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Makers by Chris Anderson
3D printing, Airbnb, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, business process, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, factory automation, Firefox, future of work, global supply chain, global village, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, South of Market, San Francisco, spinning jenny, Startup school, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize, Y Combinator
It is almost a cliché that anyone with a sufficiently good software idea can create a fabulously successful company on the Web. That’s because there are practically no barriers preventing entry to entrepreneurship online: if you’ve got a laptop and a credit card, you’re in business. But manufacturing was always seen as something else entirely. Making stuff is expensive; it needs equipment and skills in everything from machining to supply-chain management. It usually requires huge up-front investments, and mistakes lead to warehouses of unsellable inventory. Failure may be celebrated online, where the cost of entry is relatively low, but in the world of making stuff, failing means ruination. Atoms are weighty, and so are the consequences of their failure. When you shut down a website, nobody cares. When you shut down a factory, lots of people lose their jobs, and the debts can haunt the owners for the rest of their lives.
(As a customer, I was thrilled to know that one of them—serial number 400—was coming to me. It’s gotten a lot of use since then, and I’ve since upgraded to a second-generation machine—the “Thing-O-Matic.”) Racks of components were lined up for the next batch, and laser cutters were humming their way through stacks of thin plywood for the frames. The creators were learning the realities of supply-chain management the hard way—those boxes couldn’t go out until the last parts were in them, but some components hadn’t arrived in time and others had arrived defective. A MakerBot has hundreds of parts, and if just one of them is missing, it can’t ship. The alternative to what I was seeing—scores of boxes waiting for weeks to be completed—is to over-order everything to ensure that all the components are always in stock.
Somebody has to do the manufacturing, handle the inventory, get the liability insurance, and run the customer support, and that takes money, a legal structure, and real day-to-day responsibilities. Thus, a company. So, in the new manufacturing model, you need a new kind of manufacturing company, too. At its core, it has to incorporate all the skills and learning of traditional manufacturing companies—tight quality control, efficient inventory management, and supply-chain management—so that it can compete with them on basic price and quality. But it also needs to incorporate many of the skills of Web companies in creating and harnessing a community around its products that allow it to design new goods faster, better, cheaper. In short, it must be like the best hardware companies and the best software companies. Atoms and bits. Maryam Alavi, vice-dean of Emery University’s Goizueta Business School, argues that the only way firms can continue to have lower transaction costs than the open market is if they become more complex internally in order to respond to the increasingly complex external market.
Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, financial innovation, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar
Using case studies of frugal pioneers such as Arla Foods, Fujitsu, GE, GSK, Intuit and SNCF, it shows how R&D managers and marketing executives can embed this customer-centric principle within their organisations. Flex your assets. Chapter 3 explains how customers are becoming ever more demanding. They increasingly want tailored products and services where and when they desire. It describes the trend towards mass customisation, and how new tools (such as robotics and 3D printers) and new approaches (such as social manufacturing and continuous production) can help operations and supply chain managers “flex” their production, logistics and service assets to satisfy demanding customers better and more cheaply. It draws on examples from cars (BMW and Volkswagen), pharmaceuticals (GSK and Novartis), cement (Cemex), soft drinks (Coca-Cola) and energy (GDF-Suez and GE). The goal of flexing assets is not only about saving resources, such as carrying less inventory, but also about saving time – a business’s most valuable resource.
Sharing data with partners Collecting real-time demand signals is useless without also sharing those insights with suppliers and distributors. This is especially important in heavily outsourced multi-tiered supply chains. Otherwise, firms risk playing a game of phone tag that leads to mis-communication and distorted demand signals being perceived by upstream suppliers. This is why Cemex, a cement supplier, has integrated its supply chain management (SCM) and customer relationship management (CRM) systems to respond better to customer inquiries, co-ordinate distribution processes with partners, and streamline operations at its distribution terminals. Cemex estimates this SCM/CRM integration – implemented with its technology partner, SAP – has saved it millions of dollars since 2005 through lower freight costs, fewer calls to the customer care centre and higher productivity during peak hours at its terminals.
The company has managed 29% more customer transactions with the same headcount, delivered over 99% of its orders on time without problems (up from 95%), and halved the volume of calls regarding account information. More and more manufacturers are also investing in tools that provide end-to-end supply chain visibility. This helps them detect changes and disruptions at all stages of production and distribution, and then alert partners. Supply chain management tools have always been good at providing order management, order status and total cost; with outsourcing, though, companies also want their external partners and customers to have this information. According to KPMG’s 2013 Global Manufacturing Outlook, nearly 50% of the manufacturers surveyed lack visibility beyond their tier 1 partners, and less than 10% can evaluate the impact of supply chain disruptions within hours.
centralized clearinghouse, index card, lone genius, market bubble, Merlin Mann, New Journalism, Results Only Work Environment, rolodex, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, young professional
Structure and organization are worthy of serious discussion because they provide a competitive advantage. Only through organization can we seize the benefits from bursts of creativity. If you develop the capacity to organize yourself and those around you, you can beat the odds. Your Approach to Organization and the Destiny of Your Ideas Supply chain management is a heavily logistical aspect of business that seldom attracts much fanfare. Companies like Wal-Mart and Toyota are legendary for how well they distribute and manage inventory. There is no debate that the mechanics of a company—especially its supply chain management practices—help determine the costs, quality, and availability of the product. There are consulting firms and executive-level positions within companies dedicated entirely to managing the supply chain—the embodiment of organization within a company. At the same time, many of us don’t really associate such tasks with creativity and ideas.
At the same time, many of us don’t really associate such tasks with creativity and ideas. Since 2004, AMR Research, a leading authority on supply chain research that serves numerous Fortune 500 companies, has published an annual list of the twenty-five companies with the best supply chain management. You might be surprised to learn that Apple debuted on the list at No. 2 in 2007, and overtook companies such as Anheuser-Busch, Wal-Mart, Procter & Gamble, and Toyota to take the No. 1 slot in 2008. Why would Apple, a company known for new ideas and its ability to “think different,” also be one of the most organized companies on the planet? The answer is that—like it or not—organization is a major force for making ideas happen. Organization is just as important as ideas when it comes to making an impact.
Tech Portfolio Post-it note Postrel, Virginia Priceline.com Prince-Ramus, Joshua prioritization Darwinian Energy Line and urgent vs. important tasks processing procrastination Procter & Gamble productivity, flexibility and progress project-centric vs. location-centric approaches project management breaking projects into primary elements meetings for plateaus and PSFK.com Publishers Lunch Purple Santa experiment R Randal, Jason RCRD LBL reactionary work flow Rebel Sell, The (Heath and Potter) Reboot Network recognition Red Bull Reed Space References chronological pile for discarding distinguishing Action Steps from filing labeling processing questioning Renoir, Pierre-Auguste responsibility grid restrictions rewards happiness as incremental play as recognition as short-term REX R/GA Rhode Island School of Design (RISD) Rodriguez, Diego Rojas, Peter Rothstein, Jesse routines, work ROWE (Results Only Work Environment) Rutterford, Stephen S Sagmeister, Stefan sandbox environments San Francisco Chronicle Sawyer, Keith schedules, work School of Visual Arts Schorr, Max Schwartz, Barry Scientific American Mind self-awareness self-leadership backward clock contrarianism and deviants and entrepreneurship and failure and ambiguity and love and self-awareness in visionary’s narcissism and self-marketing self-reliance serendipity SETI Institute shipping Sisley, Alfred SixDegrees.com skepticism Slate.com social networks social power Southwest Airlines Spaces feature Spear, Josh Spence, Roy Spencer, Percy LeBaron Staple, Jeff Staple Design START/STOP/CONTINUE approach Steinhart Aquarium storytelling Stravinsky, Igor structure change and work routines Stutman, Randall Substance of Style, The (Postrel) Sun Microsystems supply chain management support Sutton, Robert T Tarter, Jill Taylor, James team wikis TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) conference Texas the99percent.com Thinc Design Thomas, Frank thrashing Threadless 3Com 3M Times Square Total Recall (Bell) Toyota transparency Trickey, Keith Truslow, Sam 21 Dinner Twitter two-minute rule U unique features urgent vs. important tasks V Vans Vimeo visionary’s narcissism visual organization W waiting waiting in line Walker Digital Wal-Mart Washington Post Weblogs, Inc.
Keeping Up With the Quants: Your Guide to Understanding and Using Analytics by Thomas H. Davenport, Jinho Kim
Black-Scholes formula, business intelligence, business process, call centre, computer age, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, en.wikipedia.org, feminist movement, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, forensic accounting, global supply chain, Hans Rosling, hypertext link, invention of the telescope, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, margin call, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Netflix Prize, p-value, performance metric, publish or perish, quantitative hedge fund, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, six sigma, Skype, statistical model, supply-chain management, text mining, the scientific method
But he hopes that the minds of the audience members have been primed and conditioned by the video they’ve just seen. Games are another approach to communicating analytical results and models. They can be used to communicate how variables interact in complex relationships. For example, the “Beer Game,” a simulation based on a beer company’s distribution processes, was developed at MIT in the 1960s, and has been used by thousands of companies and students to teach supply chain management models and principles such as the “bullwhip effect”—the oscillation in order volumes resulting from poor information among supply chain participants. Other companies are beginning to develop their own games to communicate specific objectives. Trucking company Schneider National has developed a simulation-based game to communicate the importance of analytical thinking in dispatching trucks and trailers.
However, the same creative company employs rigorous processes and analytics in its supply chain operations to ensure that it has the right products at the right time for sale. In its Apple retail stores, for example, it collects and analyzes considerable amounts of data. One article reported, “Once a product goes on sale, the company can track demand by the store and by the hour, and adjust production forecasts daily.”1 An open job description for a supply chain management position at Apple requires, among other things, that the successful applicant “Must combine a working knowledge of world-class supply chain practices, strong analytical capabilities, and business savvy.”2 If even highly creative companies like Apple require analytical orientations in many of their employees, we’ll probably see many more combinations of creativity and analytics in the future.
Analytical Thinking Example: Demand Forecasting at Cisco Forecasting customer demand is a problem for many firms, particularly in manufacturing.9 It is a particularly important issue for Cisco Systems, the market-leading provider of telecommunications equipment. The company has a very complex global supply chain, and doesn’t manufacture most of the products it sells. As Kevin Harrington, vice president of global business operations in Cisco’s Customer Value Chain Management organization put it: “Forecasting customer demand is, of course, a central part of supply chain management and a critical enabler of lean manufacturing. This discipline becomes ever more challenging in times like our own characterized by rapid changes in the macro-economy and volatile swings in supply and demand. In fact, Cisco’s need to write off some unused inventory [$2.25 billion worth] after the dotcom bust in 2001 provided some of the impetus for the larger transformation of our value chain.”10 The resulting project is a good illustration not only of analytical thinking, but of good relationships between quantitative analysts and business decision makers.
business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, linked data, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs
An accompanying set of studies needs to examine what happens when social–technical systems are linked together to create new, larger systems in which significant data amplification effects occur. The technologies underpinning big data, and the data themselves through their relationality, are ripe for such scalings. Indeed, complex socio-technical assemblages, such as a large retailer like Walmart, are increasingly interconnecting various systems (e.g., supply chain management, enterprise resource planning, customer relationship management, store management, and security systems) that generate forms of directed, automated and volunteered data to create complex and sophisticated data-driven organisations that have diverse consequences for suppliers, employees, and consumers. Similarly, smart city control and operations centres attempt to draw various kinds of data generated by various sources into a single hub where they are combined and analysed in real-time, significantly changing how urban locales are managed and governed (see Chapter 7).
Over the past 60 years information systems have thus become essential support infrastructures for all organisations of any size, enabling them to track and manage complex assemblages of people (staff, members, supporters, donors, customers), components, commodities and infrastructures across time and space, and enabling them to scale their operations from the local to the global (Castells 1996; Dicken 2003). Information systems allow an organisation to be run more intelligently, producing significant cost savings in their operational base. Three such data-driven information system that have been widely adopted are Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Supply-chain Management (SCM), and Customer Relationship Management (CRM). These systems facilitate greater coordination and control within an organisation, and with other organisations and customers. ERP, for example, standardises and combines an organisation’s multiple databases and systems (relating to purchasing, warehousing, inventory, transport, marketing, accounting, personnel management and rostering, project management, customer relations) into one all-encompassing system that ensures that data and processes are automatically and seamlessly available from one part of a business to another (Dery et al. 2006; Grant et al. 2006).
CCSDS (2012) Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS). Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, Washington, DC. http://public.ccsds.org/publications/archive/650x0m2.pdf (last accessed 21 October 2013). Chignard, S. (2013) ‘A brief history of open data’, Paris Tech Review, 29 March, http://www.paristechreview.com/2013/03/29/brief-history-open-data/ (last accessed 18 September 2013). Chopra, S. and Meindl, P. (2012) Supply Chain Management: Strategy, Planning and Operation, 5th edition. Pearson, Harlow. Christensen, C.M. (1997) The Innovator’s Dilemma. Harvard Business Review Press, Cambridge, MA. CIPPIC (2006) On the Data Trail: How Detailed Information About You Gets into the Hands of Organizations With Whom You Have No Relationship. A Report on the Canadian Data Brokerage Industry. http://www.cippic.ca/uploads/May1-06/DatabrokerReport.pdf, The Canadian Internet Policy and Public Interest Clinic, Ottawa (last accessed 17 January 2014).
Securing the supply chain includes making applications for drug wholesaler licenses more rigorous and increasing penalties—and enforcement power to impose these penalties—for counterfeiters. Communication channels among enforcement agencies—which in the United States are the FDA, the DEA, and customs—must also be streamlined. While many developing countries lack the regulatory structures and technical capacity for sophisticated supply-chain management and post-production drug safety POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS 69 schemes, reforms of the FDA and other national drug authorities in developed countries serve as models. Particularly in developed countries, policymakers should work to correct the worrisome asymmetry between the resources expended to ensure the safety of a drug before it is approved for distribution and those used to guarantee its quality after it goes to market.
When appropriate, pharmaceutical companies should bypass small wholesalers and deal either directly with distributors or with only one trusted wholesaler. Pfizer is one company that is doing this.41 Care must be taken, however, to strike a balance between preserving drug safety and promoting consumer-friendly competition. Purchasing directly from almost all manufacturers will likely add costs to the system—what James C. McAllister, editor of Pharmacy Times, describes as a “definite step backwards in supply chain management.”42 Pharmaceutical companies are also uniquely positioned to provide consultative assistance and the transfer of technology to improve supply chains in low-income nations. They should be prepared to do so for any country that unequivocally defends intellectual property rights. They can only make investments for training and other support in these countries, however, if they are able to tier their prices appropriately.
Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
Because supply chains link diverse players across vast distances who may not have any trusted personal relationships among them, they impose what managers call “one version of the truth,” the need for real-time and accurate data sharing so that everyone in the network can know where all things are at all times.14 Walmart’s CEO, Douglas McMillon, has said he runs a “tech company,” one that perpetually communicates sales and stock volume data digitally with suppliers like Procter & Gamble. Unilever constantly reads local demand conditions and taps into its global production system to more flexibly deliver goods across its markets. M.B.A. programs now consider supply chain management a core competency due to its high demand by employers in retail, defense, information technology (IT), and other sectors.15 Outside the boardroom, the movements of ordinary people in search of a better life are the best evidence that we have entered a supply chain world. In 1960, only 73 million people lived outside their country of origin; today the number of expatriates is 300 million and growing rapidly since the financial crisis.
Where such progressive evolution has not occurred, labor strikes have forced huge write-downs onto the balance sheets of mining and manufacturing companies, teaching them that caring for the supply chain and everyone along it is a sound long-term investment. The more supply chain interdependencies expand, the more true corporate citizenship emerges.*2 The paradox of the growing power of corporations is that even as their autonomy grows, their role as service providers does as well. Supply chain management has thus become a board-level issue, but expanding supply chain reach is viewed as a paradigm-shifting opportunity. Logistics operators such as Li & Fung and the largest retail conglomerates such as Unilever have modified their business models and delivery mechanisms to target the billions of people at the “bottom of the pyramid.” They represent a dramatic scaling of social enterprises that use innovative packaging, distribution, and sales models that get sanitation, cement, mosquito bed nets, and nutraceuticals the last mile.
John Gattorna, author of Dynamic Supply Chains, believes the very concept of supply chains should be renamed “value networks” for the widespread benefits they bring, such as adapting essential products to the price points of local markets, building infrastructure that benefits small businesses, and training and educating local workers. Stanford Business School’s Value Chain Innovation Initiative manages a growing library around the social, environmental, and other positive impacts of modifying supply chain management. *2 As the reputation-building guru Simon Anholt explains, companies initially sign up for corporate social responsibility projects for cynical reasons—buttressing their image—but eventually they realize that doing good is how to improve their image. Anholt calls this the “loophole in human nature.” *3 Ashoka, the pioneering social enterprise organization, has launched the Hybrid Value Chain initiative to support businesses that deliver health care and housing to disenfranchised people and offer them “full economic citizenship
The Fissured Workplace by David Weil
accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, barriers to entry, business process, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, employer provided health coverage, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, intermodal, inventory management, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Rogoff, law of one price, loss aversion, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, occupational segregation, performance metric, pre–internet, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, Rana Plaza, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, ultimatum game, union organizing, women in the workforce, Y2K, yield management
Sourcing production to its Monterrey facility and to other international suppliers would give Hershey “increased access to borderless sourcing [and] … further leverage the company’s manufacturing scale within a lower overall cost structure.”53 Hershey investors thought well of the strategy, as reflected in the company’s stock price, which outperformed the market consistently over the same period.54 By 2009 Lenny had successfully outsourced most of the production outlined in the strategy, closed six facilities in the United States and Canada, and let go an estimated 3,000 union workers. Hershey further upgraded its supply chain management system, moving cocoa beans, semiprocessed chocolate bars, and other ingredients to be made outside of the United States and Canada and reassembled and packaged by Hershey in a small number of U.S. facilities, where they could then be shipped from subcontracted distribution operations like those in Palmyra. Subcontracting Production One contractor for Hershey was Lyons and Sons, based in Camden, New Jersey.
Even where work has traditionally been done by other suppliers, the need for greater coordination has increased as products have become more complex, quality standards more demanding, time-to-market demands tighter, and management of inventories more critical. In retailing, information technologies have also transformed arm’s-length supplier relationships, allowing retailers to manage an ever-growing scope of products while substantially reducing their exposure to inventory risk. Consequently, supply chain management results in the pressures that create fissured workplaces and their often deleterious impacts on the people working within them. This chapter focuses on supply chains as a form of fissured employment. The chapter starts by looking at how the core of supply chain operations—logistics—has been changed in distribution centers. Though coordination represents a highly valued core competency for lead businesses in both manufacturing and retail industries, the actual work is done through complex webs of contracted work.
But in most cases to date, the FedEx position has been upheld: FedEx, as a branded, logistics juggernaut for which time to delivery is central to customer value, need not directly employ the workforce central to that mission. FedEx is not alone in its use of fissured workplace arrangements for logistics, the centerpiece of modern supply chains. More and more distribution centers are adopting an organizational form where third-party management has been married to subcontracting. Since supply chain management has elements that create many of the preconditions of the fissured workplace, the increasing use of subcontracting and temporary staffing companies within logistics can be considered fissuring on top of fissuring—fissuring squared. Lean Retailing and the Modern Distribution Center Like lean manufacturing, lean retailing takes advantage of information technologies, automation, industry standards, and management innovations to align orders from suppliers more closely with what consumers are buying in the store (rather than what purchasing agents, months in advance, think consumers might buy).
barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, en.wikipedia.org, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge worker, Richard Stallman, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the market place
The first step is to separate ourselves from the topic of OS and to take a step back and look at business intelligence, what it is and why you need it. Once we understand its value independently, we can look at how the OS market has shifted some of the available offerings and the general expectations of organizations. An introduction to BI Overall, the software industry provides a broad range of solutions to meet the needs of companies, ranging from transactional and supply chain management to customer relationship management (CRM) and project planning. Organizations apply a wide variety of software throughout their companies to manage their daily operations. Unfortunately, many of these solutions are implemented independently of one another and use different infrastructures that do not easily integrate with one another. This makes it hard to understand customer lifecycles, identify broader supply chain or sales opportunities, or create a single view of information to enable better planning.
Looking at this aspect of OS can help you determine whether some broader areas of adoption might apply to your business or BI strategy. Within these categories, BI represents one area of OS. Looking at OS more broadly means identifying the fact that most, if not all, software has OS options. BI is not a new player in this arena. In fact, developers have been able to adopt OS solutions on a broad scale to include CRM, ERP, supply chain management, database development, etc. For some organizations this means having IT development teams design and deploy a wide range of OS solutions that are now passed off as homegrown business applications. One of the benefits of this approach remains that many OS offerings partner with one another to provide overall business-driven applications versus a best of breed or piecemeal approach. In all areas of software, vendors partner with each other to ensure that customers can apply various technologies and integrate solutions with minimal hassle.
This chapter has already looked at the difference Checklist for software selection and implementation 97 between community and commercial OSBI offerings. Obviously, the perceived benefits are different depending on the goal of the BI project. In some cases, individualized projects may require a lot of customization anyway, meaning that companies will lean towards free software with broader development efforts. On the other hand, more traditional applications, such as sales and marketing dashboards, retail analysis, or supply chain management, are sure bets with out-of-thebox offerings. Business and technical requirements The past two chapters have broken down the factors on both business and technical levels, after providing an overview of both commercial and community options. In addition to the types of OSBI models and the factors that contribute to their selection, companies are tasked with identifying which model if any will suit the organization’s business challenges.
Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest
23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Galaxy Zoo, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator
They may use data to guide their thinking, but they are just as likely to fall prey to a long list of self-delusions—everything from a sunk-cost bias to a confirmation bias (see below for a list of cognitive biases). One reason for Google’s success is that it is more ruthlessly data-driven than most other companies, right down to its hiring practices. In the same way that today we can no longer handle the complexities of air traffic control or supply chain management without algorithms, almost all the business insights and decisions of tomorrow will be data-driven. An analysis by the American Psychological Association of seventeen studies on hiring practices found that a simple algorithm beat intuitive hiring practices by more than 25 percent in terms of successful hires. Neil Jacobstein, an expert in Artificial Intelligence, notes that we use AI and algorithms to mitigate and compensate for many of the following heuristics in human cognition: Anchoring bias: Tendency to rely too heavily, or “anchor,” on one trait or piece of information when making decisions.
Regularly take your senior leadership through a personal transformation program. Examine your own leadership skill sets. Remove anyone who puts his or her own career ahead of the success of the enterprise. 2. Partner with, Invest in or Acquire ExOs From 1990 to about 2005, there were at least five major disruptions in the retail or CPG industry. Three of them—EPOS systems with point-of-sale transactions, RFID tags for supply chain management, and customer loyalty cards—produced a significant amount of new data that fundamentally changed the industry. Marcus Shingles, a principal at Deloitte Consulting, and his research team spent most of 2012 helping the Grocery Manufacturer’s Association (GMA) analyze the CPG industry for potential Big Data innovation disruptions of the same magnitude. To his surprise, he and his team identified hundreds of startups with industry-specific solutions, of which eighty had leveraged emerging technologies.
Xiaomi – Showing You and Me It’s hard to fully capture the incredible ascent of Xiaomi Tech, another Chinese company. Founded in June 2010 and focused on low-end Android smartphones, the company sold twenty million handsets in 2013, recording annual revenues of more than $5 billion. Lei Jun, one of the founders, is seen as a Chinese Steve Jobs. That’s not just because he’s been heavily inspired by Apple’s design, marketing and supply chain management, but also because of Xiaomi’s intense focus on performance, quality and customer experience—characteristics that Lei Jun wants to make available to everyone at affordable prices. Xiaomi offers a curated Apple smartphone experience with the software development, speed and processes of Google Android, all at a low price. The company currently outsells Apple in China and is closing in on Samsung.
Only Humans Need Apply: Winners and Losers in the Age of Smart Machines by Thomas H. Davenport, Julia Kirby
AI winter, Andy Kessler, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, carbon-based life, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, conceptual framework, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, follow your passion, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, game design, general-purpose programming language, Google Glasses, Hans Lippershey, haute cuisine, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, inventory management, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter Thiel, precariat, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, speech recognition, spinning jenny, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar
This technology has the following traits: It does not involve robots, contrary to its name; It makes use of workflow and business rules technology; It is easily configured and modified by business users; It deals with highly repetitive and transactional tasks; It doesn’t learn or improve its performance without human modification; It typically interfaces with multiple information systems as if it were a human user; this is called “presentation layer” integration. Examples of settings in which this technology is popular include banking (for example, for back-office customer service tasks, such as replacing a lost ATM card), insurance (processing claims and payments), IT (monitoring system error messages and fixing simple problems), and supply chain management (processing invoices and responding to routine requests from customers and suppliers). There are substantial benefits from this type of automation, even though it is one of the less exotic forms of intelligent technology. Case studies compiled by process automation vendor Automation Anywhere suggest that 30 to 40 percent reductions in the cost and time to perform a process are not atypical.
Instead he enrolled in a new program at MIT called Leaders for Manufacturing. The goal of the program was to create a new generation of leaders to revitalize American manufacturing; it addressed technical, managerial, and organizational perspectives on the field. Lawton then also got an MBA from MIT. He then worked at Hewlett-Packard in manufacturing, and at several startups in e-commerce and supply chain management. He’s still trying to revitalize manufacturing and feels strongly that Baxter and Sawyer, working closely with humans, can help in the effort. Marketers —Marketing is a particularly important function with automated systems and cognitive technologies, primarily because many people don’t understand them, and many of those who do are worried about them. A marketer in this area has to be a missionary and an explainer of how these systems work.
See also augmentation; specific professions augmentation and, 31–32, 62, 65, 74, 76, 100, 122, 139, 176, 185, 228, 234, 251 big-picture perspective and, 100 codified tasks and automation, 12–13, 14, 16–18, 19, 27–28, 30, 70, 139, 156, 167, 191, 204, 216, 246 creativity and, 120–21 defined, 5 demand peak, 6 deskilling and, 16 five options for, 76–77, 218, 232 (see also specific steps) how job loss happens, 23–24 information retrieval and, 65–66 lack of wage growth, 24 machine encroachment, 13, 24–25 political strategy to help, 239 roles better done by humans, 26–30 signs of coming automation, 19–22 Stepping In, post-automation work, 30–32 taking charge of destiny, 8–9 time frame for dislocation of, 24–26 who they are, 5–6 working hours of, 70 Kraft, Robert, 172–73 Krans, Mike, 102–3, 132, 134–35, 138 Kurup, Deepika, 164 Kurzweil, Ray, 36 labor unions, 1, 16, 25 Lacerte, 22 language recognition technologies, 39–40, 43, 44–45, 50, 53, 56, 212 natural language processing (NLP), 34, 37, 178 Lawton, Jim, 50, 182–83, 193 Learning by Doing (Bessen), 133, 233 legal field augmentation as leverage in, 68 automation (e-discovery), 13, 142–44, 145, 151 content analysis and automation, 20 narrow specializations, 159–60, 162 number of U.S. lawyers, 68 Stepping Up in, 93 Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics, 59 Levasseur, M. Dru, 160 Levy, Frank, 27, 63 Linton, Mike, 105 Lippershey, Hans, 59 Lloyd’s of London, 79, 221 López de Mántaras, Ramón, 54–55 Losey, Ralph, 132, 142–43, 145, 146 Lowell, Francis Cabot, 133 Luddite fallacy, 1 Luma Partners, 100 Lyman, Henry, 133 machine learning, 21, 37, 178 ensemble methods, 72 Malone, Mike, 6–7 Manjoo, Farhad, 41 manufacturing, 1, 2, 54 supply chain management, 48 textile industry, 132–33 marketing, 93 automated, 121–22, 128, 151, 183 balancing computer-based and human skills, 105 content marketing, 121–22 digital, 101–2 LUMAscapes, 100 Stepping Forward in, 183–85 by Zipcar, 101–2, 195 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Leaders for Manufacturing, 183 Media Lab, 235 Mayer, John, 113, 114, 116 McAfee, Andy, 6, 8, 27, 74 McDonough, Ryan, 116–17 McDonough, Will, 117 McGraw-Hill Education (MHE), 20, 86 McKinsey, 165 Global Institute report, 5 MD Anderson Cancer Center, 53, 209–10, 155, 215 medicine.
Execution: The Discipline of Getting Things Done by Larry Bossidy
Albert Einstein, business process, complexity theory, Iridium satellite, Long Term Capital Management, NetJets, shareholder value, six sigma, social software, Socratic dialogue, supply-chain management
Determining that some of an organization’s high performers can’t handle the challenges of a new strategic future is a difficult social process—who wants to tell good people they aren’t capable of moving to the next level? But it has to be done, and the kind of people process we are describing forces leaders to put these questions on the table. Linking people, strategy, and operations also helps distill organizational challenges for the coming year. XYZ needs to improve supply-chain management, a crucial skill when selling services to an installed base. Besides new talent, this will require elevating aftermarket to a P&L center reporting directly to the president, so that it will have the focus and accountability it needs. Strategy Become the premier global provider of XYZ systems to a multiple class of customers. Strategy Milestones BUILDING BLOCK TWO: DEVELOPING THE LEADERSHIP PIPELINE THROUGH CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT, SUCCESSION DEPTH, AND REDUCING RETENTION RISK Meeting medium- and long-term milestones greatly depends on having a pipeline of promising and promotable leaders.
As one example, let’s look at Susan James, a marketing vice president who was identified as a high-potential person in the Leadership Assessment Summary. Her 2001 performance highlights included developing both the aftermarket strategy for the new solutions-selling environment, and the marketing and profit-improvement strategy for the European market. Her 2002 challenges include continued execution of the aftermarket strategy, especially supply chain management. While she’s customer focused and knows the industry and its products, she still has important development needs. She has to work on building teams through coaching, and she has to move to upgrade the skills of weak performers, especially those serving the European market. Since there will be significant new hiring for the solutions-selling program, she has to make sure she effectively integrates new people.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar
The value added can be used to increase rental rates for new lessees, but at a price that’s less than the savings on their future electricity bills, creating a win-win deal for both the landlord and the tenants. If the global economy is to transition successfully into a Third Industrial Revolution infrastructure, entrepreneurs and managers will need to be educated to take advantage of all the cutting edge business models, including open-source and networked commerce, distributed and collaborative research and development strategies, and sustainable low-carbon logistics and supply chain management. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP The collaborative nature of the new economy is fundamentally at odds with classical economic theory, which puts great store on the assumption that individual self-interest in the marketplace is the only effective way to drive economic growth. The Third Industrial Revolution model also eschews the kind of centralized command and control associated with traditional Soviet-style socialist economies.
(Arnold Toynbee, the acclaimed British historian, first popularized the concept of the “Industrial Revolution” in a series of lectures he delivered in the late 1880s, well after the First Industrial Revolution was underway.39) Today, we are witnessing the convergence of a new communications media and energy regime—a Third Industrial Revolution. Businesses across widely divergent fields—clean energies, green construction, telecommunications, micro-generation, distributed grid IT, plug-in electric and fuel cell transport, sustainable chemistry, nanotechnology, zero-carbon logistics and supply-chain management, and so on—are developing an array of new technologies, products, and services. Until recently, these new commercial opportunities have attracted only modest interest in the investment community and with the public at large. That’s because we human beings live by stories, and stories are always about the relationships and interactions between characters. Just as individual words don’t tell a tale, individual technologies, product lines, and services don’t make a new economic narrative.
In industry after industry, from factory production to banking services, companies have experienced dramatic increases in productivity, which allow them to produce more output with fewer workers. Companies have been shedding workers at a record pace. Janet L. Yellen, the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, took note of the trend, pointing out that the GDP remained unchanged in the four quarters of 2009, but payrolls declined by 4 percent. In other words, companies increased their output per worker by 4 percent.3 New efficiencies in supply chain management accounted for much of this increase in productivity. Nowhere is the disconnect between productivity gains and job losses greater than in manufacturing. In the period between 1995 and 2002, more than thirty-one million manufacturing jobs disappeared in the twenty largest economies, while productivity rose by 4.3 percent and global industrial production increased by 30 percent.4 The reality is that manufacturers can produce more goods with fewer workers.
23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day
While there are elements of the digital underground that are not purely motivated by profit, such as hacktivists, Crime, Inc. is first and foremost about the money—shareholder value, if you will. These criminal enterprises go to great lengths to ensure their sustainability and as such are almost exclusively located in jurisdictional safe havens, places with weak governments, unstable political regimes, and police forces willing to look the other way, for a fee of course. Within these criminal syndicates, there are divisions of labor, supply chain management, department heads, outside consultants, and team deliverables. To understand the power and professionalism of Crime, Inc., we must first and foremost take a look at its org chart in order to deconstruct the modern criminal organization. Here are the most common roles and responsibilities based on undercover research: CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER The CEO of any criminal enterprise is responsible for decision making and overseeing operations.
ATTORNEY FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK Whether organized cyber-crime groups structure themselves along the lines of corporations, such as Innovative Marketing, or more nimble self-assembling swarms, one thing is clear: they are deeply sophisticated in their approach to business and their “customers.” They have appropriated the latest legitimate corporate strategies and are well versed in supply chain management, global logistics, creative financing, just-in-time manufacturing, workforce incentivization, and consumer needs analysis. The result is the modern cyber-crime enterprise, a full-service, multiproduct, highly profitable global organization capable of taking down any individual, company, or government at will. As noted previously, there are at least fifty such online Crime, Inc. organizations currently in operation around the world.
The term was first coined in 1999 by the MIT researcher Kevin Ashton, who, when working on a project for Procter & Gamble, realized that “if all the objects in daily life were equipped with identifiers and wireless connectivity, these objects could communicate with each other and be managed by computers.…‘If we had computers that knew everything there was to know about things—using data they gathered without any help from us—we would be able to track and count everything, and greatly reduce waste, loss and cost.’ ” Ashton’s concept was both simple and powerful and had a major impact on manufacturers and retailers like Walmart, dramatically improving their supply chain management and cutting costs for consumers. Back in 1999, however, the technology did not exist to make the IoT a reality outside very controlled environments, such as factory warehouses. Today that has changed, and a confluence of developments has come together to enable major leaps forward in the world of ubiquitous computing, allowing for the first time the widespread “embedding of miniature computers in objects and connecting them to the Internet using wireless technology.”
The Power of Pull: How Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things in Motion by John Hagel Iii, John Seely Brown
Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Black Swan, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate governance, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, game design, George Gilder, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Louis Pasteur, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Maui Hawaii, medical residency, Network effects, packet switching, pattern recognition, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart transportation, software as a service, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs
Commercial Software Germany’s SAP AG is one of the world’s largest and most successful software companies. Founded in 1972, it had, by 1996, more than 9,000 of its enterprise software systems installed at companies around the world.18 These big systems had one application each to keep track of financial, accounting, customer, materials, and other information and to help with reporting, planning, and forecasting in areas such as finance, marketing, supply-chain management, and other important functions. Unfortunately, as the applications flourished and multiplied, each came to have its own database, making it difficult to search across applications to find, for example, all the information that might be needed pertaining to a particular customer. The rise of the Internet—and the advent of new ways of organizing software, called service-oriented architectures (SOAs)—posed an opportunity for SAP.
The challenge for institutional leaders is how to embrace and broaden the application of these edge technologies without, at least initially, directly challenging the core technology platforms of the firm. One of the most promising opportunities for applying these new social-media technologies in the near term lies in the area of exception handling. It turns out that a substantial portion of employee time in supply-chain management, sales, and customer service is devoted to handling exceptions that the automated enterprise IT platforms cannot process. We’re not talking about, for example, entering an address with the numbers transposed in a ZIP code. We’re talking about a broad range of situations where the needs of the participants fall outside of currently defined policies and protocols even if no “error” has occurred.
3D printing, Airbnb, American energy revolution, autonomous vehicles, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Lyft, manufacturing employment, means of production, new economy, performance metric, pets.com, price mechanism, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, very high income, working-age population
Firms can invest in intangible capital; indeed, when technology is changing rapidly they must: new technologies create the possibility of doing things far more effectively, but to take advantage of that possibility the firm must learn new ways of doing things. The time required to build that intangible capital accounts for part of the delay we observe between the arrival of a powerful new technology – such as supply-chain management software – and the productivity dividend that technology eventually generates. To use the software well firms needed to hire new workers with complementary skills. They needed to invest in equipment, including computers and scanners, to track inventory. They needed to bring suppliers into the system and train all the workers involved on how to use the new software. Most importantly, they needed to develop internal processes for integrating the new way of doing things with the old culture.
Ray labour abundance as good problem bargaining power cognitive but repetitive collective bargaining and demographic issues discrimination and exclusion global growth of workforce and immigration liberalization in 1970s/80s ‘lump of labour’ fallacy occupational licences organized and proximity reallocation to growing industries retraining and skill acquisition and scarcity and social value work as a positive good see also employment Labour Party, British land scarcity Latvia Le Pen, Jean-Marie Le Pen, Marine legal profession Lehman Brothers collapse (2008) Lepore, Jill liberalization, economic (from 1970s) Linkner, Josh, The Road to Reinvention London Lucas, Robert Lyft maker-taker distinction Malthus, Reverend Thomas Manchester Mandel, Michael Mankiw, Gregory marketing and public relations Marshall, Alfred Marx, Karl Mason, Paul, Postcapitalism (2015) McAfee, Andrew medicine and healthcare ‘mercantilist’ world Mercedes Benz Mexico Microsoft mineral industries minimum wage Mokyr, Joel Monroe, President James MOOCs (‘massive open online courses’) Moore, Gordon mortality rates Mosaic (web browser) music, digital nation states big communities of affinity inequality between as loci of redistribution and social capital nationalist and separatist movements Netherlands Netscape New York City Newsweek NIMBYism Nordic and Scandinavian economies North Carolina North Dakota Obama, Barack oil markets O’Neill, Jim Oracle Orbán, Viktor outsourcing Peretti, Jonah Peterson Institute for International Economics pets.com Philadelphia Centennial Fair (1876) Philippines Phoenix, Arizona Piketty, Thomas, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (2013) Poland political institutions politics fractionalization in Europe future/emerging narratives geopolitical forces human wealth narrative left-wing looming upheaval/conflict Marxism nationalist and separatist movements past unrest and conflict polarization in USA radicalism and extremism realignment revolutionary right-wing rise of populist outsiders and scarcity social membership battles Poor Laws, British print media advertising revenue productivity agricultural artisanal goods and services Baumol’s Cost Disease and cities and dematerialization and digital revolution and employment trilemma and financial crisis (2008) and Henry Ford growth data in higher education of highly skilled few and industrial revolution minimum wage impact paradox of in service sector and specialization and wage rates see also factors of production professional, technical or managerial work and education levels and emerging economies the highly skilled few and industrial revolution and ‘offshoring’ professional associations skilled cities professional associations profits Progressive Policy Institute property values proximity public spending Putnam, Robert Quakebot quantitative easing Race Against the Machine, Brynjolfsson and McAfee (2011) railways Raleigh, North Carolina Reagan, Ronald redistribution and geopolitical forces during liberal era methods of nation state as locus of as a necessity as politically hard and societal openness wealth as human rent, economic Republican Party, US ‘reshoring’ phenomenon Resseger, Matthew retail sector retirement age Ricardo, David rich people and maker-taker distinction wild contingency of wealth Robinson, James robots Rodrik, Dani Romney, Mitt rule of law Russia San Francisco San Jose Sanders, Bernie sanitation SAP Saudi Arabia savings glut, global ‘Say’s Law’ Scalia, Antonin Scandinavian and Nordic economies scarcity and labour political effects of Schleicher, David Schwartz, Anna scientists Scotland Sears Second World War secular stagnation global spread of possible solutions shale deposits sharing economies Silicon Valley Singapore skilled workers and education levels and falling wages the highly skilled few and industrial revolution ‘knowledge-intensive’ goods and services reshoring phenomenon technological deskilling see also professional, technical or managerial work Slack (chat service) Slate (web publication) smartphone culture Smith, Adam social capital and American Constitution baseball metaphor and cities ‘deepening’ definition/nature of and dematerialization and developing economies and erosion of institutions of firms and companies and good government and housing wealth and immigration and income distribution during industrial revolution and liberalization and nation-states productive application of and rich-poor nation gap and Adam Smith and start-ups social class conflict middle classes and NIMBYism social conditioning of labour force working classes social democratic model social reform social wealth and social membership software ‘enterprise software’ products supply-chain management Solow, Robert Somalia South Korea Soviet Union, dissolution of (1991) specialization Star Trek state, role of steam power Subramanian, Arvind suburbanization Sweden Syriza party Taiwan TaskRabbit taxation telegraphy Tesla, Nikola Thatcher, Margaret ‘tiger’ economies of South-East Asia Time Warner Toyota trade China as ‘mega-trader’ ‘comparative advantage’ theory and dematerialization global supply chains liberalization shaping of by digital revolution Adam Smith on trade unions transhumanism transport technology self-driving cars Trump, Donald Twitter Uber UK Independence Party United States of America (USA) 2016 Presidential election campaign average income Bureau of Labour Statistics (BLS) Constitution deindustrialization education in employment in ethno-nationalist diversity of financial crisis (2008) housing costs in housing wealth in individualism in industrialization in inequality in Jim Crow segregation labour scarcity in Young America liberalization in minimum wage in political polarization in post-crisis profit rates productivity boom of 1990s real wage data rising debt levels secular stagnation in shale revolution in social capital in and social wealth surpasses Britain as leading nation wage subsidies in university education advanced degrees downward mobility of graduates MOOCs (‘massive open online courses’) and productivity see also education urbanization utopias, post-work Victoria, Queen video-gamers Virginia, US state Volvo Vox wages basic income policy Baumol’s Cost Disease cheap labour and employment growth and dot.com boom and financial crisis (2008) and flexibility and Henry Ford government subsidies and housing costs and immigration and industrial revolution low-pay as check on automation minimum wage and productivity the ‘reservation wage’ as rising in China rising in emerging economies and scarcity in service sector and skill-upgrading approach stagnation of and supply of graduates Wandsworth Washington D.C.
Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age by Duncan J. Watts
Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business process, corporate governance, Drosophila, Erdős number, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, invisible hand, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, Milgram experiment, Murray Gell-Mann, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Paul Erdős, rolodex, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Toyota Production System, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, Y2K
Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies (Basic Books, New York, 1984). Carlson, J. M., and Doyle, J. Highly optimized tolerance: A mechanism for power laws in designed systems. Physical Review E, 60(2), 1412–1427 (1999). CHAPTER NINE: INNOVATION, ADAPTATION, AND RECOVERY The Toyota-Aisin Crisis The account of the Toyota-Aisin crisis on which my description is based is Nishiguchi, T., and Beaudet, A. Fractal design: Self-organizing links in supply chain management. In Von Krogh, G., Nonaka, I., and Nishiguchi, T. (eds.), Knowledge Creation: A Source of Value (Macmillan, London, 2000). Another paper about the remarkable Toyota group that guided our thinking on innovation is Ward, A., Liker, J. K., Cristiano, J. J., and Sobek, D. K. The second Toyota paradox: How delaying decisions can make better cars faster. Sloan Management Review, 36(3), 43–51 (1995).
Physical Review E, 60, 7332–7342 (1999). ———. Renormalization group analysis of the small-world network model. Physics Letters A, 263, 341–346 (1999). Newman, M. E. J., Watts, D. J., and Strogatz, S. H. Random graph models of social networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 99, 2566–2572 (2002). Nishiguchi, T., and Beaudet, A. Fractal design: Self-organizing links in supply chain management. In Von Krogh, G., Nonaka, I., and Nishiguchi, T. (eds.) Knowledge Creation: A New Source of Value (Macmillan, London, 2000). Noelle-Neumann, E. Turbulences in the climate of opinion: Methodological applications of the spiral of silence theory. Public Opinion Quarterly, 41(2), 143–158 (1977). Nowak, M. A., and May, R. M. Evolutionary games and spatial chaos. Nature, 359, 826–829 (1992).
Python Requests Essentials by Rakesh Vidya Chandra, Bala Subrahmanyam Varanasi
[ ix ] Interacting with the Web Using Requests Reading data and obtaining information from web services tends to be a crucial task in these modern days. Everyone knows how an Application Programming Interface (API) allowed Facebook to spread the use of the Like button all over the Web and dominated the field of social communication. It has got its own flair to influence the business development, product development and supply chain management. At this stage, learning an efficient way to deal with the API's and opening the web URLs is the need of the hour. This will greatly affect many processes of web development. Introduction to HTTP request Whenever our Web browser tries communicating with a Web server, it is done by using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) which functions as a request-response protocol. In this process of communication, we send a request to the web server and expect a response in return.
Panderer to Power by Frederick Sheehan
Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, diversification, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, inflation targeting, interest rate swap, inventory management, Isaac Newton, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, oil shock, place-making, Ponzi scheme, price stability, reserve currency, rising living standards, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, savings glut, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South Sea Bubble, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, VA Linux, Y2K, Yom Kippur War
To eliminate this overcapacity, demand had to rise or investment had to fall until “the two levels cross, or the investments of the past several years have been obsoleted [sic]” by new technology. “Both of these require some time.” Grove went on to discuss the specific problem that caused such mayhem: “The viciousness of the down cycle was made more so by all the [supply-chain management software]. It blew through the supply-chain in a much faster ripple than previous cycles. Nothing in supply-chain management can read minds. End demand is what end demand is.”21 Greenspan’s productivity gains, if they existed at all, including the “Internet and electronic interface systems” that had prompted the “viciousness of the down cycle,” since they are machines programmed by people, and the machines cannot read minds. 17 Ibid., p. 123. 18 Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, “Federal Reserve Board’s Semiannual Monetary Policy Report to the Congress,” February 13, 2001. 19 Gerard Baker, “Greenspan Sees a Quick Rebound,” Financial Times, February, 14, 2001. 20“Intel CoFounder Sees No Quick Turnaround,” “Technology Briefing: Hardware,” New York Times, March 7, 2001. 21 William A.
Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend
1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar
While cyberneticians like Werner debated the nature of the universe elsewhere on campus, Forrester was more interested in actually designing really complex things. He developed techniques for mathematically modeling industrial systems, focusing on how feedback loops and time delays governed flows and stockpiles of resources and products. The culmination of that work, Industrial Dynamics, was published in 1961. It analyzed the workings of a General Electric plant in Kentucky, laying the foundations for modern supply-chain management.51 Having mastered the corporation, Forrester looked for other complex systems to which he could apply the cybernetic tool kit he now called generally “system dynamics.” When former Boston mayor John Collins was appointed as a visiting professor of urban affairs at MIT and, by sheer coincidence, moved into the office next door, Forrester seized the opportunity. Forrester wasn’t the first to get the idea that computer models could be used to understand cities.
., 63 Smithsonian Magazine, 50 Snow, John, 189 social networks: cities as hubs for, 5, 159–64, 304 early days of, 123–25, 234 predictive recommendations for, 152 Songdo, South Korea, 23–31 International Business District in, 23 as largest private real-estate in history, 25 plans for TelePresence in, 49 as world’s largest experiment in urban automation, 24 Songdo U.Life, 49 Sony, 26 PlayStation Network of, 274 Portapak of, 115 Sopwith Camel, 21 Sorkin, Michael, on Archigram, 21 South by Southwest Interactive festival, 146 South Korea: broadband connectivity in, 26 tallest building in, 27 technological innovation in, 23–30 as world leader in smart-city technology, 26 SpaceShipOne, 203 Spain, 217–23 “15–M” movement in, 217 Sprint, 122 Square, 28 Standage, Tom, 44 Stanford University, 44 Starbucks, technological innovation at, 28 Steal This Book (Hoffman), 227 steam power, 5 Steenson, Molly, 21 Stockholm, 244 Stoller, Max, 150 Stoney, George, 116 Street, John, 194–95 Strickland, Eliza, 49 Strowger, Almon B., 36 structural design, innovations in, 19–30 Stuxnet, 266–69 suburbia, 101, 143 Sunlight Foundation, 238 supply-chain management, 77 surveillance, 270–76 private systems of, 275 Surveillance Camera Players, protest theater of, 13 Switzerland, 87 Symantec, 268 systems analysis: dynamics techniques in, 77, 81, 86 engineering in, 77 urban modelling in, 84–86, 88–90 Tabulating Machine Company, 61–62 Tallinn, 245 Taylor, Robert, 260 TCP (Transmission Protocol), 266 TCP/IP, 110 Teach for America, 238 TechCrunch, 151 technology: city-funded projects for, 243 disasters of, 256–58 innovation in, 107–10 overstandardization of, 249–51 repurposing of, 119–20 scaling of, 165, 201, 232, 243, 249, 313–14 as a tool of empowerment, 117–20 technology industry: limited urban understanding of, 224, 247–48 rhetoric of, 107, 278, 288, 317 “walled gardens” of, 123 TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design), 67 Tel Aviv, 233 telecom bubble, 44 Telecom Italia, 137, 161 telecommunications industry, 109–11 obstruction by, 197–98 telecommuting, 6 telegraph: city administration changed through, 5 as first urban digital communication network, 42 as fourth utility, 44 history of, 42–44, 254 industrial management changed through, 5 police use of, 5 in railroad operations, 5 Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske, 38 telemetry, 150 telephone: early history of, 5 evolution since 1970s of, 35–37 historical role in social networks, 160–61 TelePresence videoconferencing systems, 46, 49 Teoría General de la Urbanización (General Theory of Urbanization) (Cerdà), 43–44 terrorism, 270–71 Tesla, Nicola, 56 Thinking About the Unthinkable (Kahn), 277 Thomas, Martyn, 265 Tidepools, 293 Tivadar, Puskás, 254 Tokyo, Shibuya Crossing at, 34–35 Tolva, John, 64–65, 208–11, 294 To-Morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform (Howard), 94 “topsight,” 70, 72, 87 Torrone, Phillip, 137–39 Total Information Awareness (TIA), 270–72 Toughbook, 127 traffic engineers, 100–101 traffic jams: impact on cities, 99–103 prediction of, 7 Trendnet, 275 Triumph of the City (Glaeser), 160 Turner, Ted, 116 Twitter, 135, 151, 154–55, 240 in Arab Spring, 12 in Moldovan “Revolution,” 169, 171 in Spain’s anti-austerity protests, 161–62, 218 Uber, 232 ubicomp (ubiquitous computing), 113 “u-chip,” 23 “u-cities,” 26 Ullman, Ellen, 256 uncertainty principle, 88 Union Square Ventures, 154 United Nations: in declaration on Internet access, 288 demographic predictions of, 1–2 Foundation of, 278 Global Pulse project of, 181–84, 191 Millennium Development Goals of, 175 Sustainable Buildings and Climate Initiative at, 163 University College (London), 85 urban dynamics, 82–83, 89 Urban Dynamics (Forrester), 76–78, 82, 86 urban expressways, 101–2 “urban informatics,” systems to process signals as, 32 “urban information architecture,” management and business of, 32 urbanism, sustainable, 83 urbanization: digital technology intersection with, 4 problems of, 8, 162 Urban Land Institute, 30 urban planning, 77–92, 311–16 with computer modelling, 81, 295–98 cybernetics in, 84 “data enthusiasm” in, 315 grassroots organizing in, 8–9, 102–5, 235 impact of cars in, 98–106 innovative potential of, 9–11, 305–6 lattice vs.
Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott
Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social software, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar
These ideas apply to all types of residential, hotel, office, factory, retail/wholesale, and institutional real estate. 10. Industrial Operations—The Factory of Things The global plant floor needs a global Ledger of Things, aka the industrial blockchain. Factory managers will use smart devices to monitor production lines, warehouse inventory, distribution, quality, and other inspections. Entire industries may adopt the ledger approach to significantly increase efficiency for such processes as supply chain management. Large and complex machines, like airplanes and locomotives, consist of millions of parts. Each individual component of a jet engine or railcar could have sensors that send out an alert when it needs fixing. Imagine a train on its way from Baltimore to Long Beach notifying the maintenance crew in Long Beach three days ahead of time that it needed a critical new part. The sensor could even issue an RFP and accept the best bid and delivery for the part, cutting time and massive cost out of the operating efficiencies of large corporations like General Electric, Norfolk Southern, and others.
Paul Downey, a technical architect with the U.K. Government Digital Service, noted that the perfect register “should be able to prove the data hasn’t been tampered with” and should store a history of the changes that have been made, plus “be open to independent scrutiny.”21 Blockchain-based systems can infuse efficiency and integrity into document registries of all kinds and many other government processes. Let’s combine supply chain management with the Internet of Things to tag a new piece of equipment with a smart chip that communicates its provenance, ownership, warranties, or special information. Government procurement offices could track items and automate processes at every step: purchasing, releasing payment, paying sales taxes, renewing a lease, or ordering an upgrade. That’s simply better asset management, reducing administrative costs to taxpayers while increasing revenues to governments.22 Particularly interesting are national and local opportunities to connect different blockchain networks for greater efficiency across jurisdictions.
How to Be Black by Baratunde Thurston
affirmative action, carbon footprint, Columbine, dark matter, desegregation, housing crisis, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, supply-chain management, the scientific method, transatlantic slave trade
I learned how to rapidly set up and tear down a bar several times a day whether inside a two-hundred-year-old dining hall or in the middle of a football field. And I learned that no matter the time of day, there’s some class of Harvard alumni ready to drink, from Bloody Marys in the morning for older alumni to cup after cup of beer for the younger reunion attendees. The job was thrilling, chaotic, and entertaining, offering crash courses in supply-chain management and interpersonal communication. It also taught me that serving alcohol to alumni is the best way to understand the value of a Harvard education. I got the opportunity, time and again, to interact with people at every stage of post-college life. I saw their hormones on a rampage at the fifth-year reunion, their parenting skills under pressure at the fifteenth, their hairlines receding at an inverse rate to their income for the twenty-fifth, and their dwindling numbers beyond the fortieth.
The Misfit Economy: Lessons in Creativity From Pirates, Hackers, Gangsters and Other Informal Entrepreneurs by Alexa Clay, Kyra Maya Phillips
3D printing, Airbnb, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Burning Man, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, double helix, fear of failure, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Occupy movement, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar
Like his grandfather, David Berdish is a misfit. “I get in trouble a lot [at Ford]. I push the boundaries of what I’m allowed to do,” he told us. Berdish was originally hired to work at Ford Aerospace but couldn’t get security clearance because of his grandfather’s labor history. So he went on to work at Ford, first in manufacturing, then as a financial analyst, a purchasing manager, a buyer, and a supply chain manager, before moving over to manage Ford’s sustainability practice in 2000. “It was during my manufacturing rotations that I started understanding people and the health and safety issues.” He brought his breadth of experience within the company to start building out Ford’s leadership on human rights—health and safety—around the world. He made sure that basic worker conditions were compliant and began addressing the company’s corporate responsibility commitments.
Big Data Analytics: Turning Big Data Into Big Money by Frank J. Ohlhorst
algorithmic trading, bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, create, read, update, delete, data acquisition, DevOps, fault tolerance, linked data, natural language processing, Network effects, pattern recognition, performance metric, personalized medicine, RFID, sentiment analysis, six sigma, smart meter, statistical model, supply-chain management, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application
In-memory technology further benefits enterprises because it allows for greater specificity of information, so that the data elements are personalized to both the customer and the business user’s individual needs. That allows a particular department or line of business to self-service specific needs whose results can trickle up or down the management chain, affecting account executives, supply chain management, and financial operations. Customer teams can combine different sets of data quickly and easily to analyze a customer’s past and current business conditions using in-memory technology from almost any location, ranging from the office to the road, on their mobile devices. This allows business users to interact directly with customers using the most up-to-date information; it creates a collaborative situation in which business users can interact with the data directly.
The Pleasures and Sorrows of Work by Alain de Botton
In an ideal Paretan economy, jobs would be ever more finely subdivided to allow for the accumulation of complex skills, which would then be traded among workers. It would be in everyone’s best interest that doctors not waste time learning how to fix boilers, that train drivers not sew clothes for their children and that Biscuit Packaging Technologists leave questions of warehousing to graduates in supply-chain management, the better to concentrate their own energies on the improvement of roll-wrap mechanisms. In a perfect society, so specialised would all jobs be, that no one would any longer understand what anyone else was doing. During a series of often bewildering conversations with members of staff, I came to realise that a Paretan utopia was now a realistic prospect at United Biscuits. But however great the economic advantages of segmenting the elements of an afternoon’s work into a range of forty-year-long careers, there was reason to wonder about the unintended side effects of doing so.
Peopleware: Productive Projects and Teams by Tom Demarco, Timothy Lister
When there is a thought-intensive deliverable due, put them into a conference center or hotel. Give them the chance to fly together, eat out together, and work out their roles in the new team. The Outward Bound schools make a thriving business of taking corporate groups into the wilderness and testing their mettle. Groups must make their way over Burma bridges and chutes, survive the waters of Penobscot Bay, or scale the face of Mount Katahdin. One day you’re struggling with Supply Chain Management, and the next, you’re hanging by your fingernails while a teammate belays you a line. Of course, the experience isn’t cheap. By the time you count the cost of the school, travel, and lost days, it comes to at least several thousand dollars per person. In most companies, such an expense would be unthinkable. But what about the others, the ones who do invest in Outward Bound and the like?
Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, automated trading system, bank run, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, buttonwood tree, Claude Shannon: information theory, Corn Laws, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, fiat currency, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Grace Hopper, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, packet switching, price mechanism, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, railway mania, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, Turing machine, Turing test, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
These new fund managers take risks, with assurance that the companies they invest in provide accurate information, have liquid shares, trade cheaply and quickly and exist free of stock manipulation. These funds rarely own Russian gas refiners, as they fail all of the above assurances. But funds do own weird companies that make components for optical wave division multiplexing or some new biopharma company or the latest in supply chain management software, but they require automated trading systems to stay quick of foot. The New York Stock Exchange is still a people intensive exchange. Its specialist system was created in 1871. And we are still stuck with the NYSE monopoly on listed shares. Lots of reasons are offered, such as centralized pools of liquidity or orderly markets, etc. But also to blame are some subtle regulatory technicalities that the NYSE hides behind.
Bakken shale, bank run, Credit Default Swap, diversification, fixed income, Gordon Gekko, index fund, locking in a profit, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, paper trading, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, supply-chain management, the market place
Decisions were made by a small group of executives—usually including Jacobson, Anderson, and Bastian—who would set the company’s plan. Once they decided how to bet in the markets, they, like Andurand at BlueGold, would then turn to underlings to actually buy the proper contracts and watch their performance day to day. Ben Bergum, a graduate of Montana State University’s accounting program who now handled many of the details, had just been hired. He worked with other employees in Delta’s supply-chain management area who tallied the amount of fuel the airline needed and what its price exposure might be as a result. The group sat in the flight-operations center of the Delta campus, isolated from Jacobson and other finance employees, and Bergum himself worked in a cubicle that was crushed against a thick column, next to a printer, envelopes, and other office supplies. Once on the job, Ruggles stopped the self-editing he had labored over in the interview with Anderson and Bastian.
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Al Roth, Black Swan, buy low sell high, Credit Default Swap, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, experimental economics, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, income inequality, index fund, Jean Tirole, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market microstructure, Martin Wolf, McMansion, Menlo Park, moral hazard, multi-sided market, Network effects, patent troll, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, social graph, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Market for Lemons, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber for X, ultimatum game, Y Combinator
“The middleman is going to come into play when the supplier has idle capacity but the timing of the idle capacity is unpredictable,” Chopra explains. Most of us don’t think about risk this way; we typically associate the word with danger or loss, what people in finance call “downside risk,” and perhaps also with gains, or upside risk. But more broadly, risk can be thought of as variability, volatility, spread, unpredictability—any deviation (positive or negative) from steady, predictable outcomes. This is how supply-chain managers typically view risk. Most systems benefit from predictability, so in most situations, variation is a bad thing: having too little inventory to fill orders (a shortage) is as much of a problem as having too much inventory (an overstock). Similarly, given the same average most people prefer a narrower spread. That, in fact, is what it means to say that most of us are risk-averse. If a game show let you earn $1 million and then offered to double the money if a coin toss came up heads, you would probably reject the offer.
Unhappy Union by The Economist, La Guardia, Anton, Peet, John
bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, debt deflation, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Flash crash, illegal immigration, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Northern Rock, oil shock, open economy, pension reform, price stability, quantitative easing, special drawing rights, supply-chain management, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, transaction costs, éminence grise
OTHER ECONOMIST BOOKS Guide to Analysing Companies Guide to Business Modelling Guide to Business Planning Guide to Cash Management Guide to Commodities Guide to Decision Making Guide to Economic Indicators Guide to Emerging Markets Guide to the European Union Guide to Financial Management Guide to Financial Markets Guide to Hedge Funds Guide to Investment Strategy Guide to Management Ideas and Gurus Guide to Managing Growth Guide to Organisation Design Guide to Project Management Guide to Supply Chain Management Numbers Guide Style Guide Book of Business Quotations Book of Isms Book of Obituaries Brands and Branding Business Consulting Business Strategy Buying Professional Services Doing Business in China Economics Managing Talent Managing Uncertainty Marketing Marketing for Growth Megachange – the world in 2050 Modern Warfare, Intelligence and Deterrence Organisation Culture Successful Strategy Execution The World of Business Directors: an A–Z Guide Economics: an A–Z Guide Investment: an A–Z Guide Negotiation: an A–Z Guide Pocket World in Figures UNHAPPY UNION How the euro crisis – and Europe – can be fixed John Peet and Anton La Guardia THE ECONOMIST IN ASSOCIATION WITH PROFILE BOOKS LTD AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS Copyright © The Economist Newspaper Ltd, 2014 Text copyright © John Peet and Anton La Guardia, 2014 First published in 2014 by Profile Books Ltd. in Great Britain.
The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload by Daniel J. Levitin
airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anton Chekhov, big-box store, business process, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive bias, complexity theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Eratosthenes, Exxon Valdez, framing effect, friendly fire, fundamental attribution error, Golden Gate Park, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, impulse control, index card, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, invention of writing, iterative process, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, life extension, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, pre–internet, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, Skype, Snapchat, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing test, ultimatum game
Daily Mail. In 1976, the average supermarket stocked Waldman, S. (1992, January 27). The tyranny of choice: Why the consumer revolution is ruining your life. The New Republic, pp. 22–25. we need to ignore 39,850 items Trout, J. (2005, December 5). Differentiate or die. Forbes. one million products Knolmayer, G. F., Mertens, P., Zeier, A., & Dickersbach, J. T. (2009). Supply chain management case studies. Supply Chain Management Based on SAP Systems: Architecture and Planning Processes. Berlin: Springer, pp. 161–188. showed poorer impulse control Vohs, K. D., Baumeister, R. F., Schmeichel, B. J., Twenge, J. M., Nelson, N. M., & Tice, D. M. (2008). Making choices impairs subsequent self-control: A limited-resource account of decision-making, self-regulation, and active initiative. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(5), 883–898
Everything Is Obvious: *Once You Know the Answer by Duncan J. Watts
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, discovery of DNA, East Village, easy for humans, difficult for computers, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, framing effect, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, happiness index / gross national happiness, high batting average, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, interest rate swap, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, medical malpractice, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, oil shock, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, planetary scale, prediction markets, pre–internet, RAND corporation, random walk, RFID, school choice, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, ultimatum game, urban planning, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize
According to Schoemaker (1991, p. 552), “A deeper scenario analysis would have recognized the confluence of special circumstances (e.g. high oil prices, tax incentives for drilling, conducive interest rates, etc.) underlying this temporary peak. Good scenario planning goes beyond just high-low projections.” 24. See Raynor (2007, p. 37). CHAPTER 8: THE MEASURE OF ALL THINGS 1. Some more details about Zara’s supply chain management are provided in a Harvard Business Review case study of the company (2004, pp. 69–70). Additional details are provided in Kumar and Linguri (2006). 2. Mintzberg, it should be noted, was careful to differentiate strategic planning from “operational” planning, which is concerned with short-term optimization of existing procedures. The kind of planning models that don’t work for strategic plans actually do work quite well for operational planning—indeed, it was for operational planning that the models were originally developed, and it was their success in this context that Mintzberg believed had encouraged planners to repurpose them for strategic planning.
Bad Data Handbook by Q. Ethan McCallum
Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset allocation, barriers to entry, Benoit Mandelbrot, business intelligence, cellular automata, chief data officer, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, conceptual framework, database schema, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Flash crash, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, iterative process, labor-force participation, loose coupling, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, recommendation engine, sentiment analysis, statistical model, supply-chain management, text mining, too big to fail, web application
Acquire means to get the data from some source. To modify the data is to clean it up, enrich it, or otherwise tweak it for some particular purpose. You can use the data to guide internal decisions, and also distribute it externally to clients or collaborators. The pattern is repeated as data passes from source to recipient, who in turn becomes the source for the next recipient, and so on. This is quite similar to supply chain management for tangible goods: one can trace the flow of raw material through perhaps several intermediate firms. Some goods, such as food and drink, have a final destination in that they are consumed. Others, through recycling and repurposing, may continue through the chain for perpetuity. One critical element of the supply chain concept is accountability: one should be able to trace a good’s origins and any intermediate states along the way.
Adapt: Why Success Always Starts With Failure by Tim Harford
Andrew Wiles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, Deep Water Horizon, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, food miles, Gerolamo Cardano, global supply chain, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Harrison: Longitude, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Netflix Prize, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, PageRank, Piper Alpha, profit motive, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, rolodex, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, web application, X Prize
Evolution is effective because, rather than engaging in an exhaustive, time-consuming search for the highest peak – a peak that may not even be there tomorrow – it produces ongoing, ‘works for now’ solutions to a complex and ever-changing set of problems. In biological evolution, solutions include photosynthesis, pairs of eyes and mothers’ milk. In economic evolution, solutions include double-entry book-keeping, supply-chain management and ‘buy one, get one free’. Some of what works seems to be perennial. The rest, such as being a Tyrannosaurus rex or the world’s most efficient manufacturer of VHS video cassettes, is rooted in a particular place and time. We know that the evolutionary process is driven by variation and selection. In biology, variation emerges from mutations and from sexual reproduction, which mixes the genes from two parents.
We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater
1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, double helix, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar
They can also start the other way around, with a transaction – someone paying for the software that allows them to start playing World of Warcraft – and develop to enable a mass of gifting – players sharing content with one another in self-organising guilds. The industrialised economies spent most of the 20th century honing the management disciplines of mass production, from industrial relations to branding and supply-chain management. At the start of the century there was no science of management. By its end we had business schools, expensive executive training programmes, libraries of books, and pricey management consultancies. The web’s creative potential will be realised in the century to come only if we become equally sophisticated about managing and leading creative collaborations. In theory the technology should help: new generations of search tools will make it easier to scour for information using trails others have already blazed; simulation technologies currently available only to architects and engineers will allow us to visualise and communicate problems and possible solutions; new technologies for collaboration will make it much easier for people to work creatively across borders and disciplines on shared projects and in shared virtual spaces.3 So the road to prosperity in a world shaped by the web will lie in the interaction between gifts and transactions, sharing and owning; between markets that trade products and communities that breed knowledge.
The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, call centre, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, payday loans, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K
Comments on ‘Is the Information Technology Revolution Over?’ ” International Productivity Monitor 25 (2013): 37–40. 9. “Computer and Dynamo: The Modern Productivity Paradox in a Not-Too-Distant Mirror,” Center for Economic Policy Research, no. 172, Stanford University, July 1989, http://www.dklevine.com/archive/refs4115.pdf. 10. For instance, Materials Resource Planning (MRP) systems, which begat Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), and then Supply Chain Management (SCM), Customer Relationship Management (CRM), and, more recently, Business Intelligence (BI), Analytics and many other large-scale systems. 11. Todd Traub, “Wal-Mart Used Technology to Become Supply Chain Leader,” Arkansas Business, http://www.arkansasbusiness.com/article/85508/wal-mart-used-technology-to-become-supply-chain-leader (accessed July 20, 2013). 12. This is consistent with a similar analysis by Oliner and Sichel (2002), who wrote, “both the use of information technology and the efficiency gains associated with the production of information technology were central factors in [the productivity] resurgence.”
3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, declining real wages, demographic dividend, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, follow your passion, game design, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, invisible hand, James Dyson, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Gruber, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, new economy, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, race to the bottom, reshoring, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, Tesla Model S, The Chicago School, The Design of Experiments, the High Line, The Myth of the Rational Market, thinkpad, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, tulip mania, We are the 99%, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar
If risk could be measured and managed, then it could be controlled. If risk could be controlled, then it could be increased and leveraged. For bankers, an efficient market theory was a persuasive argument in favor of wildly leveraging their capital to generate profits. Risk, after all, was under control. For corporate managers, EMT provided a rationale for controlling complex organizations at a time when “just-in-time” supply chain management was making it possible to expand globally. And so business schools began to focus on developing mathematical tools that aided in efficient management. The belief in the efficient market was so powerful that in 1976, economists Michael Jensen and William Meckling connected it directly to CEO compensation. In their work, including a paper that is often cited as ushering in the era of financial capitalism called “Theory of the Firm: Managerial Behavior, Agency Costs and Ownership Structure,” published in the Journal of Financial Economics, they argued that if the interests of the manager and shareholder were identical, they should be compensated by the same thing, the company’s stock price.
Postcapitalism: A Guide to Our Future by Paul Mason
Alfred Russel Wallace, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, capital controls, Claude Shannon: information theory, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, deglobalization, deindustrialization, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, financial repression, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, Internet of things, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, means of production, Metcalfe's law, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, post-industrial society, precariat, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Transnistria, union organizing, universal basic income, urban decay, urban planning, wages for housework, women in the workforce
Its work would be Open Source: anybody could use it, anybody could suggest improvements and the outputs would be available to all. It would most likely have to use a method called ‘agent-based modelling’ – that is, using computers to create millions of virtual workers, households and firms, and letting them interact spontaneously, within realistic boundaries. Even today such a model would be able to draw on realtime data. Weather sensors, city transport monitors, energy grids, postcode demographic data and the supply chain management tools of global supermarket groups are all giving off relevant macro-economic data in realtime. But the prize – once every object on earth is addressable, smart and feeding back information – is an economic model that does not just simulate reality but actually represents it. The agents modelled virtually are eventually substituted by granular data from reality, just as happens with weather computers.
The Future of the Brain: Essays by the World's Leading Neuroscientists by Gary Marcus, Jeremy Freeman
23andMe, Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, bitcoin, brain emulation, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Glasses, iterative process, linked data, mouse model, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, speech recognition, stem cell, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, Turing machine, web application
Core to every one of our atlasing projects at the Allen Institute has been a clear definition of our target product and a methodical mapping of milestones and deliverables through a detailed project-planning and management process. We combine the appropriate multidisciplinary scientific and technical teams, including biologists, modelers, data analysts, and engineers, to industrialize processes and execute on delivering the product on time and within budget. Each module is linked into a large-scale data generation pipeline where standard operating procedures (SOPs), supply chain management, and careful quality control measures are all employed in a high-throughput setting. Once generated, data enters our Informatics Data Pipeline where it goes through multiple rounds of processing and quality control on its way to becoming part of one of our freely available online products. Depending on the nature of the work going through our Structured Science laboratories, any one module might be supporting multiple data generation pipelines or directly supporting exploratory work by one of our research scientists.
Present Shock: When Everything Happens Now by Douglas Rushkoff
algorithmic trading, Andrew Keen, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, big-box store, Black Swan, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, cashless society, citizen journalism, clockwork universe, cognitive dissonance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, disintermediation, Donald Trump, double helix, East Village, Elliott wave, European colonialism, Extropian, facts on the ground, Flash crash, game design, global supply chain, global village, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, Inbox Zero, invention of agriculture, invention of hypertext, invisible hand, iterative process, John Nash: game theory, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, Law of Accelerating Returns, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Merlin Mann, Milgram experiment, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, passive investing, pattern recognition, peak oil, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, Ralph Nelson Elliott, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing test, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y2K
We cannot orchestrate human activity the same way a chip relegates tasks to the nether regions of its memory. We are not intellectually or emotionally equipped for it, and altering ourselves to become so simply undermines the contemplation and connection of which we humans are uniquely capable. With this knowledge, however, we can carefully and consciously employ digital-era sync to the processes in our lives and businesses for which digiphrenia is not a liability. Real-time supply-chain management, for example, such as the system employed by retail clothing chain Zara, syncs the store checkout with the production line. At the same moment the scanner at the cash register identifies the yellow T-shirt, the information is sent to the production facility, the facility’s suppliers, and so on, all the way down the line. As one leading logistics company explains, “Synchronization of demand/supply information minimizes work-in-process and finished goods inventories up and down the channel, dampens the ‘bullwhip effect’ as products are pulled through the distribution pipeline, reduces costs overall, and matches customer requirements with available products.”38 This rapid production process reduces the time from design to delivery to just a couple of weeks, making Zara famous in Spain for being able to knock off fashions from the Paris runways and get them into their store windows before they even appear in Vogue.
Andrew Keen, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, c2.com, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, hiring and firing, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, jimmy wales, Kuiper Belt, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Merlin Mann, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, Picturephone, place-making, Pluto: dwarf planet, prediction markets, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, ultimatum game, Yogi Berra
People connected to groups beyond their own can expect to find themselves delivering valuable ideas, seeming to be gifted with creativity. This is not creativity born of deep intellectual ability. It is creativity as an import-export business. An idea mundane in one group can be a valuable insight in another. Burt found that bridging capital puts people at greater risk of having good ideas (his phrase) than do any individual traits. For something like supply chain management, it’s easy to see why this might be so—the department handling that function was separated from the rest of the electronics business and was not seen as a core function. The converse was also true; if the proposer of an idea was talking only within his or her own department, the idea was much likelier to be parochial. It seems so simple—just mix people up and sit back and watch the good ideas roll in.
Money: The Unauthorized Biography by Felix Martin
bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, David Graeber, en.wikipedia.org, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Hyman Minsky, inflation targeting, invention of writing, invisible hand, Irish bank strikes, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, mobile money, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Plutocrats, plutocrats, private military company, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Scientific racism, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, South Sea Bubble, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail
And rather than hawked on stock exchanges like fish in the marketplace, the buying and selling of bonds was done by brokers through their personal networks, like pieces of antique furniture that needed to be found the right home. Nevertheless, for most borrowers, banks remained the dominant source of debt capital right up until the late 1970s. It was only then that the revolutions in information technology and supply-chain management began to unlock the logic of specialisation and the division of labour in finance as in so many other industries. The debt capital markets, it was realised, represented a vast opportunity to create intermediaries that specialised in individual component activities of banks; and hence the potential for enormous gains in efficiency. Borrowers could continue to come to the bank, and loan officers to scrutinise their requests and knock them into reasonable shape.
Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson
Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Landlord's Game, lone genius, megacity, Minecraft, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern
But Hagenbeck did almost none of the actual animal capture himself; instead, he ran a vertically integrated system that stretched from trappers in sub-Saharan Africa to the showrooms and expositions that Hagenbeck began establishing across Europe and the United States. Wild-animal trader has an undeniably buff ring to it as a job description, but in the end Hagenbeck’s success was largely due to his skills at supply chain management. Notoriously, the showman did not limit himself to the animals of the world; he also staged a number of hugely successful—and, to modern eyes, hugely offensive—exhibitions of “savages in their natural state”: Inuits from Labrador, Nubians from the Egyptian Sudan. Yet, for all his travels, Hagenbeck’s most important legacy didn’t take shape until he settled down. In 1897, he bought a thirty-five-acre estate in Stellingen, outside Hamburg, and set out to build a new kind of park.
Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low skilled workers, millennium bug, pattern recognition, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, web application, WebRTC, WebSocket, Y2K
However, it is not just the trucks that require monitoring; drivers have to work long hours, sometimes in hazardous conditions, and fatigue can be a health and safety issue for themselves and other road users. There are already technologies in use that help detect driver fatigue. For example, Caterpillar uses infrared cameras to monitor the driver’s eyes, and a computer monitors blink rate and pupil size. Should it detect the drivers are sleepy, it will alert them using audio alarms and seat vibrations. Another possible use-case is in supply chain management where the predictive analysis techniques of Big Data can come into play. The world’s largest logistic companies need to know the latest current events on a global scale, such as the political climate as well as the local weather conditions that affect traditional trade routes. They need to know of impending strike action by traffic controllers or crane drivers in a shipping port, as these could cause massive disruption and have a knock-on effect to a customer’s stock inventory levels.
The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross
23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional
Apps4Africa matches innovative African tech start-ups with the cash to get their businesses going and takes advantage of what is now more than 650 million mobile phone subscriptions on the African continent, more than in Europe or America. In addition to having the technology expertise, Grainy Bunch and iCow both reinforce the theory that wherever there is domain expertise and a willingness to apply big data technologies, there is an opportunity to create the businesses of the future. There are huge supply-chain management software companies in California and Germany, but Grainy Bunch was developed in a place with deep understanding about the supply chain for grain and grain markets. iCow was developed specifically for low-literacy dairy farmers who own just a few cows, the complete opposite of New Zealand, where Pasture Meter was developed and dairy herds frequently number in the thousands. Su Kahumbu is also part of a larger trend in sub-Saharan Africa, which (along with Latin America) has the highest rates of gender parity in entrepreneurship in the world.
The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar
Logistics In 1998, the retailing giant Walmart sued Amazon for infringing on its trade secrets. The charge: over the previous year, Amazon had hired about 15 of Walmart’s employees, including Amazon’s CIO in 1998, Richard Dalzell, who joined the company in 1997 after serving as a Walmart vice president. Walmart claimed that these former employees had leaked proprietary information about Walmart’s famed supply chain management systems. The suit was settled in 1999, but it underscored the fact that Amazon wasn’t merely investing in product variety or search and discovery innovations like user reviews and recommendations. They were making massive investments into inventing an entirely new infrastructure for inventory management, warehousing, and delivery, one that was optimized for a retail world in which goods had to be moved not in bulk to outlets or stores, but one-by-one to individual consumers.
Mining the Social Web: Finding Needles in the Social Haystack by Matthew A. Russell
Climategate, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, full text search, Georg Cantor, Google Earth, information retrieval, Mark Zuckerberg, natural language processing, NP-complete, profit motive, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, text mining, traveling salesman, Turing test, web application
Alternatively, if you’re in the consulting business and have a hectic travel schedule, you might want to plot out some good locations for renting a little home away from home. Or maybe you want to map out professionals in your network according to their job duties, or the socioeconomic bracket they’re likely to fit in based on their job titles and experience. Beyond the numerous options opened up by visualizing your professional network’s location data, geographic clustering lends itself to many other possibilities, such as supply chain management and Travelling Salesman types of problems. Mapping Your Professional Network with Dorling Cartograms Protovis, a cutting-edge HTML5-based visualization toolkit introduced in Chapter 7, includes a visualization called a Dorling Cartogram, which is essentially a geographically clustered bubble chart. Whereas a more traditional cartogram might convey information by distorting the geographic boundaries of a state on a map, a Dorling Cartogram places a uniform shape such as a circle on the map approximately where the actual state would be located, and encodes information using the circumference (and often the color) of the circle, as demonstrated in Figure 6-7.
The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey
3D printing, Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zimmermann PGP
The very fact that vendors offer those terms means there’s an enormous opportunity for bitcoin to step up in this area.” A few weeks later, Byrne announced he would not only be paying bitcoin-accepting vendors one week early, but that he’d also pay his employee bonuses in bitcoin. What companies such as Overstock are trying to do with digital-currency payments has parallels with what Walmart achieved by pioneering communications technology to revolutionize supply-chain management in the 1990s and early 2000s. The Arkansas-based retailer famously developed a sophisticated network with which to tie all of its suppliers worldwide into a single, integrated database for managing the goods and services flowing in and out of Walmart’s warehouses. Along with big improvements in shipping logistics, this allowed the company to optimize its just-in-time inventory management, which drastically cut its costs.
Business Lessons From a Radical Industrialist by Ray C. Anderson
Albert Einstein, banking crisis, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, cleantech, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, dematerialisation, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, invisible hand, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, music of the spheres, Negawatt, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, renewable energy credits, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, supply-chain management, urban renewal, Y2K
So clearly, when the option exists to move things by rail or ship, we can reduce our energy footprint substantially by choosing wisely. Checking off the box to guarantee next day delivery by air increases the energy (and carbon) by 800 percent! When the option exists to use UPS Ground instead of UPS Air for parcel freight, we can save energy, greenhouse gas emissions, and dollars. As our vice president for supply chain management, Tim Riordan, has said, “When you take out the carbon, you take out the costs.” (Incidentally, as we’ll see later, our chief product designer, David Oakey, says exactly the same thing about product development.) That is exactly what our European factories discovered. Though our plant in the Netherlands once sent about 650 metric tons of carpet tiles to Italy each year in thirty trucks, using rail has shrunk their energy and CO2 footprint by 40 percent, and it reduced their shipping costs by 25 percent!
The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind
23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional
If we think of our laptops, for instance, we are not surprised when we are told that their various components—screens, keyboards, motherboards, batteries—are manufactured by different companies, invariably in different countries. And, within these factories, we would imagine a strict division of labour, with tasks allocated to appropriate individuals with appropriate levels of experience. We know that the disciplines of supply-chain management and logistics support the bringing together of diverse activities into a seamless single offering for the purchaser. Likewise, we see a move towards what we call decomposing and multisourcing across the professions. Professional work is no longer regarded as a monolithic, indivisible lump of activity, but instead is being decomposed (some say ‘disaggregated’)—that is, broken down into constituent tasks and allocated to other people and systems who are best placed to discharge the work at as low a cost as possible, consistent with the quality and the nature of the service required.
air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, dematerialisation, employer provided health coverage, energy security, European colonialism, Firefox, Food sovereignty, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, global supply chain, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, McMansion, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, supply-chain management, the built environment, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Wall-E, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar
The Skinny on Supply Chains To understand the path our products have taken to reach us, we need to understand their supply chains, which involve far more than merely getting something from point A (where it is made) to point B (where we buy it) but encompasses all the suppliers, component producers, workers, middlemen, financiers, warehouses, loading docks, ships, trains, trucks—basically every stop along the way from natural resource to retail outlet. In today’s globalized economy, a product’s supply chain can cover multiple continents and scores of businesses, each of which is trying to maximize its profit at that link in the chain. To that end, a whole complex science of supply chain management has evolved that fine-tunes every detail, to make and move things as quickly and cheaply as possible. Probably no one has more knowledge about supply chains than Professor Dara O’Rourke. During the years I was visiting polluting factories and dumps around the world, O’Rourke was investigating garment and shoe factories—sweatshops—in Honduras, Indonesia, Vietnam, and China. He says that while much has changed since the Age of Exploration, even more radical change happened in just the last decade.
For the Win by Cory Doctorow
barriers to entry, Burning Man, double helix, Internet Archive, inventory management, loose coupling, Maui Hawaii, microcredit, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, Post-materialism, post-materialism, random walk, RFID, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave
If those things had caught on, there’d be exciters everywhere and you’d be able to track anyone you wanted—Christ, they even put RFIDs in the hundred-dollar bill for a while! Pickpockets could have figured out whose purse was worth snatching from half a mile a way!” “All true,” Lester said. “But that didn’t stop these guys. There are still a couple of them around, limping along without many customers. They print the tags with inkjets, sized down to about a third the size of a grain of rice. Mostly used in supply-chain management and such. They can supply them on the cheap. “Which brings me to my idea: why not tag everything in a group household, and use the tags to figure out who left the dishes in the sink, who took the hammer out and didn’t put it back, who put the empty milk-carton back in the fridge, and who’s got the TV remote? It won’t solve resource contention, but it will limit the social factors that contribute to it.”
affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, fixed income, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, NetJets, Northern Rock, oil shock, paper trading, risk tolerance, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, supply-chain management, too big to fail, value at risk, éminence grise
After attending the Browning School on Manhattan’s Upper East Side, Jamie studied psychology and economics at Tufts University; later, at Harvard Business School, he developed a reputation—as much for his arrogance as for his intelligence. Just a few weeks into the fall semester of his first year there, the professor in an introductory class on operations was going through a case study on supply chain management at a cranberry cooperative. Midway through Dimon stood up and interrupted him with, “I think you’re wrong!” As the startled professor looked on, Dimon walked to the front of the class and wrote the solution to the supply problem on the blackboard. Dimon was right, the professor sheepishly acknowledged. After a summer working at Goldman Sachs, Dimon sought career advice from the portly, cigar-chomping, serial deal maker named Sandy Weill.
Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay
3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Yogi Berra
Life in the Air: Surviving the New Culture of Air Travel. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001. Gras, N.S.B. An Introduction to Economic History. New York: Harper, 1922. Greis, Noel P., and John D. Kasarda. “Enterprise Logistics in the Information Era.” California Management Review 39, no. 4 (Summer 1997): 55–78. Greis, Noel P., Jack G. Olin, and John D. Kasarda. “The Intelligent Future.” Supply Chain Management Review 7, no. 3 (May 2003): 18–23. Güller, Mathis, and Michael Güller. From Airport to Airport City. Barcelona: Editorial Gustavo Gili, 2003. Gutfreund, Owen D. Twentieth-Century Sprawl: Highways and the Reshaping of the American Landscape. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Hall, Edward N. “The Air City.” Traffic Quarterly 26, no. 1 (1972): 15–31. Hall, Peter. The World Cities. 3rd ed.
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, planetary scale, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey
The new high-tech workforce of the Third Industrial Revolution will need to be skilled in renewable energy technologies, green construction, IT and embedded computing, nanotechnology, sustainable chemistry, fuel-cell development, digital power grid management, hybrid electric and hydrogen-powered transport, and hundreds of other technical fields. Entrepreneurs and managers will need to be educated to take advantage of cutting-edge business models, including open-source and networked commerce, performance contracting, distributed and collaborative research and development strategies, and sustainable low-carbon logistics and supply-chain management. The skill levels and managerial styles of the Third Industrial Revolution workforce will be qualitatively different from those of the workforce of the Second Industrial Revolution. A fully integrated intelligent intergrid allows each country to both produce its own energy and share any surpluses with neighboring countries in a “network” approach to assuring global energy security. When any given region enjoys a temporary surge or surplus in its renewable energy, that energy can be shared with regions that are facing a temporary lull or deficit.
The Data Warehouse Toolkit: The Definitive Guide to Dimensional Modeling by Ralph Kimball, Margy Ross
Albert Einstein, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, data acquisition, discrete time, inventory management, iterative process, job automation, knowledge worker, performance metric, platform as a service, side project, supply-chain management
You can constrain and group on attributes from the four web Electronic Commerce 369 X Supplier Deliveries X X X Part Inventories X X X X Product Assembly Bill of Materials X X X X X Product Assembly to Order X X X X X X X dims) am (4 Clicks tre X tion Servi ce Po licy Intern al Org aniza tion Emplo yee X Prom o Vendo r Facili ty Produ ct Custo mer Media Part Supplier Purchase Orders Carrie r Date and T ime dimensions and explore the effect on the other business processes. For example, you can see what kinds of web experiences produce customers who purchase certain kinds of service policies and then invoke certain levels of service demands. Supply Chain Management X X X X X X X X X X X Customer Relationship Management Product Promotions X X Advertising X X Customer Communications X X X Customer Inquiries X X X Web Visitor Clickstream X X X Product Orders X X X X Service Policy Orders X X X X Product Shipments X X Customer Billing X X Customer Payments X Product Returns X X X X Product Support X X X Service Policy Responses X X X Employee Labor X Human Resources X Facilities Operations Web Site Operations X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Operations Figure 15-8: Bus matrix for web retailer.
The Transhumanist Reader by Max More, Natasha Vita-More
23andMe, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, data acquisition, discovery of DNA, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Extropian, fault tolerance, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, friendly AI, game design, germ theory of disease, hypertext link, impulse control, index fund, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, P = NP, pattern recognition, phenotype, positional goods, prediction markets, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, RFID, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, silicon-based life, Singularitarianism, stem cell, stochastic process, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, the built environment, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce
Superintelligence may be difficult to achieve. It may come in small steps, rather than in one history-shattering burst. Even a greatly advanced SI won’t make a dramatic difference in the world when compared with billions of augmented humans increasingly integrated with technology and with corporations harnessing human minds linked together internally by future versions of today’s enterprise resource planning and supply chain management software, and linked externally by extranets, smart interfaces to the Net, and intelligent agents. How fast things change with the advent of greater than human intelligence depends strongly on two things: the number of superintelligences at work, and the extent of their outperformance. A lone superintelligence, or even a few, would not accelerate overall economic and technological development all that much.
The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton
1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator
Such flexibility might allow us to differentiate, for example, when the discursive structure of the relational database drives not only the information access policies of a company or state, but also in turn the form of its organizational hierarchies, and when the inverse is predominantly true, such as when the laws and logistics of trade channels structure the form and content of interoperable supply chain management software and the database designs on which it depends. In locating The Stack within the intercourses of economics, culture, and technology, both Conway's law (that organizations design systems in their image) and our inverse Conway's law (that systems and their interfaces produce organizations in their image) are interpretive tools that are useful to keep at hand. As a platform to be read and interpreted, The Stack clearly sits on both sides of this coupling of culture and technology.
Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques: Concepts and Techniques by Jiawei Han, Micheline Kamber, Jian Pei
bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation coefficient, cyber-physical system, database schema, discrete time, distributed generation, finite state, information retrieval, iterative process, knowledge worker, linked data, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Occam's razor, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, random walk, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, speech recognition, statistical model, stochastic process, supply-chain management, text mining, thinkpad, web application
“How can we formulate meaningful contexts in contextual outlier detection?” A straightforward method simply uses group-bys of the contextual attributes as contexts. This may not be effective, however, because many group-bys may have insufficient data and/or noise. A more general method uses the proximity of data objects in the space of contextual attributes. We discuss this approach in detail in Section 12.4. Collective Outliers Suppose you are a supply-chain manager of AllElectronics. You handle thousands of orders and shipments every day. If the shipment of an order is delayed, it may not be considered an outlier because, statistically, delays occur from time to time. However, you have to pay attention if 100 orders are delayed on a single day. Those 100 orders as a whole form an outlier, although each of them may not be regarded as an outlier if considered individually.
The Snowball: Warren Buffett and the Business of Life by Alice Schroeder
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Bonfire of the Vanities, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, card file, centralized clearinghouse, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, Donald Trump, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index fund, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, merger arbitrage, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, NetJets, new economy, New Journalism, North Sea oil, paper trading, passive investing, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, shareholder value, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, telemarketer, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, zero-coupon bond
Interview with Herbert Allen. 26. Ibid. 27. Through Project Infinity, partly cloaked in Y2K spending, Coca-Cola turned the soft-drink business into a technology-fed numbers game. In 1999, the company hired 150 experts for worldwide implementation of SAP’s programs. SAP, an acronym for Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing, provided business software solutions for process redesign in supply-chain management, customer-relationship management, and resource planning. 28. Ivester did not respond to repeated requests for interviews. 29. Betsy Morris and Patricia Sellers, “What Really Happened at Coke,” Fortune, January 10, 2000. 30. Interview with Sharon Osberg. 31. Betsy Morris, “Doug Is It,” Fortune, May 25, 1998, and Patricia Sellers, “Crunch Time for Coke,” Fortune, July 19, 1999. 32. This is Herbert Allen’s version of the conversation.