Khan Academy

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pages: 742 words: 137,937

The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional

Bloom, ‘The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring’, Educational Researcher, 13: 6 (1984), 4–16. 66 <https://www.edmodo.com> (accessed 7 March 2015). 67 <http://www.edudemic.com>, <http://www.edutopia.org>, <http://www.sharemylesson.com>. 68 <http://moodle.com>, <http://www.brightspace.com> (accessed 7 March 2015). 69 ‘Khan Academy’, EdSurge <https://www.edsurge.com/khan-academy> (accessed 7 March 2015). 70 ‘Research on the Use of Khan Academy in Schools’, SRI Education, Mar. 2014 <http://www.sri.com/sites/default/files/publications/2014-03-07_implementation_briefing.pdf> (accessed 7 March 2015). 71 In 2012 there were 3,912,540 pupils in state-funded primary schools, 3,225,540 in state-funded secondary schools, and private schools ~7 percent of total. From ‘School capacity: academic year 2011 to 2012’, Department for Education, 1 March 2013 <https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/school-capacity-academic-year-2011-to-2012> (accessed 7 March 2015). 72 ‘TED reaches its billionth video view!’

The Economist, ‘Coming to an Office Near You’, Economist, 18 Jan. 2014. The Economist, ‘Computer says “Try This”’, Economist, 4 Oct. 2014. The Economist, ‘The Dozy Watchdogs’, Economist, 13 Dec. 2014. The Economist, ‘Electronic Arm Twisting’, Economist, 17 May 2014. The Economist, ‘The Late Edition’, Economist, 26 Apr. 2014. The Economist, ‘Workers on Tap’, Economist, 3 Jan. 2015. EdSurge, ‘Khan Academy’, EdSurge <https://www.edsurge.com/khan-academy> (accessed 7 March 2015). Ellis, Charles, What It Takes (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2013). Ericsson, ‘More than 50 Billion Connected Devices’, Ericsson White Paper, Feb. 2011 at <http://www.akos-rs.si/files/Telekomunikacije/Digitalna_agenda/Internetni_protokol_Ipv6/More-than-50-billion-connected-devices.pdf> (accessed 23 March 2015). EY Global, ‘Transparency Report 2014’ <http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/EY-Global-Transparency-Report-2014/$FILE/EY-Global-Transparency-Report-2014.pdf> (accessed 8 March 2015).

There are media platforms, like Edudemic, Edutopia, and ShareMyLesson, where people share material (blogs, videos, and lesson plans) on what works in the classroom.67 There are ‘learning management systems’ and ‘virtual learning environments’, like Moodle, with 65 million users, and BrightSpace, with over 15 million users, that help teachers organize their teaching, distribute materials, and interact with students outside the classroom.68 Other online platforms provide educational content. Khan Academy, for example, is a free online collection of 5,500 instructional videos (watched 450 million times), providing 100,000 practice problems (solved 2 billion times).69 With 10 million unique visitors each month in 2014—a seventyfold increase since 201070—it has a higher effective attendance than the total primary- and secondary-school population of England.71 TED, a collection of online talks (eighteen minutes, more or less, in length) on a wide range of topics by thoughtful people, reached its one-billionth view in late 2012, while TED-Ed is a platform that helps build lessons that are based on their videos.72 YouTube EDU, a part of the video-hosting platform that is allocated for education content alone, hosts over 700,000 ‘high quality’ educational videos—a small fraction of the less-polished, but by no means less-useful, videos elsewhere on the site.73 These online platforms are deployed in different ways.


pages: 397 words: 110,130

Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better by Clive Thompson

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3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, iterative process, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, patent troll, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, spaced repetition, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, Vannevar Bush, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize, éminence grise

It’s to teach kids by using the peculiar abilities of networked devices—like public thinking, new literacies, and the powerful insights that come from not just using, but programming, the machine. • • • Consider what’s happening beneath the hood of the Khan Academy. In one sense, Khan’s videos are the most prominent part of the system. But they’re also the least innovative one. They’re still pretty much just traditional lessons and lectures, albeit ones that can be consulted and reconsulted worldwide, at any time. What’s new is how teachers use the Khan Academy to track progress. The system offers a dashboard that displays nuanced information about each student: which videos they’ve looked at, which problems they’ve tackled, how many times they had to work at a problem before they solved it. This data offers pragmatic insight into whether a student is struggling or not—in real time, whether the child is working in the classroom or at home.

Collecting such fine-grained data is likely to have other payoffs. When I talk to Sal Khan, who runs the Khan Academy as a nonprofit supported by donations, he points out that students have answered more than a billion questions on his system, and the videos have been viewed over 230 million times. “So we can start looking for trend lines that help us figure out, What types of things are students likely to get stuck on? If someone breezes through trigonometry but gets stuck on the intro to statistics, can we predict what other things they’ll find hard or easy? Can we help give more information to teachers to help them teach?” This is, of course, one of those things that computers are uniquely good at: finding patterns that we can’t see ourselves. • • • The Khan Academy can work for math and sciences, where problem sets can be autogenerated and automatically graded.

a better metaphor for collaborative thinking: Sherlock Holmes: The quotes here are from the following works by Arthur Conan Doyle: the novel The Sign of the Four (Allan Classics, 2010), Kindle edition; and the story “The Adventure of Wisteria Lodge,” Project Gutenberg, last updated December 2011, accessed March 24, 2013, www.gutenberg.org/files/2343/2343-h/2343-h.htm. Chapter 7: Digital School When I visit Matthew Carpenter’s math class: Some of this reporting appeared originally in an article I wrote about the Khan Academy, “How Khan Academy Is Changing the Rules of Education,” Wired, August 2011, accessed March 24, 2013, www.wired.com/magazine/2011/07/ff_khan/. the “Two Sigma” phenomenon: Benjamin S. Bloom, “The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring,” Educational Researcher 13, no. 6 (June–July 1984), 4–16; and Benjamin S. Bloom, “The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring,” Educational Leadership 41, no. 8 (May 1984) 4–17.


pages: 72 words: 21,361

Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution Is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy by Erik Brynjolfsson

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Amazon Mechanical Turk, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, business process, call centre, combinatorial explosion, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, hiring and firing, income inequality, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, patent troll, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, shareholder value, Skype, too big to fail, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy

Students at companies around the world use a combination of information and communication technologies to interact with professors centrally located at MIT and with instructors local to each group of students. At the K-12 level, Khan Academy offers over 2,600 short educational videos and 144 self-assessment modules for free on the web. Students can learn at their own pace, pausing and replaying videos as needed, earning “badges” to demonstrate mastery of various skills and knowledge, and charting their own curricula through the ever-growing collection of modules. Students have logged over 70 million visits to Khan Academy so far. A growing infrastructure makes it easy for parents or teachers to track student progress. An increasingly common approach uses the Khan Academy’s tools to flip the traditional classroom model on its head, letting students watch the video lectures at home at their own pace and then having them do the “home work” exercises in class while a teacher circulates among them, helping each student individually with specific difficulties rather than providing a one-size-fits-all lecture to all the students simultaneously.


pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, call centre, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, payday loans, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

The best educational resources available online allow users to create self-organized and self-paced learning environments—ones that allow them to spend as much time as they need with the material, and also to take tests that tell them if they mastered it. One of the best known of these resources is Khan Academy, which was started by then–hedge fund manager Salman Khan as a series of online doodles and YouTube video lectures intended to teach math to his young relatives. Their immense popularity led him to quit his job in 2009 and devote himself to creating online educational materials, freely available to all. By May 2013, Khan Academy included more than 4,100 videos, most no more than a few minutes long, on subjects ranging from arithmetic to calculus to physics to art history. These videos had been viewed more than 250 million times, and the Academy’s students had tackled more than one billion automatically generated problems.15 Khan Academy was originally aimed at primary-school children, but similar tools and techniques have been also applied to higher education, where they’re known as massive online open courses, or MOOCs.

Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa, Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2010); Richard Arum, Josipa Roksa, and Esther Cho, “Improving Undergraduate Learning: Findings and Policy Recommendations from the SSRC-CLA Longitudinal Project,” Social Science Research Council, 2008, http://www.ssrc.org/publications/view/D06178BE-3823-E011-ADEF-001CC477EC84/. 14. Ernest T. Pascarella and Patrick T. Terenzini, How College Affects Students: A Third Decade of Research, 1st ed. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005), 602. 15. Michael Noer, “One Man, One Computer, 10 Million Students: How Khan Academy Is Reinventing Education,” Forbes, November 19, 2012, http://www.forbes.com/sites/michaelnoer/2012/11/02/one-man-one-computer-10-million-students-how-khan-academy-is-reinventing-education/. 16. William J. Bennet, “Is Sebastian Thrun’s Udacity the Future of Higher Education?” CNN, July 5, 2012, http://www.cnn.com/2012/07/05/opinion/bennett-udacity-education/index.html. 17. David Autor, “The Polarization of Job Opportunities in the U.S. Labor Market: Implications for Employment and Earnings,” Brookings Institution, April 2010, http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2010/04/jobs-autor. 18.

.: GPS satellites maintained by see also economic growth, government role in GPS Graetz, Michael graphics, digital graphs, logarithmic Great Depression Great Recession Great Stagnation, The (Cowen) Greenspan, Alan Greenstein, Shane Greenwood, Jeremy Gregersen, Hal Grimbergen gross domestic product (GDP): alternative metrics to effect of Great Recession on increases in omissions from U.S. growth in see also economic growth; productivity Guo, Terry Hall, David Haltiwanger, John Hanson, Gordon Hanushek, Eric Hayek, Friedrich health, human: improvements in measurements of Health Affairs health care coverage hearing, computer-aided Heim, Bradley Hemingway, Ernest Hendren, Nathaniel Hendy, Barry Hewlett Foundation HireArt Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, The (Adams) Hitt, Lorin Holmstrom, Bengt Homo sapiens Honda Hoover, Herbert housing, online data on How College Affects Students (Pascarella and Terenzini) HTML Hu, Jeffrey Hubbard, Elbert Huberman, Bernardo Hulu human development index humanity, social development of Hyatt, Henry IBM iChat IDC ideation, see creativity immigration income: average basic negative taxes on normal distributions in see also wages Industrial Revolution negative consequences of see also Second Industrial Revolution inequality: consequences of education and political see also spread inflation indexes information, control of information and communication technology (ICT) see also global digital network Information Rules (Shapiro and Varian) information technology (IT): demand elasticity in intangible assets associated with productivity correlated with infrastructure technological Innocentive innovation benefits of complementary economic measurement of effect of digitization on entrepreneurship’s role in government support of impact of spread on open; see also crowdsourcing organizational population growth and prizes for productivity linked to recombinant slowing down of unstable competitive effects of see also creativity Instagram Intel intellectual property International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering Internet collective projects on comparison sites on consumer surplus created by creation of education on housing data on retailing on sharing economy on time accounting for traffic on user costs of user-generated content on; see also social media see also global digital network; World Wide Web Intuit iOS iPad iPhone iRobot Israel iTunes Jaimovich, Nir Japan, productivity improvement in Jaspers, Karl Jelinek, Frederick Jennings, Ken Jensen, Robert Jeopardy! Jeppesen, Lars Bo Jevons paradox Jobs, Steve Johnson, Lyndon Jorgenson, Dale Joy, Bill Kaggle Kalil, Tom Kane, Tim Kaplan, Steve Karabarbounis, Loukas Karpov, Anatoly Kasparov, Garry Katz, Lawrence Kauffman Foundation Kayak Kelly, Kevin Kelvin, Lord Kennedy, Robert F. Kerala, India Keynes, John Maynard Khan, Salman Khan Academy Kia Kim, Heekyung Kinect KinectFusion King, Martin Luther, Jr. Kintinuous Kiva Klapper, Leora Kline, Patrick Knack Kochan, Tom Kopecky, Karen Kremer, Michael Krieger, Mike Krueger, Alan Krugman, Paul Kurzweil, Ray Kuznets, Simon labor: capital replacement of churn in crowdsourcing of demand elasticity and digital partnerships with digitization and; see also “winner-take-all” markets incentives for input limits on non-digitized recessions and skill matrix for see also employment; productivity; wages labor, skilled: benefits of technology for contribution of immigration to creation of labor, unskilled: declining wages of technology’s replacement of Laeven, Luc Lakhani, Karim land taxes Leiserson, William Leonard, John Leontief, Wassily Levine, Uri Levy, Frank Lickel, Charles LIDAR Liebling, A.

Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, financial innovation, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

Based on case studies of Kingfisher, Levi Strauss, method, Tarkett and Unilever, the chapter provides insights into how R&D and manufacturing managers can develop self-sustaining solutions that help both businesses and the environment. Shape customer behaviour. Drawing on research in psychology and behavioural economics, as well as on the pioneering work of organisations such as Barclays, IKEA, Khan Academy, Nest and Progressive, Chapter 5 shows how companies can influence consumers into behaving differently (for example, driving less or more safely) and feeling richer while consuming less. It also shows how marketing managers can improve brand loyalty and market share by tailoring frugal products and services more closely to the way customers actually think, feel and behave – and by properly positioning and communicating the aspirational value of these frugal solutions.

Aspiring entrepreneurs, whom Forrester Research refers to as digital disrupters, are now using this nearly free, online R&D platform to innovate faster, better and cheaper, and create affordable products and services that leverage social-media and mobile technologies.10 In doing so, these start-ups are disrupting the lucrative business models of well-established bricks-and-mortar companies. For instance, the Khan Academy, founded by Sal Khan, offers free maths and science courseware as bite-sized videos via YouTube, creating panic among academic publishers who charge a fortune for textbooks. Or take Plastyc, a start-up that claims to put the “power of a bank in your cell phone” by providing affordable 24-hour access to FDIC-insured virtual bank accounts that can be accessed from any internet-enabled computer or mobile device.

But instead of filming them ploughing through a long, live classroom session, courses feature short, well-edited videos in which the tutor talks through a single theme in an engaging and entertaining way. Increasingly, online platforms have co-opted scripting and editing techniques from the news and entertainment businesses (such as the BBC in the UK) to raise content quality and user participation. Such platforms also use ideas from the gaming world. Salman Khan, an online education pioneer, believes in the power of games to motivate children to learn. His Khan Academy has experimented with game mechanics in its online courses. Students can accumulate points for their work, are awarded badges and get on leader boards. The academy’s experiments show that the wording of badges or the use of points can have a dramatic effect on learning. In some cases, tens of thousands of students can go in a particular direction depending on the nature of the badges. In general, “gamifying” educational content through the use of on-demand video tutorials has made content more engaging for “digital natives” around the world.


pages: 209 words: 63,649

The Purpose Economy: How Your Desire for Impact, Personal Growth and Community Is Changing the World by Aaron Hurst

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3D printing, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, big-box store, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, Elon Musk, Firefox, glass ceiling, greed is good, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, Ray Oldenburg, remote working, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, underbanked, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar

But their most meaningful accomplishment may be their success in lobbying 19 states (as of this writing) to pass legislation that legally recognizes a new, socially responsible corporate structure—the Benefit Corporation. 5. Khan Academy: Open Education The Khan Academy emerged as MOOCs (massive open online courses) and began making headlines. Like other MOOCs, Khan Academy used technology—the Internet and its myriad media and sharing channels—to disrupt the education space. However, in offering online courses for free, Khan was able to tackle the lack of access to good, quality, public education in a way that garnered incredible support very early on at little cost. Leveraging this early success, Khan gained the financial backing and support needed to pioneer and launch the first “elementary” MOOC of its kind. Today, Khan Academy reaches about 10 million students per month and has delivered over 300 million lessons. 6.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra

I don’t need to practice everything and drown in review problems. I can focus precisely where the artificial intelligence of the College Board platform points out that I need help. So far more than 1.4 million kids have signed up to have free SAT prep from Khan Academy online. This represents four times the total population of students who use commercial test prep classes in a year. In fact, more kids now are using Khan Academy than paying for test preparation at every level of income. That tells you what a valuable intelligent assistant it has become. And 450,000 have linked their College Board results on the PSATs with Khan Academy to get tailored tutoring on the questions they missed, which they can then practice on their own time wherever they are—including through their cell phones. This is one of the quietest but most important intelligent-assistant education tools being made available for free in America today.

Think of the flow of friends through Facebook, the flow of renters through Airbnb, the flow of opinions through Twitter, the flow of e-commerce through Amazon, Tencent, and Alibaba, the flow of crowdfunding through Kickstarter, Indiegogo, and GoFundMe, the flow of ideas and instant messages through WhatsApp and WeChat, the flow of peer-to-peer payments and credit through PayPal and Venmo, the flow of pictures through Instagram, the flow of education through Khan Academy, the flow of college courses through MOOCs, the flow of design tools through Autodesk, the flow of music through Apple, Pandora, and Spotify, the flow of video through Netflix, the flow of news through NYTimes.com or BuzzFeed.com, the flow of cloud-based tools through Salesforce, the flow of searches for knowledge through Google, and the flow of raw video through Periscope and Facebook. All these flows substantiate McKinsey’s claim that the world is, indeed, more connected than ever.

She sent back the following list: • Tell you what to wear & provide the weather forecast for interview day • Where to go with Google street map view of job location & public transit route to job location • Send interview reminders about the time and how long you should prepare to get there • Have you dial-in to a practice interview line, record your answers, then hear “best practices” answers • Provide tips from previously hired job seekers or managers at each step • Provide more transparency of what and why at each step of a job search so that the benefits are clear • Show other previously hired job seekers at the job location • Share interesting facts about the location and the manager with job seekers • Provide more info about the hiring manager whom they will meet • Ask job seekers to share interesting facts about themselves with the hiring managers • Auto schedule a Lyft or Uber to take them to their interview • Remind you to send a thank-you note to the interviewer Concluded Ringwald: “Everyone needs someone who says, ‘I believe in you’ … There is not just a skills gap—there’s a confidence gap.” And you can’t sustainably fill one without the other. You Need Work on Fractions Maybe the most popular intelligent assistant in the world today is Khan Academy, which was started in 2006 by the educator Salman “Sal” Khan and offers free, short YouTube video lessons in English on subjects ranging from math, art, computer programming, economics, physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine to finance, history, and more. Anyone anywhere can go there to learn or brush up on any subject. Not only has it become the most important intelligent assistant for generalized learning in the world, but in 2014 it formed a partnership with the College Board, which administers the SAT college entry exams and the PSAT practice exams.


pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

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3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Consider the twenty-four-year-old Kenyan inventor Anthony Mutua: “Shoe Technology to Charge Cell Phones,” Daily Nation, May 2012, http://www.nation.co.ke/News/Shoe+technology+to+charge+cell+phones++/-/1056/1401998/-/view/printVersion/-/sur34lz/-/index.html. placed the chip in the sole of a tennis shoe: Ibid. Mutua’s chip is now set to go into mass production: Ibid. Khan Academy: In the spirit of full disclosure: Eric Schmidt is on the board of Khan Academy. replacing lectures with videos watched at home: Clive Thompson, “How Khan Academy Is Changing the Rules of Education,” Wired Magazine, August 2011, posted online July 15, 2011, http://www.wired.com/magazine/2011/07/ff_khan/. In 2012, the MIT Media Lab tested: Nicholas Negroponte, “EmTech Preview: Another Way to Think About Learning,” Technology Review, September 13, 2012, http://www.technologyreview.com/view/429206/emtech-preview-another-way-to-think-about/.

Education will be a more flexible experience, adapting itself to children’s learning styles and pace instead of the other way around. Kids will still go to physical schools, to socialize and be guided by teachers, but as much, if not more, learning will take place employing carefully designed educational tools in the spirit of today’s Khan Academy, a nonprofit organization that produces thousands of short videos (the majority in science and math) and shares them online for free. With hundreds of millions of views on the Khan Academy’s YouTube channel already, educators in the United States are increasingly adopting its materials and integrating the approach of its founder, Salman Khan—modular learning tailored to a student’s needs. Some are even “flipping” their classrooms, replacing lectures with videos watched at home (as homework) and using school time for traditional homework, such as filling out a problem set for math class.

Hormuud https encryption protocols Huawei human rights, 1.1, 3.1 humiliation Hussein, Saddam, itr.1, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4 Hutus Identity Cards Act identity theft identity-theft protection, 2.1, 2.2 IEDs (improvised explosive devices), 5.1, 6.1 IEEE Spectrum, 107n income inequality, 1.1, 4.1 India, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1 individuals, transfer of power to Indonesia infiltration information blackouts of exchange of free movement of see also specific information technologies Information and Communications Technologies Authority Information Awareness Office information-technology (IT) security experts infrastructure, 2.1, 7.1 Innocence of Muslims (video), 4.1, 6.1 innovation Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, n insurance, for online reputation integrated clothing machine intellectual property, 2.1, 3.1 intelligence intelligent pills internally displaced persons (IDP), 7.1, 7.2 International Criminal Court, 6.1, 7.1, 7.2 internationalized domain names (IDN) International Telecommunications Union Internet, 2.1, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 Balkanization of as becoming cheaper and changing understanding of life impact of as network of networks Internet asylum seekers Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) internet protocol (IP) activity logs internet protocol (IP) address, 3.1, 3.2, 6.1 Internet service provider (ISP), 3.1, 3.2, 6.1, 7.1 Iran, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.1 cyber warfare on “halal Internet” in Iraq, itr.1, 3.1, 4.1, 6.1, 6.2 reconstruction of, 7.1, 7.2 Ireland iRobot Islam Israel, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 iTunes Japan, 3.1, 6.1n, 246 earthquake in Jasmine Revolution JavaOne Conference Jebali, Hamadi Jibril, Mahmoud Jim’ale, Ali Ahmed Nur Join the Club: How Peer Pressure Can Transform the World (Rosenberg), 4.1 Joint Tactical Networking Center Joint Tactical Radio System Julius Caesar justice system Kabul Kagame, Paul, 7.1, 7.2 Kansas State University Karzai, Hamid Kashgari, Hamza Kaspersky Lab Kenya, 3.1, 7.1, 7.2 Khan Academy Khartoum Khodorkovsky, Mikhail Khomeini, Ayatollah Kickstarter kidnapping, 2.1, 5.1 virtual Kinect Kissinger, Henry, 4.1, 4.2 Kiva, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 Klein, Naomi, n Kony 2012, 7.1 Koran Koryolink “kosher Internet,” 187 Kosovo Kurds, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1 Kurzweil, Ray Kyrgyzstan Laârayedh, Ali Lagos language translation, 1.1, 4.1, 4.2 laptops Latin America, 3.1, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1 law enforcement Law of Accelerating Returns Lebanon, 5.1, 7.1, 7.2 Lee Hsien Loong legal options, coping strategies for privacy and security concerns legal prosecution Lenin, Vladimir Levitt, Steven D.


pages: 353 words: 91,520

Most Likely to Succeed: Preparing Our Kids for the Innovation Era by Tony Wagner, Ted Dintersmith

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affirmative action, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, immigration reform, income inequality, index card, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, school choice, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, the scientific method, unpaid internship, Y Combinator

In fact, several high school students have told us they had to fight to take statistics instead of calculus, since their guidance counselor warned them that they were hurting their college prospects. While it’s obvious that statistics warrants higher priority than calculus, the changes needed in the math curriculum are far more extensive. Imagine if we discarded the entirety of the current math curriculum, textbooks, tests, lesson plans, and homework problems. Imagine that all students have access to the same resources they’ll have as adults—laptops, Khan Academy, WolframAlpha. What would a reimagined high school math experience look like? Beginning of Year One: Teach students to use resources accessible through their smartphone to perform math operations. Teach the mechanics of how you represent things like exponents and equations. Make sure all students understand basic math operations and use visual representations to make these operations intuitive.

Recently, Ito recruited a student volunteer to spend a week with sensors monitoring her brain activity. Ito found peaks of activity and troughs of passivity. Most people assume that the near-comatose pattern comes at night when the student is sleeping. But, no. The student’s brain is in its most dormant state . . . during lectures.1 Sal Khan’s views on lectures carry a certain irony. In 2006, he started Khan Academy, an online resource consisting of lectures and quizzes. From initially being used by his cousin, Khan’s following has exploded. Each month, well over ten million people listen to his short lectures on math, physics, economics, computing, and art. It’s conceivable that we’ll reach a point in the future when U.S. kids spend as much time each year listening to this one man’s lectures as they spend in aggregate listening to lectures from our other four million teachers.

Drawing on lectures would represent a small fraction of the student day, with plenty of time for things like collaboratively doing market simulations to learn economics; working in teams to design robots or develop smartphone apps; working on designs to improve energy efficiency; or working creatively on art, music, or writing projects. And in taking on these creative, unstructured initiatives, students draw on Khan Academy resources to help them accomplish their goals. Scott Freeman of the University of Washington led a research team that explored 225 studies of undergraduate education. In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, they report that teaching methods that engaged students as active participants, not as passive listeners, “reduced failure rates and boosted scores on exams by almost one-half a standard deviation.


pages: 347 words: 97,721

Only Humans Need Apply: Winners and Losers in the Age of Smart Machines by Thomas H. Davenport, Julia Kirby

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AI winter, Andy Kessler, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, carbon-based life, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, conceptual framework, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, follow your passion, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, game design, general-purpose programming language, Google Glasses, Hans Lippershey, haute cuisine, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, inventory management, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter Thiel, precariat, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, speech recognition, spinning jenny, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

Think about teachers: They figure out what content students need, and transmit it to them through generally manual methods (lectures, demonstrations, and so forth). But there are already “adaptive learning” systems from companies like Amplify, McGraw-Hill Education, and Knewton that diagnose what content a student needs to learn, and many online repositories for educational material, such as Khan Academy. There are some functions that computers can’t perform in such educational settings, like managing a classroom and maintaining discipline in class, but they don’t necessarily require knowledge workers to perform them. 4. It involves straightforward content analysis. “Cognitive computing” systems like IBM Watson have already demonstrated that they can do an amazing job of analyzing and “understanding” content.

It determines what students know on a particular topic, offers them relevant educational content, and assesses whether they have learned it. It’s an amazing tool that treats every student individually. However, it’s not necessarily enough in itself to meet some of the more nuanced and complex needs of the classroom teacher. Zimmermann works with his colleagues (he teaches in a group of six) to evaluate and adopt new technologies for specific purposes. They include an alternative adaptive learning platform from Khan Academy (Khan content is also included on the School of One platform), Class Dojo for student behavior management, Google Classroom for student collaboration tools, Socrative for rapid student polling, and Plickers for rapid student assessment without tablets or PCs. Shane Herrell, the digital marketer at SAS, also plays the integration role across multiple automation tools. He works across a variety of digital channels—display ads, video, search, social media, etc.

., 108 DreamWorks, 123 Drive (Pink), 169 drones, 40 Dulchinos, John, 50 D’Vorkin, Lewis, 164 Easterbrook, Grant, 87, 88 “Economic Prospects for Our Grandchildren” (Keynes), 69, 238 education achieving mastery of a specialty, 162–66 “adaptive learning” systems, 20, 141 augmentation, five steps for teachers, 84–86 augmentation as focus, 234–37 autodidacts, 165–66 automation and, 16, 86, 141, 230 Buehner’s advice, 120 in cognitive technologies, 230–37 creativity and, 115 emphasis on teamwork, 234–35 by employers, 233–34 entrepreneurial learners, 237 government policies and, 229–37 human role in, 16, 20 Khan Academy, 20 online courses for programming, 178 RULER curriculum, 115, 117–18 school calendar, 230 simulations, 21 soft skills for teaching, 119–20 soft skills training, 115–18, 235–37 STEM, 111, 119, 150, 158, 230–34 Stepping In and, 139, 140–41 Stepping Narrowly in, 158–59, 232 in the UK, 231–32 Weikart’s early childhood studies, 118 emotional intelligence (EQ), 113–14, 116, 119, 120 empathy, 68, 81, 110, 111, 115, 117, 120, 122, 129 Employees First, Customers Second (Nayar), 204 employment.


pages: 291 words: 81,703

Average Is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation by Tyler Cowen

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Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, brain emulation, Brownian motion, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, cosmological constant, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deliberate practice, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Flynn Effect, Freestyle chess, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, reshoring, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Yogi Berra

So let’s take a look at how education will change, keeping in mind these two blades of the scissors, namely that machine intelligence can replace human labor and augment the value of human labor for many individuals. Online education is one place where the new information technologies are emerging. For instance, millions of people are taking MOOCs (massive open online courses) or using the free instructional videos from Khan Academy on mathematics and other topics. Circa 2013, no one is surprised when a new foreign aid program consists simply of dropping iPads into rural Ethiopia and letting children figure out how to work them. Online education is expanding beyond its niche status, but sometimes we don’t recognize the most important developments as explicit education. In my own field of economics, what is the most common and regular form of contact the general public has with economic reasoning?

Imagine writing “the opportunity cost app” and having it incorporated in economics instruction around the world. As a society, we’ll put a lot more effort into teaching things better. For all the virtues of human, face-to-face instruction, it fares pretty miserably when it comes to economies of scale and scope. Fourth, online education also allows for a much more precise measurement of learning. Consider the Khan Academy and its online videos. They are already measuring which videos lead to the best performance on quiz scores, which videos have to be watched more than once, at which point in the videos individuals stop for pause and replay, and so on. We are creating a treasure trove of information about actual learning, and we are just beginning to mine this data. If a student is falling behind, or in denial about his or her progress in the course, the software is the first to know.

, 7, 12, 157 Jobs, Steve, 25 Jones, Benjamin, 216 Journal of the American Statistical Association, 10 journalism, 9 Junior (chess program), 68, 72, 78 Jurafsky, Dan, 12–13 K-12 education, 4, 168, 181–82 Kabbalah, 153 Kahneman, Daniel, 105, 227 Kaiser Family Foundation, 60 Karlan, Dean, 223 Kasparov, Garry, 7, 69, 77, 80–81, 110, 124, 157 Kaufman, Larry, 203 Kempelen, Wolfgang von, 149 Kepler, Johannes, 153 Keynesian economics, 53–54, 56, 226 Khan Academy, 180, 184–85 KIPP schools, 199 Knoxville, Tennessee, 244 Komodo (chess program), 68, 203 Kraai, Jesse, 188 Kramnik, Vladimir, 103, 109, 149–50 Kronrod, Alexander, 68 Krueger, Alan, 59 Krugman, Paul, 180–81, 227 Kurzweil, Ray, 6, 137–38 labor market and age of workers, 41–42, 51–52, 62–63 and benefit costs, 36, 59, 113 careers in the changing market, 41–44 changing worker profiles, 29–40 and computer skills, 21, 33 and conscientiousness of workers, 201–2 and factor price equalization, 163 and global trends, 3–4 and healthcare reform, 238 and hiring costs, 36, 59, 60 important worker characteristics, 32 and income trends, 39 labor economics, 226 and layoffs, 54–55, 57–58, 61 and management, 27–29 and man-machine collaboration, 93 and marketing, 22–27 and outsourcing, 163–71 participation rates, 45, 46, 51 polarization in, 37, 55, 231 and “reshoring” trend, 177 and residential segregation, 247–48 and retraining, 202 and the social contract, 229 laboratory science, 100 land prices, 236, 247 language recognition, 119, 139–41 Latin America, 167–68, 170–71, 242 law and legal issues and the changing labor market, 41 costs of employing labor, 36, 59 lawsuits, 36, 59, 60 lawyer ratings, 121 malpractice suits, 128 and medical diagnosis, 128–29 and reliance on computer systems, 128–31 See also regulatory issues layoffs, 54–55, 57–58, 61 Levitt, Steven, 226–27 liberalism, 252, 253–54 libertarianism, 256–57 lie detection, 12–13, 16 The Lights in the Tunnel (Ford), 6 liquidity crunch, 54, 55 Liu, Runjuan, 164 Loebner Prize, 139–40 logistic function, 203 long-term unemployment, 58 machine intelligence.


pages: 278 words: 70,416

Smartcuts: How Hackers, Innovators, and Icons Accelerate Success by Shane Snow

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3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, attribution theory, augmented reality, barriers to entry, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, deliberate practice, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, Filter Bubble, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, index card, index fund, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, popular electronics, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs

Kramer demonstrates the psychological power of progress over absolute achievements, adding to the evidence that money indeed does not buy happiness: Amabile and Kramer, The Progress Principle: Using Small Wins to Ignite Joy, Engagement, and Creativity at Work (Harvard Business Review Press, 2011). 148 as addictive as cocaine: Valerie Strauss, “Rats Find Oreos as Addictive as Cocaine—An Unusual College Research Project,” Washington Post, October 18, 2013, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2013/10/18/rats-find-oreos-as-addictive-as-cocaine-an-unusual-college-research-project/ (accessed March 4, 2014). 148 @Oreo sent a status update: The famous Oreo tweet, which I both loved and despised, can be found at https://twitter.com/Oreo/status/298246571718483968. 149 Mashable posted an article: Amanda Wills, “Someone Give This Oreo Employee a Raise,” Mashable, February 3, 2013, http://mashable.com/2013/02/03/oreo-super-bowl-twitter/ (accessed February 17, 2014). 149 525 million earned media impressions: 360i’s documentation of ongoing award and momentum making can be seen at “Dunking in the Dark,” 360i, http://www.360i.com/work/oreo-super-bowl/ (accessed February 17, 2014). 150 “Wired magazine declared Oreo”: Ibid. 150 “chill day. off to nyc soon for SNL week!”: Biebs tweeted this the same day as Oreo, achieving 17,000 retweets to Oreo Cookie’s 15,000 (see https://twitter.com/justinbieber/status/298136225930420224). 151 cover a multitude of sins: Yes, this was a bit of cringe-worthy biblical allusion. 155 groundbreaking digital school called Khan Academy: Sal Khan’s story so far is told artfully by Clive Thompson, “How Khan Academy Is Changing the Rules of Education,” WIRED, August 2011 (accessed February 17, 2014). While you’re at it, please read Clive’s book Smarter Than You Think (Penguin Press, 2013) sometime. 155 a folk singer whose amazing: The story of Sixto Rodriguez is best experienced by watching Malik Bendjelloul, Searching for Sugar Man, DVD, IMDb, http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2125608/ (accessed February 17, 2014).

AS WE’VE LEARNED FROM Michelle Phan’s story, the secret to harnessing momentum is to build up potential energy, so that unexpected opportunities can be amplified. On the playground, it’s like building a tower to stand on, so you can start your Olympic ring with more velocity. Phan’s tower was a backlog of quality content. This is how innovators like Sal Khan (who published 1,000 math lessons online before being discovered by Bill Gates, who thrust him into the spotlight and propelled him to build a groundbreaking digital school called Khan Academy), and musicians like Rodriguez (a folk singer whose amazing, but largely unrecognized music work from the 1970s was featured in a 2012 documentary, which then catapulted him to world fame) became “overnight” successes. None of them were overnight successes. But each of their backlogs became reservoirs, ready to become torrents as soon as the dam was removed. Then there’s Oreo. The untold portion of the Oreo tweet story, the part that most of the salivating bloggers missed, is what 360i and Oreo did before the Super Bowl.


pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

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3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

Khan began to tutor Nadia, who lived in Texas, using a Web-based notepad tool called Doodle as well as Skype video chat. Soon other relatives were requesting tutoring sessions, and before long Khan was recording the videos of his tutoring and posting them online. An excellent teacher soon finds eager students, and Khan’s video tutorials went viral. Khan started a Web site, Khan Academy, and now has more than 2,400 lessons posted online. In a given month, 3.5 million unique visitors view 39 million pages on the site to learn more about math and science.15 Inspired in part by Khan Academy, one of the most popular professors at Stanford began teaching an online class about artificial intelligence. Sebastian Thrun was stunned when 160,000 people from around the globe signed up to take the graduate-level class, CS221: Introduction to Artificial Intelligence. Approximately 137,000 people ended up dropping out over the course of the semester, but a stunning 23,000 completed the course.

Harry Lewis, Excellence Without a Soul: How a Great University Forgot Education (New York: PublicAffairs, 2006), 8. 5. http://www.usnews.com/opinion/articles/2011/03/18/a-harvard-education-isnt-as-advertised 6. http://www.demos.org/publication/great-cost-shift-how-higher-education-cuts-undermine-future-middle-class 7. http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/when-it-comes-to-e-mailed-political-rumors-conservatives-beat-liberals/2011/11/17/gIQAyycZWN_story.html 8. http://www.csmonitor.com/The-Culture/Family/2012/0617/Bachelor-s-degree-Has-it-lost-its-edge-and-its-value 9. http://chronicle.com/blogs/innovations/why-did-17-million-students-go-to-college/27634 10. http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1993/survey-is-college-degree-worth-cost-debt-college-presidents-higher-education-system 11. http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1993/survey-is-college-degree-worth-cost-debt-college-presidents-higher-education-system 12. http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/may2011/tc20110524_317819.htm 13. http://techcrunch.com/2011/04/10/peter-thiel-were-in-a-bubble-and-its-not-the-internet-its-higher-education/ 14. http://ocw.mit.edu/about/newsletter/archive/2011-10/ 15. http://techcrunch.com/2011/10/19/khan-academy-triples-unique-users-to-3-5-million/ 16. http://blogs.reuters.com/felix-salmon/2012/01/31/udacitys-model/ 17. http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2008/04/the-great-unbundling-newspapers-the-net/ 18. http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/01/the-great-unbundling-of-the-university/251831/ 19. http://www.centerforcollegeaffordability.org/uploads/ForProfit_HigherEd.pdf 20. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-10-19/apollo-fourth-quarter-profit-sales-top-analysts-estimates-1-.html 21. http://nber.org/papers/w18201 22. http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/07/why-the-internet-isnt-going-to-end-college-as-we-know-it/259378/ 23. http://toolserver.org/~daniel/WikiSense/Contributors.php?


pages: 310 words: 34,482

Makers at Work: Folks Reinventing the World One Object or Idea at a Time by Steven Osborn

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3D printing, A Pattern Language, additive manufacturing, air freight, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, c2.com, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mason jar, means of production, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, Oculus Rift, patent troll, popular electronics, Rodney Brooks, Shenzhen was a fishing village, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software as a service, special economic zone, speech recognition, subscription business, telerobotics, urban planning, web application, Y Combinator

I think there’s a napkin edition to it somewhere, because I said, “With this Raspberry Pi, you can program your own game.” And she said, “I know exactly what I’m going to do.” Steven: Are you using Scratch10 for that or haven’t really decided yet? James: I think we’re thinking about JavaScript because it will run everywhere. Steven: You are probably aware of this, but the JavaScript stuff on Khan Academy is amazing for learning. James: The JavaScript stuff is neat. They worked out a way to make editing live so as you’re typing, you can see the how it affects the outcome of your program. We should do that later. Sylvia: Oh, Khan Academy. My friend Julie does that on her own. Steven: It’s dangerous. You start playing and solving math problems, and then you get badges and points for it. Pretty soon, I’m so tired I can’t really think, but I’m solving trivial math problems like how to tell time, just for the points.

When I went to ITP, that was the only way, the only way available to people with no engineering background to learn how to use and make technological devices. Things have changed a lot since, right? Nowadays, you don’t necessarily need an academic degree to learn certain things, because you have hackerspaces, you have tech shops, you have online communities, you have fab labs. All these things that didn’t exist back then. Osborn: Just with the online resources, like Khan Academy,6 you can learn basic math, from addition up through college-level calculus using online tools. Mota: Exactly. But if this was fifteen years ago, going to school was practically the only way to learn those things. Speaking of hackerspaces, that was, for me, another important transformation that came out of the workshop in Madrid we talked about earlier. For a year before that, I had been trying to start a hackerspace in Lisbon but at the time I didn’t know many people there—I had lived in NYC for several years before moving back to Lisbon—and just couldn’t get it off the ground.

See Seidle, Nathan Stackpole, Eric Aquarius Undersea Lab, 145 background, 139 CubeSat satellites aerodynamic de-orbiting mechanism, 140 Ames Research Center, 140 CubeSat Team SJSU, 140 design robotic submarine, 142 Robotic Systems Lab, 141 space exploration, 141 Hall City Cave, 144–145 ideological level, 146 Kickstarter project, 143 MATE, 142 NASA, 145 OpenROV accessible adventure (AA), 151 business reason, 146 daily discoveries (DD), 151 drawing and design, 143 Hall City Cave, 148 HomePlug adaptor, 149, 151 intense innovation (II), 151 internet control, 150 missions, 147 ongoing technical challenges, 149 patent issue, 147 proprietary protocol, 149 SCINI, 148 open-source story, 146 space satellites, 139 TechShop membership, 143 Stern, Becky accelerometer/gyroscope, 135 aesthetics and technology, 132 Arduino projects, 131 biosensing Internet of Things project, 136 botanical plant, 136 business models, 130 CAD files, 137 CNC titanium ring, 134 creative director, 135 3D fashion, 134 3D objects, 128 e-textiles, 131 Index fabric types, 132 FAT lab, 130 FLORA project, 132, 136 FLORA sensors, 133 giant plush pillow, 129 Google+, 131 Graffiti Research Lab, 129 gravitational pull, 130 hackerspaces list, 131 intellectual property, 138 Internet communication coding, 137 Kickstarter, 130 knitting needle collection, 128 Kraftwerk video, 133 LEDs and basic programming, 128 license, 137 little crafting knowledge and craft/sewing instruction, 133 local community, 131 Making Wireless Toys, 128 methane sensor, 136 nightlight/switch, 128 online and sharing tutorials, 128 Pac-Man animation, 134 parents activity, 127 PIC chips, 129 project longhaul, 134 Raspberry Pi and Arduino, 137 Raspberry Pi projects, 131 resources online, 132 school, Arizona, 135 Space Odyssey project, 133 specialized tools and equipment, 135 technical innovation, 130 to learn, 132 visual effect, 135 wearable electronics, 127 wearable LED suspenders, 134 Submersible Capable of under Ice Navigation and Imaging (SCINI), 148 Super Awesome Mini Maker Show, 221 Symbolic Systems, 24 T TED Fellows Program, 169 Thief river falls, 90 Thingiverse, 249 Tindie. See Petrone, Emile Todd, Sylvia aerospace engineer, 227 age, 221 board, 225 chief executive officer, 228 CNC machine, 223 Crazy Putty episode, 222 3D gaming glasses, 226 energy points/badges, 227 episodic, nonserial show, 225 failures, 224 favorite project, 225 green-tea leather, 225 heart, 225 iPad app, 223 JavaScript stuff, 227 Kansas city, 221 Khan academy, 227 Lilypad heartbeat pendant, 228 LOGO programming, 223 MythBusters, 224 NASA, 228 open-source superglue, 225 passion, 228 photoplethysmography, 222 photos, 224 polymer chains, 222 programming, 227 RoboPaint, 223 San Francisco, 228 Savage, Adam, 224 science fair, 222 Science Guy, 224 silver medal, 225 space camp, 227 valve, 226 WaterColorBot, 222–223 welding, 226 White House, 222 zombie game, 226 301 302 Index U Upton, Eben academic year, 158 ASIC-level work, 154 Atmel, 156 AVR Atmel microcontrollers, 154 Broadcom, 154, 159 camera use cases, 157 charity, 155 China market, 160 Chinese guys, 160 C-like languages, 153 computers, 159 electrical engineering, 155 general-purpose processor, 158 hardware problems, 154 Iridium satellite phones, 157 Model A, 156 Model B, 156, 160 motor controllers, 153 multimedia capabilities, 158 night-vision camera, 160 NOOBS, 161 4QD, 154 Robot Wars, 154 signal analog and digital PCBs, 154 teaching programming, 158 twenty-five-dollar computer, 156 UK contract manufacturers, 159 wildlife camera project, 157 ZSL, 157 V Vertical video syndrome, 122 W Wealth of Networks, 167 X,Y Xbox 360 laptop, 122 Z Zoological Society of London (ZSL), 157 Makers at Work Folks Reinventing the World One Object or Idea at a Time Steven Osborn Makers at Work: Folks Reinventing the World One Object or Idea at a Time Copyright © 2013 by Steven Osborn This work is subject to copyright.


pages: 319 words: 90,965

The End of College: Creating the Future of Learning and the University of Everywhere by Kevin Carey

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Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business intelligence, carbon-based life, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, declining real wages, deliberate practice, discrete time, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Downton Abbey, Drosophila, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google X / Alphabet X, informal economy, invention of the printing press, inventory management, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, Network effects, open borders, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, transcontinental railway, Vannevar Bush

Afterward, Thrun hung around the conference to watch the other presenters, including an energetic former hedge fund analyst named Salman Khan. Khan had computer science degrees from MIT and an MBA from Harvard, and had become recently famous for creating a series of instructional videos for elementary, middle, and high school children that had attracted millions of views on YouTube. The videos became the basis for Khan’s hugely popular education web site, Khan Academy. Thrun is a logical person and he saw no reason why someone couldn’t do the same for college. So he returned to Stanford and talked with Peter Norvig, who was both Google’s research director and Thrun’s co-professor for an upcoming graduate course at Stanford called CS221: Introduction to Artificial Intelligence: Principles and Techniques. The course consisted of what most college courses consist of: Thrun and Norvig giving lectures and assigning texts to read, followed by a series of problems to solve, followed by exams to certify what students had learned.

To explain what she meant by that, she mentioned that she had a daughter in elementary school who is (surprise) really good at math. Koller’s daughter had been enrolled in Stanford’s Education Program for Gifted Youth (EPGY). This is the program that Patrick Suppes first began developing back in the 1960s—the basis for his famous article in Scientific American. It’s still in operation today. EPGY is sophisticated but inflexible, said Koller, and after a while she and her daughter started watching Khan Academy videos instead. They were more satisfying, because the experience was more “Web 2.0,” which is a way of describing online environments in which large numbers of people communicate and collaborate, learning and making together. Suppes’s original Teletype math program came before Doug Engelbart and his team showed the world what the future of networked collaboration would look like. People like forming communities with other people.

Press stores, 163 James, Henry, 32 James, William, 32–33, 45, 47, 250 Jefferson, Thomas, 23, 193 Jews, 46, 53 Jobs, Steve, 126 Johns Hopkins University, 27, 29 Johnson, Lyndon, 55, 56, 61 Jones, Tommy Lee, 165 Jordan, David Starr, 26 Junior college, 55 (see also Community colleges) Kamlet, Mark, 72–73, 251 Kantian philosophy, 251 Kennedy, John F., 165 Kerr, Clark, 53–56 Khan, Salman, 148–49 Khan Academy, 149, 155 Kickstarter, 133 King, Danny, 216, 218 King’s College, 23 Kiva, 133 Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, 153 Knapp, Steven, 43 Koller, Daphne, 153–58, 171 Kosslyn, Stephen, 136–37 Kyoto University, 204 Lancet, 222 Lander, Eric, 1–4, 38–39, 44, 177–78, 221 MIT freshman biology course taught by, 11 (see also Introduction to Biology—The Secret of Life [7.00x]) Land-grant universities, 25–27, 35, 51, 53, 55, 95, 108, 122–23, 168 Learn Capital, 130, 156–57 Leckart, Steven, 149 Legally Blonde (film), 166 Levin, Richard C., 157 Lewin, Walter, 190–91 Liberal arts, 16, 27–31, 237, 241, 244–45 in accreditation standards, 50 core curriculum for, 49 at elite universities, 179 online courses in, 158, 244 PhDs and, 35 rankings and, 59 teaching mission in, 253 training, research, and, 29, 33, 261n (see also Hybrid universities) Lincoln, Abraham, 25 LinkedIn, 66, 217 Litton Industries, 75 Livy, 25 London, University of, 23 Lue, Robert, 178–81, 211, 231 Lyft ride-sharing service, 122 MacArthur, General Douglas, 51, 90 MacArthur “Genius” awards, 2 MacBooks, 132, 144 Madison, James, 23 Manitoba, University of, 150 Maples, Mike, Jr., 128–30, 132 Marine Corps, U.S., 140 Marx, Karl, 45 Massachusetts Bay Colony, Great and General Court of, 22 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 37–38, 59, 116, 132, 148, 153, 167–79, 245 admissions to, 39, 161, 212, 214–15, 245 Brain and Cognitive Sciences Complex, 1–4, 143, 173–74 Bush at, 51–52, 79, 125, 168 computer science sequence offered online by, 231, 233 founding of, 29, 167 General Institute Requirements, 14, 190, 241 graduation rate at, 8 hacks as source of pride at, 168–69 joint online course effort of Harvard and, see edX MITx, 169, 173, 203 OpenCourseWare, 107–8, 150, 169, 185, 191 prestige of brand of, 163, 181 Saylor at, 176–90 Secret of Life (7.00x) online offering of, see Introduction to Biology—The Secret of Life (7.00x) tour of campus of, 168, 174 wormhole connecting Stanford and cafeteria at, 174–75, 179, 235 Massive open online courses (MOOCs), 150, 154, 156, 158, 159, 185, 204, 255 global demand for, 225 initial audience for, 214–15 providers of, see names of specific companies and universities Master Plans, 35, 60, 64–65 Master’s degrees, 117, 193, 195–96 Mayo Clinic, 242 Mazur, Eric, 137 “M-Badge” system, 208–9 McGill University, 204 Mellon Institute of Science, 75, 76, 229 Memex, 79, 80 Mendelian genetics, 3, 103–4 Miami-Dade Community College, 64 Microsoft, 128, 139, 145, 146, 188, 204 MicroStrategy, 187–91, 199 Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 50 Minerva Project, 133–38, 141, 215, 235, 236, 243 Minnesota, University of, Rochester (UMR), 242–43 Missouri, University of, 208 Moore’s law, 176 Morrill, Justin Smith, 25–26 Morrill Land-Grant Act (1862), 25, 168 Mosaic software program, 126 Mozilla Foundation, 205–8, 218, 248 MS-DOS, 87 Myanganbayar, Battushig, 214, 215 NASDAQ, 177, 188 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 208 National Broadcasting Company (NBC), 96 National Bureau of Economic Research, 10 National Institutes of Health, 52 National Instruments, 216 National Manufacturing Institute, 208 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 208 National Science Foundation, 52 National Survey of Student Engagement, 243 Navy, U.S., 53, 123 Nebraska, University of, 26 Nelson, Ben, 133–35, 139, 181 Netflix, 131, 145 Netscape, 115, 126, 128, 129, 204–5 Newell, Albert, 79, 105 New Jersey, College of, 23 Newman, John Henry, 27–29, 47, 49, 244 Newman Report (1971), 56 Newton, Isaac, 190 New York, State University of, Binghamton, 183–84 New York City public schools, 1, 44 New York Times, 9, 44, 56–57, 107–8, 149, 170 New York University (NYU), 9, 64, 96, 250 Ng, Andrew, 153, 158 Nicomachean Ethics (Aristotle), 17 Nimitz, Admiral Chester W., 90 NLS/Augment, 125 Nobel Prize, 3, 45, 59, 78, 80, 176 Northeastern University, 64 Northern Arizona University, 229–30 Health and Learning Center, 230 Northern Iowa, University of, 55 Norvig, Peter, 149, 170, 227–28, 232 Notre Dame (Paris), cathedral school at, 18 Nurkiewicz, Tomasz, 218 Obama, Barack, 2 Oberlin College, 46 O’Brien, Conan, 166 Oklahoma, University of, 90 Omdurman Islamic University, 88 oNLine system, 125–26 Open Badges, 207 Open source materials and software, 177, 205–6, 215, 223, 232 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 9, 224 Overeducated American, The (Freeman), 56 Oxford University, 19, 21, 23, 24, 92, 135 Packard, David, 123 Parkinson’s disease, 70 Paris, University of, 18–19, 21, 137 Pauli, Wolfgang, 176 Pauling, Linus, 70 Pausch, Randy, 71–72 Peace Corps, 125 Pellar, Ronald (“Doctor Dante”), 208 Pell Grant Program, 56 Penguin Random House, 146 Pennsylvania, University of, 23, 24, 31 Wharton Business School, 155 Pennsylvania State University, 53 People magazine, 57 Pez dispensers, 146 Phaedrus (Socrates), 20, 98 PhDs, 7, 55, 117, 141, 193, 237, 250, 254 adjunct faculty replacing, 252 college rankings based on number of scholars with, 59 regional universities and community colleges and, 60, 64, 253 as requirement for teaching in hybrid universities, 31–33, 35, 50, 60, 224 Silicon Valley attitude toward, 66 Philadelphia, College of, 23 Philip of Macedon, 92 Phoenix, University of, 114 Piaget, Jean, 84, 227 Piazza, 132 Pittsburgh, University of, 73–76 Pixar, 146 Planck, Max, 45 Plato, 16, 17, 21, 31, 44, 250–51 Portman, Natalie, 165 Powell, Walter, 50, 117 Princeton University, 1–2, 23, 112, 134, 161, 245 Principia (Newton), 190 Protestantism, 24 Public universities, 7, 55, 177, 224, 253 Purdue University, 96, 208 Puritans, 22–24 Queens College, 23 Quizlet, 133 Rafter, 131–32 Raphael, 16, 17 Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature, 87 Reagan, Ronald, 56 Regional universities, 55, 60, 64 Reid, Harry, 42 Renaissance, 19 Rhode Island, College of, 23 Rhodes Scholarships, 2 Rice University, 204 RNA, 3 Rockstar Games, 230 Roksa, Josipa, 9, 36, 85, 244 Romans, ancient, 16 Roosevelt, Theodore, 165 Ruby on Rails Web development framework, 144 Rutgers University, 23 Sample, Steven, 64 Samsung, 146 San Jose State University, 177 Sandel, Michael, 177 SAT scores, 63, 136–37, 171, 195, 213 Saylor, Michael, 186–93, 199, 201 Saylor.org, 191, 223, 231 Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph, 45 School of Athens, The (Raphael), 16 Schopenhauer, Arthur, 45 Science: The Endless Frontier (Bush), 51 Scientific American, 92, 155 Scientific Research and Development, U.S.


pages: 56 words: 16,788

The New Kingmakers by Stephen O'Grady

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Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, cloud computing, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, DevOps, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Netflix Prize, Paul Graham, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, software is eating the world, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, Y Combinator

Stanford has been aggressively pushing their class content to the Web: from curricula to actual lectures, would-be developers all over the world are able to receive some of the benefits of a world-class education, at no cost. And beginning in the Fall of 2012, edX will educate students with Harvard and MIT course content—for free. The program, a $60-million-dollar collaboration between the two universities, aims to expand their addressable market to students anywhere. Startups are targeting similar opportunities: for example, CodeAcademy aims to teach anyone coding, while Khan Academy’s broader mandate includes a spectrum of computer science and math classes. Even commercial vendors like Cisco, IBM, Microsoft, and SAP have devoted substantial budgets to properties aimed at educating developers. The relentless efficiency of the Internet, the bane of industries like publishing, has been a boon to developers. They’re more visible and marketable than ever, demand for their services is skyrocketing, and their commercial opportunities are more frictionless than ever before.


pages: 420 words: 79,867

Developing Backbone.js Applications by Addy Osmani

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Airbnb, anti-pattern, create, read, update, delete, database schema, Firefox, full text search, Google Chrome, Khan Academy, loose coupling, MVC pattern, node package manager, pull request, side project, single page application, web application

It’s trivial to add support for pub/sub in Backbone Prototypes are instantiated with the new keyword, which some developers prefer Agnostic about templating frameworks, however Underscore’s micro-templating is available by default Clear and flexible conventions for structuring applications. Backbone doesn’t force usage of all of its components and can work with only those needed Used by Disqus Disqus chose Backbone.js to power the latest version of its commenting widget. The Disqus team felt it was the right choice for their distributed web app, given Backbone’s small footprint and ease of extensibility. Khan Academy Offering a web app that aims to provide free world-class education to anyone anywhere, Khan Academy uses Backbone to keep its frontend code both modular and organized. MetaLab MetaLab created Flow, a task management app for teams using Backbone. Its workspace uses Backbone to create task views, activities, accounts, tags and more. Walmart Mobile Walmart chose Backbone to power its mobile web applications, creating two new extension frameworks in the process - Thorax and Lumbar.


pages: 494 words: 116,739

Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K

We should teach digital natives in the language they were born in: “My own preference for teaching Digital Natives,” he wrote, “is to invent computer games to do the job, even for the most serious content.”20 Egged on by the chorus of support, America is in an orgy of educational technologies despite scarce evidence that they improve learning. In 2013, the Los Angeles Unified School District announced a $1 billion program to distribute iPads to all of its students.21 Donors flock to support the online Khan Academy, where the disembodied voice of Salman Khan accompanies video-recorded blackboard instruction. And MOOCs – massively open online courses – from Harvard, MIT, Stanford, and other universities boast about the millions of people from around the world taking their free classes. The fever is contagious. Despite everything I learned in India, I wasn’t immune to it. I was once on a panel at MIT with Negroponte where I outlined my hard-won lessons about technology for education.

Others, sometimes weighed down by intensive extracurricular activities, struggled in geometry and algebra. I would review material with them and offer pointers as they did assignments. Yet another group required no substantive help at all. They just needed some prodding to finish their homework on time. Despite their differences, the students had one thing in common: What their parents were paying for was adult supervision. All of the content I tutored is available on math websites and in free Khan Academy videos, and every student had round-the-clock Internet access. But even with all that technology, and even at a school with a luxurious 9:1 student-teacher ratio, what their parents wanted for their kids was extra adult guidance. If this is the case for Lakeside students with their many life advantages, imagine how much more it must be the case for the world’s less privileged children. If the Labors of Hercules had an intellectual equivalent, it would be modern education.

See also Aspirations iPad initiatives, 11 Iran, 23, 35–36 The Iron Law of Evaluation, 70, 81 Islam, music and, 39 “Itchman,” 40 I-TECH, 136–139, 207 Jakiela, Pamela, 143–144 Japan American School in Japan, 211 educational system, 145, 256(n45) healthcare, 43 modernization, 178, 266–267(n11) nuclear plant disaster, 235(n29) technology-loving stereotype, xiii encouraging virtue, 276(n8) Jasanoff, Sheila, 23 Jenner, Edward, 67 Jensen, Derrick, 24 Jhunjhunwala, Ashok, 104 Jigme Singye Wangchuck, King of Bhutan, 87–88 Jobs, Steve, 84, 119, 135, 275(n8) Johnson, Lyndon B., 7 Joshi, Deep, 208, 273(n24). See also Pradan organization Karlan, Dean, 59–60 Karnani, Aneel, 83–84 Kelsa+ project, 122–125 Kennedy, John F., 7 Kenya, xi–xii, 156–157, 258–259(n4) Khan, Salman, 11 Khan Academy, 11, 14 King, Gary, 49–52 Kinnan, Cynthia, 236–237(n14) Kirp, David L., 214, 275(n5) Kiva.org, 71 Knowledge gap hypothesis, 37 Knowledge management, 44–46 Kohlberg, Lawrence, 161, 260(n18) Kotra, India, 77–82 Kranzberg, Melvin, 24 Kuznets, Simon, 245(n56) Labeling, 172, 264–265(n1) Labor exploitation, 85–86, 166–167, 243(n31) Lakeside School, Seattle, Washington, 14 Language learning, 123–124 Lareau, Annette, 250(n11) Latent desires, 39–41 Law, Lalitha, 140–141 Law of Amplification.


pages: 484 words: 104,873

Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future by Martin Ford

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, debt deflation, deskilling, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, Freestyle chess, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, High speed trading, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Lyft, manufacturing employment, McJob, moral hazard, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, optical character recognition, passive income, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post scarcity, precision agriculture, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, reshoring, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, strong AI, Stuxnet, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Coming Technological Singularity, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, very high income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce

Students as young as ten and as old as seventy signed up to learn the basics of AI directly from two of the field’s preeminent researchers—an extraordinary opportunity previously available only to about 200 Stanford students.6 The ten-week course was divided into short segments lasting just a few minutes and modeled roughly on the enormously successful videos for middle and high school students created by the Khan Academy. I completed several units of the class myself and found the format to be a powerful and engaging learning vehicle. The production employed no visual wizardry; instead, it consisted primarily of either Thrun or Norvig presenting topics while writing on a notepad. Each brief segment was followed by an interactive quiz—a technique that virtually guarantees that key concepts are assimilated as you proceed through the course.

(television program), Watson and, xiv, 96–101, 104 job creation, xi by decade, 44 diminishing, 43–44 following Great Recession, 280 information technology and, 176 Internet companies vs. automotive industry and, 76 keeping pace with population growth, 26, 44, 249 jobless recoveries, 44–46, 52, 280 job-market polarization, 50–51, 53 jobs disappearance of middle-class, 49 low-wage, 26–27 part-time, 49–51 purchasing power and, xvii, 197 reshoring and manufacturing, 8–12 See also employment; knowledge-based jobs; white-collar jobs Jobs, Steve, 161 Johns Hopkins, 133 Johnson, Lyndon, 29, 31, 32–33, 258 Jones, Charles I., 265, 266 Joy, Bill, 243–244 Kaiser Health News, 164 Kaku, Michio, 247 Karabarbounis, Loukas, 41 Kasparov, Garry, xiv, 97, 122, 239 Kennedy, John F., 249–250, 280 Kerala sardine fisherman, mobile phones and, 78–79 Keynes, John Maynard, 38, 206 Khan Academy, 132–133 Khoshnevis, Behrokh, 180 Kinect, 4–5, 7, 105 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 29–30, 250 kiosks, intelligent, 17–19 Kiva Systems, 16 K’NEX, 5–6 knowledge-based jobs automation of, 85–86 big data and, 93–96 collaboration with machines and, 121–128 See also white-collar jobs Koller, Daphne, 133 Koza, John, 110 Kroger Company, 17 Krueger, Alan, 119 Krugman, Paul, 60, 203–204, 204n, 205 Kuka AG, 10 Kura sushi restaurant chain, 14–15 Kurzweil, Ray, 78, 233, 234–235, 237 labor organized, 57–58 role in economy, 279 share of national income, 38–39, 41, 56, 58 See also workers/workforce Lanier, Jaron, 77 Law, Legislation and Liberty (Hayek), 257–258 law school bubble, 173n LeCun, Yann, 231 legal discovery, trends in, 124–125 Lehman, Betsy, 149 leisure time, basic income guarantee and, 263 Leno, Jay, 177 Levy, Steven, 85 liability autonomous cars and, 183–184, 186, 190 health care, 150, 150n Lickel, Charles, 96 The Lights in the Tunnel (Ford), xiii, 60, 264 Lipson, Hod, 108, 109, 110, 180 liquidity trap, 218n London Symphony Orchestra, 111 London taxi drivers, 209n long-tail distribution, in Internet sector, 76–78 long-term unemployment, ix, xvi, 45–46, 211, 280 Los Angeles Angels, 83 low-wage jobs, automation and, 26–27 Luddites, 31, 33, 256 machine essay grading, 129–131 machine intelligence, 72, 75, 80.


pages: 128 words: 38,187

The New Prophets of Capital by Nicole Aschoff

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3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Bretton Woods, clean water, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, feminist movement, follow your passion, Food sovereignty, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global value chain, helicopter parent, hiring and firing, income inequality, Khan Academy, late capitalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, performance metric, profit motive, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor

Some people are able to translate their skills, knowledge, and connections into economic opportunity and financial stability, and some are not—either because their skills, knowledge, and connections don’t seem to work as well, or they can’t acquire them in the first place because they’re too poor. Today, the centrality of social and cultural capital is obscured (sometimes deliberately), as demonstrated in the implicit and explicit message of Oprah and her ideological colleagues. In their stories, and many others like them, cultural and social capital are easy to acquire. They tell us to get an education. Too poor? Take an online course. Go to Khan Academy. They tell us to meet people, build up our network. Don’t have any connected family members? Join LinkedIn. It’s simple. Anyone can become anything. There’s no distinction between the quality and productivity of different people’s social and cultural capital. We’re all building our skills. We’re all networking. All types of social and cultural capital are equally translatable into economic capital (and happiness), and social and cultural capital will retain their value no matter how many people acquire them.


pages: 510 words: 120,048

Who Owns the Future? by Jaron Lanier

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3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, automated trading system, barriers to entry, bitcoin, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, delayed gratification, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, packet switching, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

Without MIT or Caltech, I imagine figures like Marvin Minsky or Richard Feynman would have been employed deep in the bunkers of Los Alamos or Bell Labs at the time, which were places less likely to be generous about having a weird kid roaming the hallways without official license. Everyone in the high-tech world appreciates the universities deeply. Yet we are happy to rush headlong into flattening the levees that sustain them, just as we did with music, journalism, and photography. Will the result be any different this time? Factoring the City on a Hill The Khan Academy might be the most celebrated effort of the moment to bring free education to anyone with online access. It is filled with videos teaching every common topic, and its lessons have already been taken hundreds of millions of times. Stanford professor and Google researcher Sebastian Thrun was inspired by Khan to share a graduate artificial-intelligence class online, and tens of thousands of people graduated from it.

., 129–30, 261, 328 “Forum,” 214 Foucault, Michel, 308n 4chan, 335 4′33″ (Cage), 212 fractional reserve system, 33 Franco, Francisco, 159–60 freedom, 13–15, 32–33, 90–92, 277–78, 336 freelancing, 253–54 Free Print Shop, 228 “free rise,” 182–89, 355 free speech, 223, 225 free will, 166–68 “friction,” 179, 225, 230, 235, 354 Friendster, 180, 181 Fukuyama, Francis, 165, 189 fundamentalism, 131, 193–94 future: chaos in, 165–66, 273n, 331 economic analysis of, 1–3, 15, 22, 37, 38, 40–41, 42, 67, 122, 143, 148–52, 153, 155–56, 204, 208, 209, 236, 259, 274, 288, 298–99, 311, 362n, 363 humanistic economy for, 194, 209, 233–351 361–367 “humors” of, 124–40, 230 modern conception of, 123–40, 193–94, 255 natural basis of, 125, 127, 128–29 optimism about, 32–35, 45, 130, 138–40, 218, 230n, 295 politics of, 13–18, 22–25, 85, 122, 124–26, 128, 134–37, 199–234, 295–96, 342 technological trends in, 7–18, 21, 53–54, 60–61, 66–67, 85–86, 87, 97–98, 129–38, 157–58, 182, 188–90, 193–96, 217 utopian conception of, 13–18, 21, 30, 31, 37–38, 45–46, 96, 128, 130, 167, 205, 207, 265, 267, 270, 283, 290, 291, 308–9, 316 future-oriented money, 32–34, 35 Gadget, 186 Gallant, Jack, 111–12 games, 362, 363 Gates, Bill, 93 Gattaca, 130 Gawker, 118n Gelernter, David, 313 “general” machines, 158 General Motors, 56–57 general relativity theory, 167n Generation X, 346 genetic engineering, 130 genetics, 109–10, 130, 131, 146–47, 329, 366 genomics, 109–10, 146–47, 366 Germany, 45 Ghostery, 109 ghost suburbs, 296 Gibson, William, 137, 309 Gizmodo, 117–18 Global Business Network (GBN), 214–15 global climate change, 17, 32, 53, 132, 133, 134, 203, 266, 295, 296–97, 301–2, 331 global economy, 33n, 153–56, 173, 201, 214–15, 280 global village, 201 God, 29, 30–31, 139 Golden Goblet, 121, 121, 175, 328 golden rule, 335–36 gold standard, 34 Google, 14, 15, 19, 69, 74, 75–76, 90, 94, 106, 110, 120, 128, 153, 154, 170, 171, 174, 176, 180, 181–82, 188, 191, 192, 193, 199–200, 201, 209, 210, 217, 225, 227, 246, 249, 265, 267, 272, 278, 280, 286, 305n, 307, 309–10, 322, 325, 330, 344, 348, 352 Google Goggles, 309–10 Googleplex, 199–200 goops, 85–89, 99 Gore, Al, 80n Graeber, David, 30n granularity, 277 graph-shaped networks, 241, 242–43 Great Britain, 200 Great Depression, 69–70, 75, 135, 299 Great Recession, 31, 54, 60, 76–77, 204, 311, 336–37 Greece, 22–25, 45, 125 Grigorov, Mario, 267 guitars, 154 guns, 310–11 Gurdjieff, George, 215, 216 gurus, 211–13 hackers, 14, 82, 265, 306–7, 345–46 Hardin, Garrett, 66n Hartmann, Thom, 33n Hayek, Friedrich, 204 health care, 66–67, 95, 98–99, 100, 132–33, 153–54, 249, 253, 258, 337, 346 health insurance, 66–67, 95, 98–99, 100, 153–54 Hearts and Minds, 353n heart surgery, 11–13, 17, 18, 157–58 heat, 56 hedge funds, 69, 106, 137 Hephaestus, 22, 23 high-dimensional problems, 145 high-frequency trading, 56, 76–78, 154 highways, 79–80, 345 Hinduism, 214 Hippocrates, 124n Hiroshima bombing (1945), 127 Hollywood, 204, 206, 242 holographic radiation, 11 Homebrew Club, 228 homelessness, 151 homeopathy, 131–32 Homer, 23, 55 Honan, Mat, 82 housing market, 33, 46, 49–52, 61, 78, 95–96, 99, 193, 224, 227, 239, 245, 255, 274n, 289n, 296, 298, 300, 301 HTML, 227, 230 Huffington Post, 176, 180, 189 human agency, 8–21, 50–52, 85, 88, 91, 124–40, 144, 165–66, 175–78, 191–92, 193, 217, 253–64, 274–75, 283–85, 305–6, 328, 341–51, 358–60, 361, 362, 365–67 humanistic information economy, 194, 209, 233–351 361–367 human reproduction, 131 humors (tropes), 124–40, 157, 170, 230 hunter-gatherer societies, 131, 261–62 hyperefficient markets, 39, 42–43 hypermedia, 224–30, 245 hyper-unemployment, 7–8 hypotheses, 113, 128, 151 IBM, 191 identity, 14–15, 82, 124, 173–74, 175, 248–51, 283–90, 305, 306, 307, 315–16, 319–21 identity theft, 82, 315–16 illusions, 55, 110n, 120–21, 135, 154–56, 195, 257 immigration, 91, 97, 346 immortality, 193, 218, 253, 263–64, 325–31, 367 imports, 70 income levels, 10, 46–47, 50–54, 152, 178, 270–71, 287–88, 291–94, 338–39, 365 incrementalism, 239–40 indentured servitude, 33n, 158 India, 54, 211–13 industrialization, 49, 83, 85–89, 123, 132, 154, 343 infant mortality rates, 17, 134 infinity, 55–56 inflation, 32, 33–34 information: age of, 15–17, 42, 166, 241 ambiguity of, 41, 53–54, 155–56 asymmetry of, 54–55, 61–66, 118, 188, 203, 246–48, 285–88, 291–92, 310 behavior influenced by, 32, 121, 131, 173–74, 286–87 collection of, 61–62, 108–9 context of, 143–44, 178, 188–89, 223–24, 225, 245–46, 247, 248–51, 338, 356–57, 360 correlations in, 75–76, 114–15, 192, 274–75 for decision-making, 63–64, 184, 266, 269–75, 284n digital networks for, see digital networks duplication of, 50–52, 61, 74, 78, 88, 223–30, 239–40, 253–64, 277, 317–24, 335, 349 economic impact of, 1–3, 8–9, 15–17, 18, 19–20, 21, 35, 60–61, 92–97, 118, 185, 188, 201, 207, 209, 241–43, 245–46, 246–48, 256–58, 263, 283–87, 291–303, 331, 361–67 in education, 92–97 encrypted, 14–15, 175, 239–40, 305–8, 345 false, 119–21, 186, 275n, 287–88, 299–300 filters for, 119–20, 200, 225, 356–57 free, 7–9, 15–16, 50–52, 61, 74, 78, 88, 214, 223–30, 239–40, 246, 253–64, 277, 317–24, 335, 349 history of, 29–31 human agency in, 22–25, 69–70, 120–21, 122, 190–91 interpretation of, 29n, 114–15, 116, 120–21, 129–32, 154, 158, 178, 183, 184, 188–89 investment, 59–60, 179–85 life cycle of, 175–76 patterns in, 178, 183, 184, 188–89 privacy of, see privacy provenance of, 245–46, 247, 338 sampling of, 71–72, 191, 221, 224–26, 259 shared, 50–52, 61, 74, 78, 88, 100, 223–30, 239–40, 253–64, 277, 317–24, 335, 349 signals in, 76–78, 148, 293–94 storage of, 29, 167n, 184–85; see also cloud processors and storage; servers superior, 61–66, 114, 128, 143, 171, 246–48 technology of, 7, 32–35, 49, 66n, 71–72, 109, 110, 116, 120, 125n, 126, 135, 136, 254, 312–16, 317 transparency of, 63–66, 74–78, 118, 190–91, 306–7 two-way links in, 1–2, 227, 245, 289 value of, 1–3, 15–16, 20, 210, 235–43, 257–58, 259, 261–63, 271–75, 321–24, 358–60 see also big data; data infrastructure, 79–80, 87, 179, 201, 290, 345 initial public offerings (IPOs), 103 ink, 87, 331 Inner Directeds, 215 Instagram, 2, 53 instant prices, 272, 275, 288, 320 insurance industry, 44, 56, 60, 66–67, 95, 98–99, 100, 153–54, 203, 306 intellectual property, 44, 47, 49, 60, 61, 96, 102, 183, 204, 205–10, 223, 224–26, 236, 239–40, 246, 253–64 intelligence agencies, 56, 61, 199–200, 291, 346 intelligence tests, 39, 40 interest rates, 81 Internet: advertising on, 14, 20, 24, 42, 66, 81, 107, 109, 114, 129, 154, 169–74, 177, 182, 207, 227, 242, 266–67, 275, 286, 291, 322–24, 347–48, 354, 355 anonymity of, 172, 248–51, 283–90 culture of, 13–15, 25 development of, 69, 74, 79–80, 89, 129–30, 159, 162, 190–96, 223, 228 economic impact of, 1–2, 18, 19–20, 24, 31, 43, 60–66, 79–82, 117, 136–37, 169–74, 181, 186 employment and, 2, 7–8, 56–57, 60, 71–74, 79, 117, 123, 135, 149, 178, 201, 257–58 file sharing on, 50–52, 61, 74, 78, 88, 100, 223–30, 239–40, 253–64, 277, 317–24, 335, 349 free products and services of, 7n, 10, 60–61, 73, 81, 82, 90, 94–96, 97, 128, 154, 176, 183, 187, 201, 205–10, 234, 246–48, 253–64, 283–88, 289, 308–9, 317–24, 337–38, 348–50, 366 human contributions to, 19–21, 128, 129–30, 191–92, 253–64 identity in, 14–15, 82, 173–74, 175, 283–90, 315–16 investment in, 117–20, 181 legal issues in, 63, 79–82, 204, 206, 318–19 licensing agreements for, 79–82 as network, 2–3, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19–21, 31, 49, 50–51, 53, 54–55, 56, 57, 75, 92, 129–30, 143–48, 228–29, 259, 286–87, 308–9 political aspect of, 13–15, 205–10 search engines for, 51, 60, 70, 81, 120, 191, 267, 289, 293; see also Google security of, 14–15, 175, 239–40, 305–8, 345 surveillance of, 1–2, 11, 14, 50–51, 64, 71–72, 99, 108–9, 114–15, 120–21, 152, 177n, 199–200, 201, 206–7, 234–35, 246, 272, 291, 305, 309–11, 315, 316, 317, 319–24 transparency of, 63–66, 176, 205–6, 278, 291, 308–9, 316, 336 websites on, 80, 170, 200, 201, 343 Internet2, 69 Internet service providers (ISPs), 171–72 Interstate Highway System, 79–80, 345 “In-valid,” 130 inventors, 117–20 investment, financial, 45, 50, 59–67, 74–80, 115, 116–20, 155, 179–85, 208, 218, 257, 258, 277–78, 298, 301, 348, 350 Invisible Hand humor, 126, 128 IP addresses, 248 iPads, 267 Iran, 199, 200 irony, 130 Islam, 184 Italy, 133 Jacquard programmable looms, 23n “jailbreaking,” 103–4 Japan, 85, 97, 98, 133 Jeopardy, 191 Jeremijenko, Natalie, 302 jingles, 267 jobs, see employment Jobs, Steve, 93, 166n, 192, 358 JOBS Act (2012), 117n journalism, 92, 94 Kapital, Das (Marx), 136 Keynesianism, 38, 151–52, 204, 209, 274, 288 Khan Academy, 94 Kickstarter, 117–20, 186–87, 343 Kindle, 352 Kinect, 89n, 265 “Kirk’s Wager,” 139 Klout, 365 Kodak, 2, 53 Kottke, Dan, 211 KPFA, 136 Kurzweil, Ray, 127, 325, 327 Kushner, Tony, 165, 189 LaBerge, Stephen, 162 labor, human, 85, 86, 87, 88, 99–100, 257–58, 292 labor unions, 44, 47–48, 49, 96, 239, 240 Laffer curve, 149–51, 150, 152 Las Vegas, Nev., 296, 298 lawyers, 98–99, 100, 136, 184, 318–19 leadership, 341–51 legacy prices, 272–75, 288 legal issues, 49, 63, 74–82, 98–99, 100, 104–5, 108, 136, 184, 204, 206, 318–19 Lehman Brothers, 188 lemonade stands, 79–82 “lemons,” 118–19 Lennon, John, 211, 213 levees, economic, 43–45, 46, 47, 48, 49–50, 52, 92, 94, 96, 98, 108, 171, 176n, 224–25, 239–43, 253–54, 263, 345 leveraged mortgages, 49–50, 61, 227, 245, 289n, 296 liberal arts, 97 liberalism, 135–36, 148, 152, 202, 204, 208, 235, 236, 251, 253, 256, 265, 293, 350 libertarianism, 14, 34, 80, 202, 208, 210, 262, 321 liberty, 13–15, 32–33, 90–92, 277–78, 336 licensing agreements, 79–82 “Lifestreams” (Gelernter), 313 Lights in the Tunnel, The (Ford), 56n Linux, 206, 253, 291, 344 litigation, 98–99, 100, 104–5, 108, 184 loans, 32–33, 42, 43, 74, 151–52, 306 local advantages, 64, 94–95, 143–44, 153–56, 173, 203, 280 Local/Global Flip, 153–56, 173, 280 locked-in software, 172–73, 182, 273–74 logical copies, 223 Long-Term Capital Management, 49, 74–75 looms, 22, 23n, 24 loopholes, tax, 77 lotteries, 338–39 lucid dreaming, 162 Luddites, 135, 136 lyres, 22, 23n, 24 machines, 19–20, 86, 92, 123, 129–30, 158, 261, 309–11, 328 see also computers “Machine Stops, The” (Forster), 129–30, 261, 328 machine translations, 19–20 machine vision, 309–11 McMillen, Keith, 117 magic, 110, 115, 151, 178, 216, 338 Malthus, Thomas, 132, 134 Malthusian humor, 125, 127, 132–33 management, 49 manufacturing sector, 49, 85–89, 99, 123, 154, 343 market economies, see economies, market marketing, 211–13, 266–67, 306, 346 “Markets for Lemons” problem, 118–19 Markoff, John, 213 marriage, 167–68, 274–75, 286 Marxism, 15, 22, 37–38, 48, 136–37, 262 as humor, 126 mash-ups, 191, 221, 224–26, 259 Maslow, Abraham, 260, 315 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 75, 93, 94, 96–97, 157–58, 184 mass media, 7, 66, 86, 109, 120, 135, 136, 185–86, 191, 216, 267 material extinction, 125 materialism, 125n, 195 mathematics, 11, 20, 40–41, 70, 71–72, 75–78, 116, 148, 155, 161, 189n, 273n see also statistics Matrix, The, 130, 137, 155 Maxwell, James Clerk, 55 Maxwell’s Demon, 55–56 mechanicals, 49, 51n Mechanical Turk, 177–78, 185, 187, 349 Medicaid, 99 medicine, 11–13, 17, 18, 54, 66–67, 97–106, 131, 132–33, 134, 150, 157–58, 325, 346, 363, 366–67 Meetings with Remarkable Men (Gurdjieff), 215 mega-dossiers, 60 memes, 124 Memex, 221n memories, 131, 312–13, 314 meta-analysis, 112 metaphysics, 12, 127, 139, 193–95 Metcalf’s Law, 169n, 350 Mexico City, 159–62 microfilm, 221n microorganisms, 162 micropayments, 20, 226, 274–75, 286–87, 317, 337–38, 365 Microsoft, 19, 89, 265 Middle Ages, 190 middle class, 2, 3, 9, 11, 16–17, 37–38, 40, 42–45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 60, 74, 79, 91, 92, 95, 98, 171, 205, 208, 210, 224–25, 239–43, 246, 253–54, 259, 262, 263, 280, 291–94, 331, 341n, 344, 345, 347, 354 milling machines, 86 mind reading, 111 Minority Report, 130, 310 Minsky, Marvin, 94, 157–58, 217, 326, 330–31 mission statements, 154–55 Mixed (Augmented) Reality, 312–13, 314, 315 mobile phones, 34n, 39, 85, 87, 162, 172, 182n, 192, 229, 269n, 273, 314, 315, 331 models, economic, 40–41, 148–52, 153, 155–56 modernity, 123–40, 193–94, 255 molds, 86 monetization, 172, 176n, 185, 186, 207, 210, 241–43, 255–56, 258, 260–61, 263, 298, 331, 338, 344–45 money, 3, 21, 29–35, 86, 108, 124, 148, 152, 154, 155, 158, 172, 185, 241–43, 278–79, 284–85, 289, 364 monocultures, 94 monopolies, 60, 65–66, 169–74, 181–82, 187–88, 190, 202, 326, 350 Moondust, 362n Moore’s Law, 9–18, 20, 153, 274–75, 288 morality, 29–34, 35, 42, 50–52, 54, 71–74, 188, 194–95, 252–64, 335–36 Morlocks, 137 morning-after pill, 104 morphing, 162 mortality, 193, 218, 253, 263–64, 325–31, 367 mortgages, 33, 46, 49–52, 61, 78, 95–96, 99, 224, 227, 239, 245, 255, 274n, 289n, 296, 300 motivation, 7–18, 85–86, 97–98, 216 motivational speakers, 216 movies, 111–12, 130, 137, 165, 192, 193, 204, 206, 256, 261–62, 277–78, 310 Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 23n MRI, 111n music industry, 11, 18, 22, 23–24, 42, 47–51, 54, 61, 66, 74, 78, 86, 88, 89, 92, 94, 95–96, 97, 129, 132, 134–35, 154, 157, 159–62, 186–87, 192, 206–7, 224, 227, 239, 253, 266–67, 281, 318, 347, 353, 354, 355, 357 Myspace, 180 Nancarrow, Conlon, 159–62 Nancarrow, Yoko, 161 nanopayments, 20, 226, 274–75, 286–87, 317, 337–38, 365 nanorobots, 11, 12, 17 nanotechnology, 11, 12, 17, 87, 162 Napster, 92 narcissism, 153–56, 188, 201 narratives, 165–66, 199 National Security Agency (NSA), 199–200 natural medicine, 131 Nelson, Ted, 128, 221, 228, 245, 349–50 Nelsonian systems, 221–30, 335 Nelson’s humor, 128 Netflix, 192, 223 “net neutrality,” 172 networked cameras, 309–11, 319 networks, see digital networks neutrinos, 110n New Age, 211–17 Newmark, Craig, 177n New Mexico, 159, 203 newspapers, 109, 135, 177n, 225, 284, 285n New York, N.Y., 75, 91, 266–67 New York Times, 109 Nobel Prize, 40, 118, 143n nodes, network, 156, 227, 230, 241–43, 350 “no free lunch” principle, 55–56, 59–60 nondeterministic music, 23n nonlinear solutions, 149–50 nonprofit share sites, 59n, 94–95 nostalgia, 129–32 NRO, 199–200 nuclear power, 133 nuclear weapons, 127, 296 nursing, 97–100, 123, 296n nursing homes, 97–100, 269 Obama, Barack, 79, 100 “Obamacare,” 100n obsolescence, 89, 95 oil resources, 43, 133 online stores, 171 Ono, Yoko, 212 ontologies, 124n, 196 open-source applications, 206, 207, 272, 310–11 optical illusions, 121 optimism, 32–35, 45, 130, 138–40, 218, 230n, 295 optimization, 144–47, 148, 153, 154–55, 167, 202, 203 Oracle, 265 Orbitz, 63, 64, 65 organ donors, 190, 191 ouroboros, 154 outcomes, economic, 40–41, 144–45 outsourcing, 177–78, 185 Owens, Buck, 256 packet switching, 228–29 Palmer, Amanda, 186–87 Pandora, 192 panopticons, 308 papacy, 190 paper money, 34n parallel computers, 147–48, 149, 151 paranoia, 309 Parrish, Maxfield, 214 particle interactions, 196 party machines, 202 Pascal, Blaise, 132, 139 Pascal’s Wager, 139 passwords, 307, 309 “past-oriented money,” 29–31, 35, 284–85 patterns, information, 178, 183, 184, 188–89 Paul, Ron, 33n Pauli exclusion principle, 181, 202 PayPal, 60, 93, 326 peasants, 565 pensions, 95, 99 Perestroika (Kushner), 165 “perfect investments,” 59–67, 77–78 performances, musical, 47–48, 51, 186–87, 253 perpetual motion, 55 Persian Gulf, 86 personal computers (PCs), 158, 182n, 214, 223, 229 personal information systems, 110, 312–16, 317 Pfizer, 265 pharmaceuticals industry, 66–67, 100–106, 123, 136, 203 philanthropy, 117 photography, 53, 89n, 92, 94, 309–11, 318, 319, 321 photo-sharing services, 53 physical trades, 292 physicians, 66–67 physics, 88, 153n, 167n Picasso, Pablo, 108 Pinterest, 180–81, 183 Pirate Party, 49, 199, 206, 226, 253, 284, 318 placebos, 112 placement fees, 184 player pianos, 160–61 plutocracy, 48, 291–94, 355 police, 246, 310, 311, 319–21, 335 politics, 13–18, 21, 22–25, 47–48, 85, 122, 124–26, 128, 134–37, 149–51, 155, 167, 199–234, 295–96, 342 see also conservatism; liberalism; libertarianism Ponzi schemes, 48 Popper, Karl, 189n popular culture, 111–12, 130, 137–38, 139, 159 “populating the stack,” 273 population, 17, 34n, 86, 97–100, 123, 125, 132, 133, 269, 296n, 325–26, 346 poverty, 37–38, 42, 44, 53–54, 93–94, 137, 148, 167, 190, 194, 253, 256, 263, 290, 291–92 power, personal, 13–15, 53, 60, 62–63, 86, 114, 116, 120, 122, 158, 166, 172–73, 175, 190, 199, 204, 207, 208, 278–79, 290, 291, 302–3, 308–9, 314, 319, 326, 344, 360 Presley, Elvis, 211 Priceline, 65 pricing strategies, 1–2, 43, 60–66, 72–74, 145, 147–48, 158, 169–74, 226, 261, 272–75, 289, 317–24, 331, 337–38 printers, 90, 99, 154, 162, 212, 269, 310–11, 316, 331, 347, 348, 349 privacy, 1–2, 11, 13–15, 25, 50–51, 64, 99, 108–9, 114–15, 120–21, 152, 177n, 199–200, 201, 204, 206–7, 234–35, 246, 272, 291, 305, 309–13, 314, 315–16, 317, 319–24 privacy rights, 13–15, 25, 204, 305, 312–13, 314, 315–16, 321–22 product design and development, 85–89, 117–20, 128, 136–37, 145, 154, 236 productivity, 7, 56–57, 134–35 profit margins, 59n, 71–72, 76–78, 94–95, 116, 177n, 178, 179, 207, 258, 274–75, 321–22 progress, 9–18, 20, 21, 37, 43, 48, 57, 88, 98, 123, 124–40, 130–37, 256–57, 267, 325–31, 341–42 promotions, 62 property values, 52 proprietary hardware, 172 provenance, 245–46, 247, 338 pseudo-asceticism, 211–12 public libraries, 293 public roads, 79–80 publishers, 62n, 92, 182, 277–78, 281, 347, 352–60 punishing vs. rewarding network effects, 169–74, 182, 183 quants, 75–76 quantum field theory, 167n, 195 QuNeo, 117, 118, 119 Rabois, Keith, 185 “race to the bottom,” 178 radiant risk, 61–63, 118–19, 120, 156, 183–84 Ragnarok, 30 railroads, 43, 172 Rand, Ayn, 167, 204 randomness, 143 rationality, 144 Reagan, Ronald, 149 real estate, 33, 46, 49–52, 61, 78, 95–96, 99, 193, 224, 227, 239, 245, 255, 274n, 289n, 296, 298, 300, 301 reality, 55–56, 59–60, 124n, 127–28, 154–56, 161, 165–68, 194–95, 203–4, 216–17, 295–303, 364–65 see also Virtual Reality (VR) reason, 195–96 recessions, economic, 31, 54, 60, 76–77, 79, 151–52, 167, 204, 311, 336–37 record labels, 347 recycling, 88, 89 Reddit, 118n, 186, 254 reductionism, 184 regulation, economic, 37–38, 44, 45–46, 49–50, 54, 56, 69–70, 77–78, 266n, 274, 299–300, 311, 321–22, 350–51 relativity theory, 167n religion, 124–25, 126, 131, 139, 190, 193–95, 211–17, 293, 300n, 326 remote computers, 11–12 rents, 144 Republican Party, 79, 202 research and development, 40–45, 85–89, 117–20, 128, 136–37, 145, 154, 215, 229–30, 236 retail sector, 69, 70–74, 95–96, 169–74, 272, 349–51, 355–56 retirement, 49, 150 revenue growth plans, 173n revenues, 149, 149, 150, 151, 173n, 225, 234–35, 242, 347–48 reversible computers, 143n revolutions, 199, 291, 331 rhythm, 159–62 Rich Dad, Poor Dad (Kiyosaki), 46 risk, 54, 55, 57, 59–63, 71–72, 85, 117, 118–19, 120, 156, 170–71, 179, 183–84, 188, 242, 277–81, 284, 337, 350 externalization of, 59n, 117, 277–81 risk aversion, 188 risk pools, 277–81, 284 risk radiation, 61–63, 118–19, 120, 156, 183–84 robo call centers, 177n robotic cars, 90–92 robotics, robots, 11, 12, 17, 23, 42, 55, 85–86, 90–92, 97–100, 111, 129, 135–36, 155, 157, 162, 260, 261, 269, 296n, 342, 359–60 Roman Empire, 24–25 root nodes, 241 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 129 Rousseau humor, 126, 129, 130–31 routers, 171–72 royalties, 47, 240, 254, 263–64, 323, 338 Rubin, Edgar, 121 rupture, 66–67 salaries, 10, 46–47, 50–54, 152, 178, 270–71, 287–88, 291–94, 338–39, 365 sampling, 71–72, 191, 221, 224–26, 259 San Francisco, University of, 190 satellites, 110 savings, 49, 72–74 scalable solutions, 47 scams, 119–21, 186, 275n, 287–88, 299–300 scanned books, 192, 193 SceneTap, 108n Schmidt, Eric, 305n, 352 Schwartz, Peter, 214 science fiction, 18, 126–27, 136, 137–38, 139, 193, 230n, 309, 356n search engines, 51, 60, 70, 81, 120, 191, 267, 289, 293 Second Life, 270, 343 Secret, The (Byrne), 216 securitization, 76–78, 99, 289n security, 14–15, 175, 239–40, 305–8, 345 self-actualization, 211–17 self-driving vehicles, 90–92, 98, 311, 343, 367 servants, 22 servers, 12n, 15, 31, 53–57, 71–72, 95–96, 143–44, 171, 180, 183, 206, 245, 358 see also Siren Servers “Sexy Sadie,” 213 Shakur, Tupac, 329 Shelley, Mary, 327 Short History of Progress, A (Wright), 132 “shrinking markets,” 66–67 shuttles, 22, 23n, 24 signal-processing algorithms, 76–78, 148 silicon chips, 10, 86–87 Silicon Valley, 12, 13, 14, 21, 34n, 56, 59, 60, 66–67, 70, 71, 75–76, 80, 93, 96–97, 100, 102, 108n, 125n, 132, 136, 154, 157, 162, 170, 179–89, 192, 193, 200, 207, 210, 211–18, 228, 230, 233, 258, 275n, 294, 299–300, 325–31, 345, 349, 352, 354–58 singularity, 22–25, 125, 215, 217, 327–28, 366, 367 Singularity University, 193, 325, 327–28 Sirenic Age, 66n, 354 Siren Servers, 53–57, 59, 61–64, 65, 66n, 69–78, 82, 91–99, 114–19, 143–48, 154–56, 166–89, 191, 200, 201, 203, 210n, 216, 235, 246–50, 258, 259, 269, 271, 272, 280, 285, 289, 293–94, 298, 301, 302–3, 307–10, 314–23, 326, 336–51, 354, 365, 366 Siri, 95 skilled labor, 99–100 Skout, 280n Skype, 95, 129 slavery, 22, 23, 33n Sleeper, 130 small businesses, 173 smartphones, 34n, 39, 162, 172, 192, 269n, 273 Smith, Adam, 121, 126 Smolin, Lee, 148n social contract, 20, 49, 247, 284, 288, 335, 336 social engineering, 112–13, 190–91 socialism, 14, 128, 254, 257, 341n social mobility, 66, 97, 292–94 social networks, 18, 51, 56, 60, 70, 81, 89, 107–9, 113, 114, 129, 167–68, 172–73, 179, 180, 190, 199, 200–201, 202, 204, 227, 241, 242–43, 259, 267, 269n, 274–75, 280n, 286, 307–8, 317, 336, 337, 343, 349, 358, 365–66 see also Facebook social safety nets, 10, 44, 54, 202, 251, 293 Social Security, 251, 345 software, 7, 9, 11, 14, 17, 68, 86, 99, 100–101, 128, 129, 147, 154, 155, 165, 172–73, 177–78, 182, 192, 234, 236, 241–42, 258, 262, 273–74, 283, 331, 347, 357 software-mediated technology, 7, 11, 14, 86, 100–101, 165, 234, 236, 258, 347 South Korea, 133 Soviet Union, 70 “space elevator pitch,” 233, 342, 361 space travel, 233, 266 Spain, 159–60 spam, 178, 275n spending levels, 287–88 spirituality, 126, 211–17, 325–31, 364 spreadsheet programs, 230 “spy data tax,” 234–35 Square, 185 Stalin, Joseph, 125n Stanford Research Institute (SRI), 215 Stanford University, 60, 75, 90, 95, 97, 101, 102, 103, 162, 325 Starr, Ringo, 256 Star Trek, 138, 139, 230n startup companies, 39, 60, 69, 93–94, 108n, 124n, 136, 179–89, 265, 274n, 279–80, 309–10, 326, 341, 343–45, 348, 352, 355 starvation, 123 Star Wars, 137 star (winner-take-all) system, 38–43, 50, 54–55, 204, 243, 256–57, 263, 329–30 statistics, 11, 20, 71–72, 75–78, 90–91, 93, 110n, 114–15, 186, 192 “stickiness,” 170, 171 stimulus, economic, 151–52 stoplights, 90 Strangelove humor, 127 student debt, 92, 95 “Study 27,” 160 “Study 36,” 160 Sumer, 29 supergoop, 85–89 supernatural phenomena, 55, 124–25, 127, 132, 192, 194–95, 300 supply chain, 70–72, 174, 187 Supreme Court, U.S., 104–5 surgery, 11–13, 17, 18, 98, 157–58, 363 surveillance, 1–2, 11, 14, 50–51, 64, 71–72, 99, 108–9, 114–15, 120–21, 152, 177n, 199–200, 201, 206–7, 234–35, 246, 272, 291, 305, 309–11, 315, 316, 317, 319–24 Surviving Progress, 132 sustainable economies, 235–37, 285–87 Sutherland, Ivan, 221 swarms, 99, 109 synthesizers, 160 synthetic biology, 162 tablets, 85, 86, 87, 88, 113, 162, 229 Tahrir Square, 95 Tamagotchis, 98 target ads, 170 taxation, 44, 45, 49, 52, 60, 74–75, 77, 82, 149, 149, 150, 151, 202, 210, 234–35, 263, 273, 289–90 taxis, 44, 91–92, 239, 240, 266–67, 269, 273, 311 Teamsters, 91 TechCrunch, 189 tech fixes, 295–96 technical schools, 96–97 technologists (“techies”), 9–10, 15–16, 45, 47–48, 66–67, 88, 122, 124, 131–32, 134, 139–40, 157–62, 165–66, 178, 193–94, 295–98, 307, 309, 325–31, 341, 342, 356n technology: author’s experience in, 47–48, 62n, 69–72, 93–94, 114, 130, 131–32, 153, 158–62, 178, 206–7, 228, 265, 266–67, 309–10, 325, 328, 343, 352–53, 362n, 364, 365n, 366 bio-, 11–13, 17, 18, 109–10, 162, 330–31 chaos and, 165–66, 273n, 331 collusion in, 65–66, 72, 169–74, 255, 350–51 complexity of, 53–54 costs of, 8, 18, 72–74, 87n, 136–37, 170–71, 176–77, 184–85 creepiness of, 305–24 cultural impact of, 8–9, 21, 23–25, 53, 130, 135–40 development and emergence of, 7–18, 21, 53–54, 60–61, 66–67, 85–86, 87, 97–98, 129–38, 157–58, 182, 188–90, 193–96, 217 digital, 2–3, 7–8, 15–16, 18, 31, 40, 43, 50–51, 132, 208 economic impact of, 1–3, 15–18, 29–30, 37, 40, 53–54, 60–66, 71–74, 79–110, 124, 134–37, 161, 162, 169–77, 181–82, 183, 184–85, 218, 254, 277–78, 298, 335–39, 341–51, 357–58 educational, 92–97 efficiency of, 90, 118, 191 employment in, 56–57, 60, 71–74, 79, 123, 135, 178 engineering for, 113–14, 123–24, 192, 194, 217, 218, 326 essential vs. worthless, 11–12 failure of, 188–89 fear of (technophobia), 129–32, 134–38 freedom as issue in, 32–33, 90–92, 277–78, 336 government influence in, 158, 199, 205–6, 234–35, 240, 246, 248–51, 307, 317, 341, 345–46, 350–51 human agency and, 8–21, 50–52, 85, 88, 91, 124–40, 144, 165–66, 175–78, 191–92, 193, 217, 253–64, 274–75, 283–85, 305–6, 328, 341–51, 358–60, 361, 362, 365–67 ideas for, 123, 124, 158, 188–89, 225, 245–46, 286–87, 299, 358–60 industrial, 49, 83, 85–89, 123, 132, 154, 343 information, 7, 32–35, 49, 66n, 71–72, 109, 110, 116, 120, 125n, 126, 135, 136, 254, 312–16, 317 investment in, 66, 181, 183, 184, 218, 277–78, 298, 348 limitations of, 157–62, 196, 222 monopolies for, 60, 65–66, 169–74, 181–82, 187–88, 190, 202, 326, 350 morality and, 50–51, 72, 73–74, 188, 194–95, 262, 335–36 motivation and, 7–18, 85–86, 97–98, 216 nano-, 11, 12, 17, 162 new vs. old, 20–21 obsolescence of, 89, 97 political impact of, 13–18, 22–25, 85, 122, 124–26, 128, 134–37, 199–234, 295–96, 342 progress in, 9–18, 20, 21, 37, 43, 48, 57, 88, 98, 123, 124–40, 130–37, 256–57, 267, 325–31, 341–42 resources for, 55–56, 157–58 rupture as concept in, 66–67 scams in, 119–21, 186, 275n, 287–88, 299–300 singularity of, 22–25, 125, 215, 217, 327–28, 366, 367 social impact of, 9–21, 124–40, 167n, 187, 280–81, 310–11 software-mediated, 7, 11, 14, 86, 100–101, 165, 234, 236, 258, 347 startup companies in, 39, 60, 69, 93–94, 108n, 124n, 136, 179–89, 265, 274n, 279–80, 309–10, 326, 341, 343–45, 348, 352, 355 utopian, 13–18, 21, 31, 37–38, 45–46, 96, 128, 130, 167, 205, 207, 265, 267, 270, 283, 290, 291, 308–9, 316 see also specific technologies technophobia, 129–32, 134–38 television, 86, 185–86, 191, 216, 267 temperature, 56, 145 Ten Commandments, 300n Terminator, The, 137 terrorism, 133, 200 Tesla, Nikola, 327 Texas, 203 text, 162, 352–60 textile industry, 22, 23n, 24, 135 theocracy, 194–95 Theocracy humor, 124–25 thermodynamics, 88, 143n Thiel, Peter, 60, 93, 326 thought experiments, 55, 139 thought schemas, 13 3D printers, 7, 85–89, 90, 99, 154, 162, 212, 269, 310–11, 316, 331, 347, 348, 349 Thrun, Sebastian, 94 Tibet, 214 Time Machine, The (Wells), 127, 137, 261, 331 topology, network, 241–43, 246 touchscreens, 86 tourism, 79 Toyota Prius, 302 tracking services, 109, 120–21, 122 trade, 29 traffic, 90–92, 314 “tragedy of the commons,” 66n Transformers, 98 translation services, 19–20, 182, 191, 195, 261, 262, 284, 338 transparency, 63–66, 74–78, 118, 176, 190–91, 205–6, 278, 291, 306–9, 316, 336 transportation, 79–80, 87, 90–92, 123, 258 travel agents, 64 Travelocity, 65 travel sites, 63, 64, 65, 181, 279–80 tree-shaped networks, 241–42, 243, 246 tribal dramas, 126 trickle-down effect, 148–49, 204 triumphalism, 128, 157–62 tropes (humors), 124–40, 157, 170, 230 trust, 32–34, 35, 42, 51–52 Turing, Alan, 127–28, 134 Turing’s humor, 127–28, 191–94 Turing Test, 330 Twitter, 128, 173n, 180, 182, 188, 199, 200n, 201, 204, 245, 258, 259, 349, 365n 2001: A Space Odyssey, 137 two-way links, 1–2, 227, 245, 289 underemployment, 257–58 unemployment, 7–8, 22, 79, 85–106, 117, 151–52, 234, 257–58, 321–22, 331, 343 “unintentional manipulation,” 144 United States, 25, 45, 54, 79–80, 86, 138, 199–204 universities, 92–97 upper class, 45, 48 used car market, 118–19 user interface, 362–63, 364 utopianism, 13–18, 21, 30, 31, 37–38, 45–46, 96, 128, 130, 167, 205, 207, 265, 267, 270, 283, 290, 291, 308–9, 316 value, economic, 21, 33–35, 52, 61, 64–67, 73n, 108, 283–90, 299–300, 321–22, 364 value, information, 1–3, 15–16, 20, 210, 235–43, 257–58, 259, 261–63, 271–75, 321–24, 358–60 Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyles (VALS), 215 variables, 149–50 vendors, 71–74 venture capital, 66, 181, 218, 277–78, 298, 348 videos, 60, 100, 162, 185–86, 204, 223, 225, 226, 239, 240, 242, 245, 277, 287, 329, 335–36, 349, 354, 356 Vietnam War, 353n vinyl records, 89 viral videos, 185–86 Virtual Reality (VR), 12, 47–48, 127, 129, 132, 158, 162, 214, 283–85, 312–13, 314, 315, 325, 343, 356, 362n viruses, 132–33 visibility, 184, 185–86, 234, 355 visual cognition, 111–12 VitaBop, 100–106, 284n vitamins, 100–106 Voice, The, 185–86 “voodoo economics,” 149 voting, 122, 202–4, 249 Wachowski, Lana, 165 Wall Street, 49, 70, 76–77, 181, 184, 234, 317, 331, 350 Wal-Mart, 69, 70–74, 89, 174, 187, 201 Warhol, Andy, 108 War of the Worlds, The (Wells), 137 water supplies, 17, 18 Watts, Alan, 211–12 Wave, 189 wealth: aggregate or concentration of, 9, 42–43, 53, 60, 61, 74–75, 96, 97, 108, 115, 148, 157–58, 166, 175, 201, 202, 208, 234, 278–79, 298, 305, 335, 355, 360 creation of, 32, 33–34, 46–47, 50–51, 57, 62–63, 79, 92, 96, 120, 148–49, 210, 241–43, 270–75, 291–94, 338–39, 349 inequalities and redistribution of, 20, 37–45, 65–66, 92, 97, 144, 254, 256–57, 274–75, 286–87, 290–94, 298, 299–300 see also income levels weather forecasting, 110, 120, 150 weaving, 22, 23n, 24 webcams, 99, 245 websites, 80, 170, 200, 201, 343 Wells, H.


pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

Globally, the share of secondary school graduates enrolled in higher education has more than doubled since 1990, from under 14 percent to over 33 percent by 2014.37 By our own estimates, the number of people alive today with a higher education degree is greater than the total number of degrees awarded prior to 1980. Every year, a further 25 to 50 million degree-holders are being added to the total. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), like Khan Academy and Coursera, are helping to raise that figure even more rapidly. Although higher education enrollment rates are highest in the developed world (at 74 percent of secondary school graduates, versus 23 percent in the developing world), in terms of absolute numbers the developing world is coming on strong.38 Already at least 40 percent of the world’s science and engineering doctoral students, and 37 percent of degree-holding science researchers, are in the developing world.39 Women are rapidly advancing, too.

What hadn’t been factored in before is how widespread the impulse to learn another language is—1.2 billion people strong, by recent estimates.21 And it turns out that translating bits of the web is useful practice that many language learners enjoy and are willing to do for free. The result is a colossal jump in our aggregate translation resources. It has already made its presence felt in entertainment and other popular content. In China, Hollywood blockbusters and hit HBO television series are available online within a day of their US release, complete with Mandarin subtitles (the latter having been added by avid fans practicing their English). Khan Academy, an online education portal, has seen most of its 6,000 instructional videos subtitled into one or more of 65 languages by volunteers. TED, another online portal, has attracted more than 22,000 volunteers to translate over 80,000 “TED Talks” into more than 100 languages. Altogether in 2015, we estimate that the global pool of volunteer translators totaled some 2 to 4 million people, who in a single year gave humanity 25–50 million hours of free translation service in areas such as entertainment, education, news and disaster relief (e.g., by translating victims’ Tweets in real time for emergency responders).


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

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23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

One way to improve literacy in emerging markets (perhaps the key metric for poverty eradication) could be via decentralized smart contracts for literacy written between a donor/sponsor peer and a learning peer. Much in the way that Bitcoin is the decentralized (very low fee charging, no intermediary) means of exchanging currencies between countries, a decentralized contract system could be helpful for setting up learning contracts directly with students/student groups in a similar peer-to-peer manner, conceptually similar to a personalized Khan Academy curriculum program. Learners would receive Bitcoin, Learncoin, or the local token directly into their digital wallets—like 37Coins, Coinapolt, or Kipochi (used as Bitcoin or converted into local fiat currency)—from worldwide peer donors, and use this to fund their education expenses at school or separately on their own. A key part of the value chain is having a reporting mechanism (enabled and automated by Ethereum smart contracts, for example) to attest to learner progress.


pages: 260 words: 76,223

Ctrl Alt Delete: Reboot Your Business. Reboot Your Life. Your Future Depends on It. by Mitch Joel

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3D printing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, call centre, clockwatching, cloud computing, Firefox, future of work, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, place-making, prediction markets, pre–internet, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, WikiLeaks

Look at everything from the copy on your website to what the experience is like when someone tries to find you on their smartphone. Sometimes, the most obvious answer to a problem is staring at you right in the face. Salman Khan used to tutor his cousin, Nadia, via long distance by posting videos on YouTube. This very simplistic way of working has turned into an educational movement that is shaking the very foundation of our educational system. The Khan Academy has become a lighthouse for new and different ways to think about education and how kids can learn. iTunes U allows universities to post their lectures online for anyone to download and sample. In short, the technology is becoming simpler, but the solutions to our standard business problems have also become easier because of our connectivity (it’s up to you to piece them together). You don’t need a five-year technology road map to get things done anymore.


pages: 266 words: 80,018

The Snowden Files: The Inside Story of the World's Most Wanted Man by Luke Harding

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affirmative action, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Firefox, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, job-hopping, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, kremlinology, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, national security letter, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steve Jobs, web application, WikiLeaks

Greenwald replied that he hadn’t. The journalist asked for more time. Several more days passed. Another email arrived. It persisted: ‘Have you done it?’ Frustrated, Greenwald’s unknown correspondent now tried a different strategy. He made a private YouTube tutorial showing step by step how to download the correct encryption software – a ‘how to’ guide for dummies. This video had little in common with the Khan Academy: its author remained anonymous, an off-screen presence. It merely contained a set of instructions. ‘I saw a computer screen and graphics. I didn’t see any hands. He was very cautious,’ Greenwald says. The freelance journalist watched. But – stretched by other demands – didn’t quite get round to following its strictures. He forgot about it. ‘I wanted to do it. I work a lot with hacker types,’ Greenwald says.


pages: 270 words: 64,235

Effective Programming: More Than Writing Code by Jeff Atwood

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AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, cloud computing, endowment effect, Firefox, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, gravity well, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Merlin Mann, Minecraft, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, price anchoring, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, science of happiness, Skype, social software, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator

Your goal shouldn’t be merely to get a job, or hire someone for a job, but to have fun and create a love connection. Don’t rush into anything unless it feels right on both sides. (As an aside, if you’re looking for ways to attract programmers, you can’t go wrong with this excellent advice from Samuel Mullen.) Ben Hammersley@benhammersley “Two job candidates. One with only the top badges from Khan Academy and StackOverflow. The other with a 1:1 from top school. Choose.” 2:59 AM – 30 Jan 12 Getting the Interview Phone Screen Right It is very expensive to get the phone screen wrong — a giant waste of time for everyone involved. The best phone screen article you’ll ever find is Steve Yegge’s Five Essential Phone-Screen Questions, another gift to us from Steve’s stint at Amazon. Steve starts by noting two critical mistakes that phone screeners should do their best to avoid: Don’t let the candidate drive the interview.


pages: 318 words: 77,223

The Only Game in Town: Central Banks, Instability, and Avoiding the Next Collapse by Mohamed A. El-Erian

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Airbnb, balance sheet recession, bank run, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, currency peg, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, financial repression, Flash crash, forward guidance, friendly fire, full employment, future of work, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, income inequality, inflation targeting, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Rogoff, Khan Academy, liquidity trap, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, mortgage debt, oil shale / tar sands, price stability, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, yield curve

More concerning, it is a world that makes cyberterrorism and nonstate terrorism more meaningful threats.3 Governments that look to the technological revolution to materially improve the welfare of both current and future generations while also countering its dark side need to understand the dual nature of these transformative innovations. Think of the following tug-of-war on some of the youth at risk: On the one hand, access to the Khan Academy, an impressive online learning platform, brings academic knowledge, self-improvement, and skill acquisition to them in a highly engaging and cost-effective manner; on the other hand is the relatively easy circulation of impressionable ISIS videos that seek to recruit them for a life of violence and uprooting. And all this occurs largely outside the reach of governments. We need to be clear about the risks ahead.


pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee

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4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

The open systems that Rosenberg advocates serve as complements to closed “black box” algorithms (as law professor Frank Pasquale describes them in his recent book)10 which are the key to Google’s business. Three years on, Rosenberg was an advisor to Google management, and found himself in “a world that has outstripped even his wildest expectations.” 11 Drawing on stories from books like Wikinomics,12 on the Government of Canada’s Open Government Declaration, on the non-profit Khan Academy’s video lectures, on PatientsLikeMe in healthcare and Google’s mapping tools, as well as Google’s own success with Android smartphones and the Chrome browser, Rosenberg believes that openness needs to go even further: “We must aim beyond even an open internet. Institutions in general must continue to embrace this ethos.” Here is the ambition of Silicon Valley: to reshape the world in the Internet’s image.


pages: 421 words: 110,406

Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, market design, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, winner-take-all economy, Zipcar

Then factor in the unsustainable cost inflation that education has experienced in the U.S.: having grown by twenty-five times over the past fifty years, higher education spending has skyrocketed even faster than health care spending. The overall picture is of an industry under tremendous pressure to change so as to deliver better value for the dollars being invested. The drive to build education platforms is well under way, as businesses like Skillshare, Udemy, Coursera, edX, Khan Academy, and others suggest. Eager to avoid being rendered irrelevant or obsolete by upstart platform companies, a number of the world’s greatest universities are moving to position themselves as leaders in this educational revolution. Institutions including Harvard, Princeton, Stanford, the University of Pennsylvania, and many others are offering online versions of some of their most popular classes in the form of “massive open online courses” (MOOCs)—many in partnership with companies like Coursera.


pages: 367 words: 109,122

Revolution 2:0: A Memoir and Call to Action by Wael Ghonim

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British Empire, citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, financial independence, Khan Academy, Mohammed Bouazizi, Skype

The organizers asked me to deliver a presentation about the Internet in the Arab world. I spent quite a bit of time preparing the presentation, which urged Arab developers and media professionals to realize that they had a role as agents of change in the region. In my presentation, I cited examples of entrepreneurs who utilized technology to create change. The young American of Bangladeshi origins Salman Khan was one. He was able to set up a simple YouTube channel called Khan Academy to facilitate basic education for 90 million people around the world. He uploaded videos of lessons in basic subjects that could be accessed by users anywhere, anytime. I also spoke of the Kiva initiative (Kiva.org), which mobilized $200 million in loans for 500,000 impoverished people in many countries. I closed the presentation with ten pieces of advice, the first of which was that every one of us can play a bigger role than we think is possible.


pages: 402 words: 110,972

Nerds on Wall Street: Math, Machines and Wired Markets by David J. Leinweber

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AI winter, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, butterfly effect, buttonwood tree, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, citizen journalism, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Danny Hillis, demand response, disintermediation, distributed generation, diversification, diversified portfolio, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, financial innovation, Gordon Gekko, implied volatility, index arbitrage, index fund, information retrieval, Internet Archive, John Nash: game theory, Khan Academy, load shedding, Long Term Capital Management, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, market fragmentation, market microstructure, Mars Rover, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, paper trading, passive investing, pez dispenser, phenotype, prediction markets, quantitative hedge fund, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, Small Order Execution System, smart grid, smart meter, social web, South Sea Bubble, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, time value of money, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing machine, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Vernor Vinge, yield curve, Yogi Berra

I have seen her sock drawer, and this may be true, but it takes nothing away from the idea Sal described. I looked Sal up on the Web, and was pleased to find that he was something of a nerd on Wall Street himself, an MIT graduate (in math and computer science, two dozen graduating classes after mine) and a Harvard MBA. He’s the portfolio manager at Khan Capital Management in Palo Alto, and the founder of a free educational YouTube channel, the KhanAcademy,6 where he has honed his teaching and colorful diagram drawing skills in over 650 videos on mathematical and financial subjects—including over a hundred on SAT preparation, and another hundred on physics. In all of them, there are tens of thousands of views, and every one I saw was rated five stars—all well-deserved raves. It turned out that the 400-point Dow rise was a coincidence, which didn’t surprise me.


pages: 587 words: 117,894

Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman

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4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

All of the 9/11 attackers, for example, had Hotmail accounts, and they were thought to have coordinated through notes left in the guestbook section of a website run by the brother-in-law of one of Osama bin Laden’s lieutenants. Where cyberspace has had perhaps the greatest impact is in the sharing of knowledge in new and innovative ways. Some organizations take advantage of this for the positive, like the Khan Academy, which has allowed children around the world to learn math and science via online tutorials. But terrorists have also spread their peculiar type of knowledge, or what security experts call “TTPs” (short for tactics, techniques, and procedures), in ways not possible before. The recipes for explosives are readily available on the Internet, as are terrorist-provided designs for IEDs for use across conflict zones from Iraq to Afghanistan.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

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1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

Bangalore-based Babajob, in India’s Silicon Valley, is an SMS-based social network for the millions of people working in the country’s informal sector—day laborers, maids, drivers, and so on. One tech blog described the service as “LinkedIn for villages.”20 Another Bangalore nonprofit, Mapunity, emulates Google’s sophisticated mapping services using people’s mobile devices to sense traffic speed through phone movements and taxi radios. It then returns real-time traffic alerts via SMS.21 South Africa’s Dr. Math provides a tutoring service via SMS. Its American equivalent, the Khan Academy, requires an expensive laptop and high-speed Internet connection to access its recorded video lectures and chat rooms.22 In Kenya mobiles are the backbone of a new branchless banking system that is bringing financial services to millions for the first time. M-Pesa, named after the Swahili word for money, launched in 2007 and is now used by over 15 million people. Instead of building out a costly network of branches, or even automated teller machines, M-Pesa uses small retailers as its tellers.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

The positive aspects of this technological evolution are manifest. Over the past hundred years, rapid advances in medical science mean that the average human life span has more than doubled and child mortality has plummeted by a factor of ten. Average per capita income adjusted for inflation around the world has tripled. Access to a high-quality education, so elusive to many for so long, is free today via Web sites such as the Khan Academy. And the mobile phone is singularly credited with leading to billions upon billions of dollars in direct economic development in nations around the globe. The interconnectivity the Internet provides through its fundamental architecture means that disparate peoples from around the world can be brought together as never before. A woman in Chicago can play Words with Friends with a total stranger in the Netherlands.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

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1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

It is clearly not the annulment of dissensus, because in the absence of real politicization of fundamental conflict and the proliferation of incompatible and often unredeemable cosmographies, the only positions of dissent end up being those of the irredentist, the humanist, and the fundamentalist. That is an unsustainable trinity. 41.  Behold the Schengen Cloud, New Arizona, Transcalifornia, Hong Kong West, the Alibaba-Tesla Printing and Charging Station franchise network, NTT-DoKoMo Planet Tokyo retirement towers and robo-spa, Google Continent Cloud, Tata-IIT-Khan Academy primary schools, the Confederate States of Walmart, RadTransFem GMOrganic Foods and Soil Stewardship (based in Fresno), the Apple-Pixar-Genentech Alliance, and so on. 42.  Consider once more Estonia's program to extend “e-citizenship” to those who do not physically reside inside its land borders. See https://e-estonia.com/e-residents/about/. 43.  The anarchist-artist dream of autonomous secession by sabotage, refusal, anonymity, and delinking is part of the problem.