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4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar
., p. 109. 48 Grim, “Change.org Changing: Site To Drop Progressive Litmus Test For Campaigns, Say Internal Documents.” 49 Beyerstein, “Change.org Quietly Changing Course.” 50 Grim, “Change.org Changing: Site To Drop Progressive Litmus Test For Campaigns, Say Internal Documents.” 51 Botsman, “Collaborative Finance.” 52 “From the People, for the People.” 53 Cortese, “Loans That Avoid Banks?” 54 Ibid. 55 Banjo, “Wall Street Is Hogging the Peer-to-Peer Lending Market.” 56 Banjo, “Citgroup Has Finally Thrown Its Lot in with Online Lending.” 57 McMillan, “Peer-To-Peer Lending Is Dead.” 58 Cortese, “Loans That Avoid Banks?” 59 McMillan, “Peer-To-Peer Lending Is Dead.” Chapter 9 1 Fernholtz, “Is Uber Costing New Yorkers $1.2 Billion Worth of Lost Time?” 2 Bisby, “‘Airbnb for Dogs.’” 3 O’Reilly, “Networks and the Nature of the Firm.” 4 Legal Information Institute, “47 U.S. Code § 230—Protection for Private Blocking and Screening of Offensive Material.” 5 Electronic Frontier Foundation, “Section 230 Protections.” 6 Scola, “The Very Big Thing That Uber, Lyft and Sidecar Didn’t Get From California – Next City.” 7 LoGiurato, “This Is The One Law Airbnb’s Opponents Desperately Want To Change.” 8 Weise, “This Is How Uber Takes Over a City.” 9 Sanders, “Rental Rules In California Raise Questions About Who’s Using Airbnb.” 10 Story and Lowrey, “The Fed, Lawrence Summers, and Money.” 11 Levy and Campbell, “EBay-Style Loans Lure Summers to Mack in Wall Street Asset Craze.” 12 Pasquale, The Black Box Society. 13 Smith-Spark and Mullen, “France Tells Paris Police to Crack down on Uber—CNN.com.” 14 Dyer, “Uber Says It Will Support Drivers Fined by Police in Costa Rica—.” 15 Kassam, “Barcelona’s Tourist Hordes Are Target for Radical New Mayor Ada Colau.” 16 Lu, “Do Companies like Uber, Handy Fuel Underground Economy?”
High profile partnerships, such as Lending Club’s April 2015 partnership with Citigroup to make $150 million in loans available, emphasize how much the so-called disrupter has come to feel at home among the establishment, and how completely the promise of avoiding the banking system has morphed into just another wing of that system.56 Peer-to-peer lending marketplaces have transformed themselves into “loan originators and underwriters for traditional banks,” 57 and left any notion of financial “democratization” far behind. Recently, the peer-to-peer lending companies have rebranded themselves as “marketplace lending” companies. The major institutions now take up not only the majority of the loans, but they take the best ones. When investing is done by computers, those with the best computers get to make the best loans, so the big institutions take the pick of the crop, leaving the original Lending Club audience of individual investors with the bottom of the barrel.
“Not-for-Profit Couchsurfing Becomes a Company (with a Conscience).” The Guardian, August 26, 2011. http://www.theguardian.com/travel/2011/aug/26/couchsurfing-investment-budget-travel. Banjo, Shelly. “Citigroup Has Finally Thrown Its Lot in with Online Lending.” Quartz, April 14, 2015. http://qz.com/383160/citgroup-has-finally-thrown-its-lot-in-with-online-lending/. ———. “Wall Street Is Hogging the Peer-to-Peer Lending Market.” Quartz, March 4, 2015. http://qz.com/355848/wall-street-is-hogging-the-peer-to-peer-lending-market/. Barbrook, Richard, and Andy Cameron. “The Californian Ideology.” Mute, August 1995. http://www.imaginaryfutures.net/2007/04/17/the-californian-ideology-2/. Bardhi, Fleura, and Giana M. Eckhardt. “Access-Based Consumption: The Case of Car Sharing.” Journal of Consumer Research 39 (December 2012): 881–98. Bates, Jo. “‘This Is What Modern Deregulation Looks like’: Co-Optation and Contestation in the Shaping of the UK’s Open Government Data Initiative” 8, no. 2 (2012). http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/845/916.
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, availability heuristic, bank run, banking crisis, Black-Scholes formula, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edmond Halley, Edward Glaeser, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, family office, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, implied volatility, income inequality, index fund, Innovator's Dilemma, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Network effects, Northern Rock, obamacare, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, railway mania, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, transaction costs, Tunguska event, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, Vanguard fund, web application
., 32 Keys, Benjamin, 48 Kharroubi, Enisse, 79 Kickstarter, 172 King, Stephen, 99 Klein, David, 182 Krugman, Paul, xv Lahoud, Sal, 166 Lang, Luke, 153, 161–162 Laplanche, Renaud, 179, 184, 188, 190, 193–194, 196–197 Latency, 53 Law of large numbers, 17 Layering, 57 Left-digit bias, 46 Lehman Brothers, x, 44, 65 Lending direct, 84 marketplace, 184 payday, 200 relationship-based, 11, 151, 206–208 secured, xiv, 76 unsecured, 206 See also Loans; Peer-to-peer lending Lending Club, 172, 179–180, 182–184, 187, 189, 194–195, 197 Leonardo of Pisa (Fibonacci), 19 Lerner, Josh, 59 Lethal pandemic, risk-modeling for demographic profile, 230 exceedance-probability curve, 231–232, 232 figure 3 historical data, 228–229 infectiousness and virulence, 229–230 location of outbreak, 230–231 Leverage, 51, 70–71, 80, 186, 188 Leverage ratio, 76–77 Lewis, Michael, 57 Liber Abaci or Book of Calculation (Fibonacci), 19 LIBOR (London Interbank Offered Rate), 41 Liebman, Jeffrey, 98 Life expectancy government reaction to, 128–129 projections of, 124–127, 126 figure 2 ratio of young to older people, 127–128 Life-insurance policies, 142 Life-settlements industry, 142–143 Life table, 20 Limited liability, 212 Liquidity, 12–14, 39, 185–186 List, John, 109 The Little Book of Behavioral Investing (Montier), 156 Lo, Andrew, 113–115, 117–123 Loans low-documentation, 48–49 secured, 76 small business, 181, 216 student, 164, 166–167, 169–171, 182 syndicated, 41 Victory Loans, 28 See also Lending; Peer-to-Peer lending Logistic regression, 201 London, early fire insurance in, 16–17 London, Great Fire of, 16 London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR), 41 Long-Term Capital Management, 123 Longevity, betting on, 143–144 Loss aversion, 136 Lotteries, 212, 213 Low-documentation loans, 48–49 Lumni, 165, 168, 175 Lustgarten, Anders, 111 Lynn, Jeff, 160–161 Mack, John, 180 Mahwah, New Jersey, 52, 53 Marginal borrowers assessment of, 216–217 behavioral finance and, 208–214 industrialization of credit, 206 microfinance and, 203 savings schemes, 209–214 small businesses, 215–219 unsecured lending to, 206 Wonga, 203, 205, 208 Marginal borrowers (continued) ZestFinance, 199, 202, 205–206 Maritime piracy, solutions to, 151–152 Maritime trade, role of in history of finance, 3, 7–8, 14, 17, 23 Market makers, 15–16, 55 MarketInvoice, 195, 207, 217–218 Marketplace lending, 184 Markowitz, Harry, 118 Massachusetts, use of inflation-protected bonds in, 26 Massachusetts, use of social-impact bonds in, 98 Matching engine, 52 Maturity transformation, 12–13, 187–188, 193 McKinsey & Company, ix, 42 Mercator Advisory Group, 203 Merrill, Charles, 28 Merrill, Douglas, 199, 201 Merrill Lynch, 28 Merton, Robert, 31, 113–114, 123–124, 129–132, 142, 145 Mian, Atif, 204 Michigan, University of, financial survey by, 134–135 Microfinance, 203 Micropayment model, 217 Microwave technology, 53 The Million Adventure, 213–214 Minsky, Hyman, 42 Minsky moment, 42 Mississippi scheme, 36 Mitchell, Justin, 166–167 Momentum Ignition, 57 Monaco, modeling risk of earthquake in, 227 Money, history of, 4–5 Money illusion, 73–74 Money laundering, 192 Money-market funds, 43, 44 Monkeys, Yale University study of loss aversion with, 136 Montier, James, 156–157 Moody, John, 24 Moody’s, 24, 235 Moore’s law, 114 Morgan Stanley, 188 Mortgage-backed securities, 49, 233 Mortgage credit by ZIP code, study of, 204 Mortgage debt, role of in 2007–2008 crisis, 69–70 Mortgage products, unsound, 36–37 Mortgage securitization, 47 Multisystemic therapy, 96 Munnell, Alicia, 129 Naked credit-default swaps, 143 Nature Biotechnology, on drug-development megafunds, 118 “Neglected Risks, Financial Innovation and Financial Fragility” (Gennaioli, Shleifer, and Vishny), 42 Network effects, 181 New York, skyscraper craze in, 74–75 New York City, prisoner-rehabilitation program in, 108 New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), 31, 52, 53, 61, 64 New York Times, Merrill Lynch ad in, 28 Noncorrelated assets, 122 Nonprofits, growth of in United States, 105–106 Northern Rock, x NYMEX, 60 NYSE Euronext, 52 NYSE (New York Stock Exchange), 31, 52, 53, 61, 64 OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development), 128, 147 Oldfield, Sean, 67–68, 80–84 OnDeck, 216–218 One Service, 94–95, 105, 112 Operating expense ratio, 188–189 Options, 15, 124 Order-to-trade ratios, 63 Oregon, interest in income-share agreements, 172, 176 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 128, 147 Overtrading, 24 Packard, Norman, 60 Pandit, Vikram, 184 Park, Sun Young, 233 Partnership mortgage, 81 Pasion, 11 Pave, 166–168, 173, 175, 182 Payday lending Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, survey on, 200 information on applicants, acquisition of, 202 underwriting of, 201 PayPal, 219 Peak child, 127 Peak risk, 228 Peer-to-peer lending advantages of, 187–189 auction system, 195 big investors in, 183 borrowers, assessment of, 197 in Britain, 181 commercial mortgages, 181 CommonBond, 182, 184, 197 consumer credit, 181 diversification, 196 explained, 180 Funding Circle, 181–182, 189, 197 investors in, 195 Lending Club, 179–180, 182–184, 187, 189, 194–195, 197 network effects, 181 ordinary savers and, 184 Prosper, 181, 187, 195 RateSetter, 181, 187, 196 Relendex, 181 risk management, 195–197 securitization, 183–184, 196 Peer-to-peer lending (continued) small business loans, 181 SoFi, 184 student loans, 182 Zopa, 181, 187, 188, 195 Pensions, cost of, 125–126 Perry, Rick, 142–143 Peterborough, England, social-impact bond pilot in, 90–92, 94–95, 104–105, 112 Petri, Tom, 172 Pharmaceuticals, decline of investment in, 114–115 Piracy Reporting Centre, International Maritime Bureau, 151 Polese, Kim, 210 Poor, Henry Varnum, 24 “Portfolio Selection” (Markowitz), 118 Prediction Company, 60–61 Preferred shares, 25 Prepaid cards, 203 Present value of cash flows, 19 Prime borrowers, 197 Prince, Chuck, 50–51, 62 Principal-agent problem, 8 Prisoner rehabilitation programs, 90–91, 94–95, 98, 108, 112 Private-equity firms, 69, 85, 91, 105, 107 Projection bias, 72–73 Property banking crises and, xiv, 69 banking mistakes involving, 75–80 behavioral biases and, 72–75 dangerous characteristics of, 70–72 fresh thinking, need for, xvii, 80 investors’ systematic errors in, 74–75 perception of as safe investment, 76, 80 Prosper, 181, 187, 195 Provisioning funds, 187 Put options, 9, 82 Quants, 19, 63, 113 QuickBooks, 218 Quote stuffing, 57 Raffray, André-François, 144 Railways, affect of on finance, 23–25 Randomized control trials (RCTs), 101 Raphoen, Christoffel, 15–16 Raphoen, Jan, 15–16 RateSetter, 181, 187, 196 RCTs (randomized control trials), 101 Ready for Zero, 210–211 Rectangularization, 125, 126 figure 2 Regulation NMS, 61 Reinhart, Carmen, 35 Reinsurance, 224 Relendex, 181 Rentes viagères, 20 Repurchase “repo” transactions, 15, 185 Research-backed obligations, 119 Reserve Primary Fund, 44 Retirement, funding for anchoring effect, 137–138 annuities, 139 auto-enrollment in pension schemes, 135 auto-escalation, 135–136 conventional funding, 127–128 decumulation, 138–139 government reaction to increased longevity, 128–129 home equity, 139–140 life expectancy, projections of, 124–127, 126 figure 2 life insurance policies, cash-surrender value of, 142 personal retirement savings, 128–129, 132–133 replacement rate, 125 reverse mortgage, 140–142 savings cues, experiment with, 137 SmartNest, 129–131 Reverse mortgages, 140–142 Risk-adjusted returns, 118 Risk appetite, 116 Risk assessment, 24, 45, 77–78, 208 Risk aversion, 116, 215 Risk-based capital, 77 Risk-based pricing model, 176 Risk management, 55, 117–118, 123, 195–197 Risk Management Solutions, 222 Risk sharing, 8, 82 Risk-transfer instrument, 226 Risk weights, 77–78 Rogoff, Kenneth, 35 “The Role of Government in Education” (Friedman), 165 Roman Empire business corporation in, 7 financial crisis in, 36 forerunners of banks in, 11 maritime insurance in, 8 Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCAs), 209–210 Roulette wheel, use of in experiment on anchoring, 138 Royal Bank of Scotland, 186 Rubio, Marco, 172 Russia, mortgage market in, 67 S-curve, in diffusion of innovations, 45 Salmon, Felix, 155 Samurai bonds, 27 Satsuma Rebellion (1877), 27 Sauter, George, 58 Save to Win, 214 Savings-and-loan crisis in US (1990s), 30 Savings cues, experiment with, 137 Scared Straight social program, 101 Scholes, Myron, 31, 123–124 Science, Technology, and Industry Scoreboard of OECD, 147 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), 54, 56, 57, 58, 64 Securities markets, 14 Securitization, xi, 20, 37–38, 117–122, 183–184, 196, 236 Seedrs, 160–161 Sellaband, 159 Shared equity, 80–84 Shared-equity mortgage, 84 Shepard, Chris, xii–xiii Shiller, Robert, xv–xvi, 242 Shleifer, Andrei, 42, 44 Short termism, 58 SIBs.
HG1709.P35 2015 332.1—dc23 2014041326 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 For Julia, Eliza, Joe, and Kasia Contents Preface PART I: LESSONS BADLY LEARNED 1. Handmaid to History 2. From Breakthrough to Meltdown 3. The Most Dangerous Asset in the World PART II: A FORCE FOR GOOD 4. Social-Impact Bonds and the Shrinking of the State 5. Live Long and Prosper 6. Equity and the License to Dream 7. Peer-to-Peer Lending and the Flaws of Finance 8. The Edge: Reaching the Marginal Borrower 9. Tail Risk: Pricing the Probability of Mayhem Conclusion Acknowledgments Glossary Notes Index Preface When I was offered the job of the Economist’s banking correspondent in the early summer of 2007, my reaction was one of apprehension. Banking was not an industry that I knew anything about.
It is easier to make this model work for people who have already graduated and want to raise money for the next stage of their careers than to extend it to the financing of undergraduate degrees, where the amount of data that can be drawn on to predict future income is necessarily lower. But the growth of equity crowdfunding for companies offers some hope to similar ventures in education. And after a period in which finance devoted an enormous amount of energy to increasing the amount of debt that we take on, a little bit of fresh thinking about equity is always welcome. 7. Peer-to-Peer Lending and the Flaws of Finance Renaud Laplanche is a soft-spoken Frenchman living in San Francisco who, by the mid-2000s, had already set up and sold an enterprise-software business to Oracle. Laplanche was a prompt payer of his outstanding credit-card balance but noticed on his credit-card bill that if he carried over any of his balance to the next month, it would be subject to an interest rate of almost 19 percent.
The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky
Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, Google Earth, Internet of things, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar
Hundreds of Mesh entrepreneurs have started companies in the past few years, providing alternatives to older brands. Although still a small part of the financial market, peer-to-peer lenders already compete with traditional banks for similar transactions, customer relationships, and capital. In the United States alone, Lending Club and Prosper have facilitated over $250 million in loans. Zopa, the first to do peer-to-peer lending, has expanded to Italy and Japan from its base in London. Smava offers similar services in Germany and plans to expand to other European markets. Other Mesh companies have found underserved financial niches. BigCarrot’s platform matches lenders and business borrowers. SmartyPig creates incentives and premiums for customers to save, including discounted purchases with marketing partners. Mesh finance companies also specialize in other aspects of peer-to-peer transactions, including financing tuition, micro-lending, community-based financing, and more.
Hertz and Avis could go into the bike-sharing business, offering the service at all the train stations in major cities. They have the infrastructure, capacity, and brand to do it. That doesn’t mean that they’ll take over the business overnight. As always, innovative companies will crack new markets. Other large companies may reason that if you can’t beat ’em, join ’em. Some local banks, responding to the credit crisis, have partnered with peer-to-peer lending companies to offer customers loans or additional investment opportunities. first things first. The recession that started late in 2008 has pummeled individuals, towns, and businesses. Lost jobs and repossessed homes have forced families to move to new cities, move in with other family members, and change school districts. Over half of people in the United States and U.K. report that they personally know someone who lost his or her job.
Mesh businesses are often nontraditional and unfamiliar. They fly in the face of ownership or classic financing. To get past potential customer reluctance, Mesh marketers can suggest promising trials, which are often the first step to engage a new member. Grocery stores offer samples, such as herbal goat cheese on crackers, for a reason—to win over skeptics. The same thing can work for bike sharing or peer-to-peer lending. Customers are likely to first try a Mesh business when it’s least stressful to do so. They’ll start by identifying things that they consider too expensive to own or keep. Someone may want to try a table saw or a hybrid car before going ahead with a purchase. Perhaps she has a closet half full of things she no longer wears. These are good places to begin testing the Mesh. Even so, many people will wait until version 2.0 or even 3.0 is refined before jumping in.
Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker
3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, market design, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, winner-take-all economy, Zipcar
, for instance, is a MasterCard Labs innovation that lets magazine readers click on an embedded app to instantly purchase an item they’ve read about from an affiliated retailer, such as Saks Fifth Avenue.8 Other familiar financial platforms—many of them traditionally quite conservative in their business culture as well as significantly constrained by regulation—will be pushed to develop innovations based on the latest platform technologies. Commercial bankers, for instance, have been closely monitoring the rise of online peer-to-peer lending communities like Zopa and Lending Club, which are facilitating billions of dollars’ worth of financial transactions and providing credit while bypassing traditional gatekeepers. Peer-to-peer lending platforms have the potential to be particularly disruptive because of their ability to identify patterns in lending and borrowing from the troves of digital data they collect. Using these patterns, these platforms may be able to do a better job of identifying behaviors that predict defaults and fraud than traditional banks that rely on a static set of data markers.
Ultimately, eBay’s leadership sided with the buyers, reasoning that the sellers would ultimately remain loyal to the platform because “merchants go where the consumers are.”32 The decision succeeded. Today, “Buy it Now” fixed-price listings account for about 70 percent of eBay’s $83 billion in gross merchandise volume. Architecture. In the world of platform businesses, “architecture” refers basically to programming code. Well-designed software systems are self-improving: they encourage and reward good behavior, thereby producing more of the same. Online banking platforms such as peer-to-peer lending businesses are using software algorithms to displace traditional, labor-intensive, and expensive loan officers. They calculate a borrower’s likelihood of repaying using both conventional data such as credit scores and nontraditional data such as a Yelp rating (for a restaurant), the stability of the borrower’s email address, her connections on LinkedIn, and even how thoroughly she interacts with the loan assessment tools before applying.33 As the platform architecture becomes better at predicting borrower behavior, participation risk declines, attracting more lenders.
They calculate a borrower’s likelihood of repaying using both conventional data such as credit scores and nontraditional data such as a Yelp rating (for a restaurant), the stability of the borrower’s email address, her connections on LinkedIn, and even how thoroughly she interacts with the loan assessment tools before applying.33 As the platform architecture becomes better at predicting borrower behavior, participation risk declines, attracting more lenders. Meanwhile, the low overhead costs allow the platform to offer lower rates, which attracts more borrowers. Greater participation further improves the data flow, and the cycle repeats. No wonder peer-to-peer lending platforms like the British firm Zopa have been enjoying such notable success. When Zopa proudly announced that it had provided more than $1 billion in loans, one of this book’s authors, Sangeet Choudary, congratulated the company leaders and politely asked, “Wouldn’t your loan default rate be a more significant measure of success?” Zopa responded by publicizing the fact that its loan default rate had fallen to 0.2 percent from 0.6 percent three years earlier.34 Such is the power of well-designed platform architecture.
The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar
Where we conduct commerce (and with whom) is changing, as is our approach to building capital. There’s a new meld of local and global emerging. Granted, traditional sources of borrowing are still orders of magnitude larger than Funding Circle and its US counterparts Lending Club and Prosper. While these peer-to-peer lending marketplaces likely won’t put banks out of business, they will reduce their margins by bringing greater transparency and efficiency into the aggregation and matching of distributed financial capital with its recipients. As Funding Circle CEO Sam Hodges noted in a 2015 interview, “With marketplace and peer-to-peer lending, the difference is transparency. On the one hand there are small businesses looking to borrow. On the other hand, there’s a wide range of investors. As a marketplace, there is no incentive to charge more or less, thanks to data-driven underwriting.
You can get a meal with others at someone’s dining table through social dining platforms, like EatWith in Barcelona, Feastly in New York, or VizEat in Paris, that allow people who enjoy cooking to have others visit their home and join a lunch or dinner. With as little as £100 in liquid assets, you can make an interest-bearing loan of £20 or more to a small business that you like through the peer-to-peer lending platform Funding Circle.4 You can offer up your services as a home cleaner, handyman, plumber, electrician, or painter (or hire a freelance worker who has these or other skills) through the labor marketplaces Handy, TaskRabbit, and Thumbtack. Getting set up to receive these services from your peers is often as easy as installing an app and proving your identity by sharing data from a valid Facebook account.
So there’s clearly a market economy element to this. But lenders also give to feel connected to the lives of the recipients; this motivation is well reflected in the project descriptions that potential borrowers post, which are heavy on personal stories but light on financials. So Kiva’s position in the sharing economy is somewhere on that continuum between the market economy and the gift economy. Funding Circle, like Kiva, is a peer-to-peer lending platform offering loans that are funded by pooling small contributions from multiple lenders (often hundreds of lenders), to loan recipients (mostly small businesses). On the original UK-based Funding Circle platform, the funders—whether they have a few pounds or a few thousands pounds—select projects to back, and they receive interest on their loans, typically significantly higher than what one would earn from a savings account.
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, call centre, carried interest, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, Emanuel Derman, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Internet of things, late fees, medical bankruptcy, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price discrimination, quantitative hedge fund, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Sharpe ratio, statistical model, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working poor
received funding a year later: Lending Club, “Lending Club Completes $600 Million SEC Registration and Offers New Alternative for Consumer Credit,” Lending Club, October 14, 2008, http://blog.lendingclub.com/lending-club-sec-registration/. less than $10 billion in loans: Peter Renton, “Five Predictions for 2015,” Lend Academy, January 5, 2015, www.lendacademy.com/five-predictions-2015/. Executives from Citigroup: Nav Athwal, “The Disappearance of Peer-to-Peer Lending,” Forbes, October 14, 2014, www.forbes.com/sites/groupthink/2014/10/14/the-disappearance-of-peer-to-peer-lending/. Wells Fargo’s investment fund: Maureen Farrell, “Wells Fargo Is a Big Winner in Lending Club IPO,” Wall Street Journal, December 12, 2014, http://blogs.wsj.com/moneybeat/2014/12/12/wells-fargo-is-a-big-winner-in-lending-club-ipo/. the biggest tech IPO: Jeremy Quittner, “The 10 Biggest IPOs of 2014,” Inc., December 19, 2014, www.inc.com/jeremy-quittner/biggest-ipos-of-2014.html.
So when poor people and immigrants qualify for a loan, their substandard language skills might drive up their fees. If they then have trouble paying those fees, this might validate that they were a high risk to begin with and might further lower their credit scores. It’s a vicious feedback loop, and paying bills on time plays only a bit part. When new ventures are built on WMDs, troubles are bound to follow, even when the players have the best intentions. Take the case of the “peer-to-peer” lending industry. It started out in the last decade with the vision of borrowers and lenders finding each other on matchmaking platforms. This would represent the democratization of banking. More people would get loans, and at the same time millions of everyday people would become small-time bankers and make a nice return. Both sides would bypass the big greedy banks. One of the first peer-to-peer exchanges, Lending Club, launched as an application on Facebook in 2006 and received funding a year later to become a new type of bank.
the biggest tech IPO: Jeremy Quittner, “The 10 Biggest IPOs of 2014,” Inc., December 19, 2014, www.inc.com/jeremy-quittner/biggest-ipos-of-2014.html. It raised $870 million: Neha Dimri, “Update 1—Online Lender LendingClub Profit Beats Street as Fees Jump,” Reuters, May 5, 2015, www.reuters.com/article/lendingclub-results-idUSL4N0XW4HO20150505. a report in Forbes: Athwal, “Disappearance of Peer-To-Peer Lending.” CHAPTER 9 Hoffman, a German: Megan Wolff, “The Myth of the Actuary: Life Insurance and Frederick L. Hoffman’s ‘Race Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro,’ ” Public Health Reports 121, no. 1 (January/February 2006): 84–91, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1497788/. Insurance companies as well as bankers: Gregory Squires, “Insurance Redlining: Still Fact, Not Fiction,” Shelterforce 79 (January/February 1995), www.nhi.org/online/issues/79/isurred.html.
3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review
It was the most efficient development strategy invented yet. Kiva took the next step in sharing and turned microfinancing into peer-to-peer lending by enabling anyone, anywhere to make a microfinance loan. So you, sitting at Starbucks, could now lend $120 to a specific individual Bolivian woman who plans to buy wool to start a weaving business. You could follow her progress until she paid you back, at which time you could relend the money to someone else. Since Kiva’s launch in 2005, over 2 million people have lent more than $725 million in microfinance loans via its sharing platform. The payback rate is about 99 percent. That is a strong encouragement to lend again. If that works in developing countries with Kiva, why not install peer-to-peer lending in developed countries? Two web-based companies, Prosper and Lending Club, do that.
Two early attempts at equity crowdfunding in the U.S., SeedInvest and FundersClub, still rely on rich “qualified investors” and are awaiting a change in U.S. law that would legalize equity crowdfunding for ordinary citizens in early 2016. Why stop there? Who would have believed that poor farmers could secure $100 loans shared from perfect strangers on the other side of the planet—and pay them back? That is what Kiva does with peer-to-peer lending. Several decades ago international banks discovered they had better repayment rates when they lent small amounts to the poor than when they lent big amounts to rich state governments. It was safer to lend money to the peasants in Bolivia than to the government of Bolivia. This microfinancing of a few hundred dollars applied many tens of thousands of times would also jump-start a developing economy from the bottom.
Two web-based companies, Prosper and Lending Club, do that. They match up ordinary middle-class citizen borrowers with ordinary citizen lenders willing to loan their scheme at a decent interest rate. As of 2015, these two largest peer-to-peer lending companies have facilitated more than 200,000 loans worth more than $10 billion. Innovation itself can be crowdsourced. The Fortune 500 company General Electric was concerned that its own engineers could not keep up with the rapid pace of invention around them, so it launched the platform Quirky. Anyone could submit online an idea for a great new GE product. Once a week, the GE staff voted on the best idea that week and would set to work making it real. If an idea became a product, it would earn money for the idea maker. To date GE has launched over 400 new products from this crowdsourced method.
3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar
As Bruce puts it: “This is a competition between the quick and the strong.”7 This potential for platform capture by power players is increasingly visible as the first Peers Inc organizations move toward maturity. Lending Club (founded in 2006) and Prosper (founded in 2005) are the thriving leaders of peer-to-peer lending. Lending Club is the significantly larger company. As of the end of October 2014, Lending Club had facilitated over $6 billion in consumer and business loans to more than 400,000 borrowers. About 80 percent of those borrowers were refinancing existing debt at much lower interest rates, with payments an average of 29 percent lower than what they were paying credit card companies or banks.8 Investors, who could be people like you and me, are happy to put some of their money into peer-to-peer lending because they make better returns on this money than if they put it in a certificate of deposit or savings account. Like other Peers Inc organizations that have perfected their platform, business has accelerated: over $3 billion worth of transactions (half of the total) were done in the first three quarters of 2014 alone.9 Prosper has about 35 percent market share in the industry.
Like other Peers Inc organizations that have perfected their platform, business has accelerated: over $3 billion worth of transactions (half of the total) were done in the first three quarters of 2014 alone.9 Prosper has about 35 percent market share in the industry. And it too is experiencing phenomenal growth rates: Prosper took eight years to attract the first $1 billion in loans, and then, within just six months, they crossed the $2 billion-in-loans milestone.10 However, both Lending Club and Prosper, which started firmly as peer-to-peer lending marketplaces, now mostly facilitate loans from institutional lenders, not individuals. At Prosper, more than 80 percent of the loans made in March 2014 were financed by hedge funds, pension funds, asset managers, sovereign wealth funds, and foreign banks.11 And at Lending Club, that number—the percentage of loans fulfilled by institutional lenders—was about 70 percent.12 In October 2014, institutional investors issued $177 million in loans, three-and-a-half times more than they had in October 2013.13 Larry Summers, secretary of the treasury during the Clinton administration and now a Lending Club board member, said, “Lending Club’s platform has the potential to profoundly transform traditional banking over the next decade.”14 The question is, transform it into what?
“From Zero to $5 Billion: The Lending Club Story,” http://blog.lendingclub.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/LC-0to5B-Infographic.jpg. 9. E. Scott Record, “Lending Club Shares Soar in Biggest IPO by California Firm This Year,” December 11, 2014, www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-lending-club-ipo-20141212-story.html. 10. Ibid. 11. Amy Cortese, “Loans That Avoid Banks? Maybe Not,” New York Times, May 3, 2014. 12. “Peer-to-Peer Lending: Banking Without Banks,” The Economist, March 1, 2014. 13. Aaron Vermut, “Marketplace Lending Takes the Main Stage,” December 11, 2014, http://blog.prosper.com/2014/12/11/marketplace-lending-takes-the-main-stage/. 14. “About Us,” LendingClub.com, www.lendingclub.com/public/about-us.action. 15. Office of New York State Attorney General Eric Schneiderman, “Airbnb in the City,” October 2014, www.ag.ny.gov/pdfs/Airbnb%20report.pdf. 16.
What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers
Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar
Notably, the default rate on Zopa is low, about 0.65 percent. This rate is even more impressive when you consider that the average default rate on credit cards in mid-2009 was more than 10 percent.15 Zopa reduces the risk of peer-to-peer lending by using the established trading logic known as hedging your bets. If a farmer plants an entire crop of just tomatoes, a fungus can wipe out the whole harvest in a matter of days. This is why most farmers follow the principle of mixed crops. Fund managers apply the same logic when investing in a range of stocks and mutual funds. Based on this principle of not putting all your eggs in one basket, peer-to-peer lending sites such as Zopa minimize risk by dividing a loan into small amounts and spreading it over a wide range of a dozen or more borrowers. But why is the default rate so low? After all, major credit card companies don’t put all their eggs in the same basket, either.
Rushkoff was featured in Andy Jordan, “The Coming Currency Revolution,” Wall Street Journal (September 2009), http://online.wsj.com/video/the-coming-currency-revolution/25225F5A-B979-4609-A55D-1BAE9A1BA158.html. 9. Description of VEN can be found at www.crunchbase.com/company/hub-culture. 10. “Brits Put Their Faith in Traditional Banking Values,” research report published by Mintel (2008), www.marketresearchworld.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=2294&Itemid=77. 11. Amy Hoak, “How to Use Peer-to-Peer Lending Sites to Borrow Money,” FiLife (January 2008), www.filife.com/stories/borrowing-from-p2p-lending. 12. Carlota Perez, Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital: The Dynamics of Bubbles and Golden Ages (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2002). 13. Pierre Omidyar, “From Self to Society: Citizenship to Community for a World of Change,” keynote address at Tufts University (May 2002), http://enews.tufts.edu/stories/052002Omidyar_Pierre_keynote.htm. 14.
How the Other Half Banks: Exclusion, Exploitation, and the Threat to Democracy by Mehrsa Baradaran
access to a mobile phone, affirmative action, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, credit crunch, David Graeber, disintermediation, diversification, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, income inequality, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, McMansion, microcredit, mobile money, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Own Your Own Home, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, price discrimination, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, savings glut, the built environment, the payments system, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, union organizing, white flight, working poor
On the other hand, if the services were linked to a mobile provider (as envisioned by a T-Mobile proposal to enter this field), they would be fee-based financial transactions without FDIC insurance protection or a route to a bank account.81 In other words, mobile banking may make banking easier for the banked, but at least in the United States, it is unlikely to offer the low-cost products needed by the unbanked. Still, it is too soon to deliver a verdict. PEER-TO-PEER LENDING Taking advantage of Internet technology knocking some of the barriers between people down, peer-to-peer (P2P) lending cuts out the bank middleman and allows individuals to loan to others at an interest rate negotiated by the two parties. The difference is that the loans are provided with the lender’s own capital as opposed to others’ capital. Lending Club, one of the leading P2P lenders, hopes to help its investors earn a higher return and its borrowers get a lower rate on personal loans than through traditional financial institutions.82 These companies match potential borrowers with willing lenders and facilitate the transaction.
Total loans funded for small businesses grew from just under $700,000 in 2008 to over $22 million in 2012. Loans for other purposes grew from just over $8 million in 2008 to nearly $700 million in 2012. The average loan size has also grown for both groups, from $5,400 to $16,200 for small business loans, and from $3,600 to $13,400 for non-business loans. The interest rate is similar across small business loans and loans for other purposes.” Traci L. Mach et al., “Peer-to-Peer Lending to Small Businesses,” Federal Reserve Board of Governors, March 2013, 4, accessed March 15, 2015, www.frbatlanta.org/documents/news/conferences/13resilience_rebuilding_paper_Mach.pdf. Bonnie McGeer and Glen Fest, “P2P Lending: 2B or Not 2B?,” American Banker, February 25, 2014, accessed March 15, 2015, www.americanbanker.com/magazine/124_02/p2p-lending-2b-or-not-2b-1065594-1.html?pg=4. 84.
See also Great Depression Newspapers, dissemination of, 185 New York State, 33, 125, 127 NHA (National Housing Association), 258n126 Nixon, Richard, 36 No doc loans, 159 Norquist, Grover, 186 North Carolina, 159, 275n93 Obama, Barack, 20–21, 22, 23, 60, 126–127, 165, 170, 293n20 OCC (Office of the Comptroller of the Currency), 56, 59, 159, 246nn101,105 Occupy Wall Street, 19, 109 Office of Economic Opportunity, 73 Oliver, John, 129 Operation Choke Point, 127–129 Opportunity, equality of, 29–30 Oregon, 130 OTS (Office of Thrift Supervision), 54, 56, 59, 93, 159, 246n105 Overdraft fees, 141–142, 143, 176, 281–282n17 Overdraft protection, as credit, 176 Owen, Robert, 43 Oxford Provident Building Association, 85 P2P (peer-to-peer lending), 179–181, 301n83 Paine, Thomas, 29 Panics, 40; Panic of 1907, 40, 197; Panic of 1873, 83–84; Panic of 1893, 192 Paulson, Henry, 20, 21–22, 24, 59 Pawnshops, 65, 114, 122, 270n53 Payday borrowers, 115–118, 271n60 Payday lenders, 2; interest charged by, 2, 3, 8, 110, 112–113, 124, 125, 131–133; provision of credit to, 3; proposed alternatives to, 76; charters of, 109–110, 125; statistics for, 111–112, 269nn42,43; characteristics of borrowers from, 115–118; lack of alternatives to, 116–117, 129; support for, 117–118; stigma associated with, 118–119; growth of, 122; business model of, 122–123; state regulation of, 124; online payday lenders, 125; access of to borrowers’ accounts, 127; demand for, 129–130; effects of regulating, 129–130, 132; default rates on loans by, 132; profitability of, 132; opposition of to postal banking, 220; violation of consumer-protection rules by, 275–276n93; fee schedules of, 279n130.
3D printing, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buy low sell high, capital controls, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, forensic accounting, global village, GnuPG, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, Jacob Appelbaum, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, Oculus Rift, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, ransomware, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, Steven Levy, the medium is the message, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP
Chapter 7: Bitcoin and the Criminal Element Chapter 8: Mt. Gox: Bitcoin’s Defining Moment? Chapter 9: Other Bitcoin Scams and Common Tactics SECTION II: HOW TO INVEST IN BITCOIN Chapter 10: How to Buy Bitcoin with a Bank Account, Cash, or PayPal Chapter 11: Working for Bitcoin Chapter 12: Mining Chapter 13: HODL! Chapter 14: Day Trading Chapter 15: Altcoin Trading and Pump-and-Dumps Chapter 16: Peer-to-Peer Lending Chapter 17: Investing in Other Commodities Using Bitcoin SECTION III: WHAT CAN BITCOIN DO FOR ME? Chapter 18: Remittance Chapter 19: Microtransactions Chapter 20: Start-up Funding SECTION IV: THE FUTURE OF BITCOIN Chapter 21: Altcoins and Bitcoin 2.0 Projects Chapter 22: Distributed Autonomous Corporations, Governance, and Niche Economies Index Foreword This is my first book, so I can’t pretend to be an expert on how these things are supposed to go.
At best, it is a way to squeeze a few more rounds of profitability out of Bitcoin-mining hardware you already own. 1 Fury, The Sound And. “The Story of Bob Surplus.” Bitcoin Talk. December 17, 2014. Accessed June 22, 2015. https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=896480.0. 2 “Paycoin Is Here | Paycoin Digital Currency.” May 17, 2014. Accessed June 22, 2015. https://archive.is/0HEwd. http://paycoins.biz/paycoin/ Chapter 16: Peer-to-Peer Lending If you go out into the real world, you cannot miss seeing that the poor are poor not because they are untrained or illiterate but because they can’t retain the returns of their labor. They have no control over capital, and it is the ability to control capital that gives people the power to rise out of poverty. —Muhammad Yunus, Banker to the Poor: Micro-Lending and the Battle Against World Poverty Microloans have been the focus of Internet economists and third world advocates for years.
Investing such small amounts using traditional fiat systems would create a huge pain in the ass for lenders when it came time to pay the loan back. Either they or the middleman would have to send back dozens of small transactions every month using the slow and ineffective legacy system. Paying back investors with Bitcoin can be done instantly, simply and inexpensively. Internet-enabled but fiat-based peer-to-peer lending programs have created systems that are quicker and simpler than it would be without them, but they still ultimately go through the legacy system and are hit with significant fees because of it. Even with sites such as Kiva, a microloan site with a charity bent that takes no fees of its own and depends on separate donations to cover operating costs, not all the money gets into the hands of borrowers—because their “field partners,” who help get money into the hands of borrowers, sometimes take a profit.
Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, financial innovation, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar
Collaborative consumption, a concept popularised by Rachel Botsman in her book What’s Mine Is Yours, threatens to disrupt many industries. In 2013, more people used BlaBlaCar, a leading European car-sharing service, than travelled by the high-speed Eurostar train between London and Paris.8 Airbnb now rents more room nights annually than Hilton’s entire hotel chain does globally. And the peer-to-peer lending market, which bypasses banks and their hefty hidden fees, passed the $1 billion mark in early 2012. In August 2014, Zopa, a leading UK peer-to-peer lending firm, announced that its platform alone had loaned over $1 billion since its launch in 2005, with a default rate of less than 1%. The new frugal economy is growing by leaps and bounds in the developed world not only because it meets the needs of cost-conscious consumers, but also because it responds to their aspirations to give back to society and be environmentally responsible.
MacArthur Foundation 14 John Deere 67 John Lewis 195 Johnson & Johnson 100, 111 Johnson, Warren 98 Jones, Don 112 jugaad (frugal ingenuity) 199, 202 Jugaad Innovation (Radjou, Prabhu and Ahuja, 2012) xvii, 17 just-in-time design 33–4 K Kaeser, Joe 217 Kalanick, Travis 163 Kalundborg (Denmark) 160 kanju 201 Karkal, Shamir 124 Kaufman, Ben 50–1, 126 Kawai, Daisuke 29–30 Kelly, John 199–200 Kennedy, President John 138 Kenya 57, 200–1 key performance indicators see KPIs Khan Academy 16–17, 113–14, 164 Khan, Salman (Sal) 16–17, 113–14 Kickstarter 17, 48, 137, 138 KieranTimberlake 196 Kimberly-Clark 25, 145 Kingfisher 86–7, 91, 97, 157, 158–9, 185–6, 192–3, 208 KissKissBankBank 17, 137 Knox, Steve 145 Knudstorp, Jørgen Vig 37, 68, 69 Kobori, Michael 83, 100 KPIs (key performance indicators) 38–9, 67, 91–2, 185–6, 208 Kuhndt, Michael 194 Kurniawan, Arie 151–2 L La Chose 108 La Poste 92–3, 157 La Ruche qui dit Oui 137 “labs on a chip” 52 Lacheret, Yves 173–5 Lada 1 laser cutters 134, 166 Laskey, Alex 119 last-mile challenge 57, 146, 156 L’Atelier 168–9 Latin America 161 lattice organisation 63–4 Laury, Véronique 208 Laville, Elisabeth 91 Lawrence, Jamie 185, 192–3, 208 LCA (life-cycle assessment) 196–7 leaders 179, 203–5, 214, 217 lean manufacturing 192 leanness 33–4, 41, 42, 170, 192 Learnbox 114 learning by doing 173, 179 learning organisations 179 leasing 123 Lee, Deishin 159 Lego 51, 126 Lego Group 37, 68, 69, 144 Legrand 157 Lenovo 56 Leroy, Adolphe 127 Leroy Merlin 127–8 Leslie, Garthen 150–1 Lever, William Hesketh 96 Levi Strauss & Co 60, 82–4, 100, 122–3 Lewis, Dijuana 212 life cycle of buildings 196 see also product life cycle life-cycle assessment (LCA) 196–7 life-cycle costs 12, 24, 196 Lifebuoy soap 95, 97 lifespan of companies 154 lighting 32, 56, 123, 201 “lightweighting” 47 linear development cycles 21, 23 linear model of production 80–1 Link 131 littleBits 51 Livi, Daniele 88 Livi, Vittorio 88 local communities 52, 57, 146, 206–7 local markets 183–4 Local Motors 52, 129, 152 local solutions 188, 201–2 local sourcing 51–2, 56, 137, 174, 181 localisation 56, 137 Locavesting (Cortese, 2011) 138 Logan car 2–3, 12, 179, 198–9 logistics 46, 57–8, 161, 191, 207 longevity 121, 124 Lopez, Maribel 65–6 Lopez Research 65–6 L’Oréal 174 Los Alamos National Laboratory 170 low-cost airlines 60, 121 low-cost innovation 11 low-income markets 12–13, 161, 203, 207 Lowry, Adam 81–2 M m-health 109, 111–12 M-KOPA 201 M-Pesa 57, 201 M3D 48, 132 McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry (MBDC) 84 McDonough, William 82 McGregor, Douglas 63 MacGyvers 17–18, 130, 134, 167 McKelvey, Jim 135 McKinsey & Company 81, 87, 209 mainstream, frugal products in 216 maintenance 66, 75, 76, 124, 187 costs 48–9, 66 Mainwaring, Simon 8 Maistre, Christophe de 187–8, 216 Maker Faire 18, 133–4 Maker platform 70 makers 18, 133–4, 145 manufacturing 20th-century model 46, 55, 80–1 additive 47–9 continuous 44–5 costs 47, 48, 52 decentralised 9, 44, 51–2 frugal 44–54 integration with logistics 57–8 new approaches 50–4 social 50–1 subtractive method 48 tools for 47, 47–50 Margarine Unie 96 market 15, 28, 38, 64, 186, 189, 192 R&D and 21, 26, 33, 34 market research 25, 61, 139, 141 market share 100 marketing 21–2, 24, 36, 61–3, 91, 116–20, 131, 139 and R&D 34, 37, 37–8 marketing teams 143, 150 markets 12–13, 42, 62, 215 see also emerging markets Marks & Spencer (M&S) 97, 215 Plan A 90, 156, 179–81, 183–4, 186–7, 214 Marriott 140 Mars 57, 158–9, 161 Martin Marietta 159 Martin, Tod 154 mass customisation 9, 46, 47, 48, 57–8 mass market 189 mass marketing 21–2 mass production 9, 46, 57, 58, 74, 129, 196 Massachusetts Institute of Technology see MIT massive open online courses see MOOCs materials 3, 47, 48, 73, 92, 161 costs 153, 161, 190 recyclable 74, 81, 196 recycled 77, 81–2, 83, 86, 89, 183, 193 renewable 77, 86 repurposing 93 see also C2C; reuse Mayhew, Stephen 35, 36 Mazoyer, Eric 90 Mazzella, Frédéric 163 MBDC (McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry) 84 MDI 16 measurable goals 185–6 Mechanical Engineer Laboratory (MEL) 52 “MEcosystems” 154–5, 156–8 Medicare 110 medication 111–12 Medicity 211 MedStartr 17 MEL (Mechanical Engineer Laboratory) 52 mental models 2, 193–203, 206, 216 Mercure 173 Merlin, Rose 127 Mestrallet, Gérard 53, 54 method (company) 81–2 Mexico 38, 56 Michelin 160 micro-factories 51–2, 52, 66, 129, 152 micro-robots 52 Microsoft 38 Microsoft Kinect 130 Microsoft Word 24 middle classes 197–8, 216 Migicovsky, Eric 137–8 Mikkiche, Karim 199 millennials 7, 14, 17, 131–2, 137, 141, 142 MindCET 165 miniaturisation 52, 53–4 Mint.com 125 MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 44–5, 107, 130, 134, 202 mobile health see m-health mobile phones 24, 32, 61, 129–30, 130, 168, 174 emerging market use 198 infrastructure 56, 198 see also smartphones mobile production units 66–7 mobile technologies 16, 17, 103, 133, 174, 200–1, 207 Mocana 151 Mochon, Daniel 132 modular design 67, 90 modular production units 66–7 Modularer Querbaukasten see MQB “mompreneurs” 145 Mondelez 158–9 Money Dashboard 125 Moneythink 162 monitoring 65–6, 106, 131 Monopoly 144 MOOCs (massive open online courses) 60, 61, 112, 113, 114, 164 Morieux, Yves 64 Morocco 207 Morris, Robert 199–200 motivation, employees 178, 180, 186, 192, 205–8 motivational approaches to shaping consumer behaviour 105–6 Motorola 56 MQB (Modularer Querbaukasten) 44, 45–6 Mulally, Alan 70, 166 Mulcahy, Simon 157 Mulliez family 126–7 Mulliez, Vianney 13, 126 multi-nodal innovation 202–3 Munari, Bruno 93 Murray, Mike 48–9 Musk, Elon 172 N Nano car 119, 156 National Geographic 102 natural capital, loss of 158–9 Natural Capital Leaders Platform 158–9 natural resources 45, 86 depletion 7, 72, 105, 153, 158–9 see also resources NCR 55–6 near-shoring 55 Nelson, Simon 113 Nemo, Sophie-Noëlle 93 Nest Labs 98–100, 103 Nestlé 31, 44, 68, 78, 94, 158–9, 194, 195 NetPositive plan 86, 208 networking 152–3, 153 new materials 47, 92 New Matter 132 new technologies 21, 27 Newtopia 32 next-generation customers 121–2 next-generation manufacturing techniques 44–6, 46–7 see also frugal manufacturing Nigeria 152, 197–8 Nike 84 NineSigma 151 Nissan 4, 4–5, 44, 199 see also Renault-Nissan non-governmental organisations 167 non-profit organisations 161, 162, 202 Nooyi, Indra 217 Norman, Donald 120 Norris, Greg 196 North American companies 216–17 North American market 22 Northrup Grumman 68 Norton, Michael 132 Norway 103 Novartis 44–5, 215 Novotel 173, 174 nudging 100, 108, 111, 117, 162 Nussbaum, Bruce 140 O O2 147 Obama, President Barack 6, 8, 13, 134, 138, 208 obsolescence, planned 24, 121 offshoring 55 Oh, Amy 145 Ohayon, Elie 71–2 Oliver Wyman 22 Olocco, Gregory 206 O’Marah, Kevin 58 on-demand services 39, 124 online communities 31, 50, 61, 134 online marketing 143 online retailing 60, 132 onshoring 55 Opel 4 open innovation 104, 151, 152, 153, 154 open-source approach 48, 129, 134, 135, 172 open-source hardware 51, 52, 89, 130, 135, 139 open-source software 48, 130, 132, 144–5, 167 OpenIDEO 142 operating costs 45, 215 Opower 103, 109, 119 Orange 157 Orbitz 173 organisational change 36–7, 90–1, 176, 177–90, 203–8, 213–14, 216 business models 190–3 mental models 193–203 organisational culture 36–7, 170, 176, 177–9, 213–14, 217 efficacy focus 181–3 entrepreneurial 76, 173 see also organisational change organisational structure 63–5, 69 outsourcing 59, 143, 146 over-engineering 27, 42, 170 Overby, Christine 25 ownership 9 Oxylane Group 127 P P&G (Procter & Gamble) 19, 31, 58, 94, 117, 123, 145, 195 packaging 57, 96, 195 Page, Larry 63 “pain points” 29, 30, 31 Palmer, Michael 212 Palo Alto Junior League 20 ParkatmyHouse 17, 63, 85 Parker, Philip 61 participation, customers 128–9 partner ecosystems 153, 154, 200 partners 65, 72, 148, 153, 156–8 sharing data with 59–60 see also distributors; hyper-collaboration; suppliers Partners in Care Foundation 202 partnerships 41, 42, 152–3, 156–7, 171–2, 174, 191 with SMBs 173, 174, 175 with start-ups 20, 164–5, 175 with suppliers 192–3 see also hyper-collaboration patents 171–2 Payne, Alex 124 PE International 196 Pearson 164–5, 167, 181–3, 186, 215 Pebble 137–8 peer-to-peer economic model 10 peer-to-peer lending 10 peer-to-peer sales 60 peer-to-peer sharing 136–7 Pélisson, Gérard 172–3 PepsiCo 38, 40, 179, 190, 194, 215 performance 47, 73, 77, 80, 95 of employees 69 Pernod Ricard 157 personalisation 9, 45, 46, 48, 62, 129–30, 132, 149 Peters, Tom 21 pharmaceutical industry 13, 22, 23, 33, 58, 171, 181 continuous manufacturing 44–6 see also GSK Philippines 191 Philips 56, 84, 100, 123 Philips Lighting 32 Picaud, Philippe 122 Piggy Mojo 119 piggybacking 57 Piketty, Thomas 6 Plan A (M&S) 90, 156, 179–81, 183–4, 186–7, 214 Planet 21 (Accor) 174–5 planned obsolescence 24, 121 Plastyc 17 Plumridge, Rupert 18 point-of-sale data 58 Poland 103 pollution 74, 78, 87, 116, 187, 200 Polman, Paul 11, 72, 77, 94, 203–5, 217 portfolio management tools 27, 33 Portugal 55, 103 postponement 57–8 Potočnik, Janez 8, 79 Prabhu, Arun 25 Prahalad, C.K. 12 predictive analytics 32–3 predictive maintenance 66, 67–8 Priceline 173 pricing 81, 117 processes digitising 65–6 entrenched 14–16 re-engineering 74 simplifying 169, 173 Procter & Gamble see P&G procurement priorities 67–8 product life cycle 21, 75, 92, 186 costs 12, 24, 196 sustainability 73–5 product-sharing initiatives 87 production costs 9, 83 productivity 49, 59, 65, 79–80, 153 staff 14 profit 14, 105 Progressive 100, 116 Project Ara 130 promotion 61–3 Propeller Health 111 prosumers xix–xx, 17–18, 125, 126–33, 136–7, 148, 154 empowering and engaging 139–46 see also horizontal economy Protomax 159 prototypes 31–2, 50, 144, 152 prototyping 42, 52, 65, 152, 167, 192, 206 public 50–1, 215 public sector, working with 161–2 publishers 17, 61 Pullman 173 Puma 194 purchasing power 5–6, 216 pyramidal model of production 51 pyramidal organisations 69 Q Qarnot Computing 89 Qualcomm 84 Qualcomm Life 112 quality 3, 11–12, 15, 24, 45, 49, 82, 206, 216 high 1, 9, 93, 198, 216 measure of 105 versus quantity 8, 23 quality of life 8, 204 Quicken 19–21 Quirky 50–1, 126, 150–1, 152 R R&D 35, 67, 92, 151 big-ticket programmes 35–6 and business development 37–8 China 40, 188, 206 customer focus 27, 39, 43 frugal approach 12, 26–33, 82 global networks 39–40 incentives 38–9 industrial model 2, 21–6, 33, 36, 42 market-focused, agile model 26–33 and marketing 34, 37, 37–8 recommendations for managers 34–41 speed 23, 27, 34, 149 spending 15, 22, 23, 28, 141, 149, 152, 171, 187 technology culture 14–15, 38–9 see also Air Liquide; Ford; GSK; IBM; immersion; Renault; SNCF; Tarkett; Unilever R&D labs 9, 21–6, 70, 149, 218 in emerging markets 40, 188, 200 R&D teams 26, 34, 38–9, 65, 127, 150, 194–5 hackers as 142 innovation brokering 168 shaping customer behaviour 120–2 Raspberry Pi 135–6, 164 Ratti, Carlo 107 raw materials see materials real-time demand signals 58, 59 Rebours, Christophe 157–8 recession 5–6, 6, 46, 131, 180 Reckitt Benckiser 102 recommendations for managers flexing assets 65–71 R&D 34–41 shaping consumer behaviour 116–24 sustainability 90–3 recruiting 70–1 recyclable materials 74, 81, 196 recyclable products 3, 73, 159, 195–6 recycled materials 77, 81–2, 83, 86, 89, 183, 193 recycling 8, 9, 87, 93, 142, 159 e-waste 87–8 electronic and electrical goods (EU) 8, 79 by Tarkett 73–7 water 83, 175 see also C2C; circular economy Recy’Go 92–3 regional champions 182 regulation 7–8, 13, 78–9, 103, 216 Reich, Joshua 124 RelayRides 17 Renault 1–5, 12, 117, 156–7, 179 Renault-Nissan 4–5, 40, 198–9, 215 renewable energy 8, 53, 74, 86, 91, 136, 142, 196 renewable materials 77, 86 Replicator 132 repurposing 93 Requardt, Hermann 189 reshoring 55–6 resource constraints 4–5, 217 resource efficiency 7–8, 46, 47–9, 79, 190 Resource Revolution (Heck, Rogers and Carroll, 2014) 87–8 resources 40, 42, 73, 86, 197, 199 consumption 9, 26, 73–7, 101–2 costs 78, 203 depletion 7, 72, 105, 153, 158–9 reducing use 45, 52, 65, 73–7, 104, 199, 203 saving 72, 77, 200 scarcity 22, 46, 72, 73, 77–8, 80, 158–9, 190, 203 sharing 56–7, 159–61, 167 substitution 92 wasting 169–70 retailers 56, 129, 214 “big-box” 9, 18, 137 Rethink Robotics 49 return on investment 22, 197 reuse 9, 73, 76–7, 81, 84–5, 92–3, 200 see also C2C revenues, generating 77, 167, 180 reverse innovation 202–3 rewards 37, 178, 208 Riboud, Franck 66, 184, 217 Rifkin, Jeremy 9–10 robots 47, 49–50, 70, 144–5, 150 Rock Health 151 Rogers, Jay 129 Rogers, Matt 87–8 Romania 2–3, 103 rookie mindset 164, 168 Rose, Stuart 179–80, 180 Roulin, Anne 195 Ryan, Eric 81–2 Ryanair 60 S S-Oil 106 SaaS (software as a service) 60 Saatchi & Saatchi 70–1 Saatchi & Saatchi + Duke 71–2, 143 sales function 15, 21, 25–6, 36, 116–18, 146 Salesforce.com 157 Santi, Paolo 108 SAP 59, 186 Saunders, Charles 211 savings 115 Sawa Orchards 29–31 Scandinavian countries 6–7 see also Norway Schmidt, Eric 136 Schneider Electric 150 Schulman, Dan 161–2 Schumacher, E.F. 104–5, 105 Schweitzer, Louis 1, 2, 3, 4, 179 SCM (supply chain management) systems 59 SCOR (supply chain operations reference) model 67 Seattle 107 SEB 157 self-sufficiency 8 selling less 123–4 senior managers 122–4, 199 see also CEOs; organisational change sensors 65–6, 106, 118, 135, 201 services 9, 41–3, 67–8, 124, 149 frugal 60–3, 216 value-added 62–3, 76, 150, 206, 209 Shapeways 51, 132 shareholders 14, 15, 76, 123–4, 180, 204–5 sharing 9–10, 193 assets 159–61, 167 customers 156–8 ideas 63–4 intellectual assets 171–2 knowledge 153 peer-to-peer 136–9 resources 56–7, 159–61, 167 sharing economy 9–10, 17, 57, 77, 80, 84–7, 108, 124 peer-to-peer sharing 136–9 sharing between companies 159–60 shipping costs 55, 59 shopping experience 121–2 SIEH hotel group 172–3 Siemens 117–18, 150, 187–9, 215, 216 Sigismondi, Pier Luigi 100 Silicon Valley 42, 98, 109, 150, 151, 162, 175 silos, breaking out of 36–7 Simple Bank 124–5 simplicity 8, 41, 64–5, 170, 194 Singapore 175 Six Sigma 11 Skillshare 85 SkyPlus 62 Small is Beautiful (Schumacher, 1973) 104–5 “small is beautiful” values 8 small and medium-sized businesses see SMBs Smart + Connected Communities 29 SMART car 119–20 SMART strategy (Siemens) 188–9 smartphones 17, 100, 106, 118, 130, 131, 135, 198 in health care 110, 111 see also apps SmartScan 29 SMBs (small and medium-sized businesses) 173, 174, 175, 176 SMS-based systems 42–3 SnapShot 116 SNCF 41–3, 156–7, 167 SoapBox 28–9 social business model 206–7 social comparison 109 social development 14 social goals 94 social learning 113 social manufacturing 47, 50–1 social media 16, 71, 85, 106, 108, 168, 174 for marketing 61, 62, 143 mining 29, 58 social pressure of 119 tools 109, 141 and transaction costs 133 see also Facebook; social networks; Twitter social networks 29, 71, 72, 132–3, 145, 146 see also Facebook; Twitter social pressure 119 social problems 82, 101–2, 141, 142, 153, 161–2, 204 social responsibility 7, 10, 14, 141, 142, 197, 204 corporate 77, 82, 94, 161 social sector, working with 161–2 “social tinkerers” 134–5 socialising education 112–14 Sofitel 173 software 72 software as a service (SaaS) 60 solar power 136, 201 sourcing, local 51–2, 56 Southwest Airlines 60 Spain 5, 6, 103 Spark 48 speed dating 175, 176 spending, on R&D 15, 22, 23, 28, 141, 149, 152, 171, 187 spiral economy 77, 87–90 SRI International 49, 52 staff see employees Stampanato, Gary 55 standards 78, 196 Starbucks 7, 140 start-ups 16–17, 40–1, 61, 89, 110, 145, 148, 150, 169, 216 investing in 137–8, 157 as partners 42, 72, 153, 175, 191, 206 see also Nest Labs; Silicon Valley Statoil 160 Steelcase 142 Stem 151 Stepner, Diana 165 Stewart, Emma 196–7 Stewart, Osamuyimen 201–2 Sto Corp 84 Stora Enso 195 storytelling 112, 113 Strategy& see Booz & Company Subramanian, Prabhu 114 substitution of resources 92 subtractive manufacturing 48 Sun Tzu 158 suppliers 67–8, 83, 148, 153, 167, 176, 192–3 collaboration with 76, 155–6 sharing with 59–60, 91 visibility 59–60 supply chain management see SCM supply chain operations reference (SCOR) model 67 supply chains 34, 36, 54, 65, 107, 137, 192–3 carbon footprint 156 costs 58, 84 decentralisation 66–7 frugal 54–60 integrating 161 small-circuit 137 sustainability 137 visibility 34, 59–60 support 135, 152 sustainability xix, 9, 12, 72, 77–80, 82, 97, 186 certification 84 as competitive advantage 80 consumers and 95, 97, 101–4 core design principle 82–4, 93, 195–6 and growth 76, 80, 104–5 perceptions of 15–16, 80, 91 recommendations for managers 90–3 regulatory demand for 78–9, 216 standard bearers of 80, 97, 215 see also Accor; circular economy; Kingfisher; Marks & Spencer; Tarkett; Unilever sustainable design 82–4 see also C2C sustainable distribution 57, 161 sustainable growth 72, 76–7 sustainable lifestyles 107–8 Sustainable Living Plan (Unilever) 94–7, 179, 203–4 sustainable manufacturing 9, 52 T “T-shaped” employees 70–1 take-back programmes 9, 75, 77, 78 Tally 196–7 Tarkett 73–7, 80, 84 TaskRabbit 85 Tata Motors 16, 119 Taylor, Frederick 71 technical design 37–8 technical support, by customers 146 technology 2, 14–15, 21–2, 26, 27 TechShop 9, 70, 134–5, 152, 166–7 telecoms sector 53, 56 Telefónica 147 telematic monitoring 116 Ternois, Laurence 42 Tesco 102 Tesla Motors 92, 172 testing 28, 42, 141, 170, 192 Texas Industries 159 Textoris, Vincent 127 TGV Lab 42–3 thermostats 98–100 thinking, entrenched 14–16 Thompson, Gav 147 Timberland 90 time 4, 7, 11, 41, 72, 129, 170, 200 constraints 36, 42 see also development cycle tinkerers 17–18, 133–5, 144, 150, 152, 153, 165–7, 168 TiVo 62 Tohamy, Noha 59–60 top-down change 177–8 top-down management 69 Total 157 total quality management (TQM) 11 total volatile organic compounds see TVOC Toyota 44, 100 Toyota Sweden 106–7 TQM (total quality management) 11 traffic 108, 116, 201 training 76, 93, 152, 167, 170, 189 transaction costs 133 transparency 178, 185 transport 46, 57, 96, 156–7 Transport for London 195 TrashTrack 107 Travelocity 174 trial and error 173, 179 Trout, Bernhardt 45 trust 7, 37, 143 TVOC (total volatile organic compounds) 74, 77 Twitter 29, 62, 135, 143, 147 U Uber 136, 163 Ubuntu 202 Uchiyama, Shunichi 50 UCLA Health 202–3 Udacity 61, 112 UK 194 budget cuts 6 consumer empowerment 103 industrial symbiosis 160 savings 115 sharing 85, 138 “un-management” 63–4, 64 Unboundary 154 Unilever 11, 31, 57, 97, 100, 142, 203–5, 215 and sustainability 94–7, 104, 179, 203–4 University of Cambridge Engineering Design Centre (EDC) 194–5 Inclusive Design team 31 Institute for Sustainability Leadership (CISL) 158–9 upcycling 77, 88–9, 93, 159 upselling 189 Upton, Eben 135–6 US 8, 38, 44, 87, 115, 133, 188 access to financial services 13, 17, 161–2 ageing population 194 ageing workforce 13 commuting 131 consumer spending 5, 6, 103 crowdfunding 137–8, 138 economic pressures 5, 6 energy use 103, 119, 196 environmental awareness 7, 102 frugal innovation in 215–16, 218 health care 13, 110, 208–13, 213 intellectual property 171 onshoring 55 regulation 8, 78, 216 sharing 85, 138–9 shifting production from China to 55, 56 tinkering culture 18, 133–4 user communities 62, 89 user interfaces 98, 99 user-friendliness 194 Utopies 91 V validators 144 value 11, 132, 177, 186, 189–90 aspirational 88–9 to customers 6–7, 21, 77, 87, 131, 203 from employees 217 shareholder value 14 value chains 9, 80, 128–9, 143, 159–60, 190, 215 value engineering 192 “value gap” 54–5 value-added services 62–3, 76, 150, 206, 209 values 6–7, 14, 178, 205 Vandebroek, Sophie 169 Vasanthakumar, Vaithegi 182–3 Vats, Tanmaya 190, 192 vehicle fleets, sharing 57, 161 Verbaken, Joop 118 vertical integration 133, 154 virtual prototyping 65 virtuous cycle 212–13 visibility 34, 59–60 visible learning 112–13 visioning sessions 193–4 visualisation 106–8 Vitality 111 Volac 158–9 Volkswagen 4, 44, 45–6, 129, 144 Volvo 62 W wage costs 48 wages, in emerging markets 55 Waitrose, local suppliers 56 Walker, James 87 walking the walk 122–3 Waller, Sam 195 Walmart 9, 18, 56, 162, 216 Walton, Sam 9 Wan Jia 144 Washington DC 123 waste 24, 87–9, 107, 159–60, 175, 192, 196 beautifying 88–9, 93 e-waste 24, 79, 87–8, 121 of energy 119 post-consumer 9, 75, 77, 78, 83 reducing 47, 74, 85, 96, 180, 209 of resources 169–70 in US health-care system 209 see also C2C; recycling; reuse water 78, 83, 104, 106, 158, 175, 188, 206 water consumption 79, 82–3, 100, 196 reducing 74, 75, 79, 104, 122–3, 174, 183 wealth 105, 218 Wear It Share It (Wishi) 85 Weijmarshausen, Peter 51 well-being 104–5 Wham-O 56 Whirlpool 36 “wicked” problems 153 wireless technologies 65–6 Wiseman, Liz 164 Wishi (Wear It Share It) 85 Witty, Andrew 35, 35–6, 37, 39, 217 W.L.
Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan
23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks
Bitcoin exchange Kraken has partnered with a bank to provide regulated financial services involving Bitcoin.39 There is a clear need for an analog to and innovation around traditional financial products and services for Bitcoin—for example, Bitcoin savings accounts and lending (perhaps through user-selected rules regarding fractional reserve levels). BTCjam is an example of such decentralized blockchain-based peer-to-peer lending. Tera Exchange launched the first US-regulated Bitcoin swaps exchange, which could make it possible for institutional and individual investors to buy Bitcoin contracts directly through its online trading platforms. Part of the offering includes an institutional Bitcoin price index, the Tera Bitcoin Price Index, to be used as the benchmark for trading USD/XBT contracts.40 In the same space, startup Vaurum is building an API for financial institutions to offer traditional brokerage investors and bank customers access to Bitcoin.
-M2M/IoT Bitcoin Payment Network to Enable the Machine Economy and consensus models, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe extensibility of, Extensibility of Blockchain Technology Concepts for facilitating big data predictive task automation, Blockchain Layer Could Facilitate Big Data’s Predictive Task Automation future applications, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe limitations of (see limitations) organizational capabilities, Blockchain Technology Is a New and Highly Effective Model for Organizing Activity tracking capabilities, Fundamental Economic Principles: Discovery, Value Attribution, and Exchange-Fundamental Economic Principles: Discovery, Value Attribution, and Exchange blockchain-recorded marriage, Decentralized Governance Services BlockCypher, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs BOINC, DAOs and DACs bond deposit postings, Technical Challenges Brin, David, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel BTCjam, Financial Services business model challenges, Business Model Challenges Buttercoin, Financial Services Byrne, Patrick, Financial Services C Campus Cryptocurrency Network, Campuscoin Campuscoin, Campuscoin-Campuscoin censorship, Internet (see decentralized DNS system) Chain, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs challenges (see see limitations) charity donations, Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost China, Relation to Fiat Currency ChromaWallet, Wallet Development Projects Chronobit, Virtual Notary, Bitnotar, and Chronobit Circle Internet Financial, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Codius, Financial Services coin drops, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption coin mixing, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity coin, defining, Terminology and Concepts, Currency, Token, Tokenizing Coinapult, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief Coinapult LOCKS, Relation to Fiat Currency Coinbase, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin, Financial Services CoinBeyond, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin Coinffeine, Financial Services Coinify, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin Coinprism, Wallet Development Projects Coinspace, Crowdfunding CoinSpark, Wallet Development Projects colored coins, Smart Property, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects community supercomputing, Community Supercomputing Communitycoin, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention complementary currency systems, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable concepts, redefining, Terminology and Concepts-Terminology and Concepts consensus models, Blockchain AI: Consensus as the Mechanism to Foster “Friendly” AI-Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe consensus-derived information, Blockchain Consensus Increases the Information Resolution of the Universe contagious disease relief, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief contracts, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts-The Blockchain as a Path to Artificial Intelligence (see also smart contracts) crowdfunding, Crowdfunding-Crowdfunding financial services, Financial Services-Financial Services marriage, Decentralized Governance Services prediction markets, Bitcoin Prediction Markets smart property, Smart Property-Smart Property wallet development projects, Wallet Development Projects copyright protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Counterparty, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform Counterparty currency (XCP), Currency, Token, Tokenizing Counterwallet, Wallet Development Projects crowdfunding, Crowdfunding-Crowdfunding cryptocurrencies benefits of, Currency, Token, Tokenizing cryptosecurity, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity eWallet services, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity mechanics of, How a Cryptocurrency Works-Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin merchant acceptance, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin cryptosecurity challenges, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity cryptowallet, Blockchain Neutrality currency, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency-Regulatory Status, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Campuscoin, Campuscoin-Campuscoin coin drops, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption Communitycoin, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention-Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention cryptocurrencies, How a Cryptocurrency Works-Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin decentralizing, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention defining, Currency, Token, Tokenizing-Currency, Token, Tokenizing, Currency: New Meanings demurrage, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features double-spend problem, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems fiat currency, Relation to Fiat Currency-Relation to Fiat Currency monetary and nonmonetary, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies-Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies new meanings, Currency: New Meanings technology stack, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency-Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency currency mulitplicity, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies-Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies D DAOs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs DAOs/DACs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure, Blockchain Government Dapps, Dapps-Dapps, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Dark Coin, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity dark pools, Technical Challenges Dark Wallet, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity DASs, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations DDP, Crowdfunding decentralization, Smart Contracts, Centralization-Decentralization Tension and Equilibrium decentralized applications (Dapps), Dapps-Dapps decentralized autonomous organization/corporation (DAO) (see DAOs/DACs) decentralized autonomous societies (DASs), DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations decentralized autonomy, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity decentralized DNS, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity challenges of, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services and digital identity, Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity DotP2P, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services decentralized file storage, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation decentralized secure file serving, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation deeds, Decentralized Governance Services demurrage currencies, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable-Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features action-incitory features, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features limitations of, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable digital art, Digital Art: Blockchain Attestation Services (Notary, Intellectual Property Protection)-Personal Thinking Blockchains (see also blockchain attestation services) hashing and timestamping, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations online graphics protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection digital cryptography, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine, Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101 digital divide, defining, Digital Divide of Bitcoin digital identity verification, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records dispute resolution, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution DIYweathermodeling, Community Supercomputing DNAnexus, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Dogecoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies, Scandals and Public Perception DotP2P, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services double-spend problem, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems DriveShare, DAOs and DACs dynamic redistribution of currency (see demurrage currency) E education (see learning and literacy) Electronic Freedom Foundation (EFF), Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models EMR (electronic medical record) system, EMRs on the Blockchain: Personal Health Record Storage Ethereum, Crowdfunding, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine-Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform eWallet services, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity ExperimentalResultscoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin F Fairlay, Bitcoin Prediction Markets fiat currency, Relation to Fiat Currency-Relation to Fiat Currency file serving, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine file storage, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation financial services, Regulatory Status, Financial Services-Financial Services, Blockchain Technology Is a New and Highly Effective Model for Organizing Activity, Government Regulation Fitbit, Personal Thinking Blockchains, Blockchain Health Research Commons, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Florincoin, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel Folding@Home, DAOs and DACs, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin, Community Supercomputing franculates, Blockchain Government freedom of speech, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel (see also decentralized DNS system) Freicoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable fundraising (see crowdfunding) futarchy, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets G GBIcoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable GBIs (Guaranteed Basic Income initiatives), Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable Gems, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs, Dapps Genecoin, Blockchain Genomics Genomecoin, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Genomic Data Commons, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin genomic sequencing, Blockchain Genomics 2.0: Industrialized All-Human-Scale Sequencing Solution-Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin GenomicResearchcoin, Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin genomics, consumer, Blockchain Genomics-Genomecoin, GenomicResearchcoin Git, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation GitHub, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies global public health, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief GoCoin, Financial Services GoToLunchcoin, Terminology and Concepts governance, Blockchain Government-Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance decentralized services, Decentralized Governance Services-Decentralized Governance Services dispute resolution, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution futarchy, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Liquid Democracy system, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections-Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections personalized governance services, Blockchain Government random-sample elections, Random-Sample Elections societal maturity impact of blockchain governance, Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance government regulation, Regulatory Status, Government Regulation-Government Regulation Gridcoin, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin-Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin H hashing, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure, Technical Challenges Hayek, Friedrich, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable, Conclusion, The Blockchain Is an Information Technology health, Blockchain Health-Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup as demurrage currency, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features doctor vendor RFP services, Doctor Vendor RFP Services and Assurance Contracts health notary services, Blockchain Health Notary health research commons , Blockchain Health Research Commons health spending, Healthcoin healthcare decision making and advocacy, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections personal health record storage, EMRs on the Blockchain: Personal Health Record Storage virus bank and seed vault backup, Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup Healthcoin, Healthcoin, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable I identity authentication, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records Indiegogo, Crowdfunding, Dapps industry scandals, Scandals and Public Perception infrastructure needs and issues, Technical Challenges inheritance gifts, Smart Contracts intellectual property, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection (see also digital art) Internet administration, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models Internet Archive, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Personal Thinking Blockchains Internet censorship prevention (see Decentralized DNS system) Intuit Quickbooks, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin IP protection, Hashing Plus Timestamping IPFS project, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation J Johnston, David, Blockchain Technology Could Be Used in the Administration of All Quanta Journalcoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin Judobaby, Crowdfunding justice applications for censorship-resistant organizational models, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models-Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models digital art, Digital Art: Blockchain Attestation Services (Notary, Intellectual Property Protection)-Personal Thinking Blockchains (see also digital art, blockchain attestation services) digital identity verification, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property, Wallet Development Projects, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Divide of Bitcoin, Limitations, Decentralized Governance Services, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records freedom of speech/anti-censorship, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel governance, Blockchain Government-Societal Maturity Impact of Blockchain Governance (see also governance) Namecoin, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection (see also decentralized DNS) K Kickstarter, Crowdfunding, Community Supercomputing Kipochi, Blockchain Neutrality, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy Koinify, Crowdfunding, Dapps Kraken, Financial Services L latency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, Technical Challenges, Technical Challenges, Scandals and Public Perception LaZooz, Dapps, Campuscoin, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Learncoin, Learncoin learning and literacy, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy-Learning Contract Exchanges learning contract exchanges, Learning Contract Exchanges Ledra Capital, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List legal implications crowdfunding, Crowdfunding smart contracts, Smart Contracts lending, trustless, Smart Property Lighthouse, Crowdfunding limitations, Limitations-Overall: Decentralization Trends Likely to Persist business model challenges, Business Model Challenges government regulation, Government Regulation-Government Regulation personal records privacy challenges, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records scandals and public perception, Scandals and Public Perception-Scandals and Public Perception technical challenges, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges Liquid Democracy system, Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections-Liquid Democracy and Random-Sample Elections Litecoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies, Technical Challenges literacy (see learning and literacy) LTBcoin, Wallet Development Projects, Currency, Token, Tokenizing M M2M/IoT infrastructure, M2M/IoT Bitcoin Payment Network to Enable the Machine Economy, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin-The Blockchain Is Not for Every Situation, The Blockchain Is an Information Technology Maidsafe, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Technical Challenges Manna, Crowdfunding marriage, blockchain recorded, Decentralized Governance Services Mastercoin, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects mechanics of cryptocurrencies, How a Cryptocurrency Works Medici, Financial Services mega master blockchain list, Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List-Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List Melotic, Crowdfunding, Wallet Development Projects merchant acceptance, Merchant Acceptance of Bitcoin merchant payment fees, Summary: Blockchain 1.0 in Practical Use messaging, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine, Dapps, Challenges and Other Decentralized DNS Services, Technical Challenges MetaDisk, DAOs and DACs mindfiles, Personal Thinking Blockchains MIT Bitcoin Project, Campuscoin Monegraph, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection money (see currency) MOOCs (massive open online courses), Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy Moroz, Tatiana, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention multicurrency systems, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable N Nakamoto, Satoshi, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts Namecoin, Namecoin: Decentralized Domain Name System-Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Nationcoin, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption, Demurrage Currencies: Potentially Incitory and Redistributable notary chains, Batched Notary Chains as a Class of Blockchain Infrastructure notary services, Hashing Plus Timestamping, Blockchain Health Notary NSA surveillance, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel NXT, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects O offline wallets, Technical Challenges OneName, Digital Identity Verification-Digital Identity Verification OneWallet, Wallet Development Projects online graphics protection, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection-Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection Open Assets, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects Open Transactions, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects OpenBazaar, Dapps, Government Regulation Ostel, Freedom of Speech/Anti-Censorship Applications: Alexandria and Ostel P passports, Decentralized Governance Services PayPal, The Double-Spend and Byzantine Generals’ Computing Problems, Financial Services, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models peer-to-peer lending, Financial Services Peercoin, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency personal cryptosecurity, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity personal data rights, Blockchain Genomics personal mindfile blockchains, Personal Thinking Blockchains personal thinking chains, Personal Thinking Blockchains-Personal Thinking Blockchains physical asset keys, Blockchain 2.0: Contracts, Smart Property plagiarism detection/avoidance, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin Precedent, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Terminology and Concepts prediction markets, Bitcoin Prediction Markets, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations, Decentralized Governance Services, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Predictious, Bitcoin Prediction Markets predictive task automation, Blockchain Layer Could Facilitate Big Data’s Predictive Task Automation privacy challenges, Privacy Challenges for Personal Records private key, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Proof of Existence, Proof of Existence-Proof of Existence proof of stake, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Technical Challenges proof of work, PrecedentCoin: Blockchain Dispute Resolution, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges property ownership, Smart Property property registration, Decentralized Governance Services public documents registries, Decentralized Governance Services public health, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief public perception, Scandals and Public Perception-Scandals and Public Perception public/private key cryptography, Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101-Public/Private-Key Cryptography 101 publishing, academic, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin-Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin pull technology, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity push technology, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity R random-sample elections, Random-Sample Elections Realcoin, Relation to Fiat Currency redistribution of currency (see demurrage currency) regulation, Government Regulation-Government Regulation regulatory status, Regulatory Status reputation vouching, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Researchcoin, Blockchain Academic Publishing: Journalcoin REST APIs, Technical Challenges Ripple, Technology Stack: Blockchain, Protocol, Currency, Relation to Fiat Currency, Blockchain 2.0 Protocol Projects Ripple Labs, Financial Services Roadcoin, Blockchain Government S Saldo.mx, Blockchain Neutrality scandals, Scandals and Public Perception science, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin-Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost community supercomputing, Community Supercomputing global public health, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief Sean's Outpost, Charity Donations and the Blockchain—Sean’s Outpost secret messaging, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine security issues, Technical Challenges self-bootstrapped organizations, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations self-directing assets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets self-enforced code, Smart Property self-sufficiency, Smart Contracts SETI@home, Blockchain Science: Gridcoin, Foldingcoin, Community Supercomputing size and bandwidth, Technical Challenges smart contracts, Smart Contracts-Smart Contracts, Smart Contract Advocates on Behalf of Digital Intelligence automatic markets and tradenets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets Counterparty, Counterparty Re-creates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform DAOs/DACs, DAOs and DACs-DAOs and DACs Dapps, Dapps-Dapps DASs, DASs and Self-Bootstrapped Organizations Ethereum, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine increasingly autonomous, Dapps, DAOs, DACs, and DASs: Increasingly Autonomous Smart Contracts-Automatic Markets and Tradenets smart literacy contracts, Blockchain Learning: Bitcoin MOOCs and Smart Contract Literacy-Learning Contract Exchanges smart property, Smart Property-Smart Property, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection smartwatch, Extensibility of Demurrage Concept and Features Snowden, Edward, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models social contracts, Smart Contracts social network currencies, Currency Multiplicity: Monetary and Nonmonetary Currencies Stellar, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs stock market, Financial Services Storj, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation, Dapps, Technical Challenges Stripe, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs supercomputing, Community Supercomputing Svalbard Global Seed Vault, Virus Bank, Seed Vault Backup Swancoin, Smart Property swaps exchange, Financial Services Swarm, Crowdfunding, Dapps Swarm (Ethereum), Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Swarmops, Crowdfunding T Tatianacoin, Communitycoin: Hayek’s Private Currencies Vie for Attention technical challenges, Technical Challenges-Technical Challenges Tendermint, Technical Challenges Tera Exchange, Financial Services terminology, Terminology and Concepts-Terminology and Concepts 37Coins, Global Public Health: Bitcoin for Contagious Disease Relief throughput, Technical Challenges timestamping, Hashing Plus Timestamping-Limitations titling, Decentralized Governance Services tradenets, Automatic Markets and Tradenets transaction fees, Summary: Blockchain 1.0 in Practical Use Tribecoin, Coin Drops as a Strategy for Public Adoption trustless lending, Smart Property Truthcoin, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets Turing completeness, Ethereum: Turing-Complete Virtual Machine Twister, Dapps Twitter, Monegraph: Online Graphics Protection U Uber, Government Regulation unbanked/underbanked markets, Blockchain Neutrality usability issues, Technical Challenges V value chain composition, How a Cryptocurrency Works versioning issues, Technical Challenges Virtual Notary, Virtual Notary, Bitnotar, and Chronobit voting and prediction, Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets-Futarchy: Two-Step Democracy with Voting + Prediction Markets W wallet APIs, Blockchain Development Platforms and APIs wallet companies, Wallet Development Projects wallet software, How a Cryptocurrency Works wasted resources, Technical Challenges Wayback Machine, Blockchain Ecosystem: Decentralized Storage, Communication, and Computation Wedbush Securities, Financial Services Whatevercoin, Terminology and Concepts WikiLeaks, Distributed Censorship-Resistant Organizational Models Wikinomics, Community Supercomputing World Citizen project, Decentralized Governance Services X Xapo, eWallet Services and Personal Cryptosecurity Z Zennet Supercomputer, Community Supercomputing Zooko's Triangle, Decentralized DNS Functionality Beyond Free Speech: Digital Identity About the Author Melanie Swan is the Founder of the Institute for Blockchain Studies and a Contemporary Philosophy MA candidate at Kingston University London and Université Paris VIII.
MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams
accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar
“I can reliably get 12 percent, worst case 9 percent,” he said.23 Though the actual returns achieved by the lenders have been inconsistent, and not fully transparent, there is no doubt that these sites are building powerful momentum in a storm of bank customer disenchantment. Although P2P banking as we’ve described it originated in Europe and North America, entrepreneurs like Calvin Chin see the relatively underdeveloped banking markets of emerging economies as a potential opportunity too. Chin recently launched Qifang, a peer-to-peer lending platform in China that focuses on the student loan market. “We’re taking what has traditionally been an offline informal activity, borrowing between individuals, and bringing it into the digital age,” he says. “So a prospective student can now borrow not just from family and friends but from people across China.” Every year, approximately 6 million students enter four-year university programs in China.
To prevent fraud the funds are directed to the educational institution where the student has been accepted. In the year and a half since Qifang’s official launch, the company facilitated over three thousand transactions. The next step for Chin is to expand the lender base with partnerships with traditional banks as well as nonprofits and philanthropic organizations. Is this the beginning of an outright social movement? Peer-to-peer lending will certainly not displace the retail lending divisions of the big banks anytime soon. That said, social banking clearly offers many advantages both in the developed markets as well as in the rising economies. If some of the early hurdles can be ironed out, the phenomenon could have a promising future. The sheer growth of the sector has certainly chipped away at the skepticism surrounding it and reinforced the viability of a more cost-effective way of lending.
According to Jessica, lenders on Kiva see a poor, uneducated farmer in sub-Saharan Africa not as a charity case, but as a strong, hardworking, intelligent individual who has an enormous amount of potential to change his or her own life for the better. Indeed, unlike a donation to a charity, which begins and ends with the writing of a check, the people who connect through Kiva are partners, and that deeper level of engagement seems to be at the core of Kiva’s attraction. “Kiva is about more than just peer-to-peer lending,” says Matt. “It’s a platform for collaboration and a chance to develop genuine business relationships between lenders and the loan recipients.” He says most lenders take the opportunity to dig into the business plan, provide advice, and monitor the progress of the recipients. Once the loan is repaid, lenders can re-lend to another entrepreneur, donate their money to Kiva, or withdraw it.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, Zipcar
Geert De Clercq, “Renewables Turn Utilities into Dinosaurs of the Energy World,” Reuters, March 8, 2013, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/03/08/us-utilities-threat-idUSBRE92709 E20130308 (accessed August 30, 2013). Chapter 14 1. Matthew Ericson, Elaine He, and Amy Schoenfeld, “Tracking the $700 Billion Bailout,” New York Times, June 19, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/packages/html/national/200904 _CREDITCRISIS/recipients.html (accessed March 29, 2013). 2. “Peer-to-Peer Lending: How Zopa Works,” Zopa, http://uk.zopa.com/about-zopa/peer-to-peer -lending (accessed June 11, 2013). 3. David Bornstein, “Crowdfunding Clean Energy,” New York Times, March 6, 2013, http:// opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/03/06/crowd-funding-clean-energy/ (accessed March 6, 2013). 4. “Amazon Payment Fees,” Amazon, http://www.kickstarter.com/help/amazon (accessed June 11, 2013); “What Is Kickstarter?” Kickstarter, http://www.kickstarter.com/hello?
The American public was enraged that $700 billion in tax revenue was handed over to banks, rewarding them for financial recklessness, while millions of Americans were losing their homes because they couldn’t pay off their mortgages. In other words, they were “too small to matter.”1 Peer-to-Peer Social Lending In the aftermath of the banking debacle, a new kind of lending institution emerged on the Internet. It’s called peer-to-peer lending or social lending. Online banking platforms like Zopa, Lending Club, and Prosper lend money directly to individuals and projects. These online financing mechanisms are becoming popular alternative lending vehicles to traditional banks because they eliminate the middlemen and the high fixed costs of large financial institutions that are passed on to lenders in the form of higher interest rates.
What Would Google Do? by Jeff Jarvis
23andMe, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, clean water, connected car, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, don't be evil, fear of failure, Firefox, future of journalism, Google Earth, Googley, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, peer-to-peer lending, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, web of trust, Y Combinator, Zipcar
I’d manage abundance. All that, of course, assumes that I have an abundance of money. I don’t. Oh, well. The First Bank of Google: Markets minus middlemen Banking is the ultimate middleman business, pooling money and need and profiting on the connections. In small ways—as in small is the new big—the internet is already disintermediating the industry by making direct connections. Take peer-to-peer lending. At Prosper.com, as of 2008, 750,000 members had borrowed and lent more than $150 million in amounts as small as $50, supporting anything from launching new businesses to paying off college loans to getting out from under credit card debt. It’s wonderfully simple and magnificently human. You see the person and the story: “It has been my dream to open a Neapolitan Pizzeria ever since I moved to the United States 9 years ago.
., 4 PR and, 224 open-source, 59–63 Apple and, 227 automobile industry and, 174–75 Coelho and, 142–43 fashion, 180 religion and, 226 restaurants and, 154 Open-Source Judaism, 226 O’Reilly, Tim, 79 organization, elegant, 48–53 airlines and, 182 newspapers and, 129 Orkut, 50 Osnos, Peter, 140 Outside.in, 191 ownership, 4, 28 Owyang, Jeremiah, 172–73 Page, Larry, 85 on environment, 162–64 on evil, 99 Gore v., 217 on mistakes, 94 telecommunications and, 166 PageRank, 85 partnering, 22–23, 151 passion, 217 passivity, 116–18 patents, 224 Paterson, David, 96 PatientsLikeMe, 200 PayPal, 86, 197–98 Peapod, 179 peer-to-peer lending, 176–77 personal liberty, 238 personal political pages (PPPs), 219 Picasa, 33, 81, 193 piracy, as marketing, 141–42 platform(s), 32–36 craigslist as, 117–18 newspapers and, 126–27 Platial.com, 33–34 politics, 51, 217–21 trust and, 83 Pope, Ivan, 206 populism, 84–85 pornography, 225 PornTube, 225 portfolios, 214 post-scarcity economy, 57–59 Potts, Mark, 56 PowerPoint, 64 Poynter, Don, 137 PPPs.
Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff
3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar
We can continue to run this growth-driven, extractive, self-defeating program until one corporation is left standing and the impoverished revolt. Or we can seize the opportunity to reprogram our economy—and our businesses—from the inside out. In doing so, we can begin to benefit from new, more distributed modes of value creation and exchange—the sorts of wealth generation we see on trading sites, on peer-to-peer lending networks, on user-owned platforms, or even in the games and apps programmed by college kids on laptops and then brought directly to market. That’s the economy most of us early net users envisioned back in the 1980s when we first got our hands on these new tools. But by the early 1990s, this human-centered vision of a networked marketplace was replaced by another vision of digital business—the one espoused by the libertarian founders and early writers of Wired magazine and the corporate-sponsored futurists of Cambridge, Massachusetts, many of whom were the very same people.
The banks and credit companies on the platform use algorithms to cherry-pick the best loans for themselves as soon as they are listed (like professional shoppers taking the best clothes from the thrift shops), leaving only the dregs for the regular people visiting the site. These institutions enjoy the benefits of all that peer-to-peer psychology, earning a sense of loyalty usually owed only to other human beings. But slowly, as these sites’ human lenders become aware that they no longer have equal access to the best opportunities, they leave, disillusioned. The nascent peer-to-peer lending landscape is discredited before it even has a chance to propagate. The sweet spot in digital investment is for investors, lenders, and the enterprises in which they want to participate to be able to create value together without surrendering the human connection that elevates the success rate of peer-to-peer business solutions. As we have seen before, this doesn’t necessarily mean exploiting digital technology so much as the digital sensibility.
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital asset pricing model, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cross-subsidies, dematerialisation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, Irish property bubble, Isaac Newton, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, loose coupling, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, market design, millennium bug, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, passive investing, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Piper Alpha, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, regulatory arbitrage, Renaissance Technologies, rent control, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Vanguard fund, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, Yom Kippur War
Some enthusiasts have claimed that new technologies will eliminate intermediary functions. But connectedness, which the internet delivers so effectively, is only one of the functions of the intermediary. The greater ease of making connections increases the need to monitor these connections. Facebook illustrates how a broader range of relationships diminishes their average quality. Recent financial innovations, such as crowd-funding and peer-to-peer lending, cannot eliminate financial intermediation. If savers are to obtain returns that match the risks they take, they need to be able to judge how their money is used and how the assets purchased with that money are managed. Few have the time, knowledge or experience to do this. Cynicism born of experience is required to find the few viable opportunities among many optimistic business plans. Or to identify those who are likely to repay their debts, among compelling promises and persuasive hard luck stories.
.: Hyperion 220 Loomis, Carol 108 lotteries 65, 66, 68, 72 Lucas, Robert 40 Lynch, Dennios 108 Lynch, Peter 108, 109 M M-Pesa 186 Maastricht Treaty (1993) 243, 250 McCardie, Sir Henry 83, 84, 282, 284 McGowan, Harry 45 Machiavelli, Niccolò 224 McKinley, William 44 McKinsey 115, 126 Macy’s department store 46 Madoff, Bernard 29, 118, 131, 132, 177, 232, 293 Madoff Securities 177 Magnus, King of Sweden 196 Manhattan Island, New York: and Native American sellers 59, 63 Manne, Henry 46 manufacturing companies, rise of 45 Marconi 48 marine insurance 62, 63 mark-to-market accounting 126, 128–9, 320n22 mark-to-model approach 128–9, 320n21 Market Abuse Directive (MAD) 226 market economy 4, 281, 302, 308 ‘market for corporate control, the’ 46 market risk 97, 98, 177, 192 market-makers 25, 28, 30, 31 market-making 49, 109, 118, 136 Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (MIFID) 226 Markkula, Mike 162, 166, 167 Markopolos, Harry 232 Markowitz, Harry 69 Markowitz model of portfolio allocation 68–9 Martin, Felix 323n5 martingale 130, 131, 136, 139, 190 Marx, Groucho 252 Marx, Karl 144, 145 Capital 143 Mary Poppins (film) 11, 12 MasterCard 186 Masters, Brooke 120 maturity transformation 88, 92 Maxwell, Robert 197, 201 Mayan civilisation 277 Meade, James 263 Means, Gardiner 51 Meeker, Mary 40, 167 Melamed, Leo 19 Mercedes 170 merchant banks 25, 30, 33 Meriwether, John 110, 134 Merkel, Angela 231 Merrill Lynch 135, 199, 293, 300 Merton, Robert 110 Metronet 159 Meyer, André 205 MGM 33 Microsoft 29, 167 middleman, role of the 80–87 agency and trading 82–3 analysts 86 bad intermediaries 81–2 from agency to trading 84–5 identifying goods and services required 80, 81 logistics 80, 81 services from financial intermediaries 80–81 supply chain 80, 81 transparency 84 ‘wisdom of crowds’ 86–7 Midland Bank 24 Milken, Michael 46, 292 ‘millennium bug’ 40 Miller, Bill 108, 109 Minuit, Peter 59, 63 Mises, Ludwig von 225 Mittelstand (medium-size business sector) 52, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172 mobile banking apps 181 mobile phone payment transfers 186–7 Modigliani-Miller theorem 318n9 monetarism 241 monetary economics 5 monetary policy 241, 243, 245, 246 money creation 88 money market fund 120–21 Moneyball phenomenon 165 monopolies 45 Monte Carlo casino 123 Monte dei Paschi Bank of Siena 24 Montgomery Securities 167 Moody’s rating agency 21, 248, 249, 313n6 moral hazard 74, 75, 76, 92, 95, 256, 258 Morgan, J.P. 44, 166, 291 Morgan Stanley 25, 40, 130, 135, 167, 268 Morgenthau, District Attorney Robert 232–3 mortality tables 256 mortgage banks 27 mortgage market fluctuation in mortgage costs 148 mechanised assessment 84–5 mortgage-backed securities 20, 21, 40, 85, 90, 100, 128, 130, 150, 151, 152, 168, 176–7, 284 synthetic 152 Mozilo, Angelo 150, 152, 154, 293 MSCI World Bank Index 135 muckraking 44, 54–5, 79 ‘mugus’ 118, 260 multinational companies, and diversification 96–7 Munger, Charlie 127 Munich, Germany 62 Munich Re 62 Musk, Elon 168 mutual funds 27, 108, 202, 206 mutual societies 30 mutualisation 79 mutuality 124, 213 ‘My Way’ (song) 72 N Napoleon Bonaparte 26 Napster 185 NASA 276 NASDAQ 29, 108, 161 National Economic Council (US) 5, 58 National Employment Savings Trust (NEST) 255 National Institutes of Health 167 National Insurance Fund (UK) 254 National Provincial Bank 24 National Science Foundation 167 National Westminster Bank 24, 34 Nationwide 151 Native Americans 59, 63 Nazis 219, 221 neo-liberal economic policies 39, 301 Netjets 107 Netscape 40 Neue Markt 170 New Deal 225 ‘new economy’ bubble (1999) 23, 34, 40, 42, 98, 132, 167, 199, 232, 280 new issue market 112–13 New Orleans, Louisiana: Hurricane Katrina disaster (2005) 79 New Testament 76 New York Stock Exchange 26–7, 28, 29, 31, 49, 292 New York Times 283 News of the World 292, 295 Newton, Isaac 35, 132, 313n18 Niederhoffer, Victor 109 NINJAs (no income, no job, no assets) 222 Nixon, Richard 36 ‘no arbitrage’ condition 69 non-price competition 112, 219 Norman, Montagu 253 Northern Rock 89, 90–91, 92, 150, 152 Norwegian sovereign wealth fund 161, 253 Nostradamus 274 O Obama, Barack 5, 58, 77, 194, 271, 301 ‘Obamacare’ 77 Occidental Petroleum 63 Occupy movement 52, 54, 312n2 ‘Occupy Wall Street’ slogan 305 off-balance-sheet financing 153, 158, 160, 210, 250 Office of Thrift Supervision 152–3 oil shock (1973–4) 14, 36–7, 89 Old Testament 75–6 oligarchy 269, 302–3, 305 oligopoly 118, 188 Olney, Richard 233, 237, 270 open market operations 244 options 19, 22 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 263 Osborne, George 328n19 ‘out of the money option’ 102, 103 Overend, Gurney & Co. 31 overseas assets and liabilities 179–80, 179 owner-managed businesses 30 ox parable xi-xii Oxford University 12 P Pacific Gas and Electric 246 Pan Am 238 Paris financial centre 26 Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards 295 partnerships 30, 49, 50, 234 limited liability 313n14 Partnoy, Frank 268 passive funds 99, 212 passive management 207, 209, 212 Patek Philippe 195, 196 Paulson, Hank 300 Paulson, John 64, 109, 115, 152, 191, 284 ‘payment in kind’ securities 131 payment protection policies 198 payments system 6, 7, 25, 180, 181–8, 247, 259–60, 281, 297, 306 PayPal 167, 168, 187 Pecora, Ferdinand 25 Pecora hearings (1932–34) 218 peer-to-peer lending 81 pension funds 29, 98, 175, 177, 197, 199, 200, 201, 208, 213, 254, 282, 284 pension provision 78, 253–6 pension rights 53, 178 Perkins, Charles 233 perpetual inventory method 321n4 Perrow, Charles 278, 279 personal financial management 6, 7 personal liability 296 ‘petrodollars’ 14, 37 Pfizer 96 Pierpoint Morgan, J. 165 Piper Alpha oil rig disaster (1987) 63 Ponzi, Charles 131, 132 Ponzi schemes 131, 132, 136, 201 pooled investment funds 197 portfolio insurance 38 Potts, Robin, QC 61, 63, 72, 119, 193 PPI, mis-selling of 296 Prebble, Lucy: ENRON 126 price competition 112, 219 price discovery 226 price mechanism 92 Prince, Chuck 34 private equity 27, 98, 166, 210 managers 210, 289 private insurance 76, 77 private sector 78 privatisation 39, 78, 157, 158, 258, 307 probabilistic thinking 67, 71, 79 Procter & Gamble 69, 108 product innovation 13 property and infrastructure 154–60 protectionism 13 Prudential 200 public companies, conversion to 18, 31–2, 49 public debt 252 public sector 78 Q Quandt, Herbert 170 Quandt Foundation 170 quantitative easing 245, 251 quantitative style 110–11 quants 22, 107, 110 Quattrone, Frank 167, 292–3 queuing 92 Quinn, Sean 156 R railroad regulation 237 railway mania (1840s) 35 Raines, Franklin 152 Rajan, Raghuram 56, 58, 79, 102 Rakoff, Judge Jed 233, 294, 295 Ramsey, Frank 67, 68 Rand, Ayn 79, 240 ‘random walk’ 69 Ranieri, Lew 20, 22, 106–7, 134, 152 rating agencies 21, 41, 84–5, 97, 151, 152, 153, 159, 249–50 rationality 66–7, 68 RBS see Royal Bank of Scotland re-insurance 62–3 Reagan, Ronald 18, 23, 54, 59, 240 real economy 7, 18, 57, 143, 172, 190, 213, 226, 239, 271, 280, 288, 292, 298 redundancy 73, 279 Reed, John 33–4, 48, 49, 50, 51, 242, 293, 314n40 reform 270–96 other people’s money 282–5 personal responsibility 292–6 principles of 270–75 the reform of structure 285–92 robust systems and complex structures 276–81 regulation 215, 217–39 the Basel agreements 220–25 and competition 113 the origins of financial regulation 217–19 ‘principle-based’ 224 the regulation industry 229–33 ‘rule-based’ 224 securities regulation 225–9 what went wrong 233–9 ‘Regulation Q’ (US) 13, 14, 20, 28, 120, 121 regulatory agencies 229, 230, 231, 235, 238, 274, 295, 305 regulatory arbitrage 119–24, 164, 223, 250 regulatory capture 237, 248, 262 Reich, Robert 265, 266 Reinhart, C.M. 251 relationship breakdown 74, 79 Rembrandts, genuine/fake 103, 127 Renaissance Technologies 110, 111, 191 ‘repo 105’ arbitrage 122 repo agreement 121–2 repo market 121 Reserve Bank of India 58 Reserve Primary Fund 121 Resolution Trust Corporation 150 retirement pension 78 return on equity (RoE) 136–7, 191 Revelstoke, first Lord 31 risk 6, 7, 55, 56–79 adverse selection and moral hazard 72–9 analysis by ‘ketchup economists’ 64 chasing the dream 65–72 Geithner on 57–8 investment 256 Jackson Hole symposium 56–7 Kohn on 56 laying bets on the interpretation of incomplete information 61 and Lloyd’s 62–3 the LMX spiral 62–3, 64 longevity 256 market 97, 98 mitigation 297 randomness 76 socialisation of individual risks 61 specific 97–8 risk management 67–8, 72, 79, 137, 191, 229, 233, 234, 256 risk premium 208 risk thermostat 74–5 risk weighting 222, 224 risk-pooling 258 RJR Nabisco 46, 204 ‘robber barons’ 44, 45, 51–2 Robertson, Julian 98, 109, 132 Robertson Stephens 167 Rockefeller, John D. 44, 52, 196 Rocket Internet 170 Rogers, Richard 62 Rogoff, K.S. 251 rogue traders 130, 300 Rohatyn, Felix 205 Rolls-Royce 90 Roman empire 277, 278 Rome, Treaty of (1964) 170 Rooney, Wayne 268 Roosevelt, Franklin D. v, 25, 235 Roosevelt, Theodore 43–4, 235, 323n1 Rothschild family 217 Royal Bank of Scotland 11, 12, 14, 24, 26, 34, 78, 91, 103, 124, 129, 135, 138, 139, 211, 231, 293 Rubin, Robert 57 In an Uncertain World 67 Ruskin, John 60, 63 Unto this Last 56 Russia defaults on debts 39 oligarchies 303 Russian Revolution (1917) 3 S Saes 168 St Paul’s Churchyard, City of London 305 Salomon Bros. 20, 22, 27, 34, 110, 133–4 ‘Salomon North’ 110 Salz Review: An Independent Review of Barclays’ Business Practices 217 Samuelson, Paul 208 Samwer, Oliver 170 Sarkozy, Nicolas 248, 249 Savage, L.J. 67 Scholes, Myron 19, 69, 110 Schrödinger’s cat 129 Scottish Parliament 158 Scottish Widows 26, 27, 30 Scottish Widows Fund 26, 197, 201, 212, 256 search 195, 209, 213 defined 144 and the investment bank 197 Second World War 36, 221 secondary markets 85, 170, 210 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) 20, 64, 126, 152, 197, 225, 226, 228, 230, 232, 247, 292, 293, 294, 313n6 securities regulation 225–9 securitisation 20–21, 54, 100, 151, 153, 164, 169, 171, 222–3 securitisation boom (1980s) 200 securitised loans 98 See’s Candies 107 Segarra, Carmen 232 self-financing companies 45, 179, 195–6 sell-side analysts 199 Sequoia Capital 166 Shad, John S.R. 225, 228–9 shareholder value 4, 45, 46, 50, 211 Sharpe, William 69, 70 Shell 96 Sherman Act (1891) 44 Shiller, Robert 85 Siemens 196 Siemens, Werner von 196 Silicon Valley, California 166, 167, 168, 171, 172 Simon, Hermann 168 Simons, Jim 23, 27, 110, 111–12, 124 Sinatra, Frank 72 Sinclair, Upton 54, 79, 104, 132–3 The Jungle 44 Sing Sing maximum-security gaol, New York 292 Skilling, Jeff 126, 127, 128, 149, 197, 259 Slim, Carlos 52 Sloan, Alfred 45, 49 Sloan Foundation 49 small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), financing 165–72, 291 Smith, Adam 31, 51, 60 The Wealth of Nations v, 56, 106 Smith, Greg 283 Smith Barney 34 social security 52, 79, 255 Social Security Trust Fund (US) 254, 255 socialism 4, 225, 301 Société Générale 130 ‘soft commission’ 29 ‘soft’ commodities 17 Soros, George 23, 27, 98, 109, 111–12, 124, 132 South Sea Bubble (18th century) 35, 132, 292 sovereign wealth funds 161, 253 Soviet empire 36 Soviet Union 225 collapse of 23 lack of confidence in supplies 89–90 Spain: property bubble 42 Sparks, D.L. 114, 283, 284 specific risk 97–8 speculation 93 Spitzer, Eliot 232, 292 spread 28, 94 Spread Networks 2 Square 187 Stamp Duty 274 Standard & Poor’s rating agency 21, 99, 248, 249, 313n6 Standard Life 26, 27, 30 standard of living 77 Standard Oil 44, 196, 323n1 Standard Oil of New Jersey (later Exxon) 323n1 Stanford University 167 Stanhope 158 State Street 200, 207 sterling devaluation (1967) 18 stewardship 144, 163, 195–203, 203, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213 Stewart, Jimmy 12 Stigler, George 237 stock exchanges 17 see also individual stock exchanges stock markets change in organisation of 28 as a means of taking money out of companies 162 rise of 38 stock-picking 108 stockbrokers 16, 25, 30, 197, 198 Stoll, Clifford 227–8 stone fei (in Micronesia) 323n5 Stone, Richard 263 Stora Enso 196 strict liability 295–6 Strine, Chancellor Leo 117 structured investment vehicles (SIVs) 158, 223 sub-prime lending 34–5, 75 sub-prime mortgages 63, 75, 109, 149, 150, 169, 244 Summers, Larry 22, 55, 73, 119, 154, 299 criticism of Rajan’s views 57 ‘ketchup economics’ 5, 57, 69 support for financialisation 57 on transformation of investment banking 15 Sunday Times 143 ‘Rich List’ 156 supermarkets: financial services 27 supply chain 80, 81, 83, 89, 92 Surowiecki, James: The Wisdom of Crowds xi swap markets 21 SWIFT clearing system 184 Swiss Re 62 syndication 62 Syriza 306 T Taibbi, Matt 55 tailgating 102, 103, 104, 128, 129, 130, 136, 138, 140, 152, 155, 190–91, 200 Tainter, Joseph 277 Taleb, Nassim Nicholas 125, 183 Fooled by Randomness 133 Tarbell, Ida 44, 54 TARGET2 system 184, 244 TARP programme 138 tax havens 123 Taylor, Martin 185 Taylor Bean and Whitaker 293 Tea Party 306 technological innovation 13, 185, 187 Tel Aviv, Israel 171 telecommunications network 181, 182 Tesla Motors 168 Tetra 168 TfL 159 Thai exchange rate, collapse of (1997) 39 Thain, John 300 Thatcher, Margaret 18, 23, 54, 59, 148, 151, 157 Thiel, Peter 167 Third World debt problem 37, 131 thrifts 25, 149, 150, 151, 154, 174, 290, 292 ticket touts 94–5 Tobin, James 273 Tobin tax 273–4 Tolstoy, Count Leo 97 Tonnies, Ferdinand 17 ‘too big to fail’ 75, 140, 276, 277 Tourre, Fabrice ‘Fabulous Fab’ 63–4, 115, 118, 232, 293, 294 trader model 82, 83 trader, rise of the 16–24 elements of the new trading culture 21–2 factors contributing to the change 17–18 foreign exchange 18–19 from personal relationships to anonymous markets 17 hedge fund managers 23 independent traders 22–3 information technology 19–20 regulation 20 securitisation 20–21 shift from agency to trading 16 trading as a principal source of revenue and remuneration 17 trader model 82, 83 ‘trading book’ 320n20 transparency 29, 84, 205, 210, 212, 226, 260 Travelers Group 33, 34, 48 ‘treasure islands’ 122–3 Treasuries 75 Treasury (UK) 135, 158 troubled assets relief program 135 Truman, Harry S. 230, 325n13 trust 83–4, 85, 182, 213, 218, 260–61 Tuckett, David 43, 71, 79 tulip mania (1630s) 35 Turner, Adair 303 TWA 238 Twain, Mark: Pudd’nhead Wilson’s Calendar 95–6 Twitter 185 U UBS 33, 134 UK Independence Party 306 unemployment 73, 74, 79 unit trusts 202 United States global dominance of the finance industry 218 house prices 41, 43, 149, 174 stock bubble (1929) 201 universal banks 26–7, 33 University of Chicago 19, 69 ‘unknown unknowns’ 67 UPS delivery system 279–80 US Defense Department 167 US Steel 44 US Supreme Court 228, 229, 304 US Treasury 36, 38, 135 utility networks 181–2 V value discovery 226–7 value horizon 109 Van Agtmael, Antoine 39 Vanderbilt, Cornelius 44 Vanguard 200, 207, 213 venture capital 166 firms 27, 168 venture capitalists 171, 172 Vickers Commission 194 Viniar, David 204–5, 233, 282, 283, 284 VISA 186 volatility 85, 93, 98, 103, 131, 255 Volcker, Paul 150, 181 Volcker Rule 194 voluntary agencies 258 W wagers and credit default swaps 119 defined 61 at Lloyd’s coffee house 71–2 lottery tickets 65 Wall Street, New York 1, 16, 312n2 careers in 15 rivalry with London 13 staffing of 217 Wall Street Crash (1929) 20, 25, 27, 36, 127, 201 Wall Street Journal 294 Wallenberg family 108 Walmart 81, 83 Warburg 134 Warren, Elizabeth 237 Washington consensus 39 Washington Mutual 135, 149 Wasserstein, Bruce 204, 205 Watergate affair 240 ‘We are the 99 per cent’ slogan 52, 305 ‘We are Wall Street’ 16, 55, 267–8, 271, 300, 301 Weber, Max 17 Weill, Sandy 33–4, 35, 48–51, 55, 91, 149, 293, 314n40 Weinstock, Arnold 48 Welch, Jack 45–6, 48, 50, 52, 126, 314n40 WestLB 169 Westminster Bank 24 Whitney, Richard 292 Wilson, Harold 18 windfall payments 14, 32, 127, 153, 290 winner’s curse 103, 104, 156, 318n11 Winslow Jones, Alfred 23 Winton Capital 111 Wolfe, Humbert 7 The Uncelestial City 1 Wolfe, Tom 268 The Bonfire of the Vanities 16, 22 women traders 22 Woodford, Neil 108 Woodward, Bob: Maestro 240 World Bank 14, 220 World.Com bonds 197 Wozniak, Steve 162 Wriston, Walter 37 Y Yellen, Janet 230–31 Yom Kippur War (1973) 36 YouTube 185 Z Zurich, Switzerland 62
Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott
Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social software, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar
Further, individuals can decide which persona interacts with which institution. Deegan said, “I can create different personas that represent different sides of myself, and I choose the persona that interacts with the company.”75 Banks and other companies on the blockchain ought not ask for and aggregate more information than they need to provide service. This model has proven to work. BTCjam is a peer-to-peer lending platform that uses reputation as the basis for extending credit. Users can link their profile on BTCjam to Facebook, LinkedIn, eBay, or Coinbase to add more depth and texture. Friends can volunteer recommendations from Facebook. You can even submit your actual credit score as one of many attributes. None of this private information is released. Users start on the platform with a low credit score.
“People are willing to trust each other faster than they’re willing to trust an institution,” he said.47 The smart phone is key to all of this. In the same way the smart phone allows you to rent your apartment to someone else or rent your car to someone else or provide ride sharing to someone else, it can also be used as an ATM. Barhydt said, “It’s amazing what people are willing to do in a shared economy model and they’re just not doing it for money yet, maybe with the exception of peer-to-peer lending.” Moreover, he said, “It’s more important to us that you trust each other rather than Abra. If you trust each other, it’s highly likely that you’re going to get to know Abra, and that you’re going to like it and you’re going to have a good experience,” and ultimately trust the platform.48 Abra is not a remittance app but instead a new global platform for value exchange that combines in equal measure the distributed, trustless blockchain network, the power of smart phone technology, and the very human inclination to want to trust peers in a network.
Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application
Hopefully, you are convinced that just asking what problem the blockchain solves is a limiting question on its own. For example, if you look at the startup innovation around banks in FinTech, you will see plenty of cases where these new companies did not really solve a “problem” the banks had, but they tackled a particular market or service differently. So the tipping point was to compete by reframing the opportunity, for example, peer-to-peer lending, unconventional home loans, really fast approval cycles, efficient robot investing, and so on. Creating Opportunities It is more difficult to figure out opportunities, because that requires applying innovation, being creative, and making profound changes. These are more difficult objectives to achieve, because business process changes are involved, and it takes a longer time to change them.
The Internet of Money by Andreas M. Antonopoulos
AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, cognitive dissonance, cryptocurrency, ethereum blockchain, global reserve currency, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, Oculus Rift, packet switching, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, ransomware, reserve currency, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, Skype, smart contracts, the medium is the message, trade route, underbanked, WikiLeaks
It is about the other 6 1/2 billion. It is about the ability to bring to the world a level of financial integration that the world has never seen before. From our perspective in the privileged world, it is a great technology. We can do some disruptive innovation. We can build some interesting services. But if you’re a Kenyan farmer who’s trying to raise money in order to buy seed, and now you can do decentralized peer-to-peer lending and reach out to lenders from all across the globe, this is not just a technology—this is truly life-changing. "Bitcoin is about the ability to bring to the world a level of financial integration that the world has never seen before." The vast majority of the world lives under repressive and corrupt regimes with central banks that impose hyper-inflation at 30 percent a month. It’s much more important to see how bitcoin can affect all of those people.
The Bankers' New Clothes: What's Wrong With Banking and What to Do About It by Anat Admati, Martin Hellwig
Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, bonus culture, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centralized clearinghouse, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, George Akerlof, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Rogoff, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, open economy, peer-to-peer lending, regulatory arbitrage, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, sovereign wealth fund, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, the payments system, too big to fail, Upton Sinclair, Yogi Berra
For the case of pre–World War I Germany, more recent accounts are given by Tilly (1989) and Fohlin (2007). 9. Rajan et al. (2010) document that increased use of securitization to sell mortgages to other investors in the years leading up to the financial crisis of 2007–2009 was associated with a decline in the use of soft information in mortgage lending. 10. On a limited scale, some of this is actually happening, for example, through Web sites offering “peer-to-peer” lending (see Ron Lieber, “The Gamble of Lending Peer to Peer,” New York Times, February 4, 2011). 11. The presumption here is that the bank is more trustworthy than a nonfinancial borrower. If the bank is more trustworthy, its trustworthiness might be due to its being relatively less risky because it makes many different loans whose individual risks, by and large, cancel each other out; the bank might also have an established reputation, which a start-up does not.
., 266n8 Pandit, Vikram, 232n18, 274n60 panics, 51–53; in liquidity narrative of financial crisis of 2007–2009, 211; over mortgage-related securities (2007), 299n45 Paredes, Troy, 265n3 partnerships, in history of banks, 30–31, 282n14 Partnoy, Frank, 260n37, 260nn40–41, 261nn43–44, 262n53, 284n24, 296n28, 329n6, 329n8, 332n30 Paulson, John, 296n32 Pauzner, Adi, 330n17 payment system(s), 149–53; benefits to economy, 49; fragility of banking system and, 149–53; as infrastructure of economy, 49; role of banks in, 149–50; role of deposits in, 150, 293n10 payouts to bank shareholders: benefits of ban on, 172–76, 182, 189, 223; Federal Reserve on, 175, 306n27, 312n57; during financial crisis of 2007–2009, 174–75, 306n27; Modigliani–Miller on, 305n22. See also dividends “pecking order” hypothesis, 173, 305n21 Pecora hearings (1933), 321n27 peer-to-peer lending, 50, 249n10 Peltzman, Sam, 262n52, 326n60, 331n25 Peltzman effect, 262n52 penalties. See fines and penalties performance, return on equity as flawed measure of, 116, 120–21 performance pay, 122–27. See also compensation personal bankruptcy. See bankruptcy, personal Pfleiderer, Paul, 278n20 pharmaceutical industry, risks and funding in, 166 physicists, in banks versus elsewhere, 196–97 plumbing metaphor, 210 political campaign contributions, by banks, 203, 205, 213, 324n46 political lobbying.
Confessions of a Microfinance Heretic by Hugh Sinclair
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Bernie Madoff, colonial exploitation, en.wikipedia.org, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Gini coefficient, high net worth, illegal immigration, inventory management, microcredit, Northern Rock, peer-to-peer lending, pirate software, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, profit motive
But I believe that in the sector’s quest for relentless growth we have lost sight of the human element at stake: the poor are people. They may deserve access to credit, but they certainly deserve respect and fair treatment. During my decade in microfinance I worked with countless individual MFIs, the rating agencies, and other transparency initiatives and service providers, including consulting boutiques and IT providers to the microfinance sector. I worked with microfinance funds and peer-to-peer lending platforms that channel money from investors to the MFIs. I worked with large microfinance networks with global operations, spoke in various conferences, and had some modest interaction with public multilateral investors such as the Inter-American Development Bank. I was fortunate to witness the rise and fall from grace of microfinance over this period, from a variety of perspectives. This period may be best described as the commercialization of microfinance sector, when big banks and political ideology infiltrated microfinance to the highest levels.
The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross
23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional
The more dramatic visions of stateless money seem implausible because I don’t think in the grand scheme of things there is that much desire to hold gold to protect against the vicissitudes of states. And I think that for the rest of my lifetime, gold is going to be a better bet for people with that passion than Bitcoin.” Larry Summers is not a Luddite. He is on the boards of Square and LendingClub, a popular peer-to-peer lending platform that has processed more than $6 billion in loans. He is also an advisor to Marc Andreessen’s venture capital firm. Fast-forward 18 months, and Larry now sees the potential of the blockchain technology facilitating the “medium of exchange” property of money. He has even joined the advisory board for Xapo, the Bitcoin company Reid Hoffman funded with the underground vaults. After an initially hostile response, Wall Street is also warming to the potential of blockchain technology.
The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey
3D printing, Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zimmermann PGP
This new system is called several things: the sharing economy, the mesh economy, the collaborative economy. Got some extra computing power sitting on your desktop? Share it with those who need it. Got a car sitting idle in your driveway? Share that. Got a big idea? Share it online and raise the money online to fund it. Business symbols of this era so far include the personal-apartment rental site Airbnb, the crowdfunding site Kickstarter, the peer-to-peer lending network Lending Club, and the taxi services controlled by individual car owners Uber and Lyft. In some respects these new business models are extensions of a process that began far earlier with the advent of the Internet. While no self-respecting bitcoiner would ever describe Google or Facebook as decentralized institutions, not with their corporate-controlled servers and vast databases of customers’ personal information, these giant Internet firms of our day got there by encouraging peer-to-peer and middleman-free activities.
The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen
3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
There is also the risk of donors who lack good judgment or familiarity with the situation on the ground disproportionately supporting people who have the best marketing campaigns (or who have gamed the system) instead of those who need it most. The consequence of going around established aid organizations is the loss of those groups’ ability to discern levels of need and distribute their resources appropriately. With those controls gone, the free-for-all of direct donations would almost certainly lead to a less equitable division of those resources. An analysis of peer-to-peer lending through Kiva’s website conducted by researchers in Singapore reported that lenders tend to discriminate in favor of attractive, lighter-skinned and less obese borrowers. Moreover, the emergence of a platform like this assumes that the desire for a closer connection is reciprocated. Aid recipients would have to want to engage in such a connection, and that would strike many who have worked in development as a nonstarter.
4chan, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, capital controls, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, life extension, litecoin, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Startup school, stealth mode startup, the payments system, transaction costs, tulip mania, WikiLeaks
Many bankers had begun to understand what Gavin Andresen had seen back in 2010 when he first became entranced by the idea of a financial network with no single point of failure. For banks that were terrified of cyber attacks, the idea of a payment network that could keep running even if one player, or one set of servers, got taken out was incredibly attractive. More broadly, the banks were waking up to several increasingly viable efforts to decentralize finance and take business that had belonged to the big banks. Crowdfunding companies like Kickstarter, and peer-to-peer lending services like Lending Club, were trying to directly connect borrowers and savers, so that a bank was not necessary. The blockchain seemed to present a decentralized alternative to an even more basic part of the banking industry’s business—payments. The banks were notably not becoming any more friendly toward working with Bitcoin the currency. JPMorgan’s operating committee, led by Jamie Dimon, decided in the spring of 2014 that it would not work with any Bitcoin companies.
Inside the Nudge Unit: How Small Changes Can Make a Big Difference by David Halpern
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, availability heuristic, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, collaborative consumption, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, endowment effect, happiness index / gross national happiness, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, libertarian paternalism, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, nudge unit, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, presumed consent, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, the built environment, theory of mind, traffic fines, World Values Survey
Part of the problem was structural (the big banks patching up the holes in their own balance books), but another was also a matter of ‘animal spirits’ – the sentiments and fears of business people across the country that reinforced a cycle of risk aversion and contraction.11 One approach was to open up new channels of finance. We noticed how small businesses, such as the key sector of small builders and tradesmen, didn’t really trust or like the big banks, and it wasn’t clear the big banks liked them much either. Using the principles of ‘make it easy’ and ‘attractive’, we looked at where else such small traders might go other than the banks. One option was to get behind the newly emergent trend of peer-to-peer lending, through releasing extra finance and a light regulatory framework, which was duly put in place. Another, more uniquely BIT approach, was to see where else small traders and businesses would go to and trust on a regular basis and see if we could get these players to act as channels of finance. For example, we noted that most tradesmen would make very regular visits to hardware and lumber yards, and to hire centres.
The Social Life of Money by Nigel Dodd
accounting loophole / creative accounting, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, cashless society, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, conceptual framework, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, David Graeber, debt deflation, dematerialisation, disintermediation, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial repression, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, German hyperinflation, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kula ring, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, late capitalism, liquidity trap, litecoin, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mental accounting, microcredit, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, payday loans, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, predatory finance, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, remote working, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Wave and Pay, WikiLeaks, Wolfgang Streeck, yield curve, zero-coupon bond
Elsewhere, forms of political association developed through the Internet, especially social networking, such as Facebook and Twitter, are sometimes described in Spinozian terms. Importantly for Hardt and Negri’s characterization, these are sites in which agents perform simultaneously as producers, consumers, and conduits—not as “citizens” or “subjects.” In monetary terms, the obvious corollary of these sites—Marazzi’s treatment fits here, too—are Internet-based monies and credit, such as peer-to-peer lending and Bitcoin. We examine these in more detail in Chapter 8. According to Hardt and Negri, the European crisis of modernity that once preoccupied a range of thinkers—“From Nietzsche to Burkhardt, from Thomas Mann to Max Weber, from Spengler to Heidegger and Ortega y Gasset”—was really a sign that their own position at the center of the planet (“which they could understand only in terms of a modern mysticism”) was coming to an end (Hardt and Negri 2001: 375).