional

In Worcester, social scientist Janet Madge discovered that large houses and gardens were not the only reason why many of the town’s salaried professionals chose to live outside the city’s boundaries; some did so because ‘they feel that it raises their status’.62 Far from recognizing that this desire for social distance posed a more pervasive threat to ‘community’ than working-class residents’ behaviour, policymakers simply pandered to it in their building plans. In 1962 journalist Bill Rogers visited Kirkby, a new ‘urban district’ on Merseyside. He found ‘housewives’ blues’ and ‘bored and frustrated teenagers’. However determined and enthusiastic the new inhabitants might be, they could never entirely overcome the problems of the estates and new towns. Their out-of-town location meant that family and neighbourhood networks were broken up, with particularly severe consequences for women, who, as Bill Rogers suggested, could experience great isolation.

 

pages: 456 words: 123,534

The Dawn of Innovation: The First American Industrial Revolution by Charles R. Morris

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air freight, British Empire, business process, California gold rush, clean water, colonial exploitation, computer age, Dava Sobel, en.wikipedia.org, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, if you build it, they will come, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, lone genius, manufacturing employment, new economy, New Urbanism, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, refrigerator car, Robert Gordon, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman

Since expansion of services—health care services, legal services, financial services—is usually a reliable sign of a country making a successful middle-income transition, current policies may actually be retarding the economy’s maturation.14 Patrick Chovanec, a business professor at Tsing Hua University in Beijing and a long-time China watcher, has become a leading voice in a growing chorus of analysts who are distinctly bearish on China’s near-term economic future. Chovanec suggests that the country’s response to the financial crash, while effective in the short term in maintaining employment, may have deepened the underlying problems. National banks vastly increased the supply of credit—by about 40 percent, Chovanec estimates—and much of it went into new urban apartment housing, vast swaths of which now stand empty.15 That may not be as bad as it sounds. Completed apartments in China typically contain few if any improvements like kitchen appliances, and there are no real estate taxes, so the cost of carrying vacant housing is lower than in most other countries. Private citizens have few opportunities to invest in appreciating capital assets, so the apartments may be intentionally held as a store of value.

 

pages: 331 words: 60,536

The Sovereign Individual: How to Survive and Thrive During the Collapse of the Welfare State by James Dale Davidson, Rees Mogg

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affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, compound rate of return, Danny Hillis, debt deflation, ending welfare as we know it, epigenetics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, Kevin Kelly, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, phenotype, price mechanism, profit maximization, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, school vouchers, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, spice trade, statistical model, telepresence, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Turing machine, union organizing, very high income

Ibid., p.135. 101. Andrew Heal, "New Zealand's First," p.85. 102. Robert Jutte, Poverty and Deviance in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp.29, 74. 103. Tilly, "Collective Violence," p.77. 104. For a well-documented look at the impact of disappearing factory jobs on persons with low skills, see William Julius Wilson, When Work 327 Disappears.' The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Alfred A. Knop{ 1996). 105. Tilly, "Collective Violence," p.78. 106. Robert Reid, Land Of Lost Content: The Luddite Revolt 1812 (London: Penguin, 1986). 107. Ibid., p.44. 108. Ibid., p. 45. 109. Ibid., p.26. 110. Ibid. ill. Timothy Egan, "Terrorism Now Going Homespun as Bombings in the U.S. Spread," New York Times, August 25, 1996, p.1. 112. Lane, "Economic Consequences of Organized Violence," p.402. 113.

 

pages: 859 words: 204,092

When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Rise of the Middle Kingdom by Martin Jacques

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Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, credit crunch, Dava Sobel, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land tenure, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, pension reform, price stability, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Xiaogang Anhui farmers

The road from Shenzhen to Guangzhou (the provincial capital, known as Canton in colonial times) was sometimes made up, occasionally little more than a mud track. Although we were in the middle of the countryside, the road was overflowing with pedestrians and vehicles of every conceivable kind. Played out before my eyes was the most extraordinary juxtaposition of eras: women walking with their animals and carrying their produce, farmers riding bicycles and driving pedicabs, the new urban rich speeding by in black Mercedes and Lexuses, anonymous behind darkened windows, a constant stream of vans, pick-ups, lorries and minibuses, and in the fields by the side of the road peasants working their small paddy fields with water buffalo. It was as if two hundred of years of history had been condensed into one place in this single moment of time. It was a country in motion, its people living for the present, looking for and seizing the opportunity, as if it might never be offered again.

 

pages: 494 words: 28,046

Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

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Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, labour mobility, late capitalism, low skilled workers, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Scramble for Africa, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, urban planning, William of Occam

Fredric Jameson, Postmodernism, Or, The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism (Durham: Duke University Press, 1991), p. ix. 7. We are thinking here primarily of Hannah Arendt’s notion of the political articulated in The Human Condition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1958). 8. For Los Angeles, see Mike Davis, City of Quartz (London: Verso, 1990), pp. 221–263. For São Paulo, see Teresa Caldeira, ‘‘Fortified Enclaves: The New Urban Segregation,’’ Public Culture, no. 8 (1996); 303–328. 9. See Guy Debord, Society of the Spectacle, trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith (New York: Zone Books, 1994). 10. Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man (New York: Free Press, 1992). 11. ‘‘We have watched the war machine . . . set its sights on a new type of enemy, no longer another State, or even another regime, but ‘l’ennemi quelconque’ [the whatever enemy].’’

 

pages: 556 words: 46,885

The World's First Railway System: Enterprise, Competition, and Regulation on the Railway Network in Victorian Britain by Mark Casson

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banking crisis, barriers to entry, Beeching cuts, British Empire, combinatorial explosion, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, intermodal, iterative process, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, knowledge economy, linear programming, Network effects, New Urbanism, performance metric, railway mania, rent-seeking, strikebreaker, the market place, transaction costs

Early railway stations were often on the margins of towns, on low-value marshland, for example, close to cattle markets, gas works, asylums, and gaols. As stations penetrated further into the heart of cities, they became agents of slum clearance (Kellett 1969). Some of the workers expelled from the slums were relocated to new working class suburbs from which they commuted in special workmens’ trains. Municipal socialism, which began to flourish in the 1870s, gave an added impetus to town improvement. New urban facilities which had previously been promoted by individual Acts were increasingly promoted with the framework of Local Government Acts, as statutory orders approved by Parliament. Towns and cities extended their administrative boundaries, and often took the initiative for promoting projects away from private enterprise. Many of these towns and cities were controlled by business elites, who used their influence to extend the boundaries of their town and applied the local rates to investments in public facilities which would improve the competitiveness of their town relative to its rivals.

 

pages: 780 words: 168,782

Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century by Christian Caryl

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, financial deregulation, financial independence, friendly fire, full employment, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet Archive, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, Yom Kippur War

Others reacted by clinging even more defiantly to their Shiite faith, the one source of identity that tended to survive the move from village to city more or less intact. If you needed advice on how to find your way in this topsy-turvy world, the local mosque was often the best place to look. Urbanization thus had the paradoxical effect of fueling a revival of traditional religion. One scholar has compared this dynamic in the shah’s Iran with England’s Industrial Revolution, when members of the new urban middle class reinvented religious practice by turning to John Wesley and his socially activist Methodist movement.3 Even those who directly benefited from the opportunities afforded by the shah’s modernization program could not escape the feeling of alienation. Farman Farmaian, a pioneering social worker who received her degree in the United States, understood perfectly well that her likelihood of receiving an education would have been almost zero had she been born just a few years earlier than she was.

 

pages: 518 words: 170,126

City for Sale: The Transformation of San Francisco by Chester W. Hartman, Sarah Carnochan

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, business climate, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Loma Prieta earthquake, manufacturing employment, new economy, New Urbanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, young professional

Andrew Ross and Andy Furillo, “Poll: Homeless S.F.’s No. 1 Problem,” San Francisco Examiner, 7 January 1990. 165. See Edward Lempinen, “Society’s Haves Getting Weary of Have-Nots,” San Francisco Chronicle, 31 October 1988; Andy Furillo, “Homeless Face Growing Hostility in Nation’s Cities,” San Francisco Examiner, 15 July 1990. 166. Ingfei Chen, “Jordan Recommends Tightening Up on Homeless,” San Francisco Chronicle, 10 July 1991. 167. Christine Spolar, “San Francisco’s New Urban Outlaws Carry Bedrolls and Sleep Outdoors,” San Francisco Chronicle, 24 November 1993. 168. April Lynch and Bill Wallace, “S.F. Sweeps Yield Few Convictions,” San Francisco Chronicle, 22 October 1993. 169. Rachel Gordon, “Board Votes Down Alioto Amnesty for Homeless,” San Francisco Examiner, 26 October 1993. 170. Ibid. 171. Sharon Waxman, “Keeping Focus on Homeless,” Washington Post, 17 July 1996. 172.

 

pages: 618 words: 180,430

The Making of Modern Britain by Andrew Marr

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anti-communist, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business climate, Corn Laws, Etonian, garden city movement, illegal immigration, imperial preference, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Red Clydeside, rent control, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, V2 rocket, wage slave, women in the workforce

In the first year after the war, the Cecils’ grand house in Arlington Street was sold, as were Devonshire House and Lord Dartmouth’s Mayfair mansion. No axes swung over the aristocrats, but the demolition balls were swinging through their homes. Dorchester House, Lansdowne House, Chesterfield House, Sunderland House and Brooke House would all go. In their place came entertainment venues and apartments: Mrs Meyrick’s nightclubs were catering for a new urban scene which was moving from private ballrooms and dining rooms to public spaces, open to anyone with enough cash and a clean shirt front. The leaders of Edwardian high society were clear that ‘society’ as they had understood it before the war, with its strict codes, interconnected family circles and prestige, had at last gone, smashed by war and tax. The pre-war Liberals had begun to mine through its ancient privilege and it was now less a grand edifice than a sponge, full of holes into which democratic culture was seeping.

 

pages: 709 words: 191,147

White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America by Nancy Isenberg

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back-to-the-land, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Copley Medal, desegregation, Donald Trump, feminist movement, full employment, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

For the homemade trailers as “monstrosities,” see Harold Martin, “Don’t Call Them Trailer Trash,” Saturday Evening Post 225, no. 5 (August 2, 1952): 24–25, 85–87; Allan D. Wallis, “House Trailers: Innovation and Accommodation in Vernacular Housing,” Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture 3 (1989): 28–43, esp. 30–31, 34; “Trailers for Army Areas,” New York Times, March 19, 1941; Carl Abbott, The New Urban America: Growth and Politics in the Sunbelt Cities (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1981), 107–10; Hurley, Diners, Bowling Alleys, and Trailer Parks, 203; “Trailers for Army Areas,” New York Times, March 19, 1941; and see Lucy Greenbaum, “‘Trailer Village’ Dwellers Happy in Connecticut Tobacco Field,” New York Times, April 13, 1942. 27. See “Agnes Ernest Meyer” (1887–1970), in Notable American Women: The Modern Period, eds.

 

pages: 934 words: 232,651

Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1945-1956 by Anne Applebaum

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, language of flowers, means of production, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, price mechanism, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Slavoj Žižek, stakhanovite, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning

In Sztálinváros, a glimpse of this appealing future finally became available in the summer of 1952, by which time the apartment blocks along May 1 Street were relatively orderly, the street itself was covered in asphalt, and the building debris and rubble had been carried away. The area had become a place where well-dressed people could go for a leisurely Sunday walk, and it soon became known as the “Switzerland of Sztálinváros.” This, in the words of the historian Sándor Horváth, was exactly what was supposed to happen. The new urban spaces would breed a new kind of worker, the “urban human”: The “urban human” leads a sober life, visits the cinema and theater or listens to the radio instead of going to the pub, wears modern and comfortable ready-made clothing. He likes going for walks and loves to spend his spare time “sensibly” on the beach. In contrast to the villager he furnishes his apartment with urban furniture, preferring furniture from a factory to that designed by carpenters, and he lies on a practical sofa.

 

pages: 492 words: 70,082

Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

With an estimate of more than 40,000 stateless migrant children in the country (Archavanitkul, 1998) and the 1.2 million migrant workers living in Thailand, the country was not prepared to integrate them into its society, despite the fact that the world had become more or less borderless. Those people were marginalized in their access to major social welfare (Chantavanich S, Thailand 2003b.). Migrant workers became the new urban poor disadvantaged group; local people came to consider them undesirable. In the future, it may turn out that neither Thailand nor migrants can win from this partnership, unless Thailand obtains wisdom in the regulation and protection of these people. References Administrative Commission on Irregular Migrant Workers (ACIRW). (2002). Statistical Data of Irregular Migrant Workers Registration under the Resolution of the Cabinet, 1996–2001.

 

pages: 935 words: 267,358

Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, distributed generation, diversification, diversified portfolio, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial intermediation, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, high net worth, Honoré de Balzac, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, index card, inflation targeting, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, market bubble, means of production, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, pension reform, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, refrigerator car, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, very high income, We are the 99%

Marx: The Principle of Infinite Accumulation By the time Marx published the first volume of Capital in 1867, exactly one-half century after the publication of Ricardo’s Principles, economic and social realities had changed profoundly: the question was no longer whether farmers could feed a growing population or land prices would rise sky high but rather how to understand the dynamics of industrial capitalism, now in full blossom. The most striking fact of the day was the misery of the industrial proletariat. Despite the growth of the economy, or perhaps in part because of it, and because, as well, of the vast rural exodus owing to both population growth and increasing agricultural productivity, workers crowded into urban slums. The working day was long, and wages were very low. A new urban misery emerged, more visible, more shocking, and in some respects even more extreme than the rural misery of the Old Regime. Germinal, Oliver Twist, and Les Misérables did not spring from the imaginations of their authors, any more than did laws limiting child labor in factories to children older than eight (in France in 1841) or ten in the mines (in Britain in 1842). Dr. Villermé’s Tableau de l’état physique et moral des ouvriers employés dans les manufactures, published in France in 1840 (leading to the passage of a timid new child labor law in 1841), described the same sordid reality as The Condition of the Working Class in England, which Friedrich Engels published in 1845.4 In fact, all the historical data at our disposal today indicate that it was not until the second half—or even the final third—of the nineteenth century that a significant rise in the purchasing power of wages occurred.

 

pages: 964 words: 296,182

Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion by Gareth Stedman Jones

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anti-communist, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, means of production, New Journalism, New Urbanism, night-watchman state, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, unemployed young men, wage slave

It originated in the debates which occurred in the aftermath of the 1830 Revolution in France and the 1832 Reform Bill in Britain. The prominent participation of workers on the barricades in Paris in the three days which led to the abdication of Charles X, and in the Reform crisis in Britain, raised the question both of their continued subordinate constitutional status and of the new forms of poverty that afflicted them. In Germany, the discussion was further complicated by the difficulty of placing the new urban workers and rural migrants into the official categories of estate society. Sismondi in his New Principles of Political Economy of 1819 had introduced the term ‘proletariat’ to describe this novel phenomenon. Hegel, in The Philosophy of Right, had referred to this grouping as das Pöbel (the mob). Gans had originally accepted this terminology, but in the light of his visits both to France and to England adopted the term ‘proletariat’.

 

pages: 1,351 words: 404,177

Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America by Rick Perlstein

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affirmative action, Alistair Cooke, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, East Village, European colonialism, full employment, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, immigration reform, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, indoor plumbing, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, walking around money, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

Johnson had wanted his commission to wax cautious concerning solutions—to take into account the limits posed by an unfriendly Congress and the constraints of a nation at war. He wanted them to blame outside agitators. He thought he had it wired: Chairman Otto Kerner, Illinois’s governor, was a creature of the Daley machine. What Johnson didn’t count on was Vice Chairman John Lindsay, who maneuvered himself as the Kerner Commission’s de facto chairman and saw to it the report demanded $30 billion in new urban spending—the very amount Martin Luther King had announced as the goal for his upcoming Poor People’s Campaign. Lindsay also, considering the draft report too cautious, had a young aide write an aggressive introduction and got the panel to adopt it almost verbatim. Its words were to become famous: “This is our basic conclusion: Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white—separate and unequal….

 

England by David Else

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active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

But the phenomenon of ‘Cool Britannia’ was short-lived; by the millennium, most of Britpop’s big acts had self-­destructed. Damon Albarn later went on to create a new virtual band, Gorillaz, in partnership with cult cartoonist and illustrator Jamie Hewlett. So where does that leave us in the noughties? In many ways, the era of MySpace, iTunes and file sharing has seen Britain’s music scene become more diverse and divided than ever. Jazz, soul, R&B and hip-hop beats have fused into a new ‘urban’ sound (summed up by artists like Jamelia, The Streets and Dizzee Rascal), while dance music continues to morph through new forms. On the pop side, singer-songwriters have made a comeback: Katie Mellua, Duffy and self-destructive songstress Amy Winehouse are flying the flag for the female artists, while Damien Rice, Ed Harcourt and ex-soldier James Blunt croon for the boys. The spirit of shoe-gazing British indie is alive and well thanks to Keane, Foals, Editors and world-conquering Coldplay; traces of punk and postpunk survive thanks to Franz Ferdinand, Razorlight, Babyshambles, Muse, Klaxons, Dirty Pretty Things and download phenomenon Arctic Monkeys; and the swagger of the Manchester sound still echoes through the music of Primal Scream, Kaiser Chiefs, Kasabian, Doves and The (reformed) Verve.