The Death and Life of Great American Cities

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The death and life of great American cities by Jane Jacobs

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City Beautiful movement, Golden Gate Park, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen

JANE JACOBS 10 The need for aged buildings, 187 11 The need for concentration, 200 12 Some myths about diversity, 222 Part Hiree forces of decline and regeneration 13 The self-destruction of diversity, 241 14 The curse of border vacuums, 257 15 Unslumming and slumming, 270 16 Gradual money and cataclysmic money, 291 Part Four different tactics 17 Subsidizing dwellings, 321 18 Erosion of cities or attrition of automobiles, 338 19 Visual order: its limitations and possibilities, 372 20 Salvaging projects, 392 21 Governing and planning districts, 405 22 The kind of problem a city is, 428 Index, 449 The scenes that illustrate this book are all about us. For illustrations, please look closely at real cities. While you are looking, you might as well also listen, linger and think about what you see. THE DEATH AND LIFE OF GREAT AMERICAN CITIES "Until lately the best thing that I was able to think of in favor of civilization, apart from blind acceptance of the order of the universe, was that it made possible the artist, the poet, the philosopher, and the man of science. But I think that is not the greatest thing. Now I believe that the greatest thing is a matter that comes directly home to us all. When it is said that we are too Trmch occupied with the means of living to live, I answer that the chief worth of civilization is just that it makes the means of living more complex; that it calls for great and combined intellectual efforts, instead of simple, uncoordinated ones, in order that the crowd may be fed and clothed and housed and moved from place to place.

The same might be said of streets, in the sense that they serve other purposes besides carrying wheeled traffic in their middles. Streets and their sidewalks, the main public places of a city, are its most vital organs. Think of a city and what comes to mind? Its streets. If a city's streets look interesting, the city looks interesting; if they look dull, the city looks dull. More than that, and here we get down to the first problem, if a 30] THE DEATH AND LIFE OF GREAT AMERICAN CITIES city's streets are safe from barbarism and fear, the city is thereby tolerably safe from barbarism and fear. When people say that a city, or a part of it, is dangerous or is a jungle what they mean primarily is that they do not feel safe on the sidewalks. But sidewalks and those who use them are not passive beneficiaries of safety or helpless victims of danger. Sidewalks, their bordering uses, and their users, are active participants in the drama of civilization versus barbarism in cities.

It is sufficient, at this point, to say that if we are to maintain a city society that can diagnose and keep abreast of deeper social problems, the starting point must be, in any case, to strengthen whatever workable forces for maintaining safety and civilization do exist— in the cities we do have. To build city districts that are custom made for easy crime is idiotic. Yet that is what we do. The first thing to understand is that the public peace—the sidewalk and street peace—of cities is not kept primarily by the 32 ] THE DEATH AND LIFE OF GREAT AMERICAN CITIES police, necessary as police are. It is kept primarily by an intricate, almost unconscious, network of voluntary controls and standards among the people themselves, and enforced by the people themselves. In some city areas—older public housing projects and streets with very high population turnover are often conspicuous examples—the keeping of public sidewalk law and order is left almost entirely to the police and special guards.


pages: 142 words: 18,753

Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There by David Brooks

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Community Supported Agriculture, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Urbanism, place-making, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban planning, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra

The city was always thought of as the ultimate renunciation of nature, but here she treats the healthy city almost as a work of nature. In order for the ecosystem to function, it must have many different players. It must have diversity. The word diversity, which has become one of the key words of our age, was central in The Death and Life of Great American Cities. The entire second section of the book is called “The Conditions for City Diversity.” It is complexity she admires, the small unplanned niches where specialized activities can thrive. These are places whose use is not determined from above but grows up from small particularized needs. In the years since The Death and Life of Great American Cities was published, Jacobs’s way of seeing has been vindicated again and again. The urban plans she criticized are now universally reviled. The disastrous failure of social-engineering projects across the developing world have exposed the hubris of technocrats who thought they could reshape reality.

That’s because the fifties were the final decade of the industrial age, and the contrast between the upscale culture of that time and the upscale culture of today is stark and illuminating. Furthermore, I found that many of the books that really helped me understand the current educated class were written between 1955 and 1965, when the explosion in college enrollments, so crucial to many of these trends, was just beginning. Books like The Organization Man, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Affluent Society, The Status Seekers, and The Protestant Establishment were the first expressions of the new educated class ethos, and while the fever and froth of the 1960s have largely burned away, the ideas of these 1950s intellectuals continue to resonate. Finally, a word about the tone of this book. There aren’t a lot of statistics in these pages. There’s not much theory.

But that doesn’t mean that he and Whyte were wrong when they criticized technocracies or the conformist and artificial social ethic they engendered. It simply means that it would take a more down-to-earth writer to provide a more practical way of rethinking organizations and social structures. Jane Jacobs, Proto-Bobo In fact, when Roszak was writing, the seeds of that rethinking had already been planted. In 1961 Jane Jacobs published The Death and Life of Great American Cities, which remains the most influential book on how Bobos view organizations and social structures. Jane Jacobs was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, in 1916, the daughter of a doctor and a teacher. After high school she went to work as a reporter for the Scranton Tribune. She lasted a year, then ventured to New York and worked in a series of jobs as a stenographer and freelance writer before landing a junior editorial position at Architectural Forum.


pages: 342 words: 86,256

Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck

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A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

This is the story that traffic engineers should be sharing, rather than spending their careers running scared from congestion. Until they do, it will be necessary for mayors, Main Street merchants, and concerned citizens to discredit them. Toward that end, I provide the following short interlude. KILL THE TRAFFIC ENGINEERS FIRST Everybody likes Jane Jacobs, right? She was famous for fighting traffic engineers, and took them to task repeatedly and effectively in her masterpiece, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Most planners and many public servants swear by that book, but few have read Dark Age Ahead, in which, forty years later, she took off the gloves. Until traffic engineers change their tune on induced demand, here is the statement from Jane Jacobs that every public official and planner needs to tape prominently above his or her desk: It is popularly assumed that when universities give science degrees in traffic engineering, as they do, they are recognizing aboveboard expert knowledge.

DOT, December 23, 2010. 51. Wendy Koch, “Cities Roll Out Bike-Sharing Programs.” 52. David Byrne, Bicycle Diaries, 278. 53. Lord. STEP 7: SHAPE THE SPACES 1. Thomas J. Campanella, Republic of Shade, 135. 2. Jan Gehl, Cities for People, 4. 3. Ibid., 120, 139, 34. 4. Ibid., 50. 5. Christopher Alexander, A Pattern Language, 115. 6. Gehl, 42. 7. Ibid., 171–73. 8. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 203. 9. Andres Duany and Jeff Speck, The Smart Growth Manual, Point 10.5. 10. Gehl, 146. STEP 8: PLANT TREES 1. R. S. Ulrich et al., “View Through a Window May Influence Recovery from Surgery.” 2. “The Value of Trees to a Community,” arborday.org/trees/benefits.cfm. 3. Dan Burden, “22 Benefits of Urban Street Trees.” 4. Howard Frumkin, Lawrence Frank, and Richard Jackson, Urban Sprawl and Public Health, 119. 5.

., 151. 5. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation, 175–78. 6. Chris Turner, “What Makes a Building Ugly?” 7. James Fallows, “Fifty-Nine and a Half Minutes of Brilliance, Thirty Seconds of Hauteur.” 8. Ethan Kent, “Guggenheim Museum Bilbao,” Project for Public Spaces Hall of Shame. 9. Léon Krier, The Architecture of Community, 70. 10. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 291. 11. David Owen, Green Metropolis, 178. 12. Ibid., 181. 13. Jacobs, 91. 14. Ibid., 91n. STEP 10: PICK YOUR WINNERS 1. Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck, Suburban Nation, 166. 2. Blair Kamin, “Ohio Cap at Forefront of Urban Design Trend.” 3. Andres Duany and Jeff Speck, The Smart Growth Manual, Point 7.8. 4. Rick Reilly, “Life of Reilly: Mile-High Madness.”


pages: 321 words: 85,267

Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck

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A Pattern Language, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Census Bureau’s 1997 report on Geographical Mobility. 2 Edward Blakely and Mary Gail Snyder, Fortress America, 24. 3 Ibid., 7. 4 Peter Calthorpe, The Next American Metropolis, 19. 4. THE PHYSICAL CREATION OF SOCIETY 1 “Parking Lot Pique,” A26. 2 Jonathan Franzen, “First City,” 91. 3 Jonathan Rose, “Violence, Materialism, and Ritual,” 145. 4 Le Corbusier, The City of Tomorrow and Its Planning, 129. 5 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 129. 5. THE AMERICAN TRANSPORTATION MESS 1 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 183. 2 Donald D.T. Chen, “If You Build It, They Will Come,” 4. 3 Ibid., 6. 4 Stanley Hart and Alvin Spivak, The Elephant in the Bedroom, 122. 5 Jane Holtz Kay, Asphalt Nation, 129. 6 Hart and Spivak, The Elephant in the Bedroom, 111; James Howard Kunstler, Home from Nowhere, 67, 99. 7 Hart and Spivak, The Elephant in the Bedroom, 166. 6.

My own contribution to the editing process was a result of simple time management. With new towns to design that could outlast centuries, why spend an inordinate number of hours on a text that might have a shelf life of only a few years? I was aware of the tension between a book focused on a present problem and one of lasting relevance, and I argued strongly that our book should be the latter. In this regard, Jane Jacobs’s half-century-old The Death and Life of Great American Cities was my model—a difficult one to live up to, granted, but the pursuit of unattainable ideals is stimulating. And so I undertook the editing with an eye to issues that were of the more transcendental sort. To this end, the grand subject of urbanism certainly provided a good foundation. The fashionable was eradicated under my pen—and so I bear any blame for the book’s being not nearly as hip as the younger Jeff would have had it.

This would be an important first step toward creating public spaces worthy of habitation. 3 THE HOUSE THAT SPRAWL BUILT THE ODDITY OF AMERICAN HOUSING; PRIVATE REALM VERSUS PUBLIC REALM; THE SEGREGATION OF SOCIETY BY INCOME; TWO ILLEGAL TYPES OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING; TWO FORGOTTEN RULES OF AFFORDABLE HOUSING; THE MIDDLE-CLASS HOUSING CRISIS Does anyone suppose that, in real life, answers to any of the great questions that worry us today are going to come out of homogeneous settlements? —JANE JACOBS, THE DEATH AND LIFE OF GREAT AMERICAN CITIES (1961) THE ODDITY OF AMERICAN HOUSING Sprawl is made up mostly of housing. Its ubiquity alone makes it an important subject to study, but there are other reasons to consider the way America provides housing. While the current suburban model may seem natural enough to most Americans, it appears quite odd when viewed in a global context. There is not another nation on earth that houses its citizens as we do, and few could afford to.


pages: 313 words: 92,907

Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are Thekeys to Sustainability by David Owen

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A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city

The satellite photograph can be found at: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=15282. The photograph was taken in 2002. Phoenix’s horizontal growth has, if anything, accelerated since then. 34 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1992; originally published 1961), p. 352. 35 M. A. Farber, “Negotiations with Post Keep Kheel in Limelight,” The New York Times, February 20, 1988. 36 Stanley Levey, “Autos Aggravate Transit Problem; Kheel Seeks Cure,” The New York Times, May 31, 1955. 37 Richard Oliver, “Kheel Proposes Tolls on Major Highways,” New York Daily News, October 10, 1969. 38 Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, pp. 338ff. 39 Ian Urbina, “F.D.R. Drive Taking Its Act to the River, for Three Years,” The New York Times, May 18, 2004. 40 Robert Cervero, The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry (Washington, D.C., 1998), p. 22. 41 Ariel Hart, “HOV Lane Fees Could Start by 2010,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution , March 20, 2008. 42 Tom Vanderbilt, Traffic: Why We Drive the Way We Do (and What It Says About Us) (New York: Alfred A.

Many more acres of upstate pastoral paradise were destroyed by the steady spread of towns like hers than by the creation of the water supply system that makes it possible for New York City to exist. Building the city didn’t fill the Hudson Valley with parking lots; fleeing the city did. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF POPULATION DENSITY WAS ELUCIDATED brilliantly in 1961 in a landmark book called The Death and Life of Great American Cities, by Jane Jacobs.35 Jacobs upended many widely held ideas about how cities ought to be put together, and she has been celebrated ever since as an urban-planning iconoclast and visionary, but she could be viewed just as easily as a pioneering environmentalist. Indeed, Jacobs’s book may be most valuable today as a guide to reducing the ecological damage caused by human beings, even though it scarcely mentions the environment, other than by making a couple of passing references to smog.

You can test this yourself, by observing the pedestrian traffic moving from one side of Central Park to the other. There isn’t much, even if you include people who are jogging for exercise. People traveling to a destination are far less likely to walk across a park or any other large open space than they are to walk the same distance along a lively city street. Jane Jacobs discusses this trick of perception in The Death and Life of Great American Cities, in a chapter she called “The Curse of Border Vacuums.” She defines a border as “the perimeter of a single massive or stretched-out use of territory” and cites, as the classic example, railroad tracks, whose division of urban areas into isolated, noninteracting regions is so well-understood as to be a cliché: “the wrong side of the tracks.” Jacobs writes, “The root trouble with borders, as city neighbors, is that they are apt to form dead ends for most users of city streets.


pages: 281 words: 86,657

The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt

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anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, McMansion, New Urbanism, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional

Street life is perhaps the most crucial aspect of the urban revival of the twenty-first century, and street life is not dependent on demographic equality, much as we might desire it to be. Jane Jacobs believed the Financial District could never qualify as a community in the sense in which she used the word. She believed this, in fact, long before the efforts to establish one achieved any sort of traction at all. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, published in 1961, Jacobs devotes several pages to her argument that Wall Street and its environs could never attract enough residents to acquire a diversity of jobs that would keep workers in the neighborhood beyond the end of the conventional workday, or possess the amenities that could bring in a significant core of visitors from outside. She goes out of her way to ridicule a report by the Downtown-Lower Manhattan Association that insisted “a residential population would stimulate the development of shopping facilities, restaurants, places of entertainment,” and similar staples of neighborhood life.

Probably she would shrug and say that one can’t expect miracles. Bushwick would never come to resemble the Greenwich Village of the 1950s that she considered a model of successful urban life. THEN AGAIN, she wouldn’t find the Greenwich Village of the 1950s if she returned to the Village now, and revisited the 500 block of Hudson Street, where she lived, raised her family, and wrote The Death and Life of Great American Cities. This block of Hudson Street in New York’s Greenwich Village was the model for Jane Jacobs’s idea of diverse and harmonious urban living in the 1950s. Jacobs’s own house (in the center, with the large glass window) sold for more than $3 million in 2010. (photo credit 3.2) The West Village that Jacobs knew has managed at the same time to move dramatically upscale and yet show tangible signs of trouble.

., p. 39. 21 “dismal tenement landscape”: Frederic Morton, A Nervous Splendor: Vienna 1888/1889 (New York: Penguin, 1980), p. 58. 22 “If the British empire was the most powerful”: Jonathan Schneer, London 1900: The Imperial Metropolis (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999), p.19. 23 “a true Londoner”: Ford Madox Ford, quoted in Peter Ackroyd, London: The Biography (New York: Nan A. Talese, 2000), p. 569. 24 “The Strand of those days”: H. B. Creswell, quoted in Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1992), p. 341. 25 “The leisure class in London”: Olsen, The City as a Work of Art, p. 217. 26 “The East End became a terra incognita”: Tristram Hunt, Building Jerusalem (New York: Henry Holt, 2005), p. 390. 27 “where filthy men and women live”: Arthur Morrison, quoted in Asa Briggs, Victorian Cities (New York: Harper & Row, 1963), p. 326. 28 “a great mysterious movement”: H.

Times Square Red, Times Square Blue by Samuel R. Delany

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Jane Jacobs, Network effects, Silicon Valley, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban renewal

Businesses are supposed to move in when vice is at its peak—not ten years after the wave has crested and is a decade into its ebb. What this may just sign is that those four planned office towers, if not the rest of the brave new mall, could suffer the fate of so many of the country’s artificially built-up downtown areas over the last decade or two—Minneapolis, Minnesota; Springfield, Massachusetts—where no one wants to live or work, so that, as Jane Jacobs warned in her 1961 volume The Death and Life of Great American Cities, because there’s not enough intertwined commercial and residential variety to create a vital and lively street life, the neighborhood becomes a glass and aluminum graveyard, on its way to a postmodern superslum, without even going through the process of overcrowding—abandoned before it’s ever really used. Across Eighth Avenue from Stella’s, toward the corner of Forty-sixth Street, between the Eighth Avenue Grocery and the Lilipul Video Store, the Full Moon Saloon is a narrow bar on the ground floor of a five-story apartment house, most of whose upper windows have been cinder-blocked over.

Visitors to New York might be surprised that such occurrences are central to my vision of the city at its healthiest. Lifetime residents won’t be. Watching the metamorphosis of such vigil and concern into considered and helpful action is what gives one a faithful and loving attitude toward one’s neighborhood, one’s city, one’s nation, the world. I have taken “contact,” both term and concept, from Jane Jacobs’s instructive 1961 study, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Jacobs describes contact as a fundamentally urban phenomenon and finds it necessary for everything from neighborhood safety to a general sense of social well-being. She sees it supported by a strong sense of private and public in a field of socioeconomic diversity that mixes living spaces with a variety of commercial spaces, which in turn must provide a variety of human services if contact is to function in a pleasant and rewarding manner.

Jacobs mentions neither casual sex nor public sexual relations as part of contact—presumably because she was writing at a time when such things were not talked of or analyzed as elements contributing to an overall pleasurable social fabric. Today we can. When social forces menace the distinction between private and public, people are most likely to start distrusting contact relations. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities (98–111), Jacobs analyzes how limited socioeconomic resources in the area around a public park (lack of restaurants, bathrooms, drugstores, and small shops) can make the mothers who use the playground and live near it feel that their privacy within their home is threatened—thus markedly changing their public attitude to interclass contact. Briefly, a park with no public eating spaces, restaurants, or small item shopping on its borders forces mothers 126 . . .


pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

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affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Mumbai’s slums lack the dangerous feeling I have felt in Rio’s favelas or New York’s poorer areas in the 1970s. This discrepancy isn’t because Mumbai’s police are doing a great job, and Mumbai is poorer than Rio. The best explanation for the safety of Mumbai’s slums is that, while these places maybe poor, they’re also well-functioning social spaces, like the Greenwich Village described by Jane Jacobs in her masterpiece The Death and Life of Great American Cities fifty years ago. In these areas, residents watch the streets and alleys. Misbehavior is quickly noticed and dealt with, not by the police, but by the community. Within cities too, crime rates move up and down for reasons that are hard to fathom. Murder is the only crime that can be reliably used to measure long-term changes in public safety, because other crimes are often underreported for various reasons.

She assembled a broad range of supporters who rushed the podium at a commission planning meeting. She insinuated that there were corrupt deals between city officials and builders. Eventually, she created enough heat so that the mayor himself, once a strong supporter of the project, gave it up. In that same year, a few months after beating City Hall, Jacobs published her masterpiece, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. It is a great book, which investigates and celebrates the pedestrian world of mid-twentieth-century New York. She grounds her case for mixed-use zoning by arguing that street life is the essence of city living and city safety. She argues against high-density dwellings by pointing out that they segregate residents from their streets. In a world of short buildings, residents can monitor the paths outside their home, and eyes on the street make pedestrians safer.

In more mixed settings, there are more shoppers and workers. In wealthier areas, there are doormen. A modicum of good urban planning can ensure that high-rises have enough foot traffic to keep streets safe. Neither Midtown Manhattan nor Hong Kong is short on pedestrians, and crime is relatively rare. Jane Jacobs’s opposition to urban renewal led her to a more sweeping dislike for tall buildings in general. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, she argued that urban neighborhoods can only thrive when they have between one and two hundred households per acre. She argued that cities need at least a hundred homes per acre to generate enough street traffic to support exciting restaurants and shops. She also argued that two hundred homes per acre was a “danger mark”; once neighborhoods crossed that point, they risked sterile standardization.


pages: 282 words: 69,481

Road to ruin: an introduction to sprawl and how to cure it by Dom Nozzi

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business climate, car-free, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, Parkinson's law, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, skinny streets, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban decay, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city

Because of their size, activity and nature parks disrupt the walkability of an area and therefore serve a community best at the urban periphery. Walkable Streets and Blocks As designers have ignored the needs of pedestrians over the past several decades, the public realm—the streets, parks, sidewalks, and plazas—has become dangerous, uninviting, and undesirable. Pedestrians in such a community represent little more than inconveniences to motorists. As Jane Jacobs noted 40 years ago in The Death and Life of Great American Cities, “lowly, unpurposeful and random as they may appear, sidewalk contacts are the small change from which a city’s wealth of public life may grow” (p. 72). Yet many new residential and commercial developments either neglect to build a sidewalk along the frontage street or build one that is too narrow to be usable. For pedestrians to walk comfortably side-by-side, they need a sidewalk at least five feet wide.

These forms of affordable housing become increasingly affordable as the number of New Urbanist communities grows, which will lower prices as a result of competition. Mixed-use and mixed-income housing units are allowable and acceptable in New Urbanist designs because they are properly scaled and detailed and do not generate as much car travel as single-use developments. As Jane Jacobs noted in The Death and Life of Great American Cities, vibrant downtowns (which are hurt by an auto-based culture) provide important entry-level, low-capital job opportunities for low-income people—selling food from carts, providing personal services, selling specialty goods, and so forth. And what do our auto-dominated communities offer the poor? They are expensive to live in. The average car costs the same as a $50,000 home mortgage, depending on the interest rates.

., Institute of Transportation Engineers, February 1994. International Center for Technology Assessment. Real Price of Gas. http://www. icta.org/ctanews/realpr.htm. Accessed 20 June 2002. Jackson, K. T. Crabgrass Frontier. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. Jackson, T. T. “Transportation Concurrency: How It Can Be Achieved.” Florida Planning 10, 10 (1990): 7–8. Jacobs, J. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage, 1961. Kasowski, K. “The Costs of Sprawl, Revisited.” PAS Memo, February 1993. ———. “Suburban Sprawl.” Florida Planning 7, 1 (January 1995): 3, 5. Kay, J. H. “Without a Car in the World,” New Colonist, http://www. newcolonist.com/carfree_kay.html. Accessed 15 June 2001. Ketcham, B. Making Transportation Choices Based on Real Costs. Presentation at the Transportation 2000 Conference “Making Transportation a National Priority.”


pages: 239 words: 56,531

The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld

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Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, butterfly effect, computer age, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

She went to jail twice for defending her neighborhood, and was able to work with a large group of people who questioned why cars and commuters were more important than parks, communities, and pedestrians. The woman decided to write down the record of her experiences and thoughts about cities and urban planning, and the field of urban planning was changed forever. She was Jane Jacobs, the year was 1961, and her book was The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Jacobs was our preeminent urban anthropologist—a person who could look at a city block, and through building up the details, show exactly how it worked. An associate editor of Architectural Forum in the 1950s, she became more and more concerned with the deadening effects of urban planning on cities. She went over the whole sad history of those influential thinkers who saw 84 WEB n.0 cities as horrid, dirty, overcrowded places filled with the dregs of humanity who needed planners to come in and rationalize, de-densify, and order their spaces for them.

These urbanites develop technologies, export them out of the city, and establish cosmopolitan habits. Jacobs’s attention to detailed observation, to bottom-up rather than top-down modeling, and her attacks on monocultures of all kinds commend her work to us. Though jeered at by professional planners of her day—one dismissed her work as “bitter coffee-house ramblings”—Jacobs has certainly had the last laugh, with The Death and Life of Great American Cities utterly upending town planning for more than fifty years through its articulation of precisely what makes a neighborhood worth inhabiting. We will spend at least another generation working out how Jacob’s fine-grained mixtures should function within digital environments, but mining her work for insights into the culture machine does not stop there. Just after the fall of the Berlin wall and the breakup of the Soviet Union, Jacobs wrote Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics, in which she identifies two complementary and opposing moral syndromes: one based on taking (also known as the guardian syndrome), and the other based on trading (or the commercial syndrome).

Winston Churchill’s maxim “Don’t take No for an answer. Never submit to failure.” has to be one of the most repeated pieces of advice to sales trainees everywhere. Quoted in Richard Langworth, Churchill by Himself: The Definitive Collection of Quotations (New York: Public Affairs, 2008), 569; originally in Winston Churchill, My Early Life: A Roving Commission (London: Thornton Butterworth, 1930), 74. 7. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961; repr., New York: Modern Library, 1993; Jane Jacobs, Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics (New York: Random House, 1992). 188 NOTES 8. Manuel DeLanda offers a succinct definition of the difference between hierarchies and meshworks in “Homes: Meshwork or Hierarchy?” Mediamatic, available at <http://www.mediamatic.net/article-5914-en.html>.


pages: 361 words: 76,849

The Year Without Pants: Wordpress.com and the Future of Work by Scott Berkun

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barriers to entry, blue-collar work, Broken windows theory, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Hangouts, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Lean Startup, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, remote working, Results Only Work Environment, Richard Stallman, Seaside, Florida, side project, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the map is not the territory, Tony Hsieh, trade route

Mostly it was up to programmers and their teams to decide how to triage issues that landed on their P2s. Some were fixed immediately, others were fixed soon, some were rejected, and others fell into the limbo of issues whose fate may never be decided. Source: Greg Brown, a code wrangler at Automattic. If you ask the old-timers, Automattic believed in the broken window theory, the idea popularized by Jane Jacobs in her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities.1 She examined why some neighborhoods in New York City were safer than others and concluded that neighborhoods that were well maintained by their inhabitants, including small things like picking up trash and fixing broken windows, tended to have less crime. In other words, by regularly fixing small things, you prevent bigger problems from starting. It's similar to the platitudes “nip it in the bud” and “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.”

There was a mature balance of reporting data yet leaving people free to decide what they meant or how much they wanted to use in their thinking. MC was a manifestation of the line between support and creatives. MC was a tool, created by the Janitorial team, to support all the others in doing their work. But rarely would the data dictate to anyone what should be done. Notes 1 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1992; originally published 1961). The theory was developed by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling, “Broken Windows,” Atlantic Monthly (March 1982). 2 Just as a broken leg will take more time to fix than a scratch, a simple incoming-versus-fix chart discounts possibly important details such as the scope of each issue. 3 A good summary of the problems with evaluating programming work based on lines of code is at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Source_lines_of_code#Disadvantages.

See Highlander Communication: clarity of Company meeting (Budapest); author's presentation on leading Team Social; experiment at; Post Postmodernism team project Company meeting (Seaside, Florida): author's arrival at; description of Seaside; employee group photo at; informal socializing at; mentioned in August 2010 town hall meeting; typical retreat (off-site) contrasted to; work on Team Social's Hovercard project at; work process at Compensation Conrad, Tony Continuous deployment Copyleft Coworking spaces Crawford, Matthew Creative Abrasion Creative employees: necessity of shipping by; support kept from infringing upon; using humor when nagging Culture: attracts employees with similar values Customer support: Athens train system vs. Automattic D Daily builds Data: Automattic's relationship to; MC reporting system for; paradox of; role in decision making; as trap; with voice Data General Davis, Robert S. Deadlines: lack of; for launching Jetpack at SXSW; short, impact on teamwork; when writing The Death and Life of Great American Cities(Jacobs) Decision making Deep dive technique Defensive management Democratizing publishing Design: complex, of WordPress; interface, done first; success determined by; vision needed for coherence of Dogpatch Labs Donkin, Richard Dorman, Anne Double down DreamHost E EMACS E-mail: Automattic communication via; disadvantages of; no mandate on using; notifying blogger of response to blog; notifying blogger of visitor subscribing to blog; observations about company sent to Mullenweg via; used with P2s; WordPress.com support via E-mailopathy Emotions Expensify Experiments: author's mission to include; with benefits' effect on performance; at Budapest company meeting; as essential; and fear of new ideas; at Hawaii meet-up; with new communication tools; shift to teams as; team meet-ups as opportunities for; teams and team leads as F Face-to-face interactions: author's preference for; author's trip to San Francisco for; cost of meet-ups for; at mini-team meet-up in San Francisco; necessity of Feedback Fogel, Karl Follow the Sun Fontainhas, Zé Fox, Jon Friction Functionality Future of work: creatives vs. supporters and; focus on results vs. traditions in; impossibility of predicting; increasing prevalence of working remotely; meaningful work in; self-sufficient passionate employees and G General public license (GPL) Gibson, William GitHub GoDaddy Google Google Docs spreadsheet Google Hangouts Gravatar Griz (dog) H Happiness Engineers (HE) Harstein, Ran Hawaii.


pages: 532 words: 155,470

One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness

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active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War

norman Bel Geddes, Magic Motorways (new york: random House, 1940), 237. also see Ellis, “lewis Mumford and norman Bel Geddes,” 58. as Kenneth T. Jackson points out in Crabgrass Frontier, the panel that Eisenhower assembled to take stock of the country’s highway requirements was chaired by lucius D. Clay, a board member of General Motors (249). For a classic critique of postwar urban planning, see Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (new york: random House, 1961). For a detailed and critical engagement with robert Moses’s life and works, see robert a. Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York (new york: vintage Books, 1975). The financial model for state-federal collaboration on highway projects began with the Federal-aid road act in 1916 and was further solidified with the passage of the Federal Highway act of 1921.

lewis Mumford’s sentiments on urban planning and transportation are best put in the following texts: The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects, 1st ed. (new york: Harcourt, 1961); The Urban Prospect (london: Secker and Warburg, 1968); The Highway and the City (Westport, CT: Greenwood press, 1981). lewis Mumford, quoted in the segment “The City: Cars or people?” from The City—Heaven and Hell (national Film Board of Canada, 1963), Film. Emphasis is my own. Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 7. Guy Debord, “Situationist Theses on Traffic,” in Situationist International Anthology, ed. Ken Knabb (Berkeley, Ca: Bureau of public Secrets, 1981), 57 (originally published in Internationale Situationniste, no. 3 [December 1959]). Guy Debord, The Society of the Spectacle, trans. Fredy perlman and John Supak (Detroit: Black and red, 1977). pierre Canjuers and Guy Debord, “preliminaries toward Defining a Unitary revolutionary program,” in Situationist Anthology, ed.

Critiques of the aT movement and other proponents of “alternative technology” are most explicit in Jennifer Daryl Slack, Communication Technologies and Society (norwood, nJ: ablex publishing Corporation, 1984), 30–39, and langdon Winner, The Whale and the Reactor: A Search for Limits in an Age of High Technology (Chicago: University of Chicago press, 1986), 61–84. For contrasting perspectives on aT, see andrew Kirk, “appropriating Technology: The Whole Earth Catalog and Counterculture Environmental politics,” Environmental History 7, no. 4 (2001): 374–394; Kleiman, “The appropriate Technology Movement in american political Culture,” esp. 296–400 (on the political economy of aT). Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 370. Emphasis is my own. McCorkell, personal correspondence. J. B. Corgel and C.F. Floyd, “Towards a new Direction in Bicycle Transportation policy,” Transportation Quarterly 33, no. 2 (1979): 297–301. Quoted in Bruce Epperson, “Bicycle planning: Growing up or Growing Old,” Race, Poverty and the Environment 6 (Special issue: Transportation and Social Justice), no. 1 (1995): 42.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

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1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

If we program all of the randomness out, we’ll have turned them from rich, living organisms into dull mechanical automatons. They need to be secure, but not at the risk of becoming surveillance chambers. They need to be open and participatory, but provide enough support structure for those who lack the resources to self-organize. More than anything else, they need to be inclusive. In her most influential book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the acclaimed urbanist Jane Jacobs argued that “cities have the capability of providing something for everybody, only because, and only when, they are created by everybody.”39 Yet over fifty years later, as we set out to create the smart cities of the twenty-first century, we seem to have again forgotten this hard-learned truth. But there is hope that a new civic order will arise in smart cities, and pull every last one of us into the effort to make them better places.

Dodgeball showed how social software could be with us everywhere, and be fun without being annoying. Crowley himself is an archetype for smart-city hackers everywhere. Urban economists believe that cities thrive because they create opportunities for people to interact for commerce, learning, and entertainment. But it takes someone who intuitively understands cities to create a new way of doing that for the whole world to use. Jane Jacobs’s treatise of good urbanism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, was a love letter to New York City’s Greenwich Village, the same neighborhood that both inspired and accommodated Crowley as he conceived Dodgeball. The book glorified how good streets create opportunities for people to meet by chance. Crowley designed Dodgeball as an engine to amplify that serendipitous potential, by constantly prodding us to get up and go make new friends. If she were still alive, how would Jacobs have judged Dodgeball?

CASUM-m, Bangalore, India, January 2007, http://casumm.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/bhoomi-e-governance.pdf. 35Kevin Donovan, “Seeing Like a Slum: Towards Open, Deliberative Development,” Georgetown Journal of International Affairs 13, no. 1 (2012): 97. 36Jeremy Bentham. The Panopticon Writings (London: Verso, 1995), 29–95. 37Farah Mohamed, “Sen. Franken on facial recognition and Facebook,” Planet Washington, last modified July 18, 2012, http://blogs.mcclatchydc.com/washington/2012/07/sen-franken-on-facial-recognition-adnd-facebook.html. 38Adam Harvey, CV Dazzle, n.d., accessed August 26, 2012, http://cvdazzle.com. 39Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), 238. 40Walter Lippmann, New York Herald Tribune, June 6, 1939, quoted in Robert W. Rydell, World of Fairs: The Century-of-Progress Expositions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 115. Chapter 1. The $100 Billion Jackpot 1Henrik Schoenefeldt, “191: The Building of the Great Exhibition of 1851, an Environmental Design Experiment” (Cambridge: The Martin Centre for Architectural and Urban Studies, University of Cambridge, n.d.), http://kent.academia.edu/HenrikSchoenefeldt/Papers/ 118104/The_Building_of_the_Great_Exhibition_of_1851_-_an_Environmental_Design_Experiment. 2Terence Riley, The Changing of the Avant-Garde: Visionary Architectural Drawings from the Howard Gilman Collection (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2002), 150. 3“A Walking City,” Archigram Archival Project, Project for Experimental Practice, University of Westminster, 2010, http://archigram.westminster.ac.uk/project.php?


pages: 349 words: 95,972

Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives by Tim Harford

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affirmative action, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Basel III, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, crowdsourcing, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Erdős number, experimental subject, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Frank Gehry, game design, global supply chain, Googley, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, Inbox Zero, income inequality, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, microbiome, out of africa, Paul Erdős, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Turing test, urban decay

There is a balance to be struck here—a balance that we are still working hard to understand.11 Yet the early lessons of the new science of the microbiome chime strikingly with what we’ve already discovered: If you try to control a complex system, suppressing or tidying away the parts that seem unimportant, you are likely to discover that what seemed unimportant turns out to be very important indeed. • • • If we are increasingly understanding that mess makes natural systems more healthy and resilient, then could the same be true for artificial systems, such as the neighborhoods, cities, and countries where we live? Jane Jacobs, the urban writer and campaigner, made the case for neighborhood diversity in The Death and Life of Great American Cities. She wrote of “the daily ballet of Hudson Street” in Greenwich Village, New York, where she lived. “We may fancifully call it the art form of the city and liken it to the dance,” she wrote. “Not to a simple-minded precision dance with everyone kicking up at the same time, twirling in unison and bowing off en masse, but to an intricate ballet in which the individual dancers and ensembles all have distinctive parts which miraculously reinforce each other.”12 Jacobs explained that it was the diversity of this urban ballet that made it work.

Diversity at street level was made possible by a mix of offices and homes, stores and workshops. It was also made possible, Jacobs argued, by a mix of old and new buildings. She would not have been surprised by the story of Building 20, the low-status structure in the middle of high-status MIT that was home to so many intriguing experiments. It sounds not unlike a building she describes in The Death and Life of Great American Cities: The floor of the building in which this book is being written is occupied also by a health club with a gym, a firm of ecclesiastical decorators, an insurgent Democratic party reform club, a Liberal party political club, a music society, an accordionists’ association, a retired importer who sells maté [sic] by mail, a man who sells paper and who also takes care of shipping the maté, a dental laboratory, a studio for watercolor lessons, and a maker of costume jewelry.

Ed Yong, “There Is No ‘Healthy’ Microbiome,” The New York Times, November 1, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/02/opinion/sunday/there-is-no-healthy-microbiome.html, and Gabrielle Canon, “Sorry, Your Gut Bacteria Are Not the Answer to All Your Health Problems,” Mother Jones, October 27, 2014, http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2014/10/microbiome-health-gut-bacteria; Blaser, Missing Microbes, pp. 31–32. 12. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1992), p. 50. 13. Ibid., p. 193. 14. Maryann P. Feldman and David B. Audretsch, “Innovation in Cities: Science-Based Diversity, Specialization and Localized Competition,” European Economic Review 43 (1999). 15. AnnaLee Saxenian, Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994). 16.


pages: 327 words: 88,121

The Vanishing Neighbor: The Transformation of American Community by Marc J. Dunkelman

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, Broken windows theory, call centre, clean water, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Brooks, delayed gratification, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, helicopter parent, if you build it, they will come, impulse control, income inequality, invention of movable type, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Louis Pasteur, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, McMansion, Nate Silver, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Richard Florida, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban decay, urban planning, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

Richard Sennett (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969). 14Daniel Okrent, Last Call: The Rise and Fall of Prohibition (New York: Scribner, 2010). 15Thomas Bender, Community and Social Change in America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978), 131–33. 16Hillary Rodham Clinton, It Takes a Village: And Other Lessons Children Teach Us (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996). 17Wellman, “The Community Question,” 1201–31. 18Martin Gansberg, “Lindsay, Recalling the Genovese Murder, Deplores Apathy,” New York Times, October 13, 1965. 19Jim Rasenberger, “Kitty, 40 Years Later,” New York Times, February 8, 2004. 20Robert Nisbet, The Quest for Community (Wilmington, Del.: ISI Books, 1990), 72. 21Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1992), 121–40. 22Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, 150–51. 23Claude S. Fischer, “Toward a Subcultural Theory of Urbanism,” American Journal of Sociology 80, no. 6 (May 1975). Chapter 7: Bands, Villages, and Tribes 1Robin I. M. Dunbar, “The Social Brain Hypothesis,” Evolutionary Anthropology 6 (1998): 178. 2Dunbar, “The Social Brain Hypothesis,” 178–90. 3Michael Harre, “Social Network Size Linked to Brain Size,” Scientific American, August 7, 2012. 4R.

The hits weren’t the ones created by groups who had teamed up before, or who had been brought together entirely anew. The most successful shows came from teams that spliced familiar partners together with new blood. Success comes from compiling a group that includes a degree of both novelty and confidence, dynamism and familiarity.19 Jane Jacobs is unquestionably best known for the argument that framed The Death and Life of Great American Cities—namely, that neighborhoods, properly crafted, maintain an organic quality of their own. But Jacobs’s second book, The Economy of Cities, made a different claim—one that focused more squarely on the issue of creativity. Less than a decade after Arthur Koestler published his treatise on the foundations of innovation, Jacobs came to the remarkable conclusion that the process later termed the Medici effect was, in many cases, a phenomenon of everyday routines.


pages: 237 words: 50,758

Obliquity: Why Our Goals Are Best Achieved Indirectly by John Kay

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Andrew Wiles, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, British Empire, business process, Cass Sunstein, computer age, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, discounted cash flows, discovery of penicillin, diversification, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Pasteur, market fundamentalism, Nash equilibrium, pattern recognition, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, shareholder value, Simon Singh, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, ultimatum game, urban planning, value at risk

National Park Service, “The Yellowstone Fires of 1988,” 2008. 6 B. M. Kilgore, “Origin and History of Wildland Fire Use in the U.S. National Park System,” George Wright Forum 24, no. 3 (2007). 7 Le Corbusier, The Radiant City (London, Faber & Faber, 1964), p.154. 8 Robert A. Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York (New York, Vintage Books, 1975), p. 11. 9 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1965), p. 350. 10 Louis Pasteur, 1854, quoted in Maurice B. Strauss, Familiar Medical Quotations (London: J & A Churchill, 1968), p. 108. Chapter 7: Muddling Through—Why Oblique Approaches Succeed 1 Charles Lindblom, “The Science of “Muddling Through,” Public Administration Review 19, no. 2 (1959), pp. 79–88. 2 H. Igor Ansoff, Corporate Strategy (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1985), p. 41. 3 Ibid., p. 10. 4 Ibid., p. 312. 5 Robert Heller in Ansoff, Corporate Strategy, p. 360. 6 Ansoff, Corporate Strategy, pp. 326–7. 7 Saint-Gobain, “Annual Report 2008,” Courbevoie, 2008. 8 Charles Lindblom, “Still Muddling, Not Yet Through,” Public Administration Review 39, no. 6 (1979), pp. 517–26. 9 Cass R.

After MacIntyre: Critical Perspectives on the Work of Alasdair MacIntyre. Cambridge: Polity, 1994. Hume, David. Essays: Moral, Political, Literary. 1777. Reprint, ed. Eugene F. Miller, Indianapolis: Liberty Classics, 1985. Hutton, Will. The World We’re In. London: Little, Brown, 2002. Huxley, Aldous. Brave New World. London: Chatto and Windus, 1932. ICI. “Annual Report.” 1990. ICI. “Annual Report.” 1997. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin, 1965. Jencks, Charles. The Language of Post-Modern Architecture. London: Academy Editions, 1984. Jenkins, Roy. Churchill. London: Macmillan, 2001. JPMorgan and Reuters. RiskMetrics—Technical Document. 4th ed. New York: Morgan Guaranty Trust Company of New York, 1996. Kahneman, Daniel, Ed Diener, and Norbert Schwarz. Well-being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology.


pages: 298 words: 81,200

Where Good Ideas Come from: The Natural History of Innovation by Steven Johnson

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Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, cleantech, complexity theory, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, digital Maoism, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Ernest Rutherford, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, greed is good, Hans Lippershey, Henri Poincaré, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invention of air conditioning, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, Mercator projection, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, online collectivism, packet switching, PageRank, patent troll, pattern recognition, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, six sigma, Solar eclipse in 1919, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, urban planning

“The theory . . . explains the ‘evil’ and ‘good’ of cities simultaneously,” Fischer wrote. “Criminal unconventionality and innovative (e.g., artistic) unconventionality are both nourished by vibrant subcultures.” Poetry collectives and street gangs might seem miles apart on the surface, but they each depend on the city’s capacity for nurturing subcultures. The same pattern holds true for trades and businesses in large cities. As Jane Jacobs observed in The Death and Life of Great American Cities: “The larger a city, the greater the variety of its manufacturing, and also the greater both the number and the proportion of its small manufacturers.” Towns and suburbs, for instance, are natural homes for huge supermarkets and for little else in the way of groceries, for standard movie houses or drive-ins and for little else in the way of theater. There are simply not enough people to support further variety, although there may be people (too few of them) who would draw upon it were it there.

“A Physics for Studies of Civilization.” In Self-Organizing Systems: The Emergence of Order, edited by Eugene F. Yates. New York: Plenum Press, 1987. Jackson, Joe. A World on Fire: A Heretic, an Aristocrat, and the Race to Discover Oxygen. New York: Penguin, 2007. Jacobs, Jane. The Nature of Economies. New York: Modern Library, 2000. ———. The Economy of Cities. New York: Random House, 1969. ———. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House, 1961. James, William. Great Men, Great Thoughts, and the Environment. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1880. Jastrow, Joseph, ed. Story of Human Error. Manchester, N.H.: Ayer Publishing, 1936. Jefferson, Thomas. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, Vol. 1-19. Edited by Albert Ellery Bergh. Washington, D.C.: Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 1905. Jevons, Will Stanley.


pages: 296 words: 76,284

The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher

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Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

In The City in History, he described the suburbs as “a collective effort to live a private life” and “a multitude of uniform, unidentifiable houses, lined up inflexibly, at uniform distances, on uniform roads, in a treeless communal waste, inhabited by people of the same class, the same income, the same age group, witnessing the same television performances, eating the same tasteless prefabricated foods, from the same freezers, conforming in every outward and inward respect to a common mold.” Then there was Jane Jacobs, the writer and urban activist who championed the preservation of small-scale, authentic city neighborhoods and who is perhaps best known for beating back Robert Moses’s efforts to build an expressway through lower Manhattan in the 1960s. Her influential 1961 book, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, laid out her argument for the preservation of what she famously dubbed the “intricate ballet” of city sidewalks in their natural form, referring to the commerce, activity, and lively interplay among people that dense, varied neighborhood streets encouraged. (Jacobs spends several passages describing this ballet on her own stretch of Hudson Street, which is my neighborhood now, and I can vouch that her description of its various characters—children heading to the neighborhood’s St.

a massive region where two-thirds of residents: Scott Gold and Massie Ritsch, “Swallowed by Urban Sprawl,” Los Angeles Times, October 18, 2002. In 2002 a report: Reid Ewing, Rolf Pendall, and Don Chen, Measuring Sprawl and Its Impact, Smart Growth America, 2002. “There is no ‘there’ there”: Gold and Ritsch, “Swallowed by Urban Sprawl.” The historian Lewis Mumford: Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier, pp. 237, 244; Lewis Mumford, The Culture of Cities (Mariner Books, 1970). Her influential 1961 book: Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Random House, 1961). The definitive critique of twentieth-century urban planning. It’s hard to overstate Jacobs’s role in urban planning, and her own artful explanation of the “sidewalk ballet” is worth citing in full here. She wrote that under the seeming disorder of cities, there was a “marvelous order for maintaining the safety of the streets and the freedom of the city.” This order, she wrote, is “composed of movement and change, and although it is life, not art, we may fancifully call it the art form of the city and liken it to the dance—not to a simple-minded precision dance with everyone kicking up at the same time, twirling in unison and bowing off en masse, but to an intricate ballet in which the individual dancers and ensembles all have distinctive parts which miraculously reinforce each other and compose an orderly whole.


pages: 484 words: 131,168

The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey

Inglehart, Ronald, and Christian Welzel. Modernization, Cultural Change, and Democracy: The Human Development Sequence. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Isenberg, Daniel J. "Group Polarization: A Critical Review and Meta-Analysis." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50, no. 6 (1986). Jacobs, Jane. Cities and the Wealth of Nations. New York. Vintage Books, 1985. ———. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House, 1961. ———. The Economy of Cities. New York: Vintage Books, 1970. Jacobson, Gary C. "Explaining the Ideological Polarization of the Congressional Parties Since the 1970s." Paper prepared for the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, 2004. Jenkinson, Edward B. Censors in the Classroom. Carbondale. Southern Illinois University Press, 1979.

., [>], [>] Daily Kos website, [>] Dallas, Tex. blacks in, [>], [>]; conservatives in, [>]; creative-class workers in, [>]; as high-tech city, [>] n, migration to, [>], [>], [>]; and presidential election (2004), [>], and social problems of Grapevine, [>], transportation in, [>] Dalton, Russell, [>], [>] Damon, Matt, [>] Dare to Discipline (Dobson), [>] Darnovsky, Marcy, [>] Daugherty, Gerald, [>]–[>] Day, Dick, [>]–[>], [>] DDB Needham Life Style survey, [>] Dean, Howard, [>], [>] The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Jacobs), [>] n Death penalty, [>] n Defenders of Wildlife, [>] Defense Department, U.S., [>] Delahunt, Bill, [>] Delaware, [>]–[>] DeLay, Tom, [>] n, [>] n Deliberative polls and Deliberation Day, [>]–[>], [>] n Democracy and benefits of apathy, [>]–[>]; cleavages and stability of U.S. political system, [>]; and communication, [>]–[>]; current status of, [>]–[>]; niche democracy, [>], paradox of, [>]–[>] Democracy Alliance, [>] Democratic Party age of Democrats, [>]–[>], and American Legislative Issue Campaign Exchange (ALICE), [>]; and blacks, [>]–[>]; canvassers for, [>]–[>], [>] n; characteristics of Democrats, [>]–[>], [>] n [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>], church membership and religious beliefs of Democrats, [>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], no, [>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>], [>]; and class, [>]–[>]; communication between Republican Party and, [>]–[>], [>], and conspiracy theory of political segregation, [>]–[>], and decline in public trust, [>]–[>]; and education, [>]–[>]; and families, [>]; and future of politics of migration, [>]–[>]; and gender gap, [>], [>] n, [>]; and high-tech cities, [>], [>]–[>]; and immigrants, [>], [>], income of Democrats, [>], [>], and Jews, [>] n, judges in, [>], [>] n; and liberal organizations mirroring conservative organizations, [>]–[>]; media preferences of Democrats, [>]–[>], in mid-1960s, [>]–[>], [>]–[>]; and midterm elections (2006), [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>], [>]; and moral values, [>]–[>]; in 1950s, [>]–[>], and party loyalty, [>], [>]; polarization between Republican Party and, [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>] n, [>]–[>], and political marketing, [>]–[>], and political segregation, [>], and population density, [>], and presidential campaign (2004), [>]–[>], [>]–[>], [>]–[>]; and presidential elections, [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>], [>], [>]; and race, [>], [>], and rural areas, [>]–[>]; and straight-ticket voting, [>]–[>], [>]–[>] n, and tipping phenomenon in presidential elections, [>]–[>] AND ISSUES, abortion, [>]; economic issues, [>], [>], environmental issues, [>]–[>], [>] n, [>]–[>], [>], [>]; gun ownership, [>], homosexuality and gay marriage, [>], [>], Hurricane Katrina, [>]; Iraq War, [>], [>], [>], [>], [>], liberal view of, [>]; states'rights, [>]; stem cell research, [>]–[>], [>] n IN SPECIFIC STATES: Colorado, [>]–[>], Florida, [>], Kentucky, [>]–[>], [>]–[>]; Maryland, [>]; Minnesota, [>], [>]–[>], Missouri, [>]; Montana, [>], New Hampshire, [>]–[>] n; Ohio, [>], Oregon, [>]–[>], [>], [>]–[>]; Virginia, [>] Demographic shifts.

The greater number of civic organizations (such as choral societies) made northern Italy's economy more vibrant and its government more efficient than those in the less connected south [back] *** *Solow's paper "Technical Change and the Aggregate Production Function" led to his being awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize in economics. [back] *** *Jane Jacobs is best known for her book on urban design, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961), a work that undergirds today's New Urbanist movement. But most of Jacobs's time was spent producing her trilogy about economic growth The Economy of Cities (1969), Cities and the Wealth of Nations (1984), and The Nature of Economies (2000). [back] *** *More recently, MIT president Susan Hockfield noted that in semiconductor electronics, "the applied work transformed the fundamental research—not just the other way around" (speech, Brookings Institution, April 28, 2006).

Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer

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affirmative action, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional

A Time for Reconciliation, Report of the Commission de Consultation sur les Pratiques d’Accommodement Reliées aux Différences Culturelles, (Quebec, 2008), 19. 43 Yasmeen Abu-Laban and Baha Abu-Laban, “Reasonable Accommodation in a Global Village,” Policy Options 26, no. 8 (2007), 30. 44 Julius Grey, “The Paradox of Reasonable Accommodation,” Policy Options 26, no. 8 (2007), 34–5. Notes to pages 36–44 279 45 Peter Hall, Cities in Civilization (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1998), 6. 46 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1992), 14. 47 Richard Florida, The Flight of the Creative Class (New York: Collins, 2005), 62. 48 William Shakespeare, Coriolanus, act 3, scene 1. 49 Janet Abu-Lughod, Changing Cities: Urban Sociology (New York: HarperCollins, 1991), 140. 50 James Holston and Arjun Appadurai, “Cities and Citizenship,” Public Culture 8 (1996),188–9. 51 Ibid., 200. 52 Ash Amin, “The Good City,” Urban Studies 43, nos. 5/6 (May 2006),1012. 53 Susan S, Fainstein, The Just City (Ithaca; Cornell University Press, 2010), 3. 54 Ibid., 43. 55 Leonie Sandercock, Mongreal Cities (London: Continuum, 2003), 87. 56 Henri Lefebvre, Writings on Cities, trans.

Florida, The Flight of the Creative Class (New York: Collins, 2007), 29–30. 24 Philip Kasinitz, John H. Mollenkopf, Mary C. Waters, and Jennifer Holdaway, Inheriting the City (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2008), 355. 25 New York Times, “India Hitching Hopes on Subway,” 4 May 2010, http:// www.nytimes.com/glogin?URI=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nytimes.com%2F2 010%2F05%2F14%2Fworld%2Fasia%2F14delhi.html%3F_r%3. 26 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961; Vintage Books, 1991), 32. 27 Lyn Lofland’s views are paraphrased by Hutter, Experiencing Cities, 204–5. 28 Ibid., 205. 29 Joe Frienson, “The GTA’s Matchless Sports,” Globe and Mail, 14 August 2011, M1. 30 New York Times, “Playing a Sport with Bats and Balls, but No Pitcher,” 3 April 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/glogin?URI=http://www.nytimes .com/2008/04/03/nyregion/03cricket.html&OQ=_rQ3D0&OP=690e9591 Q2FfkQ3CcfmucfSSSflcb-fQ5EkHtQ5DkkcgfgQ22Q22WfQ221fQ22VfmuQ 5DrD.kmfQ22VHQ5D.HLrcQ25lcb. 31 Frienson, “The GTA’s Matchless Sports.” 32 This notice was displayed in front of Monarch Park High School at Christmas time, 2009. 33 Hutter, Experiencing Cities, 221. 34 Nicholos Peart (2012), “Why Is N.Y.P.D.

“Information in Communicative Planning.” Journal of the American Planning Association 64, no. 1 (January 1998), 52–63. Isaac, Reginald. “The Dynamics of Urban Renewal.” In Taming Metropolis, edited by Wentworth Elderedge, 784–98. New York: Anchor Books, 1967. Iver, Pico. The Global Soul. New York: Viking Books, 2000. Jacobs, Jane. Cities and the Wealth of Nations. Harmondsworth: Viking, 1984. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage Books, 1992. Jacobson, Matthew. Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of Race. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998. Kaisinitz, Philip, John H. Mollenkopf, Mary C. Waters, and Jennifer Holdaway. Inheriting the City. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2008. Kallen, Horace. Cultural Pluralism and the American Idea: An Essay in Social Philosophy.


pages: 400 words: 94,847

Reinventing Discovery: The New Era of Networked Science by Michael Nielsen

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Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Cass Sunstein, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dark matter, discovery of DNA, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Firefox, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kevin Kelly, Magellanic Cloud, means of production, medical residency, Nicholas Carr, publish or perish, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, social web, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, University of East Anglia, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge

Of course, a considerable fraction of our written culture deals, directly or indirectly, with the challenges of group problem solving. Among the more formative accounts for me were Ben Rich’s Skunk Works [184], Richard Rhodes’s The Making of the Atomic Bomb [183], and Robert Colwell’s The Pentium Chronicles [45]. A little further afield, Peter Block’s book Community: The structure of belonging [18] contains many insights about the problems of building community. And, finally, Jane Jacobs’s masterpiece The Death and Life of Great American Cities [98] is a superb account of how very large groups tackle a core human problem: how to make a place to live. Networked science, in general: The potential of computers and the network to change the way science is done has been discussed by many people, and over a long period of time. Such discussion can be found in many of the works describd above, in particular the work of Vannevar Bush [31] and Douglas Engelbart [63].

Cognition in the Wild. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. [96] National Human Genome Research Institute. Reaffirmation and extension of NHGRI rapid data release policies: Large-scale sequencing and other community resource projects, February 2003. http://www.genome.gov/10506537. [97] In one instant a left-lane nation swerves right. Life, September 15, 1967. [98] Jane Jacobs. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Toronto: Random House of Canada, 1961. [99] Irving Lester Janis. Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1983. [100] Eamon Javers. The pit bull of public relations. Business Week, April 17, 2006. [101] Ayodele Samuel Jegede. What led to the Nigerian boycott of the polio vaccination campaign? PLoS Medicine, 4(3):e73, 2007. http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed. 0040073


pages: 398 words: 86,023

The Wikipedia Revolution: How a Bunch of Nobodies Created the World's Greatest Encyclopedia by Andrew Lih

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Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, index card, Jane Jacobs, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, jimmy wales, Marshall McLuhan, Network effects, optical character recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons, Y2K

Serving as “janitors” were roughly 1,000 active administrators, tending to the duties of deleting, blocking, and protecting resources. Urban Jungle The plight of Wikipedia growing from small community to larger digital metropolis is something both Joseph Reagle in his Ph.D. work on Wikipedia and Steven Johnson in Emergence note as being similar to problems of urban planning. There is no better historical example than that explored in Jane Jacobs’s book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, her critique of the modernist planning policies of the 1950s and 1960s, an era when New York City developer Robert Moses was razing entire swaths of neighborhoods for planned housing projects and communities. Jacobs argued for preserving her small neighborhood on Hudson Street and resisting massive urban renewal, because the intimate sidewalks served an important social function.

title=Wikipedia:Be_bold& oldid=38947. 30. http://lists.wikimedia.org/pipermail/wikien-l/ 2003-February/001149.html. 31. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Advice_for_new_administrators. 32. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Awareness_statistics. 33. http://stats.wikimedia.org/EN/TablesWikipediaEN.htm. 34. 4,687 editors made more than 100 edits each that month. 35. http://wikisummaries.org/index.php?title=The_Death_and_Life_of_Great_American _Cities & oldid=5639 (retrieved June 8, 2007). 36. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Rambot/Delete 17:32, 11 Sep 2003 (UTC). 37. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Bots#Restrictions_on _specific_tasks. 38. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Seth_Ilys/Dot_Project. 39. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Seth_Ilys/Dot_Project. 40. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Ignore_all_rules& oldid=54587. 41. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Neutral_point_of_view. 42. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Notability. 43.


pages: 313 words: 84,312

We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

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1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, double helix, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

Available from http://userinnovation.mit. edu/papers/6.pdf; Eric von Hippel and Georg von Krogh, ‘Open Source Software and the Private-Collective Innovation Model: Issues for Organization Science’, Organization Science 14.2 (2003), pp. 209–23; Eric von Hippel, ‘Horizontal Innovation Networks – By and For Users’, MIT Sloan School of Management Working Paper No. 4366–02, June 2002 12 Sonali Shah, ‘Open Beyond Software’, in Chris DiBona, Danese Cooper and Mark Stone (Eds), Open Sources 2.0 (O’Reilly, 2006) 13 Henry Jenkins, Convergence Culture (New York University Press, 2006) 14 Henry Jenkins, Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers (New York University Press, 2006) 15 Pekka Himanen, The Hacker Ethic and the Spirit of the Information Age (London: Secker & Warburg, 2001) 16 John Roberts, The Modern Firm (Oxford University Press, 2004) 17 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Vintage, 1992) 18 John Micklethwait and Adrian Wooldridge, The Company (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2003) 19 Henry Hansmann, The Ownership of Enterprise (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Harvard, 1996) 20 James Boyle, ‘The Second Enclosure Movement and the Construction of the Public Domain’, Law and Contemporary Problems 66.1&2 (2003), pp.33–74. Available from http://www.law.duke.edu/journals/66LCPBoyle 21 Lawrence Lessig, Free Culture (New York: Penguin Press, 2004) Chapter 5 1 William C.

., A Natural History of the Seashore (HarperCollins, 2004) Himanen, Pekka, The Hacker Ethic and the Spirit of the Information Age (Secker & Warburg, 2001) Homer-Dixon, Thomas, The Upside of Down: Catastrophe, Creativity, and the Renewal of Civilisation, (Souvenir Press Ltd, 2007) Hyde, Lewis (1979), The Gift: How the Creative Spirit Transforms the World (Edinburgh: Canongate, 2006) InterAcademy Council, Inventing a Better Future (Amsterdam: IAC, 2004) Illich, Ivan, Tools for Conviviality (New York: Harper & Row, 1973) Illich, Ivan, Energy and Equity (Calder & Boyars, 1974) Illich, Ivan, Limits to Medicine (Marion Boyars, 2002) Illich, Ivan, Deschooling Society (Marion Boyars, 2004) Isaacs, William, Dialogue and the Art of Thinking Together (Currency, 1999) Israel, Paul, Edison: A Life of Invention (John Wiley, 1998) Jacobs, Jane, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Vintage, 1992) Jenkins, Henry, Convergence Culture (New York University Press, 2006) Jenkins, Henry, Fans, Bloggers, and Gamers (New York University Press, 2006) Jensen, Mallory, ‘Emerging Alternatives: A Brief History of Weblogs’, 2003. Available from http://www.cjr.org/ issues/2003/5/blog-jensen.asp Joyce, Patrick, The Rule of Freedom (Verso, 2003) Kapor, Mitch, blog.kapor.com Kapor, Mitch, ‘Does the Open Source Model Apply Beyond Software?’

Social Capital and Civil Society by Francis Fukuyama

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Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, p-value, postindustrial economy, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transaction costs, World Values Survey

I have elsewhere argued that social capital is an important and relatively understudied factor in explaining certain characteristics of the global economy.1 In contrast to the related concept of human capital, there is less consensus today about what social capital is, how it can be measured, where it comes from, and particularly how to get more of it. I want to address each of these issues, and in particular how social capital is produced and consumed in an increasingly complex, high-tech economy like that of the United States. SOCIAL CAPITAL : DEFINITIONS The first use of the term “social capital” that I am aware of was in Jane Jacobs’s classic work The Death and Life of Great American Cities, in which she explained that the dense social networks that existed in older, mixed-use urban neighborhoods constituted a form of social capital and were far more responsible for cleanliness, absence of street crime, and other quality-of-life measures than were formal institutional factors like police protection.2 1 These are the broad themes of Trust: T h e Social Virtues and the Creation o f Prosperity (New York: Free Press, 1995). 2 Jane Jacobs, T h e Death and Life o f Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1961), p. 138


pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders

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agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, megacity, microcredit, new economy, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

Such social gatherings were no longer possible in the new apartments or the useless, anonymous public square.4 Despite its poverty, the old neighborhood’s density, its mix of business and residences, and its privately owned space and access to the street gave it a potential for human mixing, mutual security, and entrepreneurship that could never exist in a low-density project. From the beginning, its residents knew it would become “the projects,” a place without hope of arrival. Jacobs was inspired by this shock of realization to write The Death and Life of Great American Cities, which argued that urban neighborhoods should be treated as organic entities, permitted to grow, change, and develop functions as their residents desire, without restrictions on usage, intensity, or change. This liberal, organic view of urbanism was shared by the sociologist William Whyte, who demonstrated the importance of density and concentration, and the architect-planner Oscar Newman, whose 1972 study, Defensible Space, demonstrated that dense, privately owned spaces with access to the street created a community sense of self-surveillance and security.5 These ideas influenced a generation of urban thinkers and played a huge role in the revitalization of the urban cores of Western cities in the 1970s and ’80s.

., The Position of the Turkish and Moroccan Second Generation in Amsterdam and Rotterdam (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2008), 63–85, 166. 4 Doug Saunders, “Citizen Jane,” The Globe and Mail, Oct. 11, 1997. 5 William H. Whyte, City: Rediscovering the Center (New York: Doubleday, 1989); Oscar Newman, Defensible Space: Crime Prevention through Urban Design (New York: MacMillan, 1972). 6 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), 221. 7 Alice Coleman, Utopia on Trial: Vision and Reality in Planned Housing (London: Longwood, 1985). 8 Narayan, Pritchett and Kapoor, Moving Out of Poverty, 223–72. 9 Recent exposés of the failure of aid include Dambisa Moyo, Dead Aid: Why Aid Is Not Working and How There Is Another Way for Africa (London: Allen Lane, 2009); William Easterly, The White Man’s Burden: Why the West’s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).


pages: 418 words: 128,965

The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires by Tim Wu

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Alfred Russel Wallace, Apple II, barriers to entry, British Empire, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Menlo Park, open economy, packet switching, PageRank, profit motive, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

.… Whenever something is wrong, something is too big.”10 Kohr’s student, the economist E. F. Schumacher, in 1973 wrote Small Is Beautiful: Economics As If People Mattered, developing the concept of “enoughness” and sustainable development.11 Jane Jacobs, the great theorist of urban planning, expresses a no less incendiary disdain for centralization, and as in Hayek, the indictment is based on an inherent neglect of humanity. In her classic The Death and Life of Great American Cities, she relies on careful firsthand observations made while walking around cities and new developments to determine how Olympian planners like Robert Moses were going wrong.12 There was no understanding, let alone regard, for the organic logic of the city’s neighborhoods, a logic discernible only on foot. All of these thinkers opposed bigness and prescribed a greater humility about one’s unavoidable ignorance.

Hayek, Individualism and Economic Order (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948), 77. 10. Leopold Kohr, The Breakdown of Nations (London: Routledge & Paul, 1957), ix. 11. Schumacher’s idea of “enoughness” stemmed from his studies of what he called “Buddhist economics.” See Ernst F. Schumacher, Small Is Beautiful: Economics As If People Mattered (New York: Harper & Row, 1973). 12. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1961). 13. Frederick W. Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management (New York: Harper & Bros., 1911). 14. Jon Postel wrote this into the “Robustness Principle,” Section 2.10 of the Transmission Control Protocol (January 1980), available at http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc761#section-2.10. 15. This paper announced the innovative end-to-end design principle.


pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, Zipcar

Bus engines screamed as they sucked at the warm air. At first I was disoriented and scared. I had been warned about the pathological aggression of Parisian drivers, and the streets were still full of them. But Britton and I were not the only ones on two wheels. There were dozens of other Vélib’ users around us. There were so many of us out there that drivers had to pay attention. They had to make room. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jane Jacobs described the ballet that takes place on crowded sidewalks as people make eye contact and find their way around one another. I felt a similar if supercharged dynamic coming to life in Paris’s traffic lanes. With cars and bikes and buses mixed together, none of us could be sure what we would find on the road ahead of us. We all had to be awake to the rhythm of asymmetrical flow.

In 2008, for example: Hawthorne, Christopher, “Atlantic on the Move,” Los Angeles Times, May 13, 2012, www.latimes.com/entertainment/news/arts/boulevards/la-ca-atlantic-boulevard-los-angeles-index,0,378106.htmlstory (accessed October 22, 2012). More than three hundred cities: Borys, Hazel, and Emily Talen, “Form-Based Codes? You’re Not Alone,” PlaceShakers and NewsMakers, www.placemakers.com/how-we-teach/codes-study (accessed April 29, 2013). 13. Save Your City, Save Yourself Jane Jacobs: Jacobs, Jane, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961). writing haiku: Naparstek, Aaron, Honku: The Zen Antidote to Road Rage (New York: Random House, 2003). Jon Orcutt: Gleaned from Naparstek, Streetsblog, and DOT bios and press releases. Chan K’in Viejo: “Chan K’in Viejo, 104; Led Mexican Tribe,” New York Times, January 2, 1997, www.nytimes.com/1997/01/02/world/chan-k-in-viejo-104-led-mexican-tribe.html (accessed July 1, 2009).


pages: 444 words: 138,781

Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City by Matthew Desmond

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affirmative action, Cass Sunstein, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, desegregation, dumpster diving, ending welfare as we know it, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, late fees, New Urbanism, payday loans, price discrimination, profit motive, rent control, statistical model, superstar cities, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, working poor, young professional

When winter set in, weeks would pass without Doreen so much as stepping outside. “The public peace—the sidewalk and street peace—of cities is not kept primarily by the police, necessary as police are. It is kept primarily by an intricate, almost unconscious, network of voluntary controls and standards among the people themselves, and enforced by the people themselves.” So wrote Jane Jacobs in The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Jacobs believed that a prerequisite for this type of healthy and engaged community was the presence of people who simply were present, who looked after the neighborhood. She has been proved right: disadvantaged neighborhoods with higher levels of “collective efficacy”—the stuff of loosely linked neighbors who trust one another and share expectations about how to make their community better—have lower crime rates.3 A single eviction could destabilize multiple city blocks, not only the block from which a family was evicted but also the block to which it begrudgingly relocated.

In other words, unforced movers whose previous move was involuntary were far more likely to cite housing or neighborhood problems as the reason for moving than were unforced movers whose previous move was also unforced. Not only do poor renters disproportionately experience involuntary displacement, but involuntary displacement itself brings about subsequent residential mobility. See Desmond et al., “Forced Relocation and Residential Instability Among Urban Renters.” 3. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), 31–32; Robert Sampson, Great American City: Chicago and the Enduring Neighborhood Effect (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012), especially 127, 146–47, 151, 177, 231–32. For an ethnographic take on the uses of public space, see Mitchell Duneier, Sidewalk (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999). 4. Jacobs, Death and Life of Great American Cities, 271, emphasis mine. 5.


pages: 184 words: 53,625

Future Perfect: The Case for Progress in a Networked Age by Steven Johnson

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airport security, algorithmic trading, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, future of journalism, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, Jane Jacobs, John Gruber, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, packet switching, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, pre–internet, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, WikiLeaks, working poor, X Prize

Bradford DeLong, at http://econ161.berkeley.edu/econ_articles/reviews/seeing_like_a_state.html, along with Henry Farrell’s response, “Seeing ‘Seeing Like a State’” at http://crookedtimber.org/2008/02/05/seeing-like-seeing-like-a-state/. Hayek’s arguments are nicely summarized in his 1945 essay “The Use of Knowledge in Society,” which appeared in The American Economic Review. Jane Jacobs’s attack on centralized planning appears in her classic work, The Death and Life of Great American Cities. For a comprehensive history of the birth of the Internet, see Where Wizards Stay Up Late, by Matthew Lyon and Katie Hafner, as well as Stewart Brand’s interview with Paul Baran, “Founding Father,” in Wired. I first came across the concept of “positive deviance” in the article “Design Thinking for Social Innovation,” by Tim Brown and Jocelyn Wyatt, in the Stanford Social Innovation Review.


pages: 204 words: 67,922

Elsewhere, U.S.A: How We Got From the Company Man, Family Dinners, and the Affluent Society to the Home Office, BlackBerry Moms,and Economic Anxiety by Dalton Conley

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3D printing, call centre, clean water, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, feminist movement, financial independence, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, oil shock, PageRank, Ponzi scheme, positional goods, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, principal–agent problem, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

Ronna Larsen, “The Skyrocketing Number of Bank Branches,”e-merging Directions, Colliers Turley Martin Tucker Commerical Real Estate Services, at http://www.ctmt.com/pdfs/emergingDirections/BankBranches Skyrocket.pdf. 9. Juliet Schor, “The Social Death of Things,” working paper, 2007. 10. Barry Schwartz, The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less (New York: HarperCollins, 2004). SHOOT THE MOON 1. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage Books, 1961). 2. For this observation I must credit Natalie Jeremijenko’s research in“Share This Book” (PhD diss., University of Queensland, Aust). 3. “A Guide to UHF Television Production,” 2004-2007, at http://www.indiana.edu/~radiotv/wtiu/uhf.shtml. 4. Ian Grey, “Tee-Construction: A Brief History of the T-Shirt," at http://www.vintageskivvies.com/pages/archives/articles/readersubmissions/history ofthet-shirt.html. 5.5.


pages: 224 words: 69,494

Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg

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active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

ITDP (2008) Sustainable Transport Award Nominees, Sustainable transport, Winter 2008, No 20, page 29, Institute for Transportation and Development, New York. ITDP (2013) Footpath design. A guide to creating footpaths that are safe, comfortable and easy to use, ITDP, New York. ITDP, Gehl Architects and Nelson Nyggard (2010) Our cities ourselves, 10 principles for transport in urban life, ITDP, New York. Jacobs, J (1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities. The failure of town planning, Random House, USA. James, A (2014) The death of the habitats directive, World Transport Policy and Practice, volume 20, number 2/3, 97-107. Jerrett, M, McConnell, R, Chang, C, Wolch, J, Reynolds, K, Lurman, F, Gilliland, F and Berhane, K (2010) Automobile traffic around the home and attained body mass index: a longitudinal cohort study of children aged 10-18 years, Prev Med 50: S50-8.


pages: 537 words: 200,923

City: Urbanism and Its End by Douglas W. Rae

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agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business climate, City Beautiful movement, complexity theory, desegregation, edge city, ghettoisation, income per capita, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, manufacturing employment, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Of the latter, well over half were located in the working-class and highly urbanized suburb of West Haven. See John D. Fassett, UI: History of an Electric Company (New Haven: United Illuminating, 1990), 173. 45. Contact with strangers, handled with responses that allow civil cooperation well short of personal intimacy, is at the heart of Jane Jacobs’ justly celebrated work on urbanism. See Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961). See also Lyn H. Lofland, A World of Strangers (New York: Basic Books, 1973). For a more developed theoretical treatment of contact with diversity, see Richard Sennett, The Uses of Disorder (New York: Norton, 1970). Gerald Frug has constructed an inspiring and complex theory of urban change that hinges to a considerable degree on overcoming the sorting processes of late twentieth-century urban regions.

Smelser and Richard Swedberg, 342–67. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994. Isaac, Jeffrey C. Power and Marxist Theory: A Realist View. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1987. Jackson, Kenneth T. Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. Jacobs, Jane. The Economy of Cities. New York: Vintage, 1969. ———. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House, 1961. Jaffe, Harry S., and Tom Sherwood. Dream City: Race, Power, and the Decline of Washington, D.C. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994. Janick, Herbert. “Yale Blue: Unionization at Yale University, 1931–1985.” Labor History 28, no. 3 (1987): 349–69. Jargowsky, Paul A. “Ghetto Poverty Among Blacks in the 1980s.” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 13, no. 2 (1994): 288–309.


pages: 585 words: 165,304

Trust: The Social Virtue and the Creation of Prosperity by Francis Fukuyama

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barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, business climate, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, double entry bookkeeping, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Gilder, glass ceiling, global village, hiring and firing, industrial robot, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mittelstand, price mechanism, profit maximization, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, transfer pricing, traveling salesman, union organizing

Coleman, “Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital,” American Journal of Sociology 94 (1988): S95-S120. See also Robert D. Putnam, “The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life,” American Prospect 13 (1993): 35-42; and Putnam, “Bowling Alone,” Journal of Democracy 6 (1995): 65-78. According to Putnam, the first use of the term social capital was by Jane Jacobs, in The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), p. 138. 9Gary S. Becker, Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, 2d ed. (New York: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1975). CHAPTER 2. THE TWENTY PERCENT SOLUTION 1On this aspect of Adam Smith, see Jerry Z. Muller, Adam Smith in His Time and Ours (New York: Free Press, 1992). 2The neomercantilists share with earlier Marxist and Keynesian critics an emphasis on the importance of the state as an economic actor.

Foreign Affairs 72 (1993): 22-49. Huntington, Samuel P. and Weiner, Myron, eds., Understanding Political Development (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1987). Hutcheon, Robin, First Sea Lord: The Life and Work of Sir Y. K. Pao (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 1990). Imai, Ken’ichi, “The Corporate Network in Japan,” Japanese Economic Studies 16 (1986): 3-37. Jacobs, Jane, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961). Jacobs, Norman, The Origins of Modern Capitalism in Eastern Asia (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1958). Jacoby, Sanford, “The Origins of Internal Labor Markets in Japan,” Industrial Relations 18 (1979): 184-196. Jamieson, Ian, Capitalism and Culture: A Comparative Analysis of British and American Manufacturing Organizations (London: Gower, 1980). -----, “Some Observations on Socio-Cultural Explanations of Economic Behaviour,” Sociological Review 26 (1978): 777-805.


pages: 851 words: 247,711

The Atlantic and Its Enemies: A History of the Cold War by Norman Stone

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, central bank independence, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, illegal immigration, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, North Sea oil, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, V2 rocket, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War, éminence grise

Two decades later governments had a great deal more money and were still producing squalor: what conclusion was to be drawn, that governments should have even more, or that they just could not help producing squalor? Vance Packard’s Status Seekers (1960) described the American business rat race. Jane Jacobs, looking at the wreckage caused by the San Francisco freeway system, wrote The Death and Life of Great American Cities (1961) and she foresaw that housing estates for the poor would turn into sinks of hopelessness worse than the slums that they were to replace; she also foresaw that city centres would become empty, inhabited only by tramps. Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique (1963) spoke for the bored housewife. Michael Harrington discovered that there were many poor Americans: The Other America (1962).

Harriman, Averell Harrington, Michael, The Other America Harris, Robert, Archangel Hartington, Kathleen Cavendish, Marchioness of (née Kennedy) Harvard University Business School Tercentenary Hastings, Sir Max Havana Havel, Václav Havenstein, Rudolf Hayek, Friedrich von Healey, Denis, Baron Heath, Sir Edward: appearance and character and Britain’s membership of EEC and Britain’s relations with US dismissed as Conservative leader government of incomes policy loses 1974 election and Margaret Thatcher’s government and trade unions Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin Helms, Richard Helsinki conference (CSCE; 1975) Hemingway, Ernest Hentze, Paul Herat heroin Hersh, Seymour Herter, Christian Heseltine, Michael, Baron Hezb (Afghan resistance group) Hills, Denis Hindus Hippocrates Hiroshima Hiss, Alger History Today (magazine) Hitler, Adolf: appeasement of beer-hall Putsch (1923) Berlin Bunker eugenics favourite film invasion of Czechoslovakia invasion of USSR reduction of unemployment rise to power suicide and cremation Ho Chi Minh Ho Chi Minh Trail Hodder and Stoughton (publishers) Hodža, Enver Hoechst (corporation) Hoesch (corporation) Hoffman, Paul Hoggart, Richard Holland: Calvinist Church colonies economic success and EEC exports floating of currency oil embargo against post-imperial decline trade unions see also Benelux Hollywood Holy Roman Empire homosexuality gay rights Honecker, Erich Hong Kong hooliganism Hoover, Herbert Hopper, Kenneth Hopper, William Horn, Gyula Hoskyns, Sir John Hotter, Hans Howe, Geoffrey, Baron Howe of Aberavon Hue, Vietnam Hugo, Victor, Les Misérables human rights Humphrey, Hubert Hunan province Hungarian diaspora Hungary: AVO (security police) Catholic Church Christian Women’s Camp Communist Party communist takeover ending of communist state inflation intelligentsia Jews in under Kádár Khrushchev’s relaxation attempts labour camps nationalism opening of border with Austria (1989) Peasant Party peasantry Protestant churches relations with Austria Second World War Social Democrats territorial losses trade unions United Workers’ Party uprising of 1848 uprising of 1956 Writers’ Union Huntington, Samuel Husák, Gustáv Hussein, King of Jordan Huxley, Sir Julian Hysko, Miroslav Ibárruri, Dolores IBM (corporation) ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles) Ickes, Harold IEA (British Institute of Economic Affairs) Iliescu, Ion Illinois I’m All Right, Jack (film) IMF (International Monetary Fund): assumes true world role Belgrade meeting (1979) and Bretton Woods system British bail-out (1976) establishment of ineffectiveness loans to Romania and military coups in Chile and Turkey role in defending threatened currencies and ‘Washington consensus’ İnan, Kâmran Inchon İncirlik air base India: border conflicts with China British rule famine independence intelligentsia nationalism partition war in Kashmir Indonesia: Dutch rule independence movement oil production Industrial Reorganization Corporation (British) Industrial Revolution inflation Britain Chile France Germany Hungary hyper-inflation Italy Japan and monetarism Phillips Curve Poland ‘stagflation’ Turkey and universities USA USSR information technology: development of and financial markets manufacturers and public sector theory of unions’ obstruction of in USSR Ingham, Sir Bernard Inönü, Ismet Institute of Economic Affairs (British; IEA) intelligentsia: Britain China Czechoslovakia France Germany Greece Hungary India Poland Turkey USA USSR Russiap> Western intelligentsia and communism International Bank for Reconstruction and Development see World Bank International Monetary Fund see IMF internment camps, Soviet Ionesco, Eugène İpekçi, Abdı Iran: and Afghanistan allied with West Azeri Turks coup of 1953 hostage crisis (1979-81) Islamic revolution (1978-9) Kurdish population under Mossadegh oil production relations with USSR and Saudi Arabia Savak (secret police) Second World War occupation under the Shah and terrorism Iran, Shah of (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi) fall of Iran-Contra affair (‘Irangate’) Iraq: Christians in coup of 1958 Kurdish population Nasser’s interference in under Saddam Hussein Soviet aid Iraq-Syria pipeline Iraq war (2003- ) Ireland Catholic Church emigration Irish Question nationalism terrorism Islam: in Afghanistan in Iran in Iraq of Kurds in Pakistan in Soviet Central Asia in Turkey and Turkish ‘guest workers’ in Germany see also Moslems Israel: American support for Arab plans to eliminate Camp David accords (1978) establishment of and Iran-Contra affair relations with USSR Six Day War (1967) and Suez crisis Yom Kippur War (1973) Istanbul Aya Sofya Bosphorus Bridge economic growth and redevelopment Galata Maslak riots (1955) stock exchange Taksim Square massacre (1977) Italy: Allied reconquest automobile industry backwardness black economy Christian Democrats Communists corruption education system and EEC election of 1948 film industry and Germany Guelfs and Ghibellines imports industrial unrest and strikes inflation Marshall Plan aid peasantry political instability post-war economic recovery protectionism public finances Red Brigades student demonstrations terrorism trade unions universities war damage Itzenplitz, Baron Heinrich von İzmir Jachymov mines, Bohemia Jackson, Andrew Jackson-Vanik Amendment (1973-4) Jacobs, Jane, The Death and Life of Great American Cities Jaguar (automobile manufacturer) Jakab, Sándor Jakeš, Miloš Jalalabad Jamaica Jamiat (Afghan resistance group) Japan: automobile industry banking crisis (2008-9) Communists in economic boom economic recession empire invasion and occupation of China land reforms and North Korea post-war Allied occupation post-war economic recovery prisoners of war Second World War shipbuilding steel production use of fax machines and Vietnam Westernization Jaruzelski, Wojciech Jay, Peter Jefferson, Thomas Jenkins, Roy, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead Jenkins, Sir Simon Jerusalem King David Hotel bombing (1946) Jesuits Jesus College, Cambridge Jews: emigration to Palestine German compensation to in Greece in Hungary in Poland in Romania in Slovakia in Turkey in USA n USSR in West Germany see also anti-semitism Jiangxi soviet Jobs, Steve John Brown Engineering John Paul II, Pope Johnson, Chalmers Johnson, Claudia ‘Lady Bird’ Johnson, Harry Johnson, Lyndon B.: background and character and Brezhnev and China economic policy election as President Great Society on Kennedy reputation as Roosevelt’s manager use of Supreme Court Vice-President and Vietnam withdraws from re-election campaign Joliot-Curie, Irène Jones, Aubrey Jones, Jack Jones, Therese Jordan Joseph, Keith, Baron Juglar, Clement June Days uprising (1848) ‘junk bonds’ Kabul Kádár, János Kafka, Franz, Amerika Kahn, Philippe Kaldor, Nicholas, Baron Kaluga Kamchatka Kandahar Kang Sheng Kania, Stanisław Kapitsa, Piotr Kaplan, Karel Kapor, Mitch Karabük steel plant Karaganda Karajan, Herbert von Karasar, Hasan Ali Karmal, Babrak Karman, Tibor Karpacky, Kornel Kashmir Katowice Katyń massacre (1940) Kayseri Kazakhstan Kedourie, Elie Keep, John Kemal, Mustafa see Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal Kemp, Jack Kempner, Nan Kennan, George Kennedy, Edward Kennedy, Jacqueline Kennedy, John F.: ‘Alliance for Progress’ (plan for Latin America) appearance, background and character assassination and Bay of Pigs invasion and Berlin crisis of 1961 and Cuban crisis of 1962 economic policy election as President funeral Inaugural address and Macmillan New Frontier reputation and Roosevelt Vienna conference (1961) and Vietnam White House style Kennedy, John F., Jr Kennedy, Joseph Kennedy, Robert Kent State University shootings (1970) Kerr, Clark Keyder, Çağlar Keynes, John Maynard, 1st Baron: Galbraith and on government spending homosexuality hopes for German bombing on paper money and Roosevelt Keynesianism KGB: and coup of August 1991 and Cuban crisis of 1962 and dissidents and Gorbachev network of informers relationship with Party and revolutions of 1989 and war in Afghanistan and Western anti-missile demonstrations see also Cheka KHAD (Afghan secret police) Khanin, G.


pages: 250 words: 88,762

The Logic of Life: The Rational Economics of an Irrational World by Tim Harford

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, colonial rule, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, European colonialism, experimental economics, experimental subject, George Akerlof, income per capita, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, law of one price, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, women in the workforce

Department of Justice press release, February 21, 2006, www.usdoj.gov/usao/dc/Press_Releases/2006_Archives/Feb_2006/06060.html, summarizes the evidence, which Reginald Jones accepted, entering an “Alford” plea, which asserted his innocence but accepted that enough evidence existed to convict him. Newspaper accounts include “Horrific Attack, Heroic Rescue,” The Washington Post, July 7, 2005, and “Blood, Sweat, and Fear,” FT Magazine, August 27, 2005. I was one of the witnesses to the attack. Jane Jacobs: Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities 1961; rept. New York: Vintage 1992). Two economists: Edward Glaeser and Bruce Sacerdote, “The Social Consequences of Housing,” NBER Working Paper 8034, December 2000, papers.nber.org/papers/W8034. The British ghettos are up: U.K. white population from the Office for National Statistics, www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=273. Fact about people in high-rises is from an op-ed by the British geographer Daniel Dorling, published in the Observer, September 25, 2005.


pages: 403 words: 105,431

The death and life of the great American school system: how testing and choice are undermining education by Diane Ravitch

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David Brooks, desegregation, hiring and firing, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Menlo Park, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, The Death and Life of Great American Cities

Many thanks to Meredith Smith and Antoinette Smith of Basic Books for their careful review of the manuscript, and to Lynn Goldberg and Angela Hayes of Goldberg-McDuffie, who gave me their wholehearted support. And I am grateful to Tim Sullivan, my editor at Basic Books, who quickly understood the book and suggested the title of my dreams. We both agreed that the title is a fitting homage to Jane Jacobs, whose book The Death and Life of Great American Cities helped to create a renaissance in the nation’s cities. Since I live the life that she wrote about, in a wonderful urban neighborhood saved by historic preservation, I love the idea of associating my book with hers, most especially with the hope that American education in general and urban education in particular might also experience a renaissance. DIANE RAVITCH BROOKLYN, NEW YORK CHAPTER ONE What I Learned About School Reform IN THE FALL OF 2007, I reluctantly decided to have my office repainted.


pages: 327 words: 103,336

Everything Is Obvious: *Once You Know the Answer by Duncan J. Watts

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, East Village, easy for humans, difficult for computers, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, happiness index / gross national happiness, high batting average, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, interest rate swap, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, medical malpractice, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, oil shock, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, planetary scale, prediction markets, pre–internet, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, school choice, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, urban planning, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

People have been fascinated with what sociologists call the small-world problem for nearly a century, since the Hungarian poet Frigyes Karinthy published a short story called “Chains” in which his protagonist boasts that he can connect himself to any other person in the world, whether a Nobel Prize winner or a worker in a Ford Motor factory, through a chain of no more than five acquaintances. Four decades later, in her polemic on urban planning The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the journalist Jane Jacobs described a similar game, called messages, that she used to play with her sister when they first moved to New York: The idea was to pick two wildly dissimilar individuals—say a headhunter in the Solomon Islands and a cobbler in Rock Island, Illinois—and assume that one had to get a message to the other by word of mouth; then we would each silently figure out a plausible, or at least possible, chain of persons through whom the message could go.


pages: 262 words: 83,548

The End of Growth by Jeff Rubin

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, deglobalization, energy security, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, flex fuel, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Hans Island, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income per capita, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, McMansion, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, Yom Kippur War

CHAPTER 6: THE DANISH RESPONSE this page: Information about Denmark’s environmental track record, including its level of carbon dioxide emissions since 1990, comes from figures available through the State of Green, a government-backed initiative to raise international awareness of the country’s green credentials (www.stateofgreen.com). this page: The argument for the relationship between urban population density and vibrant cities is well documented. Jane Jacobs, for one, argued convincingly against urban sprawl in her seminal work The Death and Life of Great American Cities, which has influenced thoughts on urban planning since its publication in 1961. CHAPTER 7: ZERO-SUM WORLD this page: The figures for Venezuela’s oil exports to the United States come from the EIA. US oil imports from Venezuela reached a high of 1.77 million barrels a day in 1997. (www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=pet&s=mttimusve2&f=a) this page: The figure for the number of licensed American drivers comes from the US Federal Highway Administration, an agency within the Department of Transportation (www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/onh00/onh2p4.htm).


pages: 304 words: 88,773

The Ghost Map: A Street, an Epidemic and the Hidden Power of Urban Networks. by Steven Johnson

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call centre, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, Dean Kamen, double helix, edge city, germ theory of disease, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, John Snow's cholera map, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, megacity, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, peak oil, side project, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, trade route, unbiased observer, working poor

London, 1881. Hohenberg, Paul M., and Lynn Hollen Lees. The Making of Urban Europe, 1000–1994. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995. Iberall, Arthur S. “A Physics for Studies of Civilization.” Self-Organizing Systems: The Emergence of Order, ed. F. Eugene Yates. New York and London: Plenum Press, 1987. Jacobs, Jane. The Economy of Cities. New York: Random House, 1969. ——. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage, 1992. ——. The Nature of Economies. New York: Modern Library, 2000. Kelly, John. The Great Mortality: An Intimate History of the Black Death, the Most Devastating Plague of All Time. New York: HarperCollins, 2005. Koch, Tom. Cartographies of Disease: Maps, Mapping, and Medicine. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press, 2005. Kostof, Spiro. The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History.


pages: 265 words: 15,515

Nomad Citizenship: Free-Market Communism and the Slow-Motion General Strike by Eugene W. Holland

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capital controls, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, deskilling, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, price mechanism, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, slashdot, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, wage slave, working poor

The very density, anonymity, and complexity of city life counterbalances the centripetal force of commu­ nity self-organization and self-identification, compelling or encouraging urban dwellers to frequent “public spaces [where] people encounter other people, meanings, expressions, issues, which they may not understand or with which they do not identify.”40 City living not only fosters the de­ velopment of multiple, different affinity groups but also brings members of those groups into regular contact with others: the complexity of the city thus fosters not just self-contained difference but related difference. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jacobs provides a pio­ neering account of the city as matrix of immanently related difference. H er work opposed not only the practices and programs of urban renewal rampant in post-World War II America but also the modernist view of city planning promulgated by Le Corbusier and others starting early in the century.41 The modernist city planner sought to simplify and ratio­ nalize the city: his ideal was a gridlike plan whereby various urban func­ tions—commercial, recreational, industrial, residential, and so on—would be carefully segregated from one other and the “formal layout” of city structure purified accordingly.42 To Jacobs, such single-use functionalism and geometrical moralism were anathema: she favored, instead, the rich complexity of multiuse urbanism as it emerged over time, without the need for top-down planning.43And where Follett emphasized the self-sufficiency of the neighborhood, Jacobs emphasized its necessary imbrication in the larger structures and dynamics of the surrounding city.


pages: 327 words: 97,720

Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection by John T. Cacioppo

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Alfred Russel Wallace, biofilm, butterfly effect, Celebration, Florida, corporate governance, delayed gratification, experimental subject, impulse control, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, Rodney Brooks, Ted Kaczynski, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Walter Mischel

The apartheid government of South Africa went so far as to destroy a wide swath of Cape Town—a mixed-race area called District Six—precisely because of its rich sense of community. The harmony that had flourished among the district’s crowded mix of blacks and whites and Asian immigrants gave the lie to the ruling party’s agenda of racial separatism. In the 1960s urbanists like Jane Jacobs launched a counteroffensive. Jacobs’s book The Death and Life of Great American Cities is her paean to her own “village”—Greenwich Village in New York City. In its pages she extols the vitality of life on a smaller, more compact scale, where people live and work on the same block. She writes about the greater trust and sense of connection, as well as the enriching, serendipitous encounters that result. I can attest to her insight, because my wife and I live in just such an urban village, a cluster of nineteenth-century row houses where neighbors know one another’s children and pets and keep up with the progress of one another’s plantings beside the doorsteps.


words: 49,604

The Weightless World: Strategies for Managing the Digital Economy by Diane Coyle

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barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, clean water, computer age, Corn Laws, cross-subsidies, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, Diane Coyle, Edward Glaeser, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, financial deregulation, full employment, global village, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, McJob, microcredit, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, night-watchman state, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, pension reform, pensions crisis, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, two tier labour market, very high income, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, working-age population

This section draws on Lets on Low Income, Barnes, North and Walker; ‘The Transatlantic Money Revolution’ by David Boyle in New Economics Winter 1996, and discussions with Ed Mayo. Figures from LETS Make Money Work for People, by Gill Seyfang and Colin Williams, Kindred Spirit, August 1997. In The Independent, London, 19 July 1995. Quoted in The New York Times, 29 September 1996. In Meadows, Work Out — or Work In? Interview in Independent on Sunday, London, 5 May 1996. The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jane Jacobs, 1961. In Making Welfare Work, 1995. In Economic Trends, July 1996. Chapter Five. Fear of Flexibility ‘Bill Clinton has created ten million jobs — and two of them are mine.’ It was one of the classic jokes of President Clinton’s 1996 re-election campaign. The US economy has had an unparalleled record of high job creation and low unemployment since the trough of its recession in 1992.


pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

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3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar

This order is all composed of movement and change, and although it is life, not art, we may fancifully call it the art form of the city and liken it to the dance—not to a simple-minded precision dance with everyone kicking up at the same time, twirling in unison and bowing off en masse, but to an intricate ballet in which the individual dancers and ensembles all have distinctive parts which miraculously reinforce each other and compose an orderly whole. The ballet of the good city sidewalk never repeats itself from place to place, and in any one place it is always replete with new improvisations. —JANE JACOBS, THE DEATH AND LIFE OF GREAT AMERICAN CITIES I LOVE THIS PASSAGE by urban planner Jane Jacobs. Her description of a city street that works—a place where infrastructure encourages the intricate ballet of life to flourish—is an analogy for what is required when building a Peers Inc platform. It took months of eighteen-hour days to ready Zipcar for launch. Grabbing an emerging opportunity and growing a market share requires the right people with the right strategy at the right moment (and what’s right changes over time) because they all must come together to create a resilient and inviting infrastructure for peers.


pages: 471 words: 97,152

Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism by George A. Akerlof, Robert J. Shiller

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affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, market bubble, market clearing, mental accounting, Mikhail Gorbachev, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

“Relative Prices and Relative Prosperity.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 9701, May. Ikegami, Eiko, 2005. Bonds of Civility: Aesthetic Networks and the Political Origins of Japanese Culture. Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge University Press. Ip, Greg. 1994. “Routine No Longer Governs Crow’s Life.” Financial Post (Toronto), April 28, p. 15. Jacobs, Jane. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House. James, Henry. 1983 [1904]. The Golden Bowl. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Juhn, Chinhui, Kevin M. Murphy, and Brooks Pierce. 1993. “Wage Inequality and the Rise in Returns to Skill.” Journal of Political Economy 101(3):410–42. Jung, Jeeman, and Robert J. Shiller. 2005. “Samuelson’s Dictum and the Stock Market.” Economic Inquiry 43(2):221–28.


pages: 497 words: 150,205

European Spring: Why Our Economies and Politics Are in a Mess - and How to Put Them Right by Philippe Legrain

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3D printing, Airbnb, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, cleantech, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, Diane Coyle, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, eurozone crisis, fear of failure, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, interest rate derivative, Irish property bubble, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidity trap, margin call, Martin Wolf, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, price stability, private sector deleveraging, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, savings glut, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, working-age population, Zipcar

title=File:Gross_domestic_expenditure_on_R%26D,_2000-2010_%28%25_share_of_GDP%29.jpg 595 http://www.oecd.org/site/innovationstrategy/45183382.pdf 596 http://www.oecd.org/site/innovationstrategy/45184357.pdf 597 Nick Bloom, Mirko Draca and John Van Reenen, “Trade Induced Technical Change: The Impact of Chinese Imports on Innovation and Productivity”, CEPR Discussion Paper No. 1000, 2011 http://www.voxeu.org/article/who-s-afraid-big-bad-dragon-how-chinese-trade-boosts-european-innovation 598 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Random House: 1961 599 Edward Glaeser, Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier and Happier, Macmillan: 2011 600 http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/d6074404-48f5-11e0-af8c-00144feab49a.html 601 http://www.economist.com/news/business/21581695-city-leaders-are-increasingly-adopting-business-methods-and-promoting-business-mayors-and-mammon 602 Alfred Marshall, Principles of Economics, 1890 603 Pierre Azoulay, Joshua Graff Zivin and Bhaven Sampat, "The diffusion of scientific knowledge across time and space: Evidence from professional transitions for the superstars of medicine", NBER Working Paper #16683, January 2011 604 Benjamin Jones, "The burden of knowledge and the ‘death of the renaissance man’: Is innovation getting harder?"


pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

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3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

Putnam, Elite Transformation in Advanced Industrial Societies: An Empirical Assessment of the Theory of Technocracy (Ann Arbor: Institute of Public Policy Studies, University of Michigan, 1976), 11. 137 “For Larry [Page] and Sergey [Brin], truth was often self-evident”: Douglas Edwards, “Google Goes Electric,” Xooglers, March 22, 2011, http://xooglers.blogspot.com/2011/03/google-goes-electric.html. 138 fundamental assumption “is that disagreements occur”: F. Ridley and J. Blondel, Public Administration in France (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964). 138 Jane Jacobs’ attack on unimaginative urban planning, Isaiah Berlin’s attack on “procrusteanism,” Hayek’s attack on central planning, Popper’s attack on historicism, Michael Oakeshott’s attack on rationalism: see Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1992); on Berlin’s “anti-procusteanism” see Jonathan Allen, “Isaiah Berlin’s Anti-Procrustean Liberalism: Ideas, Circumstances, and the Protean Individual,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association (August 28–31, 2003, Philadelphia, PA). Available at http://berlin.wolf.ox.ac.uk/lists/onib/allen2003.pdf; Friedrich Hayek.


pages: 483 words: 134,377

The Tyranny of Experts: Economists, Dictators, and the Forgotten Rights of the Poor by William Easterly

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air freight, Andrei Shleifer, battle of ideas, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, discovery of the americas, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, greed is good, income per capita, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, M-Pesa, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, place-making, Ponzi scheme, risk/return, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey, young professional

“Talk by Robert Moses at The Baruch Houses Dedication, Wednesday Afternoon, August 19, 1953,” Robert Moses Papers, New York Public Library Manuscript and Archives Division, New York. 31. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/abex/hd_abex.htm, accessed August 31, 2013. 32. Jessamyn Fiore, 112 Greene Street: The Early Years (1970–1974) (New York: Radius Books/David Zwirner, 2012), 10. 33. Joyce Silver, interview by Laura Freschi, October 19, 2012, New York. 34. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 2002), 13, 35. 35. Joe Catuccio, interview by Laura Freschi, June 29, 2013, New York. 36. “The Project of Living Artists,” http://www.newyorkartworld.com/gallery/project-livingartists.html, accessed August 31, 2013. 37. François Quesnay, Despotism in China: A Translation of François Quesnay’s Le Despotisme de la Chine (Paris 1767), in Lewis A. Maverick, China: A Model for Europe (San Antonio, TX: Paul Anderson Company, 1946), 302. 38.


pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

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1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, means of production, megacity, megastructure, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks

See Jamie Peck, ‘Economic Rationality Meets Celebrity Urbanology: Exploring Edward Glaeser’s City’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 2016 (forthcoming). 6Paul Goldberger, ‘Too Rich, Too Thin, Too Tall, Vanity Fair, May 2014. 7As well as blocking out light, new towers often create wind systems at ground level that can be uncomfortable and even dangerous to those on the street. 8Lloyd Alter, ‘It’s Time to Dump the Tired Argument That Density and Height Are Green and Sustainable’, Treehugger, 3 January 2014, available at treehugger.com. 9Ibid. 10Samuel Zipp ‘The Roots and Routes of Urban Renewal’, Journal of Urban History 39:3, May 2013, p. 372. 11Walter Gropius, The New Architecture and the Bauhaus, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965, p. 146. 12Paul Christoph Haacke, ‘The Vertical Turn: Topographies of Metropolitan Modernism’, PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 2011, available at escholarship.org/uc/item/1857736f. 13Fosco Lucarelli and Mariabruna Fabrizi, ‘The Trellick Tower: The Fall and Rise of a Modern Monument’, San Rocco Magazine 5, Fall 2012. 14Sigfried Giedeon, Building in France, Building in Iron, Building in Ferroconcrete, Santa Monica, CA: Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities, 1995 [1928]. 15Le Corbusier, The City of Tomorrow and Its Planning, New York: Dover, 1987 [1927], p. 280. 16This term comes from the US Citizens Housing Council, 1940. Cited in Zipp, ‘Roots and Routes’, p. 274. 17Cited in Zipp, ‘Roots and Routes’, p. 376. 18Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York: Random House, 1961, p. 46. 19Cited in Jacobs, Cairns and Strebel, ‘A Tall Storey’, p. 614. 20The poem, by Ken Rogers, comes from his tribute to people who were rehoused and often moved as part of the slum clearances in Liverpool in the 1960s. See Ken Rogers, Lost Tribe: The People’s Memories: 2. Liverpool: Trinity Mirror North West and North Wales, 2012, p. 7. 21Oscar Newman, Defensible Space, New York: Macmillan, 1972; Alice Coleman, Utopia on Trial: Vision and Reality in Planned Housing, London: Shipman, 1985. 22Douglas Gorney, ‘City Limits: A Conversation with Edward Glaeser’, Atlantic, 8 February 2011. 23Dukmasova, ‘Tricknology’, p. 25. 24Ibid., pp. 25, 26. 25Charles Jencks, The Paradigm in Architecture, cited in Charles Jencks and Karl Kropf, Theories and Manifestoes of Contemporary Architecture, New York: Academy Press, 1997, p. 9. 26Garrett Dash-Nelson, ‘Pruitt-Igoe: Facts and Memories of an American Ruin’, unpublished paper, 2009, p. 4, available at http://people.matinic.us/. 27Ibid., p. 1. 28Ibid., p. 2. 29The planned media spectacle of the demolitions followed a long series of previous destructions that were merely reported by the usual TV and news outlets; 25 per cent of Glasgow’s high-rise blocks were demolished between 2005 and 2015. 30Severin Carrell, ‘Glasgow 2014: Red Road Flats to Be Blown Up During Opening Ceremony’, Guardian, 3 April 2014. 31Tracey McVeigh, ‘Backlash at Plans to Demolish Red Road Flats Live on Television’, Observer, 6 April 2014. 32Ibid. 33Williams Goldhagen, ‘On Architecture: Living High’, New Republic, 7 June 2012. 34David Madden, ‘Five Myths about Public Housing’, Washington Post, 11 September 2015. 35Owen Hatherley, Militant Modernism, London: John Hunt Publishing, 2009, p. 13 (emphasis in original). 36Jane M.


pages: 518 words: 147,036

The Fissured Workplace by David Weil

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, barriers to entry, business process, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, employer provided health coverage, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, intermodal, inventory management, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Rogoff, law of one price, loss aversion, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, occupational segregation, performance metric, pre–internet, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, Rana Plaza, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, ultimatum game, union organizing, women in the workforce, Y2K, yield management

Hutchins, B. L., and A. Harrison. 1926. A History of Factory Legislation. 3rd ed. London: Frank Cass. International Labour Office. 2006. Strategies and Practices for Labour Inspection. Governing Body, 297th Session, GB.297/ESP/3. Geneva: International Labour Office. Investment Company Institute. 2012. 2012 Investment Company Fact Book. 52nd ed. www.icifactbook.org. Jacobs, Jane. 1961. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Vintage. Jacoby, Neil. 1969. “The Conglomerate Corporation.” The Center Magazine 2, 1–20. Jacoby, Sandy. 1999. “Are Career Jobs Headed for Extinction?” California Management Review 42, no. 1: 123–145. James, P., R. Johnstone, M. Quinlan, and D. Walters. 2007. “Regulating Supply Chains to Improve Health and Safety.” Industrial Law Journal 36, no. 2: 163–187. Jamieson, Dave. 2011.

Culture and Prosperity: The Truth About Markets - Why Some Nations Are Rich but Most Remain Poor by John Kay

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Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, California gold rush, complexity theory, computer age, constrained optimization, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equity premium, Ernest Rutherford, European colonialism, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, failed state, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, George Gilder, greed is good, haute couture, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nash equilibrium, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pets.com, popular electronics, price discrimination, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, second-price auction, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, transaction costs, tulip mania, urban decay, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, yield curve, yield management

"Economic Levels of 65 Societies, Superimposed on Two Dimensions of Cross-Cultural Variation." American Sociological Review 65 (February): 19-51. Inglehart, R, M. Basafi.ez, A. Moreno, and M. Moreno. 1998. Human Values and Beliefs: A Cross-Cultural Sourcebook: Political) Religious) Sexual) and Economic Norms in 43 Societies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Jacobs,]. 1961. The Death and Life ofGreat American Cities. New York: Random House. { 400} Bibliography James, K. R. 2000. "The Price of Retail Investing in the UK. FSA Occasional Paper 6 (February). Jameson, F. 1992. Postmodernism: Or the Cultural Logic ofLate Capitalism. London: Verso Books. Jasny, N. 1965. Khrushchev's Crop Policy. Glasgow: George Outram and Co. Jay, P. 2000. Road to Riches or the Wealth ofMan. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.


pages: 468 words: 123,823

A People's History of Poverty in America by Stephen Pimpare

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affirmative action, British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, East Village, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, payday loans, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Plotnick, and Mark Evan Edwards, “Determinants of Initial Entry onto Welfare by Young Women,” Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 19, no. 4 (2000): 527–46. 16 Steven VanderStaay, Street Lives: An Oral History of Homeless Americans (Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1992), 170. 17 Joe Soss, Unwanted Claims: The Politics of Participation in the U.S. Welfare System (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2002), 45. 18 Katherine S. Newman, No Shame in My Game: The Working Poor in the Inner City (New York: Vintage, 1999), 219. 19 Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Vintage, 1961). 20 Nicholas Lemann, “Bad Choices: A Welfare Soap Opera,” Washington Post, October 5–8, 1980 (four-part series). 21 Note also Mexican American field laborer Grace Palacio Arceneaux, interviewed in 1977, about growing up in California and the stinginess of relief: “Man, they never gave us anything, but they watched us like a hawk. We’d go sometimes to the garbage cans and take good cans and wash them out, dry them, leave the label on . . . and put them so that our cupboard always had a lot of food.


pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

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3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Yogi Berra

American Sociological Review 56, no. 4 (August 1991): 524–37. Isard, Walter. Location and Space-Economy: A General Theory Relating to Industrial Location, Market Areas, Land Use, Trade, and Urban Structure. New York: Wiley, 1956. Issenberg, Sasha. The Sushi Economy: Globalization and the Making of a Modern Delicacy. New York: Gotham Books, 2007. Jacobs, Jane. Cities and the Wealth of Nations. New York: Vintage Books, 1985. ———. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Modern Library, 1993. ———. The Economy of Cities. New York: Random House, 1969. Jevons, William Stanley. The Coal Question: An Enquiry Concerning the Progress of the Nation, and the Probable Exhaustion of Our Coal-Mines. 2nd ed. London: Macmillan, 1866. Kasarda, John D. “Aerotropolis: Airport-Driven Urban Development.” In ULI on the Future: Cities in the 21st Century, 32–41.


pages: 559 words: 169,094

The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America by George Packer

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bank run, big-box store, citizen journalism, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, East Village, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, financial independence, financial innovation, Flash crash, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, new economy, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, smart grid, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, urban planning, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight

When he was covering city hall at The Palm Beach Post, he’d gotten deeply interested in urban planning—for a while he even thought about switching careers, until he realized that city planners had even less clout than reporters. But his bookshelves filled up with titles like A Field Guide to Sprawl, The History of the Lawn, Suburban Nation, and the pair that were his bibles: The Power Broker and The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Van Sickler became a Jane Jacobs disciple. She gave a vocabulary to the desire he had felt growing up in Cleveland Heights with no one around on those excruciating summer afternoons: short blocks, pedestrian permeability, mixed uses, safety in eyes on the street, density. Life was richest and most creative where people of different backgrounds could meet face-to-face and exchange ideas.


pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

Ikenberry, John. 2011: Liberal Leviathan: The Origins, Crisis, and Transformation of the American World Order. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Index. 2011: Index on Censorship. Vol. 40, no 2. Los Angeles: Sage. Jack, Malcolm, ed. 2011: Erskine May’s Treatise on the Law, Privileges, Proceedings and Usage of Parliament. 24th ed. London: LexisNexis. Jacobs, Jane. 1993: The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Modern Library. Jarvis, Jeff. 2011: Public Parts: How Sharing in the Digital Age Improves the Way We Work and Live. New York: Simon & Schuster. Jordan, Scott. 2010: ‘The Application of Net Neutrality to Wireless Networks Based on Network Architecture’. Policy & Internet, vol. 2, no. 2, article 6. doi: 10.2202/1944-2866.1052. Judt, Tony. 2010: The Memory Chalet. London: Heinemann.