The Death and Life of Great American Cities

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pages: 142 words: 18,753

Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There by David Brooks

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Community Supported Agriculture, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Silicon Valley, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban planning, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra

The city was always thought of as the ultimate renunciation of nature, but here she treats the healthy city almost as a work of nature. In order for the ecosystem to function, it must have many different players. It must have diversity. The word diversity, which has become one of the key words of our age, was central in The Death and Life of Great American Cities. The entire second section of the book is called “The Conditions for City Diversity.” It is complexity she admires, the small unplanned niches where specialized activities can thrive. These are places whose use is not determined from above but grows up from small particularized needs. In the years since The Death and Life of Great American Cities was published, Jacobs’s way of seeing has been vindicated again and again. The urban plans she criticized are now universally reviled. The disastrous failure of social-engineering projects across the developing world have exposed the hubris of technocrats who thought they could reshape reality.

That’s because the fifties were the final decade of the industrial age, and the contrast between the upscale culture of that time and the upscale culture of today is stark and illuminating. Furthermore, I found that many of the books that really helped me understand the current educated class were written between 1955 and 1965, when the explosion in college enrollments, so crucial to many of these trends, was just beginning. Books like The Organization Man, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Affluent Society, The Status Seekers, and The Protestant Establishment were the first expressions of the new educated class ethos, and while the fever and froth of the 1960s have largely burned away, the ideas of these 1950s intellectuals continue to resonate. Finally, a word about the tone of this book. There aren’t a lot of statistics in these pages. There’s not much theory.

But that doesn’t mean that he and Whyte were wrong when they criticized technocracies or the conformist and artificial social ethic they engendered. It simply means that it would take a more down-to-earth writer to provide a more practical way of rethinking organizations and social structures. Jane Jacobs, Proto-Bobo In fact, when Roszak was writing, the seeds of that rethinking had already been planted. In 1961 Jane Jacobs published The Death and Life of Great American Cities, which remains the most influential book on how Bobos view organizations and social structures. Jane Jacobs was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, in 1916, the daughter of a doctor and a teacher. After high school she went to work as a reporter for the Scranton Tribune. She lasted a year, then ventured to New York and worked in a series of jobs as a stenographer and freelance writer before landing a junior editorial position at Architectural Forum.


pages: 342 words: 86,256

Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, Induced demand, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, starchitect, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, zero-sum game, Zipcar

This is the story that traffic engineers should be sharing, rather than spending their careers running scared from congestion. Until they do, it will be necessary for mayors, Main Street merchants, and concerned citizens to discredit them. Toward that end, I provide the following short interlude. KILL THE TRAFFIC ENGINEERS FIRST Everybody likes Jane Jacobs, right? She was famous for fighting traffic engineers, and took them to task repeatedly and effectively in her masterpiece, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Most planners and many public servants swear by that book, but few have read Dark Age Ahead, in which, forty years later, she took off the gloves. Until traffic engineers change their tune on induced demand, here is the statement from Jane Jacobs that every public official and planner needs to tape prominently above his or her desk: It is popularly assumed that when universities give science degrees in traffic engineering, as they do, they are recognizing aboveboard expert knowledge.

DOT, December 23, 2010. 51. Wendy Koch, “Cities Roll Out Bike-Sharing Programs.” 52. David Byrne, Bicycle Diaries, 278. 53. Lord. STEP 7: SHAPE THE SPACES 1. Thomas J. Campanella, Republic of Shade, 135. 2. Jan Gehl, Cities for People, 4. 3. Ibid., 120, 139, 34. 4. Ibid., 50. 5. Christopher Alexander, A Pattern Language, 115. 6. Gehl, 42. 7. Ibid., 171–73. 8. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 203. 9. Andres Duany and Jeff Speck, The Smart Growth Manual, Point 10.5. 10. Gehl, 146. STEP 8: PLANT TREES 1. R. S. Ulrich et al., “View Through a Window May Influence Recovery from Surgery.” 2. “The Value of Trees to a Community,” arborday.org/trees/benefits.cfm. 3. Dan Burden, “22 Benefits of Urban Street Trees.” 4. Howard Frumkin, Lawrence Frank, and Richard Jackson, Urban Sprawl and Public Health, 119. 5.

., 151. 5. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation, 175–78. 6. Chris Turner, “What Makes a Building Ugly?” 7. James Fallows, “Fifty-Nine and a Half Minutes of Brilliance, Thirty Seconds of Hauteur.” 8. Ethan Kent, “Guggenheim Museum Bilbao,” Project for Public Spaces Hall of Shame. 9. Léon Krier, The Architecture of Community, 70. 10. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 291. 11. David Owen, Green Metropolis, 178. 12. Ibid., 181. 13. Jacobs, 91. 14. Ibid., 91n. STEP 10: PICK YOUR WINNERS 1. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation, 166. 2. Blair Kamin, “Ohio Cap at Forefront of Urban Design Trend.” 3. Andres Duany and Jeff Speck, The Smart Growth Manual, Point 7.8. 4. Rick Reilly, “Life of Reilly: Mile-High Madness.”


pages: 288 words: 83,690

How to Kill a City: The Real Story of Gentrification by Peter Moskowitz

affirmative action, Airbnb, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, drive until you qualify, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, late capitalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, starchitect, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Classification: LCC HT175 .M67 2017 (print) | LCC HT175 (ebook) | DDC 307.3/362—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016042410 E3-20170206-JV-PC Contents Cover Title Page Copyright Dedication Introduction PART 1: NEW ORLEANS Chapter 1: Hanging On Chapter 2: How Gentrification Works Chapter 3: Destroy to Rebuild PART 2: DETROIT Chapter 4: The New Detroit Chapter 5: The 7.2 Chapter 6: How the Slate Got Blank PART 3: SAN FRANCISCO Chapter 7: The Gentrified City Chapter 8: Growth Machine Chapter 9: The New Geography of Inequality PART 4: NEW YORK Chapter 10: An Elegy Chapter 11: New York Is Not Meant for People Chapter 12: Fight Back Conclusion: Toward an Un-Gentrified Future Acknowledgments About the Author Notes Index To Bubbe, who introduced me to New York Introduction When I returned to New York from college, I found myself belonging to two groups of people: the gentrified and the gentrifiers. I’d grown up in the West Village, just a few blocks from where journalist and activist Jane Jacobs wrote her pro-urban treatise The Death and Life of Great American Cities in 1961. Jacobs’s book was a 400-page meditation on what made the Village great—its small, varied streetscapes; its diversity of profession, class, and race; its inherent eclecticism. Jacobs argued that every other city in the United States should try to emulate its success by encouraging the creation of small shops over big ones, small streets over grand avenues, and varying sizes of apartment buildings and town houses over huge complexes.

Some people really are finding hope in the new New Orleans and the new Detroit; others are not. Whether or not gentrifiers, policy makers, and others with power and money can grapple with both narratives—the one about discovery and betterment, and the more complicated, uncomfortable one about loss, about economics and race—will determine the future of our cities. As Jane Jacobs wrote in The Death and Life of Great American Cities, “Private investment shapes cities, but social ideas (and laws) shape private investment. First comes the image of what we want, then the machinery is adapted to turn out that image.” So what image of our cities do we hold in our hearts? Part 2 Detroit 4 The New Detroit On an early summer day in 2015, Detroit Bikes, one of at least four high-end bicycle manufacturers in Detroit, opened its first retail shop downtown.

Most of the others housed garbage trucks, and I remember waking up some hot mornings to the smell of the city’s rotting leftovers, which would drift through the loft’s open windows. Back then, this wasn’t many people’s idea of a good place to live, and so my parents got it cheap: $90,000, some $170,000 under the asking price. It’s hard to not sound nostalgic when talking about growing up in the West Village. My childhood home was just a few blocks from where Jane Jacobs wrote The Death and Life of Great American Cities. And even though I was born years after that book was published, its lessons felt applicable—I could have been a character in Jacobs’s book. Jacobs wrote about how sidewalk life provides many of the things people in suburbs have to pay for—namely, safety and community—and that’s what the Village provided me. I was able to walk on my own to elementary school on Hudson Street (now christened Jane Jacobs Way by the city) when I was ten years old, because I knew people on the route.


pages: 385 words: 118,314

Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis

Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

It has even been used to study the power of social networks as well as an exciting new means to map the brain. Jane Jacobs was one of the first people to connect the ideas of complexity and the city. She was not an academic, nor an architect, planner or public official; however, her insights into how the city worked, her almost instinctive belief in the complexity of the streets, had far-reaching effects on how cities are made today. In her most famous work, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, she set out her rallying cry for complex spaces: Under the seeming disorder of the old city, wherever the old city is working successfully, is a marvellous order for maintaining the safety of the streets and the freedom of the city. It is a complex order … This order is all composed of movement and change, and although it is life, not art, we may fancifully call it the art of the city and liken it to the dance.7 Jacobs called this dance the Ballet of Hudson Street, after her own corner of Greenwich Village.

There he photographed many of the women he met and then attached large-format portraits of their eyes to the outside of the slum’s buildings, giving the eerie impression of the favela itself looking out over the rest of the city. For JR, this project was a reminder of the role of women at the heart of the community yet it was also a graphic manifestation of how life on the streets itself cannot be ignored. Morro da Providencia, Rio de Janeiro, decorated by JR’s murals In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jacobs shows how the street develops its own equilibrium, which she calls ‘the eyes on the street’: ‘an intricate, almost unconscious, network of voluntary controls and standards among the people themselves, and enforced by the people themselves’.6 On Jacobs’s street these include the shopkeepers, the old woman who sometimes sits on the stoop on a warm evening and the regulars at the White Horse Bar.

Jane Jacobs triumphant Jacobs was a pioneering homemaker, moving to a part of the city that many had left, the old nineteenth-century houses subdivided and down at heel. Some of that clutter and chaos made its way into the Jacobs’s flat that friends remember as deeply untidy but with a huge amount of personality. It was here that Jacobs began to observe the Ballet of Hudson Street and came to understand the complex patterns of the neighbourhood that she later described in The Death and Life of Great American Cities. By the late 1950s she was also working at Architectural Forum magazine, where she met William H. Whyte who shared her concerns about the dangers of city planning. While architects were in thrall to the grand projects, they both asked, where were the people? In a groundbreaking collection of essays, The Exploding Metropolis, both Whyte and Jacobs expanded on their ideas. In ‘Downtown is for People’ Jacobs reflected on the future city: ‘They will be spacious, park-like, and uncrowded.


pages: 321 words: 85,267

Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck

A Pattern Language, American ideology, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Census Bureau’s 1997 report on Geographical Mobility. 2 Edward Blakely and Mary Gail Snyder, Fortress America, 24. 3 Ibid., 7. 4 Peter Calthorpe, The Next American Metropolis, 19. 4. THE PHYSICAL CREATION OF SOCIETY 1 “Parking Lot Pique,” A26. 2 Jonathan Franzen, “First City,” 91. 3 Jonathan Rose, “Violence, Materialism, and Ritual,” 145. 4 Le Corbusier, The City of Tomorrow and Its Planning, 129. 5 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 129. 5. THE AMERICAN TRANSPORTATION MESS 1 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 183. 2 Donald D.T. Chen, “If You Build It, They Will Come,” 4. 3 Ibid., 6. 4 Stanley Hart and Alvin Spivak, The Elephant in the Bedroom, 122. 5 Jane Holtz Kay, Asphalt Nation, 129. 6 Hart and Spivak, The Elephant in the Bedroom, 111; James Howard Kunstler, Home from Nowhere, 67, 99. 7 Hart and Spivak, The Elephant in the Bedroom, 166. 6.

My own contribution to the editing process was a result of simple time management. With new towns to design that could outlast centuries, why spend an inordinate number of hours on a text that might have a shelf life of only a few years? I was aware of the tension between a book focused on a present problem and one of lasting relevance, and I argued strongly that our book should be the latter. In this regard, Jane Jacobs’s half-century-old The Death and Life of Great American Cities was my model—a difficult one to live up to, granted, but the pursuit of unattainable ideals is stimulating. And so I undertook the editing with an eye to issues that were of the more transcendental sort. To this end, the grand subject of urbanism certainly provided a good foundation. The fashionable was eradicated under my pen—and so I bear any blame for the book’s being not nearly as hip as the younger Jeff would have had it.

This would be an important first step toward creating public spaces worthy of habitation. 3 THE HOUSE THAT SPRAWL BUILT THE ODDITY OF AMERICAN HOUSING; PRIVATE REALM VERSUS PUBLIC REALM; THE SEGREGATION OF SOCIETY BY INCOME; TWO ILLEGAL TYPES OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING; TWO FORGOTTEN RULES OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING; THE MIDDLE-CLASS HOUSING CRISIS Does anyone suppose that, in real life, answers to any of the great questions that worry us today are going to come out of homogeneous settlements? —JANE JACOBS, THE DEATH AND LIFE OF GREAT AMERICAN CITIES (1961) THE ODDITY OF AMERICAN HOUSING Sprawl is made up mostly of housing. Its ubiquity alone makes it an important subject to study, but there are other reasons to consider the way America provides housing. While the current suburban model may seem natural enough to most Americans, it appears quite odd when viewed in a global context. There is not another nation on earth that houses its citizens as we do, and few could afford to.


pages: 313 words: 92,907

Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are Thekeys to Sustainability by David Owen

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game

The satellite photograph can be found at: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=15282. The photograph was taken in 2002. Phoenix’s horizontal growth has, if anything, accelerated since then. 34 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1992; originally published 1961), p. 352. 35 M. A. Farber, “Negotiations with Post Keep Kheel in Limelight,” The New York Times, February 20, 1988. 36 Stanley Levey, “Autos Aggravate Transit Problem; Kheel Seeks Cure,” The New York Times, May 31, 1955. 37 Richard Oliver, “Kheel Proposes Tolls on Major Highways,” New York Daily News, October 10, 1969. 38 Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, pp. 338ff. 39 Ian Urbina, “F.D.R. Drive Taking Its Act to the River, for Three Years,” The New York Times, May 18, 2004. 40 Robert Cervero, The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry (Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 22. 41 Ariel Hart, “HOV Lane Fees Could Start by 2010,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution , March 20, 2008. 42 Tom Vanderbilt, Traffic: Why We Drive the Way We Do (and What It Says About Us) (New York: Alfred A.

Many more acres of upstate pastoral paradise were destroyed by the steady spread of towns like hers than by the creation of the water supply system that makes it possible for New York City to exist. Building the city didn’t fill the Hudson Valley with parking lots; fleeing the city did. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF POPULATION DENSITY WAS ELUCIDATED brilliantly in 1961 in a landmark book called The Death and Life of Great American Cities, by Jane Jacobs.35 Jacobs upended many widely held ideas about how cities ought to be put together, and she has been celebrated ever since as an urban-planning iconoclast and visionary, but she could be viewed just as easily as a pioneering environmentalist. Indeed, Jacobs’s book may be most valuable today as a guide to reducing the ecological damage caused by human beings, even though it scarcely mentions the environment, other than by making a couple of passing references to smog.

You can test this yourself, by observing the pedestrian traffic moving from one side of Central Park to the other. There isn’t much, even if you include people who are jogging for exercise. People traveling to a destination are far less likely to walk across a park or any other large open space than they are to walk the same distance along a lively city street. Jane Jacobs discusses this trick of perception in The Death and Life of Great American Cities, in a chapter she called “The Curse of Border Vacuums.” She defines a border as “the perimeter of a single massive or stretched-out use of territory” and cites, as the classic example, railroad tracks, whose division of urban areas into isolated, noninteracting regions is so well-understood as to be a cliché: “the wrong side of the tracks.” Jacobs writes, “The root trouble with borders, as city neighbors, is that they are apt to form dead ends for most users of city streets.


pages: 309 words: 96,434

Ground Control: Fear and Happiness in the Twenty First Century City by Anna Minton

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, call centre, crack epidemic, credit crunch, deindustrialization, East Village, energy security, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, housing crisis, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kickstarter, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, race to the bottom, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, University of East Anglia, urban decay, urban renewal, white flight, white picket fence, World Values Survey, young professional

In Britain, in planning and urban-design circles this is the subject of raging debate, which echoes the uncertainty about whether or not gated communities are safer – American research described later in the chapter finds that they make little difference to crime and may actually increase it. At the centre of the debate about ‘defensible space’ is the question of whether ‘natural surveillance’, which deters crime, is created by the ‘eyes on the street’ of strangers, as argued by Jane Jacobs in her seminal book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 18 or whether strangers should be seen as dangerous intruders, as Newman believes. Both sides of the argument command influential support. Research from University College London shows that ‘defensible space’ does not create safer environments, finding that residents of cul de sacs were more likely to be burgled because their isolation means they are targets.19 Now, bolstered by the growing weight of evidence, even the government has acknowledged the need for change, suggesting in its recent Manual for Streets that developers return to the type of street pattern that has characterized the city over centuries.20 But no one expects developers to listen because in the other corner is Secured by Design, the influential police-backed design initiative based on Newman’s ‘defensible space’ ideas.

Fear of crime doesn’t correlate with actual crime but research shows it does correlate with fear of strangers and fear of difference. Creating such a segregated environment is entrenching this fear of difference and fear of strangers. STRANGER DANGER OR ‘EYES ON THE STREET’? Whether strangers are dangerous or essential to healthy city life is the question which has been at the heart of debates about cities for the last fifty years. Jane Jacobs’ classic text, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, published in 1961, 23 and Richard Sennett’s The Fall of Public Man, which came out in 1977, argue that the presence of strangers in cities is the essence of civility and safety. Sennett describes the city as the place ‘where strangers are most likely to meet’ and defines ‘civility’ as ‘treating others as strangers and forging a social bond on that distance’.24 Jacobs bases her case on ‘natural surveillance’, which is built around the informal social controls of strangers.

Hillier, Bill, The Common Language of Space: A Way of Looking at the Social, Economic and Environmental Functioning of Cities on a Common Basis, Space Syntax Laboratory, Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London, 1998 16. Design Guide for Residential Areas, Essex County Council, 1973 17. Quoted in Colquhoun, Ian, Design Out Crime: Creating Safe and Sustainable Communities, Architectural Press, 2004 18. Jacobs, Jane, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Random House, 1961 19. Hillier, The Common Language of Space 20. Manual for Streets, Department for Transport, 2007 21. Burney, Elizabeth, Crime and Banishment: Nuisance and Exclusion in Social Housing, Waterside Press, 1999 22. Securing the Nation: The Case for Safer Homes, Association of British Insurers, 2006 23. Minton, Anna, Building Balanced Communities: The US and UK Compared, Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, 2002 24.


pages: 415 words: 119,277

Naked City: The Death and Life of Authentic Urban Places by Sharon Zukin

1960s counterculture, big-box store, blue-collar work, corporate social responsibility, crack epidemic, creative destruction, David Brooks, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, rent control, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

She praised crowded sidewalks for keeping people safe, shabby buildings with low rents for incubating small new businesses, and mixed uses—housing alongside stores, offices, and manufacturing—for exerting greater aesthetic appeal than the “dullness” that was so palpable in homogeneous corporate office districts, public housing projects, and residential suburbs. The much-quoted set piece in the first section of Jacobs’s best-selling 1961 book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities—an hour-by-hour description of the “intricate sidewalk ballet” on Hudson Street, outside her window—dramatizes the neighborly interdependence of local shopkeepers, housewives, schoolchildren, and customers at the corner bar, all patron saints of social order in the city’s neighborhoods who were either scorned or ignored by the powerful forces that controlled urban renewal. Jacobs also argued for authenticity as a democratic expression of origins, for a neighborhood’s right, against the decisions of the state, to determine the conditions of its own survival.

Conclusion Destination Culture and the Crisis of Authenticity Do the dedicated yearners who would roll back this tide look fondly on the charred South Bronx of the eighties? Would they stick by the most depressed and derelict expanses of Brooklyn, or the cracked-out squats around Tompkins Square Park, or the blocks of boarded-up windows in Harlem? That New York was not authentic or quaint; it was miserable and dangerous. —Justin Davidson, New York magazine, September 7, 2008 When Jane Jacobs wrote The Death and Life of Great American Cities in 1960, death was all too evident around her. New York City’s port was shutting down, factories and neighborhoods hadn’t altered their look since the beginning of the century, and middle-class families were fleeing from declining public services and expanding dark ghettos to the suburbs. The city, it was clear, lay in the grip of two malevolent forces, government and developers, though Jacobs directed her ire at architects and bureaucrats, whose plans, she said, destroyed lively neighborhoods and extinguished all sparks of social life.

Robert Beauregard, Voices of Decline: The Postwar Fate of American Cities (Oxford: Blackwell, 1993); Robert A. Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York (New York: Vintage, 1974); Samuel Zipp, “Manhattan Projects: Cold War Urbanism in the Age of Urban Renewal (New York),” PhD dissertation, Yale University, 2006. 12. Herbert J. Gans, The Urban Villagers (New York: Free Press, 1962); Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961). 13. Suleiman Osman, “The Birth of Postmodern New York: Gentrification, Postindustrialization and Race in South Brooklyn, 1950–1980,” PhD dissertation, Harvard University, 2006; Walter Firey, “Sentiment and Symbolism as Ecological Variables,” American Sociological Review 10 (1945): 140–48. Jonathan Lethem’s partly autobiographical novel The Fortress of Solitude (New York: Doubleday, 2003), based on growing up in Boerum Hill, Brooklyn, during the 1970s, gives a sharp sense of the mutual fear of white gentrifiers and black and Latino longtime residents, whom the gentrifiers gradually overwhelm and replace.


pages: 281 words: 86,657

The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt

anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Peter Calthorpe, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional

Street life is perhaps the most crucial aspect of the urban revival of the twenty-first century, and street life is not dependent on demographic equality, much as we might desire it to be. Jane Jacobs believed the Financial District could never qualify as a community in the sense in which she used the word. She believed this, in fact, long before the efforts to establish one achieved any sort of traction at all. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, published in 1961, Jacobs devotes several pages to her argument that Wall Street and its environs could never attract enough residents to acquire a diversity of jobs that would keep workers in the neighborhood beyond the end of the conventional workday, or possess the amenities that could bring in a significant core of visitors from outside. She goes out of her way to ridicule a report by the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association that insisted “a residential population would stimulate the development of shopping facilities, restaurants, places of entertainment,” and similar staples of neighborhood life.

Probably she would shrug and say that one can’t expect miracles. Bushwick would never come to resemble the Greenwich Village of the 1950s that she considered a model of successful urban life. THEN AGAIN, she wouldn’t find the Greenwich Village of the 1950s if she returned to the Village now, and revisited the 500 block of Hudson Street, where she lived, raised her family, and wrote The Death and Life of Great American Cities. This block of Hudson Street in New York’s Greenwich Village was the model for Jane Jacobs’s idea of diverse and harmonious urban living in the 1950s. Jacobs’s own house (in the center, with the large glass window) sold for more than $3 million in 2010. (photo credit 3.2) The West Village that Jacobs knew has managed at the same time to move dramatically upscale and yet show tangible signs of trouble.

., p. 39. 21 “dismal tenement landscape”: Frederic Morton, A Nervous Splendor: Vienna 1888/1889 (New York: Penguin, 1980), p. 58. 22 “If the British empire was the most powerful”: Jonathan Schneer, London 1900: The Imperial Metropolis (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999), p.19. 23 “a true Londoner”: Ford Madox Ford, quoted in Peter Ackroyd, London: The Biography (New York: Nan A. Talese, 2000), p. 569. 24 “The Strand of those days”: H. B. Creswell, quoted in Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1992), p. 341. 25 “The leisure class in London”: Olsen, The City as a Work of Art, p. 217. 26 “The East End became a terra incognita”: Tristram Hunt, Building Jerusalem (New York: Henry Holt, 2005), p. 390. 27 “where filthy men and women live”: Arthur Morrison, quoted in Asa Briggs, Victorian Cities (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), p. 326. 28 “a great mysterious movement”: H.


Saving America's Cities: Ed Logue and the Struggle to Renew Urban America in the Suburban Age by Lizabeth Cohen

activist lawyer, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, charter city, deindustrialization, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, garden city movement, ghettoisation, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Jane Jacobs, land reform, megastructure, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, postindustrial economy, race to the bottom, rent control, Robert Gordon, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Vilfredo Pareto, walkable city, War on Poverty, white flight, white picket fence, young professional

And Jacobs, in turn, is hailed for slamming planners’ intrusions as disrupting the natural evolution of the street and neighborhood. This dichotomy is too simplistic and makes these two twentieth-century giants of urbanism into symbols of rigid orthodoxies. In truth, they were both more complex figures. Moses did not only bulldoze neighborhoods and build insensitively; he constructed crucially needed urban infrastructure.15 In her influential 1961 critique of big planning, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jacobs taught the world important lessons in valuing the spontaneous life of the street, in allowing city neighborhoods to develop organically, and in viewing planners—with their top-down expertise—skeptically. But her sweeping repudiation of the planning profession and government intervention left few tools in place for delivering more equitable housing for those requiring it or for constructing badly needed public works.16 No surprise that conservatives, particularly libertarians, have embraced Jacobs alongside her more left-leaning admirers, finding her criticism of urban renewal consistent with their own defense of individual property rights and discomfort with the “federal bulldozer” and other government actions deemed excessive.

After “a long haul,” city residents could now look forward to much “better than what we had—a lot more than what my opponents wanted me to settle for, a hot dog stand and a Dairy Queen at Church and Chapel.”84 ADAPTING TO A PARADIGM SHIFT The same year that Logue’s success in New Haven was rewarded with a job offer from Boston and Dahl clinched his reputation as a democratic theorist with the publication of Who Governs?, another influential treatise hit the bookstores, this one promoting a very different conception from Dahl’s about how democracy should work in cities. In time it gave ballast to participatory democratic critics of urban renewal in New Haven and elsewhere. It was Jane Jacobs’s The Death and Life of Great American Cities, not a book of academic scholarship but nonetheless a learned one that would help transform expectations about what the “public” side of the equation should consist of (government officials were not sufficient) and what it meant to have citizen involvement in planning (more than organized interests must participate).85 The success of Death and Life would challenge urban renewers like Logue in new ways.

But it is worth noting that Logue’s liberal fix-it instinct to address what he considered an outrage with a top-down, mandatory remedy was not only resisted by white suburbanites; it was also resented by some black parents who felt it rendered them and their children passive victims in need of saving.110 Not until Logue’s next job as president of the New York State Urban Development Corporation, where he had the authority to operate on a statewide rather than mere city level, would he legally be in a position to implement metropolitan-level strategies intended to integrate communities and schools by race and class. Until then, the reality of urban responsibility and suburban retreat continued to frustrate Logue.111 It played no small part in fact in his deepening feud with Jane Jacobs. Logue published an appreciative but critical review of Jacobs’s The Death and Life of Great American Cities in Architectural Forum in March 1962, predictably taking umbrage at a text that began, “This book is an attack on current city planning and rebuilding.” Around the same time, Logue and Jacobs met up at a debate organized by the Museum of Modern Art in New York City, where he made many of the same points as in the review. While Logue claimed to share Jacobs’s faith in community participation and housing rehabilitation and her frustration with some architects and planners, “who care more about what their colleagues think of their plans than the public,” he rejected her primary message, which he phrased as “no more federal renewal aids; let the cities fend for themselves.”


Times Square Red, Times Square Blue by Samuel R. Delany

Jane Jacobs, Network effects, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban renewal

Businesses are supposed to move in when vice is at its peak—not ten years after the wave has crested and is a decade into its ebb. What this may just sign is that those four planned office towers, if not the rest of the brave new mall, could suffer the fate of so many of the country’s artificially built-up downtown areas over the last decade or two—Minneapolis, Minnesota; Springfield, Massachusetts—where no one wants to live or work, so that, as Jane Jacobs warned in her 1961 volume The Death and Life of Great American Cities, because there’s not enough intertwined commercial and residential variety to create a vital and lively street life, the neighborhood becomes a glass and aluminum graveyard, on its way to a postmodern superslum, without even going through the process of overcrowding—abandoned before it’s ever really used. Across Eighth Avenue from Stella’s, toward the corner of Forty-sixth Street, between the Eighth Avenue Grocery and the Lilipul Video Store, the Full Moon Saloon is a narrow bar on the ground floor of a five-story apartment house, most of whose upper windows have been cinder-blocked over.

Visitors to New York might be surprised that such occurrences are central to my vision of the city at its healthiest. Lifetime residents won’t be. Watching the metamorphosis of such vigil and concern into considered and helpful action is what gives one a faithful and loving attitude toward one’s neighborhood, one’s city, one’s nation, the world. I have taken “contact,” both term and concept, from Jane Jacobs’s instructive 1961 study, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Jacobs describes contact as a fundamentally urban phenomenon and finds it necessary for everything from neighborhood safety to a general sense of social well-being. She sees it supported by a strong sense of private and public in a field of socioeconomic diversity that mixes living spaces with a variety of commercial spaces, which in turn must provide a variety of human services if contact is to function in a pleasant and rewarding manner.

Jacobs mentions neither casual sex nor public sexual relations as part of contact—presumably because she was writing at a time when such things were not talked of or analyzed as elements contributing to an overall pleasurable social fabric. Today we can. When social forces menace the distinction between private and public, people are most likely to start distrusting contact relations. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities (98–111), Jacobs analyzes how limited socioeconomic resources in the area around a public park (lack of restaurants, bathrooms, drugstores, and small shops) can make the mothers who use the playground and live near it feel that their privacy within their home is threatened—thus markedly changing their public attitude to interclass contact. Briefly, a park with no public eating spaces, restaurants, or small item shopping on its borders forces mothers 126 . . .


pages: 165 words: 50,798

Intertwingled: Information Changes Everything by Peter Morville

A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, augmented reality, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, business process, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, disruptive innovation, index card, information retrieval, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Lean Startup, Lyft, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, Nelson Mandela, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, source of truth, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, zero-sum game

Either way, we mustn’t limit our practice to boxes and arrows. There are myriad ways to visualize systems and their possibilities. Donella may overstate her case, for even when words come one at a time, the narrative that emerges is often nonlinear. Good stories tend to wander. They draw upon our memories, associations, and emotions to create rich, sensory experience. Often, words are the best way to paint a picture. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jane Jacobs does this brilliantly. In a text with no image, she helps us see the city as a system. Her words bring sidewalks, parks, and neighborhoods to life. Jane shows us why traditional maps aren’t good for urban planning. By focusing on roads and buildings, maps reveal the skeleton but miss the point. A city’s structure is evident in its mixture of uses, the life and activity it nurtures, and the conditions that generate diversity.

iii Pervasive Information Architecture by Andrea Resmini and Luca Rosati (2011). iv Architectures by Jorge Arango (2011). v Understanding Context by Andrew Hinton (2014). vi Make Things Be Good by Dan Klyn (2013). vii Systemantics by John Gall (1975), p.14. viii Systems Thinking for Curious Managers by Russell Ackoff (2010), p.6. ix Thinking in Systems by Donella Meadows (2008), p.14. x Meadows (2008), p.157. xi Meadows (2008), p.5. xii The Death and Life of Great American Cities by Jane Jacobs (1961), p.376. xiii Jacobs (1961), p.376. xiv The Agile Manifesto, http://agilemanifesto.org. xv The Machine That Changed the World by James Womack (1990), p.56. xvi The Lean Startup by Eric Ries (2011). xvii Meadows (2008), p.170. xviii Should Isle Royale Wolves Be Reintroduced by John Vucetich (2012), p.130. xix The Perfect Mile by Neal Bascomb (2005). xx Philosophy of the Buddha by Christopher W.

xxxviii Lakoff (1987), p.271. xxxix Fundamentals of Language by Roman Jakobson and Morris Halle (1956), p.60. xl Semiotics: The Basics by Daniel Chandler (2002), p.111. xli Conversion, Culture, and Cognitive Categories by Paul G. Hiebert (1978). xlii Centered and Bounded Sets by Dan Klyn (2012). xliii Life of Pi by Yann Martel (2003), p.66. xliv To learn more about holacracy, see holacracy.org. xlv The Death and Life of Great American Cities by Jane Jacobs (1961), p.392. xlvi The New Library Patron by Lee Rainie (2013). xlvii The Timeless Way of Building by Christopher Alexander (1979). xlviii The Battle for the Life and Beauty of the Earth by Christopher Alexander, Hans Joachim Neis, and Maggie Moore Alexander (2012), p.115. xlix Information Anxiety by Richard Saul Wurman (1989), p.72. l The Wurmanizer by Gary Wolf (2000).


pages: 211 words: 55,075

Soft City: Building Density for Everyday Life by David Sim

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, autonomous vehicles, car-free, carbon footprint, Jane Jacobs, megastructure, New Urbanism, place-making, smart cities, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city

Based on experience from the 65 years since the previous conference, a new Athens Charter was developed that basically says that residences, workplaces, recreation, and communications must never be separated. A complete turnaround! Seemingly, it took 65 years and numerous Modernist city districts to reach this conclusion. However, a counter cities-for-people movement had been gradually developing for quite a number of years in reaction to the technocratic modernist movement. In the area of writings and research, the work of Jane Jacobs in New York, and her famous 1961 book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, stands out. Jane Jacobs raised the flag and excellently described many of the problems of Modernist city planning. She started to formulate new directions: look out of your windows; look at the people; look at life before you plan and design. In the years and decades following her call to arms, a number of researchers developed and deepened the work concerning how the built form influences quality of life.

It was number one in Metropolis’s rankings in 2016; and in the Economist, it came in at number nine on the city livability ranking from 2005-2018. 5 Jaime Lerner, Planning Report, October 2007: https://www.planningreport.com/2007/11/01/jaime-lerner-cities-present-solutions-not-problems-quality-life-climate-change (accessed 14 April 2019). Building Blocks 6 City of Copenhagen, Green Courtyards program, established in 1992. 7 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House 1961). 8 Karsten Pålsson, Public Spaces and Urbanity: How to Design Humane Cities. Construction and Design Manual (Berlin: DOM Publishers 2017), 164. 9 G. J. Coates, “The Sustainable Urban District of Vauban in Freiburg, Germany,” Int. J. of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics. Vol. 8, No. 4 (2013), 265–286. 10 Active ground floors allow for more people spending time.

A study carried out with similar street layouts, but different ground floors—active (with door openings, niches, etc) versus inactive (without windows, door openings, etc)—demonstrated that seven times more people stop at the active ground floors compared to the inactive. Gehl, Jan. Kaefer, Lotte Johansen, Reigstad, Solvejg. “Close encounters with buildings” in Urban Design International (2006) 11, 29-47. Time of Your Life 11 John Lennon, Beautiful Boy (1980). Getting About and Getting On 12 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House 1961), 36-37. 13 ITDP, Pedestrians First. Tools for a Walkable City (ITDP, 2018). 14 See Jan Gehl. Cities for People (Washington D.C.: Island Press 2010). 15 Jan Gehl. Cities for People (Washington D.C.: Island Press 2010), 131-32. 16 Streets should make up for 30% of the area of a city according to UN Habitat: UN Habitat, Streets as Public Spaces and Drivers of Urban Prosperity (UN Habitat, Nairobi: 2013). 17 City of Perth: Two Way Streets (City of Perth 2014); more on the disadvantage of one way streets in Vikash V.


Building and Dwelling: Ethics for the City by Richard Sennett

Buckminster Fuller, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, creative destruction, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Downton Abbey, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, housing crisis, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, open borders, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Richard Florida, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen

Combine the two, and unexpected things can happen; time’s arrow ceases to shoot straight. As she put it in The Death and Life of Great American Cities, ‘if density and diversity give life, the life they breed is disorderly’. She was thinking in part about commercial relations, as did Aristotle; put a lot of competitors together and they compete, connive and flourish – which is the logic today of ‘innovation hubs’. She was also thinking of politics: it’s most alive when debate is open and fractious and things happen. A city has to operate informally for these benefits to appear; the four pre-planned functions of the Charter of Athens will not give a city this kind of fizzy serendipity.19 There are resonances to her title, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Psychoanalysis sees those words ‘death’ and ‘life’ as more than figures of speech.

– LEWIS MUMFORD DEBATES JANE JACOBS Jane Jacobs became famous as an activist for the campaign she waged against Robert Moses, the dictatorial planner of much of twentieth-century New York who wanted to turn Fifth Avenue into a highway running through one of the city’s most loved parks, Washington Square. She persuaded the public to see this proposal as criminal, and eventually New York’s politicians relented. A great book then explained why she had been so persuasive. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961), she argued against conceiving of the city as a purely functional system; she asserted that big master-planning inevitably suffocates community; she spoke for mixed neighbourhoods, for informal street life and for local control. Her books – she wrote many more than this one, late in her life taking a philosophic turn – put her squarely in the Chicago School ethnographic tradition.

When I put it to her, Madame Q thought this formula too crude; the city had decayed earlier, so there was nothing arbitrary about tearing it down. (In Schumpeter’s defence, he was highly critical of breaking things just to put something new in their place; many ‘innovations’, he pointed out, are neither innovative nor profitable.25) Madame Q doubted, indeed, that much Western thinking made good sense of China’s cities. I once gave her a copy of Jane Jacobs’ The Death and Life of Great American Cities to read, thinking she would approve of it. She didn’t. The great American champion of small neighbourhoods, of slow growth and of bottom-up politics was too ‘American’. Slow growth is only for rich countries. Moreover, Madame Q thought Jane Jacobs naive about spontaneity, which to her meant roving bands of Red Guards during the Cultural Revolution. Lewis Mumford made more sense to her.


pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, different worldview, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, Thales and the olive presses, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Mumbai’s slums lack the dangerous feeling I have felt in Rio’s favelas or New York’s poorer areas in the 1970s. This discrepancy isn’t because Mumbai’s police are doing a great job, and Mumbai is poorer than Rio. The best explanation for the safety of Mumbai’s slums is that, while these places maybe poor, they’re also well-functioning social spaces, like the Greenwich Village described by Jane Jacobs in her masterpiece The Death and Life of Great American Cities fifty years ago. In these areas, residents watch the streets and alleys. Misbehavior is quickly noticed and dealt with, not by the police, but by the community. Within cities too, crime rates move up and down for reasons that are hard to fathom. Murder is the only crime that can be reliably used to measure long-term changes in public safety, because other crimes are often underreported for various reasons.

She assembled a broad range of supporters who rushed the podium at a commission planning meeting. She insinuated that there were corrupt deals between city officials and builders. Eventually, she created enough heat so that the mayor himself, once a strong supporter of the project, gave it up. In that same year, a few months after beating City Hall, Jacobs published her masterpiece, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. It is a great book, which investigates and celebrates the pedestrian world of mid-twentieth-century New York. She grounds her case for mixed-use zoning by arguing that street life is the essence of city living and city safety. She argues against high-density dwellings by pointing out that they segregate residents from their streets. In a world of short buildings, residents can monitor the paths outside their home, and eyes on the street make pedestrians safer.

In more mixed settings, there are more shoppers and workers. In wealthier areas, there are doormen. A modicum of good urban planning can ensure that high-rises have enough foot traffic to keep streets safe. Neither Midtown Manhattan nor Hong Kong is short on pedestrians, and crime is relatively rare. Jane Jacobs’s opposition to urban renewal led her to a more sweeping dislike for tall buildings in general. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, she argued that urban neighborhoods can only thrive when they have between one and two hundred households per acre. She argued that cities need at least a hundred homes per acre to generate enough street traffic to support exciting restaurants and shops. She also argued that two hundred homes per acre was a “danger mark”; once neighborhoods crossed that point, they risked sterile standardization.


pages: 282 words: 69,481

Road to ruin: an introduction to sprawl and how to cure it by Dom Nozzi

business climate, car-free, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, Parkinson's law, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, skinny streets, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban decay, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game

Because of their size, activity and nature parks disrupt the walkability of an area and therefore serve a community best at the urban periphery. Walkable Streets and Blocks As designers have ignored the needs of pedestrians over the past several decades, the public realm—the streets, parks, sidewalks, and plazas—has become dangerous, uninviting, and undesirable. Pedestrians in such a community represent little more than inconveniences to motorists. As Jane Jacobs noted 40 years ago in The Death and Life of Great American Cities, “lowly, unpurposeful and random as they may appear, sidewalk contacts are the small change from which a city’s wealth of public life may grow” (p. 72). Yet many new residential and commercial developments either neglect to build a sidewalk along the frontage street or build one that is too narrow to be usable. For pedestrians to walk comfortably side-by-side, they need a sidewalk at least five feet wide.

These forms of affordable housing become increasingly affordable as the number of New Urbanist communities grows, which will lower prices as a result of competition. Mixed-use and mixed-income housing units are allowable and acceptable in New Urbanist designs because they are properly scaled and detailed and do not generate as much car travel as single-use developments. As Jane Jacobs noted in The Death and Life of Great American Cities, vibrant downtowns (which are hurt by an auto-based culture) provide important entry-level, low-capital job opportunities for low-income people—selling food from carts, providing personal services, selling specialty goods, and so forth. And what do our auto-dominated communities offer the poor? They are expensive to live in. The average car costs the same as a $50,000 home mortgage, depending on the interest rates.

., Institute of Transportation Engineers, February 1994. International Center for Technology Assessment. Real Price of Gas. http://www. icta.org/ctanews/realpr.htm. Accessed 20 June 2002. Jackson, K. T. Crabgrass Frontier. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. Jackson, T. T. “Transportation Concurrency: How It Can Be Achieved.” Florida Planning 10, 10 (1990): 7–8. Jacobs, J. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage, 1961. Kasowski, K. “The Costs of Sprawl, Revisited.” PAS Memo, February 1993. ———. “Suburban Sprawl.” Florida Planning 7, 1 (January 1995): 3, 5. Kay, J. H. “Without a Car in the World,” New Colonist, http://www. newcolonist.com/carfree_kay.html. Accessed 15 June 2001. Ketcham, B. Making Transportation Choices Based on Real Costs. Presentation at the Transportation 2000 Conference “Making Transportation a National Priority.”


pages: 239 words: 56,531

The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld

Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, anti-globalists, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

She went to jail twice for defending her neighborhood, and was able to work with a large group of people who questioned why cars and commuters were more important than parks, communities, and pedestrians. The woman decided to write down the record of her experiences and thoughts about cities and urban planning, and the field of urban planning was changed forever. She was Jane Jacobs, the year was 1961, and her book was The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Jacobs was our preeminent urban anthropologist—a person who could look at a city block, and through building up the details, show exactly how it worked. An associate editor of Architectural Forum in the 1950s, she became more and more concerned with the deadening effects of urban planning on cities. She went over the whole sad history of those influential thinkers who saw 84 WEB n.0 cities as horrid, dirty, overcrowded places filled with the dregs of humanity who needed planners to come in and rationalize, de-densify, and order their spaces for them.

These urbanites develop technologies, export them out of the city, and establish cosmopolitan habits. Jacobs’s attention to detailed observation, to bottom-up rather than top-down modeling, and her attacks on monocultures of all kinds commend her work to us. Though jeered at by professional planners of her day—one dismissed her work as “bitter coffee-house ramblings”—Jacobs has certainly had the last laugh, with The Death and Life of Great American Cities utterly upending town planning for more than fifty years through its articulation of precisely what makes a neighborhood worth inhabiting. We will spend at least another generation working out how Jacob’s fine-grained mixtures should function within digital environments, but mining her work for insights into the culture machine does not stop there. Just after the fall of the Berlin wall and the breakup of the Soviet Union, Jacobs wrote Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics, in which she identifies two complementary and opposing moral syndromes: one based on taking (also known as the guardian syndrome), and the other based on trading (or the commercial syndrome).

Winston Churchill’s maxim “Don’t take No for an answer. Never submit to failure.” has to be one of the most repeated pieces of advice to sales trainees everywhere. Quoted in Richard Langworth, Churchill by Himself: The Definitive Collection of Quotations (New York: Public Affairs, 2008), 569; originally in Winston Churchill, My Early Life: A Roving Commission (London: Thornton Butterworth, 1930), 74. 7. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961; repr., New York: Modern Library, 1993; Jane Jacobs, Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics (New York: Random House, 1992). 188 NOTES 8. Manuel DeLanda offers a succinct definition of the difference between hierarchies and meshworks in “Homes: Meshwork or Hierarchy?” Mediamatic, available at <http://www.mediamatic.net/article-5914-en.html>.


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The Year Without Pants: Wordpress.com and the Future of Work by Scott Berkun

barriers to entry, blue-collar work, Broken windows theory, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Hangouts, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Lean Startup, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, post-work, remote working, Results Only Work Environment, Richard Stallman, Seaside, Florida, side project, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the map is not the territory, Tony Hsieh, trade route, zero-sum game

Mostly it was up to programmers and their teams to decide how to triage issues that landed on their P2s. Some were fixed immediately, others were fixed soon, some were rejected, and others fell into the limbo of issues whose fate may never be decided. Source: Greg Brown, a code wrangler at Automattic. If you ask the old-timers, Automattic believed in the broken window theory, the idea popularized by Jane Jacobs in her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities.1 She examined why some neighborhoods in New York City were safer than others and concluded that neighborhoods that were well maintained by their inhabitants, including small things like picking up trash and fixing broken windows, tended to have less crime. In other words, by regularly fixing small things, you prevent bigger problems from starting. It's similar to the platitudes “nip it in the bud” and “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.”

There was a mature balance of reporting data yet leaving people free to decide what they meant or how much they wanted to use in their thinking. MC was a manifestation of the line between support and creatives. MC was a tool, created by the Janitorial team, to support all the others in doing their work. But rarely would the data dictate to anyone what should be done. Notes 1 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1992; originally published 1961). The theory was developed by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling, “Broken Windows,” Atlantic Monthly (March 1982). 2 Just as a broken leg will take more time to fix than a scratch, a simple incoming-versus-fix chart discounts possibly important details such as the scope of each issue. 3 A good summary of the problems with evaluating programming work based on lines of code is at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Source_lines_of_code#Disadvantages.

See Highlander Communication: clarity of Company meeting (Budapest); author's presentation on leading Team Social; experiment at; Post Postmodernism team project Company meeting (Seaside, Florida): author's arrival at; description of Seaside; employee group photo at; informal socializing at; mentioned in August 2010 town hall meeting; typical retreat (off-site) contrasted to; work on Team Social's Hovercard project at; work process at Compensation Conrad, Tony Continuous deployment Copyleft Coworking spaces Crawford, Matthew Creative Abrasion Creative employees: necessity of shipping by; support kept from infringing upon; using humor when nagging Culture: attracts employees with similar values Customer support: Athens train system vs. Automattic D Daily builds Data: Automattic's relationship to; MC reporting system for; paradox of; role in decision making; as trap; with voice Data General Davis, Robert S. Deadlines: lack of; for launching Jetpack at SXSW; short, impact on teamwork; when writing The Death and Life of Great American Cities(Jacobs) Decision making Deep dive technique Defensive management Democratizing publishing Design: complex, of WordPress; interface, done first; success determined by; vision needed for coherence of Dogpatch Labs Donkin, Richard Dorman, Anne Double down DreamHost E EMACS E-mail: Automattic communication via; disadvantages of; no mandate on using; notifying blogger of response to blog; notifying blogger of visitor subscribing to blog; observations about company sent to Mullenweg via; used with P2s; WordPress.com support via E-mailopathy Emotions Expensify Experiments: author's mission to include; with benefits' effect on performance; at Budapest company meeting; as essential; and fear of new ideas; at Hawaii meet-up; with new communication tools; shift to teams as; team meet-ups as opportunities for; teams and team leads as F Face-to-face interactions: author's preference for; author's trip to San Francisco for; cost of meet-ups for; at mini-team meet-up in San Francisco; necessity of Feedback Fogel, Karl Follow the Sun Fontainhas, Zé Fox, Jon Friction Functionality Future of work: creatives vs. supporters and; focus on results vs. traditions in; impossibility of predicting; increasing prevalence of working remotely; meaningful work in; self-sufficient passionate employees and G General public license (GPL) Gibson, William GitHub GoDaddy Google Google Docs spreadsheet Google Hangouts Gravatar Griz (dog) H Happiness Engineers (HE) Harstein, Ran Hawaii.


pages: 1,136 words: 73,489

Working in Public: The Making and Maintenance of Open Source Software by Nadia Eghbal

Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, death of newspapers, Debian, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, Firefox, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, Induced demand, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kubernetes, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Network effects, node package manager, Norbert Wiener, pirate software, pull request, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Ruby on Rails, side project, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, two-sided market, urban planning, web application, wikimedia commons, Zimmermann PGP

Yet I’m asked to speak about it, and the work I’m actually *paid* to do no one really wants to hear about. ”240 Even as software’s purchase value is being driven dramatically down, its social value seems to be going dramatically up. We can’t live without software anymore, but we also don’t want to pay for it. How is this the case? The author Jane Jacobs explores these conflicting views in her 1961 book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, in which she tries to explain why urban planning policy failed cities. Jacobs’s major critique of urban planning in the 1950s is that the planners treated cities—the layout of their buildings, parks, and roads—as static objects, which were only developed at the outset, rather than continuously revised according to how people used them. To make her case, Jacobs cites Dr. Warren Weaver’s 1958 Annual Report of the Rockefeller Foundation, which explores three “stages of development in the history of scientific thought”: problems of simplicity, disorganized complexity, and organized complexity.

(draft), University of Miami School of Law, April 6, 1997, http://osaka.law.miami.edu/~froomkin/articles/newecon.htm. 237 Ben Thompson, “AWS, MongoDB, and the Economic Realities of Open Source,” Stratechery, January 14, 2019, https://stratechery.com/2019/aws-mongodb-and-the-economic-realities-of-open-source/. 238 Bill Gates, “An Open Letter to Hobbyists,” February 3, 1976, via Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bill_Gates_Letter_to_Hobbyists.jpg. 239 David Friedman, Price Theory: an Intermediate Text (Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Publishing Co, 1986), 20. 240 Ben Lesh (@BenLesh), “Open Source is such a strange thing . . .,” Twitter, November 30, 2017, 1:26 p.m., https://twitter.com/BenLesh/status/936300388906446848. 241 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1992), 433. 242 Timothy Patitsas, Nadia Eghbal, and Henry Zhu, “City as Liturgy,” Hope in Source, podcast audio, March 21, 2019, https://hopeinsource.com/city/. 243 Randall W. Eberts, “White Paper on Valuing Transportation Infrastructure,” W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, January 1, 2014, 10, https://research.upjohn.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?

., https://twitter.com/sophiebits/status/1193686560413106177. 259 Owen Phillips, “The Anonymous MVP of the NBA Finals,” The Outline, June 12, 2017, https://theoutline.com/post/1706/the-anonymous-mvp-of-the-nba-finals-velocityraps-illegal-streaming. 260 Ryan Regier, “We Are in a Golden Age of Illegal Sports Streaming and It’s Showing Us How Copyright Infringement Can Result in Better Content,” Medium, January 20, 2019, https://medium.com/@ryregier/we-are-in-a-golden-age-of-illegal-sports-streaming-and-its-showing-us-how-copyright-infringement-d835ae291ed2. 05 261 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1992), 55. 262 Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), “National Defense Budget Estimates for FY2020,” United States Department of Defense, May 2019, https://comptroller.defense.gov/Portals/45/Documents/defbudget/fy2020/FY20_Green_Book.pdf. 263 Guido van Rossum, “[Python-Committers] Transfer of Power,” The Python-Committers Archives, July 12, 2018, https://mail.python.org/pipermail/python-committers/2018-July/005664.html. 264 Jake Edge, “PEP 572 and Decision-Making in Python,” LWN.net, June 20, 2018, https://lwn.net/Articles/757713/. 265 Guido van Rossum, “A Different Way to Focus Discussions,” LWN.net, May 18, 2018, https://lwn.net/Articles/759557/. 266 Jonathan Zdziarski, “On the State of Open Source,” Zdziarski’s Blog of Things, October 3, 2016, https://www.zdziarski.com/blog/?


pages: 147 words: 39,910

The Great Mental Models: General Thinking Concepts by Shane Parrish

Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Barry Marshall: ulcers, bitcoin, Black Swan, colonial rule, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, delayed gratification, feminist movement, index fund, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, mandelbrot fractal, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ponzi scheme, Richard Feynman, statistical model, stem cell, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the map is not the territory, the scientific method, Thomas Bayes, Torches of Freedom

« As a branch of human endeavor, cartography has a long and interesting history that well reflects the state of cultural activity, as well as the perception of the world, in different periods. … Though technical in nature, cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and artistic pursuit, a dichotomy not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations. » Norman J.W. Thrower11 Maps can influence territories: This problem was part of the central argument put forth by Jane Jacobs in her groundbreaking work, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. She chronicled the efforts of city planners who came up with elaborate models for the design and organization of cities without paying any attention to how cities actually work. They then tried to fit the cities into the model. She describes how cities were changed to correspond to these models, and the often negative consequences of these efforts. “It became possible also to map out master plans for the statistical city, and people take these more seriously, for we are all accustomed to believe that maps and reality are necessarily related, or that if they are not, we can make them so by altering reality.” 12 Jacobs’ book is, in part, a cautionary tale of what can happen when faith in the model influences the decisions we make in the territory.

Maps and Civilization: Cartography in Culture and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999. 9 MacMillan, Margaret. The Uses and Abuses of History. Toronto: Penguin, 2008. 10 An excellent analysis of the division of the Middle East after World War I can be found in: MacMillan, Margaret. Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World. New York: Random House, 2001. 11 Thrower, Norman J.W. Ibid. 12 Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage Books, 1992. (Original published 1961). Page 438. 13 Hand, David J. Wonderful Examples, but Let’s not Close Our Eyes. Statist. Sci. 29 (2014), no. 1, 98--100. doi:10.1214/13-STS446 Circle of Competence 1 Watson, Thomas J., and Peter Petrie. Father, Son, & Co.: My Life at IBM and Beyond. New York: Random House, 2013. 2 Sun Tzu. The Art of War: With Study Guide.


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Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

If we program all of the randomness out, we’ll have turned them from rich, living organisms into dull mechanical automatons. They need to be secure, but not at the risk of becoming surveillance chambers. They need to be open and participatory, but provide enough support structure for those who lack the resources to self-organize. More than anything else, they need to be inclusive. In her most influential book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the acclaimed urbanist Jane Jacobs argued that “cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody.”39 Yet over fifty years later, as we set out to create the smart cities of the twenty-first century, we seem to have again forgotten this hard-learned truth. But there is hope that a new civic order will arise in smart cities, and pull every last one of us into the effort to make them better places.

Dodgeball showed how social software could be with us everywhere, and be fun without being annoying. Crowley himself is an archetype for smart-city hackers everywhere. Urban economists believe that cities thrive because they create opportunities for people to interact for commerce, learning, and entertainment. But it takes someone who intuitively understands cities to create a new way of doing that for the whole world to use. Jane Jacobs’s treatise of good urbanism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, was a love letter to New York City’s Greenwich Village, the same neighborhood that both inspired and accommodated Crowley as he conceived Dodgeball. The book glorified how good streets create opportunities for people to meet by chance. Crowley designed Dodgeball as an engine to amplify that serendipitous potential, by constantly prodding us to get up and go make new friends. If she were still alive, how would Jacobs have judged Dodgeball?

CASUM-m, Bangalore, India, January 2007, http://casumm.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/bhoomi-e-governance.pdf. 35Kevin Donovan, “Seeing Like a Slum: Towards Open, Deliberative Development,” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 13, no. 1 (2012): 97. 36Jeremy Bentham. The Panopticon Writings (London: Verso, 1995), 29–95. 37Farah Mohamed, “Sen. Franken on facial recognition and Facebook,” Planet Washington, last modified July 18, 2012, http://blogs.mcclatchydc.com/washington/2012/07/sen-franken-on-facial-recognition-adnd-facebook.html. 38Adam Harvey, CV Dazzle, n.d., accessed August 26, 2012, http://cvdazzle.com. 39Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), 238. 40Walter Lippmann, New York Herald Tribune, June 6, 1939, quoted in Robert W. Rydell, World of Fairs: The Century-of-Progress Expositions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 115. Chapter 1. The $100 Billion Jackpot 1Henrik Schoenefeldt, “191: The Building of the Great Exhibition of 1851, an Environmental Design Experiment” (Cambridge: The Martin Centre for Architectural and Urban Studies, University of Cambridge, n.d.), http://kent.academia.edu/HenrikSchoenefeldt/Papers/ 118104/The_Building_of_the_Great_Exhibition_of_1851_-_an_Environmental_Design_Experiment. 2Terence Riley, The Changing of the Avant-Garde: Visionary Architectural Drawings from the Howard Gilman Collection (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2002), 150. 3“A Walking City,” Archigram Archival Project, Project for Experimental Practice, University of Westminster, 2010, http://archigram.westminster.ac.uk/project.php?


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The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, business cycle, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, different worldview, double helix, Downton Abbey, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Nate Silver, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Richard Sennett (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969). 14Daniel Okrent, Last Call: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition (New York: Scribner, 2010). 15Thomas Bender, Community and Social Change in America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978), 131–33. 16Hillary Rodham Clinton, It Takes a Village: And Other Lessons Children Teach Us (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996). 17Wellman, “The Community Question,” 1201–31. 18Martin Gansberg, “Lindsay, Recalling the Genovese Murder, Deplores Apathy,” New York Times, October 13, 1965. 19Jim Rasenberger, “Kitty, 40 Years Later,” New York Times, February 8, 2004. 20Robert Nisbet, The Quest for Community (Wilmington, Del.: ISI Books, 1990), 72. 21Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1992), 121–40. 22Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 150–51. 23Claude S. Fischer, “Toward a Subcultural Theory of Urbanism,” American Journal of Sociology 80, no. 6 (May 1975). Chapter 7: Bands, Villages, and Tribes 1Robin I. M. Dunbar, “The Social Brain Hypothesis,” Evolutionary Anthropology 6 (1998): 178. 2Dunbar, “The Social Brain Hypothesis,” 178–90. 3Michael Harre, “Social Network Size Linked to Brain Size,” Scientific American, August 7, 2012. 4R.

The hits weren’t the ones created by groups who had teamed up before, or who had been brought together entirely anew. The most successful shows came from teams that spliced familiar partners together with new blood. Success comes from compiling a group that includes a degree of both novelty and confidence, dynamism and familiarity.19 Jane Jacobs is unquestionably best known for the argument that framed The Death and Life of Great American Cities—namely, that neighborhoods, properly crafted, maintain an organic quality of their own. But Jacobs’s second book, The Economy of Cities, made a different claim—one that focused more squarely on the issue of creativity. Less than a decade after Arthur Koestler published his treatise on the foundations of innovation, Jacobs came to the remarkable conclusion that the process later termed the Medici effect was, in many cases, a phenomenon of everyday routines.


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Obliquity: Why Our Goals Are Best Achieved Indirectly by John Kay

Andrew Wiles, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, British Empire, business process, Cass Sunstein, computer age, corporate raider, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, discounted cash flows, discovery of penicillin, diversification, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, lateral thinking, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Pasteur, market fundamentalism, Myron Scholes, Nash equilibrium, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, shareholder value, Simon Singh, Steve Jobs, Thales of Miletus, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, ultimatum game, urban planning, value at risk

National Park Service, “The Yellowstone Fires of 1988,” 2008. 6 B. M. Kilgore, “Origin and History of Wildland Fire Use in the U.S. National Park System,” George Wright Forum 24, no. 3 (2007). 7 Le Corbusier, The Radiant City (London, Faber & Faber, 1964), p.154. 8 Robert A. Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York (New York, Vintage Books, 1975), p. 11. 9 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1965), p. 350. 10 Louis Pasteur, 1854, quoted in Maurice B. Strauss, Familiar Medical Quotations (London: J & A Churchill, 1968), p. 108. Chapter 7: Muddling Through—Why Oblique Approaches Succeed 1 Charles Lindblom, “The Science of “Muddling Through,” Public Administration Review 19, no. 2 (1959), pp. 79–88. 2 H. Igor Ansoff, Corporate Strategy (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1985), p. 41. 3 Ibid., p. 10. 4 Ibid., p. 312. 5 Robert Heller in Ansoff, Corporate Strategy, p. 360. 6 Ansoff, Corporate Strategy, pp. 326–7. 7 Saint-Gobain, “Annual Report 2008,” Courbevoie, 2008. 8 Charles Lindblom, “Still Muddling, Not Yet Through,” Public Administration Review 39, no. 6 (1979), pp. 517–26. 9 Cass R.

After MacIntyre: Critical Perspectives on the Work of Alasdair MacIntyre. Cambridge: Polity, 1994. Hume, David. Essays: Moral, Political, Literary. 1777. Reprint, ed. Eugene F. Miller, Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1985. Hutton, Will. The World We’re In. London: Little, Brown, 2002. Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World. London: Chatto and Windus, 1932. ICI. “Annual Report.” 1990. ICI. “Annual Report.” 1997. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1965. Jencks, Charles. The Language of Post-Modern Architecture. London: Academy Editions, 1984. Jenkins, Roy. Churchill. London: Macmillan, 2001. JPMorgan and Reuters. RiskMetrics—Technical Document. 4th ed. New York: Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York, 1996. Kahneman, Daniel, Ed Diener, and Norbert Schwarz. Well-being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology.


pages: 441 words: 96,534

Streetfight: Handbook for an Urban Revolution by Janette Sadik-Khan

autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, business cycle, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Hyperloop, Induced demand, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, New Urbanism, place-making, self-driving car, sharing economy, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

And as the myths about the Jacobs/Moses battles and competing visions for cities have deepened, they haven’t always taught us the right lessons about how to make our streets and cities better. A native of Scranton, Pennsylvania, Jane Jacobs moved to Depression-era New York City and emerged as an unlikely urban visionary in her adopted West Village neighborhood. Her signature work, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961), was an urban revelation, declaring in accessible language how a city’s design can nourish or destroy its quality of human life. She blasted the urban planners of the first half of the twentieth century for “urban renewal” programs that destroyed old buildings—and the neighborhoods with them—in the name of progress and for building in their place cold, sterile high-rises set back on superblocks, sucking life away from the street.

In July 2014, seven months after I stepped down as transportation commissioner when a new mayor came into office, a work team from New York City’s Department of Transportation added a footnote to Manhattan’s urban history: working with thermoplastic paint and concrete, the crew striped and heat-stenciled a parking-protected bike path directly in front of 555 Hudson Street in Greenwich Village, the former home of Jane Jacobs. Jane’s Lane, a protected bike path in front of Jane Jacobs’s former home at 555 Hudson Street, Manhattan, arrived fifty-three years after the publication of The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Seth Solomonow The design of the bike path, now running alongside the curb, protected by the line of parked cars on the other side, wasn’t new to Manhattan’s streets. The lane connected Hudson Street with an existing bike path built six years earlier just north of Jane’s three-story, red-brick home. When it first appeared in 2007, a protected bike path was a foreign concept on American streets, one that seemed to upset the balance of the street and was viewed as an enemy to traffic, graphically illustrated by the fight in 2010 over the bike lane on Prospect Park West.

David Goodman, “Dueling Protests over a Brooklyn Bike Lane,” The New York Times City Room, October 21, 2010, accessed August 10, 2015, http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/10/21/dueling-protests-over-a-brooklyn-bike-lane/. “outside of the Gaza Strip”: Natalie O’Neill, “The Prospect Park West Bike Lane Had Our Presses Rolling All Year Long,” The Brooklyn Paper, December 30, 2011, accessed August 10, 2015, www.brooklynpaper.com/stories/34/52/all_year_bikelane_2011_12_30_bk.html. “Ballet of Hudson Street”: Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 2009), 52. “eyes on the street”: Ibid., 35. “public life may grow”: Ibid., 72. “that we must fit our plans”: Jane Jacobs, “Downtown Is for People,” Fortune, 1958, accessed August 5, 2015, http://fortune.com/2011/09/18/downtown-is-for-people-fortune-classic-1958/. exclusively on NIMBY: These ad hoc groups are also known, variously, as NOPE (Not on Planet Earth) or CAVEmen (Citizens Against Virtually Everything) or BANANA (Build Absolutely Nothing Anywhere Near Anything).


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Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives by Tim Harford

affirmative action, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, assortative mating, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Basel III, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, crowdsourcing, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Erdős number, experimental subject, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Frank Gehry, game design, global supply chain, Googley, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, Inbox Zero, income inequality, industrial cluster, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, microbiome, out of africa, Paul Erdős, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Turing test, urban decay, William Langewiesche

There is a balance to be struck here—a balance that we are still working hard to understand.11 Yet the early lessons of the new science of the microbiome chime strikingly with what we’ve already discovered: If you try to control a complex system, suppressing or tidying away the parts that seem unimportant, you are likely to discover that what seemed unimportant turns out to be very important indeed. • • • If we are increasingly understanding that mess makes natural systems more healthy and resilient, then could the same be true for artificial systems, such as the neighborhoods, cities, and countries where we live? Jane Jacobs, the urban writer and campaigner, made the case for neighborhood diversity in The Death and Life of Great American Cities. She wrote of “the daily ballet of Hudson Street” in Greenwich Village, New York, where she lived. “We may fancifully call it the art form of the city and liken it to the dance,” she wrote. “Not to a simple-minded precision dance with everyone kicking up at the same time, twirling in unison and bowing off en masse, but to an intricate ballet in which the individual dancers and ensembles all have distinctive parts which miraculously reinforce each other.”12 Jacobs explained that it was the diversity of this urban ballet that made it work.

Diversity at street level was made possible by a mix of offices and homes, stores and workshops. It was also made possible, Jacobs argued, by a mix of old and new buildings. She would not have been surprised by the story of Building 20, the low-status structure in the middle of high-status MIT that was home to so many intriguing experiments. It sounds not unlike a building she describes in The Death and Life of Great American Cities: The floor of the building in which this book is being written is occupied also by a health club with a gym, a firm of ecclesiastical decorators, an insurgent Democratic party reform club, a Liberal party political club, a music society, an accordionists’ association, a retired importer who sells maté [sic] by mail, a man who sells paper and who also takes care of shipping the maté, a dental laboratory, a studio for watercolor lessons, and a maker of costume jewelry.

Ed Yong, “There Is No ‘Healthy’ Microbiome,” The New York Times, November 1, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/02/opinion/sunday/there-is-no-healthy-microbiome.html, and Gabrielle Canon, “Sorry, Your Gut Bacteria Are Not the Answer to All Your Health Problems,” Mother Jones, October 27, 2014, http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/10/microbiome-health-gut-bacteria; Blaser, Missing Microbes, pp. 31–32. 12. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1992), p. 50. 13. Ibid., p. 193. 14. Maryann P. Feldman and David B. Audretsch, “Innovation in Cities: Science-Based Diversity, Specialization and Localized Competition,” European Economic Review 43 (1999). 15. AnnaLee Saxenian, Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994). 16.


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You Are Here: Why We Can Find Our Way to the Moon, but Get Lost in the Mall by Colin Ellard

A Pattern Language, call centre, car-free, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Frank Gehry, global village, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, job satisfaction, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, New Urbanism, peak oil, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban sprawl

It is one thing to understand how the design of a dwelling can support hierarchies or gender relationships among kin, but another thing entirely to see how city design influences interactions among thousands or even millions of people who may cross paths every day or only once in a lifetime. Nobody understood the importance of this difference better than Jane Jacobs, the urban visionary, activist, and writer who spent much of her life fighting modernist forces poised to reshape New York City and used her later years to exert similar powerful influences on Toronto, her adopted home. In her trailblazing book The Death and Life of Great American Cities—still current more than forty years after its initial publication—Jacobs offers a scathing indictment of the influence of modernist principles on urban design, but the more enduring contribution of this book is the collection of worldly wise prescriptions for designing livable, safe, and vibrant neighborhoods. Central to Jacobs’s thesis was the oft-repeated mantra that “life attracts life.”

Although Le Corbusier’s urban planning principles caused much damage both overseas and at home (largely because of his failure to understand the psychology of space), he is still widely respected as an artist and architect. A sympathetic and interesting book is W. Boesiger and H. Girsberger’s Le Corbusier 1910-65 (Birkhäuser: Basel, 1999), which contains photographs of his works along with captions in three languages explaining his intentions. 3. Jane Jacobs condemns Le Corbusier’s mathematics, and some other aspects of his urban-planning principles, in the introductory chapter of her opus The Death and Life of Great American Cities, revised edition (Vintage: New York, 1992). 4. The quote from Oscar Newman comes from page 10 of his book Creating Defensible Space (Center for Urban Policy Research, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development: Washington, DC, 1996). 5. Christian Nold’s exploits can be found on his website, www.biomapping.net. 6. The material on Fetter Lane is found in chapter 22, “A London Address,” of Peter Ackroyd’s London: The Biography (Vintage: New York, 2001).

His opinions on the influence of telecommunication technologies on the conduct of warfare are found in Desert Screen: War at the Speed of Light, translated by Michael Degener (Continuum: London, 2005). CHAPTER 11: GREENSPACE 1. Bruce Chatwin tells the story of accelerated songlines in his book The Songlines (Penguin: New York, 1988). 2. Jane Jacobs describes the origins of modern suburban living in the introductory chapter of her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Vintage: New York, 1992). 3. Mathis Wackernagel and William Rees, Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth (New Society Publishers: Gabriola Island, BC, 2001). 4. Details of Wilson’s life can be found in his book Naturalist (Shearwater Books: Washington, DC, 1996). 5. Wilson’s book Biophilia (Harvard University Press: Cambridge, MA, 1986) started things off, but much useful followup material can be found in the later book edited by Stephen Kellert and Edward Wilson and entitled The Biophilia Hypothesis (Island Press: Washington, DC, 1995). 6.


pages: 532 words: 155,470

One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness

active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War

norman Bel Geddes, Magic Motorways (new york: random House, 1940), 237. also see Ellis, “lewis Mumford and norman Bel Geddes,” 58. as Kenneth T. Jackson points out in Crabgrass Frontier, the panel that Eisenhower assembled to take stock of the country’s highway requirements was chaired by lucius D. Clay, a board member of General Motors (249). For a classic critique of postwar urban planning, see Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (new york: random House, 1961). For a detailed and critical engagement with robert Moses’s life and works, see robert a. Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York (new york: vintage Books, 1975). The financial model for state-federal collaboration on highway projects began with the Federal-aid road act in 1916 and was further solidified with the passage of the Federal Highway act of 1921.

lewis Mumford’s sentiments on urban planning and transportation are best put in the following texts: The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects, 1st ed. (new york: Harcourt, 1961); The Urban Prospect (london: Secker and Warburg, 1968); The Highway and the City (Westport, CT: Greenwood press, 1981). lewis Mumford, quoted in the segment “The City: Cars or people?” from The City—Heaven and Hell (national Film Board of Canada, 1963), Film. Emphasis is my own. Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 7. Guy Debord, “Situationist Theses on Traffic,” in Situationist International Anthology, ed. Ken Knabb (Berkeley, Ca: Bureau of public Secrets, 1981), 57 (originally published in Internationale Situationniste, no. 3 [December 1959]). Guy Debord, The Society of the Spectacle, trans. Fredy perlman and John Supak (Detroit: Black and red, 1977). pierre Canjuers and Guy Debord, “preliminaries toward Defining a Unitary revolutionary program,” in Situationist Anthology, ed.

Critiques of the aT movement and other proponents of “alternative technology” are most explicit in Jennifer Daryl Slack, Communication Technologies and Society (norwood, nJ: ablex publishing Corporation, 1984), 30–39, and langdon Winner, The Whale and the Reactor: A Search for Limits in an Age of High Technology (Chicago: University of Chicago press, 1986), 61–84. For contrasting perspectives on aT, see andrew Kirk, “appropriating Technology: The Whole Earth Catalog and Counterculture Environmental politics,” Environmental History 7, no. 4 (2001): 374–394; Kleiman, “The appropriate Technology Movement in american political Culture,” esp. 296–400 (on the political economy of aT). Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 370. Emphasis is my own. McCorkell, personal correspondence. J. B. Corgel and C.F. Floyd, “Towards a new Direction in Bicycle Transportation policy,” Transportation Quarterly 33, no. 2 (1979): 297–301. Quoted in Bruce Epperson, “Bicycle planning: Growing up or Growing Old,” Race, Poverty and the Environment 6 (Special issue: Transportation and Social Justice), no. 1 (1995): 42.


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If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities by Benjamin R. Barber

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, clean water, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, digital Maoism, disintermediation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global pandemic, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Tony Hsieh, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, unpaid internship, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

He measures himself by the standards of global leadership and democratic practices, and has diplomatic relations with mayors of Mexico and South Africa.”2 More than anything else, Adewale looks and acts like a mayor: a pragmatist operating locally while engaging globally to solve real problems with real fixes. That would be a boon to any global metropolis. In a developing world megacity in Africa like Lagos, it is—let’s not be patronizing and call it a miracle—a genuine blessing. CHAPTER 8. CITY, CURE THYSELF! Mitigating Inequality Lively, diverse, intense cities contain the seeds of their own regeneration. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities We need to make sure that we’re building . . . neighborhoods that are mixed, where people from different backgrounds, ethnicities, and particularly income levels can live in the same neighborhoods. . . . Social inclusion . . . can go a long way in reducing inequality. Mayor Naheed Nenshi, Calgary If you fix cities, you kind of fix the world. Tony Hsieh, CEO of Zappos Youth unemployment is an incredible problem in Europe, [where] we have 5.5 million youngsters without jobs, without hope. . . .

Emerson, Nature, p. 4. 37. Walt Whitman, “Song of the Open Road,” Sections 1 and 5. 38. Bender, Urban Vision, p. 17, citing Mumford’s perspective in The Golden Day and The Brown Decades. 39. Cited by Bender, Urban Vision, p. 13. 40. Frederick Law Olmsted, Civilizing American Cities: Writings on City Landscapes, ed. S. B. Sutton, New York: De Capo Press, 1997, p. 75. 41. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York: Vintage Press, 1992, p. 61. 42. For a riveting account of this history with revealing maps, see Hilary Ballon, ed., The Greatest Grid: The Master Plan of Manhattan 1811–2011, New York: Museum of the City of New York and Columbia University Press, 2012. 43. Cited in Ballon, ed., Greatest Grid, p. 103. 44. Olmsted, cited in Ballon, ed., The Greatest Grid, p. 120. 45.

Like Stirner (see The Ego and Its Own: The Case of the Individual Against Authority, London: Rebel Press, 1993) or Nietzsche, Ayn Rand espouses a radical individualism hostile to community altogether, whether central or local. 7. Max Weber, The City, Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1985; Lewis Mumford, The City in History, New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1961; Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York: Vintage Press, 1992; Peter Marcuse and Ronald van Kemper, eds., Globalizing Cities: A New Spatial Order, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2000; Saskia Sassen, The Global City: New York, London, Tokyo; and Eric Corijn, “Urbanity as a Political Project.” 8. See, for example, Berthold Brecht’s play In the Jungle of Cities. 9. For his classic statement, see Le Corbusier, The Radiant City, 1935.


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#Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media by Cass R. Sunstein

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, Donald Trump, drone strike, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, friendly fire, global village, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, prediction markets, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, stem cell, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, WikiLeaks

The most obvious way to curtail those circumstances is censorship and authoritarianism—the boot on the face, captured by George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four: “If you want a vision of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face—forever.” A world of limitless choices is incalculably better than that. But if people are sorting themselves into communities of like-minded types, their own freedom is at risk. They are living in a prison of their own design. DEATH AND LIFE Let me now disclose a central inspiration for this book, one that might seem far afield: The Death and Life of Great American Cities by Jane Jacobs.8 Among many other things, Jacobs offers an elaborate tribute to the sheer diversity of cities—to public spaces in which visitors encounter a range of people and practices that they could have barely imagined, and that they could not possibly have chosen in advance. As Jacobs describes great cities, they teem and pulsate with life: It is possible to be on excellent sidewalk terms with people who are very different from oneself and even, as time passes, on familiar public terms with them.

All too often, those most in need of hearing something other than echoes of their own voices are the least likely to seek out alternative views. The result can be cybercascades of a highly undesirable sort, as false information spreads to thousands or even millions. We have seen evidence to this effect most vividly for terrorist organizations, but the point is far more general than that. Most broadly, recall Jacobs’s remarkable prose-poem, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, celebrating serendipity, surprise, and unchosen encounters. Can social media be like Paris, Berlin, or San Francisco? Probably not. But they can certainly move in that direction. Second, a system of unlimited filtering could produce too little in the way of shared information and experiences. When many or most people are focusing on the same topic, at least some of the time, we benefit from a kind of social glue.

Sunstein, Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006). 5.Shanto Iyengar, Gaurav Sood, and Yphtach Lelkes, “Affect, Not Ideology: A Social Identity Perspective on Polarization,” Public Opinion Quarterly 76, no. 3 (2012): 405, http://pcl.stanford.edu/research/2012/iyengar-poq-affect-not-ideology.pdf (accessed August 29, 2016). 6.Ibid. 7.See Shanto Iyengar and Sean J. Westwood, “Fear and Loathing across Party Lines: New Evidence on Group Polarization,” American Journal of Political Science 59, no. 3 (2015): 690. 8.Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961; repr., New York: Random House, 1993). 9.Ibid., 81, 95. 10.Putnam, Bowling Alone, 178. 11.See Robert Glenn Howard, “Sustainability and Narrative Plasticity in Online Apocalyptic Discourse after September 11, 2001,” Journal of Media and Religion 5, no. 1 (2006): 25. 12.Adam Mosseri, “Building a Better News Feed for You,” Facebook Newsroom, June 29, 2016, https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2016/06/building-a-better-news-feed-for-you/ (accessed August 29, 2016). 13.Adam D.


The Metropolitan Revolution: How Cities and Metros Are Fixing Our Broken Politics and Fragile Economy by Bruce Katz, Jennifer Bradley

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, megacity, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Spirit Level, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, trade route, transit-oriented development, urban planning, white flight

We don’t share a past, we share a future.”69 05-2151-2 ch5.indd 109 5/20/13 6:52 PM 05-2151-2 ch5.indd 110 5/20/13 6:52 PM II THE FUTURE OF THE PA R T METROPOLITAN REVOLUTION Ushering in the Metro Age 06-2151-2 ch6.indd 111 5/20/13 6:53 PM 06-2151-2 ch6.indd 112 5/20/13 6:53 PM 6 TH E RI S E O F IN N O V AT I O N D I ST RI C T S People gathered in concentrations of city size and density can be considered a positive good . . . because they are the source of immense vitality, and because they do represent, in small geographic compass, a great and exuberant richness of differences and possibilities, many of these differences unique and unpredictable and all the more valuable because they are. —JANE JACOBS, The Death and Life of Great American Cities The American metropolitan revolution, although nascent and evolving, is already inventing new models of economic development (as seen in the Applied Sciences initiative), new approaches to social integration (Neighborhood Centers), and new levels of collaboration (as in Northeast Ohio and Denver). Earlier chapters focused on the revolution as is: how city and metropolitan networks are stepping up in the absence of federal leadership to grapple with the big challenges before the country.

Angela Blanchard, “Being United around a City,” presentation at the United Neighborhood Centers of America Neighborhood Revitalization Conference, Washington, D.C., July 2011 (www.youtube.com/watch?v=AjUCt07ZIBkO). 69. Angela Blanchard, “The First New Question?” presentation at TEDxHouston, 2011 (www.youtube.com/watch?v=XU_vVt298gw). 10-2151-2 notes.indd 226 5/20/13 7:00 PM NOTES TO PAGES 114–18 227 CHAPTER 6 The quotation at the beginning of the chapter comes from Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1992), pp. 220–21. 1. Innovation district is a relatively new term just beginning to gain currency among political, business, and civic leaders focused on innovation-led economic development in the relatively small geographies of their cities and metros. Barcelona and Boston deserve credit for popularizing the new term and new approach. This chapter presents a broad definition and typology and draws from academic literature that captures both underlying shifts in innovation and demographics and changing trends in city building.

See also Government of Canada, Passport Canada, “Annual Report for 2011–2012,” 2012 (www.ppt.gc.ca/publications/ar_11.aspx). 20. John Roach, “Young Americans Geographically Illiterate, Survey Suggests,” National Geographic News, May 2, 2006. 21. David Skorton and Glenn Altschuler, “America’s Foreign Language Deficit,” Forbes, August 27, 2012. 22. McKinsey and Company, “Winning the $30 Trillion Decathlon: Going for Gold in Emerging Markets” (2012), pp. 9–10. 23. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1992), p. 340. 24. Berube and Parilla, Metro Trade, p. 2. 25. Istrate and Nadeau, “Global MetroMonitor Interative” (Milwaukee, Mumbai), Brookings. 26. Shirish Sankhe and others, “India’s Urban Awakening: Building Inclusive Cities, Sustaining Economic Growth” (McKinsey Global Institute, 2010). 27. Brad McDearman and Amy Liu, “10 Steps to Delivering a Successful Metro Export Plan” (Brookings, 2012). 28.


pages: 801 words: 209,348

Americana: A 400-Year History of American Capitalism by Bhu Srinivasan

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, American ideology, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, business cycle, buy and hold, California gold rush, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, diversified portfolio, Douglas Engelbart, financial innovation, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, Haight Ashbury, hypertext link, income inequality, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Marc Andreessen, Menlo Park, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, oil rush, peer-to-peer, pets.com, popular electronics, profit motive, race to the bottom, refrigerator car, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the new new thing, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Upton Sinclair, Vannevar Bush, Works Progress Administration, zero-sum game

Some saw this affluence as a form of hollow prosperity, a mindless and fundamental alteration of society, where people served the economic engine, moved by the momentum of commercial events, rather than the other way around. To Jane Jacobs the evidence suggested that the cultural vibrancy of the city was being lost to remote, metallic islands traveling at seventy miles per hour. At the time of her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, reflecting the move to the suburbs, the urban core of nearly every American city had started declining. Cities in the East and Midwest had once been bustling centers of activity, but the idea of the city would come to be associated with decay. To Jacobs nothing about this death of her beloved cities was “economically or socially inevitable” due to market forces. To enable the “fresh-minted decadence” of suburbia, she argued, “extraordinary governmental financial incentives have been required to achieve this degree of monotony, sterility, and vulgarity.”

gambled on 1,200 flat: “Nation’s Biggest Housebuilder,” Life, August 23, 1948, 74–78. “You marvel at”: Levitt, “Let’s Build Up.” Sears and Montgomery Ward: Sears, Roebuck and Co., Sears Modern Homes Catalogue (New York: Dover, 2006). “identical piles of”: “Housing: Up from the Potato Fields.” “Pricing each home identically”: “Nation’s Biggest Housebuilder.” social and cultural critics: Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1992); Herbert J. Gans, The Levittowners: Ways of Life and Politics in a New Suburban Community (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982). “neither the urbanity”: Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier, 244. “proud country home-owners”: Levitt, “Let’s Build Up.” 700,000 immigrants arrived: Bureau of the Census, “Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789–1945,” Washington DC, 1949, series B 304–330 (Immigration—Immigrants by Country: 1820 to 1945), 32.

the new category: Herbert Brean, “Discount Houses Stir Up a $5 Billion Fuss,” Life, August 9, 1954, 53–61. four thousand stores: Ibid. The “loss-leader”: Walter Henry Nelson, The Great Discount Delusion (New York: David McKay, 1965), 17. the loss-leading practices: Ibid., 68. populations as small: Sam Walton, Sam Walton: Made in America (New York: Bantam, 1993), 59. “or socially inevitable”: Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1992), 7. producer of oil: Michael Ratner and Carol Glover, “U.S. Energy: Overview and Key Statistics,” Congressional Research Service, July 27, 2014. running trade deficits: Bureau of the Census, “Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970,” Washington DC, September 1975, series U 1–25 (Balance of International Payments: 1790 to 1970), 864.


pages: 386 words: 113,709

Why We Drive: Toward a Philosophy of the Open Road by Matthew B. Crawford

1960s counterculture, Airbus A320, airport security, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, Boeing 737 MAX, British Empire, Burning Man, call centre, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, deskilling, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Fellow of the Royal Society, gig economy, Google Earth, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, Lyft, Network effects, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, security theater, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social graph, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, too big to fail, traffic fines, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, Wall-E, Works Progress Administration

Infantilization slips in, under cover of democratic ideals. I will insist, on the contrary, that democracy remains viable only if we are willing to extend to one another a presumption of individual competence. This is what social trust is built on. Together, they are the minimal endowments for a free, responsible, fully awake people. Cars and the Common Good In her 1961 masterwork The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jane Jacobs noted that “everyone who values cities is disturbed by automobiles.” They seem to stretch and rend the fabric of social interaction, which requires a certain intimacy of scale and fluidity of movement. To make way for cars and all that comes with them, such as parking lots, gas stations, and major arteries, “city streets are broken down into loose sprawls, incoherent and vacuous for anyone afoot.”

Protesters in France have been throwing paving stones at the police, in a precise echo of the street battles in Paris early in the French Revolution. One truck driver wrote on his yellow vest, “France wake up! Stop being sheep.” CARS AND THE COMMON GOOD 1.This account is from H. B. Creswell, writing in the British journal Architectural Review, December 1958, as quoted by Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1992), pp. 341–342. 2.James J. Flink, The Automobile Age (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1988), p. 364. 3.See Dan Albert, Are We There Yet? The American Automobile Past, Present, and Driverless (New York: Norton, 2019), p. 100. 4.Flink, The Automobile Age, p. 364. 5.Albert, Are We There Yet?, pp. 102–103. 6.https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2006/08/01/americans-and-their-cars-is-the-romance-on-the-skids/. 7.

See also Crawford-Lambert rat driving project Crawford-Lambert rat driving project building rat car, 61 Crawford, L. Elizabeth and, 59–65 driver’s education, 62–63 effort-driven rewards, 64–65 inducing a conditioned response, 62–63 rat ergonomics and, 61–62 self-motion and, 59–60 skills vs. tasks, 60 tool use, 62–63 Croly, Herbert, 38, 138 crony capitalism, 90 cultural development, 65 Daimler, 304 Datsun 510, 80 David, Joe, 203 Davis, Joe, 19 death algorithm, 117 The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Jacobs), 35–36 deference to machines, 126 delegation, societal effect of, 119 demolition derby, 184–187. See also motor sports; soap box derby Department of Motor Vehicles experience, 213–214 digital Rust Belt, 290 dilemma zone, 219–220 dirt bike riding. See also motorcycles behind the Martin’s, 1–3 female riders, 192–194 hare scramble race, 191–193 distracted driving, 235 District of Columbia, 218, 222 DMV experience, 213–214 dogbox sequential transmission, 166 dogfights, aerial, 173–174 Dolgov, Dmitri, 105 dowel pins, 157–158 DPR Machine, 144 dragsters, 135–136.


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The Nation City: Why Mayors Are Now Running the World by Rahm Emanuel

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, blockchain, carbon footprint, clean water, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Filter Bubble, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, Lyft, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, payday loans, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, urban planning, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor

This significant depopulation made the situation in cities even worse, leading to falling tax revenues—there were fewer people to tax, and those who had stayed behind were, generally speaking, poorer than those who had left. Infrastructure and mass transit systems and other critical city services (like public education and policing) were some of the casualties. Our major cities had lower life expectancy rates than the country as a whole. It didn’t help that city planners from decades earlier had been misguided in some of their approaches. Jane Jacobs, in her 1961 book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, wrote about one of the biggest problems cities faced: Most urban planning had been focused on business districts and not on building and strengthening the neighborhoods and communities that form the glue that holds cities together. It also didn’t help that some of the mayors of that period were not up to the task. New York City mayor John Lindsay, who served from 1966 to 1973, never could rein in the city’s costs.

Brothers Emanuel: A Memoir of an American Family. Random House. New York. 2013. Fallows, Deborah, and James Fallows. Our Towns: A 100,000-Mile Journey into the Heart of America. Pantheon. New York. 2018. Glaeser, Edward. Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier. Penguin. New York. 2011. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Random House. New York. 1961. Katz, Bruce, and Jeremy Nowak. The New Localism: How Cities Can Thrive in the Age of Populism. Brookings Institution Press. Washington, D.C. 2018. Quinones, Sam. Dreamland: The True Tale of America’s Opiate Epidemic. Bloomsbury. New York. 2015. Sharkey, Patrick. Uneasy Peace: The Great Crime Decline, the Renewal of City Life, and the Next War on Violence.


pages: 242 words: 71,943

Strong Towns: A Bottom-Up Revolution to Rebuild American Prosperity by Charles L. Marohn, Jr.

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, A Pattern Language, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bank run, big-box store, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Ferguson, Missouri, global reserve currency, housing crisis, index fund, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, mass immigration, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, reserve currency, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, women in the workforce, yield curve, zero-sum game

They faced a mirrored set of buildings on the opposite side of the street, also in a line. These opposite rows of buildings were spaced at ratios comfortable to human beings. They were not so close as to feel constrained, but they were not so far that they failed to create an edge. Edges are very important for humans. In our habitats, we are drawn to edges. This is a phenomenon observed by Jane Jacobs in her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, then elaborated on by Christopher Alexander in A Pattern Language. In public spaces, Jacobs notes that people “stay to the sides,” while Alexander states that people “naturally gravitate toward the edge.” This street in Pompeii provided that opportunity. Biologists call this wall-hugging trait thigmotaxis. Think of a mouse scurrying along the edge of a wall, instinctively fearful of journeying into the center of the room.

., 121–122 Chicken problem, 195 Cities, 37–62 abandonment of, 109–110 accounting for infrastructure by, 70–71 budgeting and growth in, 50–57 contracting of, 154 Detroit, Michigan, 60–62 development of Pompeii, Italy, 5–10 economic stability of modern, 104–106 engineer's view of, 11 experimental development pattern in, 126–127 filling gaps in, 160–163 and illusion of wealth, 57–60 incremental growth in founding of, 15–20 as infinite game, 38–41 and infrastructure, 44–50 maintenance required for infrastructure in, 115 modern development of, 12 revenues and expenses, 41–44 traditional vs. modern development of, 1–3 Cities and the Wealth of a Nation (Jacobs), 101–102 City Council of Santa Ana, ix, x City engineer, 177t City halls, 43–44 City planner, 177t Class: and neighborhoods, 21–22 and re-urbanization, 116 Clinton, Bill, 209 Clinton, Hillary, 63 Cognitive Architecture (Sussman and Hollander), 8 Cognitive discounting, 65 Collaboration, between government officials and citizens, 195–197 Commers, Jon, 45 Common infrastructure, 130 Community living, 199–218 differing opinions in, 206–212 and extended family, 200–201 as infinite game, 39–40 meaning in, 212–218 in neighborhoods, 202–203 in Pompeii, Italy, 6–7 walking in, 203–206 Complex, adaptive systems: human habitats as, 3–4 and incremental growth, 168 incremental growth of, 15–16, 18–19 rational decision making with, 120–123 Complex buildings, 20–23 Complicated buildings, 20–23 Complicated systems, 11–14 Confirmation bias, 69, 74, 183–186 Conflicts, dealing with, 206–212 Congress for the New Urbanism, 210 Congressional Budget Office (CBO), 78–80 Constraints: and economic stability, 93–96 and gold standard, 90 growth as, 100 prudent, for investments, 164–168 removal of, in modern world, 59–60, 96 Construction costs, 136–137 Consumption, 215–216 Costa Rica, 126–127 The Crash Course (Martenson), 108 Critical systems, 182–183 Cross-generational civic collaboration, 187 D Dallas, Texas, 159 Darwin, Charles, 8 The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Jacobs), 8 Debt: and cash flow, 98 for federal government, 186 for government, 96–100 for local government, 113–114 for place-oriented government, 186–192 for projects with quality-of-life benefits, 187 for state government, 113–114 Debt to income ratio, 97 Decision making: rational, see Rational decision making subsidiarity in, 195–198 Default, on municipal debt, 191 Deneen, Patrick, 211 Density, as urban planning metric, 128–129 Depression economics, 86–89 Detroit, Michigan, 60–62 land values in, 24 renewal of urban, 117–119 Development projects: cash flow over life cycle of, 52–57, 53f, 55f, 56f decisions about failing, 115–120 Diamond, Jared, 58, 59, 84 Dig Deep, 211 Donjek, 45 Downtown, productivity of, 134–140, 139t, 143–144 Duany, Andres, 195 Duggan, Mike, 119 Duncanville, Texas, 160 E Economic development department, 178t Economics: and benefits of infrastructure spending, 72–73 in depressions, 86–89 Economic stability, 83–106 and auto-oriented development, 29–30 and constraints, 93–96 creating, 85–86 and depression economics, 86–89 and focus on growth, 100–102 following World War II, 89–91 and government debt, 96–100 growth vs. wealth, 102–104 of modern cities, 104–106 and post-war boom, 91–93 risk management strategies for, 83–85 Edges, 7–8 Edges of city: center vs., 28 city infrastructure necessary for, 115 productivity of, 134–138, 143–144 Efficiency, designing for, 174–176 Ehrenhalt, Alan, 116 Empire State Building (New York, New York), 129 Employment, in productive places, 133 England, 83 Expenses, and revenues, 41–44 Extended family, 200–201 F Failure, slow, 110–115 Failure to Act (ASCE report), 65–67 Family, extended, 200–201 Fannie Mae, 92 Farmers, risk management strategies of, 83–84 Federal Funds Rate, 97 Federal government: debt for, 186 impact of infrastructure on, 79 Federal Housing Administration (FHA), 89, 92 Federal Reserve, 99 Feedback, in local governments, 173–174 Ferguson, Missouri, 93, 114 FHA (Federal Housing Administration), 89 Financial status, local government's understanding of, 190–191 Finished states, neighborhoods built to, 21–23 “First ring” suburbs, 94 Form-based codes, 193–194 Fragile systems, 4 Franchises, productivity of, 133–134 Freddie Mac, 92 Future, predicting needs for, 19–20, 120–121 G Gaps, in cities, 160–163 Garcia, Anthony, 158 Gas tax, 75 Gawron, Stephen, 161 Gehl, Jan, 8 “General Theory of Walkability,” 206 Gentrification, of urban neighborhoods, 117 Goals, of individuals vs. communities, 40–41 Goland, Carol, 84 Gold reserves, 94 Gold standard, as basis for trade, 90 Government debt, 96–100 Government policies, prioritizing traffic, 29 Great Depression, 87–89, 191 The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City (Ehrenhalt), 116 Great Society, 93 Growth: economic stability and focus on, 100–102 in municipalities, 50–57 as objective of local governments, 176 wealth vs., 102–104 H Haidt, Jonathan, 208, 209, 215 Hardship, response to, 172–174 Hasidic Judaism, 213–214, 217 Hemingway, Ernest, 4 Henwood, Doug, 79 Hierarchies, in local government, 174–176 Highland neighborhood (Shreveport, Louisiana), 220 Highland Park (Shreveport, Louisiana), 220 High land values, 27–30 High Point, North Carolina, 161 Highway bypass corridor, 134–138 Hollander, Justin B., 8, 9 Homeless shelters, xi Homes, changing, 20 Hoover, Herbert, 87 Horizontal expansion, in California, 197 Housing: in California, 197–198 post-war changes in, 92 preference for single-family, 144–145 Housing authority, 178t How to Live in a World We Don't Understand (Taleb), 59 Human habitats, 1–14 as complex, adaptive systems, 3–4 in North America, 1–3 spooky wisdom in, 5–10 as systems that are complicated, 11–14 Hunter-gatherer existence, 58 Hurricane Katrina, 102–103 Hurricane Rita, 102–103 I Illusion of Wealth: and constant maintenance, 152 human response to, 57–60 Illusion of Wealth phase of development, 143 Improvement to Land (I/L) Ratio, 25, 25f, 117 Improvement value, 23–25, 25f Incentives, to fix problems, 113 Income taxes, 72 Incremental changes, implementing, 122–123, 156–157 Incremental growth, 15–35 and complex, adaptive systems, 168 complex vs. complicated buildings in, 20–23 constraints on, 164 and founding of cities, 15–20 good and bad development in, 34–35 and high land values, 27–30 and neighborhood renewal, 23–27 private and public investment in, 30–34 in traditional habitat development, 2 Infill projects, 160 Infrastructure, 63–81 accounting for, 70–71 and American Society of Civil Engineers, 65–67 calculating returns on investment for, 67–69 Congressional Budget Office on, 78–80 development of, 30–34 as investment, 41–42 in modern development, 32 and municipalities, 44–50 perception of need for more, 63–65 ratio of private to public investment in, 129–130 real return on investment, 74–78 secondary effects of, 72–74 Infrastructure Cult: development of, 65–67 paper returns calculated by, 69 Insolvency, 187–192 Interstate highway system, 92 Investment(s), 147–170 barbell investment approach, 148–150 capital, 171–172 conventional vs. strong towns thinking about, 185–186, 186t in filling gaps in cities, 160–163 impact of regulations on, 194 infrastructure as, 41–42 little bets, 150–160 low-risk investments with steady returns, 150–155 prudent constraints for, 164–168 public and private, 30–34, 31f, 32f returns on, see Return on investment in Suburban Retrofit, 168–169 Italy, walking in, 203–204 J Jacobs, Jane, 8, 101–102 Japan, 76 Jimmy's Pizza, 161–162 Job creation, 49, 72–73 Johnson, Neil, 12, 13 Junger, Sebastian, 216–217 K Keynes, John Maynard, 88 Keynesian economic policies, 88 Krugman, Paul, 63, 78 Kunstler, James, 110–111 L Lafayette, Louisiana, 101, 141–144, 151 Landau, Moshe, 213–214, 217 Land value: in declining suburbs, 113 and interstate highway project, 92 and neighborhood renewal, 23–25, 25f in neighborhoods with different types of properties, 165–167, 165f, 166f and suburban development, 27–30 Learning, from previous local investments, 187 Legacy programs, 173 Lifestyle choices, 202, 205–206 “Lifestyle enclaves,” 208 Little bets, 16–18, 150–160 Local economy: as basis for national economy, 101–102 national vs., 103 Local government: changes in, to maintain economic stability, 105–106 debt taken on by, 113–114 funded by state government, 95 impact of infrastructure on, 79–80 profit run by, 37–38, 147 relationship of state and, 198 Long declines, 110–115 “Long emergency,” 110–111 Long Recession of the 1870s, 77 Los Angeles, California, xi Lovable places, 10 Low-risk investments, with steady returns, 150–155 Lydon, Mike, 158 M Maintenance: ability to keep up with, 109 cash-flow debt to cover, 188–192, 188f–190f of development projects, 52–57 of infrastructure, 46–49 need for constant, 151–154 in place-oriented government, 180–183 required for single-family homes, 112 Maintenance department, 179t Manhattan, New York, 24 Martenson, Chris, 108 Meaning, life of, 212–218 Middle class, 92, 93, 144–145 Milan, Italy, 164 Mills Fleet Farm, 134–137 Minicozzi, Joseph, 138–140, 161 “Minnesota Miracle,” 95 Mixed-use neighborhoods, 163, 169 Modern city development: as high-risk investments, 149 as lead by pubic investment, 34–35 productive places in, 131–134 Modern Monetary Theory, 99 Mortgages, during Great Depression, 88–89 Mouzon, Steve, 10, 113 Muskegon, Michigan, 161 N National Association of Home Builders, 136 National economy, local vs., 103 Natural disasters, 102–103 Neighborhoods: abandonment of, 109–110 built to finished states, 21–23 changing in post-war era, 92–93 community living in, 202–203 decline of, 113 gentrification of urban, 117 mixed-use, 163, 169 renewal of, and incremental growth, 23–27 responses to improvements in, 158 structured around religions, 214 in transition sections of Detroit, 118 Neighbors, being involved with, 202–203 New Deal economics, 87–88 New Orleans, Louisiana, 102, 182 Nixon, Richard, 94 Noncritical systems, 182 O Oak Cliff neighborhood (Dallas, Texas), 159 Obama, Barack, 63 Obesity, among Pacific Islanders, 58–59 Options Real Estate, 160 Orange County, California, xi–xii Order, chaos vs., 121–122 The Original Green (Mouzon), 10, 113 Oroville dam (California), 182 Oswego, New York, 152 Oswego Renaissance Association, 152 P Pacific Islanders, 58–59, 183–185 Paper returns on investment, 67–69 Paradox of Avarice, 104 Paradox of Thrift, 88, 104 Pareidolia, 8–9, 9f Parks department, 178t Party analogy, 34–35 A Pattern Language (Alexander), 8 Pension funds, 56–57, 70, 98 Pequot Lakes, Minnesota, 44–46 Perception, of need for more infrastructure, 63–65 Personal preferences, 144–145 Peru, 84 Place-oriented government, 171–198 and confirmation bias, 183–186 designed for efficiency, 174–176 focus on broad wealth creation by, 176–180 maintenance as priority for, 180–183 and regulations, 192–194 response to hardship by, 172–174 subsidiarity in, 195–198 understanding of debt by, 186–192 Political differences, 207 Pompeii, Italy, 5–10 Post-war boom: and economic stability, 91–93 modern city development established in, 12 Power, subsidiarity principle and, 196–198 Prayer of Saint Francis, 218 Prioritization, of maintenance, 180–183 Private development, 40 Private investment: private to public investment ratio, 129–130 public and, 30–34, 31f, 32f Private sector (businesses): response to economic hardship in, 172–173 small, see Small businesses Problem solving, 13–14 Productive places, 125–146 downtown vs. edge of town, 134–138 in past, 125–127 and personal preferences, 144–145 productivity calculations for, 128–130 return on investment, 141–144 traditional vs. modern development in, 131–134 value per acre, 138–141 Productivity, calculations of, 128–130 Project teams, 179–180 Property taxes, 49 Property value, 23–25, 25f Public health, and walking neighborhoods, 205 Public investment: private and, 30–34, 31f, 32f private to public investment ratio, 129–130 returns required for, 147 Public safety department, 179t Q Quality-of-life benefits, 187 Quantitative Easing, 99 R Railroad companies, 77 Rational decision making, 107–123 about failing development systems, 115–120 about long declines, 110–115 within complex, adaptive system, 120–123 and lack of single solution, 107–110 Real return on investment, 74–78 Redevelopment, financial productivity after, 131–134, 139–140, 139t Redundant systems, 182 ReForm Shreveport, 219, 220 Regulations: from place-oriented government, 192–194 and subsidiarity principle, 195–198 Repealing regulations, 192–193 Republican Party, 209 Request for proposal (RFP), 50 Residents, learning concerns of, 156–157 Resources: assumption of abundance of, 12–14 wasted, in modern development, 19 Retreats, strategic, 108–109 Return on investment, 141–144 calculating, for infrastructure, 67–69 for capital projects, 171–172 in cities, 44 and debt taken on by local governments, 187 low-risk investments with steady, 150–155 paper, 67–69 real, 74–78 social, 78–79 Revenues, and expenses, 41–44 RFP (request for proposal), 50 The Righteous Mind (Haidt), 208 Risk management strategies, 83–85 Roaring Twenties, 87 Roberts, Jason, 159 Roosevelt, Franklin, 87, 88 Rotary International, 203 S St.


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The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing

"Robert Solow", 1960s counterculture, affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, assortative mating, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey

Inglehart, Ronald, and Christian Welzel. Modernization, Cultural Change, and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Isenberg, Daniel J. "Group Polarization: A Critical Review and Meta-Analysis." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50, no. 6 (1986). Jacobs, Jane. Cities and the Wealth of Nations. New York. Vintage Books, 1985. ———. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House, 1961. ———. The Economy of Cities. New York: Vintage Books, 1970. Jacobson, Gary C. "Explaining the Ideological Polarization of the Congressional Parties Since the 1970s." Paper prepared for the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, 2004. Jenkinson, Edward B. Censors in the Classroom. Carbondale. Southern Illinois University Press, 1979.

., [>], [>] Daily Kos website, [>] Dallas, Tex. blacks in, [>], [>]; conservatives in, [>]; creative-class workers in, [>]; as high-tech city, [>] n, migration to, [>], [>], [>]; and presidential election (2004), [>], and social problems of Grapevine, [>], transportation in, [>] Dalton, Russell, [>], [>] Damon, Matt, [>] Dare to Discipline (Dobson), [>] Darnovsky, Marcy, [>] Daugherty, Gerald, [>]–[>] Day, Dick, [>]–[>], [>] DDB Needham Life Style survey, [>] Dean, Howard, [>], [>] The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Jacobs), [>] n Death penalty, [>] n Defenders of Wildlife, [>] Defense Department, U.S., [>] Delahunt, Bill, [>] Delaware, [>]–[>] DeLay, Tom, [>] n, [>] n Deliberative polls and Deliberation Day, [>]–[>], [>] n Democracy and benefits of apathy, [>]–[>]; cleavages and stability of U.S. political system, [>]; and communication, [>]–[>]; current status of, [>]–[>]; niche democracy, [>], paradox of, [>]–[>] Democracy Alliance, [>] Democratic Party age of Democrats, [>]–[>], and American Legislative Issue Campaign Exchange (ALICE), [>]; and blacks, [>]–[>]; canvassers for, [>]–[>], [>] n; characteristics of Democrats, [>]–[>], [>] n [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>], church membership and religious beliefs of Democrats, [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], no, [>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>], [>]; and class, [>]–[>]; communication between Republican Party and, [>]–[>], [>], and conspiracy theory of political segregation, [>]–[>], and decline in public trust, [>]–[>]; and education, [>]–[>]; and families, [>]; and future of politics of migration, [>]–[>]; and gender gap, [>], [>] n, [>]; and high-tech cities, [>], [>]–[>]; and immigrants, [>], [>], income of Democrats, [>], [>], and Jews, [>] n, judges in, [>], [>] n; and liberal organizations mirroring conservative organizations, [>]–[>]; media preferences of Democrats, [>]–[>], in mid-1960s, [>]–[>], [>]–[>]; and midterm elections (2006), [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>], [>]; and moral values, [>]–[>]; in 1950s, [>]–[>], and party loyalty, [>], [>]; polarization between Republican Party and, [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>] n, [>]–[>], and political marketing, [>]–[>], and political segregation, [>], and population density, [>], and presidential campaign (2004), [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>]; and presidential elections, [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>]; and race, [>], [>], and rural areas, [>]–[>]; and straight-ticket voting, [>]–[>], [>]–[>] n, and tipping phenomenon in presidential elections, [>]–[>] AND ISSUES, abortion, [>]; economic issues, [>], [>], environmental issues, [>]–[>], [>] n, [>]–[>], [>], [>]; gun ownership, [>], homosexuality and gay marriage, [>], [>], Hurricane Katrina, [>]; Iraq War, [>], [>], [>], [>], [>], liberal view of, [>]; states'rights, [>]; stem cell research, [>]–[>], [>] n IN SPECIFIC STATES: Colorado, [>]–[>], Florida, [>], Kentucky, [>]–[>], [>]–[>]; Maryland, [>]; Minnesota, [>], [>]–[>], Missouri, [>]; Montana, [>], New Hampshire, [>]–[>] n; Ohio, [>], Oregon, [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>]; Virginia, [>] Demographic shifts.

The greater number of civic organizations (such as choral societies) made northern Italy's economy more vibrant and its government more efficient than those in the less connected south [back] *** *Solow's paper "Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Function" led to his being awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize in economics. [back] *** *Jane Jacobs is best known for her book on urban design, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961), a work that undergirds today's New Urbanist movement. But most of Jacobs's time was spent producing her trilogy about economic growth The Economy of Cities (1969), Cities and the Wealth of Nations (1984), and The Nature of Economies (2000). [back] *** *More recently, MIT president Susan Hockfield noted that in semiconductor electronics, "the applied work transformed the fundamental research—not just the other way around" (speech, Brookings Institution, April 28, 2006).


Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer

affirmative action, business cycle, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional

A Time for Reconciliation, Report of the Commission de Consultation sur les Pratiques d’Accommodement Reliées aux Différences Culturelles, (Quebec, 2008), 19. 43 Yasmeen Abu-Laban and Baha Abu-Laban, “Reasonable Accommodation in a Global Village,” Policy Options 26, no. 8 (2007), 30. 44 Julius Grey, “The Paradox of Reasonable Accommodation,” Policy Options 26, no. 8 (2007), 34–5. Notes to pages 36–44 279 45 Peter Hall, Cities in Civilization (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998), 6. 46 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1992), 14. 47 Richard Florida, The Flight of the Creative Class (New York: Collins, 2005), 62. 48 William Shakespeare, Coriolanus, act 3, scene 1. 49 Janet Abu-Lughod, Changing Cities: Urban Sociology (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), 140. 50 James Holston and Arjun Appadurai, “Cities and Citizenship,” Public Culture 8 (1996),188–9. 51 Ibid., 200. 52 Ash Amin, “The Good City,” Urban Studies 43, nos. 5/6 (May 2006),1012. 53 Susan S, Fainstein, The Just City (Ithaca; Cornell University Press, 2010), 3. 54 Ibid., 43. 55 Leonie Sandercock, Mongreal Cities (London: Continuum, 2003), 87. 56 Henri Lefebvre, Writings on Cities, trans.

Florida, The Flight of the Creative Class (New York: Collins, 2007), 29–30. 24 Philip Kasinitz, John H. Mollenkopf, Mary C. Waters, and Jennifer Holdaway, Inheriting the City (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2008), 355. 25 New York Times, “India Hitching Hopes on Subway,” 4 May 2010, http:// www.nytimes.com/glogin?URI=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nytimes.com%2F2 010%2F05%2F14%2Fworld%2Fasia%2F14delhi.html%3F_r%3. 26 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961; Vintage Books, 1991), 32. 27 Lyn Lofland’s views are paraphrased by Hutter, Experiencing Cities, 204–5. 28 Ibid., 205. 29 Joe Frienson, “The GTA’s Matchless Sports,” Globe and Mail, 14 August 2011, M1. 30 New York Times, “Playing a Sport with Bats and Balls, but No Pitcher,” 3 April 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/glogin?URI=http://www.nytimes .com/2008/04/03/nyregion/03cricket.html&OQ=_rQ3D0&OP=690e9591 Q2FfkQ3CcfmucfSSSflcb-fQ5EkHtQ5DkkcgfgQ22Q22WfQ221fQ22VfmuQ 5DrD.kmfQ22VHQ5D.HLrcQ25lcb. 31 Frienson, “The GTA’s Matchless Sports.” 32 This notice was displayed in front of Monarch Park High School at Christmas time, 2009. 33 Hutter, Experiencing Cities, 221. 34 Nicholos Peart (2012), “Why Is N.Y.P.D.

“Information in Communicative Planning.” Journal of the American Planning Association 64, no. 1 (January 1998), 52–63. Isaac, Reginald. “The Dynamics of Urban Renewal.” In Taming Metropolis, edited by Wentworth Elderedge, 784–98. New York: Anchor Books, 1967. Iver, Pico. The Global Soul. New York: Viking Books, 2000. Jacobs, Jane. Cities and the Wealth of Nations. Harmondsworth: Viking, 1984. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage Books, 1992. Jacobson, Matthew. Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998. Kaisinitz, Philip, John H. Mollenkopf, Mary C. Waters, and Jennifer Holdaway. Inheriting the City. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2008. Kallen, Horace. Cultural Pluralism and the American Idea: An Essay in Social Philosophy.


pages: 296 words: 76,284

The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher

Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, commoditize, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, negative equity, New Urbanism, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional, Zipcar

In The City in History, he described the suburbs as “a collective effort to live a private life” and “a multitude of uniform, unidentifiable houses, lined up inflexibly, at uniform distances, on uniform roads, in a treeless communal waste, inhabited by people of the same class, the same income, the same age group, witnessing the same television performances, eating the same tasteless prefabricated foods, from the same freezers, conforming in every outward and inward respect to a common mold.” Then there was Jane Jacobs, the writer and urban activist who championed the preservation of small-scale, authentic city neighborhoods and who is perhaps best known for beating back Robert Moses’s efforts to build an expressway through lower Manhattan in the 1960s. Her influential 1961 book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, laid out her argument for the preservation of what she famously dubbed the “intricate ballet” of city sidewalks in their natural form, referring to the commerce, activity, and lively interplay among people that dense, varied neighborhood streets encouraged. (Jacobs spends several passages describing this ballet on her own stretch of Hudson Street, which is my neighborhood now, and I can vouch that her description of its various characters—children heading to the neighborhood’s St.

a massive region where two-thirds of residents: Scott Gold and Massie Ritsch, “Swallowed by Urban Sprawl,” Los Angeles Times, October 18, 2002. In 2002 a report: Reid Ewing, Rolf Pendall, and Don Chen, Measuring Sprawl and Its Impact, Smart Growth America, 2002. “There is no ‘there’ there”: Gold and Ritsch, “Swallowed by Urban Sprawl.” The historian Lewis Mumford: Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier, pp. 237, 244; Lewis Mumford, The Culture of Cities (Mariner Books, 1970). Her influential 1961 book: Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Random House, 1961). The definitive critique of twentieth-century urban planning. It’s hard to overstate Jacobs’s role in urban planning, and her own artful explanation of the “sidewalk ballet” is worth citing in full here. She wrote that under the seeming disorder of cities, there was a “marvelous order for maintaining the safety of the streets and the freedom of the city.” This order, she wrote, is “composed of movement and change, and although it is life, not art, we may fancifully call it the art form of the city and liken it to the dance—not to a simple-minded precision dance with everyone kicking up at the same time, twirling in unison and bowing off en masse, but to an intricate ballet in which the individual dancers and ensembles all have distinctive parts which miraculously reinforce each other and compose an orderly whole.


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Who's Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life by Richard Florida

active measures, assortative mating, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, Celebration, Florida, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, edge city, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, extreme commuting, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, industrial cluster, invention of the telegraph, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, post-work, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, World Values Survey, young professional

The classical economists Adam Smith and David Ricardo both argued that nation-states are the geographic engines behind economic growth. As Ricardo famously theorized, discretely defined countries have incentive to specialize in different kinds of industries, which would allow them to gain and maintain “comparative advantage” over others.1 The first person to see this was the great urbanist Jane Jacobs, who is best known for her scathing critique of urban planning, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, and two other very important books, The Economy of Cities and Cities and the Wealth of Nations.2 In The Economy of Cities (1969) Jacobs refutes the long-standing theory that cities emerged only after agriculture had become sufficiently productive to create a surplus beyond what was needed to survive. In fact, the earliest cities, according to Jacobs, formed around rudimentary trade in wild animals and grains, which led their inhabitants to discover agriculture and the economic benefits of product exportation.

See, for example, Darrin McMahon, Happiness: A History, Atlantic Monthly Press, 2006; Jonathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis, Basic Books, 2005; Martin Seligman, Authentic Happiness, Free Press, 2004; Richard Layard, Happiness: A New Science, Penguin, 2005. 2 See Jason Schachter, Why People Move: Exploring the March 2000 Current Population Survey, U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Report, May 2001. These data are updated annually and are available on the census website. 3 Veolia Observatory of Urban Lifestyles, Life in the City, 2008. 4 Charles Tiebout, “A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures,” Journal of Political Economy 64, 5, 1956, pp. 416-424. 5 In particular, the work of Jane Jacobs: The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Vintage, 1992 (1st ed., 1961); The Economy of Cities, Vintage, 1970; and Cities and the Wealth of Nations, Vintage, 1985. Much of my own research on this subject is summarized in The Rise of the Creative Class, Basic Books, 2002. Chapter 2 1 Thomas Friedman, The World Is Flat, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2005. 2 The original article is Frances Cairncross, “The Death of Distance,” The Economist, September 30, 1995.


pages: 578 words: 141,373

Concretopia: A Journey Around the Rebuilding of Postwar Britain by John Grindrod

Berlin Wall, garden city movement, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, megastructure, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, Right to Buy, side project, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, young professional

But then among the thousands of council houses landed smaller estates of private housing: by 1978 over a fifth of all Cwmbran’s houses were privately owned. ‘They were worried then about creating a different sort of ghetto. It was a mixed social experiment. They were nervous about having lots and lots of large council estates,’ said Jim. He sat back, attempting to conjure up some kind of context for me. ‘By the end of the sixties Jane Jacobs had written her book in America’ – he was referring to the unlikely bestseller, The Death and Life of Great American Cities – ‘and there were lots of texts about “social engineering” it was called, steering people into these places. The town planning world was getting nervous about endlessly building council houses.’ ‘It’s funny, when you come from renting somewhere in London to renting somewhere here it didn’t seem like a big issue to me,’ Jo recalled with a shrug. ‘But a lot of people wanted to buy.

Young architectural historians Dan Cruikshank and Colin Amery, in their short, sharp shock of a book, The Rape of Britain, described the redevelopment of towns such as Worcester, Bath and Hereford as ‘an officially sponsored competition to see how much of Britain’s architectural heritage could be destroyed in 30 years.’3 They were echoing a cry from across the Atlantic. Jane Jacobs’ 1961 book The Death and Life of Great American Cities had become, in its own way, as influential as Ebenezer Howard’s Garden Cities of To-morrow. In it she railed against the visions of modern life championed by Howard and Le Corbusier, and their ‘dishonest mask of pretend order, achieved by ignoring or suppressing the real order that is struggling to exist and to be served’.4 Instead she advocated a return to the bustle of traditional street life, before comprehensive development schemes and neighbourhood planning had simplified towns to death with their pedestrianised precincts and wholesale disruption of old street patterns.

By that time styles had changed so much that the edifices of the postwar period seemed like relics from a distant age – a foreign country where they did things differently, where plans to demolish Covent Garden, put Newcastle on stilts or plough urban motorways through London’s most desirable districts seem like alien curiosities, at which we can only scratch our heads in wonder. Notes 1 Evelyn Sharp, The Ministry of Housing and Local Government, Allen and Unwin, 1969, p11 2 Gavin Stamp in Elain Harwood and Alan Powers (ed.), The Sixties, The Twentieth Century Society, 2002, p135 3 Colin Amery and Dan Cruikshank, The Rape of Britain, Elek, 1975, p10 4 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Vintage, 1961 (Vintage Edition 1992), p15 5 Robert Matthew in Miles Glendinning, Modern Architect, RIBA Publishing, 2008, p461 6 Robert Matthew in Miles Glendinning, Modern Architect, RIBA Publishing, 2008, p476 7 Norman Dennis, People and Planning, Faber and Faber, 1970, p297 8 Norman Dennis, People and Planning, Faber and Faber, 1970, p346 9 Norman Dennis, People and Planning, Faber and Faber, 1970, p330 10 John R.


pages: 398 words: 86,023

The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia by Andrew Lih

Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, index card, Jane Jacobs, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Network effects, optical character recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons, Y2K

Serving as “janitors” were roughly 1,000 active administrators, tending to the duties of deleting, blocking, and protecting resources. Urban Jungle The plight of Wikipedia growing from small community to larger digital metropolis is something both Joseph Reagle in his Ph.D. work on Wikipedia and Steven Johnson in Emergence note as being similar to problems of urban planning. There is no better historical example than that explored in Jane Jacobs’s book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, her critique of the modernist planning policies of the 1950s and 1960s, an era when New York City developer Robert Moses was razing entire swaths of neighborhoods for planned housing projects and communities. Jacobs argued for preserving her small neighborhood on Hudson Street and resisting massive urban renewal, because the intimate sidewalks served an important social function.

title=Wikipedia:Be_bold& oldid=38947. 30. http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/wikien-l/ 2003-February/001149.html. 31. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Advice_for_new_administrators. 32. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Awareness_statistics. 33. http://stats.wikimedia.org/EN/TablesWikipediaEN.htm. 34. 4,687 editors made more than 100 edits each that month. 35. http://wikisummaries.org/index.php?title=The_Death_and_Life_of_Great_American _Cities & oldid=5639 (retrieved June 8, 2007). 36. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Rambot/Delete 17:32, 11 Sep 2003 (UTC). 37. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Bots#Restrictions_on _specific_tasks. 38. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Seth_Ilys/Dot_Project. 39. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Seth_Ilys/Dot_Project. 40. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Ignore_all_rules& oldid=54587. 41. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Neutral_point_of_view. 42. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Notability. 43.


pages: 298 words: 81,200

Where Good Ideas Come from: The Natural History of Innovation by Steven Johnson

Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, cleantech, complexity theory, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, digital Maoism, digital map, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Ernest Rutherford, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, greed is good, Hans Lippershey, Henri Poincaré, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invention of air conditioning, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, mass immigration, Mercator projection, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, online collectivism, packet switching, PageRank, patent troll, pattern recognition, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, six sigma, Solar eclipse in 1919, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, urban planning

“The theory . . . explains the ‘evil’ and ‘good’ of cities simultaneously,” Fischer wrote. “Criminal unconventionality and innovative (e.g., artistic) unconventionality are both nourished by vibrant subcultures.” Poetry collectives and street gangs might seem miles apart on the surface, but they each depend on the city’s capacity for nurturing subcultures. The same pattern holds true for trades and businesses in large cities. As Jane Jacobs observed in The Death and Life of Great American Cities: “The larger a city, the greater the variety of its manufacturing, and also the greater both the number and the proportion of its small manufacturers.” Towns and suburbs, for instance, are natural homes for huge supermarkets and for little else in the way of groceries, for standard movie houses or drive-ins and for little else in the way of theater. There are simply not enough people to support further variety, although there may be people (too few of them) who would draw upon it were it there.

“A Physics for Studies of Civilization.” In Self-Organizing Systems: The Emergence of Order, edited by Eugene F. Yates. New York: Plenum Press, 1987. Jackson, Joe. A World on Fire: A Heretic, an Aristocrat, and the Race to Discover Oxygen. New York: Penguin, 2007. Jacobs, Jane. The Nature of Economies. New York: Modern Library, 2000. ———. The Economy of Cities. New York: Random House, 1969. ———. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House, 1961. James, William. Great Men, Great Thoughts, and the Environment. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1880. Jastrow, Joseph, ed. Story of Human Error. Manchester, N.H.: Ayer Publishing, 1936. Jefferson, Thomas. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Vol. 1-19. Edited by Albert Ellery Bergh. Washington, D.C.: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 1905. Jevons, Will Stanley.


pages: 313 words: 84,312

We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, disruptive innovation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lateral thinking, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

Available from http://userinnovation.mit. edu/papers/6.pdf; Eric von Hippel and Georg von Krogh, ‘Open Source Software and the Private-Collective Innovation Model: Issues for Organization Science’, Organization Science 14.2 (2003), pp. 209–23; Eric von Hippel, ‘Horizontal Innovation Networks – By and For Users’, MIT Sloan School of Management Working Paper No. 4366–02, June 2002 12 Sonali Shah, ‘Open Beyond Software’, in Chris DiBona, Danese Cooper and Mark Stone (Eds), Open Sources 2.0 (O’Reilly, 2006) 13 Henry Jenkins, Convergence Culture (New York University Press, 2006) 14 Henry Jenkins, Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers (New York University Press, 2006) 15 Pekka Himanen, The Hacker Ethic and the Spirit of the Information Age (London: Secker & Warburg, 2001) 16 John Roberts, The Modern Firm (Oxford University Press, 2004) 17 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Vintage, 1992) 18 John Micklethwait and Adrian Wooldridge, The Company (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2003) 19 Henry Hansmann, The Ownership of Enterprise (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Harvard, 1996) 20 James Boyle, ‘The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain’, Law and Contemporary Problems 66.1&2 (2003), pp.33–74. Available from http://www.law.duke.edu/journals/66LCPBoyle 21 Lawrence Lessig, Free Culture (New York: Penguin Press, 2004) Chapter 5 1 William C.

., A Natural History of the Seashore (HarperCollins, 2004) Himanen, Pekka, The Hacker Ethic and the Spirit of the Information Age (Secker & Warburg, 2001) Homer-Dixon, Thomas, The Upside of Down: Catastrophe, Creativity, and the Renewal of Civilisation, (Souvenir Press Ltd, 2007) Hyde, Lewis (1979), The Gift: How the Creative Spirit Transforms the World (Edinburgh: Canongate, 2006) InterAcademy Council, Inventing a Better Future (Amsterdam: IAC, 2004) Illich, Ivan, Tools for Conviviality (New York: Harper & Row, 1973) Illich, Ivan, Energy and Equity (Calder & Boyars, 1974) Illich, Ivan, Limits to Medicine (Marion Boyars, 2002) Illich, Ivan, Deschooling Society (Marion Boyars, 2004) Isaacs, William, Dialogue and the Art of Thinking Together (Currency, 1999) Israel, Paul, Edison: A Life of Invention (John Wiley, 1998) Jacobs, Jane, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Vintage, 1992) Jenkins, Henry, Convergence Culture (New York University Press, 2006) Jenkins, Henry, Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers (New York University Press, 2006) Jensen, Mallory, ‘Emerging Alternatives: A Brief History of Weblogs’, 2003. Available from http://www.cjr.org/ issues/2003/5/blog-jensen.asp Joyce, Patrick, The Rule of Freedom (Verso, 2003) Kapor, Mitch, blog.kapor.com Kapor, Mitch, ‘Does the Open Source Model Apply Beyond Software?’


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Palaces for the People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life by Eric Klinenberg

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, assortative mating, basic income, big-box store, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Filter Bubble, ghettoisation, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, universal basic income, urban planning, young professional

“allows a people to choose their own way”: Ashley Carse, “Keyword: Infrastructure—How a Humble French Engineering Term Shaped the Modern World,” in Infrastructures and Social Complexity: A Companion, ed. Penny Harvey, Casper Bruun Jensen, and Atsuro Morita (London: Routledge, 2016). produce the material foundations for social life: The classic text about how small businesses and commercial operators shape daily social life is Jane Jacobs’s The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1961). In recent years, the eminent sociologist Elijah Anderson has been writing about what he calls “the cosmopolitan canopy,” places where people from different backgrounds “not only share space but seek out each other’s presence,” and occasionally forge relationships as well. Anderson has conducted ethnographic fieldwork in several exemplary sites of cross-group interaction, including Philadelphia’s Reading Terminal Market and Rittenhouse Square, as well as in places marked by surveillance, suspicion, and social segregation.

“The corridors, lobbies, elevators, and stairs were dangerous”: Oscar Newman, Creating Defensible Space (Washington, DC: US Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research, 1996), 10. occupancy rate was 35 percent: Colin Marshall, “Pruitt-Igoe: The Troubled High-Rise That Came to Define Urban America,” Guardian, April 22, 2015. “Walking through Pruitt-Igoe”: Newman, Creating Defensible Space, 11. “neat and well maintained”: Ibid. “Across the street from Pruitt-Igoe”: Ibid. “eyes on street”: Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1961), 35. “With social variables constant”: Newman, Creating Defensible Space, 11. “an accord about acceptable behavior”: Ibid., 25, 11–12. 1972 report, Defensible Space: The report was not limited to St. Louis. In New York City, Newman found that residents of a low-rise public housing complex in Brownsville experienced 34 percent fewer overall crimes and 74 percent fewer indoor crimes than their neighbors in the nearby high-rise Van Dyke projects.


pages: 309 words: 84,038

Bike Boom: The Unexpected Resurgence of Cycling by Carlton Reid

1960s counterculture, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, bike sharing scheme, California gold rush, car-free, cognitive dissonance, Haight Ashbury, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, Yom Kippur War

A journalist for the Architectural Forum, Jacobs rode around Greenwich Village on a bicycle, her handbag stashed in a wicker basket on the front. With her grey thatch and owlish glasses, and her undeniably brilliant writing, she is now usually portrayed as a David-vs.-Goliath heroine, with Moses as Goliath. In fact, the two only sparred in person once, and Moses appears only fleetingly in Jacobs’s great 1961 work, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Moses is usually painted as a monster intent on putting cars where we now know cars shouldn’t go, but this ignores his massive earlier influence on New York. For 44 years, from 1924 until 1968, Moses built parks, highways, bridges, playgrounds, housing, tunnels, zoos, and exhibition halls. The job of parks commissioner was just one of many he held simultaneously. In The Power Broker, his 1974 biography of Moses, Robert Caro called Moses a genius and “perhaps the single most influential seminal thinker” in twentieth-century urban renewal, but Caro was also highly critical of the commissioner’s autocratic style and bombast.

This was one of the key eco-polemics of the 1970s—it theorized that capitalism was inherently bad for the planet because, like a Ponzi scheme, it can only survive by growing, unsustainably. What was required instead, believed Schumacher, were small-scale “appropriate technologies.” The bicycle, believed the bike activists (“biketivists”), was more of an appropriate technology for city use than the smelly, dangerous, gas-guzzling, space-hungry automobile. Jane Jacobs’s The Death and Life of Great American Cities was the second non-cycling philosophical tome on the bookshelf of every card-carrying cycle activist of the 1970s, with the third being Ivan Illich’s Energy and Equity of 1974. CHICAGO-BASED Edward Aramaic explicitly linked cycling with environmentalism when he founded Bicycle Ecology and organized a “pedal-in” in October 1970. This was the era of “-in” demonstrations, which had started in the 1960s with “sit-ins” protesting against racial segregation at American colleges and universities.


The death and life of great American cities by Jane Jacobs

Golden Gate Park, indoor plumbing, Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, Victor Gruen

The DEATH and LIFE of GREAT AMERICAN CITIES Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, and now lives in Toronto. In addition to The Death and Life of Great American Cities, she is the author of Cities and the Wealth of Nations, The Question of Separatism, The Economy of Cities, and, most recently, Systems of Survival. ALSO BY Jane Jacobs Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundation of Commerce and Politics Cities and the Wealth of Nations: Principles of Economic Life The Question of Separatism: Quebec and the Struggle over Sovereignty The Economy of Cities VINTAGE BOOKS EDITION, DECEMBER 1992 Copyright © 1961 by Jane Jacobs Copyright renewed 1989 by Jane Jacobs All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions Published in the United States by Vintage Books, a division of Random House, Inc., New York, and simultaneously in Canada by Random House of Canada Limited, Toronto Originally published in hardcover by Random House, Inc., New York, in 1961 Acknowledgment is made to the following publications for permission to reprint portions of this book which first appeared in their pages: Architectural Forum, the Columbia University Forum, Harper’s Magazine, The Reporter.

., New York, and simultaneously in Canada by Random House of Canada Limited, Toronto Originally published in hardcover by Random House, Inc., New York, in 1961 Acknowledgment is made to the following publications for permission to reprint portions of this book which first appeared in their pages: Architectural Forum, the Columbia University Forum, Harper’s Magazine, The Reporter. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Jacobs, Jane, 1916– The death and life of great American cities / Jane Jacobs.—1st Vintage Books ed. p cm Originally published: New York: Random House, [1961] ISBN 0-679-74195-X 1 City planning—United States 2 Urban renewal—United States. 3. Urban policy—United States I. Title HT167.J33 1992 307.76′097 3—dc20 92-50082 Ebook ISBN 9780525432852 v4.1 a TO NEW YORK CITY where I came to seek my fortune and found it by finding Bob, Jimmy, Ned and Mary for whom this book is written too Acknowledgment So many scores of persons helped me with this book, wittingly and unwittingly, that I shall never fully be able to acknowledge the appreciation I owe and feel.


pages: 83 words: 23,805

City 2.0: The Habitat of the Future and How to Get There by Ted Books

active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, big-box store, carbon footprint, cleantech, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, demand response, housing crisis, Induced demand, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, Zipcar

Image: URBZ The autocatalytic city Bottom-up growth, driven by citizens, trumps central command By Benjamin de la Peña The historic diversity of the city — the source of its value and magnetism — is an unplanned creation of many hands and long historical practice. Most cities are the outcome, the vector sum, of innumerable small acts bearing no discernible overall intention. — James C. Scott, Seeing Like a State Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody. — Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities * * * We are living on an urban planet; our cities are growing at spectacular rates. This growth has created new energy and excitement (cities account for 70 percent of the global economy), and it has highlighted the dysfunctions of cities. Most of our cities, particularly the fastest-growing ones, are messy, confusing places, even for the citizens who call them home. From the massive week-long traffic jams in Beijing to the crowded favelas of Rio de Janeiro, urban dwellers everywhere can easily rattle off a list of what doesn’t work in their communities.


pages: 329 words: 88,954

Emergence by Steven Johnson

A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, edge city, epigenetics, game design, garden city movement, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, pez dispenser, phenotype, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, slashdot, social intelligence, Socratic dialogue, stakhanovite, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush

And yet anyone who caught the nightly news on January 24, 1992, picked up its signal loud and clear. Still, the top-heavy structure of mass media may keep those loops relatively muted for the foreseeable future, at least where the tube is concerned. Feedback, after all, is usually not a television thing. You need the Web to hear it wail. * * * In June of 1962, a full year after the appearance of The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Lewis Mumford published a scathing critique of Jane Jacobs’s manifesto in his legendary New Yorker column, “The Sky Line.” In her prescriptions for a sidewalk-centric urban renewal, “Mother Jacobs”—as Mumford derisively called her—offered a “homemade poultice for the cure of cancer.” The New Yorker critic had been an early advocate of Jacobs’s work, encouraging her to translate her thoughts into a book while she was a junior editor at Architecture Forum in the midfifties.

In Self-Organizing Systems: The Emergence of Order, edited by Eugene F. Yates, ed. New York and London: Plenum Press, 1987. Ince, D. C., ed. Mechanical Intelligence. Vol. 3 of The Collected Works of Alan Turing. New York: Elsevier Science Publishing, 1992. Innes, Judith E., and David E. Booher. “Metropolitan Development as a Complex System: A New Approach to Sustainability.” Economic Development Quarterly 13 (1999): 141–56. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage, 1961. ———. The Nature of Economies. New York: Modern Library Original, 2000. Johnson, George. Fire in the Mind: Science, Faith and the Search for Order. New York: Vintage, 1995. Johnson, Steven. Interface Culture: How New Technology Transforms the Way We Create and Communicate. San Francisco: Harper Edge, 1997. Jones, Steve. The Language of Genes: Solving the Mysteries of Our Genetic Past, Present and Future.


pages: 325 words: 89,374

Municipal Dreams: The Rise and Fall of Council Housing by John Boughton

British Empire, deindustrialization, full employment, garden city movement, ghettoisation, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, laissez-faire capitalism, manufacturing employment, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, neoliberal agenda, new economy, New Urbanism, profit motive, rent control, Right to Buy, rising living standards, starchitect, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, young professional

It wasn’t, however, just the organisational model of council housing that was wrong according to its opponents. On many occasions it was the new housing’s actual form that came under attack. There was, by the 1980s, an established literature challenging many of the cherished ideals of modern urban planning and redevelopment. This was represented most famously in Jane Jacobs’ 1961 book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, which argued for dense, mixed-used neighbourhoods fostering, in her view, vibrant communities against the dead hand of those who would zone and isolate. This critique – and its defence of street life – was extended to the large public housing schemes that had appeared in some American inner cities. Their lifts, stairways and corridors were, in a sense, streets, but ‘these interior streets, although completely accessible to public use, [were] closed to public view and they thus [lacked] the checks and inhibitions exerted by [the] eye-policed city street’.15 This was an idea taken up by American architect Oscar Newman in Defensible Space, published in 1972, with reference, in the first instance, to the high-rise public housing apartment blocks of New York.

A New Future for the Cottage Estates (Routledge, 2016), 91. 4UK Government, ‘Table 208 House Building: Permanent Dwellings Started, by Tenure and Country’, gov.uk, accessed 9 March 2017. 5For details of legislation, see Alan Murie, ‘The Right to Buy: History and Prospect’, History and Policy, November 2015, historyandpolicy.org, accessed 30 January 2017. 6Norman Tebbit, Speech to the Conservative Party Conference, 15 October, 1981. 7Brian Lund, Housing Problems and Housing Policy (Longman, 1996), 123. 8Ian Cole and Robert Furbey, The Eclipse of Council Housing (Routledge, 1994), 188–9. 9Quoted in Brian Milligan, ‘Right-to-Buy: Margaret Thatcher’s Controversial Gift’, BBC News Online, 10 April 2013, bbc.co.uk, accessed 31 January 2017. 10Richard Harris and Peter Larkham (eds), Changing Suburbs: Foundation, Form and Function (Routledge, 2003), 68. 11Reinout Kleinhans and Maarten van Ham, ‘Lessons Learned from the Largest Tenure-Mix Operation in the World: Right to Buy in the United Kingdom’, Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research, vol. 15, no. 2, 2013, 110. 12Ray Forrest and Alan Murie, Selling the Welfare State: The Privatisation of Public Housing (Routledge, 1991), 11. 13Figures drawn from Steve Wilcox, Housing Finance Review 1999/2000 (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 1999), ukhousingreview.org.uk, accessed 1 February 2017. 14Quoted in John Stewart and Gerry Stoker (eds), The Future of Local Government (Macmillan, 1989), 89. 15Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Vintage Books, 1992), 44–3. 16Horizon, ‘The Writing on the Wall’, broadcast on BBC 2, 18 November 1974, available on youtube.com, accessed 8 February 2017. 17Herzberg, ‘Housing at World’s End, Chelsea: Appraisal’. 18Alice Coleman, ‘Design Disadvantage in Southwark’, The Dulwich Society Journal, Summer 2008, dulwichsociety.com, accessed 7 February 2017. 19Alice Coleman, Utopia on Trial: Vision and Reality in Planned Housing (Hilary Shipman, 1985), 22. 20Valerie Grove, Sunday Times, 7 June 1987, cited in Graham Stewart, Robin Hood Gardens Blackwall Reach (Wild ReSearch, ND), 15. 21Charles Jencks, The New Paradigm in Architecture: The Language of PostModernism (Yale University Press, 2002), 18. 22‘Life at Deck Level’, Southwark Civic News, July 1968. 23Southwark Sparrow, February 1987. 24Castle Vale Housing Action Trust, Castle Vale Masterplan Written Statement, September 1993. 25Messenger, ‘Haven for Hoodlums’. 26Bill Hillier, ‘City of Alice’s Dreams’, Architects’ Journal, vol. 184, no. 28, 1986, 39. 27One of Coleman’s team wrote a fuller treatment of the estate (which she anonymised as ‘Omega’).


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Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science by Michael Nielsen

Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Cass Sunstein, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dark matter, discovery of DNA, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, Kevin Kelly, Magellanic Cloud, means of production, medical residency, Nicholas Carr, P = NP, publish or perish, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, social intelligence, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, University of East Anglia, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge

Of course, a considerable fraction of our written culture deals, directly or indirectly, with the challenges of group problem solving. Among the more formative accounts for me were Ben Rich’s Skunk Works [184], Richard Rhodes’s The Making of the Atomic Bomb [183], and Robert Colwell’s The Pentium Chronicles [45]. A little further afield, Peter Block’s book Community: The structure of belonging [18] contains many insights about the problems of building community. And, finally, Jane Jacobs’s masterpiece The Death and Life of Great American Cities [98] is a superb account of how very large groups tackle a core human problem: how to make a place to live. Networked science, in general: The potential of computers and the network to change the way science is done has been discussed by many people, and over a long period of time. Such discussion can be found in many of the works describd above, in particular the work of Vannevar Bush [31] and Douglas Engelbart [63].

Cognition in the Wild. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. [96] National Human Genome Research Institute. Reaffirmation and extension of NHGRI rapid data release policies: Large-scale sequencing and other community resource projects, February 2003. http://www.genome.gov/10506537. [97] In one instant a left-lane nation swerves right. Life, September 15, 1967. [98] Jane Jacobs. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Toronto: Random House of Canada, 1961. [99] Irving Lester Janis. Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1983. [100] Eamon Javers. The pit bull of public relations. Business Week, April 17, 2006. [101] Ayodele Samuel Jegede. What led to the Nigerian boycott of the polio vaccination campaign? PLoS Medicine, 4(3):e73, 2007. http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed. 0040073


pages: 393 words: 91,257

The Coming of Neo-Feudalism: A Warning to the Global Middle Class by Joel Kotkin

Admiral Zheng, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, creative destruction, deindustrialization, demographic transition, don't be evil, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, European colonialism, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Google bus, guest worker program, Hans Rosling, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, liberal capitalism, life extension, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, megacity, Nate Silver, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Parag Khanna, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, post-work, postindustrial economy, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Sam Altman, Satyajit Das, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator

If too many lack any hope of improving their condition, we could face dangerous upheaval in the near future. PART VI The New Geography of Feudalism A metropolitan economy, if it is working well, is constantly transforming many poor people into middle-class people, many illiterates into skilled (or even educated) people, many greenhorns into competent citizens…. Cities don’t lure the middle class. They create it. —Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities CHAPTER 16 The New Gated City Few sights are more thrillingly suggestive of artful modernity than the Chicago skyline. The city center along Lake Michigan is one of the most vibrant business districts in the nation, boasting numerous corporate headquarters and drawing affluent, highly skilled people from across America’s vast Midwest.1 In 2017, Chicago ranked second only to the tech hub Seattle among major American cities for the number of active construction cranes.2 Yet just a short drive away from the cranes and gleaming towers is a landscape of utter devastation.

utm_source=Mic+Check&utm_campaign=2b200dd408-Thursday_July_167_15_2015&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_51f2320b33-2b200dd408-285306781. 53 Katy Murphy, “The California Dream is tough to afford if you’re under 40,” Mercury News, February 21, 2018, https://www.mercurynews.com/2018/02/18/the-california-dream-is-tough-to-afford-if-youre-under-40/; Joel Kotkin and Wendell Cox, “Fading Promise: Millennial Prospects in the Golden State,” Center for Demographics and Policy, May 5, 2017, http://centerforcaliforniarealestate.org/publications/Kotkin-Fading-Dream-printable.pdf. 54 Center for Opportunity Urbanism, Beyond Gentrification. 55 John Aidan Byrne, “The Exodus of New York City’s endangered middle class,” New York Post, December 22, 2018, https://nypost.com/2018/12/22/the-exodus-of-new-york-citys-endangered-middle-class/; Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1962), 282. 56 National Urban Coalition, Displacement: City Neighborhoods in Transition, Washington, D.C., 1978. 57 Kristian Behrens and Frederic Robert-Nicoud, “Urbanization Makes the World More Unequal,” VoxEU, July 24, 2014, https://voxeu.org/article/inequality-big-cities. 58 Richard Florida, “Mapping the New Urban Crisis,” City Lab, April 13, 2017, https://www.citylab.com/equity/2017/04/new-urban-crisis-index/521037/; Patrick Sharkey, “Rich Neighborhood, Poor Neighborhood: How Segregation Threatens Social Mobility,” Brookings, December 5, 2013, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/social-mobility-memos/2013/12/05/rich-neighborhood-poor-neighborhood-how-segregation-threatens-social-mobility/. 59 Helen Raleigh, “Gentrification Provokes a Cofee Clash in Denver’s Five Points,” Wall Street Journal, December 22, 2017, https://www.wsj.com/articles/gentrification-provokes-a-coffee-clash-in-denvers-five-points-1513983831; Cameron McWhirter, “Atlanta’s Growing Pains Are Getting Worse,” Wall Street Journal, August 31, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/atlantas-growing-pains-are-getting-worse-1535707800; Richard Campanella, “Gentrification and Its Discontents: Notes From New Orleans,” New Geography, February 28, 2013, http://www.newgeography.com/content/003526-gentrification-and-its-discontents-notes-new-orleans; “Google abandons Berlin base after two years of resistance,” Guardian, October 24, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/oct/24/google-abandons-berlin-base-after-two-years-of-resistance; Chantal Braganza, “Why opponents of gentrification have taken to the streets of Hamilton,” TVO, April 5, 2018, https://tvo.org/article/current-afairs/why-opponents-of-gentrification-have-taken-to-the-streets-of-hamilton; David Streitfeld, “Protesters Block Google Buses in San Francisco, Citing ‘Techsploitation,’” New York Times, May 31, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/31/us/google-bus-protest.html?


Social Capital and Civil Society by Francis Fukuyama

Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, p-value, Pareto efficiency, postindustrial economy, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transaction costs, World Values Survey

I have elsewhere argued that social capital is an important and relatively understudied factor in explaining certain characteristics of the global economy.1 In contrast to the related concept of human capital, there is less consensus today about what social capital is, how it can be measured, where it comes from, and particularly how to get more of it. I want to address each of these issues, and in particular how social capital is produced and consumed in an increasingly complex, high-tech economy like that of the United States. SOCIAL CAPITAL : DEFINITIONS The first use of the term “social capital” that I am aware of was in Jane Jacobs’s classic work The Death and Life of Great American Cities, in which she explained that the dense social networks that existed in older, mixed-use urban neighborhoods constituted a form of social capital and were far more responsible for cleanliness, absence of street crime, and other quality-of-life measures than were formal institutional factors like police protection.2 1 These are the broad themes of Trust: T h e Social Virtues and the Creation o f Prosperity (New York: Free Press, 1995). 2 Jane Jacobs, T h e Death and Life o f Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1961), p. 138


pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders

agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

Such social gatherings were no longer possible in the new apartments or the useless, anonymous public square.4 Despite its poverty, the old neighborhood’s density, its mix of business and residences, and its privately owned space and access to the street gave it a potential for human mixing, mutual security, and entrepreneurship that could never exist in a low-density project. From the beginning, its residents knew it would become “the projects,” a place without hope of arrival. Jacobs was inspired by this shock of realization to write The Death and Life of Great American Cities, which argued that urban neighborhoods should be treated as organic entities, permitted to grow, change, and develop functions as their residents desire, without restrictions on usage, intensity, or change. This liberal, organic view of urbanism was shared by the sociologist William Whyte, who demonstrated the importance of density and concentration, and the architect-planner Oscar Newman, whose 1972 study, Defensible Space, demonstrated that dense, privately owned spaces with access to the street created a community sense of self-surveillance and security.5 These ideas influenced a generation of urban thinkers and played a huge role in the revitalization of the urban cores of Western cities in the 1970s and ’80s.

., The Position of the Turkish and Moroccan Second Generation in Amsterdam and Rotterdam (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008), 63–85, 166. 4 Doug Saunders, “Citizen Jane,” The Globe and Mail, Oct. 11, 1997. 5 William H. Whyte, City: Rediscovering the Center (New York: Doubleday, 1989); Oscar Newman, Defensible Space: Crime Prevention through Urban Design (New York: MacMillan, 1972). 6 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), 221. 7 Alice Coleman, Utopia on Trial: Vision and Reality in Planned Housing (London: Longwood, 1985). 8 Narayan, Pritchett and Kapoor, Moving Out of Poverty, 223–72. 9 Recent exposés of the failure of aid include Dambisa Moyo, Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is Another Way for Africa (London: Allen Lane, 2009); William Easterly, The White Man’s Burden: Why the West’s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).


pages: 395 words: 115,753

The Metropolitan Revolution: The Rise of Post-Urban America by Jon C. Teaford

anti-communist, big-box store, conceptual framework, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, East Village, edge city, estate planning, Golden Gate Park, Gunnar Myrdal, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, rent control, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, young professional

Designed to link the Holland Tunnel on Manhattan’s West Side with the Manhattan and Williamsburg bridges across the East River, the expressway would have cut a giant swath through Lower Manhattan, forcing almost two thousand families from their homes and displacing over eight hundred businesses. Jacobs attacked the expressway as a “monstrous and useless folly” and dismissed her opponents’ contentions as “piffle.”102 Eventually, Jacobs again triumphed; the expressway was never built. While Jacobs was embroiled in the West Village clash, her highly influential book The Death and Life of Great American Cities appeared, explaining the urban vision underlying her protests. Rejecting renewal dogma, she wrote: “There is a wistful myth that if only we had enough money to spend … we could wipe out all our slums in ten years, reverse decay in the great, dull gray belts that were yesterday’s and day-before-yesterday’s suburbs, anchor the wandering middle class and its wandering tax money, and perhaps even solve the traffic problem.”

., pp. 192–93. 97. New York Times, 27 February 1961, p. 29; 4 March 1961, p. 11. 98. J. Clarence Davies III, Neighborhood Groups and Urban Renewal (New York: Columbia University Press, 1966), p. 88. 99. Ibid., p. 94. 100. New York Times, 19 October 1961, p. 1. 101. Davies, Neighborhood Groups and Urban Renewal, p. 104. 102. New York Times, 7 December 1962, p. 32. 103. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), p. 4. 104. Ibid., pp. 9–10. 105. Ibid., p. 50. 4. The Debacle 1. “Can the Big Cities Ever Come Back?” U.S. News & World Report, 4 September 1967, pp. 28, 31. 2. Robert A. Beauregard, Voices of Decline: The Postwar Fate of US Cities (Oxford: Blackwell, 1993), p. 201. 3. New York Times, 14 November 1978, p. B3. 4. George Sternlieb and James W.


pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, starchitect, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Bus engines screamed as they sucked at the warm air. At first I was disoriented and scared. I had been warned about the pathological aggression of Parisian drivers, and the streets were still full of them. But Britton and I were not the only ones on two wheels. There were dozens of other Vélib’ users around us. There were so many of us out there that drivers had to pay attention. They had to make room. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jane Jacobs described the ballet that takes place on crowded sidewalks as people make eye contact and find their way around one another. I felt a similar if supercharged dynamic coming to life in Paris’s traffic lanes. With cars and bikes and buses mixed together, none of us could be sure what we would find on the road ahead of us. We all had to be awake to the rhythm of asymmetrical flow.

In 2008, for example: Hawthorne, Christopher, “Atlantic on the Move,” Los Angeles Times, May 13, 2012, www.latimes.com/entertainment/news/arts/boulevards/la-ca-atlantic-boulevard-los-angeles-index,0,378106.htmlstory (accessed October 22, 2012). More than three hundred cities: Borys, Hazel, and Emily Talen, “Form-Based Codes? You’re Not Alone,” PlaceShakers and NewsMakers, www.placemakers.com/how-we-teach/codes-study (accessed April 29, 2013). 13. Save Your City, Save Yourself Jane Jacobs: Jacobs, Jane, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961). writing haiku: Naparstek, Aaron, Honku: The Zen Antidote to Road Rage (New York: Random House, 2003). Jon Orcutt: Gleaned from Naparstek, Streetsblog, and DOT bios and press releases. Chan K’in Viejo: “Chan K’in Viejo, 104; Led Mexican Tribe,” New York Times, January 2, 1997, www.nytimes.com/1997/01/02/world/chan-k-in-viejo-104-led-mexican-tribe.html (accessed July 1, 2009).


Hollow City by Rebecca Solnit, Susan Schwartzenberg

blue-collar work, Brownian motion, dematerialisation, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Loma Prieta earthquake, low skilled workers, new economy, New Urbanism, pets.com, rent control, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, wage slave

Today, many most part for the began suggests on to condemn CITY of them still famous for, stand in areas that escaped redevelop- for a million dollars apiece: that they are sell structurally is sound half how gratuitous were its a century after official redevelopment The premises. report went the neighborhood because single-family houses had been converted into apartments, convalescent hospitals and rooming houses and because (It is "stores, industry and houses are haphazardly intermingled." just this intermingling that suburban design sought to eliminate and that Jane Jacobs's 1961 manifesto, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, celebrates as key to the vitality of urban None of life.) the reports mentions that Fillmore Street had Harlem of the West, where jazz become the clubs and a lively nightlife flourished. My octogenarian neighbor who emigrated to the Western Addition from Texas around the time of the Second World War still speaks fondly of the elegant arches of lights that used to adorn Fillmore Street, of the six movie theaters, the of the street its hotels with wonderful jazz clubs, the liveliness at all hours.


City: A Guidebook for the Urban Age by P. D. Smith

active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, cosmological principle, crack epidemic, double entry bookkeeping, edge city, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, en.wikipedia.org, Enrique Peñalosa, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, garden city movement, global village, haute cuisine, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, Kickstarter, Kowloon Walled City, Masdar, megacity, megastructure, multicultural london english, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, peak oil, RFID, smart cities, starchitect, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, Thomas Malthus, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, young professional

Wilson, ‘Broken Windows: The police and neighborhood safety,’ Atlantic (March 1982) <http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1982/03/broken-windows/4465/> 53. Bernard E. Harcourt and Jens Ludwig, ‘Broken Windows: New Evidence from New York City and a Five City Social Experiment’, University of Chicago Law Review, 73 (2006), cited from Anna Minton, Ground Control: Fear and Happiness in the Twenty-First-Century City (London: Penguin, 2009), 146. 54. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961; repr. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1994), 42–7. 55. Paul Lewis, ‘CCTV in the sky: police plan to use military-style spy drones’, Guardian (23 January 2010); cf. Sophie Body-Gendrot, ‘Confronting Fear’, in Ricky Burdett and Deyan Sudjic, eds, The Endless City (London: Phaidon, 2007), 356, and Minton (2009), 31. 56. Tim Harford, The Logic of Life (London: Abacus, 2009), 135. 57.

Sir Roger de Coverley, a fictional character in the Spectator, cited from Dorothy Eagle and Hilary Carnell, eds, The Oxford Illustrated Literary Guide to Great Britain and Ireland (1st 1981; repr. London: Peerage, 1985), 178. 59. Jeremiah B. C. Axelrod, Inventing Autopia: Dreams and Visions of the Modern Metropolis in Jazz Age Los Angeles (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009), 245. 60. Andrzej J. L. Zieleniec, ‘Parks’, in Hutchison (2010), 583. It is a phrase scorned by Jane Jacobs as ‘science-fiction nonsense’: The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1st 1961; repr. London: Penguin, 1994), 101. 61. Zieleniec, in Hutchison (2010), 583. 62. Zieleniec, in Hutchison (2010), 584. 63. Strabo cited from Michael Seymour, ‘Classical Accounts’, in I. L. Finkel and M. J. Seymour, eds, Babylon: Myth and Reality (London: British Museum Press, 2008), 107. 64. Quintus Curtius Rufus cited from Finkel and Seymour (2008), 107. 65.


pages: 418 words: 128,965

The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires by Tim Wu

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Alfred Russel Wallace, Apple II, barriers to entry, British Empire, Burning Man, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, corporate raider, creative destruction, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Menlo Park, open economy, packet switching, PageRank, profit motive, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, sexual politics, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, zero-sum game

.… Whenever something is wrong, something is too big.”10 Kohr’s student, the economist E. F. Schumacher, in 1973 wrote Small Is Beautiful: Economics As If People Mattered, developing the concept of “enoughness” and sustainable development.11 Jane Jacobs, the great theorist of urban planning, expresses a no less incendiary disdain for centralization, and as in Hayek, the indictment is based on an inherent neglect of humanity. In her classic The Death and Life of Great American Cities, she relies on careful firsthand observations made while walking around cities and new developments to determine how Olympian planners like Robert Moses were going wrong.12 There was no understanding, let alone regard, for the organic logic of the city’s neighborhoods, a logic discernible only on foot. All of these thinkers opposed bigness and prescribed a greater humility about one’s unavoidable ignorance.

Hayek, Individualism and Economic Order (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948), 77. 10. Leopold Kohr, The Breakdown of Nations (London: Routledge & Paul, 1957), ix. 11. Schumacher’s idea of “enoughness” stemmed from his studies of what he called “Buddhist economics.” See Ernst F. Schumacher, Small Is Beautiful: Economics As If People Mattered (New York: Harper & Row, 1973). 12. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1961). 13. Frederick W. Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management (New York: Harper & Bros., 1911). 14. Jon Postel wrote this into the “Robustness Principle,” Section 2.10 of the Transmission Control Protocol (January 1980), available at http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc761#section-2.10. 15. This paper announced the innovative end-to-end design principle.


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Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City by Matthew Desmond

affirmative action, Cass Sunstein, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, desegregation, dumpster diving, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jobless men, Kickstarter, late fees, mass incarceration, New Urbanism, payday loans, price discrimination, profit motive, rent control, statistical model, superstar cities, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, working poor, young professional

When winter set in, weeks would pass without Doreen so much as stepping outside. “The public peace—the sidewalk and street peace—of cities is not kept primarily by the police, necessary as police are. It is kept primarily by an intricate, almost unconscious, network of voluntary controls and standards among the people themselves, and enforced by the people themselves.” So wrote Jane Jacobs in The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Jacobs believed that a prerequisite for this type of healthy and engaged community was the presence of people who simply were present, who looked after the neighborhood. She has been proved right: disadvantaged neighborhoods with higher levels of “collective efficacy”—the stuff of loosely linked neighbors who trust one another and share expectations about how to make their community better—have lower crime rates.3 A single eviction could destabilize multiple city blocks, not only the block from which a family was evicted but also the block to which it begrudgingly relocated.

In other words, unforced movers whose previous move was involuntary were far more likely to cite housing or neighborhood problems as the reason for moving than were unforced movers whose previous move was also unforced. Not only do poor renters disproportionately experience involuntary displacement, but involuntary displacement itself brings about subsequent residential mobility. See Desmond et al., “Forced Relocation and Residential Instability Among Urban Renters.” 3. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), 31–32; Robert Sampson, Great American City: Chicago and the Enduring Neighborhood Effect (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012), especially 127, 146–47, 151, 177, 231–32. For an ethnographic take on the uses of public space, see Mitchell Duneier, Sidewalk (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999). 4. Jacobs, Death and Life of Great American Cities, 271, emphasis mine. 5.


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Straphanger by Taras Grescoe

active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, big-box store, bike sharing scheme, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, edge city, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, indoor plumbing, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, New Urbanism, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, peak oil, pension reform, Peter Calthorpe, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional, Zipcar

“Nobody, nobody, nobody but a bunch of, a bunch of mothers.” One of those mothers, of course, was the great urban theorist Jane Jacobs. From her home on Hudson Street, the author and activist orchestrated theatrical opposition to Moses’s projects, burning cars in effigy in Washington Square, and tossing the stenographer’s paper around the stage of a public hearing to protest the building of the Lower Manhattan Expressway. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, she pinpointed the appeal of such neighborhoods as Boston’s North End and her own Greenwich Village, arguing that it was the disorderly vestiges of nineteenth-century street life—shops and residences cheek by jowl, with the bartender sweeping his sidewalk keeping an eye on the neighbors’ kids playing hopscotch—that made them safe and viable urban spaces. Small blocks, buildings of six stories and less, a mixture of commerce and residences, and lots of foot traffic, were not symptoms of blight, but vitality.

“Eminent Dominion: Rethinking the Legacy of Robert Moses.” The New Yorker, February 5, 2007. Grynbaum, Michael M. “Mayor Takes Subway—by Way of SUV.” The New York Times, August 1, 2007. Hood, Clifton. 722 Miles: The Building of the Subways and How They Transformed New York. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993. “In a Blizzard’s Grasp.” The New York Times, March 13, 1888. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage, 1961. Kennedy, Randy. Subwayland: Adventures in the World Beneath New York. New York: St. Martin’s Griffith, 2004. Neuman, William. “Cars Clogging New York? Most Are from the City.” The New York Times, January 12, 2007. “New York’s First Underground Railway.” The New York Times, August 28, 1904. Ouroussoff, Nicolai. “Outgrowing Jane Jacobs.” The New York Times, April 30, 2006.


Stacy Mitchell by Big-Box Swindle The True Cost of Mega-Retailers, the Fight for America's Independent Businesses (2006)

big-box store, business climate, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, European colonialism, Haight Ashbury, income inequality, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, price discrimination, race to the bottom, Ray Oldenburg, RFID, Ronald Reagan, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, union organizing, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Tolbert measured the level of local versus chain retail in each state using both the percentage of the state’s retail workforce employed by locally owned stores and the percentage of retail wages paid to employees of locally owned businesses. Charles M. Tolbert, “Minding Our Own Business: Local Retail Establishments and the Future of Southern Civic Community,” Social Forces 83, no. 4 (June 2005): 1309– 28; Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000). 8. Charles Tolbert, interview, Sept. 26, 2005. 9. Lyson interview. 10. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), 61. 274 NOTES 11. Ibid., 56. 12. Tolbert interview. 13. Ibid. 14. Neal Coonerty, interview, Sept. 22, 2005, and Oct. 7, 2005; Christina Waters, “The Key to the City,” Metro Santa Cruz, Nov. 7–13, 1996; Robin Musitelli, “Community Gets Behind the Books,” Santa Cruz Sentinel, Oct. 18, 1994, 1. 15. Burt Saltzman, interview, Jan. 2005. 16. Callahan made his comments on his blog, Callahan’s Cleveland Diary, on Feb. 28, 2005, http://cleveland_diary.blogspot.com; Saltzman interview. 17.

Lisa Rother, interview, Jan. 19, 2006; “Taos, New Mexico, Votes to Keep Store Size Limit,” Hometown Advantage Bulletin, Apr. 1, 2003; “Taos, New Mexico, Battles Big Boxes Again,” Hometown Advantage Bulletin, Feb. 1, 2003. 37. For more on European superstore regulation, see Ken Baar, Legislative Tools for Preserving Town Centres and Halting the Spread of Hypermarkets and Malls Outside of Cities (New York: Institute for Transport and Development Policy, Mar. 2002). 38. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961). 39. Town of North Elba Planning Board, “Statement of Findings and Decision: Proposed Wal-Mart Store,” Jan. 9, 1996. 40. Again, see the Institute for Local Self-Reliance’s Web site at www.newrules .org/retail for more details and the text of these ordinances. 41. Unidentified speaker at a meeting in Portland, Oregon, Sept. 28, 2005. 42. Mike Mullen, Arcata city planner, interview, Jan. 24, 2006; Tom Conlon, interview, Jan. 31, 2006; Marsha Tauber, owner of Simply Macintosh, interview, Jan. 24, 2006; Paul Cienfuegos, member of the Committee on Democracy and Corporations, interview, Jan. 24, 2006; Ryan Emenaker, chair of the Committee on Democracy and Corporations, interview, Jan. 25, 2006. 43.


Off the Books by Sudhir Alladi Venkatesh

business climate, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, new economy, refrigerator car, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban renewal, working poor, Y2K

See Mary Patillo, Black Picket Fences: Privilege and Peril in the Black Middle Class (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999). 12. Martin Sanchez Jankowski provides a systematic analysis of how gangs develop relationships with persons and organizations in the wider community. See his Islands in the Street (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991). 13. For the classic rendition, see Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1961), 30. 14. Robert Sampson has developed the notion of "collective efficacy"—the "working trust and shared willingness of residents to intervene in sharing social control. The concept of collective efficacy captures the link between cohesion—especially working trust—and shared expectations for action." See Sampson, "Neighborhood and Community: Collective Efficacy and Community Safety," The New Economy 11: 106-113, quote at 108.

For more information on community policing in Chicago, see also the program evaluation series and community policing working papers published by the Institute for Policy Research at Northwestern University; Wesley Skogan and Susan Hartnett, Community Policing: Chicago Style (New York: Oxford Community Press, 1997); Wesley Skogan, "Community Policing in Chicago," in Community Policing, ed. Geoffrey Alpert and Alex Piquero (Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland Press, 1998), 159-174; David Weisburd and Anthony Braga, Prospects and Problems in an Era of Police Innovation: Contrasting Perspectives (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005). 9. Cf. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961). 10. Other sociologists examining public space have taken up Jacobs's writings to highlight the capacity of vibrant streetfare to enable social control. Duneier's study of a middle- to upper-class Manhattan neighborhood documented the contribution made by the local street vendors and sidewalk booksellers to the local sense of public safety. Elijah Anderson's Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990), which is based on a gentrifying neighborhood of Philadelphia, suggests that in periods of urban renewal, established social control procedures are never devised based on abstract citizens, but are always inflected by race and class, such that "public" space is a place where differing social groups effectively fight over the right to appropriate space in different ways. 11.


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Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age by Steven Johnson

Airbus A320, airport security, algorithmic trading, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Cass Sunstein, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Donald Davies, future of journalism, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, Jane Jacobs, John Gruber, John Harrison: Longitude, Joi Ito, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, mega-rich, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, packet switching, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, pre–internet, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche, working poor, X Prize, your tax dollars at work

Bradford DeLong, at http://econ161.berkeley.edu/econ_articles/reviews/seeing_like_a_state.html, along with Henry Farrell’s response, “Seeing ‘Seeing Like a State’” at http://crookedtimber.org/2008/02/05/seeing-like-seeing-like-a-state/. Hayek’s arguments are nicely summarized in his 1945 essay “The Use of Knowledge in Society,” which appeared in The American Economic Review. Jane Jacobs’s attack on centralized planning appears in her classic work, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. For a comprehensive history of the birth of the Internet, see Where Wizards Stay Up Late, by Matthew Lyon and Katie Hafner, as well as Stewart Brand’s interview with Paul Baran, “Founding Father,” in Wired. I first came across the concept of “positive deviance” in the article “Design Thinking for Social Innovation,” by Tim Brown and Jocelyn Wyatt, in the Stanford Social Innovation Review.


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Rendezvous With Oblivion: Reports From a Sinking Society by Thomas Frank

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, business climate, business cycle, call centre, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, edge city, Frank Gehry, high net worth, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration

Before 1950, the adjective was used mainly to describe colors and sound—the latter of which, after all, is transmitted through the air as vibrations. People’s voices were often said to be vibrant. As were, say, notes played on an oboe. To apply the adjective to a “community” or a “scene,” on the other hand, was extremely unusual back then. In fact, the word “vibrant” does not seem to appear at all in Jane Jacobs’s 1961 urban classic The Death and Life of Great American Cities, even though that book is often remembered as the manifesto of vibrancy theory. How the expression made the leap from novelty to gold-plated bureaucratic buzzword is anyone’s guess. The real force behind our mania for the vibrant is the nation’s charitable foundations. For organized philanthropy, “vibrant” seems to have become the one-stop solution for all that ails the American polis.


pages: 524 words: 146,798

Anarchy State and Utopia by Robert Nozick

distributed generation, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, means of production, Menlo Park, moral hazard, night-watchman state, Norman Mailer, Pareto efficiency, price discrimination, prisoner's dilemma, rent control, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, school vouchers, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Yogi Berra

Richard Herrnstein’s discussion of the genetic factors in a society’s pattern of class stratification (I.Q. in the Meritocracy, Atlantic Monthly Press, 1973). 6. Discussions of how economic calculation is accomplished in markets. (See Ludwig von Mises, Socialism, Part II, Human Action. Chapters 4, 7—9.) 7. Microeconomic explanations of the effects of outside intervention in a market, and of the establishment and nature of the new equilibria. 8. Jane Jacobs’ explanation of what makes some parts of cities safe in The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961). 9. The Austrian theory of the trade cycle. 10. Karl Deutsch and William Madow’s observation that in an organization with a large number of important decisions (which can later be evaluated for correctness) to be made among few alternatives, if large numbers of people have a chance to say which way the decision should be made, a number of persons will gain reputations as sage advisers, even if all randomly decide what advice to offer.

I.Q. in the Meritocracy. Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1973. Hockman, H. M. and Rodgers, James D. “Pareto Optimal Redistribution.” American Economic Review 49, no. 4 (September 1969):542-56. Hospers, John. Libertarianism. Los Angeles: Nash, 1971. Hospers, John. “Some Problems about Punishment and the Retaliatory Use of Force.” Reason (November 1972) and (January 1973). Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vantage Books, 1963. Kant, Immanuel. Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals. Translated by H. J. Paton as The Moral Law. London: Hutchinson, 1956. Kant, Immanuel. The Metaphysical Elements of Justice. Translated by John Ladd. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965. Kessell, Reubin. “Price Discrimination in Medicine.” Journal of Law and Economics I, no. I (October 1958):20-53.


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City Squares: Eighteen Writers on the Spirit and Significance of Squares Around the World by Catie Marron

Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, deindustrialization, do-ocracy, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, too big to fail, urban planning

People gravitate to them in order to yak, kibitz, palaver, gossip, argue, show off, watch, eavesdrop, play, protest, hustle, con, love, fight. In the case of Italian piazze, French places, and Spanish plazas, the restaurants, cafés, and shops that line the perimeters encourage the ease of human encounters. But their openness can also give city squares a feeling of desertion. They’re places where people with time on their hands hang out—the jobless, the old, the lonely. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jane Jacobs quoted an Indiana woman on her town square: “Nobody there but dirty old men who spit tobacco juice and try to look up your skirt.” The square in front of the Paris city hall used to be called Place de Grève and was for centuries a place for unemployed Parisians to gather in search of work, which gave French its word for “labor strike.” What determines a square’s atmosphere and use isn’t its shape or architectural details but mainly its location and scale.


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Trust: The Social Virtue and the Creation of Prosperity by Francis Fukuyama

barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, double entry bookkeeping, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Gilder, glass ceiling, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, industrial robot, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mittelstand, price mechanism, profit maximization, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, transfer pricing, traveling salesman, union organizing

Coleman, “Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital,” American Journal of Sociology 94 (1988): S95-S120. See also Robert D. Putnam, “The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life,” American Prospect 13 (1993): 35-42; and Putnam, “Bowling Alone,” Journal of Democracy 6 (1995): 65-78. According to Putnam, the first use of the term social capital was by Jane Jacobs, in The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), p. 138. 9Gary S. Becker, Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, 2d ed. (New York: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1975). CHAPTER 2. THE TWENTY PERCENT SOLUTION 1On this aspect of Adam Smith, see Jerry Z. Muller, Adam Smith in His Time and Ours (New York: Free Press, 1992). 2The neomercantilists share with earlier Marxist and Keynesian critics an emphasis on the importance of the state as an economic actor.

Foreign Affairs 72 (1993): 22-49. Huntington, Samuel P. and Weiner, Myron, eds., Understanding Political Development (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1987). Hutcheon, Robin, First Sea Lord: The Life and Work of Sir Y. K. Pao (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1990). Imai, Ken’ichi, “The Corporate Network in Japan,” Japanese Economic Studies 16 (1986): 3-37. Jacobs, Jane, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961). Jacobs, Norman, The Origins of Modern Capitalism in Eastern Asia (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1958). Jacoby, Sanford, “The Origins of Internal Labor Markets in Japan,” Industrial Relations 18 (1979): 184-196. Jamieson, Ian, Capitalism and Culture: A Comparative Analysis of British and American Manufacturing Organizations (London: Gower, 1980). -----, “Some Observations on Socio-Cultural Explanations of Economic Behaviour,” Sociological Review 26 (1978): 777-805.


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Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West

Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor

Which I translate to mean: cities are emergent complex adaptive social network systems resulting from the continuous interactions among their inhabitants, enhanced and facilitated by the feedback mechanisms provided by urban life. 2. ST. JANE AND THE DRAGONS No one is more identified with viewing cities through the collective lives of their citizens than the famous urban writer-theorist Jane Jacobs. Her defining book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, had an enormous influence across the globe on how we think about cities and how we approach “urban planning.”3 It’s required reading for anyone interested in cities whether a student, a professional, or just an intellectually curious citizen. I suspect that every mayor of every major city in the world has a copy of Jane’s book sitting somewhere on his or her bookshelf and has read at least parts of it.

Romer, “The Origins of Endogenous Growth,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 8(1) (1994): 3–22. 6. PRELUDE TO A SCIENCE OF CITIES 1. J. Moore, “Predators and Prey: A New Ecology of Competition,” Harvard Business Review 71(3) (1993): 75. 2. The results of the program are summarized in the volume edited by D. Lane, et al., Complexity Perspectives in Innovation and Social Change (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2009). 3. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961). 4. Interviewed by Bill Steigerwald in the June 2001 issue of Reason magazine. 5. B. Barber, If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013). 6. B. Bryson, Down Under (New York: Doubleday, 2000). 7. See, for instance, L. Mumford, The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1961). 7.


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Elsewhere, U.S.A: How We Got From the Company Man, Family Dinners, and the Affluent Society to the Home Office, BlackBerry Moms,and Economic Anxiety by Dalton Conley

assortative mating, call centre, clean water, commoditize, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, feminist movement, financial independence, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, off grid, oil shock, PageRank, Ponzi scheme, positional goods, post-industrial society, post-materialism, principal–agent problem, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

Ronna Larsen, “The Skyrocketing Number of Bank Branches,”e-merging Directions, Colliers Turley Martin Tucker Commerical Real Estate Services, at http://www.ctmt.com/pdfs/emergingDirections/BankBranches Skyrocket.pdf. 9. Juliet Schor, “The Social Death of Things,” working paper, 2007. 10. Barry Schwartz, The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less (New York: HarperCollins, 2004). SHOOT THE MOON 1. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1961). 2. For this observation I must credit Natalie Jeremijenko’s research in“Share This Book” (PhD diss., University of Queensland, Aust). 3. “A Guide to UHF Television Production,” 2004-2007, at http://www.indiana.edu/~radiotv/wtiu/uhf.shtml. 4. Ian Grey, “Tee-Construction: A Brief History of the T-Shirt," at http://www.vintageskivvies.com/pages/archives/articles/readersubmissions/history ofthet-shirt.html. 5.5.


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Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg

active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, Right to Buy, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

ITDP (2008) Sustainable Transport Award Nominees, Sustainable transport, Winter 2008, No 20, page 29, Institute for Transportation and Development, New York. ITDP (2013) Footpath design. A guide to creating footpaths that are safe, comfortable and easy to use, ITDP, New York. ITDP, Gehl Architects and Nelson Nyggard (2010) Our cities ourselves, 10 principles for transport in urban life, ITDP, New York. Jacobs, J (1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities. The failure of town planning, Random House, USA. James, A (2014) The death of the habitats directive, World Transport Policy and Practice, volume 20, number 2/3, 97-107. Jerrett, M, McConnell, R, Chang, C, Wolch, J, Reynolds, K, Lurman, F, Gilliland, F and Berhane, K (2010) Automobile traffic around the home and attained body mass index: a longitudinal cohort study of children aged 10-18 years, Prev Med 50: S50-8.


pages: 297 words: 69,467

Dreyer's English: An Utterly Correct Guide to Clarity and Style by Benjamin Dreyer

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Albert Einstein, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, elephant in my pajamas, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Jane Jacobs, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, non-fiction novel, Norman Mailer, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities

I’ll wager you’re adept at the use of apostrophes for simple possessives: the dog’s toy Meryl Streep’s umpteenth Oscar As to common—that is, not proper—nouns ending with an s, one doesn’t, at least not in recently published text,*21 encounter the likes of the boss’ office the princess’ tiara which I find positively spooky-looking, and for most of us, then, the boss’s office the princess’s tiara is the no-brainer way to go. Trouble knocks at the door, though, when terminal s’s occur at the ends of proper nouns. When the talk turns to, say, the writer of Great Expectations and Our Mutual Friend or the urban activist and author of The Death and Life of Great American Cities or the nemesis of said urban activist and author, how do we style their ownership? Well, I can certainly tell you how I style them: Charles Dickens’s novels Jane Jacobs’s advocacy Robert Moses’s megalomania Though you may come across much discussion elsewhere regarding the appending or not appending of post-apostrophe s’s based on pronunciation,*22 convention, or what day of the week it is, I think you’ll find that, as with the universal application of the series comma, you’ll save yourself a lot of thinking time by not thinking about these s’s and just applying them.


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To Show and to Tell: The Craft of Literary Nonfiction by Phillip Lopate

Charles Lindbergh, Columbine, desegregation, fear of failure, index card, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, white flight

Luria: The Mind of a Mnemonist, The Man with a Shattered World Richard Selzer: Mortal Lessons: Notes on the Art of Surgery Gretel Ehrlich: The Solace of Open Spaces John McPhee: Coming into the Country Peter Matthiessen: The Snow Leopard Wendell Berry: The Unsettling of America: Culture and Agriculture Edward Hoagland: Hoagland on Nature Barry Lopez: Arctic Dreams Michael Pollan: Second Nature, The Botany of Desire Psychology Sigmund Freud: The Wolf Man, Dora, Civilization and Its Discontents D. W. Winnicott: Winnicott on the Child, Playing and Reality Karen Horney: Feminine Psychology Leslie H. Farber: The Ways of the Will Adam Phillips: On Kissing, Tickling, and Being Bored Jules Henry: Pathways to Madness Architecture and Landscape Lewis Mumford: Sidewalk Critic, The Lewis Mumford Reader Ada Louise Huxtable: On Architecture Jane Jacobs: The Death and Life of Great American Cities J. B. Jackson: Landscape in Sight William H. Whyte: The Essential William H. Whyte Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown, and Steven Izenour: Learning from Las Vegas Dance Edwin Denby: Dancers, Buildings and People in the Streets Arlene Croce: Croce on Dance, The Fred and Ginger Book Elizabeth Kendall: Where She Danced Art Denis Diderot: Diderot on Art John Ruskin: The Stones of Venice Harold Rosenberg: Discovering the Present Clement Greenberg: Collected Essays and Criticism Meyer Schapiro: Impressionism, Modern Art Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings John Berger: Ways of Seeing, Selected Essays Robert Hughes: Nothing If Not Critical Sports Red Smith: The Red Smith Reader, To Absent Friends A.


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A Time to Build: From Family and Community to Congress and the Campus, How Recommitting to Our Institutions Can Revive the American Dream by Yuval Levin

affirmative action, Airbnb, assortative mating, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, conceptual framework, David Brooks, demand response, Donald Trump, hiring and firing, Jane Jacobs, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method

In his (very) short story “A Radically Condensed History of Postindustrial Life,” David Foster Wallace perfectly captures this social dynamic of online life: “When they were introduced, he made a witticism, hoping to be liked. She laughed extremely hard, hoping to be liked. Then each drove home alone, staring straight ahead, with the very same twist to their faces.” David Foster Wallace, Brief Interviews with Hideous Men (New York: Little, Brown & Co., 1999), 1. 5. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961). See particularly chapters 11 and 12. 6. Adam Mosseri, “Building a Better News Feed for You,” Facebook (press release), https://newsroom.fb.com/news/2016/06/building-a-better-news-feed-for-you/. 7. Stephen Marche, “The Crisis of Intimacy in the Age of Digital Connectivity,” Los Angeles Review of Books, October 15, 2018. 8. On the political implications of social media and the internet, no one has argued more persuasively than Martin Gurri.


Survival of the Friendliest: Understanding Our Origins and Rediscovering Our Common Humanity by Brian Hare, Vanessa Woods

Cass Sunstein, cognitive bias, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Law of Accelerating Returns, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, out of africa, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, smart cities, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, white flight, zero-sum game

Published online February 23, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/​news/​morning-mix/​wp/​2016/​02/​23/​donald-trump-on-protester-id-like-to-punch-him-in-the-face/. 93. J. Diamond, “Trump: I Could Shoot Somebody and Not Lose Voters” CNN Politics (2016). Published online January 24, 2016, http://www.cnn.com/​2016/​01/​23/​politics/​donald-trump-shoot-somebody-support/. 94. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 2016). 95. Richard Florida, The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class, and What We Can Do About It (UK: Hachette, 2017). 96. R.T.T. Forman, “The Urban Region: Natural Systems in Our Place, Our Nourishment, Our Home Range, Our Future,” Landscape Ecology 23 (2008), 251–53. 97.


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Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed by James C. Scott

agricultural Revolution, business cycle, clean water, colonial rule, commoditize, deskilling, facts on the ground, germ theory of disease, informal economy, invention of writing, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, new economy, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit maximization, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, stochastic process, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor

The small-scale street trader, the hawker or the rehris (barrows) have been banned from the city center, so that even where sources of interest and activity could be included, if only to reduce the concreted barrenness and authority of the chowk, these are not utilized."75 As in Brasilia, the effort was to transcend India as it existed and to present Chandigarh's citizens-largely administrators-with an image of their own future. As in Brasilia, the upshot was another unplanned city at the periphery and the margins, one that contradicted the austere order at the center. The Case Against High-Modernist Urbanism: Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs's book The Death and Life of Great American Cities was written in 1961 against a high tide of modernist, functional urban planning. Hers was by no means the first criticism of high-modernist urbanism, but it was, I believe, the most carefully observed and intellectually grounded critique.76 As the most comprehensive challenge to contemporary doctrines of urban planning, it sparked a debate, the reverberations of which are still being felt.

She was married to an architect and had worked her way up from newspaper and editing jobs to become associate editor of the journal Architectural Forum. 79. An interesting parallel case from the same time period is Rachel Carson's Silent Spring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962). Carson began her influential attack on the profligate use of insecticides by asking a homely but powerful question: "Where have all the songbirds gone?" 80. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1961), p. 15. 81. Ibid., p. 376. The early constructivist Le Corbusier would not have disavowed this view as a matter of principle, but as a matter of practice he was always greatly concerned with the sculptural properties of an urban plan or a single buildingsometimes with brilliant results, as in Notre-Dame-du-Haut, Ronch amp (1953). 82. A useful critique of current zoning practice may be found in James Howard Kunstler, "Home from Nowhere," Atlantic Monthly, September 1996, pp. 43-66. 83.


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Explore Everything by Bradley Garrett

airport security, Burning Man, call centre, creative destruction, deindustrialization, double helix, dumpster diving, failed state, Google Earth, Hacker Ethic, Jane Jacobs, Julian Assange, late capitalism, megacity, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, place-making, shareholder value, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, white flight, WikiLeaks

., ‘Graffiti Raids across London as Police Sanitise City Ready for Olympics’, atthelondonvandal.com/2012/07/graffiti-raids-across-london-as-police-sanitise-city-ready-for-olympics. 15 Rik Scarce, ‘A Law to Protect Scholars’, at skidmore.edu/newsitems/features/chronicle081205.htm (12 August 2005). 16 David Pescovitz, ‘Beating the Bounds Railwalk Project Shut Down’, at boingboing.net/2008/03/10/beating-the-bounds-r.html (10 March 2008). 17 ‘ASA Code of Ethics’, at asanet.org/images/asa/docs/pdf/EthicsCode.pdf; Jaschik, ‘Protecting His Sources’, Inside Higher Ed., 4 December 2009. 18 ‘(U//FOUO) National Counterterrorism Center: Urban Exploration Offers Insight into Critical Infrastructure Vulnerabilities’, at publicintelligence.net/nctc-urban-exploration (19 November 2012). 19 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961). 20 Lisette Josephides, ‘Representing the Anthropologist’s Predicament’, in Allison James, Jenny Hockey and Andrew Dawson, eds, AfterWriting Culture: Epistemology and Praxis in Contemporary Anthropology (London: Routledge, 1997), p. 32, cited in Sarah Pink, Doing Visual Ethnography: Images, Media and Representation in Research (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001), p. 4. 21 Pinder, ‘Urban Interventions’, p 734.


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City: Urbanism and Its End by Douglas W. Rae

agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business climate, City Beautiful movement, complexity theory, creative destruction, desegregation, edge city, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, informal economy, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, manufacturing employment, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Of the latter, well over half were located in the working-class and highly urbanized suburb of West Haven. See John D. Fassett, UI: History of an Electric Company (New Haven: United Illuminating, 1990), 173. 45. Contact with strangers, handled with responses that allow civil cooperation well short of personal intimacy, is at the heart of Jane Jacobs’ justly celebrated work on urbanism. See Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961). See also Lyn H. Lofland, A World of Strangers (New York: Basic Books, 1973). For a more developed theoretical treatment of contact with diversity, see Richard Sennett, The Uses of Disorder (New York: Norton, 1970). Gerald Frug has constructed an inspiring and complex theory of urban change that hinges to a considerable degree on overcoming the sorting processes of late twentieth-century urban regions.

Smelser and Richard Swedberg, 342–67. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994. Isaac, Jeffrey C. Power and Marxist Theory: A Realist View. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1987. Jackson, Kenneth T. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. Jacobs, Jane. The Economy of Cities. New York: Vintage, 1969. ———. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House, 1961. Jaffe, Harry S., and Tom Sherwood. Dream City: Race, Power, and the Decline of Washington, D.C. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994. Janick, Herbert. “Yale Blue: Unionization at Yale University, 1931–1985.” Labor History 28, no. 3 (1987): 349–69. Jargowsky, Paul A. “Ghetto Poverty Among Blacks in the 1980s.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 13, no. 2 (1994): 288–309.


pages: 262 words: 83,548

The End of Growth by Jeff Rubin

Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, deglobalization, energy security, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, flex fuel, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Hans Island, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, McMansion, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

CHAPTER 6: THE DANISH RESPONSE this page: Information about Denmark’s environmental track record, including its level of carbon dioxide emissions since 1990, comes from figures available through the State of Green, a government-backed initiative to raise international awareness of the country’s green credentials (www.stateofgreen.com). this page: The argument for the relationship between urban population density and vibrant cities is well documented. Jane Jacobs, for one, argued convincingly against urban sprawl in her seminal work The Death and Life of Great American Cities, which has influenced thoughts on urban planning since its publication in 1961. CHAPTER 7: ZERO-SUM WORLD this page: The figures for Venezuela’s oil exports to the United States come from the EIA. US oil imports from Venezuela reached a high of 1.77 million barrels a day in 1997. (www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=pet&s=mttimusve2&f=a) this page: The figure for the number of licensed American drivers comes from the US Federal Highway Administration, an agency within the Department of Transportation (www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/onh00/onh2p4.htm).


pages: 362 words: 83,464

The New Class Conflict by Joel Kotkin

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bob Noyce, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Graeber, deindustrialization, don't be evil, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, energy security, falling living standards, future of work, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, McJob, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Buchheit, payday loans, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

Lind, Land of Promise, p. 342; Howard Ahmanson, “The Old Regionalism vs. the New Cosmopolitan Hyper-Localism,” American Conservative, October 7, 2013. 74. Robert Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York (New York: Vintage, 1975), pp. 143–44; Becky Nicolaides, “How Hell Moved From the Cities to the Suburbs,” in Kevin M. Kruse and Thomas J. Sugure, The New Suburban History (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2006), p. 87. 75. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), p. 357. 76. Nicolaides, “How Hell Moved From the Cities to the Suburbs,” pp. 91–97. 77. William Vogt, Road to Survival (New York: William Sloane, 1948), p. 284. 78. Michael Janofsky, “Gore Offers Plan to Control Suburban Sprawl,” New York Times, January 12, 1999. 79. James Howard Kunstler, The Long Emergency: Surviving the Converging Catastrophes of the 21st Century (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2005), p. 3. 80.


pages: 304 words: 80,143

The Autonomous Revolution: Reclaiming the Future We’ve Sold to Machines by William Davidow, Michael Malone

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, QWERTY keyboard, ransomware, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, speech recognition, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, trade route, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, urban planning, zero day, zero-sum game, Zipcar

At one time, Internet visionaries believed that people would choose to work remotely and live anywhere they chose. But a different scenario now seems just as plausible, which is that more and more people will choose to live in more densely populated areas that are served by intelligent public transportation. This could create an apartment construction boom. The cities of the future may come to look and feel more like the old cities that Jane Jacobs celebrated and mourned in her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities half a century ago—lively, diverse federations of mixed-use neighborhoods, but powered by twenty-first-century infrastructure. The amount of construction required to create this autonomous country of the future is massive. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) has estimated that the country has a $3.6 trillion backlog and it is planning to spend only $2 trillion by 2020.44 Completing the projects identified by the society in a five-year period would require spending an additional $300 billion a year, or about 2 percent of GDP.


pages: 250 words: 88,762

The Logic of Life: The Rational Economics of an Irrational World by Tim Harford

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business cycle, colonial rule, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, European colonialism, experimental economics, experimental subject, George Akerlof, income per capita, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, law of one price, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Department of Justice press release, February 21, 2006, www.usdoj.gov/usao/dc/Press_Releases/2006_Archives/Feb_2006/06060.html, summarizes the evidence, which Reginald Jones accepted, entering an “Alford” plea, which asserted his innocence but accepted that enough evidence existed to convict him. Newspaper accounts include “Horrific Attack, Heroic Rescue,” The Washington Post, July 7, 2005, and “Blood, Sweat, and Fear,” FT Magazine, August 27, 2005. I was one of the witnesses to the attack. Jane Jacobs: Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities 1961; rept. New York: Vintage 1992). Two economists: Edward Glaeser and Bruce Sacerdote, “The Social Consequences of Housing,” NBER Working Paper 8034, December 2000, papers.nber.org/papers/W8034. The British ghettos are up: U.K. white population from the Office for National Statistics, www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=273. Fact about people in high-rises is from an op-ed by the British geographer Daniel Dorling, published in the Observer, September 25, 2005.


pages: 304 words: 88,773

The Ghost Map: A Street, an Epidemic and the Hidden Power of Urban Networks. by Steven Johnson

call centre, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Dean Kamen, digital map, double helix, edge city, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, John Snow's cholera map, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, peak oil, side project, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, trade route, unbiased observer, working poor

London, 1881. Hohenberg, Paul M., and Lynn Hollen Lees. The Making of Urban Europe, 1000–1994. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995. Iberall, Arthur S. “A Physics for Studies of Civilization.” Self-Organizing Systems: The Emergence of Order, ed. F. Eugene Yates. New York and London: Plenum Press, 1987. Jacobs, Jane. The Economy of Cities. New York: Random House, 1969. ——. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage, 1992. ——. The Nature of Economies. New York: Modern Library, 2000. Kelly, John. The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time. New York: HarperCollins, 2005. Koch, Tom. Cartographies of Disease: Maps, Mapping, and Medicine. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press, 2005. Kostof, Spiro. The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History.


pages: 286 words: 95,372

The Fields Beneath: The History of One London Village by Gillian Tindall

ghettoisation, Jane Jacobs, means of production, New Urbanism, profit motive, Right to Buy, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Davenport, urban sprawl

., An Embassy at the Court of St James, 1840. Harrison, A History of London, 1775. Hole, James, The Homes of the Working Classes, with Suggestions for their Improvement, 1866. Hollinshead, John, Ragged London, 1861. Hoskins, W. G., English Landscapes, 1977. Howitt, William, The Northern Heights of London, 1869. Hughson, David, London, 1809. Ilive, Survey of London, 1742. Jacobs, Jane, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 2002. Jenkins, Simon, Landlords to London; the story of a capital and its growth, 1975. Jeffcot, Eric, ‘Old Roads’ (article in St Pancras Journal Vol. 8, No. 1). Kellet, John R., Railways and Victorian Cities, 1979. Laslett, Peter, The World We Have Lost, 1968. Lee, Charles E., St Pancras Church and Parish, 1955 (published by the Parochial Church Council). Lee, Charles E., The Northern Line, 1973 (published by London Transport).


pages: 356 words: 91,157

The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities Are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class?and What We Can Do About It by Richard Florida

affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, Columbine, congestion charging, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, Ferguson, Missouri, Gini coefficient, Google bus, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jitney, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, megacity, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, occupational segregation, Paul Graham, plutocrats, Plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, superstar cities, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, young professional

Urbanism for All Acknowledgments About the Author More Advance Praise for The New Urban Crisis Appendix Notes Index For Mila Any city, however small, is in fact divided into two, one the city of the poor, the other of the rich. —PLATO, THE REPUBLIC Cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody. —JANE JACOBS, THE DEATH AND LIFE OF GREAT AMERICAN CITIES PREFACE I was born in Newark, New Jersey, in 1957, back when it was a thriving city, bustling with iconic department stores, morning and evening newspapers, libraries and museums, a busy downtown, and a large middle class. My parents both came of age in the city’s Italian district, and they still lived there when I was born, in an apartment near the city’s verdant Branch Brook Park.


pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, congestion charging, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, different worldview, do-ocracy, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, turn-by-turn navigation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Zipcar

This order is all composed of movement and change, and although it is life, not art, we may fancifully call it the art form of the city and liken it to the dance—not to a simple-minded precision dance with everyone kicking up at the same time, twirling in unison and bowing off en masse, but to an intricate ballet in which the individual dancers and ensembles all have distinctive parts which miraculously reinforce each other and compose an orderly whole. The ballet of the good city sidewalk never repeats itself from place to place, and in any one place it is always replete with new improvisations. —JANE JACOBS, THE DEATH AND LIFE OF GREAT AMERICAN CITIES I LOVE THIS PASSAGE by urban planner Jane Jacobs. Her description of a city street that works—a place where infrastructure encourages the intricate ballet of life to flourish—is an analogy for what is required when building a Peers Inc platform. It took months of eighteen-hour days to ready Zipcar for launch. Grabbing an emerging opportunity and growing a market share requires the right people with the right strategy at the right moment (and what’s right changes over time) because they all must come together to create a resilient and inviting infrastructure for peers.


words: 49,604

The Weightless World: Strategies for Managing the Digital Economy by Diane Coyle

"Robert Solow", barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business cycle, clean water, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, Diane Coyle, Edward Glaeser, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, financial deregulation, full employment, George Santayana, global village, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the sewing machine, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McJob, microcredit, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, night-watchman state, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, pension reform, pensions crisis, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, two tier labour market, very high income, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, working-age population

This section draws on Lets on Low Income, Barnes, North and Walker; ‘The Transatlantic Money Revolution’ by David Boyle in New Economics Winter 1996, and discussions with Ed Mayo. Figures from LETS Make Money Work for People, by Gill Seyfang and Colin Williams, Kindred Spirit, August 1997. In The Independent, London, 19 July 1995. Quoted in The New York Times, 29 September 1996. In Meadows, Work Out — or Work In? Interview in Independent on Sunday, London, 5 May 1996. The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jane Jacobs, 1961. In Making Welfare Work, 1995. In Economic Trends, July 1996. Chapter Five. Fear of Flexibility ‘Bill Clinton has created ten million jobs — and two of them are mine.’ It was one of the classic jokes of President Clinton’s 1996 re-election campaign. The US economy has had an unparalleled record of high job creation and low unemployment since the trough of its recession in 1992.


Norman Foster: A Life in Architecture by Deyan Sudjic

Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Frank Gehry, interchangeable parts, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, low cost airline, Masdar, megacity, megastructure, Murano, Venice glass, Norman Mailer, Pearl River Delta, Peter Eisenman, sustainable-tourism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, University of East Anglia, urban decay, urban renewal, white flight, young professional

Completed in 1930, its battered green leather sofas look like something from the House of Commons and combine with its Latin inscriptions over the fireplace and its inglenooks facing the cloistered garden outside to suggest a place desperate to look older than its years. Even Yale’s gymnasium is built in exuberant gothic style, and it comes equipped with a tower not much less imposing than that of Durham Cathedral. It is, in short, a university that might have been imagined by Ralph Lauren. But beyond its gothic zone, New Haven in Foster’s day was suffering from the early symptoms of the urban decay that Jane Jacobs identified in her book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities: a rotting centre and spreading affluent suburbs. Away from the security of the city lights and the campus police it would become a troubled place to live after the race riot of 1967. There were whole streets in New Haven in which the only functioning buildings were adult cinemas. Everything else for blocks at a stretch had been shuttered and abandoned, burnt out or flattened.


pages: 327 words: 103,336

Everything Is Obvious: *Once You Know the Answer by Duncan J. Watts

active measures, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, business cycle, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, East Village, easy for humans, difficult for computers, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, high batting average, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, industrial cluster, interest rate swap, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lake wobegon effect, Laplace demon, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, medical malpractice, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, oil shock, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, prediction markets, pre–internet, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, school choice, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, urban planning, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

People have been fascinated with what sociologists call the small-world problem for nearly a century, since the Hungarian poet Frigyes Karinthy published a short story called “Chains” in which his protagonist boasts that he can connect himself to any other person in the world, whether a Nobel Prize winner or a worker in a Ford Motor factory, through a chain of no more than five acquaintances. Four decades later, in her polemic on urban planning The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the journalist Jane Jacobs described a similar game, called messages, that she used to play with her sister when they first moved to New York: The idea was to pick two wildly dissimilar individuals—say a headhunter in the Solomon Islands and a cobbler in Rock Island, Illinois—and assume that one had to get a message to the other by word of mouth; then we would each silently figure out a plausible, or at least possible, chain of persons through whom the message could go.


pages: 327 words: 97,720

Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection by John T. Cacioppo

Alfred Russel Wallace, biofilm, butterfly effect, Celebration, Florida, corporate governance, delayed gratification, experimental subject, impulse control, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, longitudinal study, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, Rodney Brooks, Ted Kaczynski, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Walter Mischel

The apartheid government of South Africa went so far as to destroy a wide swath of Cape Town—a mixed-race area called District Six—precisely because of its rich sense of community. The harmony that had flourished among the district’s crowded mix of blacks and whites and Asian immigrants gave the lie to the ruling party’s agenda of racial separatism. In the 1960s urbanists like Jane Jacobs launched a counteroffensive. Jacobs’s book The Death and Life of Great American Cities is her paean to her own “village”—Greenwich Village in New York City. In its pages she extols the vitality of life on a smaller, more compact scale, where people live and work on the same block. She writes about the greater trust and sense of connection, as well as the enriching, serendipitous encounters that result. I can attest to her insight, because my wife and I live in just such an urban village, a cluster of nineteenth-century row houses where neighbors know one another’s children and pets and keep up with the progress of one another’s plantings beside the doorsteps.


pages: 471 words: 97,152

Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism by George A. Akerlof, Robert J. Shiller

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, business cycle, buy and hold, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, George Santayana, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, market bubble, market clearing, mental accounting, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Urbanism, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

“Relative Prices and Relative Prosperity.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 9701, May. Ikegami, Eiko, 2005. Bonds of Civility: Aesthetic Networks and the Political Origins of Japanese Culture. Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press. Ip, Greg. 1994. “Routine No Longer Governs Crow’s Life.” Financial Post (Toronto), April 28, p. 15. Jacobs, Jane. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House. James, Henry. 1983 [1904]. The Golden Bowl. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Juhn, Chinhui, Kevin M. Murphy, and Brooks Pierce. 1993. “Wage Inequality and the Rise in Returns to Skill.” Journal of Political Economy 101(3):410–42. Jung, Jeeman, and Robert J. Shiller. 2005. “Samuelson’s Dictum and the Stock Market.” Economic Inquiry 43(2):221–28.


Cataloging the World: Paul Otlet and the Birth of the Information Age by Alex Wright

1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, barriers to entry, British Empire, business climate, business intelligence, Cape to Cairo, card file, centralized clearinghouse, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, European colonialism, Frederick Winslow Taylor, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Law of Accelerating Returns, linked data, Livingstone, I presume, lone genius, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norman Mailer, out of africa, packet switching, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog

Classification Made Simple: An Introduction to Knowledge Organisation and Information Retrieval. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2009. “Industrial History | Belgium.” European Route of Industrial Heritage. Accessed July 27, 2013. http://www.erih.net/topmenu/about-erih.html. “Internet 2012 in Numbers.” Pingdom, January 16, 2013. http://royal.pingdom .com/2013/01/16/internet-2012-in-numbers/. 328 BIBLIOGRAPHY Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage, 1992. James, Henry. Beloved Boy: Letters to Hendrik C. Andersen, 1899–1915. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2004. ———. Roderick Hudson. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1917. “James W. Bryce Biography.” IBM. Accessed July 18, 2013. http://www-03.ibm.com/ ibm/history/exhibits/markI/2413JB01.html. Jencks, Charles. Le Corbusier and the Continual Revolution in Architecture.


pages: 463 words: 105,197

Radical Markets: Uprooting Capitalism and Democracy for a Just Society by Eric Posner, E. Weyl

3D printing, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-communist, augmented reality, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, business process, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, commoditize, Corn Laws, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, endowment effect, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, feminist movement, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, guest worker program, hydraulic fracturing, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, index fund, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Landlord’s Game, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, Lyft, market bubble, market design, market friction, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, negative equity, Network effects, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open borders, Pareto efficiency, passive investing, patent troll, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Rory Sutherland, Second Machine Age, second-price auction, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, spectrum auction, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, telepresence, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban planning, Vanguard fund, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Sandel, What Money Can’t Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2012), and Samuel Bowles, The Moral Economy: Why Good Incentives Are No Substitute for Good Citizens (Yale University Press, 2016). 14. A. O. Hirschman, Rival Interpretations of Market Society: Civilizing, Destructive, or Feeble?, 20 Journal of Economic Literature 1463 (1982). 15. Durkheim, Division of Labour in Society. 16. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Random House, 1961). 17. Marion Fourcade & Kieran Healy, Moral Views of Market Society, 33 Annual Review of Sociology 285 (2007), highlight that the most powerful visions of markets have been inherently moralizing and not just economic. We hope some readers will find this moral vision an important component of the project of Radical Markets. 18. Some may wonder whether individuals might not come to fear others taking their possessions.


Data and the City by Rob Kitchin,Tracey P. Lauriault,Gavin McArdle

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, bike sharing scheme, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, floating exchange rates, global value chain, Google Earth, hive mind, Internet of things, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lifelogging, linked data, loose coupling, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, open economy, openstreetmap, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, place-making, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, semantic web, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, statistical model, TaskRabbit, text mining, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, urban planning, urban sprawl, web application

Harrison, C. and Donnelly, I.A. (2011) ‘A theory of smart cities’, in Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the ISSS – 2011, Hull, UK, available from: http://journals.isss. org/index.php/proceedings55th/article/view/1703 [accessed 24 November 2016]. Hemment, D. and Townsend, A. (2013) Smart Citizens. Manchester: FutureEverything Publications. Hollands, R.G. (2008) ‘Will the real smart city please stand up? Intelligent, progressive or entrepreneurial?’, City 12(3): 303–320. Jacobs, J. (2000) The Death and Life of Great American Cities. London: Pimlico. Kitchin, R. (2014a) ‘Big data, new epistemologies and paradigm shifts’, Big Data & Society 1(1): 1–12. Kitchin, R. (2014b) The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences. London: SAGE. Kitchin, R. (2014c) ‘The real-time city? Big data and smart urbanism’, GeoJournal 79(1): 1–14. Kitchin, R. and Dodge, M. (2005) ‘Code and the transduction of space’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 95(1): 162–180.


pages: 851 words: 247,711

The Atlantic and Its Enemies: A History of the Cold War by Norman Stone

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, central bank independence, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, illegal immigration, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, long peace, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mitch Kapor, new economy, Norman Mailer, North Sea oil, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, popular capitalism, price mechanism, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, V2 rocket, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War, éminence grise

Two decades later governments had a great deal more money and were still producing squalor: what conclusion was to be drawn, that governments should have even more, or that they just could not help producing squalor? Vance Packard’s Status Seekers (1960) described the American business rat race. Jane Jacobs, looking at the wreckage caused by the San Francisco freeway system, wrote The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) and she foresaw that housing estates for the poor would turn into sinks of hopelessness worse than the slums that they were to replace; she also foresaw that city centres would become empty, inhabited only by tramps. Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique (1963) spoke for the bored housewife. Michael Harrington discovered that there were many poor Americans: The Other America (1962).

Harriman, Averell Harrington, Michael, The Other America Harris, Robert, Archangel Hartington, Kathleen Cavendish, Marchioness of (née Kennedy) Harvard University Business School Tercentenary Hastings, Sir Max Havana Havel, Václav Havenstein, Rudolf Hayek, Friedrich von Healey, Denis, Baron Heath, Sir Edward: appearance and character and Britain’s membership of EEC and Britain’s relations with US dismissed as Conservative leader government of incomes policy loses 1974 election and Margaret Thatcher’s government and trade unions Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin Helms, Richard Helsinki conference (CSCE; 1975) Hemingway, Ernest Hentze, Paul Herat heroin Hersh, Seymour Herter, Christian Heseltine, Michael, Baron Hezb (Afghan resistance group) Hills, Denis Hindus Hippocrates Hiroshima Hiss, Alger History Today (magazine) Hitler, Adolf: appeasement of beer-hall Putsch (1923) Berlin Bunker eugenics favourite film invasion of Czechoslovakia invasion of USSR reduction of unemployment rise to power suicide and cremation Ho Chi Minh Ho Chi Minh Trail Hodder and Stoughton (publishers) Hodža, Enver Hoechst (corporation) Hoesch (corporation) Hoffman, Paul Hoggart, Richard Holland: Calvinist Church colonies economic success and EEC exports floating of currency oil embargo against post-imperial decline trade unions see also Benelux Hollywood Holy Roman Empire homosexuality gay rights Honecker, Erich Hong Kong hooliganism Hoover, Herbert Hopper, Kenneth Hopper, William Horn, Gyula Hoskyns, Sir John Hotter, Hans Howe, Geoffrey, Baron Howe of Aberavon Hue, Vietnam Hugo, Victor, Les Misérables human rights Humphrey, Hubert Hunan province Hungarian diaspora Hungary: AVO (security police) Catholic Church Christian Women’s Camp Communist Party communist takeover ending of communist state inflation intelligentsia Jews in under Kádár Khrushchev’s relaxation attempts labour camps nationalism opening of border with Austria (1989) Peasant Party peasantry Protestant churches relations with Austria Second World War Social Democrats territorial losses trade unions United Workers’ Party uprising of 1848 uprising of 1956 Writers’ Union Huntington, Samuel Husák, Gustáv Hussein, King of Jordan Huxley, Sir Julian Hysko, Miroslav Ibárruri, Dolores IBM (corporation) ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles) Ickes, Harold IEA (British Institute of Economic Affairs) Iliescu, Ion Illinois I’m All Right, Jack (film) IMF (International Monetary Fund): assumes true world role Belgrade meeting (1979) and Bretton Woods system British bail-out (1976) establishment of ineffectiveness loans to Romania and military coups in Chile and Turkey role in defending threatened currencies and ‘Washington consensus’ İnan, Kâmran Inchon İncirlik air base India: border conflicts with China British rule famine independence intelligentsia nationalism partition war in Kashmir Indonesia: Dutch rule independence movement oil production Industrial Reorganization Corporation (British) Industrial Revolution inflation Britain Chile France Germany Hungary hyper-inflation Italy Japan and monetarism Phillips Curve Poland ‘stagflation’ Turkey and universities USA USSR information technology: development of and financial markets manufacturers and public sector theory of unions’ obstruction of in USSR Ingham, Sir Bernard Inönü, Ismet Institute of Economic Affairs (British; IEA) intelligentsia: Britain China Czechoslovakia France Germany Greece Hungary India Poland Turkey USA USSR Russiap> Western intelligentsia and communism International Bank for Reconstruction and Development see World Bank International Monetary Fund see IMF internment camps, Soviet Ionesco, Eugène İpekçi, Abdı Iran: and Afghanistan allied with West Azeri Turks coup of 1953 hostage crisis (1979-81) Islamic revolution (1978-9) Kurdish population under Mossadegh oil production relations with USSR and Saudi Arabia Savak (secret police) Second World War occupation under the Shah and terrorism Iran, Shah of (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi) fall of Iran-Contra affair (‘Irangate’) Iraq: Christians in coup of 1958 Kurdish population Nasser’s interference in under Saddam Hussein Soviet aid Iraq-Syria pipeline Iraq war (2003- ) Ireland Catholic Church emigration Irish Question nationalism terrorism Islam: in Afghanistan in Iran in Iraq of Kurds in Pakistan in Soviet Central Asia in Turkey and Turkish ‘guest workers’ in Germany see also Moslems Israel: American support for Arab plans to eliminate Camp David accords (1978) establishment of and Iran-Contra affair relations with USSR Six Day War (1967) and Suez crisis Yom Kippur War (1973) Istanbul Aya Sofya Bosphorus Bridge economic growth and redevelopment Galata Maslak riots (1955) stock exchange Taksim Square massacre (1977) Italy: Allied reconquest automobile industry backwardness black economy Christian Democrats Communists corruption education system and EEC election of 1948 film industry and Germany Guelfs and Ghibellines imports industrial unrest and strikes inflation Marshall Plan aid peasantry political instability post-war economic recovery protectionism public finances Red Brigades student demonstrations terrorism trade unions universities war damage Itzenplitz, Baron Heinrich von İzmir Jachymov mines, Bohemia Jackson, Andrew Jackson-Vanik Amendment (1973-4) Jacobs, Jane, The Death and Life of Great American Cities Jaguar (automobile manufacturer) Jakab, Sándor Jakeš, Miloš Jalalabad Jamaica Jamiat (Afghan resistance group) Japan: automobile industry banking crisis (2008-9) Communists in economic boom economic recession empire invasion and occupation of China land reforms and North Korea post-war Allied occupation post-war economic recovery prisoners of war Second World War shipbuilding steel production use of fax machines and Vietnam Westernization Jaruzelski, Wojciech Jay, Peter Jefferson, Thomas Jenkins, Roy, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead Jenkins, Sir Simon Jerusalem King David Hotel bombing (1946) Jesuits Jesus College, Cambridge Jews: emigration to Palestine German compensation to in Greece in Hungary in Poland in Romania in Slovakia in Turkey in USA n USSR in West Germany see also anti-semitism Jiangxi soviet Jobs, Steve John Brown Engineering John Paul II, Pope Johnson, Chalmers Johnson, Claudia ‘Lady Bird’ Johnson, Harry Johnson, Lyndon B.: background and character and Brezhnev and China economic policy election as President Great Society on Kennedy reputation as Roosevelt’s manager use of Supreme Court Vice-President and Vietnam withdraws from re-election campaign Joliot-Curie, Irène Jones, Aubrey Jones, Jack Jones, Therese Jordan Joseph, Keith, Baron Juglar, Clement June Days uprising (1848) ‘junk bonds’ Kabul Kádár, János Kafka, Franz, Amerika Kahn, Philippe Kaldor, Nicholas, Baron Kaluga Kamchatka Kandahar Kang Sheng Kania, Stanisław Kapitsa, Piotr Kaplan, Karel Kapor, Mitch Karabük steel plant Karaganda Karajan, Herbert von Karasar, Hasan Ali Karmal, Babrak Karman, Tibor Karpacky, Kornel Kashmir Katowice Katyń massacre (1940) Kayseri Kazakhstan Kedourie, Elie Keep, John Kemal, Mustafa see Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal Kemp, Jack Kempner, Nan Kennan, George Kennedy, Edward Kennedy, Jacqueline Kennedy, John F.: ‘Alliance for Progress’ (plan for Latin America) appearance, background and character assassination and Bay of Pigs invasion and Berlin crisis of 1961 and Cuban crisis of 1962 economic policy election as President funeral Inaugural address and Macmillan New Frontier reputation and Roosevelt Vienna conference (1961) and Vietnam White House style Kennedy, John F., Jr Kennedy, Joseph Kennedy, Robert Kent State University shootings (1970) Kerr, Clark Keyder, Çağlar Keynes, John Maynard, 1st Baron: Galbraith and on government spending homosexuality hopes for German bombing on paper money and Roosevelt Keynesianism KGB: and coup of August 1991 and Cuban crisis of 1962 and dissidents and Gorbachev network of informers relationship with Party and revolutions of 1989 and war in Afghanistan and Western anti-missile demonstrations see also Cheka KHAD (Afghan secret police) Khanin, G.


pages: 403 words: 105,431

The death and life of the great American school system: how testing and choice are undermining education by Diane Ravitch

David Brooks, desegregation, hiring and firing, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, longitudinal study, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, The Death and Life of Great American Cities

Many thanks to Meredith Smith and Antoinette Smith of Basic Books for their careful review of the manuscript, and to Lynn Goldberg and Angela Hayes of Goldberg-McDuffie, who gave me their wholehearted support. And I am grateful to Tim Sullivan, my editor at Basic Books, who quickly understood the book and suggested the title of my dreams. We both agreed that the title is a fitting homage to Jane Jacobs, whose book The Death and Life of Great American Cities helped to create a renaissance in the nation’s cities. Since I live the life that she wrote about, in a wonderful urban neighborhood saved by historic preservation, I love the idea of associating my book with hers, most especially with the hope that American education in general and urban education in particular might also experience a renaissance. DIANE RAVITCH BROOKLYN, NEW YORK CHAPTER ONE What I Learned About School Reform IN THE FALL OF 2007, I reluctantly decided to have my office repainted.


pages: 265 words: 15,515

Nomad Citizenship: Free-Market Communism and the Slow-Motion General Strike by Eugene W. Holland

business cycle, capital controls, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, deskilling, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, price mechanism, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, slashdot, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, wage slave, working poor

The very density, anonymity, and complexity of city life counterbalances the centripetal force of commu­ nity self-organization and self-identification, compelling or encouraging urban dwellers to frequent “public spaces [where] people encounter other people, meanings, expressions, issues, which they may not understand or with which they do not identify.”40 City living not only fosters the de­ velopment of multiple, different affinity groups but also brings members of those groups into regular contact with others: the complexity of the city thus fosters not just self-contained difference but related difference. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jacobs provides a pio­ neering account of the city as matrix of immanently related difference. H er work opposed not only the practices and programs of urban renewal rampant in post-World War II America but also the modernist view of city planning promulgated by Le Corbusier and others starting early in the century.41 The modernist city planner sought to simplify and ratio­ nalize the city: his ideal was a gridlike plan whereby various urban func­ tions—commercial, recreational, industrial, residential, and so on—would be carefully segregated from one other and the “formal layout” of city structure purified accordingly.42 To Jacobs, such single-use functionalism and geometrical moralism were anathema: she favored, instead, the rich complexity of multiuse urbanism as it emerged over time, without the need for top-down planning.43And where Follett emphasized the self-sufficiency of the neighborhood, Jacobs emphasized its necessary imbrication in the larger structures and dynamics of the surrounding city.


pages: 425 words: 117,334

City on the Verge by Mark Pendergrast

big-box store, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, crowdsourcing, desegregation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, global village, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jitney, liberation theology, mass incarceration, McMansion, New Urbanism, openstreetmap, Richard Florida, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional

How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life (2008); Leigh Gallagher, The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving (2013); Edward Glaeser, Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier (2011); Ryan Gravel, Where We Want to Live: Reclaiming Infrastructure for a New Generation of Cities (2016); Richard J. Jackson, Designing Healthy Communities (2012); Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961); Alyssa Katz, Our Lot: How Real Estate Came to Own Us (2009); Joel Kotkin, The Next Hundred Million: America in 2050 (2010); John Kromer, Fixing Broken Cities: The Implementation of Urban Development Strategies (2010); Christopher B. Leinberger, The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream (2008); David Owen, Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are the Keys to Sustainability (2009); Witold Rybczynski, Makeshift Metropolis: Ideas About Cities (2010).


pages: 440 words: 128,813

Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago by Eric Klinenberg

carbon footprint, citizen journalism, deindustrialization, fixed income, ghettoisation, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, longitudinal study, loose coupling, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, postindustrial economy, smart grid, smart meter, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, urban renewal, War on Poverty

Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Illinois Department of Public Health. 1997. Vital Statistics Basic Research Series 1/3. Springfield. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2001. Summary for policymakers: Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. Geneva. Irvine, Martha. 2001. Hispanic influx shaping Chicago. Chicago Sun-Times, 11 March, p. 1. Jacobs, Jane. 1961. The death and life of great American cities. New York: Vintage. Janeway, Michael. 1999. Republic of denial: Press, politics, and public life. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. Jargowsky, Paul. 1997. Poverty and place: Ghettos, barrios, and the American city. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Jasper, James. 2000. Restless nation: Starting over in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Jencks, Christopher. 1994.


pages: 468 words: 123,823

A People's History of Poverty in America by Stephen Pimpare

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, East Village, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, hedonic treadmill, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, payday loans, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Plotnick, and Mark Evan Edwards, “Determinants of Initial Entry onto Welfare by Young Women,” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 19, no. 4 (2000): 527–46. 16 Steven VanderStaay, Street Lives: An Oral History of Homeless Americans (Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1992), 170. 17 Joe Soss, Unwanted Claims: The Politics of Participation in the U.S. Welfare System (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002), 45. 18 Katherine S. Newman, No Shame in My Game: The Working Poor in the Inner City (New York: Vintage, 1999), 219. 19 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1961). 20 Nicholas Lemann, “Bad Choices: A Welfare Soap Opera,” Washington Post, October 5–8, 1980 (four-part series). 21 Note also Mexican American field laborer Grace Palacio Arceneaux, interviewed in 1977, about growing up in California and the stinginess of relief: “Man, they never gave us anything, but they watched us like a hawk. We’d go sometimes to the garbage cans and take good cans and wash them out, dry them, leave the label on . . . and put them so that our cupboard always had a lot of food.


pages: 410 words: 119,823

Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield

3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, post-work, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

See also Tim Maughan, “The Changing Face of Shenzhen, the World’s Gadget Factory,” Motherboard, August 19, 2015. 5.MakerBot Industries, LLC, “MakerBot Reaches Milestone: 100,000 3D Printers Sold Worldwide,” April 4, 2016. 6.Jeremy Rifkin, The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism, Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014; Paul Mason, Postcapitalism: A Guide to Our Future, London: Allen Lane, 2015; Nick Srnicek and Alex Williams, Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work, London: Verso, 2015. 7.For a pungent critique, see mcm_cmc, “Fully Automated Luxury Communism: A Utopian Critique,” Libcom.org, June 14, 2015. 8.Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York: Random House, 1961. 9.United Nations, “Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” December 10, 1948, un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/. 10.The slightly less-polished Othermill is still cheaper. Other Machine Co., “Othermill,” 2016, othermachine.co/othermill/. 11.James Hobson, “3D Printing Houses From Concrete,” Hackaday, April 15, 2016; National Aeronautics and Space Administration. “3D Printing: Food In Space,” May 23, 2013; Sean V.


pages: 483 words: 134,377

The Tyranny of Experts: Economists, Dictators, and the Forgotten Rights of the Poor by William Easterly

"Robert Solow", air freight, Andrei Shleifer, battle of ideas, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, discovery of the americas, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, M-Pesa, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, place-making, Ponzi scheme, risk/return, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, young professional

“Talk by Robert Moses at The Baruch Houses Dedication, Wednesday Afternoon, August 19, 1953,” Robert Moses Papers, New York Public Library Manuscript and Archives Division, New York. 31. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/abex/hd_abex.htm, accessed August 31, 2013. 32. Jessamyn Fiore, 112 Greene Street: The Early Years (1970–1974) (New York: Radius Books/David Zwirner, 2012), 10. 33. Joyce Silver, interview by Laura Freschi, October 19, 2012, New York. 34. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 2002), 13, 35. 35. Joe Catuccio, interview by Laura Freschi, June 29, 2013, New York. 36. “The Project of Living Artists,” http://www.newyorkartworld.com/gallery/project-livingartists.html, accessed August 31, 2013. 37. François Quesnay, Despotism in China: A Translation of François Quesnay’s Le Despotisme de la Chine (Paris 1767), in Lewis A. Maverick, China: A Model for Europe (San Antonio, TX: Paul Anderson Company, 1946), 302. 38.


pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, low earth orbit, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

See Jamie Peck, ‘Economic Rationality Meets Celebrity Urbanology: Exploring Edward Glaeser’s City’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 2016 (forthcoming). 6Paul Goldberger, ‘Too Rich, Too Thin, Too Tall, Vanity Fair, May 2014. 7As well as blocking out light, new towers often create wind systems at ground level that can be uncomfortable and even dangerous to those on the street. 8Lloyd Alter, ‘It’s Time to Dump the Tired Argument That Density and Height Are Green and Sustainable’, Treehugger, 3 January 2014, available at treehugger.com. 9Ibid. 10Samuel Zipp ‘The Roots and Routes of Urban Renewal’, Journal of Urban History 39:3, May 2013, p. 372. 11Walter Gropius, The New Architecture and the Bauhaus, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965, p. 146. 12Paul Christoph Haacke, ‘The Vertical Turn: Topographies of Metropolitan Modernism’, PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 2011, available at escholarship.org/uc/item/1857736f. 13Fosco Lucarelli and Mariabruna Fabrizi, ‘The Trellick Tower: The Fall and Rise of a Modern Monument’, San Rocco Magazine 5, Fall 2012. 14Sigfried Giedeon, Building in France, Building in Iron, Building in Ferroconcrete, Santa Monica, CA: Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities, 1995 [1928]. 15Le Corbusier, The City of Tomorrow and Its Planning, New York: Dover, 1987 [1927], p. 280. 16This term comes from the US Citizens Housing Council, 1940. Cited in Zipp, ‘Roots and Routes’, p. 274. 17Cited in Zipp, ‘Roots and Routes’, p. 376. 18Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York: Random House, 1961, p. 46. 19Cited in Jacobs, Cairns and Strebel, ‘A Tall Storey’, p. 614. 20The poem, by Ken Rogers, comes from his tribute to people who were rehoused and often moved as part of the slum clearances in Liverpool in the 1960s. See Ken Rogers, Lost Tribe: The People’s Memories: 2. Liverpool: Trinity Mirror North West and North Wales, 2012, p. 7. 21Oscar Newman, Defensible Space, New York: Macmillan, 1972; Alice Coleman, Utopia on Trial: Vision and Reality in Planned Housing, London: Shipman, 1985. 22Douglas Gorney, ‘City Limits: A Conversation with Edward Glaeser’, Atlantic, 8 February 2011. 23Dukmasova, ‘Tricknology’, p. 25. 24Ibid., pp. 25, 26. 25Charles Jencks, The Paradigm in Architecture, cited in Charles Jencks and Karl Kropf, Theories and Manifestoes of Contemporary Architecture, New York: Academy Press, 1997, p. 9. 26Garrett Dash-Nelson, ‘Pruitt-Igoe: Facts and Memories of an American Ruin’, unpublished paper, 2009, p. 4, available at http://people.matinic.us/. 27Ibid., p. 1. 28Ibid., p. 2. 29The planned media spectacle of the demolitions followed a long series of previous destructions that were merely reported by the usual TV and news outlets; 25 per cent of Glasgow’s high-rise blocks were demolished between 2005 and 2015. 30Severin Carrell, ‘Glasgow 2014: Red Road Flats to Be Blown Up During Opening Ceremony’, Guardian, 3 April 2014. 31Tracey McVeigh, ‘Backlash at Plans to Demolish Red Road Flats Live on Television’, Observer, 6 April 2014. 32Ibid. 33Williams Goldhagen, ‘On Architecture: Living High’, New Republic, 7 June 2012. 34David Madden, ‘Five Myths about Public Housing’, Washington Post, 11 September 2015. 35Owen Hatherley, Militant Modernism, London: John Hunt Publishing, 2009, p. 13 (emphasis in original). 36Jane M.


pages: 407 words: 135,242

The Streets Were Paved With Gold by Ken Auletta

British Empire, business climate, clean water, collective bargaining, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, mortgage debt, Norman Mailer, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, Parkinson's law, Ponzi scheme, price stability, profit motive, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, Ronald Reagan, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working-age population

The changes in Harlem, the South Bronx, Bushwick, Williamsburg and Coney Island are mirrored in declining neighborhoods throughout the city—East New York, Borough Park, South Jamaica, Long Island City, Corona, Greenpoint, Fort Green, Washington Heights, Crown Heights. Of the city’s 340 health districts, almost one-half have less than one physician for every 1,000 residents—one-third the national average and in stark contrast to the average of 42 per 1,000 residents on the Upper East Side of Manhattan. A “successful city neighborhood,” Jane Jacobs wrote in The Death and Life of Great American Cities, requires “eyes upon the street, eyes belonging to those we might call the natural proprietors of the street.” Neighborly eyes ensured safety, a feeling of security, of community. In growing numbers of city neighborhoods, people no longer sit on stoops, no longer venture out at night. Eyes are fixed on television sets and bolted doors. Neighborhoods exist in name only. Like Prince Prospero’s minions, New York has been bleeding—jobs and people.


pages: 497 words: 150,205

European Spring: Why Our Economies and Politics Are in a Mess - and How to Put Them Right by Philippe Legrain

3D printing, Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Irish property bubble, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidity trap, margin call, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, peer-to-peer rental, price stability, private sector deleveraging, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, savings glut, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, working-age population, Zipcar

title=File:Gross_domestic_expenditure_on_R%26D,_2000-2010_%28%25_share_of_GDP%29.jpg 595 http://www.oecd.org/site/innovationstrategy/45183382.pdf 596 http://www.oecd.org/site/innovationstrategy/45184357.pdf 597 Nick Bloom, Mirko Draca and John Van Reenen, “Trade Induced Technical Change: The Impact of Chinese Imports on Innovation and Productivity”, CEPR Discussion Paper No. 1000, 2011 http://www.voxeu.org/article/who-s-afraid-big-bad-dragon-how-chinese-trade-boosts-european-innovation 598 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Random House: 1961 599 Edward Glaeser, Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier and Happier, Macmillan: 2011 600 http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/d6074404-48f5-11e0-af8c-00144feab49a.html 601 http://www.economist.com/news/business/21581695-city-leaders-are-increasingly-adopting-business-methods-and-promoting-business-mayors-and-mammon 602 Alfred Marshall, Principles of Economics, 1890 603 Pierre Azoulay, Joshua Graff Zivin and Bhaven Sampat, "The diffusion of scientific knowledge across time and space: Evidence from professional transitions for the superstars of medicine", NBER Working Paper #16683, January 2011 604 Benjamin Jones, "The burden of knowledge and the ‘death of the renaissance man’: Is innovation getting harder?"


pages: 518 words: 147,036

The Fissured Workplace by David Weil

accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, barriers to entry, business cycle, business process, buy and hold, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate raider, Corrections Corporation of America, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, employer provided health coverage, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, information asymmetry, intermodal, inventory management, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Rogoff, law of one price, loss aversion, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, occupational segregation, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, pre–internet, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, Rana Plaza, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, ultimatum game, union organizing, women in the workforce, yield management

Hutchins, B. L., and A. Harrison. 1926. A History of Factory Legislation. 3rd ed. London: Frank Cass. International Labour Office. 2006. Strategies and Practices for Labour Inspection. Governing Body, 297th Session, GB.297/ESP/3. Geneva: International Labour Office. Investment Company Institute. 2012. 2012 Investment Company Fact Book. 52nd ed. www.icifactbook.org. Jacobs, Jane. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage. Jacoby, Neil. 1969. “The Conglomerate Corporation.” The Center Magazine 2, 1–20. Jacoby, Sandy. 1999. “Are Career Jobs Headed for Extinction?” California Management Review 42, no. 1: 123–145. James, P., R. Johnstone, M. Quinlan, and D. Walters. 2007. “Regulating Supply Chains to Improve Health and Safety.” Industrial Law Journal 36, no. 2: 163–187. Jamieson, Dave. 2011.


pages: 486 words: 150,849

Evil Geniuses: The Unmaking of America: A Recent History by Kurt Andersen

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, always be closing, American ideology, American Legislative Exchange Council, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Burning Man, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, centre right, computer age, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate raider, COVID-19, Covid-19, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, Erik Brynjolfsson, feminist movement, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, game design, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, High speed trading, hive mind, income inequality, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jitney, Joan Didion, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, Naomi Klein, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Peter Thiel, Picturephone, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Seaside, Florida, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, wage slave, Wall-E, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, éminence grise

It was like an autoimmune disease, when misguided antibodies destroy healthy human tissue. But even as that demolition of old buildings and neighborhoods was going full speed, local activists (in New York City most of all) and a few enlightened owners (in Omaha, for instance) started to beat it back—another example of how American citizens have placed essential checks and balances on excessive and misguided power. The Death and Life of Great American Cities, by the Manhattan journalist-turned-activist Jane Jacobs, became the manifesto of a successful and powerful new movement in 1961; by the end of the decade, historic preservation was fully institutionalized, and in the 1970s saving and renovating nice old buildings and neighborhoods was becoming the default.*3 At the same moment, architecture and urban planning rediscovered the amusements and lessons of history.


pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

Putnam, Elite Transformation in Advanced Industrial Societies: An Empirical Assessment of the Theory of Technocracy (Ann Arbor: Institute of Public Policy Studies, University of Michigan, 1976), 11. 137 “For Larry [Page] and Sergey [Brin], truth was often self-evident”: Douglas Edwards, “Google Goes Electric,” Xooglers, March 22, 2011, http://xooglers.blogspot.com/2011/03/google-goes-electric.html. 138 fundamental assumption “is that disagreements occur”: F. Ridley and J. Blondel, Public Administration in France (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964). 138 Jane Jacobs’ attack on unimaginative urban planning, Isaiah Berlin’s attack on “procrusteanism,” Hayek’s attack on central planning, Popper’s attack on historicism, Michael Oakeshott’s attack on rationalism: see Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1992); on Berlin’s “anti-procusteanism” see Jonathan Allen, “Isaiah Berlin’s Anti-Procrustean Liberalism: Ideas, Circumstances, and the Protean Individual,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association (August 28–31, 2003, Philadelphia, PA). Available at http://berlin.wolf.ox.ac.uk/lists/onib/allen2003.pdf; Friedrich Hayek.


pages: 559 words: 169,094

The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America by George Packer

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, big-box store, citizen journalism, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, East Village, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shock, paypal mafia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, smart grid, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, urban planning, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, white picket fence, zero-sum game

When he was covering city hall at The Palm Beach Post, he’d gotten deeply interested in urban planning—for a while he even thought about switching careers, until he realized that city planners had even less clout than reporters. But his bookshelves filled up with titles like A Field Guide to Sprawl, The History of the Lawn, Suburban Nation, and the pair that were his bibles: The Power Broker and The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Van Sickler became a Jane Jacobs disciple. She gave a vocabulary to the desire he had felt growing up in Cleveland Heights with no one around on those excruciating summer afternoons: short blocks, pedestrian permeability, mixed uses, safety in eyes on the street, density. Life was richest and most creative where people of different backgrounds could meet face-to-face and exchange ideas.


pages: 512 words: 165,704

Traffic: Why We Drive the Way We Do (And What It Says About Us) by Tom Vanderbilt

Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, call centre, cellular automata, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, congestion charging, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, DARPA: Urban Challenge, endowment effect, extreme commuting, fundamental attribution error, Google Earth, hedonic treadmill, hindsight bias, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, Induced demand, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, Kenneth Arrow, lake wobegon effect, loss aversion, megacity, Milgram experiment, Nash equilibrium, Sam Peltzman, Silicon Valley, statistical model, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, traffic fines, ultimatum game, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor

In a study of what they called “disappearing traffic,” a team of British researchers looked at a broad list of projects in England and elsewhere where roads had been taken away either for construction or by design. Predictably, traffic flows dropped at the affected area. Most of the time, though, the increase in traffic on alternative routes was nowhere near the traffic “lost” on the affected roads. In the 1960s, as Jane Jacobs described in her classic book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, a small group of New Yorkers, including Jacobs herself, began a campaign to close the street cutting through Washington Square Park, in Greenwich Village. Parks were not great places for cars, they suggested. They also suggested not widening the nearby streets to accommodate the newly rerouted flow. The traffic people predicted mayhem. What happened was the reverse: Cars, having lost the best route through the park, decided to stop treating the neighborhood as a shortcut.


pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

American Sociological Review 56, no. 4 (August 1991): 524–37. Isard, Walter. Location and Space-Economy: A General Theory Relating to Industrial Location, Market Areas, Land Use, Trade, and Urban Structure. New York: Wiley, 1956. Issenberg, Sasha. The Sushi Economy: Globalization and the Making of a Modern Delicacy. New York: Gotham Books, 2007. Jacobs, Jane. Cities and the Wealth of Nations. New York: Vintage Books, 1985. ———. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Modern Library, 1993. ———. The Economy of Cities. New York: Random House, 1969. Jevons, William Stanley. The Coal Question: An Enquiry Concerning the Progress of the Nation, and the Probable Exhaustion of Our Coal-Mines. 2nd ed. London: Macmillan, 1866. Kasarda, John D. “Aerotropolis: Airport-Driven Urban Development.” In ULI on the Future: Cities in the 21st Century, 32–41.


pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist lawyer, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

Ikenberry, John. 2011: Liberal Leviathan: The Origins, Crisis, and Transformation of the American World Order. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Index. 2011: Index on Censorship. Vol. 40, no 2. Los Angeles: Sage. Jack, Malcolm, ed. 2011: Erskine May’s Treatise on the Law, Privileges, Proceedings and Usage of Parliament. 24th ed. London: LexisNexis. Jacobs, Jane. 1993: The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Modern Library. Jarvis, Jeff. 2011: Public Parts: How Sharing in the Digital Age Improves the Way We Work and Live. New York: Simon & Schuster. Jordan, Scott. 2010: ‘The Application of Net Neutrality to Wireless Networks Based on Network Architecture’. Policy & Internet, vol. 2, no. 2, article 6. doi: 10.2202/1944-2866.1052. Judt, Tony. 2010: The Memory Chalet. London: Heinemann.


The Rough Guide to New York City by Martin Dunford

Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Buckminster Fuller, buttonwood tree, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Edward Thorp, Exxon Valdez, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, market bubble, Norman Mailer, paper trading, post-work, Saturday Night Live, sustainable-tourism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, Yogi Berra, young professional

How could a railroad palace, modeled after the Baths of Caracalla in Rome, stand for only fifty years before being destroyed? The pictures alone warrant the price. Horst Hamann New York Vertical. This beautiful book pays homage to the New York skyscraper, and is filled with dazzling black-and-white vertical shots of Manhattan, accompanied by witty quotes from famous and obscure folk. Jane Jacobs The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Landmark 1961 screed authored by Robert Moses’ nemesis, and railing against urban over-planning. David McCullough Great Bridge: The Epic Story of the Building of the Brooklyn Bridge. The story of the father-and-son Roebling team who fought the laws of gravity, sharptoothed competitors, and corrupt politicians to build a bridge that has withstood the test of time and become one of NYC’s most noted landmarks.


Engineering Security by Peter Gutmann

active measures, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Asperger Syndrome, bank run, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Brian Krebs, business process, call centre, card file, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Debian, domain-specific language, Donald Davies, Donald Knuth, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, fault tolerance, Firefox, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, glass ceiling, GnuPG, Google Chrome, iterative process, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Conway, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, Laplace demon, linear programming, litecoin, load shedding, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Network effects, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, post-materialism, QR code, race to the bottom, random walk, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ruby on Rails, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, semantic web, Skype, slashdot, smart meter, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, telemarketer, text mining, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Market for Lemons, the payments system, Therac-25, too big to fail, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, web application, web of trust, x509 certificate, Y2K, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

[108] “The Book of Risk”, Dan Borge, John Wiley and Sons, 2001. [109] “To Forgive Design: Understanding Failure”, Henry Petroski, Harvard University Press, 2012. [110] “The Great Bridge”, David McCullogh, Simon & Schuster, 1972. [111] “Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design”, C.Ray Jeffery, Sage Publications, 1971. [112] “Defensible Space: Crime Prevention Through Urban Design”, Oscar Newman, Macmillan, 1973. [113] “Design Against Crime: Beyond Defensible Space”, Barry Poyner, Butterworth, 1983. [114] “Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design”, Timothy Crowe, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1991. [115] “The Death and Life of Great American Cities”, Jane Jacobs, Random House, 1961. [116] “Creating Safe and Secure Environments for Schools and Colleges”, Randy Atlas and Richard Schneider, in “21st Century Security and CPTED”, CRC Press, 2008, p.279. [117] “Exchange 2003 Server Service Pack 2 (SP2) Anti-Spam Framework”, Alexander Nikolayev, 18 July 2005, http://blogs.technet.com/b/exchange/archive/2005/07/18/407838.aspx. [118] “Understanding Spam Confidence Level Threshold”, Microsoft Corporation, 10 September 2010, http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa995744.aspx. [119] “Going Mini: Extreme Lightweight Spam Filters”, D.Sculley and Gordon Cormack, Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Email and Anti-Spam (CEAS’09), July 2009, http://ceas.cc/2009/papers/ceas2009-paper47.pdf. [120] “The Exploding Metropolis”, William Whyte, Doubleday/Anchor, 1958. [121] “Phishing with Rachna Dhamija”, Federico Biancuzzi, 19 June 2006, http://www.securityfocus.com/columnists/407. [122] “Malware Mythbusters”, Alex Kirk, presentation at Ruxcon 2011, November 2011. [123] “Malicious and Spam Posts in Online Social Networks”, Saeed Abu-Nimeh, Thomas Chen and Omar Alzubi, IEEE Computer, Vol.44, No.9 (September 2011), p.23. [124] “Metrics for Measuring ISP Badness: The Case of Spam”, Benjamin Johnson, John Chuang, Jens Grossklags and Nicolas Christin, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security (FC’12), Springer-Verlag LNCS No.7397, February 2012, p.89. [125] “A RESTful Web Service for Internet Name and Address Directory Services”, Andrew Newton, Dave Piscitello, Benedetto Fiorelli and Steve Sheng, ;login, Vol.36, No.5 (October 2011), p.23.


The power broker : Robert Moses and the fall of New York by Caro, Robert A

Albert Einstein, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bank run, British Empire, card file, centre right, East Village, friendly fire, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, land reform, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, Right to Buy, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Herndon, Booton: The Sweetest Music This Side of Heaven. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1964. Hoover, Edgar M., and Raymond Vernon: Anatomy of a Metropolis, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; 1959. Ickes, Harold L.: The Secret Diary of Harold L. Ickes. Vol. I: The First Thousand Days, 1933-1936. New York: Simon & Schuster; 1953. Isaacs, Edith: Love Affair with a City. New York: Random House; 1967. Jacobs, Jane: The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House; 1961. Jenkins, Shirley: Comparative Recreation Needs and Services in New York Neighborhoods. New York: The Research Department, Community Council of Greater New York; 1963. Jones, John F.: The Jones Family, Descendants of Major Thomas Jones, 1665-1726, and Allied Families. New York: Tobias A. Wright; 1907. Josephson, Matthew: The Robber Barons. New York: Harcourt, Brace; 1934.