Khan Academy

62 results back to index


pages: 742 words: 137,937

The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lifelogging, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Metcalfe’s law, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, Paul Samuelson, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, young professional

Bloom, ‘The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring’, Educational Researcher, 13: 6 (1984), 4–16. 66 <https://www.edmodo.com> (accessed 7 March 2015). 67 <http://www.edudemic.com>, <http://www.edutopia.org>, <http://www.sharemylesson.com>. 68 <http://moodle.com>, <http://www.brightspace.com> (accessed 7 March 2015). 69 ‘Khan Academy’, EdSurge <https://www.edsurge.com/khan-academy> (accessed 7 March 2015). 70 ‘Research on the Use of Khan Academy in Schools’, SRI Education, Mar. 2014 <http://www.sri.com/sites/default/files/publications/2014-03-07_implementation_briefing.pdf> (accessed 7 March 2015). 71 In 2012 there were 3,912,540 pupils in state-funded primary schools, 3,225,540 in state-funded secondary schools, and private schools ~7 percent of total. From ‘School capacity: academic year 2011 to 2012’, Department for Education, 1 March 2013 <https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/school-capacity-academic-year-2011-to-2012> (accessed 7 March 2015). 72 ‘TED reaches its billionth video view!’

The Economist, ‘Coming to an Office Near You’, Economist, 18 Jan. 2014. The Economist, ‘Computer says “Try This”’, Economist, 4 Oct. 2014. The Economist, ‘The Dozy Watchdogs’, Economist, 13 Dec. 2014. The Economist, ‘Electronic Arm Twisting’, Economist, 17 May 2014. The Economist, ‘The Late Edition’, Economist, 26 Apr. 2014. The Economist, ‘Workers on Tap’, Economist, 3 Jan. 2015. EdSurge, ‘Khan Academy’, EdSurge <https://www.edsurge.com/khan-academy> (accessed 7 March 2015). Ellis, Charles, What It Takes (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2013). Ericsson, ‘More than 50 Billion Connected Devices’, Ericsson White Paper, Feb. 2011 at <http://www.akos-rs.si/files/Telekomunikacije/Digitalna_agenda/Internetni_protokol_Ipv6/More-than-50-billion-connected-devices.pdf> (accessed 23 March 2015). EY Global, ‘Transparency Report 2014’ <http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/EY-Global-Transparency-Report-2014/$FILE/EY-Global-Transparency-Report-2014.pdf> (accessed 8 March 2015).

There are media platforms, like Edudemic, Edutopia, and ShareMyLesson, where people share material (blogs, videos, and lesson plans) on what works in the classroom.67 There are ‘learning management systems’ and ‘virtual learning environments’, like Moodle, with 65 million users, and BrightSpace, with over 15 million users, that help teachers organize their teaching, distribute materials, and interact with students outside the classroom.68 Other online platforms provide educational content. Khan Academy, for example, is a free online collection of 5,500 instructional videos (watched 450 million times), providing 100,000 practice problems (solved 2 billion times).69 With 10 million unique visitors each month in 2014—a seventyfold increase since 201070—it has a higher effective attendance than the total primary- and secondary-school population of England.71 TED, a collection of online talks (eighteen minutes, more or less, in length) on a wide range of topics by thoughtful people, reached its one-billionth view in late 2012, while TED-Ed is a platform that helps build lessons that are based on their videos.72 YouTube EDU, a part of the video-hosting platform that is allocated for education content alone, hosts over 700,000 ‘high quality’ educational videos—a small fraction of the less-polished, but by no means less-useful, videos elsewhere on the site.73 These online platforms are deployed in different ways.


pages: 245 words: 64,288

Robots Will Steal Your Job, But That's OK: How to Survive the Economic Collapse and Be Happy by Pistono, Federico

3D printing, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, future of work, George Santayana, global village, Google Chrome, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, illegal immigration, income inequality, information retrieval, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, longitudinal study, means of production, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, patent troll, pattern recognition, peak oil, post scarcity, QR code, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, Rodney Brooks, selection bias, self-driving car, slashdot, smart cities, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, women in the workforce

With the advent of Wolfram Alpha,182 it becomes clear that doing mechanical calculations by hand is pretty much obsolete nowadays. What matters most is the idea, the concept, the intuition. I immediately started to follow the chemistry lessons from Khan Academy, and I felt the excitement of discovery and understanding every time I watched one of those videos. It all seems quite strange, but it makes a whole lot of sense if you contextualise it. The exponential growth of information technology and the advent of the free software movement has lead to a groundbreaking shift in our mental paradigm. Information is ever more accessible, reliable, and most of all free to all. GNU, Linux, Creative Commons, Wikipedia, OpenCourseWare, and now the Khan academy. It is a logical consequence of the exponential growth of technology and culture. Sal expressed his desire to teach as many subjects as possible.

Anything that is touched by exponentially expanding technologies follows the curve of accelerating change.184 The educational system will have to adjust itself to realities like the Khan Academy, not the other way around. The reason parents send their children to school is not to learn (sadly), but to earn a degree, which will make it easier for them to find a job. This equation is no longer true. As Dale J. Stephens, Michael Ellsberg, and many others pointed out, traditional education is overrated, and what makes you competitive in the workforce is not necessarily your academic achievements. Sure, having a Ph.D. from Stanford helps, but it is not a sufficient requirement for success anymore. If your goal is to go and work at Google, PayPal, Microsoft, or any other of those technology giants, then soon achieving proficiency on the Khan Academy may look more palatable than a degree from a traditional institution.

They might be thinking “I wish I spent more time with my kids”, “I wish I told my husband I loved him more”, “I wish I confessed to my high school crush that I liked her”, or “If only I had travelled more, I would have seen the world”. I was really moved by the story of a woman, who was a terminal cancer patient. She had two months to live, but her life’s dream was to learn calculus. Then she discovered Khan Academy, and realised that she finally had that opportunity. And so she did – she spent the last two months of her life learning calculus. And she was happy.172 Another notorious slacker and good for nothing stated that: “The goal of the future is full unemployment, so we can play. That’s why we have to destroy the present politico-economic system.” This is no light statement, considering that it comes from legendary author and futurist Arthur C.


pages: 397 words: 110,130

Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better by Clive Thompson

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Thorp, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, iterative process, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, patent troll, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, spaced repetition, superconnector, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, Vannevar Bush, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize, éminence grise

It’s to teach kids by using the peculiar abilities of networked devices—like public thinking, new literacies, and the powerful insights that come from not just using, but programming, the machine. • • • Consider what’s happening beneath the hood of the Khan Academy. In one sense, Khan’s videos are the most prominent part of the system. But they’re also the least innovative one. They’re still pretty much just traditional lessons and lectures, albeit ones that can be consulted and reconsulted worldwide, at any time. What’s new is how teachers use the Khan Academy to track progress. The system offers a dashboard that displays nuanced information about each student: which videos they’ve looked at, which problems they’ve tackled, how many times they had to work at a problem before they solved it. This data offers pragmatic insight into whether a student is struggling or not—in real time, whether the child is working in the classroom or at home.

Collecting such fine-grained data is likely to have other payoffs. When I talk to Sal Khan, who runs the Khan Academy as a nonprofit supported by donations, he points out that students have answered more than a billion questions on his system, and the videos have been viewed over 230 million times. “So we can start looking for trend lines that help us figure out, What types of things are students likely to get stuck on? If someone breezes through trigonometry but gets stuck on the intro to statistics, can we predict what other things they’ll find hard or easy? Can we help give more information to teachers to help them teach?” This is, of course, one of those things that computers are uniquely good at: finding patterns that we can’t see ourselves. • • • The Khan Academy can work for math and sciences, where problem sets can be autogenerated and automatically graded.

a better metaphor for collaborative thinking: Sherlock Holmes: The quotes here are from the following works by Arthur Conan Doyle: the novel The Sign of the Four (Allan Classics, 2010), Kindle edition; and the story “The Adventure of Wisteria Lodge,” Project Gutenberg, last updated December 2011, accessed March 24, 2013, www.gutenberg.org/files/2343/2343-h/2343-h.htm. Chapter 7: Digital School When I visit Matthew Carpenter’s math class: Some of this reporting appeared originally in an article I wrote about the Khan Academy, “How Khan Academy Is Changing the Rules of Education,” Wired, August 2011, accessed March 24, 2013, www.wired.com/magazine/2011/07/ff_khan/. the “Two Sigma” phenomenon: Benjamin S. Bloom, “The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring,” Educational Researcher 13, no. 6 (June–July 1984), 4–16; and Benjamin S. Bloom, “The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring,” Educational Leadership 41, no. 8 (May 1984) 4–17.


pages: 286 words: 87,401

Blitzscaling: The Lightning-Fast Path to Building Massively Valuable Companies by Reid Hoffman, Chris Yeh

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business intelligence, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, database schema, discounted cash flows, Elon Musk, Firefox, forensic accounting, George Gilder, global pandemic, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, hydraulic fracturing, Hyperloop, inventory management, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, late fees, Lean Startup, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Tesla Model S, thinkpad, transaction costs, transport as a service, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, web application, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, yellow journalism

But it is still worth considering whether or not it is possible to tap into network effects, since doing so can have such a major impact. For example, Sal Khan’s Khan Academy began when Sal started tutoring one of his young cousins over the Internet. When other cousins started signing up, he decided to post his lectures on YouTube so that anyone in the world could use them. The critical decision to leverage the YouTube platform meant that Khan Academy had both an enormous market (anyone who could access YouTube, which is to say, most of humanity) and a powerful distribution platform (anyone searching for educational content on YouTube was likely to run across Khan Academy). As the Khan Academy gained a massive user base, it began to benefit from both indirect and standard-based network effects. Educators began incorporating Khan Academy videos into their official curriculum, and creating lesson plans that they shared with other educators.

In this book, we refer to the company as Google, both because it is the name by which most people know the company, and because we focus on the company’s Internet businesses. Founded September 1998, Palo Alto, CA GROUPON Groupon.com Groupon is an e-commerce marketplace that connects its subscribers with offers from local merchants. Its primary focus areas are activities, travel, goods, and services. Founded January 2008, Chicago, IL KHAN ACADEMY Khanacademy.org Khan Academy’s mission is to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere. It does this by offering online practice exercises and instructional videos. Founded October 2006, Mountain View, CA LINKEDIN LinkedIn.com LinkedIn is the world’s largest professional network and seeks to connect the world’s professionals to make them more productive and successful.

Educators began incorporating Khan Academy videos into their official curriculum, and creating lesson plans that they shared with other educators. Today, the Khan Academy is used by 40 million students and 2 million educators every month (the entire United States has only 50.7 million K–12 students), and volunteers have translated its videos into thirty-six languages. LACK OF PRODUCT/MARKET FIT In the case of for-profit businesses, the remorseless logic of the market economy quickly eliminates companies that fail to achieve product/market fit. Without the ability to achieve traction, businesses lack the revenue to survive and have little ability to raise additional funding from investors. In contrast, nonprofits often receive grants and donations for noneconomic reasons, and the flow of funds isn’t always correlated with the effectiveness of the organization being funded. The “clients” are the people it serves, but the “customers” are the funders.


pages: 681 words: 64,159

Numpy Beginner's Guide - Third Edition by Ivan Idris

algorithmic trading, business intelligence, Conway's Game of Life, correlation coefficient, Debian, discrete time, en.wikipedia.org, general-purpose programming language, Khan Academy, p-value, random walk, reversible computing, time value of money

Python ‹ Learn Python the Hard Way (for Python 2) at http://learnpythonthehardway. org/ ‹ Dive Into Python 3 (for Python 3) at http://www.diveintopython3.net/ ‹ Beginner's Guide to Python at https://wiki.python.org/moin/ BeginnersGuide ‹ Non-programmers Tutorial for Python 3 can be found at http://en.wikibooks. org/wiki/Non-Programmer%27s_Tutorial_for_Python_3 ‹ A Byte of Python is available at http://www.swaroopch.com/notes/python/ ‹ An Introducton to Interactve Programming in Python can be found at https://www.coursera.org/course/interactivepython1 ‹ Learn Python online by Code Mentor at https://www.codementor.io/learn-python-online ‹ Learn Python by visualizing code executon at http://pythontutor.com/ ‹ Find Codecademy Python exercises at http://www.codecademy.com/tracks/ python ‹ Google's Python class is available at https://developers.google.com/edu/ python/ ‹ A Python style guide from Google can be found at https://google-styleguide.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/pyguide.html ‹ The IPython website can be found at http://ipython.org/ ‹ matplotlib a Python plotng library at http://matplotlib.org/ ‹ NumPy and SciPy documentaton can be accessed at http://docs.scipy.org/ doc/ ‹ NumPy and SciPy mailing lists can be found at http://www.scipy.org/ scipylib/mailing-lists.html Mathematics and statistics ‹ Linear algebra tutorials are available from Khan Academy at https://www. khanacademy.org/math/linear-algebra ‹ Pre-calculus tutorials from Khan Academy are available at https://www. khanacademy.org/math/precalculus ‹ Probability and statstcs tutorials from Khan Academy can be found at https://www.khanacademy.org/math/probability ‹ Trigonometry tutorials from Khan Academy can be found at https://www.khanacademy.org/math/trigonometry ‹ Access Alcumus by Art of Problem Solving ( AoPS ) at http://www. artofproblemsolving.com/alcumus ‹ Find the Pre-Calculus Coursera course at https://www.coursera.org/course/ precalculus ‹ The Coursera course on linear algebra, which uses Python, can be found at https://www.coursera.org/course/matrix ‹ An introducton to probability by Harvard University can be accessed at https://itunes.apple.com/us/course/statistics-110-probability/ id502492375 ‹ The statstcs wikibook is available at https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/ Statistics ‹ The Electronic Statstcs Textbook.

Now, we have a six-by-four array. 4. Transpose : In linear algebra, it is common to transpose matrices. Linear algebra is a branch of mathematics dealing among others with matrices . Matrices are the two-dimensional equivalent of vectors and contain numbers in a rectangular or square grid. Transposing a matrix entails flipping the matrix in such a manner that the matrix rows become the matrix columns and vice versa. Khan Academy has a course on linear algebra, which includes transposing matrices at https://www.khanacademy.org/ math/linear-algebra/matrix_transformations/matrix_ transpose/v/linear-algebra-transpose-of-a-matrix . We can do this too using the following code: In: b.transpose() Out: array([[ 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20], [ 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, 21], [ 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22], [ 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23]]) 5. Resize : The resize() method works just like the reshape() functon, but modifes the array it operates on: In: b.resize((2,12)) In: b Out: array([[ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11], [12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23]]) What just happened?

The SMA is, afer all, nothing more than a convoluton with equal weights or, if you like, unweighted. Convoluton is a mathematcal operaton on two functons defned as the integral of the product of the two functons afer one of the functons is reversed and shifed. ( f ∗ g ) ( t ) = ∫ −∞ f ( τ ) g ( t − τ ) d τ = ∫ −∞ f ( t − τ ) g ( τ ) d τ Convoluton is described on Wikipedia at https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Convolution . Khan Academy also has a tutorial on convoluton at https://www.khanacademy.org/math/differential- equations/laplace-transform/convolution-integral/v/ introduction-to-the-convolution . Use the following steps to compute the SMA: 1. Use the ones() functon to create an array of size N and elements initalized to 1 , and then, divide the array by N to give us the weights: N = 5 weights = np.ones(N) / N print("Weights", weights) For N = 5 , this gives us the following output: Weights [ 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2] 2.


pages: 300 words: 76,638

The War on Normal People: The Truth About America's Disappearing Jobs and Why Universal Basic Income Is Our Future by Andrew Yang

3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, call centre, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, falling living standards, financial deregulation, full employment, future of work, global reserve currency, income inequality, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Narrative Science, new economy, passive income, performance metric, post-work, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unemployed young men, universal basic income, urban renewal, white flight, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator

The difficulty is that schools will need to reinvest and adapt even as the monetary returns on education diminish and jobs become harder to come by. Some believe that we can inexpensively educate large numbers of people using the latest technology. A couple years ago I spoke at an awards dinner with Sal Khan, the founder of the Khan Academy. If you don’t know Khan Academy, you should—they make education videos that are used by millions around the world on everything from basic arithmetic to great literature to quantum physics. Sal was a hedge fund analyst turned explainer of all things. Bill Gates’s kids used to watch the videos to supplement their schooling, leading Bill to become one of the many million-dollar donors to Khan Academy. Their mission is to educate the world. Sal gave an inspiring talk that night. The high point went something like this: “Back in the Middle Ages, if you asked the literate monks and scholars how many of the farmers and peasants walking around would be capable of learning to read, they’d scoff and say, ‘Read?

A majority of American households have had broadband Internet at home for more than 10 years now, and 85 percent today have either a broadband home connection or a smartphone. We have years of information about how unlimited access to materials like Khan Academy has influenced learners around the country. Unfortunately, SAT scores have declined significantly in the last 10 years. High school graduation rates have edged upward. College readiness is generally down. We don’t seem to be getting any more enlightened despite ubiquitous online lessons. It’s impossible not to love Khan Academy. I fully intend to strap my kids in as soon as they’re ready for it, and I fantasize about coming home and having them say things like, “I learned thermodynamics today!” But if one gives a 12-year-old access to high-speed Internet, they are infinitely more likely to chat with their friends, play video games, or watch the latest Honest Trailers video than delve into a deep, thought-provoking discussion of War and Peace.

But if one gives a 12-year-old access to high-speed Internet, they are infinitely more likely to chat with their friends, play video games, or watch the latest Honest Trailers video than delve into a deep, thought-provoking discussion of War and Peace. Among the biggest gainers from Khan Academy are people abroad and learners like Bill Gates’s kids, who already had some things going for them. The clearest impact of technology on teen development to date has been starkly negative. According to psychologist Jean Twenge’s 2017 book, iGen, smartphone use has caused a spike in depression and anxiety among people born from 1995 on, and a diminution in sociability and independence. An excerpt of her book in The Atlantic was aptly titled, “Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation?” They are not using their smartphones to learn calculus, but they are trying to keep their Snapstreaks going.


pages: 72 words: 21,361

Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution Is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy by Erik Brynjolfsson

"Robert Solow", Amazon Mechanical Turk, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, business cycle, business process, call centre, combinatorial explosion, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, hiring and firing, income inequality, intangible asset, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, minimum wage unemployment, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Ray Kurzweil, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, shareholder value, Skype, too big to fail, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wealth creators, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

Students at companies around the world use a combination of information and communication technologies to interact with professors centrally located at MIT and with instructors local to each group of students. At the K-12 level, Khan Academy offers over 2,600 short educational videos and 144 self-assessment modules for free on the web. Students can learn at their own pace, pausing and replaying videos as needed, earning “badges” to demonstrate mastery of various skills and knowledge, and charting their own curricula through the ever-growing collection of modules. Students have logged over 70 million visits to Khan Academy so far. A growing infrastructure makes it easy for parents or teachers to track student progress. An increasingly common approach uses the Khan Academy’s tools to flip the traditional classroom model on its head, letting students watch the video lectures at home at their own pace and then having them do the “home work” exercises in class while a teacher circulates among them, helping each student individually with specific difficulties rather than providing a one-size-fits-all lecture to all the students simultaneously.


pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, G4S, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, post-work, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

The best educational resources available online allow users to create self-organized and self-paced learning environments—ones that allow them to spend as much time as they need with the material, and also to take tests that tell them if they mastered it. One of the best known of these resources is Khan Academy, which was started by then–hedge fund manager Salman Khan as a series of online doodles and YouTube video lectures intended to teach math to his young relatives. Their immense popularity led him to quit his job in 2009 and devote himself to creating online educational materials, freely available to all. By May 2013, Khan Academy included more than 4,100 videos, most no more than a few minutes long, on subjects ranging from arithmetic to calculus to physics to art history. These videos had been viewed more than 250 million times, and the Academy’s students had tackled more than one billion automatically generated problems.15 Khan Academy was originally aimed at primary-school children, but similar tools and techniques have been also applied to higher education, where they’re known as massive online open courses, or MOOCs.

Richard Arum and Josipa Roksa, Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2010); Richard Arum, Josipa Roksa, and Esther Cho, “Improving Undergraduate Learning: Findings and Policy Recommendations from the SSRC-CLA Longitudinal Project,” Social Science Research Council, 2008, http://www.ssrc.org/publications/view/D06178BE-3823-E011-ADEF-001CC477EC84/. 14. Ernest T. Pascarella and Patrick T. Terenzini, How College Affects Students: A Third Decade of Research, 1st ed. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005), 602. 15. Michael Noer, “One Man, One Computer, 10 Million Students: How Khan Academy Is Reinventing Education,” Forbes, November 19, 2012, http://www.forbes.com/sites/michaelnoer/2012/11/02/one-man-one-computer-10-million-students-how-khan-academy-is-reinventing-education/. 16. William J. Bennet, “Is Sebastian Thrun’s Udacity the Future of Higher Education?” CNN, July 5, 2012, http://www.cnn.com/2012/07/05/opinion/bennett-udacity-education/index.html. 17. David Autor, “The Polarization of Job Opportunities in the U.S. Labor Market: Implications for Employment and Earnings,” Brookings Institution, April 2010, http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2010/04/jobs-autor. 18.

.: GPS satellites maintained by see also economic growth, government role in GPS Graetz, Michael graphics, digital graphs, logarithmic Great Depression Great Recession Great Stagnation, The (Cowen) Greenspan, Alan Greenstein, Shane Greenwood, Jeremy Gregersen, Hal Grimbergen gross domestic product (GDP): alternative metrics to effect of Great Recession on increases in omissions from U.S. growth in see also economic growth; productivity Guo, Terry Hall, David Haltiwanger, John Hanson, Gordon Hanushek, Eric Hayek, Friedrich health, human: improvements in measurements of Health Affairs health care coverage hearing, computer-aided Heim, Bradley Hemingway, Ernest Hendren, Nathaniel Hendy, Barry Hewlett Foundation HireArt Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, The (Adams) Hitt, Lorin Holmstrom, Bengt Homo sapiens Honda Hoover, Herbert housing, online data on How College Affects Students (Pascarella and Terenzini) HTML Hu, Jeffrey Hubbard, Elbert Huberman, Bernardo Hulu human development index humanity, social development of Hyatt, Henry IBM iChat IDC ideation, see creativity immigration income: average basic negative taxes on normal distributions in see also wages Industrial Revolution negative consequences of see also Second Industrial Revolution inequality: consequences of education and political see also spread inflation indexes information, control of information and communication technology (ICT) see also global digital network Information Rules (Shapiro and Varian) information technology (IT): demand elasticity in intangible assets associated with productivity correlated with infrastructure technological Innocentive innovation benefits of complementary economic measurement of effect of digitization on entrepreneurship’s role in government support of impact of spread on open; see also crowdsourcing organizational population growth and prizes for productivity linked to recombinant slowing down of unstable competitive effects of see also creativity Instagram Intel intellectual property International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering Internet collective projects on comparison sites on consumer surplus created by creation of education on housing data on retailing on sharing economy on time accounting for traffic on user costs of user-generated content on; see also social media see also global digital network; World Wide Web Intuit iOS iPad iPhone iRobot Israel iTunes Jaimovich, Nir Japan, productivity improvement in Jaspers, Karl Jelinek, Frederick Jennings, Ken Jensen, Robert Jeopardy! Jeppesen, Lars Bo Jevons paradox Jobs, Steve Johnson, Lyndon Jorgenson, Dale Joy, Bill Kaggle Kalil, Tom Kane, Tim Kaplan, Steve Karabarbounis, Loukas Karpov, Anatoly Kasparov, Garry Katz, Lawrence Kauffman Foundation Kayak Kelly, Kevin Kelvin, Lord Kennedy, Robert F. Kerala, India Keynes, John Maynard Khan, Salman Khan Academy Kia Kim, Heekyung Kinect KinectFusion King, Martin Luther, Jr. Kintinuous Kiva Klapper, Leora Kline, Patrick Knack Kochan, Tom Kopecky, Karen Kremer, Michael Krieger, Mike Krueger, Alan Krugman, Paul Kurzweil, Ray Kuznets, Simon labor: capital replacement of churn in crowdsourcing of demand elasticity and digital partnerships with digitization and; see also “winner-take-all” markets incentives for input limits on non-digitized recessions and skill matrix for see also employment; productivity; wages labor, skilled: benefits of technology for contribution of immigration to creation of labor, unskilled: declining wages of technology’s replacement of Laeven, Luc Lakhani, Karim land taxes Leiserson, William Leonard, John Leontief, Wassily Levine, Uri Levy, Frank Lickel, Charles LIDAR Liebling, A.


pages: 400 words: 88,647

Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Computer Numeric Control, connected car, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, financial exclusion, financial innovation, global supply chain, IKEA effect, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost airline, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, standardized shipping container, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

Based on case studies of Kingfisher, Levi Strauss, method, Tarkett and Unilever, the chapter provides insights into how R&D and manufacturing managers can develop self-sustaining solutions that help both businesses and the environment. Shape customer behaviour. Drawing on research in psychology and behavioural economics, as well as on the pioneering work of organisations such as Barclays, IKEA, Khan Academy, Nest and Progressive, Chapter 5 shows how companies can influence consumers into behaving differently (for example, driving less or more safely) and feeling richer while consuming less. It also shows how marketing managers can improve brand loyalty and market share by tailoring frugal products and services more closely to the way customers actually think, feel and behave – and by properly positioning and communicating the aspirational value of these frugal solutions.

Aspiring entrepreneurs, whom Forrester Research refers to as digital disrupters, are now using this nearly free, online R&D platform to innovate faster, better and cheaper, and create affordable products and services that leverage social-media and mobile technologies.10 In doing so, these start-ups are disrupting the lucrative business models of well-established bricks-and-mortar companies. For instance, the Khan Academy, founded by Sal Khan, offers free maths and science courseware as bite-sized videos via YouTube, creating panic among academic publishers who charge a fortune for textbooks. Or take Plastyc, a start-up that claims to put the “power of a bank in your cell phone” by providing affordable 24-hour access to FDIC-insured virtual bank accounts that can be accessed from any internet-enabled computer or mobile device.

But instead of filming them ploughing through a long, live classroom session, courses feature short, well-edited videos in which the tutor talks through a single theme in an engaging and entertaining way. Increasingly, online platforms have co-opted scripting and editing techniques from the news and entertainment businesses (such as the BBC in the UK) to raise content quality and user participation. Such platforms also use ideas from the gaming world. Salman Khan, an online education pioneer, believes in the power of games to motivate children to learn. His Khan Academy has experimented with game mechanics in its online courses. Students can accumulate points for their work, are awarded badges and get on leader boards. The academy’s experiments show that the wording of badges or the use of points can have a dramatic effect on learning. In some cases, tens of thousands of students can go in a particular direction depending on the nature of the badges. In general, “gamifying” educational content through the use of on-demand video tutorials has made content more engaging for “digital natives” around the world.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business cycle, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

I don’t need to practice everything and drown in review problems. I can focus precisely where the artificial intelligence of the College Board platform points out that I need help. So far more than 1.4 million kids have signed up to have free SAT prep from Khan Academy online. This represents four times the total population of students who use commercial test prep classes in a year. In fact, more kids now are using Khan Academy than paying for test preparation at every level of income. That tells you what a valuable intelligent assistant it has become. And 450,000 have linked their College Board results on the PSATs with Khan Academy to get tailored tutoring on the questions they missed, which they can then practice on their own time wherever they are—including through their cell phones. This is one of the quietest but most important intelligent-assistant education tools being made available for free in America today.

Think of the flow of friends through Facebook, the flow of renters through Airbnb, the flow of opinions through Twitter, the flow of e-commerce through Amazon, Tencent, and Alibaba, the flow of crowdfunding through Kickstarter, Indiegogo, and GoFundMe, the flow of ideas and instant messages through WhatsApp and WeChat, the flow of peer-to-peer payments and credit through PayPal and Venmo, the flow of pictures through Instagram, the flow of education through Khan Academy, the flow of college courses through MOOCs, the flow of design tools through Autodesk, the flow of music through Apple, Pandora, and Spotify, the flow of video through Netflix, the flow of news through NYTimes.com or BuzzFeed.com, the flow of cloud-based tools through Salesforce, the flow of searches for knowledge through Google, and the flow of raw video through Periscope and Facebook. All these flows substantiate McKinsey’s claim that the world is, indeed, more connected than ever.

She sent back the following list: • Tell you what to wear & provide the weather forecast for interview day • Where to go with Google street map view of job location & public transit route to job location • Send interview reminders about the time and how long you should prepare to get there • Have you dial-in to a practice interview line, record your answers, then hear “best practices” answers • Provide tips from previously hired job seekers or managers at each step • Provide more transparency of what and why at each step of a job search so that the benefits are clear • Show other previously hired job seekers at the job location • Share interesting facts about the location and the manager with job seekers • Provide more info about the hiring manager whom they will meet • Ask job seekers to share interesting facts about themselves with the hiring managers • Auto schedule a Lyft or Uber to take them to their interview • Remind you to send a thank-you note to the interviewer Concluded Ringwald: “Everyone needs someone who says, ‘I believe in you’ … There is not just a skills gap—there’s a confidence gap.” And you can’t sustainably fill one without the other. You Need Work on Fractions Maybe the most popular intelligent assistant in the world today is Khan Academy, which was started in 2006 by the educator Salman “Sal” Khan and offers free, short YouTube video lessons in English on subjects ranging from math, art, computer programming, economics, physics, chemistry, biology, and medicine to finance, history, and more. Anyone anywhere can go there to learn or brush up on any subject. Not only has it become the most important intelligent assistant for generalized learning in the world, but in 2014 it formed a partnership with the College Board, which administers the SAT college entry exams and the PSAT practice exams.


pages: 209 words: 63,649

The Purpose Economy: How Your Desire for Impact, Personal Growth and Community Is Changing the World by Aaron Hurst

Airbnb, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, big-box store, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, Elon Musk, Firefox, glass ceiling, greed is good, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, longitudinal study, means of production, Mitch Kapor, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, QR code, Ray Oldenburg, remote working, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, underbanked, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar

But their most meaningful accomplishment may be their success in lobbying 19 states (as of this writing) to pass legislation that legally recognizes a new, socially responsible corporate structure—the Benefit Corporation. 5. Khan Academy: Open Education The Khan Academy emerged as MOOCs (massive open online courses) and began making headlines. Like other MOOCs, Khan Academy used technology—the Internet and its myriad media and sharing channels—to disrupt the education space. However, in offering online courses for free, Khan was able to tackle the lack of access to good, quality, public education in a way that garnered incredible support very early on at little cost. Leveraging this early success, Khan gained the financial backing and support needed to pioneer and launch the first “elementary” MOOC of its kind. Today, Khan Academy reaches about 10 million students per month and has delivered over 300 million lessons. 6.


pages: 554 words: 149,489

The Content Trap: A Strategist's Guide to Digital Change by Bharat Anand

Airbnb, Benjamin Mako Hill, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Minecraft, multi-sided market, Network effects, post-work, price discrimination, publish or perish, QR code, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, selection bias, self-driving car, shareholder value, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, two-sided market, ubercab, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

“consisted of exactly one person: me” Khan, The One World Schoolhouse . “more than ten times” Ibid. 750 million times Sally Peck, Matthew Pendergast, and Kat Hayes, “A Day in the Life of Khan Academy: The School with 15 Million Students,” Telegraph , April 23, 2015. from Khan online David A. Kaplan, “Innovation in Education: Bill Gates’ Favorite Teacher,” Fortune ; Peck, Pendergast, and Hayes, “A Day in the Life.” Google invested, too Clive Thompson, “How Khan Academy Is Changing the Rules of Education,” Wired , July 15, 2011. Time magazine’s 100 Most Influential People Bill Gates, “The World’s 100 Most Influential People: 2012—Salman Khan,” Time , April 18, 2012. a $3 million trial “Khan Academy Resources for Maximizing Mathematics Achievement: A Postsecondary Mathematics Efficacy Study,” Institute of Education Sciences, last modified 2014, accessed March 10, 2016, http://ies.ed.gov/​funding/​grantsearch/​details.asp?

Education is also “non-excludable”—access is increasingly hard to restrict, given mechanisms for free, instantaneous worldwide distribution (and other times, piracy). So in 2009, just a few years after he had joined the world of high finance, Khan quit his day job to start Khan Academy, a nonprofit dedicated to “ a free world-class education for anyone, anywhere.” Its resources were “almost comically meager,” he later said. The academy “owned a PC, $20 worth of screen capture software, and an $80 pen tablet. The faculty, engineering team, support staff, and administration consisted of exactly one person: me.” By early 2016 Khan Academy had roughly 10,000 videos on its site, on topics ranging from calculus to finance, biology, and government, and was attracting more than six million learners a month—“ more than ten times the number of people who have gone to Harvard since its inception in 1636,” Khan said.

Another group of three friends creates a service that lets people easily share MP3 music files with others—Napster, the biggest disruption ever to the music industry. A college sophomore writes a computer program that lets his classmates choose the “hotter” person in a given pairing of students—eventually leading to Facebook. A young MBA graduate working at a hedge fund creates short educational videos to help his cousin with sixth-grade math and posts them on YouTube—resulting in Khan Academy and eventually precipitating the biggest changes in education in three hundred years. Each of these events—isolated, idiosyncratic, modest at the outset—had a colossal impact. And the pattern can be seen elsewhere. A market trader allegedly slapped by a policewoman sets himself on fire, resulting in the Arab Spring. An eighty-year-old man goes on a hunger strike, leading the Indian parliament to pass its first major anticorruption bill in decades.


pages: 525 words: 116,295

The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen

access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Consider the twenty-four-year-old Kenyan inventor Anthony Mutua: “Shoe Technology to Charge Cell Phones,” Daily Nation, May 2012, http://www.nation.co.ke/News/Shoe+technology+to+charge+cell+phones++/-/1056/1401998/-/view/printVersion/-/sur34lz/-/index.html. placed the chip in the sole of a tennis shoe: Ibid. Mutua’s chip is now set to go into mass production: Ibid. Khan Academy: In the spirit of full disclosure: Eric Schmidt is on the board of Khan Academy. replacing lectures with videos watched at home: Clive Thompson, “How Khan Academy Is Changing the Rules of Education,” Wired Magazine, August 2011, posted online July 15, 2011, http://www.wired.com/magazine/2011/07/ff_khan/. In 2012, the MIT Media Lab tested: Nicholas Negroponte, “EmTech Preview: Another Way to Think About Learning,” Technology Review, September 13, 2012, http://www.technologyreview.com/view/429206/emtech-preview-another-way-to-think-about/.

Education will be a more flexible experience, adapting itself to children’s learning styles and pace instead of the other way around. Kids will still go to physical schools, to socialize and be guided by teachers, but as much, if not more, learning will take place employing carefully designed educational tools in the spirit of today’s Khan Academy, a nonprofit organization that produces thousands of short videos (the majority in science and math) and shares them online for free. With hundreds of millions of views on the Khan Academy’s YouTube channel already, educators in the United States are increasingly adopting its materials and integrating the approach of its founder, Salman Khan—modular learning tailored to a student’s needs. Some are even “flipping” their classrooms, replacing lectures with videos watched at home (as homework) and using school time for traditional homework, such as filling out a problem set for math class.

Hormuud https encryption protocols Huawei human rights, 1.1, 3.1 humiliation Hussein, Saddam, itr.1, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4 Hutus Identity Cards Act identity theft identity-theft protection, 2.1, 2.2 IEDs (improvised explosive devices), 5.1, 6.1 IEEE Spectrum, 107n income inequality, 1.1, 4.1 India, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1 individuals, transfer of power to Indonesia infiltration information blackouts of exchange of free movement of see also specific information technologies Information and Communications Technologies Authority Information Awareness Office information-technology (IT) security experts infrastructure, 2.1, 7.1 Innocence of Muslims (video), 4.1, 6.1 innovation Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, n insurance, for online reputation integrated clothing machine intellectual property, 2.1, 3.1 intelligence intelligent pills internally displaced persons (IDP), 7.1, 7.2 International Criminal Court, 6.1, 7.1, 7.2 internationalized domain names (IDN) International Telecommunications Union Internet, 2.1, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 Balkanization of as becoming cheaper and changing understanding of life impact of as network of networks Internet asylum seekers Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) internet protocol (IP) activity logs internet protocol (IP) address, 3.1, 3.2, 6.1 Internet service provider (ISP), 3.1, 3.2, 6.1, 7.1 Iran, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.1 cyber warfare on “halal Internet” in Iraq, itr.1, 3.1, 4.1, 6.1, 6.2 reconstruction of, 7.1, 7.2 Ireland iRobot Islam Israel, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 iTunes Japan, 3.1, 6.1n, 246 earthquake in Jasmine Revolution JavaOne Conference Jebali, Hamadi Jibril, Mahmoud Jim’ale, Ali Ahmed Nur Join the Club: How Peer Pressure Can Transform the World (Rosenberg), 4.1 Joint Tactical Networking Center Joint Tactical Radio System Julius Caesar justice system Kabul Kagame, Paul, 7.1, 7.2 Kansas State University Karzai, Hamid Kashgari, Hamza Kaspersky Lab Kenya, 3.1, 7.1, 7.2 Khan Academy Khartoum Khodorkovsky, Mikhail Khomeini, Ayatollah Kickstarter kidnapping, 2.1, 5.1 virtual Kinect Kissinger, Henry, 4.1, 4.2 Kiva, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 Klein, Naomi, n Kony 2012, 7.1 Koran Koryolink “kosher Internet,” 187 Kosovo Kurds, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1 Kurzweil, Ray Kyrgyzstan Laârayedh, Ali Lagos language translation, 1.1, 4.1, 4.2 laptops Latin America, 3.1, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1 law enforcement Law of Accelerating Returns Lebanon, 5.1, 7.1, 7.2 Lee Hsien Loong legal options, coping strategies for privacy and security concerns legal prosecution Lenin, Vladimir Levitt, Steven D.


pages: 353 words: 91,520

Most Likely to Succeed: Preparing Our Kids for the Innovation Era by Tony Wagner, Ted Dintersmith

affirmative action, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, creative destruction, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, immigration reform, income inequality, index card, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, school choice, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, the scientific method, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Y Combinator

In fact, several high school students have told us they had to fight to take statistics instead of calculus, since their guidance counselor warned them that they were hurting their college prospects. While it’s obvious that statistics warrants higher priority than calculus, the changes needed in the math curriculum are far more extensive. Imagine if we discarded the entirety of the current math curriculum, textbooks, tests, lesson plans, and homework problems. Imagine that all students have access to the same resources they’ll have as adults—laptops, Khan Academy, WolframAlpha. What would a reimagined high school math experience look like? Beginning of Year One: Teach students to use resources accessible through their smartphone to perform math operations. Teach the mechanics of how you represent things like exponents and equations. Make sure all students understand basic math operations and use visual representations to make these operations intuitive.

Recently, Ito recruited a student volunteer to spend a week with sensors monitoring her brain activity. Ito found peaks of activity and troughs of passivity. Most people assume that the near-comatose pattern comes at night when the student is sleeping. But, no. The student’s brain is in its most dormant state . . . during lectures.1 Sal Khan’s views on lectures carry a certain irony. In 2006, he started Khan Academy, an online resource consisting of lectures and quizzes. From initially being used by his cousin, Khan’s following has exploded. Each month, well over ten million people listen to his short lectures on math, physics, economics, computing, and art. It’s conceivable that we’ll reach a point in the future when U.S. kids spend as much time each year listening to this one man’s lectures as they spend in aggregate listening to lectures from our other four million teachers.

Drawing on lectures would represent a small fraction of the student day, with plenty of time for things like collaboratively doing market simulations to learn economics; working in teams to design robots or develop smartphone apps; working on designs to improve energy efficiency; or working creatively on art, music, or writing projects. And in taking on these creative, unstructured initiatives, students draw on Khan Academy resources to help them accomplish their goals. Scott Freeman of the University of Washington led a research team that explored 225 studies of undergraduate education. In the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, they report that teaching methods that engaged students as active participants, not as passive listeners, “reduced failure rates and boosted scores on exams by almost one-half a standard deviation.


pages: 347 words: 97,721

Only Humans Need Apply: Winners and Losers in the Age of Smart Machines by Thomas H. Davenport, Julia Kirby

AI winter, Andy Kessler, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, carbon-based life, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, commoditize, conceptual framework, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, fixed income, follow your passion, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, game design, general-purpose programming language, global pandemic, Google Glasses, Hans Lippershey, haute cuisine, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, inventory management, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, lifelogging, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter Thiel, precariat, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, social intelligence, speech recognition, spinning jenny, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

Think about teachers: They figure out what content students need, and transmit it to them through generally manual methods (lectures, demonstrations, and so forth). But there are already “adaptive learning” systems from companies like Amplify, McGraw-Hill Education, and Knewton that diagnose what content a student needs to learn, and many online repositories for educational material, such as Khan Academy. There are some functions that computers can’t perform in such educational settings, like managing a classroom and maintaining discipline in class, but they don’t necessarily require knowledge workers to perform them. 4. It involves straightforward content analysis. “Cognitive computing” systems like IBM Watson have already demonstrated that they can do an amazing job of analyzing and “understanding” content.

It determines what students know on a particular topic, offers them relevant educational content, and assesses whether they have learned it. It’s an amazing tool that treats every student individually. However, it’s not necessarily enough in itself to meet some of the more nuanced and complex needs of the classroom teacher. Zimmermann works with his colleagues (he teaches in a group of six) to evaluate and adopt new technologies for specific purposes. They include an alternative adaptive learning platform from Khan Academy (Khan content is also included on the School of One platform), Class Dojo for student behavior management, Google Classroom for student collaboration tools, Socrative for rapid student polling, and Plickers for rapid student assessment without tablets or PCs. Shane Herrell, the digital marketer at SAS, also plays the integration role across multiple automation tools. He works across a variety of digital channels—display ads, video, search, social media, etc.

., 108 DreamWorks, 123 Drive (Pink), 169 drones, 40 Dulchinos, John, 50 D’Vorkin, Lewis, 164 Easterbrook, Grant, 87, 88 “Economic Prospects for Our Grandchildren” (Keynes), 69, 238 education achieving mastery of a specialty, 162–66 “adaptive learning” systems, 20, 141 augmentation, five steps for teachers, 84–86 augmentation as focus, 234–37 autodidacts, 165–66 automation and, 16, 86, 141, 230 Buehner’s advice, 120 in cognitive technologies, 230–37 creativity and, 115 emphasis on teamwork, 234–35 by employers, 233–34 entrepreneurial learners, 237 government policies and, 229–37 human role in, 16, 20 Khan Academy, 20 online courses for programming, 178 RULER curriculum, 115, 117–18 school calendar, 230 simulations, 21 soft skills for teaching, 119–20 soft skills training, 115–18, 235–37 STEM, 111, 119, 150, 158, 230–34 Stepping In and, 139, 140–41 Stepping Narrowly in, 158–59, 232 in the UK, 231–32 Weikart’s early childhood studies, 118 emotional intelligence (EQ), 113–14, 116, 119, 120 empathy, 68, 81, 110, 111, 115, 117, 120, 122, 129 Employees First, Customers Second (Nayar), 204 employment.


pages: 332 words: 100,601

Rebooting India: Realizing a Billion Aspirations by Nandan Nilekani

Airbnb, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, DARPA: Urban Challenge, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, financial exclusion, Google Hangouts, illegal immigration, informal economy, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, land reform, law of one price, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, more computing power than Apollo, Negawatt, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, price mechanism, price stability, rent-seeking, RFID, Ronald Coase, school choice, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software is eating the world, source of truth, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, WikiLeaks

Karthik Muralidharan, an economist and professor at the University of California, San Diego, writes, ‘It is therefore imperative that education policy shift its emphasis from simply providing more school inputs in a “business as usual” way and focus on improving education outcomes.’8 If we are to effect rapid and scalable change, we need to use the kinds of technological tools that are starting to revolutionize the way people disseminate and accumulate knowledge around the world. Flipping the classroom Online education systems are disrupting the traditional learning experience at both the school and college level. At the school level, teacher and entrepreneur Salman Khan’s Khan Academy, a free online education platform, is changing the way students work in a classroom. Khan Academy provides online videos on a variety of subjects, along with problem sets whose difficulty level changes depending upon the capabilities of the user. By viewing these videos at home and then working on homework during school hours with the assistance of a teacher, Khan’s videos are flipping the traditional classroom set-up.9 In Khan’s words, ‘Students can hear lectures at home and spend their time at school doing “homework”—that is, working on problems.

‘We’d go collect some data and make a chart, and the teachers were blown away—every time,’ he says. ‘This isn’t taxing the edge of technology. But they were completely shocked, as if this had never existed before.’ By creating a model in which students can learn at their own pace and are rewarded for mastery of a certain topic while also allowing teachers to monitor progress and provide targeted help to each student, Khan Academy has pioneered a practical approach to the concept of one-on-one education. Technology can also be used to address what Karthik Muralidharan has termed ‘the biggest crisis in the Indian education system’—the challenge of providing high-quality primary education.10 In addition to the statistics we quote above, ASER surveys show that only a quarter of all students in standard five can perform simple mathematical division, and less than half can read.

Children learn better when their lessons are engaging, interactive and fun; to this end, EkStep plans to gamify the basic concepts of literacy and numeracy, turning them into engaging content that can be offered on smart devices like tablets or smartphones. ‘Self-learning through gamification’ is the mantra here—children can assimilate knowledge at their own pace, in a format which is simple and entertaining. This kind of learning can take place both in schools and outside them, allowing students to consume ‘bytes’ of individualized learning, much like the Khan Academy model. The child-friendly EkStep user interface will be supported by collaborative content and a scalable technology platform, which can be distributed through multiple channels. Ravi Gururaj, the chairman of NASSCOM’s product council, has said that a project like this ‘leapfrogs the status quo, leverages technology to the hilt, delivers massive platform value and transforms early education across the nation for all classes of citizens’.11 The fundamental idea behind EkStep has also received validation from Bill Gates, who thinks that, ‘Rapid advances in education software on mobile phones will change the way students and teachers around the world learn every day.’12 When it comes to higher education, the traditional university experience and method of education are being challenged by MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses).


pages: 419 words: 109,241

A World Without Work: Technology, Automation, and How We Should Respond by Daniel Susskind

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, computerized trading, creative destruction, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Hargreaves, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, natural language processing, Network effects, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, precariat, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social intelligence, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, wealth creators, working poor, working-age population, Y Combinator

In education, more people signed up for Harvard University’s online courses in a single year than had attended the actual university in its entire existence.45 A big part of my own role at Oxford University is teaching undergraduates economics and mathematics—and alongside my instruction, I often direct my students toward Khan Academy, an online collection of practice problems (100,000 of them, solved two billion times) and instructional videos (5,500 of them, watched 450 million times). Khan Academy has about ten million unique visitors a month, a higher effective attendance than the entire primary- and secondary-school population of England.46 To be sure, practice problems and online videos, great as they are for making high-quality education content more widely available, are fairly simple technologies.

Because Pepper, Paro, and similar systems are all trying in various ways to mimic the affective capabilities of human beings. The lesson from the pragmatist revolution, though, is that this is not necessary: machines can outperform people at a task without having to copy them. Think, for instance, about education. It is true that personal contact between a teacher and student is central to the way we educate people today. But that does not stop an online education platform like Khan Academy from providing millions of students every month with high-quality educational material.68 Likewise, it is true that human interaction between doctors and patients lies at the core of our health care system at the moment. But computer systems do not need to look patients in the eye to make accurate medical diagnoses. And in retail, job ads call for candidates with outstanding “social skills,” capable of interacting with customers and persuading them with a smile to open their wallets.

See also artificial intelligence defining fall of general intelligence explosion intelligence of the gaps intelligent design Internet Jahoda, Marie Japan Jeopardy! 61–62 job guarantees jobs, tasks vs. Jobs, Steve journalism judgment Juno Kaldor, Nicholas Kasparov, Garry Katz, Lawrence Kay, John Kennedy, John F. Keynes, John Maynard advanced guard and age of leisure and changing facts and distribution problem and labor to capital ratio and process of technological unemployment and technological unemployment and timing and Khan Academy Khanin, Grigorii al-Khwarizmi, Abdallah Muhammad ibn Musa killer robots knitting machine Krugman, Paul Kurzweil, Ray labor. See also Age of Labor labor income inequality labor market policies Lee, William legal capabilities legislation Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm leisure leisure class Leontief, Wassily Lerner, Abba Levy, Frank. See also ALM hypothesis libraries lidar life skills limitations, defining LinkedIn Literary Creative Turing Tests loan agreement review location, task encroachment and Loew, Judah Logic Theorist loopholes Lowrey, Annie loyalty Ludd, Ned Luddites lump of labor fallacy magicians manual capabilities manufacturing manure Marienthal study Marshall, Alfred Marx, Karl massive open online courses (MOOC) mass media, leisure and McCarthy, John Meade, James meaning creation of leisure and relationship of work with work with work without medicine Big Tech and changing-pie effect and task encroachment and membership requirements, conditional basic income and meritocracy Merlin Metcalfe’s Law Microsoft Mill, John Stuart minimum wage minorities Minsky, Marvin models, overview of Mokyr, Joel Möller, Anton monopolies MOOC.


pages: 278 words: 70,416

Smartcuts: How Hackers, Innovators, and Icons Accelerate Success by Shane Snow

3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, attribution theory, augmented reality, barriers to entry, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, David Heinemeier Hansson, deliberate practice, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, Filter Bubble, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, index card, index fund, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, popular electronics, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, superconnector

Kramer demonstrates the psychological power of progress over absolute achievements, adding to the evidence that money indeed does not buy happiness: Amabile and Kramer, The Progress Principle: Using Small Wins to Ignite Joy, Engagement, and Creativity at Work (Harvard Business Review Press, 2011). 148 as addictive as cocaine: Valerie Strauss, “Rats Find Oreos as Addictive as Cocaine—An Unusual College Research Project,” Washington Post, October 18, 2013, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2013/10/18/rats-find-oreos-as-addictive-as-cocaine-an-unusual-college-research-project/ (accessed March 4, 2014). 148 @Oreo sent a status update: The famous Oreo tweet, which I both loved and despised, can be found at https://twitter.com/Oreo/status/298246571718483968. 149 Mashable posted an article: Amanda Wills, “Someone Give This Oreo Employee a Raise,” Mashable, February 3, 2013, http://mashable.com/2013/02/03/oreo-super-bowl-twitter/ (accessed February 17, 2014). 149 525 million earned media impressions: 360i’s documentation of ongoing award and momentum making can be seen at “Dunking in the Dark,” 360i, http://www.360i.com/work/oreo-super-bowl/ (accessed February 17, 2014). 150 “Wired magazine declared Oreo”: Ibid. 150 “chill day. off to nyc soon for SNL week!”: Biebs tweeted this the same day as Oreo, achieving 17,000 retweets to Oreo Cookie’s 15,000 (see https://twitter.com/justinbieber/status/298136225930420224). 151 cover a multitude of sins: Yes, this was a bit of cringe-worthy biblical allusion. 155 groundbreaking digital school called Khan Academy: Sal Khan’s story so far is told artfully by Clive Thompson, “How Khan Academy Is Changing the Rules of Education,” WIRED, August 2011 (accessed February 17, 2014). While you’re at it, please read Clive’s book Smarter Than You Think (Penguin Press, 2013) sometime. 155 a folk singer whose amazing: The story of Sixto Rodriguez is best experienced by watching Malik Bendjelloul, Searching for Sugar Man, DVD, IMDb, http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2125608/ (accessed February 17, 2014).

AS WE’VE LEARNED FROM Michelle Phan’s story, the secret to harnessing momentum is to build up potential energy, so that unexpected opportunities can be amplified. On the playground, it’s like building a tower to stand on, so you can start your Olympic ring with more velocity. Phan’s tower was a backlog of quality content. This is how innovators like Sal Khan (who published 1,000 math lessons online before being discovered by Bill Gates, who thrust him into the spotlight and propelled him to build a groundbreaking digital school called Khan Academy), and musicians like Rodriguez (a folk singer whose amazing, but largely unrecognized music work from the 1970s was featured in a 2012 documentary, which then catapulted him to world fame) became “overnight” successes. None of them were overnight successes. But each of their backlogs became reservoirs, ready to become torrents as soon as the dam was removed. Then there’s Oreo. The untold portion of the Oreo tweet story, the part that most of the salivating bloggers missed, is what 360i and Oreo did before the Super Bowl.


pages: 291 words: 81,703

Average Is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation by Tyler Cowen

Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, brain emulation, Brownian motion, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, computerized trading, cosmological constant, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deliberate practice, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Flynn Effect, Freestyle chess, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Myron Scholes, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, P = NP, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, reshoring, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Yogi Berra

So let’s take a look at how education will change, keeping in mind these two blades of the scissors, namely that machine intelligence can replace human labor and augment the value of human labor for many individuals. Online education is one place where the new information technologies are emerging. For instance, millions of people are taking MOOCs (massive open online courses) or using the free instructional videos from Khan Academy on mathematics and other topics. Circa 2013, no one is surprised when a new foreign aid program consists simply of dropping iPads into rural Ethiopia and letting children figure out how to work them. Online education is expanding beyond its niche status, but sometimes we don’t recognize the most important developments as explicit education. In my own field of economics, what is the most common and regular form of contact the general public has with economic reasoning?

Imagine writing “the opportunity cost app” and having it incorporated in economics instruction around the world. As a society, we’ll put a lot more effort into teaching things better. For all the virtues of human, face-to-face instruction, it fares pretty miserably when it comes to economies of scale and scope. Fourth, online education also allows for a much more precise measurement of learning. Consider the Khan Academy and its online videos. They are already measuring which videos lead to the best performance on quiz scores, which videos have to be watched more than once, at which point in the videos individuals stop for pause and replay, and so on. We are creating a treasure trove of information about actual learning, and we are just beginning to mine this data. If a student is falling behind, or in denial about his or her progress in the course, the software is the first to know.

, 7, 12, 157 Jobs, Steve, 25 Jones, Benjamin, 216 Journal of the American Statistical Association, 10 journalism, 9 Junior (chess program), 68, 72, 78 Jurafsky, Dan, 12–13 K-12 education, 4, 168, 181–82 Kabbalah, 153 Kahneman, Daniel, 105, 227 Kaiser Family Foundation, 60 Karlan, Dean, 223 Kasparov, Garry, 7, 69, 77, 80–81, 110, 124, 157 Kaufman, Larry, 203 Kempelen, Wolfgang von, 149 Kepler, Johannes, 153 Keynesian economics, 53–54, 56, 226 Khan Academy, 180, 184–85 KIPP schools, 199 Knoxville, Tennessee, 244 Komodo (chess program), 68, 203 Kraai, Jesse, 188 Kramnik, Vladimir, 103, 109, 149–50 Kronrod, Alexander, 68 Krueger, Alan, 59 Krugman, Paul, 180–81, 227 Kurzweil, Ray, 6, 137–38 labor market and age of workers, 41–42, 51–52, 62–63 and benefit costs, 36, 59, 113 careers in the changing market, 41–44 changing worker profiles, 29–40 and computer skills, 21, 33 and conscientiousness of workers, 201–2 and factor price equalization, 163 and global trends, 3–4 and healthcare reform, 238 and hiring costs, 36, 59, 60 important worker characteristics, 32 and income trends, 39 labor economics, 226 and layoffs, 54–55, 57–58, 61 and management, 27–29 and man-machine collaboration, 93 and marketing, 22–27 and outsourcing, 163–71 participation rates, 45, 46, 51 polarization in, 37, 55, 231 and “reshoring” trend, 177 and residential segregation, 247–48 and retraining, 202 and the social contract, 229 laboratory science, 100 land prices, 236, 247 language recognition, 119, 139–41 Latin America, 167–68, 170–71, 242 law and legal issues and the changing labor market, 41 costs of employing labor, 36, 59 lawsuits, 36, 59, 60 lawyer ratings, 121 malpractice suits, 128 and medical diagnosis, 128–29 and reliance on computer systems, 128–31 See also regulatory issues layoffs, 54–55, 57–58, 61 Levitt, Steven, 226–27 liberalism, 252, 253–54 libertarianism, 256–57 lie detection, 12–13, 16 The Lights in the Tunnel (Ford), 6 liquidity crunch, 54, 55 Liu, Runjuan, 164 Loebner Prize, 139–40 logistic function, 203 long-term unemployment, 58 machine intelligence.


pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

Khan began to tutor Nadia, who lived in Texas, using a Web-based notepad tool called Doodle as well as Skype video chat. Soon other relatives were requesting tutoring sessions, and before long Khan was recording the videos of his tutoring and posting them online. An excellent teacher soon finds eager students, and Khan’s video tutorials went viral. Khan started a Web site, Khan Academy, and now has more than 2,400 lessons posted online. In a given month, 3.5 million unique visitors view 39 million pages on the site to learn more about math and science.15 Inspired in part by Khan Academy, one of the most popular professors at Stanford began teaching an online class about artificial intelligence. Sebastian Thrun was stunned when 160,000 people from around the globe signed up to take the graduate-level class, CS221: Introduction to Artificial Intelligence. Approximately 137,000 people ended up dropping out over the course of the semester, but a stunning 23,000 completed the course.

Harry Lewis, Excellence Without a Soul: How a Great University Forgot Education (New York: PublicAffairs, 2006), 8. 5. http://www.usnews.com/opinion/articles/2011/03/18/a-harvard-education-isnt-as-advertised 6. http://www.demos.org/publication/great-cost-shift-how-higher-education-cuts-undermine-future-middle-class 7. http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/when-it-comes-to-e-mailed-political-rumors-conservatives-beat-liberals/2011/11/17/gIQAyycZWN_story.html 8. http://www.csmonitor.com/The-Culture/Family/2012/0617/Bachelor-s-degree-Has-it-lost-its-edge-and-its-value 9. http://chronicle.com/blogs/innovations/why-did-17-million-students-go-to-college/27634 10. http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1993/survey-is-college-degree-worth-cost-debt-college-presidents-higher-education-system 11. http://pewresearch.org/pubs/1993/survey-is-college-degree-worth-cost-debt-college-presidents-higher-education-system 12. http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/may2011/tc20110524_317819.htm 13. http://techcrunch.com/2011/04/10/peter-thiel-were-in-a-bubble-and-its-not-the-internet-its-higher-education/ 14. http://ocw.mit.edu/about/newsletter/archive/2011-10/ 15. http://techcrunch.com/2011/10/19/khan-academy-triples-unique-users-to-3-5-million/ 16. http://blogs.reuters.com/felix-salmon/2012/01/31/udacitys-model/ 17. http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2008/04/the-great-unbundling-newspapers-the-net/ 18. http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2012/01/the-great-unbundling-of-the-university/251831/ 19. http://www.centerforcollegeaffordability.org/uploads/ForProfit_HigherEd.pdf 20. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-10-19/apollo-fourth-quarter-profit-sales-top-analysts-estimates-1-.html 21. http://nber.org/papers/w18201 22. http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/07/why-the-internet-isnt-going-to-end-college-as-we-know-it/259378/ 23. http://toolserver.org/~daniel/WikiSense/Contributors.php?


pages: 319 words: 90,965

The End of College: Creating the Future of Learning and the University of Everywhere by Kevin Carey

Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, Berlin Wall, business cycle, business intelligence, carbon-based life, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, David Heinemeier Hansson, declining real wages, deliberate practice, discrete time, disruptive innovation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Downton Abbey, Drosophila, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google X / Alphabet X, informal economy, invention of the printing press, inventory management, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, Network effects, open borders, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, transcontinental railway, uber lyft, Vannevar Bush

Afterward, Thrun hung around the conference to watch the other presenters, including an energetic former hedge fund analyst named Salman Khan. Khan had computer science degrees from MIT and an MBA from Harvard, and had become recently famous for creating a series of instructional videos for elementary, middle, and high school children that had attracted millions of views on YouTube. The videos became the basis for Khan’s hugely popular education web site, Khan Academy. Thrun is a logical person and he saw no reason why someone couldn’t do the same for college. So he returned to Stanford and talked with Peter Norvig, who was both Google’s research director and Thrun’s co-professor for an upcoming graduate course at Stanford called CS221: Introduction to Artificial Intelligence: Principles and Techniques. The course consisted of what most college courses consist of: Thrun and Norvig giving lectures and assigning texts to read, followed by a series of problems to solve, followed by exams to certify what students had learned.

To explain what she meant by that, she mentioned that she had a daughter in elementary school who is (surprise) really good at math. Koller’s daughter had been enrolled in Stanford’s Education Program for Gifted Youth (EPGY). This is the program that Patrick Suppes first began developing back in the 1960s—the basis for his famous article in Scientific American. It’s still in operation today. EPGY is sophisticated but inflexible, said Koller, and after a while she and her daughter started watching Khan Academy videos instead. They were more satisfying, because the experience was more “Web 2.0,” which is a way of describing online environments in which large numbers of people communicate and collaborate, learning and making together. Suppes’s original Teletype math program came before Doug Engelbart and his team showed the world what the future of networked collaboration would look like. People like forming communities with other people.

Press stores, 163 James, Henry, 32 James, William, 32–33, 45, 47, 250 Jefferson, Thomas, 23, 193 Jews, 46, 53 Jobs, Steve, 126 Johns Hopkins University, 27, 29 Johnson, Lyndon, 55, 56, 61 Jones, Tommy Lee, 165 Jordan, David Starr, 26 Junior college, 55 (see also Community colleges) Kamlet, Mark, 72–73, 251 Kantian philosophy, 251 Kennedy, John F., 165 Kerr, Clark, 53–56 Khan, Salman, 148–49 Khan Academy, 149, 155 Kickstarter, 133 King, Danny, 216, 218 King’s College, 23 Kiva, 133 Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, 153 Knapp, Steven, 43 Koller, Daphne, 153–58, 171 Kosslyn, Stephen, 136–37 Kyoto University, 204 Lancet, 222 Lander, Eric, 1–4, 38–39, 44, 177–78, 221 MIT freshman biology course taught by, 11 (see also Introduction to Biology—The Secret of Life [7.00x]) Land-grant universities, 25–27, 35, 51, 53, 55, 95, 108, 122–23, 168 Learn Capital, 130, 156–57 Leckart, Steven, 149 Legally Blonde (film), 166 Levin, Richard C., 157 Lewin, Walter, 190–91 Liberal arts, 16, 27–31, 237, 241, 244–45 in accreditation standards, 50 core curriculum for, 49 at elite universities, 179 online courses in, 158, 244 PhDs and, 35 rankings and, 59 teaching mission in, 253 training, research, and, 29, 33, 261n (see also Hybrid universities) Lincoln, Abraham, 25 LinkedIn, 66, 217 Litton Industries, 75 Livy, 25 London, University of, 23 Lue, Robert, 178–81, 211, 231 Lyft ride-sharing service, 122 MacArthur, General Douglas, 51, 90 MacArthur “Genius” awards, 2 MacBooks, 132, 144 Madison, James, 23 Manitoba, University of, 150 Maples, Mike, Jr., 128–30, 132 Marine Corps, U.S., 140 Marx, Karl, 45 Massachusetts Bay Colony, Great and General Court of, 22 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 37–38, 59, 116, 132, 148, 153, 167–79, 245 admissions to, 39, 161, 212, 214–15, 245 Brain and Cognitive Sciences Complex, 1–4, 143, 173–74 Bush at, 51–52, 79, 125, 168 computer science sequence offered online by, 231, 233 founding of, 29, 167 General Institute Requirements, 14, 190, 241 graduation rate at, 8 hacks as source of pride at, 168–69 joint online course effort of Harvard and, see edX MITx, 169, 173, 203 OpenCourseWare, 107–8, 150, 169, 185, 191 prestige of brand of, 163, 181 Saylor at, 176–90 Secret of Life (7.00x) online offering of, see Introduction to Biology—The Secret of Life (7.00x) tour of campus of, 168, 174 wormhole connecting Stanford and cafeteria at, 174–75, 179, 235 Massive open online courses (MOOCs), 150, 154, 156, 158, 159, 185, 204, 255 global demand for, 225 initial audience for, 214–15 providers of, see names of specific companies and universities Master Plans, 35, 60, 64–65 Master’s degrees, 117, 193, 195–96 Mayo Clinic, 242 Mazur, Eric, 137 “M-Badge” system, 208–9 McGill University, 204 Mellon Institute of Science, 75, 76, 229 Memex, 79, 80 Mendelian genetics, 3, 103–4 Miami-Dade Community College, 64 Microsoft, 128, 139, 145, 146, 188, 204 MicroStrategy, 187–91, 199 Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 50 Minerva Project, 133–38, 141, 215, 235, 236, 243 Minnesota, University of, Rochester (UMR), 242–43 Missouri, University of, 208 Moore’s law, 176 Morrill, Justin Smith, 25–26 Morrill Land-Grant Act (1862), 25, 168 Mosaic software program, 126 Mozilla Foundation, 205–8, 218, 248 MS-DOS, 87 Myanganbayar, Battushig, 214, 215 NASDAQ, 177, 188 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 208 National Broadcasting Company (NBC), 96 National Bureau of Economic Research, 10 National Institutes of Health, 52 National Instruments, 216 National Manufacturing Institute, 208 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 208 National Science Foundation, 52 National Survey of Student Engagement, 243 Navy, U.S., 53, 123 Nebraska, University of, 26 Nelson, Ben, 133–35, 139, 181 Netflix, 131, 145 Netscape, 115, 126, 128, 129, 204–5 Newell, Albert, 79, 105 New Jersey, College of, 23 Newman, John Henry, 27–29, 47, 49, 244 Newman Report (1971), 56 Newton, Isaac, 190 New York, State University of, Binghamton, 183–84 New York City public schools, 1, 44 New York Times, 9, 44, 56–57, 107–8, 149, 170 New York University (NYU), 9, 64, 96, 250 Ng, Andrew, 153, 158 Nicomachean Ethics (Aristotle), 17 Nimitz, Admiral Chester W., 90 NLS/Augment, 125 Nobel Prize, 3, 45, 59, 78, 80, 176 Northeastern University, 64 Northern Arizona University, 229–30 Health and Learning Center, 230 Northern Iowa, University of, 55 Norvig, Peter, 149, 170, 227–28, 232 Notre Dame (Paris), cathedral school at, 18 Nurkiewicz, Tomasz, 218 Obama, Barack, 2 Oberlin College, 46 O’Brien, Conan, 166 Oklahoma, University of, 90 Omdurman Islamic University, 88 oNLine system, 125–26 Open Badges, 207 Open source materials and software, 177, 205–6, 215, 223, 232 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 9, 224 Overeducated American, The (Freeman), 56 Oxford University, 19, 21, 23, 24, 92, 135 Packard, David, 123 Parkinson’s disease, 70 Paris, University of, 18–19, 21, 137 Pauli, Wolfgang, 176 Pauling, Linus, 70 Pausch, Randy, 71–72 Peace Corps, 125 Pellar, Ronald (“Doctor Dante”), 208 Pell Grant Program, 56 Penguin Random House, 146 Pennsylvania, University of, 23, 24, 31 Wharton Business School, 155 Pennsylvania State University, 53 People magazine, 57 Pez dispensers, 146 Phaedrus (Socrates), 20, 98 PhDs, 7, 55, 117, 141, 193, 237, 250, 254 adjunct faculty replacing, 252 college rankings based on number of scholars with, 59 regional universities and community colleges and, 60, 64, 253 as requirement for teaching in hybrid universities, 31–33, 35, 50, 60, 224 Silicon Valley attitude toward, 66 Philadelphia, College of, 23 Philip of Macedon, 92 Phoenix, University of, 114 Piaget, Jean, 84, 227 Piazza, 132 Pittsburgh, University of, 73–76 Pixar, 146 Planck, Max, 45 Plato, 16, 17, 21, 31, 44, 250–51 Portman, Natalie, 165 Powell, Walter, 50, 117 Princeton University, 1–2, 23, 112, 134, 161, 245 Principia (Newton), 190 Protestantism, 24 Public universities, 7, 55, 177, 224, 253 Purdue University, 96, 208 Puritans, 22–24 Queens College, 23 Quizlet, 133 Rafter, 131–32 Raphael, 16, 17 Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature, 87 Reagan, Ronald, 56 Regional universities, 55, 60, 64 Reid, Harry, 42 Renaissance, 19 Rhode Island, College of, 23 Rhodes Scholarships, 2 Rice University, 204 RNA, 3 Rockstar Games, 230 Roksa, Josipa, 9, 36, 85, 244 Romans, ancient, 16 Roosevelt, Theodore, 165 Ruby on Rails Web development framework, 144 Rutgers University, 23 Sample, Steven, 64 Samsung, 146 San Jose State University, 177 Sandel, Michael, 177 SAT scores, 63, 136–37, 171, 195, 213 Saylor, Michael, 186–93, 199, 201 Saylor.org, 191, 223, 231 Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph, 45 School of Athens, The (Raphael), 16 Schopenhauer, Arthur, 45 Science: The Endless Frontier (Bush), 51 Scientific American, 92, 155 Scientific Research and Development, U.S.


pages: 372 words: 94,153

More From Less: The Surprising Story of How We Learned to Prosper Using Fewer Resources – and What Happens Next by Andrew McAfee

back-to-the-land, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, Corn Laws, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Rosling, humanitarian revolution, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, Landlord’s Game, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, precision agriculture, profit maximization, profit motive, risk tolerance, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Veblen good, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, World Values Survey

As we saw in the last chapter, two important elements of this playbook are lots of human capital (people with the skills required for innovation) and nonexcludable technologies (ones that aren’t withheld from general use by patents or other intellectual-property protection). We’ve seen philanthropies and nonprofits make important contributions in both of these areas. Khan Academy got its start in 2006 when Sal Khan began posting videos of the online tutorials he was offering his cousins. It has expanded to become a worldwide force in educating people of all ages. Khan Academy is funded by a wide range of corporate and family philanthropies. Another of my favorite examples of new approaches to human capital formation is 42, a technology academy founded by the French entrepreneur Xavier Niel.V All courses at 42 are free and in person rather than online. The school has no professional teachers or discrete courses; it relies entirely on peer learning and project-based learning.

King, 103 human capital, 233, 236, 261 human rights, 175–76 humanism, 37 Hungary, 174 hunting, 43, 44–45, 95–96, 183 hydroelectric power, 111 increasing returns to scale, 233 Index of Economic Freedom, 172 India, 85, 138, 147–48, 171–72, 174 Indonesia, 148 Industrial Era, 15–33, 56, 63, 99, 122, 130, 168, 177, 190 errors of, 35–51 Industrial Revolution, 16, 22 inequality, 128–29, 197–98, 206–10, 208 infant mortality, 28 urban, 23 innovation, 111–12, 114, 121–22, 141, 203 institutions, 159–61, 209 intellectual property, 116 internal combustion engine, 26–28, 30, 189 International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling, 163 International Rice Research Institute, 32 Internet, 169, 236 IPAT Model, 62, 63, 64 iPhone, 102, 111, 112, 235 Isenberg, Andrew, 44, 45 Ishokov, Aleksandr, 164 Ivashchenko, Yulia, 163 Jackson Hole National Monument, 260 Jacob, Jeffrey, 91 Jamaica, 37 Janah, Leila, 255–56 Japan, 106 Jevons, William, 47–48, 51, 56, 60, 63, 69, 77, 99, 108, 122, 141, 237 Jobs, Steve, 111, 112, 235 Johnson, Lyndon B., 29n Johnson, Tom, 171 Jones, Bruce, 174 journalism, 180 Kedrosky, Paul, 72 Keiser, David, 190 Khan Academy, 262 “Kissinger Report, The,” 56 Knowledge Illusion, The (Sloman and Fernbach), 226 Krauth, Tobias, 148 Lacey Act, 96 Lacey, John, 96 Lakner, Christoph, 221 Las Casas, Bartolomé de, 39–40 Laue, Max von, 30 Law on Cooperatives (1988), 171 Le Guin, Ursula K., 114–15 lead, 95 leather, 45 Leopold II, King of Belgium, 39 Li Keqiang, 146 Life, 61 life expectancy, 13, 32, 196–97 limits, imposing of, 65–67, 93–97 Limits to Growth, The, 57–58, 65, 66, 71, 93, 119–20 Lincoln, Abraham, 37, 38, 121 Linux operating system, 235–36 Litton, Martin, 61 living standards, 9–10, 32, 69 Lomborg, Bjorn, 179, 181 London, 22–23, 26 Lovins, Amory, 58–59 MacLeish, Archibald, 54 Macron, Emmanuel, 155, 250 Maddison, Angus, 9, 13 Maduro, Nicolas, 134–35, 137–38 Magee, Christopher, 73 Magie, Elizabeth, 203 Malthus, Thomas Robert, 7–8, 9, 10, 13, 15, 20, 131, 237 mammals, biomass of, 33 Mann, Charles, 31 manufacturing, 202, 239–40 Mao Zedong, 170 Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972), 96 market fundamentalism, 131–32, 133 Marshall, Alfred, 47–48, 50–51, 63, 99, 108–09, 141, 6977 Martha’s Vineyard Fishermen’s Preservation Trust, 263 Marx, Karl, 21, 130, 131 material intensity, 75 maternal mortality, 196–97 Mattis, James, 211–12 Maybach, Wilhelm, 27 Meadows, Donella, 57 Mesthene, Emmanuel, 114 metals, 56, 79 Mexico, 137, 139 Microsoft, 102, 257 Milanovic, Branko, 221 Mill, John Stuart, 180 Miller, Grant, 28 Mines Act (1842), 38 Mises, Ludwig von, 40 Mokyr, Joel, 122 Molina, Mario, 149 monopolies, 202–03, 204 Monsanto, 155 Montreal Protocol, 150, 249 Morris, Ian, 24–25, 60n Most Powerful Idea in the World, The (Rosen), 16 motors, 27 Mussolini, Benito, 40 Naam, Ramez, 31 National Security Council, 56 Native Americans, 44–45 natural gas, 103, 104, 109, 110, 188 Nature Wars (Sterba), 43–44 negative bias, 179–81 negative externalities, 142, 186, 247–48, 253 Nelson, Gaylord, 61 Neolithic revolution, 12 New Pioneers (Jacob), 91 New Testament, 127 New York Times, 53, 61–62, 147 Newcomen, Thomas, 16 Nicholas, Kim, 185 nitrogen, 30–31 nitrogen pollution, 190 Nixon, Richard, 66 Nokia, 102, 111 nonprofits, 259–63 Nordhaus, William, 248–49 Norquist, Grover, 132 North, Douglass, 159 North Korea, 133 nuclear energy, 58–59, 110, 251–52, 266 nuclear fusion, 240–41 Nunn, Nathan, 268 nutrition, 23–24, 32, 177, 193 ocean acidification, 190 O’Hanlon, Michael, 174 oil, 135–36 one-child policy, 93–94 Ostrom, Elinor, 182 Our World in Data (website), 179, 180 overdoses, 215, 216 ozone layer, 149–50, 228 Pacific Steam Navigation Company, 17 Paddock, William and Paul, 55–56 Paris Agreement, 158 partial excludability, 232–33 passenger pigeon, 42–43, 96, 152, 181 Pasteur, Louis, 23 Patagonia National Park, 260 patents, 19, 116, 232, 235 peak oil, 102–05 peak paper, 90, 113 “Peak Stuff” (Goodall), 76–77 pertussis, 227 Peru, 138 Petroleum Reitwagen, 27 phones, 168–69 Pinker, Steven, 37, 122, 176, 177, 179 Plain Cookery Book for the Working Classes, A (Francatelli), 23–24 plastics, 83, 252 plumbing, indoor, 26, 28–30, 168 Poland, 92 polarization, political, 224–25, 254 Politics of Resentment, The (Cramer), 221 pollution, 5, 23, 35, 36, 40–42, 54–55, 63, 66–67, 95, 141, 142, 157, 160–61, 167, 266 globalization of, 148–50 markets for, 143–44 Poole, Robert, 54 population, 13, 32–33, 62–63, 88, 192 of England, 10–11 global, 55–56, 65–69, 71 limiting, 93–94 oscillation in, 8–12, 15, 17, 31 Population Bomb, The (Ehrlich), 55, 65 poverty, 10–11, 179–80, 181, 189, 191–92, 215 Poverty and Famines (Sen), 69 precision agriculture, 242–43 price elasticity of demand, 49, 108–09 Principles of Economics (Marshall), 50–51 private ownership, 117, 170 “Problem of Social Cost, The” (Coase), 143 profit-seeking companies, 115–16 property rights, 116, 133 proteins, 239–40 public awareness, 3–4, 145–48, 153, 154, 158–59, 161, 167–68, 176–78, 226 Public Health Service, US, 55 Putnam, Robert, 212, 213 Radio Shack, 102 railroads, 18, 19, 26, 105–06, 109–10 Rand, Ayn, 132 rare earth elements (REE), 106–08, 109, 110 Reagan, Ronald, 132 rebound effect, 72–73 reciprocity, 212, 213, 217 recycling, 64–65, 90–91 reforestation, 184, 185 regulation, 5 regulatory capture, 129 religion, 115 renewable energy, 111 resource availability, 119–20 resource consumption, 56–58, 63–64, 78–79, 99, 119–20 responsive government, 3–4, 145–48, 153, 154, 158–59, 161, 167–68, 175–76 Return of Nature, The (Ausubel), 4–5 Ricardo, David, 19n Ridley, Matt, 161 Riley, James, 13 Ripley, S.


pages: 523 words: 112,185

Doing Data Science: Straight Talk From the Frontline by Cathy O'Neil, Rachel Schutt

Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, Augustin-Louis Cauchy, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, bioinformatics, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, distributed generation, Edward Snowden, Emanuel Derman, fault tolerance, Filter Bubble, finite state, Firefox, game design, Google Glasses, index card, information retrieval, iterative process, John Harrison: Longitude, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mars Rover, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, p-value, pattern recognition, performance metric, personalized medicine, pull request, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, selection bias, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, statistical model, stochastic process, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

It’s that the data itself, often in real time, becomes the building blocks of data products. On the Internet, this means Amazon recommendation systems, friend recommendations on Facebook, film and music recommendations, and so on. In finance, this means credit ratings, trading algorithms, and models. In education, this is starting to mean dynamic personalized learning and assessments coming out of places like Knewton and Khan Academy. In government, this means policies based on data. We’re witnessing the beginning of a massive, culturally saturated feedback loop where our behavior changes the product and the product changes our behavior. Technology makes this possible: infrastructure for large-scale data processing, increased memory, and bandwidth, as well as a cultural acceptance of technology in the fabric of our lives.

Thinking about data in matrices as points in space, and what it would mean to transform that space or take subspaces can give you insights into your models, why they’re breaking, or how to make your code more efficient. This isn’t just a mathematical exercise for the sake of it—although there is elegance and beauty in it—it can be the difference between a star-up that fails and a start-up that gets acquired by eBay. We recommend Khan Academy’s excellent free online introduction to linear algebra if you need to brush up your linear algebra skills. Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) Hopefully we’ve given you some intuition about what we’re going to do. So let’s get into the math now starting with singular value decomposition. Given an matrix of rank it is a theorem from linear algebra that we can always compose it into the product of three matrices as follows: where is , is , and is , the columns of and are pairwise orthogonal, and is diagonal.

sparseness, Some Problems with Nearest Neighbors test sets, Training and test sets training sets, Training and test sets Kaggle, Background: Crowdsourcing, The Kaggle Model–Their Customers crowdsourcing and, Background: Crowdsourcing customer base of, Their Customers Facebook and, Their Customers leapfrogging and, A Single Contestant Katz, Elihu, Case-Attribute Data versus Social Network Data KDD competition, Background: Data Science Competitions Kelly, John, Social Network Analysis at Morning Analytics keying datasets, Linear Regression Khan Academy, Why Now?, The Dimensionality Problem Knewton, Why Now? knn() function, Choosing k L labels, What are the modeling assumptions?, Click Models, Challenges in features and learning churn, Detecting suspicious activity using machine learning defining, Defining the labels Lander, Jared, Helping Hands Laplace smoothing, Fancy It Up: Laplace Smoothing large-scale network analysis thought experiment, Moving from Descriptive to Predictive latency, The Dimensionality Problem latent features, The Dimensionality Problem most important, Important Properties of SVD latent space models, Further examples of random graphs: latent space models, small-world networks Latour, Bruno, Gabriel Tarde Lazarsfield, Paul, Case-Attribute Data versus Social Network Data leakage, How to Be a Good Modeler leapfrogging, A Single Contestant issues with, A Single Contestant learning by example thought experiment, Thought Experiment: Learning by Example–How About k-nearest Neighbors?


pages: 494 words: 116,739

Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, liberation theology, libertarian paternalism, longitudinal study, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K

We should teach digital natives in the language they were born in: “My own preference for teaching Digital Natives,” he wrote, “is to invent computer games to do the job, even for the most serious content.”20 Egged on by the chorus of support, America is in an orgy of educational technologies despite scarce evidence that they improve learning. In 2013, the Los Angeles Unified School District announced a $1 billion program to distribute iPads to all of its students.21 Donors flock to support the online Khan Academy, where the disembodied voice of Salman Khan accompanies video-recorded blackboard instruction. And MOOCs – massively open online courses – from Harvard, MIT, Stanford, and other universities boast about the millions of people from around the world taking their free classes. The fever is contagious. Despite everything I learned in India, I wasn’t immune to it. I was once on a panel at MIT with Negroponte where I outlined my hard-won lessons about technology for education.

Others, sometimes weighed down by intensive extracurricular activities, struggled in geometry and algebra. I would review material with them and offer pointers as they did assignments. Yet another group required no substantive help at all. They just needed some prodding to finish their homework on time. Despite their differences, the students had one thing in common: What their parents were paying for was adult supervision. All of the content I tutored is available on math websites and in free Khan Academy videos, and every student had round-the-clock Internet access. But even with all that technology, and even at a school with a luxurious 9:1 student-teacher ratio, what their parents wanted for their kids was extra adult guidance. If this is the case for Lakeside students with their many life advantages, imagine how much more it must be the case for the world’s less privileged children. If the Labors of Hercules had an intellectual equivalent, it would be modern education.

See also Aspirations iPad initiatives, 11 Iran, 23, 35–36 The Iron Law of Evaluation, 70, 81 Islam, music and, 39 “Itchman,” 40 I-TECH, 136–139, 207 Jakiela, Pamela, 143–144 Japan American School in Japan, 211 educational system, 145, 256(n45) healthcare, 43 modernization, 178, 266–267(n11) nuclear plant disaster, 235(n29) technology-loving stereotype, xiii encouraging virtue, 276(n8) Jasanoff, Sheila, 23 Jenner, Edward, 67 Jensen, Derrick, 24 Jhunjhunwala, Ashok, 104 Jigme Singye Wangchuck, King of Bhutan, 87–88 Jobs, Steve, 84, 119, 135, 275(n8) Johnson, Lyndon B., 7 Joshi, Deep, 208, 273(n24). See also Pradan organization Karlan, Dean, 59–60 Karnani, Aneel, 83–84 Kelsa+ project, 122–125 Kennedy, John F., 7 Kenya, xi–xii, 156–157, 258–259(n4) Khan, Salman, 11 Khan Academy, 11, 14 King, Gary, 49–52 Kinnan, Cynthia, 236–237(n14) Kirp, David L., 214, 275(n5) Kiva.org, 71 Knowledge gap hypothesis, 37 Knowledge management, 44–46 Kohlberg, Lawrence, 161, 260(n18) Kotra, India, 77–82 Kranzberg, Melvin, 24 Kuznets, Simon, 245(n56) Labeling, 172, 264–265(n1) Labor exploitation, 85–86, 166–167, 243(n31) Lakeside School, Seattle, Washington, 14 Language learning, 123–124 Lareau, Annette, 250(n11) Latent desires, 39–41 Law, Lalitha, 140–141 Law of Amplification.


pages: 56 words: 16,788

The New Kingmakers by Stephen O'Grady

AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, cloud computing, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, David Heinemeier Hansson, DevOps, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Netflix Prize, Paul Graham, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, software is eating the world, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, Y Combinator

Stanford has been aggressively pushing their class content to the Web: from curricula to actual lectures, would-be developers all over the world are able to receive some of the benefits of a world-class education, at no cost. And beginning in the Fall of 2012, edX will educate students with Harvard and MIT course content—for free. The program, a $60-million-dollar collaboration between the two universities, aims to expand their addressable market to students anywhere. Startups are targeting similar opportunities: for example, CodeAcademy aims to teach anyone coding, while Khan Academy’s broader mandate includes a spectrum of computer science and math classes. Even commercial vendors like Cisco, IBM, Microsoft, and SAP have devoted substantial budgets to properties aimed at educating developers. The relentless efficiency of the Internet, the bane of industries like publishing, has been a boon to developers. They’re more visible and marketable than ever, demand for their services is skyrocketing, and their commercial opportunities are more frictionless than ever before.


pages: 420 words: 79,867

Developing Backbone.js Applications by Addy Osmani

Airbnb, anti-pattern, create, read, update, delete, don't repeat yourself, Firefox, full text search, Google Chrome, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, loose coupling, MVC pattern, node package manager, pull request, Ruby on Rails, side project, single page application, web application

It’s trivial to add support for pub/sub in Backbone Prototypes are instantiated with the new keyword, which some developers prefer Agnostic about templating frameworks, however Underscore’s micro-templating is available by default Clear and flexible conventions for structuring applications. Backbone doesn’t force usage of all of its components and can work with only those needed Used by Disqus Disqus chose Backbone.js to power the latest version of its commenting widget. The Disqus team felt it was the right choice for their distributed web app, given Backbone’s small footprint and ease of extensibility. Khan Academy Offering a web app that aims to provide free world-class education to anyone anywhere, Khan Academy uses Backbone to keep its frontend code both modular and organized. MetaLab MetaLab created Flow, a task management app for teams using Backbone. Its workspace uses Backbone to create task views, activities, accounts, tags and more. Walmart Mobile Walmart chose Backbone to power its mobile web applications, creating two new extension frameworks in the process - Thorax and Lumbar.


The Autistic Brain: Thinking Across the Spectrum by Temple Grandin, Richard Panek

Asperger Syndrome, correlation does not imply causation, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, double helix, ghettoisation, if you see hoof prints, think horses—not zebras, impulse control, Khan Academy, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, neurotypical, pattern recognition, phenotype, Richard Feynman, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, theory of mind, twin studies

But the better programs and apps say what they mean, and they can be invaluable in helping nonverbals communicate. These days you can get a whole education online. Numerous websites and high-tech tools that offer amazing opportunities have cropped up. The names and aims of these sites will undoubtedly change over the years, but at the moment here are some of my favorite educational accessories that are perfect for some autistic brains. Free videos. Khan Academy offers hundreds if not thousands of educational videos and interactive graphics in dozens of categories. You’re a pattern thinker who wants to know more about computer programming? Try the code-writing-for-animation category. You’re a picture thinker? Browse the hundreds of art history videos that cover historical movements, geographical specialties, and individual artists and artworks. Semester-long courses.

See inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) individual differences focus on symptoms and, [>]–[>] “label-locked thinking” and, [>]–[>] sensory issues and, [>] types of thinking and, [>] infantile autism diagnosis (Kanner’s syndrome), [>] inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), [>], [>] inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), [>], [>] Insel, Thomas, [>] intellectual-development disorders (DSM category), [>] intelligence, [>], [>]–[>] Internet use, [>]. See also tablets (computer), advantages of Irlen, Helen, [>] Jackson, Mick, [>] Jobs, Steve, [>], [>] Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, [>] Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry, [>] junk DNA, [>]–[>] Kanner, Leo, [>]–[>], [>], [>], [>] Kanner’s syndrome (infantile autism), [>] Khan Academy, [>]–[>] Klúver, Heinrich, [>] Kozhevnikov, Maria, [>]–[>] “label-locked thinking,” [>]–[>] being “on the spectrum” and, [>]–[>] DSM definitions of autism and, [>]–[>] individual differences and, [>]–[>] negative effects of, [>]–[>], [>] value of labels and, [>] Lancet (journal), [>] Lane, Alison, [>]–[>] Langdell, Tim, [>] language disorders. See also communication deficits; nonverbal autistic patients; speech disorders autism and, [>], [>] music and, [>]–[>] types of, [>]–[>] language-input problems, [>]–[>] language-output problems, [>] Lemke, Leslie, [>] Lewis, Randy, [>], [>] Livio, Mario, [>] local bias, [>] “The Long-Range Interaction Landscape of Gene Promoters” (Nature article), [>] long-term memory, [>]–[>] Lord, Catherine, [>] McKean, Thomas, [>] magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), [>], [>]–[>].


pages: 282 words: 81,873

Live Work Work Work Die: A Journey Into the Savage Heart of Silicon Valley by Corey Pein

23andMe, 4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, bank run, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Build a better mousetrap, California gold rush, cashless society, colonial rule, computer age, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Extropian, gig economy, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hacker house, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, passive income, patent troll, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, platform as a service, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, RFID, Robert Mercer, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, Skype, Snapchat, social software, software as a service, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, telepresence, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, tulip mania, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, X Prize, Y Combinator

“We’re going after newspapers, we’re going after Madison Avenue, we’re going after book publishing, we’re going after television,” Srinivasan said with undisguised glee, recalling the battering taken by New York media from online competitors such as Google AdWords, Twitter, Blogger, Facebook, and Amazon’s Kindle “e-reading” device. “Boston was next in the gunsights,” he said, with the country’s oldest, most elite educational institutions challenged—albeit less successfully, so far—by startups like Khan Academy, Coursera, and Udacity. “And, most interestingly, D.C.,” Srinivasan continued. By which he meant “government regulation in general—because it’s not just D.C., it includes local and state governments. Uber, Airbnb, Stripe, Square, and the big one, Bitcoin, are all things that threaten D.C.’s power.” Srinivasan stopped short of endorsing armed revolt—but only because it would fail. “They have aircraft carriers, we don’t.

IBM Inc. magazine Indelicato, Julie In-Q-Tel Instagram Instant Payday Network Institutional Venture Partners InterDigital, Inc. International Brotherhood of Teamsters iRobot ItsThisForThat.com Jacobstein, Neil Jobs, Steve Johnson, Robert Jordan, David Starr Joyner, Istvan JP Morgan Chase Juno Kalanick, Travis Kaufman, Micha Keeton, Kathy Kelly, Kevin Kenna, Jered Kennedy, Anthony Keurig Khan Academy Khosla, Vinod Kissinger, Henry Kjellberg, Felix. See PewDiePie Klein, Michael Klein, Roxanne Kleiner Perkins Kurzweil, Ray Laborize Land, Nick Lee, Rhoda Lifeboat Foundation Lifehacker Lifograph LinkedIn Lockheed Lockheed Martin Lombardi, Steven Lucas, George Luckey, Palmer Lyft Machine Intelligence Research Institute MacLeod, Ken Marshall, Brad Mason, Andrew McCauley, Raymond MCI Communications Mechanical Turk Meetup.com Mercer, Robert Microsoft Millionaires Society Miner, Bob Mishra, Pankaj Modi, Narendra Moldbug, Mencius.


pages: 305 words: 79,303

The Four: How Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google Divided and Conquered the World by Scott Galloway

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Bob Noyce, Brewster Kahle, business intelligence, California gold rush, cloud computing, commoditize, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, follow your passion, future of journalism, future of work, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Khan Academy, longitudinal study, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, passive income, Peter Thiel, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Mercer, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, undersea cable, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, working poor, young professional

A degree from a good school is the ticket to a better life, and this ticket is given almost exclusively to exceptional kids from low- and middle-income U.S. households, and any kid from a wealthy U.S. or foreign household. Eighty-eight percent of kids from U.S. households in the top-income quintile will attend college, and only 8 percent from the lowest. We’re leaving the unremarkable and unwealthy—most people—behind in a civilization that is now more Hunger Games than civil. Apple could change this. With a brand rooted in education, and a cash hoard to purchase Khan Academy’s digital framework as well as physical campuses (the future of education will be a mix of off- and online), Apple could break the cartel that masquerades as a social good but is really a caste system. The focus should be creativity—design, humanities, art, journalism, liberal arts. As the world rushes to STEM, the future belongs to the creative class, who can envision form, function, and people as something more—beautiful and inspiring—with technology as the enabler.

If you are exceptional, there are thousands of firms looking for, and finding, you. If you are good, you are now competing with tens of millions of other “good” candidates all over the planet—and your wages may stagnate or decline. The top dozen professors at Stern are in demand globally and get paid $50,000 or more to speak at a lunch. I’d venture their average annual income is $1 million to $3 million. The rest (“good”) are now competing with Khan Academy and the University of Adelaide (both offer “good,” the former online). These “good” professors teach executive education for modest extra income, or complain about the dean in a primal scream for relevance, as they make a fraction of what their (marginally) better colleagues make. The difference between good and great can be 10 percent or less, but the delta in rewards is closer to 10 times.


pages: 372 words: 92,477

The Fourth Revolution: The Global Race to Reinvent the State by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Asian financial crisis, assortative mating, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, cashless society, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, circulation of elites, Clayton Christensen, Corn Laws, corporate governance, credit crunch, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, liberal capitalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Nelson Mandela, night-watchman state, Norman Macrae, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, old age dependency ratio, open economy, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, pension reform, pensions crisis, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, profit maximization, rent control, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, too big to fail, total factor productivity, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working-age population, zero-sum game

Schoolteachers can “flip the classroom”: record their bread-and-butter lessons so that students can watch them at home and then use the classroom for personal instruction. It even provides personal tutoring for nothing. In 2004 Salman Khan made a series of videos and posted them on YouTube to help tutor his extended family. The videos soon acquired millions of fans (including Bill and Melinda Gates, who used them to tutor their own children): Khan is an excellent tutor and you can stop and rewind the videos if you want to go over the material again. The Khan Academy now serves more than four million students a month, ranging from the children of billionaires to the children of day laborers, and provides more than three thousand lessons ranging from simple arithmetic to calculus and finance. Look around the public sector and there are similar opportunities beginning to open up everywhere thanks to technology. In nearly every case it comes down to the same things.

., 236 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 15, 76, 90 Asian financial crisis and, 142–43 Internet, 191, 260 health care and, 208–9 self-help and, 209 Iran, China and, 152 Iraq, 253 Iraq War, 143, 253 Ireland, 38 public spending in, 99–100 Isabella I, Queen of Castile, 37 Islamic world: antiscientific attitudes in, 41 in sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 35 Istanbul, 35 Italy, 196, 259 pension reform in, 130 politicians’ pay and benefits in, 115 public spending in, 99–100 voter apathy in, 12 It’s Even Worse Than It Looks (Mann and Ornstein), 125–26, 227 Jackson, Andrew, 55 Jacques, Martin, 163 Jagger, Mick, 90 James I, King of England, 31 James II, King of England, 43 Japan, 15, 17, 36 Jarvis, Howard, 91 Jay, Douglas, 77 Jiang Jiemin, 154 Jiang Zemin, 142 Johnson, Boris, 216–17 Johnson, Lyndon, 77, 80, 87 Joseph, Keith, 92, 93 Juncker, Jean-Claude, 128 Kamarck, Elaine, 131–32 Kangxi, Emperor of China, 40 Kansas, 130 Kant, Immanuel, 224 Kaplan, Robert, 144 Kapoor, Anish, 34 Kennedy, Joseph, 73 Kentucky Fried Chicken, 185 Kerry, John, 96 Keynes, John Maynard, 22, 69–70, 76, 97 pragmatism of, 70–71 Keynesianism, 71, 77, 83, 95 counterrevolution against, 82–84 Khan, Salman, 180 Khan Academy, 180 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 79 Kingsley, Charles, 58 Kirk, Russell, 85 Kissinger, Henry, 133, 136 Kleiner, Morris, 118 Knight, Frank, 84 Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP), 215 Kocher, Robert, 200 Kotlikoff, Laurence J., 120 Kristol, Irving, 87 Kroc, Ray, 185 Labour Party, British, 68, 69, 70, 77, 93, 94–95, 114 laissez-faire economics, 56, 57, 61, 65–66, 70, 71 Laski, Harold, 68, 134 Latin America: economies of, 8 entitlement reform in, 17, 206, 244 Lazzarini, Sergio, 153 Lee Hsien Loong, 135, 138 Lee Kuan Yew, 4, 17, 53, 133–34, 137, 139–41, 143, 144, 145, 147, 156, 170, 183, 244 authoritarianism of, 137, 138 small-government ideology of, 140, 165 Left, 62, 73, 88, 183 government bloat and, 10–11, 98 government efficiency and, 20, 187, 213 and growth of big government, 10, 98, 131, 175, 185, 228, 230, 231 subsidy-cutting and, 234, 237–38 Lehman Brothers, 14 Lenovo, 150 Le Pen, Marine, 259 Le Roy, Louis, 276 Leviathan, 10 Leviathan (Hobbes), 29, 32, 33, 34, 42 Leviathan, Monumenta 2011 (Kapoor), 34 Liberal Party, British, 68, 70 liberals, liberalism: and debate over size of government, 48, 49, 232 freedom as core tenet of, 69, 223–26, 232 right to happiness as tenet of, 48, 49 role of state as seen by, 21–22, 222–23, 226, 232 see also Left; liberal state liberal state, 6–7, 8, 220, 221 capitalism and, 50–54 competition and, 247 education in, 7, 48, 58–59 equality and, 69 expanded role of government in, 56–62 Founding Fathers and, 44–45, 222 freedom as ideological basis of, 69, 223–26, 232, 268 industrial revolution and, 246–47 meritocracy as principle of, 50, 52–53 protection of rights as primary role of, 45 rights of citizens expanded by, 7, 9, 48, 49, 51 rise of, 27–28, 269 small government as principle of, 48, 49, 51–52, 61, 232 libertarian Right, 82 liberty, see freedom Libya, 253 LifeSpring Hospitals, 202–3 Lincoln, Abraham, 62, 92 Lindahl, Mikael, 176 Lindgren, Astrid, 170 Lisbon, Treaty of (2007), 258 Little Dorrit (Dickens), 50 Liu Xiaobo, 166 Livingston, Ken, 217 Lloyd George, David, 62 lobbies, Congress and, 238–40, 257 Locke, John, 42, 43, 45 social contract and, 42, 222 Logic of Collective Action, The (Olson), 111 London School of Economics, 67, 74 Louis XIV, King of France, 38 Lowe, Robert, 58–59 L.


pages: 360 words: 101,038

The Revenge of Analog: Real Things and Why They Matter by David Sax

Airbnb, barriers to entry, big-box store, call centre, cloud computing, creative destruction, death of newspapers, declining real wages, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, Detroit bankruptcy, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, game design, hypertext link, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, low cost airline, low skilled workers, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Minecraft, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Rosa Parks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, Travis Kalanick, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog

Schram had encouraged wild and imaginative ideas, and these included an MBA that consisted only of internships and online classes, an international MBA Olympiad, round-the-clock online faculty-on-demand, and the Flaming Sword, a choose-your-own-adventure video game that automatically selected a student’s courses. All the proposals dispensed with the traditional framework of Rotman as a physical school with classrooms, professors, and classes five days a week. “We’re not going to waste your time in lectures,” said one of the students from the group Designed Sealed Delivered. “It will be like the Khan Academy,” he added, referring to the popular online mathematics lecture series. After all, they were building the school of the future, and as Christopher Federico mentioned the last time I was in this very building, virtual schools seemed to be that future. But when the groups presented their prototypes to current MBA students, that future didn’t look so certain. “How are you going to get people motivated if they can’t come to class?”

91 Hill, Jon, 114 Hirschfeld, James, 44–45 HMV, 13, 16 Hoarders, 97 hobby game market, 77 hobby stores, 78, 79, 85 Holley, Willie, 160 Hollywood Reporter (magazine), 72 home libraries, 128, 208, 227 Houstonia (magazine), 109 HP computers, 65 Huffington Post, 115 Huizar, Jose, 185 human assistance, preference for, 134 human-in-the-loop processes, 224 Hungry Hungry Hippos, 76 Husni, Samir, 104–105 hypercapitalism, 157 IBM computers, 65 ICQ, 217 IdeaPaint, 191 IDEO, 193, 225 Ilford film, 55, 71 I’m the Boss, 86 Impossible Project, 66, 67–70 In Wilderness Is the Preservation of the World (Thoreau), 232 independent booksellers increase in, 125 See also bookstores independent magazine publishing, 103–107 independent record stores, annual meeting of, 13 See also record stores Indigo, 127 information age, 219 information overload, 37, 111 information persistence, 191 Initiative, 108 innovation building blocks for, buzzwords in, 192 culture of, fostering, 214 deeply held values around technology and, 179 different narrative of, xvi driver of, 36 standard narrative of, trend running counter to, xiv, 155 Instacart, 166 Instagram, 62, 80, 94, 162, 170, 217, 224, 234, 235, 241 instant film photography, xv, 66, 67, 69–70 Instax camera, 70 integrative thinking, 175, 176–177, 197, 199 Intel, 163 Internet/web access to, in education, 183, 185 growing use of, economy based on, 152, 154 role in saving vinyl, 11–12, 20–21 at summer camp, 231, 235 trust and, challenge of, 145–146 view of, 46, 238 See also online entries investing, 170–172 iPads, 13, 42, 81, 84, 110, 111, 113, 132, 180, 182, 185–186, 188, 208, 234, 241 iPhone, ix, xiii, 62, 63, 73, 84, 140, 144 iPods, 7, 9, 12, 18, 19, 27, 28, 233 IRL, 237 See also reality iTunes, ix, 12, 19 Jackman School, 187–188, 203 Jackson, Wanda, 22 Jaipur, 87 job creation, 151, 152, 160, 161–166, 167, 171–173, 173 job market, 164, 165–166, 175 See also digital work; manual work Jobs, Steve, 138, 139, 206, 207–208 Johnson, Jeff, 182 Johnson, Ron, 139, 140 jukeboxes, 8, 9, 18 June Records, ix, xi–xii, 137 Kalanick, Travis, 155 Kaps, Florian “Doc,” 66–68, 69 Kartsotis, Tom, 150–151, 160, 167, 169, 172 Kassem, Chad, 17 Katigbak, Everett, 214, 215–216 Kaufman, Donna Paz, 127, 128 Kelly, Kevin, 226–230 keyboards, xvii, 186, 237 Keynes, John Maynard, 164 Khan Academy, 200 Kickbox, 208–209 Kickstarter, 43, 73, 91–92, 94, 95–96, 98 Kim, Eurie, 137, 138 Kind of Blue (album), 25 Kindle, 124, 130, 142, 143, 228 Kinfolk (magazine), 105 Kleinman, Gabe, 214 Kobo, 142 Kodak, 54, 55, 56, 57, 59, 63, 64, 71, 153 Kroger, 134 Krugman, Paul, 171 Kurtz, Michael, 13–14, 15, 16, 20 Kwizniac, 91 laboratory school, 187–188 Landor Associates, 36 Lanier, Jaron, 157 laptops early childhood education and, 182 in education, learning outcomes and, 183–185, 188, 190 See also computers Launch Monitor (blog), 111 Lazaretto (album), 21 LC-A camera, 59–60 Lechtturm, 43 LEGOs, 182, 198 Lennon, John, 26 Leslie, Jeremy, 104, 106, 111 letterpress cards/invitations, xiv letterpress printing, 44, 215 Levin, Diane, 180–181 Levin, Eric, 14 Levitin, Daniel, 37 Levy, David, ix Lexus and the Olive Tree, The (Friedman), 154 liberal arts programs, 192 Libin, Phil, 222 Lichtenegger, Heinz, 11, 17 Lieu, John, 213 Lim, Sen-Foong, 98 limitless selection, issue with, 130, 134 LinkedIn, 45, 46 Little Brother (magazine), 104–105 Live Action Role Play (LARP) retreat, 82 live performances, xv, 6, 15, 22, 27, 28 Livescribe, 47, 228 Lomographic Society International, 60 Lomography, 59–62, 64, 66, 71 Lonely Typewriter, The (Ackerman), 131 Long Good Read, The (newspaper), 116, 117 Long Tail, The (Anderson), 208 Los Angeles Times (newspaper), 185 Los Angeles Unified School District, 185–186 Lowery, David, 20 Lucas, George, 72 Lululemon, 126–127 luxury approach, 112, 114, 116, 150, 151, 168 MacArthur, Rick, 142 made-in-America approach, 150, 151, 152, 160, 167, 168 Maffé, Carlo Alberto Carnevale, 39, 40 Mag Culture (blog), 104 magazine ads, 108, 109 magazine market, 105–106 magazine publishing, 103–107, 108, 112 magazine subscription service, 103, 106 magazines ability to charge for, 109, 110, 112 circulation of, 104, 105 luxury approach to, 112–113 See also digital publications; print publications Magic cards, 78 Magnetic, 108 magnetic tape, 23, 24, 25, 72 mah-jongg, 82 manual work classic educational model for, 199 investing in, 172 skilled, manufacturing providing, 150, 151, 152, 157–158, 159–161, 167, 168, 169 standard narrative on, 154, 155, 160 value gap involving, 160, 161, 171 Mara, Chris, 24–25 Marazza, Antonio, 35–36 market logic/laws, 132–133, 140 See also capitalism Martin, Penny, 112 Matsudaira, Kate, 43 Mattel, 85 Mazzucca, Daren, 111 McAfee, Andrew, 162, 163 McAlister, Matt, 116–117 McBeth, Leslie, 198–199 McCartney, Paul, 26 MCIR (magazine), 106 McNally, Sarah, 129 McNally Jackson, 129, 148 McNally Robinson, 129 McNeish, Joanne, 188–189 Medina, Allison, 132 meditation, xv, 205–206, 207, 209–210, 210 Medium, 208, 213–214 meetings, improving, 219–220 Meetup, 220 merchandising appeal, 131–132 merchandising tactics, 133 Michaels, Mark, 9–10, 16 microphones, 83 Microsoft, 43, 154, 163, 206, 211 Microtouch, 190–191 Millar, Jay, 6, 7–8 Mille Bornes, 78 millennials, xii Milton Bradley, 76, 92 mindfulness, xv, 206, 207 Minecraft (game), 81 Mitchell, Jenny, 97 Mittelstein apprentice system, 160 Mod Notebooks, 43 Modo & Modo, 32, 33, 34 Mohawk Paper, 46 Moleskine (company), 31–32, 38, 39, 40, 41–43, 46, 47, 48–49 Moleskine notebooks appeal of, 31, 34–35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 43, 49, 111, 228 branding of, 35–36, 39, 40, 41, 48 buyers of, change in, 36–37 history of, 33–34 integration of, with digital companies, 46, 47–48, 222–223 and the notebook market, 31, 41, 43–44 sales of, 39, 41, 48, 223 Moleskinerie (blog), 38 Monocle (magazine), 112–113 monopolies, 162–163 Monopoly, 76, 77, 78, 86, 88–89 Montessori school, 208 MOO (Pleasure Cards), 45–46 MOOC (massive open online course), 201–202, 203 Moore’s Law, 225 Moross, Richard, 45, 46 motion picture film, 52, 53, 55, 56, 71–73 Motown, 6 Mousetrap, 76 movie sets and props, 72 MP3s, xvi, 7, 9, 12, 19, 23, 143, 231, 242 Mraz, Jason, 15 multiplayer gaming, massive, 77, 80–81, 83 Munchkin, 85 Murchison, Mike, 227 Muscle Shoals, 25 music, evolution of technology used to listen to, xv–xvi See also digital music; live performances; record stores; recording studios; vinyl records MusicWatch, 12, 18 Musk, Elon, 155 MySpace, 217 Nadaraja, Nish, 217, 218 Nakamura, Yoshitaka, 70 Napster, x, 12 National Bureau of Economic Research, 192 NBA Jam (game), 80 Negroponte, Nicholas, 184 neoliberalism, 153 nerd/geek culture, 14, 78, 84–85, 94, 211 Netflix, 223 Netscape, 154 New 55, 70 New York Times Magazine, 238 New York Times (newspaper), 92, 108, 110, 114–115, 136, 151, 154, 171 New Yorker (magazine), 89 NewBilt Machinery, 17 News Corp, 186 Newspaper Club, 117–120, 121 newspaper-printing plants, 117, 119–120 newspapers appeal of, 114–155, 238, 239 custom, 116, 117–120 decline of, 117, 120 integrating digital and new business models for, 116–120 online versions of, 114, 115–116 See also print publications Nicholson, Scott, 82–83 Nielsen BookScan, 142 Night (Wiesel), 130 1989 (album), 6, 18, 27, 69 nineteenth-and twentieth-century model of education, 198–199 Nintendo, 76 Noah, David, 189–190 Nolan, Christopher, 71, 72 Nook, 142, 143 Nordstrom, 44, 137, 150 Norvig, Peter, 201 nostalgia, xii, xvii, 18, 44, 46, 62, 85, 189, 221, 238, 239 notebook market, 34, 41, 43–44, 48 notebooks/journals, 31, 34, 37, 41, 43–44, 49, 72, 104, 126, 142, 149, 207, 208, 218 See also Evernote; Moleskine notebooks Observer, The (newspaper), 116 obsolescence, xiv, xv, 12, 21, 44, 153, 187 offshoring, 156, 163, 165, 167, 168 omnichannel retail strategy, 126, 134 on-demand freelance work, 164, 165–166 on-demand printing of card games, 91 of newspapers, 117 of photos, 70 One Laptop per Child (OLPC), 184, 185 O’Neal, Johnny, 85 online communities, 38, 47, 60–61, 91, 96, 146, 215, 217–218, 218, 226 See also social media/networks online education, 176, 200–202 online gaming, 76–77, 80–81, 82, 83, 94 online retailing appeal of, 124 creating brick-and-mortar stores in, xv, 137–140, 208 disadvantages of, 132, 136 See also specific retailers online schools.


pages: 344 words: 96,020

Hacking Growth: How Today's Fastest-Growing Companies Drive Breakout Success by Sean Ellis, Morgan Brown

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, DevOps, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, game design, Google Glasses, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, minimum viable product, Network effects, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, working poor, Y Combinator, young professional

Beyond assuring the relevance of rewards is clear and that they are actually of value to users, there are few hard and fast rules about what perks to offer. LinkedIn gamifies in a gentle fashion, including a progress meter on people’s profile pages that shows them how complete their profiles are, nudging them to fill in more information. This offers the reward of the instant satisfaction of a completed profile, and receiving the implicit approval by those who view it. Khan Academy, an online education website, takes the more overt approach of offering points and awards as users take more courses, creating surprise and delight with rewards as users hit new milestones. The company is careful, though, not to make these the centerpiece of its user experience, as they are aware that such explicit rewards can undermine the actual intrinsic reward of skills acquisition that is offered by learning.

Steve Jurvetson and Tim Draper, “Viral Marketing: Viral Marketing Phenomenon Explained,” January 1, 1997, DFJ blog, accessed September 13, 2016, dfj.com/news/article_26.shtml. 4. Eric M. Jackson, The PayPal Wars: Battles with eBay, the Media, the Mafia, and the Rest of Planet Earth (WND Books: 2012), 35–40. 5. Josh Elman, “3 Growth Hacks: The Secrets to Driving Massive User Growth,” filmed August 2013; posted on YouTube August 2013, youtube.com/watch?v=AaMqCWOfA1o. 6. “Conversation with Elon Musk,” online video clip, Khan Academy, April 17, 2013. Accessed September 13, 2016. 7. LeanStartup.co, “Dropbox @ Startup Lessons Learned Conference 2010,” July 2, 2014, youtube.com/watch?v=y9hg-mUx8sE. 8. Douglas MacMillan, “Chasing Facebook’s Next Billion Users,” Bloomberg.com, July 26, 2012, bloomberg.com/news/articles/2012-07-25/chasing-facebooks-next-billion-users. 9. Chamath Palihapitiya, comment on question “What are some decisions taken by the ‘Growth team’ at Facebook that helped Facebook reach 500 million users?”


pages: 484 words: 104,873

Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future by Martin Ford

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, debt deflation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, Freestyle chess, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gunnar Myrdal, High speed trading, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, McJob, moral hazard, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, optical character recognition, passive income, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, precision agriculture, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, reshoring, RFID, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, strong AI, Stuxnet, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, very high income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce

Students as young as ten and as old as seventy signed up to learn the basics of AI directly from two of the field’s preeminent researchers—an extraordinary opportunity previously available only to about 200 Stanford students.6 The ten-week course was divided into short segments lasting just a few minutes and modeled roughly on the enormously successful videos for middle and high school students created by the Khan Academy. I completed several units of the class myself and found the format to be a powerful and engaging learning vehicle. The production employed no visual wizardry; instead, it consisted primarily of either Thrun or Norvig presenting topics while writing on a notepad. Each brief segment was followed by an interactive quiz—a technique that virtually guarantees that key concepts are assimilated as you proceed through the course.

(television program), Watson and, xiv, 96–101, 104 job creation, xi by decade, 44 diminishing, 43–44 following Great Recession, 280 information technology and, 176 Internet companies vs. automotive industry and, 76 keeping pace with population growth, 26, 44, 249 jobless recoveries, 44–46, 52, 280 job-market polarization, 50–51, 53 jobs disappearance of middle-class, 49 low-wage, 26–27 part-time, 49–51 purchasing power and, xvii, 197 reshoring and manufacturing, 8–12 See also employment; knowledge-based jobs; white-collar jobs Jobs, Steve, 161 Johns Hopkins, 133 Johnson, Lyndon, 29, 31, 32–33, 258 Jones, Charles I., 265, 266 Joy, Bill, 243–244 Kaiser Health News, 164 Kaku, Michio, 247 Karabarbounis, Loukas, 41 Kasparov, Garry, xiv, 97, 122, 239 Kennedy, John F., 249–250, 280 Kerala sardine fisherman, mobile phones and, 78–79 Keynes, John Maynard, 38, 206 Khan Academy, 132–133 Khoshnevis, Behrokh, 180 Kinect, 4–5, 7, 105 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 29–30, 250 kiosks, intelligent, 17–19 Kiva Systems, 16 K’NEX, 5–6 knowledge-based jobs automation of, 85–86 big data and, 93–96 collaboration with machines and, 121–128 See also white-collar jobs Koller, Daphne, 133 Koza, John, 110 Kroger Company, 17 Krueger, Alan, 119 Krugman, Paul, 60, 203–204, 204n, 205 Kuka AG, 10 Kura sushi restaurant chain, 14–15 Kurzweil, Ray, 78, 233, 234–235, 237 labor organized, 57–58 role in economy, 279 share of national income, 38–39, 41, 56, 58 See also workers/workforce Lanier, Jaron, 77 Law, Legislation and Liberty (Hayek), 257–258 law school bubble, 173n LeCun, Yann, 231 legal discovery, trends in, 124–125 Lehman, Betsy, 149 leisure time, basic income guarantee and, 263 Leno, Jay, 177 Levy, Steven, 85 liability autonomous cars and, 183–184, 186, 190 health care, 150, 150n Lickel, Charles, 96 The Lights in the Tunnel (Ford), xiii, 60, 264 Lipson, Hod, 108, 109, 110, 180 liquidity trap, 218n London Symphony Orchestra, 111 London taxi drivers, 209n long-tail distribution, in Internet sector, 76–78 long-term unemployment, ix, xvi, 45–46, 211, 280 Los Angeles Angels, 83 low-wage jobs, automation and, 26–27 Luddites, 31, 33, 256 machine essay grading, 129–131 machine intelligence, 72, 75, 80.


pages: 379 words: 109,223

Frenemies: The Epic Disruption of the Ad Business by Ken Auletta

Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, commoditize, connected car, corporate raider, crossover SUV, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, forensic accounting, Google Glasses, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Naomi Klein, NetJets, Network effects, pattern recognition, pets.com, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, éminence grise

These paid messages can arouse empathy, and don’t beat the consumer over the head with a sales pitch; they often tell a story about something noble the brand is associated with, arouse emotion, and are most successful when the consumer doesn’t realize the advertisement is an ad because it tells a compelling story or provides valuable information. This is why BofA partnered with the nonprofit online education Khan Academy in 2013, offering videos that explain complicated financial topics—like their series “Better Money Habits,” elucidating compound interest—on sites like Pinterest. The ideal for a subtle ad pitch is the two-minute television narrative that BBDO’s Indian agency created for Procter & Gamble’s local detergent, Ariel. It opens with the young wife racing about to calm her children, make tea for her oblivious husband, who is watching television, answer the phone, cook dinner, lay out the dishes, and load the laundry in the washing machine.

Walter Thompson, 45, 107 Jakeman, Brad, 78, 220 James Gulliver Associates, 104 Johnson, Boris, 112 Johnson, Erin, 230–32 journalism, 23–24 native ads and, 177–78 K2 Intelligence, 17–18 K2 transparency report, 239–45, 319 Kahneman, Daniel, 184 Kapadia, Sunil, 66 Kargman, Harry, 125–26, 199 Kassan, Michael, 11–14, 31, 41, 48–50, 51–74, 275, 311, 339–40 on ad blockers, 174, 176 on agency-client relationship, 44 on agency transparency, 18–19 as attorney, 56–57 broker’s sale of Western International Media to IPG, 59–60 Cannes Lions Festival and, 247–50, 258, 338 on celebrity endorsements, 296 CES and, 223–27 on challenges facing advertising world and opportunities for MediaLink, 48–50, 99–100 as consultant, 62 courtship and marriage of, 53–55 on creative agencies, 205–6 on digital ad agencies, 209 education of, 53, 55 at El Pollo Loco, 56–58 Everson and, 119–20, 122–23 on Facebook, 124, 324 founds MediaLink, 62 grand theft felony conviction and legal suspension of, 57–59, 258–59, 339–40 on health of networks, 193 at International Video Entertainment, 55–56 on lack of new leadership at agencies, 99–100 at Massive Media, 61 on Moonves and CBS, 188, 203 on native ads, 175 New Front and, 198–99 on privacy and requiring consumer opt in, 157–58 on programmatic advertising, 263–64 skill at pleasing others, 51–52 on Sorrell-Levy bad blood, 113–14 termination from and lawsuit with IPG, 60–61 youth of, 52–53 See also MediaLink Kassan, Ronnie Klein, 53–55, 60, 73 Kassaei, Amir, 253 Kawaja, Terry, 124–25, 213, 301–2 KBM, 150 Keane, Patrick, 125, 136 Keller, Andrew, 127 Khan Academy, 96 kickbacks/rebates by advertising agencies agency reviews and, 13–15, 18–22 ANA report on, 239–45, 319 ANA task force to study, 17–18 Dentsu and, 241 Gotlieb denies use of, 11, 15, 16 Mandel’s speech alleging, 7–11 MediaLink’s agency review business and, 13–14, 18–22 reaction of agencies to allegations of, 14–16 SEC settlement with IPG for, 241 King, Bernice, 309 King, Zach, 128 Kirkpatrick, David, 130 Kittlaus, Dag, 262, 268–69 Klein, Lesley, 19, 64, 65 Klein, Naomi, 24, 47 Koenigsberg, Bill, 15–16, 18, 45–46, 101, 234–35 Kroll, Jeremy, 17 Kroll, Jules B., 17, 18 Kuperman, Aleen, 220–22 Ladin, Joel, 57 Law, Nick, 284, 285, 286 Lazarus, Shelly, 116–17 Lee, Bessie, 145–46 Lee, Lori, 280 Lehman Brothers, 2–3 Lesser, Brian, 158, 198, 264, 268, 332–33 Levien, Meredith, 65, 206 Levy, Maurice, 22–23, 79, 100, 144 on list of best performing CEOs, 117 on Martinez sexual harassment suit, 233–34 Sorrell and, 113–14, 233, 234 Lewnes, Anne, 214 Lexus, 132 Liodice, Bob, 10, 77, 241–42, 272–73 Lipton, Martin, 334 Loerke, Stephan, 145 Lois, George, 39, 40 Lubars, David, 86 Lynch, Robert Porter, 120 McAdam, Lowell, 334 McCann, 309–10 McCormack, Mark, 103–4 McCue, Scott, 258 McDonald’s, 282 McNamee, Roger, 277 Madison Avenue Manslaughter (Farmer), 44 Mad Men (TV show), 39, 41, 109–10 Mahoney, Jim, 94 Maker Studios, 66 Mandel, Jon agencies’ reactions to kickback allegations of, 14–16 kickback/rebate allegations of, 7–11 Manjoo, Farhad, 228–29 marketing.


pages: 128 words: 38,187

The New Prophets of Capital by Nicole Aschoff

3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Legislative Exchange Council, basic income, Bretton Woods, clean water, collective bargaining, commoditize, crony capitalism, feminist movement, follow your passion, Food sovereignty, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global value chain, helicopter parent, hiring and firing, income inequality, Khan Academy, late capitalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, means of production, performance metric, post-work, profit motive, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, Tim Cook: Apple, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

Some people are able to translate their skills, knowledge, and connections into economic opportunity and financial stability, and some are not—either because their skills, knowledge, and connections don’t seem to work as well, or they can’t acquire them in the first place because they’re too poor. Today, the centrality of social and cultural capital is obscured (sometimes deliberately), as demonstrated in the implicit and explicit message of Oprah and her ideological colleagues. In their stories, and many others like them, cultural and social capital are easy to acquire. They tell us to get an education. Too poor? Take an online course. Go to Khan Academy. They tell us to meet people, build up our network. Don’t have any connected family members? Join LinkedIn. It’s simple. Anyone can become anything. There’s no distinction between the quality and productivity of different people’s social and cultural capital. We’re all building our skills. We’re all networking. All types of social and cultural capital are equally translatable into economic capital (and happiness), and social and cultural capital will retain their value no matter how many people acquire them.


pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global pandemic, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Johannes Kepler, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uber lyft, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

Globally, the share of secondary school graduates enrolled in higher education has more than doubled since 1990, from under 14 percent to over 33 percent by 2014.37 By our own estimates, the number of people alive today with a higher education degree is greater than the total number of degrees awarded prior to 1980. Every year, a further 25 to 50 million degree-holders are being added to the total. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), like Khan Academy and Coursera, are helping to raise that figure even more rapidly. Although higher education enrollment rates are highest in the developed world (at 74 percent of secondary school graduates, versus 23 percent in the developing world), in terms of absolute numbers the developing world is coming on strong.38 Already at least 40 percent of the world’s science and engineering doctoral students, and 37 percent of degree-holding science researchers, are in the developing world.39 Women are rapidly advancing, too.

What hadn’t been factored in before is how widespread the impulse to learn another language is—1.2 billion people strong, by recent estimates.21 And it turns out that translating bits of the web is useful practice that many language learners enjoy and are willing to do for free. The result is a colossal jump in our aggregate translation resources. It has already made its presence felt in entertainment and other popular content. In China, Hollywood blockbusters and hit HBO television series are available online within a day of their US release, complete with Mandarin subtitles (the latter having been added by avid fans practicing their English). Khan Academy, an online education portal, has seen most of its 6,000 instructional videos subtitled into one or more of 65 languages by volunteers. TED, another online portal, has attracted more than 22,000 volunteers to translate over 80,000 “TED Talks” into more than 100 languages. Altogether in 2015, we estimate that the global pool of volunteer translators totaled some 2 to 4 million people, who in a single year gave humanity 25–50 million hours of free translation service in areas such as entertainment, education, news and disaster relief (e.g., by translating victims’ Tweets in real time for emergency responders).


pages: 510 words: 120,048

Who Owns the Future? by Jaron Lanier

3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, automated trading system, barriers to entry, bitcoin, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, delayed gratification, digital Maoism, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Without MIT or Caltech, I imagine figures like Marvin Minsky or Richard Feynman would have been employed deep in the bunkers of Los Alamos or Bell Labs at the time, which were places less likely to be generous about having a weird kid roaming the hallways without official license. Everyone in the high-tech world appreciates the universities deeply. Yet we are happy to rush headlong into flattening the levees that sustain them, just as we did with music, journalism, and photography. Will the result be any different this time? Factoring the City on a Hill The Khan Academy might be the most celebrated effort of the moment to bring free education to anyone with online access. It is filled with videos teaching every common topic, and its lessons have already been taken hundreds of millions of times. Stanford professor and Google researcher Sebastian Thrun was inspired by Khan to share a graduate artificial-intelligence class online, and tens of thousands of people graduated from it.

., 129–30, 261, 328 “Forum,” 214 Foucault, Michel, 308n 4chan, 335 4′33″ (Cage), 212 fractional reserve system, 33 Franco, Francisco, 159–60 freedom, 13–15, 32–33, 90–92, 277–78, 336 freelancing, 253–54 Free Print Shop, 228 “free rise,” 182–89, 355 free speech, 223, 225 free will, 166–68 “friction,” 179, 225, 230, 235, 354 Friendster, 180, 181 Fukuyama, Francis, 165, 189 fundamentalism, 131, 193–94 future: chaos in, 165–66, 273n, 331 economic analysis of, 1–3, 15, 22, 37, 38, 40–41, 42, 67, 122, 143, 148–52, 153, 155–56, 204, 208, 209, 236, 259, 274, 288, 298–99, 311, 362n, 363 humanistic economy for, 194, 209, 233–351 361–367 “humors” of, 124–40, 230 modern conception of, 123–40, 193–94, 255 natural basis of, 125, 127, 128–29 optimism about, 32–35, 45, 130, 138–40, 218, 230n, 295 politics of, 13–18, 22–25, 85, 122, 124–26, 128, 134–37, 199–234, 295–96, 342 technological trends in, 7–18, 21, 53–54, 60–61, 66–67, 85–86, 87, 97–98, 129–38, 157–58, 182, 188–90, 193–96, 217 utopian conception of, 13–18, 21, 30, 31, 37–38, 45–46, 96, 128, 130, 167, 205, 207, 265, 267, 270, 283, 290, 291, 308–9, 316 future-oriented money, 32–34, 35 Gadget, 186 Gallant, Jack, 111–12 games, 362, 363 Gates, Bill, 93 Gattaca, 130 Gawker, 118n Gelernter, David, 313 “general” machines, 158 General Motors, 56–57 general relativity theory, 167n Generation X, 346 genetic engineering, 130 genetics, 109–10, 130, 131, 146–47, 329, 366 genomics, 109–10, 146–47, 366 Germany, 45 Ghostery, 109 ghost suburbs, 296 Gibson, William, 137, 309 Gizmodo, 117–18 Global Business Network (GBN), 214–15 global climate change, 17, 32, 53, 132, 133, 134, 203, 266, 295, 296–97, 301–2, 331 global economy, 33n, 153–56, 173, 201, 214–15, 280 global village, 201 God, 29, 30–31, 139 Golden Goblet, 121, 121, 175, 328 golden rule, 335–36 gold standard, 34 Google, 14, 15, 19, 69, 74, 75–76, 90, 94, 106, 110, 120, 128, 153, 154, 170, 171, 174, 176, 180, 181–82, 188, 191, 192, 193, 199–200, 201, 209, 210, 217, 225, 227, 246, 249, 265, 267, 272, 278, 280, 286, 305n, 307, 309–10, 322, 325, 330, 344, 348, 352 Google Goggles, 309–10 Googleplex, 199–200 goops, 85–89, 99 Gore, Al, 80n Graeber, David, 30n granularity, 277 graph-shaped networks, 241, 242–43 Great Britain, 200 Great Depression, 69–70, 75, 135, 299 Great Recession, 31, 54, 60, 76–77, 204, 311, 336–37 Greece, 22–25, 45, 125 Grigorov, Mario, 267 guitars, 154 guns, 310–11 Gurdjieff, George, 215, 216 gurus, 211–13 hackers, 14, 82, 265, 306–7, 345–46 Hardin, Garrett, 66n Hartmann, Thom, 33n Hayek, Friedrich, 204 health care, 66–67, 95, 98–99, 100, 132–33, 153–54, 249, 253, 258, 337, 346 health insurance, 66–67, 95, 98–99, 100, 153–54 Hearts and Minds, 353n heart surgery, 11–13, 17, 18, 157–58 heat, 56 hedge funds, 69, 106, 137 Hephaestus, 22, 23 high-dimensional problems, 145 high-frequency trading, 56, 76–78, 154 highways, 79–80, 345 Hinduism, 214 Hippocrates, 124n Hiroshima bombing (1945), 127 Hollywood, 204, 206, 242 holographic radiation, 11 Homebrew Club, 228 homelessness, 151 homeopathy, 131–32 Homer, 23, 55 Honan, Mat, 82 housing market, 33, 46, 49–52, 61, 78, 95–96, 99, 193, 224, 227, 239, 245, 255, 274n, 289n, 296, 298, 300, 301 HTML, 227, 230 Huffington Post, 176, 180, 189 human agency, 8–21, 50–52, 85, 88, 91, 124–40, 144, 165–66, 175–78, 191–92, 193, 217, 253–64, 274–75, 283–85, 305–6, 328, 341–51, 358–60, 361, 362, 365–67 humanistic information economy, 194, 209, 233–351 361–367 human reproduction, 131 humors (tropes), 124–40, 157, 170, 230 hunter-gatherer societies, 131, 261–62 hyperefficient markets, 39, 42–43 hypermedia, 224–30, 245 hyper-unemployment, 7–8 hypotheses, 113, 128, 151 IBM, 191 identity, 14–15, 82, 124, 173–74, 175, 248–51, 283–90, 305, 306, 307, 315–16, 319–21 identity theft, 82, 315–16 illusions, 55, 110n, 120–21, 135, 154–56, 195, 257 immigration, 91, 97, 346 immortality, 193, 218, 253, 263–64, 325–31, 367 imports, 70 income levels, 10, 46–47, 50–54, 152, 178, 270–71, 287–88, 291–94, 338–39, 365 incrementalism, 239–40 indentured servitude, 33n, 158 India, 54, 211–13 industrialization, 49, 83, 85–89, 123, 132, 154, 343 infant mortality rates, 17, 134 infinity, 55–56 inflation, 32, 33–34 information: age of, 15–17, 42, 166, 241 ambiguity of, 41, 53–54, 155–56 asymmetry of, 54–55, 61–66, 118, 188, 203, 246–48, 285–88, 291–92, 310 behavior influenced by, 32, 121, 131, 173–74, 286–87 collection of, 61–62, 108–9 context of, 143–44, 178, 188–89, 223–24, 225, 245–46, 247, 248–51, 338, 356–57, 360 correlations in, 75–76, 114–15, 192, 274–75 for decision-making, 63–64, 184, 266, 269–75, 284n digital networks for, see digital networks duplication of, 50–52, 61, 74, 78, 88, 223–30, 239–40, 253–64, 277, 317–24, 335, 349 economic impact of, 1–3, 8–9, 15–17, 18, 19–20, 21, 35, 60–61, 92–97, 118, 185, 188, 201, 207, 209, 241–43, 245–46, 246–48, 256–58, 263, 283–87, 291–303, 331, 361–67 in education, 92–97 encrypted, 14–15, 175, 239–40, 305–8, 345 false, 119–21, 186, 275n, 287–88, 299–300 filters for, 119–20, 200, 225, 356–57 free, 7–9, 15–16, 50–52, 61, 74, 78, 88, 214, 223–30, 239–40, 246, 253–64, 277, 317–24, 335, 349 history of, 29–31 human agency in, 22–25, 69–70, 120–21, 122, 190–91 interpretation of, 29n, 114–15, 116, 120–21, 129–32, 154, 158, 178, 183, 184, 188–89 investment, 59–60, 179–85 life cycle of, 175–76 patterns in, 178, 183, 184, 188–89 privacy of, see privacy provenance of, 245–46, 247, 338 sampling of, 71–72, 191, 221, 224–26, 259 shared, 50–52, 61, 74, 78, 88, 100, 223–30, 239–40, 253–64, 277, 317–24, 335, 349 signals in, 76–78, 148, 293–94 storage of, 29, 167n, 184–85; see also cloud processors and storage; servers superior, 61–66, 114, 128, 143, 171, 246–48 technology of, 7, 32–35, 49, 66n, 71–72, 109, 110, 116, 120, 125n, 126, 135, 136, 254, 312–16, 317 transparency of, 63–66, 74–78, 118, 190–91, 306–7 two-way links in, 1–2, 227, 245, 289 value of, 1–3, 15–16, 20, 210, 235–43, 257–58, 259, 261–63, 271–75, 321–24, 358–60 see also big data; data infrastructure, 79–80, 87, 179, 201, 290, 345 initial public offerings (IPOs), 103 ink, 87, 331 Inner Directeds, 215 Instagram, 2, 53 instant prices, 272, 275, 288, 320 insurance industry, 44, 56, 60, 66–67, 95, 98–99, 100, 153–54, 203, 306 intellectual property, 44, 47, 49, 60, 61, 96, 102, 183, 204, 205–10, 223, 224–26, 236, 239–40, 246, 253–64 intelligence agencies, 56, 61, 199–200, 291, 346 intelligence tests, 39, 40 interest rates, 81 Internet: advertising on, 14, 20, 24, 42, 66, 81, 107, 109, 114, 129, 154, 169–74, 177, 182, 207, 227, 242, 266–67, 275, 286, 291, 322–24, 347–48, 354, 355 anonymity of, 172, 248–51, 283–90 culture of, 13–15, 25 development of, 69, 74, 79–80, 89, 129–30, 159, 162, 190–96, 223, 228 economic impact of, 1–2, 18, 19–20, 24, 31, 43, 60–66, 79–82, 117, 136–37, 169–74, 181, 186 employment and, 2, 7–8, 56–57, 60, 71–74, 79, 117, 123, 135, 149, 178, 201, 257–58 file sharing on, 50–52, 61, 74, 78, 88, 100, 223–30, 239–40, 253–64, 277, 317–24, 335, 349 free products and services of, 7n, 10, 60–61, 73, 81, 82, 90, 94–96, 97, 128, 154, 176, 183, 187, 201, 205–10, 234, 246–48, 253–64, 283–88, 289, 308–9, 317–24, 337–38, 348–50, 366 human contributions to, 19–21, 128, 129–30, 191–92, 253–64 identity in, 14–15, 82, 173–74, 175, 283–90, 315–16 investment in, 117–20, 181 legal issues in, 63, 79–82, 204, 206, 318–19 licensing agreements for, 79–82 as network, 2–3, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19–21, 31, 49, 50–51, 53, 54–55, 56, 57, 75, 92, 129–30, 143–48, 228–29, 259, 286–87, 308–9 political aspect of, 13–15, 205–10 search engines for, 51, 60, 70, 81, 120, 191, 267, 289, 293; see also Google security of, 14–15, 175, 239–40, 305–8, 345 surveillance of, 1–2, 11, 14, 50–51, 64, 71–72, 99, 108–9, 114–15, 120–21, 152, 177n, 199–200, 201, 206–7, 234–35, 246, 272, 291, 305, 309–11, 315, 316, 317, 319–24 transparency of, 63–66, 176, 205–6, 278, 291, 308–9, 316, 336 websites on, 80, 170, 200, 201, 343 Internet2, 69 Internet service providers (ISPs), 171–72 Interstate Highway System, 79–80, 345 “In-valid,” 130 inventors, 117–20 investment, financial, 45, 50, 59–67, 74–80, 115, 116–20, 155, 179–85, 208, 218, 257, 258, 277–78, 298, 301, 348, 350 Invisible Hand humor, 126, 128 IP addresses, 248 iPads, 267 Iran, 199, 200 irony, 130 Islam, 184 Italy, 133 Jacquard programmable looms, 23n “jailbreaking,” 103–4 Japan, 85, 97, 98, 133 Jeopardy, 191 Jeremijenko, Natalie, 302 jingles, 267 jobs, see employment Jobs, Steve, 93, 166n, 192, 358 JOBS Act (2012), 117n journalism, 92, 94 Kapital, Das (Marx), 136 Keynesianism, 38, 151–52, 204, 209, 274, 288 Khan Academy, 94 Kickstarter, 117–20, 186–87, 343 Kindle, 352 Kinect, 89n, 265 “Kirk’s Wager,” 139 Klout, 365 Kodak, 2, 53 Kottke, Dan, 211 KPFA, 136 Kurzweil, Ray, 127, 325, 327 Kushner, Tony, 165, 189 LaBerge, Stephen, 162 labor, human, 85, 86, 87, 88, 99–100, 257–58, 292 labor unions, 44, 47–48, 49, 96, 239, 240 Laffer curve, 149–51, 150, 152 Las Vegas, Nev., 296, 298 lawyers, 98–99, 100, 136, 184, 318–19 leadership, 341–51 legacy prices, 272–75, 288 legal issues, 49, 63, 74–82, 98–99, 100, 104–5, 108, 136, 184, 204, 206, 318–19 Lehman Brothers, 188 lemonade stands, 79–82 “lemons,” 118–19 Lennon, John, 211, 213 levees, economic, 43–45, 46, 47, 48, 49–50, 52, 92, 94, 96, 98, 108, 171, 176n, 224–25, 239–43, 253–54, 263, 345 leveraged mortgages, 49–50, 61, 227, 245, 289n, 296 liberal arts, 97 liberalism, 135–36, 148, 152, 202, 204, 208, 235, 236, 251, 253, 256, 265, 293, 350 libertarianism, 14, 34, 80, 202, 208, 210, 262, 321 liberty, 13–15, 32–33, 90–92, 277–78, 336 licensing agreements, 79–82 “Lifestreams” (Gelernter), 313 Lights in the Tunnel, The (Ford), 56n Linux, 206, 253, 291, 344 litigation, 98–99, 100, 104–5, 108, 184 loans, 32–33, 42, 43, 74, 151–52, 306 local advantages, 64, 94–95, 143–44, 153–56, 173, 203, 280 Local/Global Flip, 153–56, 173, 280 locked-in software, 172–73, 182, 273–74 logical copies, 223 Long-Term Capital Management, 49, 74–75 looms, 22, 23n, 24 loopholes, tax, 77 lotteries, 338–39 lucid dreaming, 162 Luddites, 135, 136 lyres, 22, 23n, 24 machines, 19–20, 86, 92, 123, 129–30, 158, 261, 309–11, 328 see also computers “Machine Stops, The” (Forster), 129–30, 261, 328 machine translations, 19–20 machine vision, 309–11 McMillen, Keith, 117 magic, 110, 115, 151, 178, 216, 338 Malthus, Thomas, 132, 134 Malthusian humor, 125, 127, 132–33 management, 49 manufacturing sector, 49, 85–89, 99, 123, 154, 343 market economies, see economies, market marketing, 211–13, 266–67, 306, 346 “Markets for Lemons” problem, 118–19 Markoff, John, 213 marriage, 167–68, 274–75, 286 Marxism, 15, 22, 37–38, 48, 136–37, 262 as humor, 126 mash-ups, 191, 221, 224–26, 259 Maslow, Abraham, 260, 315 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 75, 93, 94, 96–97, 157–58, 184 mass media, 7, 66, 86, 109, 120, 135, 136, 185–86, 191, 216, 267 material extinction, 125 materialism, 125n, 195 mathematics, 11, 20, 40–41, 70, 71–72, 75–78, 116, 148, 155, 161, 189n, 273n see also statistics Matrix, The, 130, 137, 155 Maxwell, James Clerk, 55 Maxwell’s Demon, 55–56 mechanicals, 49, 51n Mechanical Turk, 177–78, 185, 187, 349 Medicaid, 99 medicine, 11–13, 17, 18, 54, 66–67, 97–106, 131, 132–33, 134, 150, 157–58, 325, 346, 363, 366–67 Meetings with Remarkable Men (Gurdjieff), 215 mega-dossiers, 60 memes, 124 Memex, 221n memories, 131, 312–13, 314 meta-analysis, 112 metaphysics, 12, 127, 139, 193–95 Metcalf’s Law, 169n, 350 Mexico City, 159–62 microfilm, 221n microorganisms, 162 micropayments, 20, 226, 274–75, 286–87, 317, 337–38, 365 Microsoft, 19, 89, 265 Middle Ages, 190 middle class, 2, 3, 9, 11, 16–17, 37–38, 40, 42–45, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 60, 74, 79, 91, 92, 95, 98, 171, 205, 208, 210, 224–25, 239–43, 246, 253–54, 259, 262, 263, 280, 291–94, 331, 341n, 344, 345, 347, 354 milling machines, 86 mind reading, 111 Minority Report, 130, 310 Minsky, Marvin, 94, 157–58, 217, 326, 330–31 mission statements, 154–55 Mixed (Augmented) Reality, 312–13, 314, 315 mobile phones, 34n, 39, 85, 87, 162, 172, 182n, 192, 229, 269n, 273, 314, 315, 331 models, economic, 40–41, 148–52, 153, 155–56 modernity, 123–40, 193–94, 255 molds, 86 monetization, 172, 176n, 185, 186, 207, 210, 241–43, 255–56, 258, 260–61, 263, 298, 331, 338, 344–45 money, 3, 21, 29–35, 86, 108, 124, 148, 152, 154, 155, 158, 172, 185, 241–43, 278–79, 284–85, 289, 364 monocultures, 94 monopolies, 60, 65–66, 169–74, 181–82, 187–88, 190, 202, 326, 350 Moondust, 362n Moore’s Law, 9–18, 20, 153, 274–75, 288 morality, 29–34, 35, 42, 50–52, 54, 71–74, 188, 194–95, 252–64, 335–36 Morlocks, 137 morning-after pill, 104 morphing, 162 mortality, 193, 218, 253, 263–64, 325–31, 367 mortgages, 33, 46, 49–52, 61, 78, 95–96, 99, 224, 227, 239, 245, 255, 274n, 289n, 296, 300 motivation, 7–18, 85–86, 97–98, 216 motivational speakers, 216 movies, 111–12, 130, 137, 165, 192, 193, 204, 206, 256, 261–62, 277–78, 310 Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus, 23n MRI, 111n music industry, 11, 18, 22, 23–24, 42, 47–51, 54, 61, 66, 74, 78, 86, 88, 89, 92, 94, 95–96, 97, 129, 132, 134–35, 154, 157, 159–62, 186–87, 192, 206–7, 224, 227, 239, 253, 266–67, 281, 318, 347, 353, 354, 355, 357 Myspace, 180 Nancarrow, Conlon, 159–62 Nancarrow, Yoko, 161 nanopayments, 20, 226, 274–75, 286–87, 317, 337–38, 365 nanorobots, 11, 12, 17 nanotechnology, 11, 12, 17, 87, 162 Napster, 92 narcissism, 153–56, 188, 201 narratives, 165–66, 199 National Security Agency (NSA), 199–200 natural medicine, 131 Nelson, Ted, 128, 221, 228, 245, 349–50 Nelsonian systems, 221–30, 335 Nelson’s humor, 128 Netflix, 192, 223 “net neutrality,” 172 networked cameras, 309–11, 319 networks, see digital networks neutrinos, 110n New Age, 211–17 Newmark, Craig, 177n New Mexico, 159, 203 newspapers, 109, 135, 177n, 225, 284, 285n New York, N.Y., 75, 91, 266–67 New York Times, 109 Nobel Prize, 40, 118, 143n nodes, network, 156, 227, 230, 241–43, 350 “no free lunch” principle, 55–56, 59–60 nondeterministic music, 23n nonlinear solutions, 149–50 nonprofit share sites, 59n, 94–95 nostalgia, 129–32 NRO, 199–200 nuclear power, 133 nuclear weapons, 127, 296 nursing, 97–100, 123, 296n nursing homes, 97–100, 269 Obama, Barack, 79, 100 “Obamacare,” 100n obsolescence, 89, 95 oil resources, 43, 133 online stores, 171 Ono, Yoko, 212 ontologies, 124n, 196 open-source applications, 206, 207, 272, 310–11 optical illusions, 121 optimism, 32–35, 45, 130, 138–40, 218, 230n, 295 optimization, 144–47, 148, 153, 154–55, 167, 202, 203 Oracle, 265 Orbitz, 63, 64, 65 organ donors, 190, 191 ouroboros, 154 outcomes, economic, 40–41, 144–45 outsourcing, 177–78, 185 Owens, Buck, 256 packet switching, 228–29 Palmer, Amanda, 186–87 Pandora, 192 panopticons, 308 papacy, 190 paper money, 34n parallel computers, 147–48, 149, 151 paranoia, 309 Parrish, Maxfield, 214 particle interactions, 196 party machines, 202 Pascal, Blaise, 132, 139 Pascal’s Wager, 139 passwords, 307, 309 “past-oriented money,” 29–31, 35, 284–85 patterns, information, 178, 183, 184, 188–89 Paul, Ron, 33n Pauli exclusion principle, 181, 202 PayPal, 60, 93, 326 peasants, 565 pensions, 95, 99 Perestroika (Kushner), 165 “perfect investments,” 59–67, 77–78 performances, musical, 47–48, 51, 186–87, 253 perpetual motion, 55 Persian Gulf, 86 personal computers (PCs), 158, 182n, 214, 223, 229 personal information systems, 110, 312–16, 317 Pfizer, 265 pharmaceuticals industry, 66–67, 100–106, 123, 136, 203 philanthropy, 117 photography, 53, 89n, 92, 94, 309–11, 318, 319, 321 photo-sharing services, 53 physical trades, 292 physicians, 66–67 physics, 88, 153n, 167n Picasso, Pablo, 108 Pinterest, 180–81, 183 Pirate Party, 49, 199, 206, 226, 253, 284, 318 placebos, 112 placement fees, 184 player pianos, 160–61 plutocracy, 48, 291–94, 355 police, 246, 310, 311, 319–21, 335 politics, 13–18, 21, 22–25, 47–48, 85, 122, 124–26, 128, 134–37, 149–51, 155, 167, 199–234, 295–96, 342 see also conservatism; liberalism; libertarianism Ponzi schemes, 48 Popper, Karl, 189n popular culture, 111–12, 130, 137–38, 139, 159 “populating the stack,” 273 population, 17, 34n, 86, 97–100, 123, 125, 132, 133, 269, 296n, 325–26, 346 poverty, 37–38, 42, 44, 53–54, 93–94, 137, 148, 167, 190, 194, 253, 256, 263, 290, 291–92 power, personal, 13–15, 53, 60, 62–63, 86, 114, 116, 120, 122, 158, 166, 172–73, 175, 190, 199, 204, 207, 208, 278–79, 290, 291, 302–3, 308–9, 314, 319, 326, 344, 360 Presley, Elvis, 211 Priceline, 65 pricing strategies, 1–2, 43, 60–66, 72–74, 145, 147–48, 158, 169–74, 226, 261, 272–75, 289, 317–24, 331, 337–38 printers, 90, 99, 154, 162, 212, 269, 310–11, 316, 331, 347, 348, 349 privacy, 1–2, 11, 13–15, 25, 50–51, 64, 99, 108–9, 114–15, 120–21, 152, 177n, 199–200, 201, 204, 206–7, 234–35, 246, 272, 291, 305, 309–13, 314, 315–16, 317, 319–24 privacy rights, 13–15, 25, 204, 305, 312–13, 314, 315–16, 321–22 product design and development, 85–89, 117–20, 128, 136–37, 145, 154, 236 productivity, 7, 56–57, 134–35 profit margins, 59n, 71–72, 76–78, 94–95, 116, 177n, 178, 179, 207, 258, 274–75, 321–22 progress, 9–18, 20, 21, 37, 43, 48, 57, 88, 98, 123, 124–40, 130–37, 256–57, 267, 325–31, 341–42 promotions, 62 property values, 52 proprietary hardware, 172 provenance, 245–46, 247, 338 pseudo-asceticism, 211–12 public libraries, 293 public roads, 79–80 publishers, 62n, 92, 182, 277–78, 281, 347, 352–60 punishing vs. rewarding network effects, 169–74, 182, 183 quants, 75–76 quantum field theory, 167n, 195 QuNeo, 117, 118, 119 Rabois, Keith, 185 “race to the bottom,” 178 radiant risk, 61–63, 118–19, 120, 156, 183–84 Ragnarok, 30 railroads, 43, 172 Rand, Ayn, 167, 204 randomness, 143 rationality, 144 Reagan, Ronald, 149 real estate, 33, 46, 49–52, 61, 78, 95–96, 99, 193, 224, 227, 239, 245, 255, 274n, 289n, 296, 298, 300, 301 reality, 55–56, 59–60, 124n, 127–28, 154–56, 161, 165–68, 194–95, 203–4, 216–17, 295–303, 364–65 see also Virtual Reality (VR) reason, 195–96 recessions, economic, 31, 54, 60, 76–77, 79, 151–52, 167, 204, 311, 336–37 record labels, 347 recycling, 88, 89 Reddit, 118n, 186, 254 reductionism, 184 regulation, economic, 37–38, 44, 45–46, 49–50, 54, 56, 69–70, 77–78, 266n, 274, 299–300, 311, 321–22, 350–51 relativity theory, 167n religion, 124–25, 126, 131, 139, 190, 193–95, 211–17, 293, 300n, 326 remote computers, 11–12 rents, 144 Republican Party, 79, 202 research and development, 40–45, 85–89, 117–20, 128, 136–37, 145, 154, 215, 229–30, 236 retail sector, 69, 70–74, 95–96, 169–74, 272, 349–51, 355–56 retirement, 49, 150 revenue growth plans, 173n revenues, 149, 149, 150, 151, 173n, 225, 234–35, 242, 347–48 reversible computers, 143n revolutions, 199, 291, 331 rhythm, 159–62 Rich Dad, Poor Dad (Kiyosaki), 46 risk, 54, 55, 57, 59–63, 71–72, 85, 117, 118–19, 120, 156, 170–71, 179, 183–84, 188, 242, 277–81, 284, 337, 350 externalization of, 59n, 117, 277–81 risk aversion, 188 risk pools, 277–81, 284 risk radiation, 61–63, 118–19, 120, 156, 183–84 robo call centers, 177n robotic cars, 90–92 robotics, robots, 11, 12, 17, 23, 42, 55, 85–86, 90–92, 97–100, 111, 129, 135–36, 155, 157, 162, 260, 261, 269, 296n, 342, 359–60 Roman Empire, 24–25 root nodes, 241 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 129 Rousseau humor, 126, 129, 130–31 routers, 171–72 royalties, 47, 240, 254, 263–64, 323, 338 Rubin, Edgar, 121 rupture, 66–67 salaries, 10, 46–47, 50–54, 152, 178, 270–71, 287–88, 291–94, 338–39, 365 sampling, 71–72, 191, 221, 224–26, 259 San Francisco, University of, 190 satellites, 110 savings, 49, 72–74 scalable solutions, 47 scams, 119–21, 186, 275n, 287–88, 299–300 scanned books, 192, 193 SceneTap, 108n Schmidt, Eric, 305n, 352 Schwartz, Peter, 214 science fiction, 18, 126–27, 136, 137–38, 139, 193, 230n, 309, 356n search engines, 51, 60, 70, 81, 120, 191, 267, 289, 293 Second Life, 270, 343 Secret, The (Byrne), 216 securitization, 76–78, 99, 289n security, 14–15, 175, 239–40, 305–8, 345 self-actualization, 211–17 self-driving vehicles, 90–92, 98, 311, 343, 367 servants, 22 servers, 12n, 15, 31, 53–57, 71–72, 95–96, 143–44, 171, 180, 183, 206, 245, 358 see also Siren Servers “Sexy Sadie,” 213 Shakur, Tupac, 329 Shelley, Mary, 327 Short History of Progress, A (Wright), 132 “shrinking markets,” 66–67 shuttles, 22, 23n, 24 signal-processing algorithms, 76–78, 148 silicon chips, 10, 86–87 Silicon Valley, 12, 13, 14, 21, 34n, 56, 59, 60, 66–67, 70, 71, 75–76, 80, 93, 96–97, 100, 102, 108n, 125n, 132, 136, 154, 157, 162, 170, 179–89, 192, 193, 200, 207, 210, 211–18, 228, 230, 233, 258, 275n, 294, 299–300, 325–31, 345, 349, 352, 354–58 singularity, 22–25, 125, 215, 217, 327–28, 366, 367 Singularity University, 193, 325, 327–28 Sirenic Age, 66n, 354 Siren Servers, 53–57, 59, 61–64, 65, 66n, 69–78, 82, 91–99, 114–19, 143–48, 154–56, 166–89, 191, 200, 201, 203, 210n, 216, 235, 246–50, 258, 259, 269, 271, 272, 280, 285, 289, 293–94, 298, 301, 302–3, 307–10, 314–23, 326, 336–51, 354, 365, 366 Siri, 95 skilled labor, 99–100 Skout, 280n Skype, 95, 129 slavery, 22, 23, 33n Sleeper, 130 small businesses, 173 smartphones, 34n, 39, 162, 172, 192, 269n, 273 Smith, Adam, 121, 126 Smolin, Lee, 148n social contract, 20, 49, 247, 284, 288, 335, 336 social engineering, 112–13, 190–91 socialism, 14, 128, 254, 257, 341n social mobility, 66, 97, 292–94 social networks, 18, 51, 56, 60, 70, 81, 89, 107–9, 113, 114, 129, 167–68, 172–73, 179, 180, 190, 199, 200–201, 202, 204, 227, 241, 242–43, 259, 267, 269n, 274–75, 280n, 286, 307–8, 317, 336, 337, 343, 349, 358, 365–66 see also Facebook social safety nets, 10, 44, 54, 202, 251, 293 Social Security, 251, 345 software, 7, 9, 11, 14, 17, 68, 86, 99, 100–101, 128, 129, 147, 154, 155, 165, 172–73, 177–78, 182, 192, 234, 236, 241–42, 258, 262, 273–74, 283, 331, 347, 357 software-mediated technology, 7, 11, 14, 86, 100–101, 165, 234, 236, 258, 347 South Korea, 133 Soviet Union, 70 “space elevator pitch,” 233, 342, 361 space travel, 233, 266 Spain, 159–60 spam, 178, 275n spending levels, 287–88 spirituality, 126, 211–17, 325–31, 364 spreadsheet programs, 230 “spy data tax,” 234–35 Square, 185 Stalin, Joseph, 125n Stanford Research Institute (SRI), 215 Stanford University, 60, 75, 90, 95, 97, 101, 102, 103, 162, 325 Starr, Ringo, 256 Star Trek, 138, 139, 230n startup companies, 39, 60, 69, 93–94, 108n, 124n, 136, 179–89, 265, 274n, 279–80, 309–10, 326, 341, 343–45, 348, 352, 355 starvation, 123 Star Wars, 137 star (winner-take-all) system, 38–43, 50, 54–55, 204, 243, 256–57, 263, 329–30 statistics, 11, 20, 71–72, 75–78, 90–91, 93, 110n, 114–15, 186, 192 “stickiness,” 170, 171 stimulus, economic, 151–52 stoplights, 90 Strangelove humor, 127 student debt, 92, 95 “Study 27,” 160 “Study 36,” 160 Sumer, 29 supergoop, 85–89 supernatural phenomena, 55, 124–25, 127, 132, 192, 194–95, 300 supply chain, 70–72, 174, 187 Supreme Court, U.S., 104–5 surgery, 11–13, 17, 18, 98, 157–58, 363 surveillance, 1–2, 11, 14, 50–51, 64, 71–72, 99, 108–9, 114–15, 120–21, 152, 177n, 199–200, 201, 206–7, 234–35, 246, 272, 291, 305, 309–11, 315, 316, 317, 319–24 Surviving Progress, 132 sustainable economies, 235–37, 285–87 Sutherland, Ivan, 221 swarms, 99, 109 synthesizers, 160 synthetic biology, 162 tablets, 85, 86, 87, 88, 113, 162, 229 Tahrir Square, 95 Tamagotchis, 98 target ads, 170 taxation, 44, 45, 49, 52, 60, 74–75, 77, 82, 149, 149, 150, 151, 202, 210, 234–35, 263, 273, 289–90 taxis, 44, 91–92, 239, 240, 266–67, 269, 273, 311 Teamsters, 91 TechCrunch, 189 tech fixes, 295–96 technical schools, 96–97 technologists (“techies”), 9–10, 15–16, 45, 47–48, 66–67, 88, 122, 124, 131–32, 134, 139–40, 157–62, 165–66, 178, 193–94, 295–98, 307, 309, 325–31, 341, 342, 356n technology: author’s experience in, 47–48, 62n, 69–72, 93–94, 114, 130, 131–32, 153, 158–62, 178, 206–7, 228, 265, 266–67, 309–10, 325, 328, 343, 352–53, 362n, 364, 365n, 366 bio-, 11–13, 17, 18, 109–10, 162, 330–31 chaos and, 165–66, 273n, 331 collusion in, 65–66, 72, 169–74, 255, 350–51 complexity of, 53–54 costs of, 8, 18, 72–74, 87n, 136–37, 170–71, 176–77, 184–85 creepiness of, 305–24 cultural impact of, 8–9, 21, 23–25, 53, 130, 135–40 development and emergence of, 7–18, 21, 53–54, 60–61, 66–67, 85–86, 87, 97–98, 129–38, 157–58, 182, 188–90, 193–96, 217 digital, 2–3, 7–8, 15–16, 18, 31, 40, 43, 50–51, 132, 208 economic impact of, 1–3, 15–18, 29–30, 37, 40, 53–54, 60–66, 71–74, 79–110, 124, 134–37, 161, 162, 169–77, 181–82, 183, 184–85, 218, 254, 277–78, 298, 335–39, 341–51, 357–58 educational, 92–97 efficiency of, 90, 118, 191 employment in, 56–57, 60, 71–74, 79, 123, 135, 178 engineering for, 113–14, 123–24, 192, 194, 217, 218, 326 essential vs. worthless, 11–12 failure of, 188–89 fear of (technophobia), 129–32, 134–38 freedom as issue in, 32–33, 90–92, 277–78, 336 government influence in, 158, 199, 205–6, 234–35, 240, 246, 248–51, 307, 317, 341, 345–46, 350–51 human agency and, 8–21, 50–52, 85, 88, 91, 124–40, 144, 165–66, 175–78, 191–92, 193, 217, 253–64, 274–75, 283–85, 305–6, 328, 341–51, 358–60, 361, 362, 365–67 ideas for, 123, 124, 158, 188–89, 225, 245–46, 286–87, 299, 358–60 industrial, 49, 83, 85–89, 123, 132, 154, 343 information, 7, 32–35, 49, 66n, 71–72, 109, 110, 116, 120, 125n, 126, 135, 136, 254, 312–16, 317 investment in, 66, 181, 183, 184, 218, 277–78, 298, 348 limitations of, 157–62, 196, 222 monopolies for, 60, 65–66, 169–74, 181–82, 187–88, 190, 202, 326, 350 morality and, 50–51, 72, 73–74, 188, 194–95, 262, 335–36 motivation and, 7–18, 85–86, 97–98, 216 nano-, 11, 12, 17, 162 new vs. old, 20–21 obsolescence of, 89, 97 political impact of, 13–18, 22–25, 85, 122, 124–26, 128, 134–37, 199–234, 295–96, 342 progress in, 9–18, 20, 21, 37, 43, 48, 57, 88, 98, 123, 124–40, 130–37, 256–57, 267, 325–31, 341–42 resources for, 55–56, 157–58 rupture as concept in, 66–67 scams in, 119–21, 186, 275n, 287–88, 299–300 singularity of, 22–25, 125, 215, 217, 327–28, 366, 367 social impact of, 9–21, 124–40, 167n, 187, 280–81, 310–11 software-mediated, 7, 11, 14, 86, 100–101, 165, 234, 236, 258, 347 startup companies in, 39, 60, 69, 93–94, 108n, 124n, 136, 179–89, 265, 274n, 279–80, 309–10, 326, 341, 343–45, 348, 352, 355 utopian, 13–18, 21, 31, 37–38, 45–46, 96, 128, 130, 167, 205, 207, 265, 267, 270, 283, 290, 291, 308–9, 316 see also specific technologies technophobia, 129–32, 134–38 television, 86, 185–86, 191, 216, 267 temperature, 56, 145 Ten Commandments, 300n Terminator, The, 137 terrorism, 133, 200 Tesla, Nikola, 327 Texas, 203 text, 162, 352–60 textile industry, 22, 23n, 24, 135 theocracy, 194–95 Theocracy humor, 124–25 thermodynamics, 88, 143n Thiel, Peter, 60, 93, 326 thought experiments, 55, 139 thought schemas, 13 3D printers, 7, 85–89, 90, 99, 154, 162, 212, 269, 310–11, 316, 331, 347, 348, 349 Thrun, Sebastian, 94 Tibet, 214 Time Machine, The (Wells), 127, 137, 261, 331 topology, network, 241–43, 246 touchscreens, 86 tourism, 79 Toyota Prius, 302 tracking services, 109, 120–21, 122 trade, 29 traffic, 90–92, 314 “tragedy of the commons,” 66n Transformers, 98 translation services, 19–20, 182, 191, 195, 261, 262, 284, 338 transparency, 63–66, 74–78, 118, 176, 190–91, 205–6, 278, 291, 306–9, 316, 336 transportation, 79–80, 87, 90–92, 123, 258 travel agents, 64 Travelocity, 65 travel sites, 63, 64, 65, 181, 279–80 tree-shaped networks, 241–42, 243, 246 tribal dramas, 126 trickle-down effect, 148–49, 204 triumphalism, 128, 157–62 tropes (humors), 124–40, 157, 170, 230 trust, 32–34, 35, 42, 51–52 Turing, Alan, 127–28, 134 Turing’s humor, 127–28, 191–94 Turing Test, 330 Twitter, 128, 173n, 180, 182, 188, 199, 200n, 201, 204, 245, 258, 259, 349, 365n 2001: A Space Odyssey, 137 two-way links, 1–2, 227, 245, 289 underemployment, 257–58 unemployment, 7–8, 22, 79, 85–106, 117, 151–52, 234, 257–58, 321–22, 331, 343 “unintentional manipulation,” 144 United States, 25, 45, 54, 79–80, 86, 138, 199–204 universities, 92–97 upper class, 45, 48 used car market, 118–19 user interface, 362–63, 364 utopianism, 13–18, 21, 30, 31, 37–38, 45–46, 96, 128, 130, 167, 205, 207, 265, 267, 270, 283, 290, 291, 308–9, 316 value, economic, 21, 33–35, 52, 61, 64–67, 73n, 108, 283–90, 299–300, 321–22, 364 value, information, 1–3, 15–16, 20, 210, 235–43, 257–58, 259, 261–63, 271–75, 321–24, 358–60 Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyles (VALS), 215 variables, 149–50 vendors, 71–74 venture capital, 66, 181, 218, 277–78, 298, 348 videos, 60, 100, 162, 185–86, 204, 223, 225, 226, 239, 240, 242, 245, 277, 287, 329, 335–36, 349, 354, 356 Vietnam War, 353n vinyl records, 89 viral videos, 185–86 Virtual Reality (VR), 12, 47–48, 127, 129, 132, 158, 162, 214, 283–85, 312–13, 314, 315, 325, 343, 356, 362n viruses, 132–33 visibility, 184, 185–86, 234, 355 visual cognition, 111–12 VitaBop, 100–106, 284n vitamins, 100–106 Voice, The, 185–86 “voodoo economics,” 149 voting, 122, 202–4, 249 Wachowski, Lana, 165 Wall Street, 49, 70, 76–77, 181, 184, 234, 317, 331, 350 Wal-Mart, 69, 70–74, 89, 174, 187, 201 Warhol, Andy, 108 War of the Worlds, The (Wells), 137 water supplies, 17, 18 Watts, Alan, 211–12 Wave, 189 wealth: aggregate or concentration of, 9, 42–43, 53, 60, 61, 74–75, 96, 97, 108, 115, 148, 157–58, 166, 175, 201, 202, 208, 234, 278–79, 298, 305, 335, 355, 360 creation of, 32, 33–34, 46–47, 50–51, 57, 62–63, 79, 92, 96, 120, 148–49, 210, 241–43, 270–75, 291–94, 338–39, 349 inequalities and redistribution of, 20, 37–45, 65–66, 92, 97, 144, 254, 256–57, 274–75, 286–87, 290–94, 298, 299–300 see also income levels weather forecasting, 110, 120, 150 weaving, 22, 23n, 24 webcams, 99, 245 websites, 80, 170, 200, 201, 343 Wells, H.


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, basic income, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lifelogging, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

One way to improve literacy in emerging markets (perhaps the key metric for poverty eradication) could be via decentralized smart contracts for literacy written between a donor/sponsor peer and a learning peer. Much in the way that Bitcoin is the decentralized (very low fee charging, no intermediary) means of exchanging currencies between countries, a decentralized contract system could be helpful for setting up learning contracts directly with students/student groups in a similar peer-to-peer manner, conceptually similar to a personalized Khan Academy curriculum program. Learners would receive Bitcoin, Learncoin, or the local token directly into their digital wallets—like 37Coins, Coinapolt, or Kipochi (used as Bitcoin or converted into local fiat currency)—from worldwide peer donors, and use this to fund their education expenses at school or separately on their own. A key part of the value chain is having a reporting mechanism (enabled and automated by Ethereum smart contracts, for example) to attest to learner progress.


pages: 181 words: 52,147

The Driver in the Driverless Car: How Our Technology Choices Will Create the Future by Vivek Wadhwa, Alex Salkever

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Google bus, Hyperloop, income inequality, Internet of things, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Law of Accelerating Returns, license plate recognition, life extension, longitudinal study, Lyft, M-Pesa, Menlo Park, microbiome, mobile money, new economy, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Thomas Davenport, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, uranium enrichment, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero day

First was the promise of One Laptop per Child; but proof that students using computers regularly for classwork and homework do better than those without has remained elusive. And in some major school districts, such as Los Angeles Unified, experiments in giving a tablet to each student have proven unqualified failures. Indeed, the jury remains out on computer-assisted education altogether. Then there was the hope of online education. We’d all be learning from the Khan Academy or other online site. All the knowledge of the world would be accessible to everyone. And, to highly motivated students who could sit through lectures and quickly grasp concepts, it proved to be so. Unfortunately, those students represented a very small percentage of the total. Online education didn’t lead to mass learning or competence. Worse, researchers found that the people most likely to take advantage of online courses were those who need the least help: middle-class and upper-middle-class professionals.


pages: 636 words: 140,406

The Case Against Education: Why the Education System Is a Waste of Time and Money by Bryan Caplan

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, assortative mating, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, deliberate practice, deskilling, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, experimental subject, fear of failure, Flynn Effect, future of work, George Akerlof, ghettoisation, hive mind, job satisfaction, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, market bubble, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Peter Thiel, price discrimination, profit maximization, publication bias, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, school choice, selection bias, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, trickle-down economics, twin studies, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, yield curve, zero-sum game

Education is not a bubble, but stable waste. As long as traditional education receives hundreds of billions of taxpayer dollars every year, the status quo will stand. Online education will slowly carve out a niche, but that is all. Technophiles would have a compelling case if education’s sole function were teaching job skills. Online education has clear pedagogical advantages over traditional education. Coursera, Khan Academy, Marginal Revolution University, and their rivals hire the best teachers in the world.47 Students can learn at their own pace—pausing whenever they need to reflect, rewinding whenever they need review, fast forwarding as soon as they master the material. Anyone who’s lost can drop a level without looking like a loser. Anyone’s who’s bored can jump a level without looking like a nerd. Online education is an awesome way to build human capital.

., 239 Jarjoura, Roger, 331n27 Jepsen, Lisa, 322n100 job satisfaction: for a Good Student, 134; social return to education and, 170–71 Johnson, Lyndon, 213–14 Johnson, William, 303n17 Jones, Garett, 300n89, 315n95 Kalmijn, Matthijs, 322n100 Kam, Cindy, 333n41 Kambourov, Gueorgui, 301n89 Kane, Thomas, 307n3, 309n4, 309n9, 323n116 Kasim, Rafa, 309n11 Katz, Lawrence, 328n19 Keith, Toby, 239 Khan Academy, 219 Kleiner, Morris, 305n67 Kling, Arnold, 26 knowledge: of foreign languages, 48–49; of history and civics/politics, 44–46; inert, 57; learning, as a measure of, 40; literacy and numeracy, 40–43; of science, 47–48; staggering lack of, 48–49 Kotkin, Minna, 305n78 Krampe, Ralf, 301n93 Krueger, Alan, 149–50, 303n27, 305n67, 314n78, 314n84, 320n78–80, 321n81–82 Krugman, Paul, 295n13 Kuncel, Nathan, 299n46 Labaree, David, 260 labor economists: ability bias versus, the Card Consensus and, 76–79; signaling versus, 121–23, 270 labor market: curriculum and, disconnect between, 10–13; dehiring, 25; deliberate practice as route to expertise in, 63–64; diploma dilemma and, 27; earnings premium of education in (see earnings premium of education); employment/unemployment for a Good Student, 131, 133; failing versus forgetting, implications of, 27–28; foot in the door, signaling to get your, 24–25; networking in school and, 66–67; overqualified workers (see malemployment); payment for unused education, 104–8; rewarding useless education by (see signaling model of education); school ethic versus work ethic, 64–66; signaling in (see signaling model of education); workforce participation, 176–77.


pages: 217 words: 63,287

The Participation Revolution: How to Ride the Waves of Change in a Terrifyingly Turbulent World by Neil Gibb

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, gig economy, iterative process, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kodak vs Instagram, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Network effects, new economy, performance metric, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route, urban renewal

MinecraftEdu, a partnership set up by enthusiasts in Spain, Finland, and New York City, helps teachers use Minecraft as a virtual classroom for everything from maths to art and design. Schools in other countries are beginning to use Minecraft as a way to help students develop design and collaboration skills. Parents, realising the positive effect it has on their children, are beginning to rethink their views on gaming as a good/bad use of time. Universities and business schools are seeing their model challenged by online educational offerings like the Khan Academy and massive open online courses, or MOOCs. Minecraft shows how participatory innovation can be used not just to bring education online, but to engage people in a whole different way of learning – through group participation rather than individual study; learning through doing together, rather than learning alone, then doing. It also points to how the principles of participatory innovation can make a difference in society.


pages: 270 words: 64,235

Effective Programming: More Than Writing Code by Jeff Atwood

AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, cloud computing, endowment effect, Firefox, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, gravity well, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Merlin Mann, Minecraft, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, price anchoring, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, science of happiness, Skype, social software, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Your goal shouldn’t be merely to get a job, or hire someone for a job, but to have fun and create a love connection. Don’t rush into anything unless it feels right on both sides. (As an aside, if you’re looking for ways to attract programmers, you can’t go wrong with this excellent advice from Samuel Mullen.) Ben Hammersley@benhammersley “Two job candidates. One with only the top badges from Khan Academy and StackOverflow. The other with a 1:1 from top school. Choose.” 2:59 AM – 30 Jan 12 Getting the Interview Phone Screen Right It is very expensive to get the phone screen wrong — a giant waste of time for everyone involved. The best phone screen article you’ll ever find is Steve Yegge’s Five Essential Phone-Screen Questions, another gift to us from Steve’s stint at Amazon. Steve starts by noting two critical mistakes that phone screeners should do their best to avoid: Don’t let the candidate drive the interview.


pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee

4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

The open systems that Rosenberg advocates serve as complements to closed “black box” algorithms (as law professor Frank Pasquale describes them in his recent book)10 which are the key to Google’s business. Three years on, Rosenberg was an advisor to Google management, and found himself in “a world that has outstripped even his wildest expectations.” 11 Drawing on stories from books like Wikinomics,12 on the Government of Canada’s Open Government Declaration, on the non-profit Khan Academy’s video lectures, on PatientsLikeMe in healthcare and Google’s mapping tools, as well as Google’s own success with Android smartphones and the Chrome browser, Rosenberg believes that openness needs to go even further: “We must aim beyond even an open internet. Institutions in general must continue to embrace this ethos.” Here is the ambition of Silicon Valley: to reshape the world in the Internet’s image.


pages: 232 words: 71,024

The Decline and Fall of IBM: End of an American Icon? by Robert X. Cringely

AltaVista, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, business process, cloud computing, commoditize, compound rate of return, corporate raider, full employment, if you build it, they will come, immigration reform, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Paul Graham, platform as a service, race to the bottom, remote working, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Toyota Production System, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application

Six months later, first line managers still could not get written answers on the implications. When asked, HR and finance partners would never clarify whether employees could register for a conference (5 days X 8 hours = 40) under this program or not. They would only say Internet podcasts qualify. In practice, it further degraded management’s credibility as it simply turned into a cheap accounting trick – record in a database when you decide to follow a free khan academy class. Think40 is one illustration of how PR works in this company. Deadbeef / August 27, 2013 / 2:23 am Training program is a ‘joke’ Internal blogs and Jams. Ha ha. No one in their right mind says what they really think so you may as well just shoot any career you might have in the foot as do that. A few (very few) folks skirt around the issues from time to time, try to point out the flaws without being suicidal, but in general most people just keep their heads down.


pages: 260 words: 76,223

Ctrl Alt Delete: Reboot Your Business. Reboot Your Life. Your Future Depends on It. by Mitch Joel

3D printing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, call centre, clockwatching, cloud computing, Firefox, future of work, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, place-making, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, white picket fence, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Look at everything from the copy on your website to what the experience is like when someone tries to find you on their smartphone. Sometimes, the most obvious answer to a problem is staring at you right in the face. Salman Khan used to tutor his cousin, Nadia, via long distance by posting videos on YouTube. This very simplistic way of working has turned into an educational movement that is shaking the very foundation of our educational system. The Khan Academy has become a lighthouse for new and different ways to think about education and how kids can learn. iTunes U allows universities to post their lectures online for anyone to download and sample. In short, the technology is becoming simpler, but the solutions to our standard business problems have also become easier because of our connectivity (it’s up to you to piece them together). You don’t need a five-year technology road map to get things done anymore.


pages: 318 words: 77,223

The Only Game in Town: Central Banks, Instability, and Avoiding the Next Collapse by Mohamed A. El-Erian

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, balance sheet recession, bank run, barriers to entry, break the buck, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, currency peg, disruptive innovation, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, financial repression, fixed income, Flash crash, forward guidance, friendly fire, full employment, future of work, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, income inequality, inflation targeting, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Rogoff, Khan Academy, liquidity trap, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Norman Mailer, oil shale / tar sands, price stability, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, yield curve, zero-sum game

More concerning, it is a world that makes cyberterrorism and nonstate terrorism more meaningful threats.3 Governments that look to the technological revolution to materially improve the welfare of both current and future generations while also countering its dark side need to understand the dual nature of these transformative innovations. Think of the following tug-of-war on some of the youth at risk: On the one hand, access to the Khan Academy, an impressive online learning platform, brings academic knowledge, self-improvement, and skill acquisition to them in a highly engaging and cost-effective manner; on the other hand is the relatively easy circulation of impressionable ISIS videos that seek to recruit them for a life of violence and uprooting. And all this occurs largely outside the reach of governments. We need to be clear about the risks ahead.


pages: 254 words: 76,064

Whiplash: How to Survive Our Faster Future by Joi Ito, Jeff Howe

3D printing, Albert Michelson, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, buy low sell high, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, fiat currency, financial innovation, Flash crash, frictionless, game design, Gerolamo Cardano, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, microbiome, Nate Silver, Network effects, neurotypical, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Coase, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Singh, Singularitarianism, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, universal basic income, unpaid internship, uranium enrichment, urban planning, WikiLeaks

Rather than hiring large teams of engineers, designers, and programmers, start-ups and individuals can tap into a global community of freelancers and volunteers who can provide the skills they lack.21 Another important component in the move toward emergence over authority has been the proliferation of free and low-cost online and community education. This not only includes formal classes, such as edX, but also educational websites like Khan Academy, hands-on classes at maker- and hackerspaces, and informal peer tutoring conducted online or in person. The more opportunities people have to learn new skills, the more innovative they become.22 All of these advances are creating a de facto system in which people worldwide are empowered to learn, design, develop, and participate in acts of creative disobedience. Unlike authoritarian systems, which enable only incremental change, emergent systems foster the kind of nonlinear innovation that can react quickly to the kind of rapid changes that characterize the network age.


pages: 266 words: 80,018

The Snowden Files: The Inside Story of the World's Most Wanted Man by Luke Harding

affirmative action, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Firefox, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, job-hopping, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, kremlinology, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steve Jobs, undersea cable, web application, WikiLeaks

Greenwald replied that he hadn’t. The journalist asked for more time. Several more days passed. Another email arrived. It persisted: ‘Have you done it?’ Frustrated, Greenwald’s unknown correspondent now tried a different strategy. He made a private YouTube tutorial showing step by step how to download the correct encryption software – a ‘how to’ guide for dummies. This video had little in common with the Khan Academy: its author remained anonymous, an off-screen presence. It merely contained a set of instructions. ‘I saw a computer screen and graphics. I didn’t see any hands. He was very cautious,’ Greenwald says. The freelance journalist watched. But – stretched by other demands – didn’t quite get round to following its strictures. He forgot about it. ‘I wanted to do it. I work a lot with hacker types,’ Greenwald says.


pages: 280 words: 71,268

Measure What Matters: How Google, Bono, and the Gates Foundation Rock the World With OKRs by John Doerr

Albert Einstein, Bob Noyce, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Haight Ashbury, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Ray Kurzweil, risk tolerance, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, subscription business, web application, Yogi Berra, éminence grise

From Intuit: Atticus Tysen, Scott Cook, Brad Smith, Sherry Whiteley, and Olga Braylovskliy. From Adobe: Donna Morris, Shantanu Narayen, and Dan Rosensweig. From Zume: Julia Collins and Alex Garden. From Coursera: Lila Ibrahim, Daphne Koller, Andrew Ng, Rick Levin, and Jeff Maggioncalda. From Lumeris: Andrew Cole, Art Glasgow, and Mike Long. From Schneider Electric: Hervé Coureil and Sharon Abraham. From Walmart: John Brothers, Becky Schmitt, and Angela Christman. From Khan Academy: Orly Friedman and Sal Khan. I am honored to acknowledge the experts who lent their insights, input, and many contributions to the OKR movement and this book: Alex Barnett; Tracy Beltrane; Ethan Bernstein; Josh Bersin; Ben Brookes; John Brothers; Aaron Butkus; Ivy Choy; John Chu; Roger Corn; Angus Davis; Chris Deptula; Patrick Foley; Uwe Higgen; Arnold Hur; General Tom Kolditz; Cory Kreeck; Jonathan Lesser; Aaron Levie; Kevin Louie; Denise Lyle; Chris Mason; Amelia Merrill; Deep Nishar; Bill Pence; Stephanie Pimmel; Philip Potloff; Aurelie Richard; Dr.


pages: 365 words: 96,573

Breath: The New Science of a Lost Art by James Nestor

Albert Einstein, epigenetics, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, Khan Academy, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, stem cell

“In every culture and in every medical tradition”: This quotation has been attributed to Szent-Györgyi’s lecture “Electronic Biology and Cancer,” which he presented at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, July, 1972. filled with copies: “Master DeRose,” enacademic.com, https://enacademic.com/dic.nsf/enwiki/11708766. now Afghanistan, Pakistan: The Indus Valley descriptions and details are taken from the following: “Indus River Valley Civilizations,” Khan Academy, https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world-history/world-history-beginnings/ancient-india/a/the-indus-river-valley-civilizations; Saifullah Khan, “Sanitation and Wastewater Technologies in Harappa/Indus Valley Civilization (ca. 2600–1900 bce),” https://canvas.brown.edu/files/61957992/download?download_frd=1. largest geographically: To put this in perspective, 300,000 square miles is equivalent to all East Coast states from Florida to New York.


pages: 493 words: 98,982

The Tyranny of Merit: What’s Become of the Common Good? by Michael J. Sandel

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, coronavirus, COVID-19, Credit Default Swap, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, global supply chain, helicopter parent, High speed trading, immigration reform, income inequality, Khan Academy, laissez-faire capitalism, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Washington Consensus

Some, in places like Manhattan, charge as much as $1,000 per hour for one-on-one tutoring. As meritocratic competition for college admission has intensified in recent decades, tutoring and test prep has become a billion-dollar industry. 27 For years, the College Board, which administers the SAT, insisted that its test measured aptitude and that scores were unaffected by tutoring. It recently dropped that pretense and entered a partnership with the Khan Academy to provide free online SAT practice to all test takers. Although this was a worthy undertaking, it did little to level the test-prep playing field, as College Board officials hoped and claimed it would. Unsurprisingly perhaps, students from families with higher incomes and education levels made greater use of the online help than did students from disadvantaged backgrounds, resulting in an even greater scoring gap between the privileged and the rest. 28 For Conant, a test of aptitude or IQ held promise as a democratic measure of academic ability, untainted by educational disadvantage and the vagaries of high school grades.


pages: 334 words: 104,382

Brotopia: Breaking Up the Boys' Club of Silicon Valley by Emily Chang

23andMe, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, affirmative action, Airbnb, Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, California gold rush, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, gender pay gap, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, high net worth, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microservices, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, post-work, pull request, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, subscription business, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, women in the workforce

“When I typed something up and it would magically appear on the screen, that realization that you can create something that works right away is amazing,” Wong said. Zaynah Shaikh, a nineteen-year-old computer science major who had recently graduated from the GWC program, added, “Seeing the program work, I think it’s pretty empowering. With code you can do so many things.” Ria Thakkar, seventeen, taught herself how to code using Khan Academy online tutorials, then helped start the GWC club at her school. “[Learning to code] was a really hard process for me, and I thought, ‘How do I make it easier for other girls to do?’” Ashley Chu, fifteen, joined a GWC club during her sophomore year in high school and attended her first hackathon a few months later. “But the thing is, I was on an all-guys team. They had already taken AP computer science and were really into coding when I was just new, and I felt like I just didn’t belong,” Chu said.


pages: 367 words: 109,122

Revolution 2:0: A Memoir and Call to Action by Wael Ghonim

British Empire, citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, financial independence, Khan Academy, Mohammed Bouazizi, Skype, WikiLeaks

The organizers asked me to deliver a presentation about the Internet in the Arab world. I spent quite a bit of time preparing the presentation, which urged Arab developers and media professionals to realize that they had a role as agents of change in the region. In my presentation, I cited examples of entrepreneurs who utilized technology to create change. The young American of Bangladeshi origins Salman Khan was one. He was able to set up a simple YouTube channel called Khan Academy to facilitate basic education for 90 million people around the world. He uploaded videos of lessons in basic subjects that could be accessed by users anywhere, anytime. I also spoke of the Kiva initiative (Kiva.org), which mobilized $200 million in loans for 500,000 impoverished people in many countries. I closed the presentation with ten pieces of advice, the first of which was that every one of us can play a bigger role than we think is possible.


pages: 421 words: 110,406

Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business cycle, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, digital map, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, market design, Metcalfe’s law, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Then factor in the unsustainable cost inflation that education has experienced in the U.S.: having grown by twenty-five times over the past fifty years, higher education spending has skyrocketed even faster than health care spending. The overall picture is of an industry under tremendous pressure to change so as to deliver better value for the dollars being invested. The drive to build education platforms is well under way, as businesses like Skillshare, Udemy, Coursera, edX, Khan Academy, and others suggest. Eager to avoid being rendered irrelevant or obsolete by upstart platform companies, a number of the world’s greatest universities are moving to position themselves as leaders in this educational revolution. Institutions including Harvard, Princeton, Stanford, the University of Pennsylvania, and many others are offering online versions of some of their most popular classes in the form of “massive open online courses” (MOOCs)—many in partnership with companies like Coursera.


pages: 407 words: 116,726

Infinite Powers: How Calculus Reveals the Secrets of the Universe by Steven Strogatz

Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Astronomia nova, Bernie Sanders, clockwork universe, complexity theory, cosmological principle, Dava Sobel, double helix, Edmond Halley, Eratosthenes, four colour theorem, fudge factor, Henri Poincaré, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, Khan Academy, Laplace demon, lone genius, music of the spheres, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, Pierre-Simon Laplace, precision agriculture, retrograde motion, Richard Feynman, Socratic dialogue, Solar eclipse in 1919, Steve Jobs, the rule of 72, the scientific method

., “Crashing Waves.” 50 triangulations of a mannequin’s head: Zorin and Schröder, “Subdivision for Modeling,” 18. 51 Shrek: DreamWorks, “Why Computer Animation Looks So Darn Real,” July 9, 2012, https://mashable.com/2012/07/09/animation-history-tech/#uYHyf6hO.Zq3. 51 forty-five million polygons:Shrek, production information, http://cinema.com/articles/463/shrek-production-information.phtml. 51 Avatar: “NVIDIA Collaborates with Weta to Accelerate Visual Effects for Avatar,” http://www.nvidia.com/object/wetadigital_avatar.html, and Barbara Robertson, “How Weta Digital Handled Avatar,” Studio Daily, January 5, 2010, http://www.studiodaily.com/2010/01/how-weta-digital-handled-avatar/. 51 first movie to use polygons by the billions: “NVIDIA Collaborates with Weta.” 51 Toy Story: Burr Snider, “The Toy Story Story,” Wired, December 1, 1995, https://www.wired.com/1995/12/toy-story/. 51 “more PhDs working on this film”: Ibid. 51 Geri’s Game: Ian Failes, “‘Geri’s Game’ Turns 20: Director Jan Pinkava Reflects on the Game-Changing Pixar Short,” November 25, 2017, https://www.cartoonbrew.com/cgi/geris-game-turns-20-director-jan-pinkava-reflects-game-changing-pixar-short-154646.html. The movie is on YouTube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLQG3sORAJQ (original soundtrack) and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9IYRC7g2ICg (modified soundtrack). 52 subdivision process: DeRose et al., “Subdivision Surfaces.” Explore subdivision surfaces for computer animation interactively at Khan Academy in collaboration with Pixar at https://www.khanacademy.org/partner-content/pixar/modeling-character. Students and their teachers might also enjoy trying the other lessons offered in “Pixar in a Box,” a “behind-the-scenes look at how Pixar artists do their jobs,” at https://www.khanacademy.org/partner-content/pixar. It’s a great way to see how math is being used to make movies these days. 53 double chin: DreamWorks, “Why Computer Animation Looks So Darn Real.” 53 facial surgery: Deuflhard et al., “Mathematics in Facial Surgery”; Zachow et al., “Computer-Assisted Planning”; and Zachow, “Computational Planning.” 56 Archimedean screw: Rorres, Archimedes in the Twenty-First Century, chapter 6, and https://www.math.nyu.edu/~crorres/Archimedes/Screw/Applications.html. 57 Archimedes was silent: In fairness, Archimedes did do one study related to motion, though it was an artificial form of motion motivated by mathematics rather than physics.


pages: 395 words: 116,675

The Evolution of Everything: How New Ideas Emerge by Matt Ridley

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, AltaVista, altcoin, anthropic principle, anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Columbian Exchange, computer age, Corn Laws, cosmological constant, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Edward Snowden, endogenous growth, epigenetics, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, George Santayana, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hydraulic fracturing, imperial preference, income per capita, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, land reform, Lao Tzu, long peace, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Necker cube, obamacare, out of africa, packet switching, peer-to-peer, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, price mechanism, profit motive, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, smart contracts, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, twin studies, uber lyft, women in the workforce

The Bridge International Academies group is now running two hundred low-cost, for-profit schools in Kenya, using a syllabus scripted for the teachers and delivered by tablet computer – the computer also acting as a monitoring device to check that teachers are teaching. The idea here is that pupils should not be limited by the quality of teacher available in their district, but should get access to best practice from wherever in the world it can be supplied, via a local teacher. It’s similar to the way the Khan Academy now offers more than 4,000 short videos of high-quality private tuition that anybody can use, on almost any topic. Or to the proliferation of ‘massive open online courses’ (MOOCs), by which top lecturers at elite universities can now be watched, and their courses taken, by thousands of eager students, not just those lucky enough to attend Stanford or MIT. Just as you do not have to listen to the local singer, but can hear Placido Domingo, so you do not have to be taught by the local teacher in the modern world.


pages: 587 words: 117,894

Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, do-ocracy, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, zero-sum game

All of the 9/11 attackers, for example, had Hotmail accounts, and they were thought to have coordinated through notes left in the guestbook section of a website run by the brother-in-law of one of Osama bin Laden’s lieutenants. Where cyberspace has had perhaps the greatest impact is in the sharing of knowledge in new and innovative ways. Some organizations take advantage of this for the positive, like the Khan Academy, which has allowed children around the world to learn math and science via online tutorials. But terrorists have also spread their peculiar type of knowledge, or what security experts call “TTPs” (short for tactics, techniques, and procedures), in ways not possible before. The recipes for explosives are readily available on the Internet, as are terrorist-provided designs for IEDs for use across conflict zones from Iraq to Afghanistan.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

Bangalore-based Babajob, in India’s Silicon Valley, is an SMS-based social network for the millions of people working in the country’s informal sector—day laborers, maids, drivers, and so on. One tech blog described the service as “LinkedIn for villages.”20 Another Bangalore nonprofit, Mapunity, emulates Google’s sophisticated mapping services using people’s mobile devices to sense traffic speed through phone movements and taxi radios. It then returns real-time traffic alerts via SMS.21 South Africa’s Dr. Math provides a tutoring service via SMS. Its American equivalent, the Khan Academy, requires an expensive laptop and high-speed Internet connection to access its recorded video lectures and chat rooms.22 In Kenya mobiles are the backbone of a new branchless banking system that is bringing financial services to millions for the first time. M-Pesa, named after the Swahili word for money, launched in 2007 and is now used by over 15 million people. Instead of building out a costly network of branches, or even automated teller machines, M-Pesa uses small retailers as its tellers.


pages: 561 words: 157,589

WTF?: What's the Future and Why It's Up to Us by Tim O'Reilly

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, deskilling, DevOps, Donald Davies, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, gravity well, greed is good, Guido van Rossum, High speed trading, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyperloop, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lao Tzu, Larry Wall, Lean Startup, Leonard Kleinrock, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, microbiome, microservices, minimum viable product, mortgage tax deduction, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Oculus Rift, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Sam Altman, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, SETI@home, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, software as a service, software patent, spectrum auction, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The Future of Employment, the map is not the territory, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, universal basic income, US Airways Flight 1549, VA Linux, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, yellow journalism, zero-sum game, Zipcar

YouTube star and VidCon impresario Hank Green wrote, “I started paying my bills with YouTube money around the time I hit a million views a month.” Millions of teens use “Hank and John EXPLAIN!” videos to learn about current events, and they get a deeper dive in a five-minute video than they would in hours of mass-produced “news.” Millions more learn math, science, music, and philosophy from other YouTube channels like Khan Academy, or One-Minute Physics, or Hank’s own Crash Course. When my young niece learned that I knew Larry Page and Mark Zuckerberg and Bill Gates, she said, “Meh!” But when she heard I knew Hank and John Green, she was really impressed. Keep in mind that “YouTube money,” as Hank names it, is only one of many new forms of creative money that are available via online platforms. There’s Facebook money, Etsy money, Kickstarter money, App Store money, and more.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

The positive aspects of this technological evolution are manifest. Over the past hundred years, rapid advances in medical science mean that the average human life span has more than doubled and child mortality has plummeted by a factor of ten. Average per capita income adjusted for inflation around the world has tripled. Access to a high-quality education, so elusive to many for so long, is free today via Web sites such as the Khan Academy. And the mobile phone is singularly credited with leading to billions upon billions of dollars in direct economic development in nations around the globe. The interconnectivity the Internet provides through its fundamental architecture means that disparate peoples from around the world can be brought together as never before. A woman in Chicago can play Words with Friends with a total stranger in the Netherlands.


pages: 1,034 words: 241,773

Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress by Steven Pinker

3D printing, access to a mobile phone, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Arthur Eddington, artificial general intelligence, availability heuristic, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwork universe, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, distributed generation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, endogenous growth, energy transition, European colonialism, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, frictionless market, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Hans Rosling, hedonic treadmill, helicopter parent, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, l'esprit de l'escalier, Laplace demon, life extension, long peace, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, open economy, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, Scientific racism, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supervolcano, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, union organizing, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey, Y2K

A country-dweller today can choose from among hundreds of television channels and half a billion Web sites, embracing every newspaper and magazine in the world (including their archives going back more than a century), every great work of literature that is out of copyright, an encyclopedia more than seventy times the size of Britannica with about the same level of accuracy, and every classic work of art and music.33 He could fact-check rumors on Snopes, teach himself math and science at Khan Academy, build his word power with the American Heritage Dictionary, enlighten himself with the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, and watch lectures by the world’s great scholars, writers, and critics, many long dead. Today an impoverished Hillel would not have to pass out from cold while eavesdropping on lessons through the skylight of a schoolhouse. Even for wealthy Western urbanites, who always had the run of the palaces of culture, access to arts and letters has expanded tremendously.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

It is clearly not the annulment of dissensus, because in the absence of real politicization of fundamental conflict and the proliferation of incompatible and often unredeemable cosmographies, the only positions of dissent end up being those of the irredentist, the humanist, and the fundamentalist. That is an unsustainable trinity. 41.  Behold the Schengen Cloud, New Arizona, Transcalifornia, Hong Kong West, the Alibaba-Tesla Printing and Charging Station franchise network, NTT-DoKoMo Planet Tokyo retirement towers and robo-spa, Google Continent Cloud, Tata-IIT-Khan Academy primary schools, the Confederate States of Walmart, RadTransFem GMOrganic Foods and Soil Stewardship (based in Fresno), the Apple-Pixar-Genentech Alliance, and so on. 42.  Consider once more Estonia's program to extend “e-citizenship” to those who do not physically reside inside its land borders. See https://e-estonia.com/e-residents/about/. 43.  The anarchist-artist dream of autonomous secession by sabotage, refusal, anonymity, and delinking is part of the problem.