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Near and Distant Neighbors: A New History of Soviet Intelligence by Jonathan Haslam
active measures, Albert Einstein, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bolshevik threat, Bretton Woods, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, falling living standards, John von Neumann, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Valery Gerasimov, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, éminence grise
Moreover, his son-in-law, working for an aerospace company in Britain, was threatened with dismissal on the grounds that he had placed the firm in jeopardy—until, that is, the leader of the Socialist Party, Bettino Craxi, intervened.30 Later Bohnsack reported that the HVA in Berlin was asked to circulate disinformation on behalf of the Bulgarians. Among other active measures, they “sent messages signed by Turkish terrorists.”31 When the Bild Zeitung sent a reporter and a historian to interview Antonov at his apartment in Sofia, they were greeted by his wife and two men, one of whom introduced himself as Marin Petkov, president of the Association of Ex–Intelligence Officials. Bohnsack later identified Petkov as having headed active measures in the Bulgarian secret service.32 On May 28, 1983, two Bulgarians, “Jordan” Ormankov and “Stefan” Petkov, arrived in Italy, claiming to be magistrates. They gained access to Ağca in October 1983. The meetings apparently gave Petkov the opportunity to threaten that if Ağca did not disrupt the forthcoming trial, the Russians would take revenge.33 Thereafter, Ağca wrecked any attempt to sort out the true facts of the case and to prosecute anyone other than himself by feigning madness, declaring himself to be Jesus Christ.
Pride Before the Fall Conclusion: Out from the Shadows Appendix 1: Soviet Foreign Intelligence Organisations Appendix 2: Operatives Who Betrayed the Régime, Including Defectors Notes Bibliography Index A Note About the Author Also by Jonathan Haslam Copyright Guide Cover Table of Contents Intelligence is for us sacred, a matter of ideals. —Stalin Fear has large eyes. —Russian proverb RUSSIAN INTELLIGENCE IDIOM (SOVIET PERIOD) Agenturíst: operative responsible for running agents Aktívnaya razvédka/aktívka (active intelligence): terrorism and sabotage Aktívnye meropriyátiya (active measures): black propaganda, dirty tricks, etc. Boevýe shífry: working ciphers Bol’shói Dom (literally, the “Big House”): Comintern; later the Lubyanka Chertvyórtyi: the Fourth Directorate of the Staff/General Staff, later GRU Dezá (dezinformátsiya): disinformation Enkavedíst: employee of the NKVD (GUGB), state security Ente-eróvsev: scientific and technical intelligence operative Gámma: ciphering sequence/one-time pad Gebíst: state security operative Geberóvskii: state security operative Gereúshnik: GRU operative Kagebíst/kagebéshnik: KGB operative Kirpích (literally, “brick”): watchman on delegations abroad Komitétchik (literally, “committee man”): KGB operative Kontóra (literally, “office”): KGB First Main Directorate at Yasenevo Krokíst: counterintelligence operative, state security (OGPU) Krýsha (literally, “roof”): cover Lástochnik (swallow): female operative employed for seduction Lesá (the woods): KGB school, later the First Main Directorate at Yasenevo Lózung: a crib for breaking open a cipher Marshrútnyi agént: employee of state security handling communications Nevidímyi front (invisible front): secret intelligence Óboroten (literally, “shapeshifter”): turncoat/traitor Omsóvets: operative in Comintern’s department for international communications Opér: abbreviation for either Operatívnyi sotrúdnik/ofitsér or Operabótnik Operabótnik: KGB operative Operatívnyi sotrúdnik/ofitsér: GRU operative Opertékhnik: a technical operative Operupolnomóchennyi: one responsible for a particular operation Osobísty: GRU officers Osóbye meropriyátiya (special measures): assassination and other tasks approved only by the Politburo Osóbye zadáchi (special tasks): assassination and other tasks approved only by the Politburo Osvedomítel’: information operative Pe-eróvets: political intelligence operative Podkrýshnik: operative under deep cover Razvédupr’ (Razvedyvatel ’noe upravlenie): a generic term for military intelligence Rezident: chief of a secret intelligence station Rezidentura: secret intelligence station Sapogí (boots): KGB term for GRU counterparts S”em (literally, “removal”): seizure of a traitor Shifrográmma: ciphered telegram Svád’ba (literally, “wedding”): seizure of a traitor Tsereúshnik: CIA officer Verbóvshchik: operative specialising in recruitment Vorón (“raven”): male operative employed for seduction Zagrantóchka: overseas post PREFACE The role of secret intelligence in the history of international relations has long been a neglected one.
The fact that he had survived even the ill-fated Yagoda and the hated Yezhov did not help.5 Striking continuities persisted, even following the spring cleaning after Stalin’s death. On September 3, 1953, for example, proposals put forward by First Deputy Minister of the MVD Sergei Kruglov and by Panyushkin, “to recognise the value of engaging in acts of terrorism”—a term later euphemistically changed to aktivka, or “active measures”—were turned into a decree providing for the organisation of a twelfth (special) department within the MVD’s foreign directorate.6 These were plans carried over from Beria by the head of the MVD’s First Directorate, Pyotr Fyodotov, and his deputy, Oleg Gribanov.7 Yet the men of the greatest experience most capable of leading the campaign, Pavel Sudoplatov and Naum Eitingon, remained incarcerated under special interrogation for having been closely associated with Beria.
Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America by Peter Dale Scott, Jonathan Marshall
Embassy in Costa Rica.”44 It is clear from an FBI teletype released belatedly by the Select Committees that Terrell had been interviewed by them about “alleged . . . smuggling o f weapons and narcotics”4s FBI Agent Kevin Currier confirmed that he had questioned Garcia about “ narcotics trafficking with the Cubans.”46 FBI Executive Assistant Director Oliver Revell also testified later that the investigation focused on “allegations o f drug smuggling and gun smuggling and so forth.”47 In short, the Iran-Contra committees misled the U.S. public by tacitly backing the administration’s denials that there was a drug investigation in Miami. One man who perceived that the Miami investigation did involve narcotics allegations was Oliver North. In a memo he drafted for the president about Terrell (whom he called “ an active participant in the disinform ation/active measures campaign” against the Contras), he also described Terrell as “a cooperating witness in a neutrality investigation concerning alleged activities o f the Civilian Military Assistance (CMA) group—involving weapons and narcotics smuggling, plotting the assassination o f . . . Tambs, and bombing his embassy.”48 The Administration Moves to Silence the Terrell Story By this time the Corvo investigation, mired in conspiratorial subplots, had attracted the hostile interest o f North and Poindexter at the NSC 134 / Exposure and Cover-Up and o f Attorney General Meese and his deputy Lowell Jensen at the Justice Department.
Asked by House Iran-Contra committee counsel 138 / Exposure and Cover-Up “why they felt it was being so slow, ״Revell gave as the first reason, “ It seems to me there was a civil suit— ״the Christie Institute suit.76 On June 3, North asked the FBI to have its Intelligence Division investigate the Christie Institute, along with other aspects o f what he and the FBI called a “Nicaraguan Active Measures Program ״directed against North. In the words o f the Iran-Contra report, North “complained that the FBI . . . had not investigated Daniel Sheehan o f the Christie Institute . . . [and] had not examined allegations made by Senator Kerry against North. ״Specifically North complained that the FBI had not learned from Daniel Sheehan o f the Christie Institute “ the source [i.e., Terrell] o f the allegations he provided against North, ״and had not obtained “ the information presently at the Department o f Justice [which would include the rewritten Feldman memo] involving Senator Kerry’s allegations.”77 In June 1986 North apparently tried, and failed, to have the FBI’s Intelligence Division investigate both the Christie suit and the Kerry investigation.
., Terrell] o f the allegations he provided against North, ״and had not obtained “ the information presently at the Department o f Justice [which would include the rewritten Feldman memo] involving Senator Kerry’s allegations.”77 In June 1986 North apparently tried, and failed, to have the FBI’s Intelligence Division investigate both the Christie suit and the Kerry investigation. The FBI had already concluded that “there is a definite association between the dates o f the Congressional votes on Contra aide [sic] to the Nicaraguan rebels and the ‘active measures’ being directed against Lieutenant Colonel North,” but trying to stay out o f a sensitive political fight between the White House and Congress, they declined to pursue the matter.78 (One month later North succeeded in using counterterrorism powers to invoke a different part o f the FBI to the same end.) On June 25, 1986, Terrell aired his charges about the relationship o f North and Owen to the John Hull ranch in Costa Rica on the CBS show “West 57th.”
The Eureka Factor by John Kounios
active measures, Albert Einstein, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, deliberate practice, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, Flynn Effect, functional fixedness, Google Hangouts, impulse control, invention of the telephone, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Necker cube, pattern recognition, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, theory of mind, US Airways Flight 1549, Wall-E, William of Occam
RANDOM HOUSE and the HOUSE colophon are registered trademarks of Penguin Random House LLC. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA Kounios, John. The eureka factor: aha moments, creative insight, and the brain / John Kounios and Mark Beeman. pages cm Includes index. ISBN 978-1-4000-6854-8 eBook ISBN 978-0-679-64529-0 1. Insight. 2. Intuition. 3. Thought and thinking—Physiological aspects. 4. Higher nervous activity—Measurement. 5. Cognition—Physiological aspects. I. Beeman, Mark. II. Title. QP395.K65 2015 612.82332—dc23 2014022220 www.atrandom.com Illustrations on 2.1, 2.2, 4.1-4.3, 6.1, 7.2, and 10.2 are by Sharon O’Brien, and illustrations on 3.5 and 12.1 are by Casey Hampton. Book design by Casey Hampton v3.1 PREFACE “Eureka!” No one knows for sure whether Archimedes really shouted this word, jumped from his bathtub, and ran through the streets of ancient Syracuse proclaiming his latest discovery.
Sometimes you have to isolate yourself and focus your attention inwardly to allow a new idea to surface. The brain can achieve this state of inward focus in several ways. THE IDLING BRAIN * * * Our first neuroimaging study, which we described in Chapter 5, produced a finding that took us a while to understand. Recall that at the moment of insight there is a burst of EEG gamma waves in the right hemisphere. About a second before that, there is a burst of EEG alpha-wave activity measured on the right side of the back of the head (see figure 7.1). When neurons fire at the slower alpha frequency, they aren’t actively processing information. A useful analogy is that of idling your car by shifting the transmission into park. The car is working, but it isn’t going anywhere. Alpha is a neuron’s park. So, just before an insight, a region in the back of the brain downshifts into alpha.
This can make it difficult for them to shut out distractions, such as the sound of a nearby conversation, when they are trying to work. It’s not that they can’t focus when they need to. In fact, for relatively short periods, they can focus at least as well as other people, perhaps better. But this isn’t their natural state, so it’s a bit harder for them to sustain it. Our brain wave findings illustrate this principle. Figure 11.1 shows a map of EEG brain wave activity measured at the back of the head. It shows a major difference between our Insightfuls and Analysts. These electrodes (shown as dark dots) lie over the visual cortex, which is in the back of the brain. As shown by the white oval on the map, we detected more visual cortex activity for Insightfuls compared with the Analysts. Even in a resting state, the Insightfuls’ brains were doing more visual information processing.
97 Things Every Programmer Should Know by Kevlin Henney
A Pattern Language, active measures, business intelligence, commoditize, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, database schema, deliberate practice, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, Donald Knuth, fixed income, general-purpose programming language, Grace Hopper, index card, inventory management, job satisfaction, loose coupling, Silicon Valley, sorting algorithm, The Wisdom of Crowds
Commented-out code is not executable code, so it has no useful effect for either reader or runtime. It also becomes stale very quickly. Version-related comments and commented-out code try to address questions of versioning and history. These questions have already been answered (far more effectively) by version control tools. A prevalence of noisy comments and incorrect comments in a codebase encourages programmers to ignore all comments, either by skipping past them or by taking active measures to hide them. Programmers are resourceful and will route around anything perceived to be damage: folding comments up; switching coloring scheme so that comments and the background are the same color; scripting to filter out comments. To save a codebase from such misapplications of programmer ingenuity, and to reduce the risk of overlooking any comments of genuine value, comments should be treated as though they were code.
The Defence of the Realm by Christopher Andrew
active measures, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Clive Stafford Smith, collective bargaining, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Desert Island Discs, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, large denomination, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, Red Clydeside, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, strikebreaker, Torches of Freedom, traveling salesman, union organizing, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, Winter of Discontent
On the first Commonwealth Security Conference, see above, pp. 371–2. 15 ‘Sir Percy Sillitoe’s Visit to South Africa’, 14 Nov. 1949, TNA PREM 8/1283; cited by Chavkin, ‘British Intelligence and the Zionist, South African and Australian Communities’. 16 Sillitoe to SLO Central Africa, 20 Dec. 1951, TNA KV 2/2053, s. 148a; cited by Chavkin, ‘British Intelligence and the Zionist, South African and Australian Communities’. 17 De Quehen to DG, 31 Dec. 1951, TNA KV 2/2053, s. 152a; cited by Chavkin, ‘British Intelligence and the Zionist, South African and Australian Communities’. 18 Security Service Archives. 19 Security Service Archives. 20 Security Service Archives. 21 Security Service Archives. 22 Security Service Archives. 23 Security Service Archives. 24 Security Service Archives. 25 Andrew and Mitrokhin, Mitrokhin Archive II, pp. 323, 330. 26 Security Service Archives. 27 Security Service Archives. 28 Security Service Archives. 29 Security Service Archives. 30 On KGB operations in India, see Andrew and Mitrokhin, Mitrokhin Archive II, chs 17, 18. 31 DG (Hollis) to Sir Burke Trend (cabinet secretary), 18 Nov. 1965, TNA CO 1035/187, no serial number. Freeman was concerned by news that budget cutbacks, imposed by the Treasury, might put the SLO’s post at risk. Freeman was himself one of the targets of KGB active measures in India aimed at discrediting US and British policy. Before the 1967 Indian elections a bogus letter from Freeman forged by the KGB, claiming that the CIA was secretly giving vast sums to right-wing parties and politicians, appeared in the press. On this occasion, however, Service A (the KGB active measures department) slipped up. The latter wrongly identified Mr Freeman as Sir John Freeman. Andrew and Mitrokhin, Mitrokhin Archive II, pp. 317–18. 32 Rimington, Open Secret, pp. 66–7. 33 Louis and Robinson, ‘The Imperialism of Decolonisation’. 34 In some posts SLOs/DSOs answered to the heads of SIME and SIFE. 35 A rare exception to the goodwill usually engendered by Sillitoe’s imperial tours was a bad-tempered clash in 1948 with the head of the Malayan Security Service from which he eventually emerged victorious.
Its residency in New Delhi was rewarded for its operational successes by being upgraded to the status of ‘main residency’. Oleg Kalugin, who became head of counter-intelligence in KGB foreign intelligence (and its youngest general) in 1973, remembers India as ‘a model of KGB infiltration of a Third World government’. India under Nehru’s daughter and successor, Indira Gandhi, was probably also the arena for more KGB ‘active measures’ than anywhere else in the world.30 Successive SLOs’ close relations with the DIB made their inside information on Indian politics and government policy of increasing value to the British high commission at a time when the Soviet Union, through KGB as well as overt channels, was attempting to establish a special relationship with India. In 1965, a year after Nehru’s death, the high commissioner, John Freeman, wrote to Hollis to say how much he valued the SLO’s information: ‘his liaison is one which continues unaffected by changes in Indo-British relations.’31 Most of the SLOs appointed to New Delhi were gregarious people, fond of India and good at getting on with both the DIB and their high commission colleagues.
You can see from this what the facts really were and how, by careful reporting, success can be created out of very little.23 Though the KGB was believed to have assessed Jones’s motives as ideological during the period when it regarded him as an agent, Gordievsky found him willing to accept gifts, some of them in cash.24 The DG, Sir Tony Duff, reported to the cabinet secretary in October 1985 that Jones ‘last received money (£250) from his case officer [Gordievsky] on the instructions of the KGB Centre in May 1984’. Thereafter the Centre issued instructions that, given Jones’s lack of access to confidential information, he was to be contacted only at six-monthly intervals.25 Unlike Jack Jones, the veteran KGB agent Bob Edwards MP was almost unknown outside Westminster and the ranks of the hard left. He remained, however, an enthusiastic participant in Soviet ‘active measures’ (influence operations). Though there is no evidence that these had any significant impact, the KGB rated him highly and awarded him the Order of the People’s Friendship, the third-highest Soviet decoration, in 1980.26 The medal remained in his file at the Centre but on one occasion was taken by his case officer, Leonid Zaitsev, to show him at a meeting in Brussels. Zaitsev, who had run Edwards while he was stationed at the London residency in the 1960s, was by then head of FCD Directorate T (science and technology) but continued as his controller – partly, Gordievsky believed, because he regarded Edwards as an old friend, partly because he liked trips to the West as an operations officer.27 Remarkably, the KGB made arrangements to stay in contact with Edwards by radio and dead letter-box (DLB) in the event of war.28 Gordievsky reported that most of Line PR’s political reporting from London to the Centre was based not on secret sources but on the press and conversations with journalists and politicians – though some contacts received substantial payments.29 Though the arrival of Gordievsky at the London residency in 1982 and the remarkable quality of the intelligence he supplied marked one of the high points of British intelligence during the Cold War, the public image was one of Soviet rather than British intelligence successes.
The Global Auction: The Broken Promises of Education, Jobs, and Incomes by Phillip Brown, Hugh Lauder, David Ashton
active measures, affirmative action, barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, glass ceiling, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market design, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, post-industrial society, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, zero-sum game
In short, the state must assume a new active role in the development of a societal project, where a new opportunity bargain takes center stage.20 Smarter Government Relying on market forces is no way to run an economy. The state must extend its role to become a strategic economic partner if America is to stand any chance of tackling the reverse auction and improving the quality of life for American workers and their families. America and Britain have been outsmarted by other nations that understand markets cannot be left to their own devices. East Asian economies have taken active measures to govern markets in the national interest. China, in particular, has mobilized huge resources investing in roads, airports, research facilities, and energy supplies. They insisted on joint ventures between foreign and domestic companies as a way of transferring technologies and know-how in exchange for access to its huge domestic market. They also targeted major R&D investments in ﬁelds offering potential for employment growth, including green technologies.
The Data Warehouse Toolkit: The Definitive Guide to Dimensional Modeling by Ralph Kimball, Margy Ross
active measures, Albert Einstein, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, data acquisition, discrete time, inventory management, iterative process, job automation, knowledge worker, performance metric, platform as a service, side project, supply-chain management, zero-sum game
This is a messy situation because you have to search back in history to decide which dimension keys were in effect when the activity occurred. In addition, you may need to adjust any semi-additive balances in subsequent fact rows. In a heavily compliant environment, it is also necessary to interface with the compliance subsystem because you are about to change history. Late arriving dimensions occur when the activity measurement (fact record) arrives at the data warehouse without its full context. In other words, the statuses of the dimensions attached to the activity measurement are ambiguous or unknown for some period of time. If you are living in the conventional batch update cycle of one or more days’ latency, you can usually just wait for the dimensions to be reported. For example, the identiﬁcation of the new customer may come in a separate feed delayed by several hours; you may just be able to wait until the dependency is resolved.
Everything Is Obvious: *Once You Know the Answer by Duncan J. Watts
active measures, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, East Village, easy for humans, difficult for computers, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Santayana, happiness index / gross national happiness, high batting average, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, industrial cluster, interest rate swap, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, medical malpractice, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, oil shock, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, prediction markets, pre–internet, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, school choice, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, urban planning, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize
The outcome of our experiment suggests that they would not. But if so, then you have to wonder how much influence employers can have on worker performance simply by changing financial incentives. A number of studies, in fact, have found that financial incentives can actually undermine performance. When a task is multifaceted or hard to measure, for example, workers tend to focus only on those aspects of their jobs that are actively measured, thereby overlooking other important aspects of the job—like teachers emphasizing the material that will be covered in standardized tests at the expense of overall learning. Financial rewards can also generate a “choking” effect, when the psychological pressure of the reward cancels out the increased desire to perform. Finally, in environments where individual contributions are hard to separate from those of the team, financial rewards can encourage workers to ride on the coattails of the efforts of others, or to avoid taking risks, thereby hampering innovation.
The Global Minotaur by Yanis Varoufakis, Paul Mason
active measures, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, business climate, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, endogenous growth, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, full employment, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, negative equity, new economy, Northern Rock, paper trading, Paul Samuelson, planetary scale, post-oil, price stability, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, structural adjustment programs, systematic trading, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Yom Kippur War
It is no coincidence that both periods led to catastrophic events – 1929 and 2008, respectively. Reading the 1999 Economic Report of the President, we come across the following passage: The value of all mergers and acquisitions announced in 1997 was almost $1 trillion, and activity in 1998 was over $1.6 trillion… Measured relative to the size of the economy, only the spate of trust formations at the turn of the century comes close to the level of current merger activity. Measured relative to the market value of all U.S. companies, however, the 1980s boom was roughly comparable in size. Both ‘consolidation’ waves (of the 1900s and the 1990s) had momentous consequences on Wall Street, effectively multiplying by a considerable factor the capital flows that the banks and other financial institutions were handling. However, the 1990s version was more explosive because of the effects of two new phenomena: the Minotaur-induced capital flight toward America, and the way in which the so-called New Economy, and predominantly the prospects for e-commerce, mesmerized investors.
active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, discounted cash flows, diversified portfolio, double entry bookkeeping, Exxon Valdez, financial innovation, fixed income, hydraulic fracturing, index fund, information asymmetry, intangible asset, inventory management, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, moral hazard, new economy, obamacare, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, value at risk
These changes are affected by varying estimates of future energy prices, in addition to acquisitions, production, and disposals. Interestingly, despite the decrease in the quantity of proved reserves during 2014, Devon reported a 31 percent increase in discounted cash flows. Obviously, this indicator is very sensitive to changes in underlying assumptions. Yet another important indicator of the potential value-creation of the company’s properties is the extent of its productive (energy extraction) activities, measured by the number of wells and rigs operating on the properties, and classified by oil and gas, as well as by geographic areas. Summarizing, the three indicators reported in the Strategic Resources top box—acreage, proved reserves, and productive activity—classified by major geographic areas and types of energy, as well as the forward-looking 188 SO, WHAT’S TO BE DONE? discounted cash flows metric, provide a succinct and comprehensive picture of the company’s major strategic asset, namely its mineral resources.
Reskilling America: Learning to Labor in the Twenty-First Century by Katherine S. Newman, Hella Winston
active measures, blue-collar work, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, deindustrialization, desegregation, factory automation, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job-hopping, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, performance metric, reshoring, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, two tier labour market, union organizing, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, Wolfgang Streeck, working poor
Math on the Job Education researchers have looked at the kinds of math people use on the job and how they use it. For example, John P. Smith III, professor of educational psychology at Michigan State University, studied seventy-five hundred autoworkers in sixteen plants, including facilities that supply Japanese factories. According to the American Association of Mathematicians, he “found three kinds of mathematical domains embedded in workers’ activities: measurement, numerical and quantitative reasoning, and spatial and geometric reasoning.” Ten sites involving high-volume assembly work required only minimal mathematics; most workers repeatedly did the same small set of actions, such as bolting on components using air-pressure wrenches, with manual dexterity, eye-hand coordination, and visual acuity being very important. The mathematical demands on the majority of these workers were limited to counting, measurement, arithmetic with whole numbers or decimals, and interpreting numerical information; only a small number of quality control workers did jobs with more mathematical content.
Winner-Take-All Politics: How Washington Made the Rich Richer-And Turned Its Back on the Middle Class by Paul Pierson, Jacob S. Hacker
accounting loophole / creative accounting, active measures, affirmative action, asset allocation, barriers to entry, Bonfire of the Vanities, business climate, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, desegregation, employer provided health coverage, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, full employment, Home mortgage interest deduction, Howard Zinn, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, moral hazard, Nate Silver, new economy, night-watchman state, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, union organizing, very high income, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce
Its situation must always savor of weakness, sometimes border upon anarchy.7 Of course, among the leading Founders, Hamilton was the most anxious to create a robust capacity for governance. Madison, however, agreed. In Federalist #58, he acknowledged that supermajority rules might create an “obstacle generally to hasty and partial measures,” but went on to insist that “these considerations are outweighed by the inconveniences in the opposite scale. In all cases where justice or the general good might require new laws to be passed, or active measures to be pursued, the fundamental principle of free government would be reversed. It would be no longer the majority that would rule: the power would be transferred to the minority.”8 In ways the Founders could not have anticipated, Madison’s “fundamental principle of free government” is in jeopardy. The United States has developed a combination of features that imperil our government’s capacity to deal with formidable collective challenges—and, indeed, if climate change is as threatening as most scientists believe, imperil the planet on which we live.
The Complete Thyroid Book by Kenneth Ain, M. Sara Rosenthal
This test involves the patient resting comfortably in bed, preferably 22 TEST S AN D L ABS: DIAGNOSI NG THYROI D DISE ASE TABLE 2.2 Lab Tests Used to Measure Thyroid Function Laboratory Tests Normal Range Common Units (International Units) How It’s Used (Condition) Free T4 0.9–1.6 ng/dL (12–21 pmol/L) Measures thyroid hormone available to enter cells (hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis) T3 80–180 ng/dL (1.2–2.8 nmol/L) Measures total T3 (thyrotoxicosis) Free T3 2.2–4.0 ng/L (3.4–6.1 pmol/L) Measures free (unbound) T3 (thyrotoxicosis) Reverse T3 90–350 pg/mL (140–538 pmol/L) Measures reverse T3, an inactive degradation product of T4, increased in illness (not used) TSH 0.6–4.5 µU/mL (0.6–4.5 mU/L) Most sensitive measure of thyroid status (hypothyroidism, thyrotoxicosis, thyroid cancer care) Thyroglobulin (TG) less than 35 ng/mL (less than 35 µg/L) Measures thyroglobulin, a unique protein from thyroid cells (thyroiditis, thyroid cancer care) Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) 13–30 µg/mL (13–30 mg/L) Measures TBG, a protein in blood, made in the liver, that sticks to thyroid hormone (not used) TPO antibody 0–70 IU/mL Measures TPO, an autoimmune antibody in thyroid disease (Hashimoto’s, Graves’ disease, pregnancy) Thyroglobulin antibody 0–2.2 IU/mL Measures autoimmune antibody to thyroglobulin (Hashimoto’s, thyroid cancer—check TG) Thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI or TSA) Less than 130% of basal activity Measures autoimmune antibody to TSH receptor (Graves’ disease) 23 THE BASICS early in the morning, and then having a plastic hood placed over his or her head. A machine would then sample air from the hood and measure the rate that oxygen was used up, providing a rough estimate of the person’s metabolic rate. Unfortunately, many, many things can affect the BMR that have nothing to do with thyroid hormone.
Farewell by Sergei Kostin, Eric Raynaud
It is undoubtedly the good relations between the DST and its American colleagues built at that time that would play a role later in the Farewell affair. It was only at the end of the sixties and in the early seventies that the DST started in earnest to develop counterintelligence strategies against Eastern Bloc secret services. The DST, however, was not qualified to handle agents or implement active measures outside of France. It had no presence at all in Moscow, and neither did French intelligence. The office of French intelligence that existed at some point in the Russian capital (usually staffed by two or three persons) had been closed down by Alexandre de Marenches, director of the agency called the SDECE at the beginning of the seventies. Although an authorized and credible source claims that French intelligence kept handling Russian agents during their trips outside of the Soviet Union, France gave up secret activities in its main enemy’s territory.
The Origins of the British by Stephen Oppenheimer
Once settled, a founding population is hard to dislodge.7 The pioneers achieved this just after 16,000 years ago, when Scandinavia and the Baltic were still covered in ice, by demonstrating, in both the archaeological and the genetic record,8 possibly the highest rate of population expansion Europe would see until modern times. Archaeological records for this Late Palaeolithic period show evidence of twice as much human activity (measured in radiocarbon dates), lasting for longer (about 3,000 years) than either the Mesolithic or the Neolithic expansion, which began respectively around 6,000 and 8,000 years later (Figure 3.2). The earliest archaeological evidence for the recolonization of north-west Europe comes from the Rhineland and southern Germany, to where Magdalenian cultures (see p. 125) had spread shortly before 16,000 years ago.
3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar
The United Nations projects that if population growth and consumption trends continue, even without an appreciable change in the quality of life of the world’s poor, by 2030 we will need the equivalent of two Earths to support our resource appropriations.5 Abundance, then, is in the eye of the beholder. The sustainability of the planet, however, is not. When it comes to reconciling abundance and sustainability, Gandhi’s observation, cited in chapter 6, that the “Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s need but not for every man’s greed” remains the gold standard.6 Gandhi had an instinctual understanding of sustainability. Today, however, we can actively measure it with sophisticated metrics. It is called ecological footprint. Sustainability is defined as the relative steady state in which the use of resources to sustain the human population does not exceed the ability of nature to recycle the waste and replenish the stock. Ecological footprint is a direct measure of the demand human activity puts on the biosphere. More precisely, it measures the amount of biologically productive land and water that is required to produce all the resources an individual or population consumes and to absorb the waste they generate, given prevailing technology and resource-management practices.
Foundation and Earth by Isaac Asimov
“I had to wait for Gaia to be fully established, despite the unanticipated difficulties that arose. By the time a human being—Mr. Trevize—was located who was capable of making the key decision, it was too late. Do not think, however, that I took no measure to lengthen my life span. Little by little I have reduced my activities, in order to conserve what I could for emergencies. When I could no longer rely on active measures to preserve the isolation of the Earth/moon system, I adopted passive ones. Over a period of years, the humaniform robots that have been working with me have been, one by one, called home. Their last tasks have been to remove all references to Earth in the planetary archives. And without myself and my fellow-robots in full play, Gaia will lack the essential tools to carry through the development of Galaxia in less than an inordinate period of time.”
Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama
active measures, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, liberation theology, libertarian paternalism, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K
Philosophers have proposed happiness as the highest good and the ultimate goal of human activity at least since the Buddha and Aristotle. A couple of thousand years later, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill expanded the notion to whole societies. In their utilitarian philosophy, the goal is the greatest good for the greatest number. Amazingly, in the past decade or so even no-nonsense economists have started taking happiness seriously. Neuroscientists such as Richard Davidson have shown that certain kinds of brain activity – measurable by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) – are correlated with self-reports of happiness.41 Alluding to this work, the eminent British economist Richard Layard wrote, “Now we know that what people say about how they feel corresponds closely to the actual levels of activity in different parts of the brain, which can be measured in standard scientific ways.” Satisfied that happiness was real, Layard wrote an entire book arguing that happiness, not wealth, should be the basis for public policy.42 All of this adds to an ongoing case made by scholars, policymakers, and activists who argue that today’s dominant metrics of national progress are deficient.
The Health Gap: The Challenge of an Unequal World by Michael Marmot
active measures, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Bonfire of the Vanities, Broken windows theory, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Doha Development Round, epigenetics, financial independence, future of work, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Kenneth Rogoff, Kibera, labour market flexibility, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, New Urbanism, obamacare, paradox of thrift, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Simon Kuznets, Socratic dialogue, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor
The IMF’s remedy was that the Iceland government should assume liability for the bank’s losses (as happened in Ireland), which would have resulted in 50 per cent of the national income between 2016 and 2023 being paid to the UK and Dutch governments, holders of much of the debt.10 The President put it to the people in a referendum and 93 per cent of the population rejected the package. Why did Iceland’s health apparently not suffer as a result of their economic crisis? Here is a plausible account: First, Iceland ignored the advice of the IMF, and instead invested in social protection. This investment was coupled with active measures to get people back into work. Second, diet improved. McDonald’s pulled out of the country because of the rising costs of importation of onions and tomatoes (the most expensive ingredients in its burgers). Icelanders began cooking at home more (especially fish, boosting the income of the country’s fishing fleet). Third, Iceland retained its restrictive policies on alcohol, again contrary to the advice of the IMF.
The Enemy Within by Seumas Milne
active measures, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, market fundamentalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, Neil Kinnock, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, union organizing, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, éminence grise
Next day, the front page of the Daily Mirror triumphantly reported that these Soviet ‘miners’ leaders’ had confirmed its allegations about the Soviet money. In fact, they were in no position to do any such thing. Massalovitch and Terokin were neither leaders of the official nor of the ‘independent’ Soviet miners’ unions. But they were both members of NTS. While in London, Miller took the two men round to see his old friend Brian Crozier, to brief him about what Crozier described as ‘this particular “Active Measure” ’. Before they flew back to the Soviet Union, Massalovitch and Butchenko also took the opportunity to appear on the second Cook Report programme on the Scargill Affair. Butchenko knew not a word of English, but was nevertheless shown self-consciously studying the Lightman Report. ‘I’m disgusted,’ he said of what he hadn’t read. ‘I will be very annoyed if Scargill is not brought to account for this criminal act.’26 The NUM executive’s legal action against Scargill, Heathfield, Simon and West ground on.
Warnings by Richard A. Clarke
active measures, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anti-communist, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, Bernie Madoff, cognitive bias, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, discovery of penicillin, double helix, Elon Musk, failed state, financial thriller, fixed income, Flash crash, forensic accounting, friendly AI, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge worker, Maui Hawaii, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, money market fund, mouse model, Nate Silver, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart grid, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Tunguska event, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y2K
Determining responses, figuring out how much they might cost, and developing an understanding of when they might need to be implemented are equally important parts of the surveillance strategy. *HEDGING: These actions flow immediately into the next category of responses to a potential disaster: hedging. It coexists with surveillance, but is specifically focused on investing resources into getting ready for more robust mitigation or prevention responses. It’s an interim phase that consists of ongoing monitoring with preparation until the surveillance system determines that active measures must begin. In addition to knowing when to pull the trigger, in a hedging strategy the key question becomes, as Alain Enthoven asked in the title of his groundbreaking book on defense budgeting in 1971, How Much Is Enough? When determining how much is enough, governments turn to analysts who do cost-effectiveness studies, usually placing a monetary value on human lives. In making these kinds of resource decisions, it is also useful to inject a little real-world thinking regarding politics, the media, and public reaction.
Dead or Alive by Tom Clancy, Grant (CON) Blackwood
active measures, affirmative action, air freight, airport security, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Benoit Mandelbrot, defense in depth, failed state, friendly fire, Google Earth, Panamax, post-Panamax, Skype, uranium enrichment, urban sprawl
Also called volcanic pyroclastic or welded tuff—essentially, compacted layers of volcanic rock. That’s good. Providing the overstructure is thick enough, the shock wave should be directed downward with minimal attenuation. The penetration requirements you gave me will be met.” “I’ll take your word for that. Is it ready for transport?” “Of course. It has a relatively low output signature, so passive detection measures won’t be your worry. Active measures are a different story altogether. I assume you’ve taken steps to—” “Yes, we have.” “Then I’ll leave it in your good hands,” the engineer said, then stood up and headed toward the office at the rear of the warehouse. “I’m going to sleep now. I trust the remainder of my fee will be deposited by morning.” 63 THEIR CONTACT MET THEM near Al Kurnish Road on the east side of Sendebad Park, within a stone’s throw of the Australian consulate.
active measures, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, failed state, joint-stock company, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Stanislav Petrov, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, zero-sum game
He is believed to have told them about other spies, and some of the CIA's most sophisticated technical means for spying. 26 On Casey, see Gates, p. 363. Howard slipped the FBI and fled the country. See David Wise, The Spy Who Got Away (New York: Random House, 1988), chs. 24-26. 27 Within a KGB residency, Line X referred to scientific and technical intelligence and Line PR to political, economic and military strategic intelligence and active measures. See Appendix E, "The Organization of a KGB Residency," in Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West (London: Allan Lane/The Penguin Press, 1999), p. 743. 28 "Affidavit in support of criminal complaint, arrest warrant, and search warrants," United States of America vs. Robert Philip Hanssen, United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, pp. 20-21.
23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day
The renegade flying robot was only stopped when U.S. jet fighters intervened and shot it down before it entered the airspace of Tajikistan. Closer to home, nearly fifty drones have crashed in the United States, including a 375-pound army drone that smashed into the ground next to a Pennsylvania elementary school, “just a few minutes after students went home for the day.” Robotic accidents are the exception, occurring relatively infrequently, and active measures are being taken to arm robots with collision detection and avoidance systems to prevent many of the industrialtype accidents. Nevertheless, given the expected tremendous growth in home bots, work bots, factory bots, doc bots, and war bots, the potential for harm is far from trivial—a risk that will grow significantly when robots join the IoT and can be hacked from afar by malicious actors. Hacking Robots In the future, when Microsoft leaves a security-flaw in their code it won’t mean that somebody hacks your computer.
The Cardinal of the Kremlin by Tom Clancy
She was sure of it as she and Bea walked back away from the stores to where the cars were. "What are you going to do with him?" Bea asked. "What do you care?" Bisyarina replied quickly. "You're not going-" "No, we're not going to kill him." Ann wondered if that were true or not. She didn't know, but suspected that a murder was not in the cards. They'd broken one inviolable rule. That was enough for one day. * * * 22. Active Measures LEONID, whose current cover required him to say, "Call me Bob," headed for the far end of the parking lot. For an operation with virtually no planning, its most dangerous phase had gone smoothly enough. Lenny, in back, had the job of controlling the American officer they'd just kidnapped. A physical type, he'd once been part of the Soviet "special-purpose" forces, known by the abbreviation Spetznaz.
Piracy : The Intellectual Property Wars from Gutenberg to Gates by Adrian Johns
active measures, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, commoditize, Corn Laws, demand response, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edmond Halley, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, full employment, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, Marshall McLuhan, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, pirate software, Republic of Letters, Richard Stallman, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, software patent, South Sea Bubble, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, traveling salesman, Whole Earth Catalog
That is the common thread that ties together all our most important piracy debates, whether the specific allegations relate to gene patents, software, proprietary drugs, books, ballet steps, or digital downloading. What is at stake, in the end, is the nature of the relationship we want to uphold between creativity, communication, and commerce. And the history of piracy constitutes a centurieslong series of conflicts – extending back by some criteria to the origins of recorded civilization itself – that have shaped this relationship. Those conflicts challenged assumptions of authenticity and required active measures to secure it. They provoked reappraisals of creative authorship and its prerogatives. They demanded that customs of reception be stipulated and enforced. Above all, they forced contemporaries to articulate the properties and powers of communications technologies themselves – the printing press, the steam press, radio, television, and, now, the Internet. Yet setting out to rescue the history of piracy from obscurity may still seem a quixotic quest.
The Making of Global Capitalism by Leo Panitch, Sam Gindin
accounting loophole / creative accounting, active measures, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, continuous integration, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, ending welfare as we know it, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global value chain, guest worker program, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Myron Scholes, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, oil shock, precariat, price stability, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, very high income, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration, zero-coupon bond, zero-sum game
The dense linkages binding these states to the American empire were also institutionalized, of course, through NATO and the hub-and-spokes networks of intelligence and security apparatuses between Washington and the other capitalist states. The containment of Communism, whether in the Cold War in Europe or the very hot wars in East Asia, was largely about ensuring that as many of the world’s states as possible would be open to the accumulation of capital. As Bacevich has put it: “US grand strategy during the Cold War required not only containing communism but also taking active measures to open up the world politically, culturally, and, above all, economically—which is precisely what policymakers said they intended to do.”27 They made this quite clear, moreover, as is now widely accepted among historians, “well before the Soviet Union emerged as a clear and present antagonist.”28 This was not, as has often been suggested, an extension of the old Open Door policy.29 That earlier policy had been conceived as securing equal treatment for American products and businessmen within the rival capitalist imperial spheres of influence, whereas the central strategic concern of those who planned the new American empire during World War II was to do away with discrete capitalist spheres of influence altogether.
Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1945-1956 by Anne Applebaum
active measures, affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, language of flowers, means of production, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, price mechanism, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Slavoj Žižek, stakhanovite, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning
The threat from jazz, swing, and big band music was “just as dangerous as a military attack with poison gases,” since it reflected “the degenerate ideology of American monopoly capital with its lack of culture … its empty sensationalism and above all its fury for war and destruction … We should speak plainly here of a fifth column of Americanism. It would be wrong to misjudge the dangerous role of American hit music in the preparation for war.”19 In the wake of this conference, the East German state took active measures to fight against this new scourge. Around the country, regional governments began to force dance bands and musicians to obtain licenses. Some banned jazz outright. Though the enforcement was irregular, there were arrests. The writer Erich Loest remembered one jazz musician who, when told to change his music selection, pointed out that he was playing the music of the oppressed Negro minority.
Martin Kleppmann-Designing Data-Intensive Applications. The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable and Maintainable Systems-O’Reilly (2017) by Unknown
active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons
,” ACM Queue, volume 9, number 4, pages 44–48, April 2011. doi: 10.1145/1966989.1967009  Nelson Minar: “Leap Second Crashes Half the Internet,” somebits.com, July 3, 2012.  Christopher Pascoe: “Time, Technology and Leaping Seconds,” googleblog.blog‐ spot.co.uk, September 15, 2011.  Mingxue Zhao and Jeff Barr: “Look Before You Leap – The Coming Leap Second and AWS,” aws.amazon.com, May 18, 2015.  Darryl Veitch and Kanthaiah Vijayalayan: “Network Timing and the 2015 Leap Second,” at 17th International Conference on Passive and Active Measurement (PAM), April 2016. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-30505-9_29  “Timekeeping in VMware Virtual Machines,” Information Guide, VMware, Inc., December 2011.  “MiFID II / MiFIR: Regulatory Technical and Implementing Standards – Annex I (Draft),” European Securities and Markets Authority, Report ESMA/2015/1464, September 2015.  Luke Bigum: “Solving MiFID II Clock Synchronisation With Minimum Spend (Part 1),” lmax.com, November 27, 2015.  Kyle Kingsbury: “Call Me Maybe: Cassandra,” aphyr.com, September 24, 2013.  John Daily: “Clocks Are Bad, or, Welcome to the Wonderful World of Dis‐ tributed Systems,” basho.com, November 12, 2013.  Kyle Kingsbury: “The Trouble with Timestamps,” aphyr.com, October 12, 2013.
The Practice of Cloud System Administration: DevOps and SRE Practices for Web Services, Volume 2 by Thomas A. Limoncelli, Strata R. Chalup, Christina J. Hogan
active measures, Amazon Web Services, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, business process, cloud computing, commoditize, continuous integration, correlation coefficient, database schema, Debian, defense in depth, delayed gratification, DevOps, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, Firefox, Google Glasses, information asymmetry, Infrastructure as a Service, intermodal, Internet of things, job automation, job satisfaction, load shedding, loose coupling, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Marc Andreessen, place-making, platform as a service, premature optimization, recommendation engine, revision control, risk tolerance, side project, Silicon Valley, software as a service, sorting algorithm, statistical model, Steven Levy, supply-chain management, Toyota Production System, web application, Yogi Berra
• There is an SLA defined for alert response: initial, hands-on-keyboard, issue resolved, postmortem complete. Level 4: Managed • The oncall pain is shared by the people most able to fix problems. • How often people are oncall is verified against the policy. • Postmortems are reviewed. • There is a mechanism to triage recommendations in postmortems and assure they are completed. • The SLA is actively measured. Level 5: Optimizing • Stress testing and failover testing are done frequently (quarterly or monthly). • “Game Day” exercises (intensive, system-wide tests) are done periodically. • The monitoring system alerts before outages occur (indications of “sick” systems rather than “down” systems). • Mechanisms exist so that any failover procedure not utilized in recent history is activated artificially
What Went Wrong: How the 1% Hijacked the American Middle Class . . . And What Other Countries Got Right by George R. Tyler
8-hour work day, active measures, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Black Swan, blood diamonds, blue-collar work, Bolshevik threat, bonus culture, British Empire, business process, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Diane Coyle, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, lake wobegon effect, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, moral hazard, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, performance metric, pirate software, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, precariat, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game
It means corporate decisions about wages and job security go hand in hand with the urgency of upskilling, investing in R&D, turning a profit, and remaining competitive over the longer term in the most hostile and unforgiving economic marketplace in the world. Economists have explored the effect of codetermination on enterprise research investments. For example, Kornelius Kraft and Jörg Stank published research in 2004 in which they concluded that R&D activity measured by patents is modestly higher with codetermination. Their subsequent 2009 analysis in conjunction with Ralf Dewenter found activity would at worst be unaffected.82 Returning to the point drawn from the Bowles’ Castle lectures at Yale during the winter of 2009–2010, the future winners in capitalism will be firms that best operate on the frontiers of science and technology. These are firms in environments requiring abnormally high coordination of labor and management, an integration of activities such as production and research, and, above all, maximization of specialized employee skill sets.
A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn
active measures, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, death of newspapers, desegregation, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, friendly fire, full employment, God and Mammon, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, jobless men, land reform, Mercator projection, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, very high income, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration
She wrote later: I now fully understood the practical difficulties most women had to contend with in the isolated household, and the impossibility of woman’s best development if, in contact, the chief part of her life, with servants and children. . . . The general discontent I felt with woman’s portion as wife, mother, housekeeper, physician, and spiritual guide, the chaotic condition into which everything fell without her constant supervision, and the wearied, anxious look of the majority of women, impressed me with the strong feeling that some active measures should be taken to remedy the wrongs of society in general and of women in particular. My experiences at the World Anti-Slavery Convention, all I had read of the legal status of women, and the oppression I saw everywhere, together swept across my soul. . . . I could not see what to do or where to begin—my only thought was a public meeting for protest and discussion. An announcement was put in the Seneca County Courier calling for a meeting to discuss the “rights of woman” the 19th and 20th of July.
Rainbow Six by Tom Clancy
active measures, air freight, airport security, centre right, clean water, computer age, Exxon Valdez, Live Aid, old-boy network, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rolodex, urban sprawl
Besides, it had turned out, the elderly married couple they'd used as couriers to the West, delivering cash to Soviet agents in America and Canada, had been under FBI control almost the entire time! Popov had to shake his head. Excellent as the KGB had been, the FBI was just as good. It had a long-standing institutional brilliance at false-flag operations, which, in the case of the couriers, had compromised a large number of sensitive operations run by the "Active Measures" people in KGB's Service A. The Americans had had the good sense not to burn the operations, but rather use them as expanding resources in order to gain a systematic picture of what KGB was doing-targets and objectives-and so learn what the Russians hadn't already penetrated. He shook his head again, as he walked off to the gate. And he was still in the dark, wasn't he? The questions continued to swarm: Exactly what was he doing?
Clear and Present Danger by Tom Clancy
Something fundamental. It had to be. But what? There were a number of well-paid and highly reliable informants throughout the American government, in Customs, DEA, the Coast Guard, none of whom had reported a single thing. The law-enforcement community was in the dark - except for the FBI Director, who didn't like it, but would soon go to Colombia… Some sort of intelligence operation was - no. Active Measures? The phrase came from KGB, and could mean any of several things, from feeding disinformation to reporters to "wet" work. Would the Americans do anything like that? They never had. He glowered at the passing scenery. He was an experienced intelligence officer, and his profession was to determine what people were doing from bits and pieces of random data. That he was working for someone he detested was beside the point.
Dirty Wars: The World Is a Battlefield by Jeremy Scahill
active measures, air freight, anti-communist, blood diamonds, business climate, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, drone strike, failed state, friendly fire, Google Hangouts, indoor plumbing, Islamic Golden Age, land reform, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, private military company, Project for a New American Century, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, WikiLeaks
Images of some of the Americans being dragged through the streets were broadcast around the globe and ultimately spurred a US withdrawal. “The Mogadishu disaster spooked the Clinton administration as well as the brass, and confirmed the Joint Chiefs in the view that SOF should never be entrusted with independent operations,” the Shultz report asserted. “After Mogadishu, one Pentagon officer explained, there was ‘reluctance to even discuss pro-active measures associated with countering the terrorist threat through SOF operations. The Joint Staff was very happy for the administration to take a law enforcement view. They didn’t want to put special ops troops on the ground.’” General Peter Schoomaker, who commanded JSOC from 1994 to 1996, said that the presidential directives under Clinton, “and the subsequent findings and authorities, in my view, were done to check off boxes.
active measures, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, centre right, colonial rule, David Brooks, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, the market place, Thomas L Friedman
In fact, the Soviet leadership immediately launched “an extensive worldwide effort of psychological warfare” using “a classical strategy”: “First, to disqualify the Israeli military operation (‘bloody war,’ etc.); second, to provoke a vast reaction of disgust, triggering a peripheral pacifist reaction; and third, to search for ways of disseminating this pacifist reaction to vital Israeli centres, leading to a general paralysis and a closing of the options supposedly opened up by the operation itself.” “These ‘active measures’ (a code word used by the Soviet leaders) were carried out through the vast network of organizations operated by the international section of the party and the International News Services of the Central Committee of the Communist Classics in Politics: The Fateful Triangle Noam Chomsky Peace for Galilee 500 Party of the Soviet Union,” abetted by an alliance with the powerful and nefarious organization Wafa (the official PLO news agency).
Food Allergy: Adverse Reactions to Foods and Food Additives by Dean D. Metcalfe
active measures, Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, epigenetics, hygiene hypothesis, impulse control, life extension, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, selection bias, statistical model, stem cell
Clin Exp Allergy 2001;31:1464–9. 8 Fasano A, Catassi C. Current approaches to diagnosis and treatment of CD: an evolving spectrum. Gastroenterology 2001; 120:636–51. 27 Crespo JF, Pascual C, Ferrer A, et al. Egg white-specific IgE level as a tolerance marker in the follow up of egg allergy. Allergy Proc 1994;15:73–6. 9 Moneret-Vautrin DA, Sainte-Laudy J, Kanny G, Fremont S. Human basophil activation measured by CD63 expression and LTC4 release in IgE-mediated food allergy. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999;82:33–40. 28 Soderstrom L, Kober A, Ahlstedt S, et al. A new approach to the evaluation and clinical use of specific IgE antibody testing in allergic diseases. Allergy 2003;58:921–8. 10 Gietkiewicz K, Wrzyszcz M. Comparative study between skin prick tests and TOP-CAST allergen leukocyte stimulation in diagnosis of allergic status.