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How Bad Are Bananas?: The Carbon Footprint of Everything by Mike Berners-Lee
., the total impact on the climate breaks down like this: carbon dioxide (85 percent), methane (8 percent), nitrous oxide (5 percent), and refrigerant gases (2 percent).2 Given that a single item or activity can cause multiple different greenhouse gases to be emitted, each in different quantities, a carbon footprint, if written out in full, could get pretty confusing. To avoid this, the convention is to express a carbon footprint in terms of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). This means the total climate change impact of all the greenhouse gases caused by an item or activity rolled into one and expressed in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide that would have the same impact.3 Beware carbon toe-prints The most common abuse of the phrase carbon footprint is to miss out some or even most of the emissions caused, whatever activity or item is being discussed. For example, many online carbon calculator websites will tell you that your carbon footprint is a certain size based purely on your home energy and personal travel habits, while ignoring all of the goods and services you purchase.
The Earth will be fine until changes in the Sun’s radiation evaporate its atmosphere in a billion or so years’ time. By this time, as Lord Martin Rees, president of the Royal Society, speculated, the creatures that inhabit the Earth will be as different from people as we are from bacteria. A quick guide to carbon and carbon footprints 1. Carbon Footprinting: An Introduction to Organisations, published by the U.K.’s Carbon Trust (2007) defines on page 1 a carbon footprint in a similar way to me but goes on to describe “basic carbon footprints” on page 4. These are toe-prints rather than rough estimates of footprints. 2. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2008 (April 2010) U.S. EPA # 430-R-10-006. Available at www.EPA.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport.html The U.K.’s 2009 Environmental Accounts give a similar breakdown: carbon dioxide (86 percent), methane (7 percent), nitrous oxide (6 percent), and refrigerant gases (1 percent). 3.
I hope you enjoy the read and that, while you are at it, you bump into at least something you can use. So how bad are bananas? As it happens, they turn out to be a fine low-carbon food, though not totally free from sustainability issues to keep an eye on—see A banana. A quick guide to carbon and carbon footprints Carbon footprint is a lovely phrase that is horribly abused.1 I want to make my definition clear at the outset. Throughout this book, I’m using the word footprint as a metaphor for the total impact that something has. And I’m using the word carbon as shorthand for all the different global warming greenhouse gases. So, I’m using the term carbon footprint as shorthand to mean the best estimate that we can get of the full climate change impact of something. That something could be anything—an activity, an item, a lifestyle, a company, a country, or even the whole world.
Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay
3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Yogi Berra
The Travel Foundation–commissioned study asking Britons about aviation’s carbon footprint was published as “The Travel Foundation Consumer Research” and was prepared by Nunwood in 2007 at www.thetravelfoundation.org.uk/index.php?id=91. The Ryanair effect’s impact on Murcia, Spain, and its carbon footprint are from Elisabeth Rosenthal’s “Low-Cost Airfares, Big-Time Carbon Footprint” (The New York Times, May 30, 2008). The details of Carcassonne, France, are borrowed from Anthony Lane’s “High and Low” (The New Yorker, April 26, 2006), as is Michael O’Leary’s “bollocks” quote. Plane Stupid’s website is http://planestupid.com/. The carbon footprint of housing is taken from “The Green Housing Boom” (Fast Company, July/August 2008). The carbon footprint of cattle is from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization’s report “Livestock’s Long Shadow” (2006), available online at www.fao.org/docrep/010/a0701e/a0701e00.HTM.
., 38–46; Chinese companies in, 44; Dulles-driven growth of, 40–41; expanding beyond Pentagon ties, 41–42 Fairfax County Economic Development Authority, 43 fair trade, carbon footprint and, 231 Fallows, James, 204, 361 Fast Company, 24, 332 Faster (Gleick), 61 fate, Kasarda’s view of, 7 Federal Express: Asian hubs of, 171, 372–73, 384, 433; businesses drawn to, 62, 82; European hubs of, 383; Greensboro operations of, 171; Guangzhou hub of, 433; Kasarda’s plans used by, 8, 79, 171, 373, 384; in Memphis, 7, 60–64, 81, 82, 383; as network, 63; shipping models changed by, 61 Fei Xiaotong, 373 Ferguson, Niall, 392 Ferreira, Jo, 79, 80 Ficano, Robert, 182, 183–84, 188, 189, 191, 192–96, 198–99, 202, 205, 206–207, 426 Fischer, Claude, 118–19 Flight (LaGuardia Marine Air Terminal mural), 412 floral industry: Aalsmeer auctions and warehouses in, 211, 212–17; in Africa, 212, 216, 221, 222–24, 317, 319, 407; in Amsterdam, 24, 209–25; carbon footprint of, 231; in China, 407; exports to U.S., 215; globalization of, 426–27; important holidays in, 212; post-World War II exports of, 211; shipments and logistics in, 24, 426; supply chain in, see cool chain; technological advances in, 210–11 Floramerica, 221 Florida, Richard, 83, 136, 203 Florimex, 219–20 Flother, Bill, 270 Flower Confidential (Stewart), 217 fluidity, of population, 12, 18 Fluor, 121–22, 124 food, carbon footprint of, 230 food chains, 225–41; greenhouse gases from, 336 food industry: carbon footprint within, 427;shipments and logistics of, 24, 427 food miles, 230–33, 427; environmental impact of, 232 food production: increases in, 233–40; shortages in, 233–34 Ford, Henry, 179–80, 185, 188, 243, 366, 425 Ford Airlines, 425 Ford Airport, 179, 187, 425 Fortis Hospitals, 275 Foshan, China, 383 Foster, Norman, 386–87 Foxconn, 362, 396–97, 432 Frankfurt, Germany, food shipments through, 227–28 Frankfurt Airport, expansion plans for, 17 free trade, carbon footprint and, 231 free will, see agency freight dogs, 421 frequent fliers, lifestyle of, 422 Friedman, Thomas, 32, 207, 281–82 Front Range, as megapolitan area, 144–45, 424 Fulenwider, Cal, III, 134, 137–39, 140–41, 146 Fulenwider, L.C., 137 Fuller, Stephen, 421 Fulton Fish Market, 226 Fung, Victor, 374, 380, 382 Fung, William, 374 Gale, Stan, 3–5, 10, 22, 354–55, 357–58 Gaozi, Emperor, 409 Gapper, John, 32 Garreau, Joel, 11, 41 gasoline prices, 341 Gatwick Airport, 16 Gaylord Entertainment, 109 Gebremariam, Tewolde, 324 Geek Squad City, 77–78 General Electric, 202–203, 388 General Motors, 180, 186, 192, 203–204 Germany, exports from, 393 Gilbert, Richard, 333 Gilder, George, 12 Gingrich, Newt, 195 Giuffre, Mark, 421–422 Gladstone, William, 328 Gladwell, Malcolm, 73–74 GlaxoSmithKline, 9 Gleick, James, 61 globalization: aerotropoli as form of, 5, 6; of Africa, 319–20, 324; and airborne middle class, 99; air travel as central to, 17–18, 165, 413; cities as hubs of, 175–76; Eastern shift of, 5, 8; economic bubbles as bets on, 426; of food chains, 236–38; of food supplies, 230–31; future of, 13; of health care, 267, 268; of industries and companies, 124–28, 199–201, 224–25, 374–75; introduction of, 164–65; leveling effects of, 211–12; pace of, 168–69; retrofitting cities for, 5, 6, 17; as reversible, 332; stability of, 21; of tourism, 264; as transformative, 10, 183 Global TransPark, 169–70, 171–73, 379; developing idea for, 425 GMR, 277, 278, 280–81, 283, 429 goods economy, 9–10; air transport as central to, 17–18; inventory avoided in, 363–64; shipping costs in, 243, 338, 361–62, 365 Gopinath, G.
One outlet for their anger is the debate over Heathrow. Another, referenced by Leahy in his speech, is the concept of “food miles”—the distance a product travels from the farm or ocean to your home. Food miles have become a shorthand for measuring food’s carbon footprint. It’s logical to assume that food—or flowers—traveling thousands of miles might have a larger footprint than the same items grown or made locally. But we’re often highly illogical about both. We are what we eat, and in our identities as consumers we are what we consume—and how visibly we consume it. As a result, food miles and carbon footprints have become wrapped up in a much larger critique of global food chains. Less-than-scientific correlations have been found between how far food has traveled and how it tastes. “Locavores” embrace this idea, spurning movable feasts whenever alternatives exist and eating seasonally when they do not.
Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Make a Difference by William MacAskill
barriers to entry, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Cal Newport, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, effective altruism, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, follow your passion, food miles, immigration reform, income inequality, index fund, Isaac Newton, job automation, job satisfaction, labour mobility, Lean Startup, M-Pesa, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Nate Silver, Peter Singer: altruism, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, randomized controlled trial, self-driving car, Skype, Stanislav Petrov, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, universal basic income, women in the workforce
Similarly, the focus on buying locally produced goods is overhyped: only 10 percent of the carbon footprint of food comes from transportation, whereas 80 percent comes from production, so what type of food you buy is much more important than whether that food is produced locally or internationally. Cutting out red meat and dairy for one day a week achieves a greater reduction in your carbon footprint than buying entirely locally based food. In fact, exactly the same food can sometimes have a higher carbon footprint if it’s locally grown than if it’s imported: one study found that the carbon footprint from locally grown tomatoes in northern Europe was five times as great as the carbon footprint from tomatoes grown in Spain, because the emissions generated by heating and lighting greenhouses dwarfed the emissions generated by transportation. The most effective ways to cut down your emissions are to reduce your intake of meat (especially beef, which can cut out about a metric ton of CO2eq per year), to reduce the amount you travel (driving half as much would cut out two metric tons of CO2eq per year and one fewer round-trip flight from London to New York would eliminate a metric ton of CO2eq), and to use less electricity and gas in the home (especially by installing loft insulation, which would save a metric ton of CO2eq for a detached house).
On a per-person basis, US citizens emit more greenhouse gasses than any other large country, with the average American adult every year producing twenty-one metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. (Remember that carbon dioxide equivalent, or CO2eq, is a way of measuring your carbon footprint that includes greenhouse gasses other than carbon dioxide, like methane and nitrous oxide.) As we’ve seen, climate change is a big deal. It’s therefore natural to want to do something about it, and the obvious way is to move to a lower-carbon lifestyle. Sadly, many popular ways of reducing your greenhouse gas emissions are rather ineffective. One common recommendation is to turn off or shut down electronic devices when you’re not using them, rather than keeping them on standby. However, this achieves very little compared to other things you could do: one hot bath adds more to your carbon footprint than leaving your phone charger plugged in for a whole year; even leaving on your TV (one of the worst offenders in terms of standby energy use) for a whole year contributes less to your carbon footprint than driving a car for just two hours.
However, this achieves very little compared to other things you could do: one hot bath adds more to your carbon footprint than leaving your phone charger plugged in for a whole year; even leaving on your TV (one of the worst offenders in terms of standby energy use) for a whole year contributes less to your carbon footprint than driving a car for just two hours. Another common recommendation is to turn off lights when you leave a room, but lighting accounts for only 3 percent of household energy use, so even if you never used lighting in your house, you would save only a fraction of a metric ton of carbon emissions. Plastic bags have also been a major focus of concern, but even on very generous estimates, if you stopped using plastic bags entirely, you’d cut out one hundred kilograms CO2 equivalent per year, which is only 0.4 percent of your total emissions. Similarly, the focus on buying locally produced goods is overhyped: only 10 percent of the carbon footprint of food comes from transportation, whereas 80 percent comes from production, so what type of food you buy is much more important than whether that food is produced locally or internationally.
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city
The fact that the main likely beneficiaries have yet to be born makes it difficult not only to reckon the present value of actions taken in their behalf but also to assess the ultimate effectiveness of whatever actions might actually be taken, and it leads to the public-policy equivalent of playground arguments—“My father’s carbon footprint is smaller than your father’s”—and to politics-driven initiatives of questionable value. Actually, there’s a potentially productive way to think about carbon dioxide and climate change which doesn’t depend solely on civilization’s willingness to engage in global-scale delayed gratification, and doesn’t depend even on achieving a worldwide consensus about causes and effects. Almost all human activities with large carbon footprints are going to become increasingly expensive and untenable for reasons that have nothing to do with their likely impact on the earth’s climate fifty or a hundred years from now and can therefore be addressed with tools that don’t depend solely on hypothetical arguments about the future, or on moralizing by environmentalists.
Planting trees along city streets, always a popular initiative, has high environmental utility, but not for the reasons that people usually assume: trees are ecologically important in dense urban areas not because they provide temporary repositories for atmospheric carbon—the usual argument for planting more of them—but because their presence along sidewalks makes city dwellers more cheerful about dwelling in cities. Unfortunately, much conventional environmental activism has the opposite effect, since it reinforces the view that urban life is artificial and depraved, and makes city residents feel guilty about living where and how they do. A dense urban area’s greenest features—its low per-capita energy use, its high acceptance of public transit and walking, its small carbon footprint per resident—are not inexplicable anomalies. They are the direct consequences of the very urban characteristics that are the most likely to appall a sensitive friend of the earth. Yet those qualities are ones that the rest of us, no matter where we live, are going to have to find ways to emulate, as the world’s various ongoing energy and environmental crises deepen and spread in the years ahead.
They also use more than three and a half times as much gasoline—545 gallons per person per year versus 146 for all New York City residents and just 90 for Manhattan residents—with the result that, among the fifty states, pastoral Vermont ranks eleventh-highest in per-capita gasoline consumption while New York state, thanks entirely to New York City, ranks last. The average Vermonter also consumes more than four times as much electricity as the average New York City resident, has a larger carbon footprint, and generates more solid waste, backyard compost bins notwithstanding.14 Jervey is by no means alone. The prominent British environmentalist Herbert Girardet—who is an author, a documentary filmmaker, and a cofounder of the World Future Council—treats large cities mainly as environmental catastrophes. “The bulk of the world’s energy consumption is within cities,” he has written, “and much of the rest is used for producing and transporting goods and people to and from cities.”15 He proposes dramatically reducing urban energy consumption and making city dwellers less dependent on agricultural and other inputs from outlying areas, while improving overall energy efficiency through technological innovation.
additive manufacturing, air freight, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, ghettoisation, Isaac Newton, Kibera, megacity, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, profit motive, race to the bottom, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
Or to choose the hardest case, let’s, for the sake of argument, say Jacob should be personally responsible for the entire carbon footprint of his business, right to the supermarket shelf in the UK. How do things look? Every kilogram of Jacob’s green beans flown to Britain consumes 1.9 litres of aviation fuel, which releases 4.25 kilograms of CO2. So the carbon footprint of Jacob’s typical annual production, taking off a bit for topping and tailing and wastage at the Kenyan end, is about 17 tonnes of CO2. That is, admittedly, approaching twice the average annual emissions for a typical Briton. But Jacob’s farm supports a family of four. So divide by four and the per-capita carbon footprint of his business comes out at about half that of average per-capita emissions in Britain. Surely he has some rights here?
In the past year, my household got through 3,100 kilowatt hours of electricity and 25,800 kilowatt hours of natural gas, which have a combined CO2 footprint of 6.2 tonnes. Divided among three people, that is just over 2 tonnes each. Meanwhile, I filled in a footprint calculator put online by the WWF. That disclosed that in my personal life, my carbon footprint is below the UK average at nearly 8 tonnes of carbon dioxide a year, including a contribution for the services government provides. But then I added in my professional life. Some people say I shouldn’t do that. But I am freelance and by and large I can choose where I travel and how. Anyhow, it didn’t look so good. See Chapter 29 on carbon offsets for what happened when I tried to calculate my horrible carbon footprint for travelling to write this book. But really I knew the problems. I fly. A lot. And when I am at home, I live in a one-house urban heat island. I imagine if we took one of those thermal-imaging pictures of our house in winter, it would be glowing red-hot from all the escaping heat.
For one thing there are ecological consequences. We gouge out the Earth to find the materials to make those machines; and the cheap energy to run them is polluting our planet and warming our climate. And yet many of the servants are still there. Though now, rather than occupying the attics of grand houses, they are spread across the world, growing our food, making our machines and stitching our clothes. People talk a lot about carbon footprints. But our personal footprints are much bigger than that. And they are social as well as ecological. The trouble is that, in our charmed world, we know little about what our footprints are. It all happens so far away. The people and the pollution that sustain us are invisible to us. I want to change that. The purpose of this book is to discover the hidden world that keeps us in the state to which we have become accustomed.
Adapt: Why Success Always Starts With Failure by Tim Harford
Andrew Wiles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, Deep Water Horizon, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, food miles, Gerolamo Cardano, global supply chain, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Harrison: Longitude, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Netflix Prize, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, PageRank, Piper Alpha, profit motive, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, rolodex, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, web application, X Prize
A red-haired, blue-eyed, young Scot, Murray is the modern face of climate-change action – dressed in a sharp shirt with cufflinks, he’s confident and straight-talking, at home with the technical details of carbon emissions without needing to fortify himself with jargon. He grew up on a sheep farm in southern Scotland, which gives him a suitably down-to-earth perspective on the messy task of calculating carbon footprints. ‘If I ask my old man “What’s the carbon footprint of a sheep?”, he looks at me as though I’m mad,’ he explains. ‘But he can tell me the stocking density, what he feeds the sheep, and he can answer those questions as part of running his business.’ Quite so: carbon footprinting is all about these kinds of specifics. I chose to ask Euan Murray about Geoff’s moment of weakness in buying a fortifying cappuccino before stepping into the office. (Readers of my first book, The Undercover Economist, might have noticed a return to a favourite theme.)
(Readers of my first book, The Undercover Economist, might have noticed a return to a favourite theme.) A cappuccino is easily as complex a product as Thomas Thwaites’s toaster: not only does it rely on the espresso machine – an impressive piece of equipment – but it also requires a cow, coffee beans, a cardboard cup, a plastic lid, and so on. Evaluating the carbon footprint of a cappuccino requires an estimate of the carbon footprint of all these different parts of the whole. You can see why I wanted expert help. But Murray was only able to assist me up to a point. Carbon footprinting is a time-consuming business, and even taking a very broad view of what constitutes a product, there are many thousands of candidates for the footprinting treatment. (Recall Eric Beinhocker’s estimate that modern economies offer around 10 billion distinct products. Starbucks alone claims to offer 87,000 different beverages.)
To summarise: despite Geoff’s good intentions and passing familiarity with the kind of stuff that causes greenhouse gas emissions, he made some decisions that saved much kly thacarbon than he imagined and others that were actively counterproductive. It couldn’t be simpler? Not unless you devote your life to studying carbon emissions – and perhaps not even then. Euan Murray can vouch for that. 4 ‘If I ask my old man “What’s the carbon footprint of a sheep?”, he looks at me as though I’m mad’ Euan Murray works for The Carbon Trust, an organisation set up by the UK government to help businesses reduce their carbon emissions. He’s responsible for ‘carbon footprinting’ – the study of how much carbon dioxide is released in the course of producing, transporting, consuming and disposing of a product. Murray spends his working life making the kind of calculations on which I relied to assess Geoff’s day, and he does it for corporate clients ranging from a bank (200 grams of carbon dioxide per bank account) to PepsiCo (75 grams of carbon dioxide for a packet of potato snacks).
The Techno-Human Condition by Braden R. Allenby, Daniel R. Sarewitz
airport security, augmented reality, carbon footprint, clean water, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, facts on the ground, friendly fire, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Peter Singer: altruism, planetary scale, prediction markets, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, Whole Earth Catalog
More and more articles and proclamations, some verging on self-parody, seek to redefine social and cultural phenomena in terms of carbon footprint. On one level this expansion of explanatory skeins is trivially valid: life is based on carbon, so, to the extent one participates in life, one will inevitably affect the carbon cycle. But defining complex human behaviors and 124 Chapter 6 states-such as obesity, or having children and pets-in terms of carbon footprint begins to create a new structure of good and evil in society. Obesity is now questionable not for reasons of health or Calvinist theology, but because obese people are destroying the world through the carbon-footprint-expanding sin of gluttony. A complex public health problem is nicely converted into a simplistic moral mapping by jamming a Level III system into a Level I simplicity: "Carbon footprint-wrong!" Similarly, the report of Sweden's Environment Advisory Council uses climate change to reinvent the eco-feminist condemnation of males as evil destroyers of the environment.
The intellectual confusion that occurs when one applies Level I and Level II coherent worldviews to a Level III condition is quite evident today in the climate-change arena and in the infatuation with "carbon footprints."lo For example, a professor writing in the Medical Journal of Australia recently called on the Australian government to impose a carbon charge of $5,000 on every birth, to charge annual carbon fees of $800 per child, and to provide a carbon credit for sterilization. 11 Articles in New Scientist have suggested that obesity is mostly a problem because of the additional carbon load it imposes on the environment,12 that a major social cost of divorce is the additional carbon burden resulting from splitting up families, and that pets should be should be eliminated because of their carbon footprints ("Man's best friend, it turns out, is the planet's enemy").13 A recent study from the Swedish Ministry of Sustainable Development argues that males have a disproportionately larger impact on global warming. 14 ("Women cause considerably fewer carbon dioxide emissions than men, and thus considerably less climate change.")
(What about terrorists setting off a nuclear weapon in a major American city, and the Americans going rogue, for example?) Moreover, even when considering the potentially grave risks of climate change, we reject the telescoping of the social, political, technological, cultural, and economic complexity of climate change into the superficiallanguage of carbon footprints. Doesn't nitrogen matter anymore? What about land use? Economic development? Starvation? Waterborne diseases? And how does one possibly connect carbon footprint at Level I to controlling the behavior of the climate at Level III? 11. See "Baby levy plan to offset carbon emissions," Herald Sun, December 10,2007, available at http;//www.heraldsun.com. 12. See Roberts 2007. 13. See Ravilious 2009 and the accompanying editorial (titled "Cute, fluffy and horribly greedy"). 14.
Why We Can't Afford the Rich by Andrew Sayer
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, banking crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, decarbonisation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demand response, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, high net worth, income inequality, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, job automation, Julian Assange, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, mortgage debt, neoliberal agenda, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, patent troll, payday loans, Plutocrats, plutocrats, predatory finance, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor, Yom Kippur War
It’s been estimated that in the US a three-person household on $100,000 a year – hardly rich – has roughly twice the carbon footprint of a three-person household on $30,000 a year.44 Yet, in global terms, even less well-off people in rich countries have large carbon footprints, mainly because they live in highly developed societies dependent on fossil fuels. Climate scientists differ on just how fast we need to cut emissions, indeed on whether we have already passed a point of no return, but they all agree that the longer we leave it, the harder it will get. We certainly can’t afford the carbon footprints of the rich, as they exceed their global allowance by so much more than others. True, many less wealthy than them also need to cut their emissions, direct and indirect, but it would be unreasonable to expect them to reduce their carbon footprints while the rich carry on as now.
• more than they need or is necessary for their well-being? • more than their share of the planet’s resources? The answer is that it depends on what particular problems we’re talking about. If it’s carbon footprints and climate change, then it includes many of us in the rich countries, though people in some countries (the US, Australia) have much greater CO2 emissions than others, like France and Sweden. If the whole world emitted as much CO2 as the US, we’d need five planets to absorb the carbon emissions. Though the US’s population is only 5% of the world’s, it accounts for a quarter of the world’s CO2 emissions.11 Generally, the higher your income, the bigger your carbon footprint is likely to be. Otherwise, for most of the issues dealt with in this book, those who arguably have too much are much smaller in number even within the rich countries of the world.
Vegetarian or low-meat diets are much greener. The carbon footprint of the average 4 ounce cheeseburger is 2.5kg of CO2 but for a veggieburger it’s only 1kg.52 A steak is equivalent to 25 bananas in terms of CO2.53 Meat consumption is now growing fast in countries that have traditionally not eaten much meat, such as China and India; sadly, it seems to be seen as a mark of progress. There’s another inconvenient fact. It’s been found that where people reduce their direct carbon emissions, they tend to use their savings to buy more goods, thereby increasing their indirect emissions!54 So they may even unwittingly increase their emissions by improving their home insulation. The problem is that in rich countries it’s difficult to reduce your carbon footprint by much, for while we can do things like installing energy-saving light bulbs and better insulation in our homes, it’s not within our power to reduce many of our indirect emissions.
The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning by James E. Lovelock
Ada Lovelace, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Clapham omnibus, cognitive dissonance, continuous integration, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, discovery of DNA, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Henri Poincaré, mandelbrot fractal, megacity, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, phenotype, planetary scale, short selling, Stewart Brand, University of East Anglia
The only near certain conclusion we can draw from the changing climate and people’s response to it is that there is little time left in which to act. Therefore my plea is that adaptation is made at least equal in importance to policy‐driven attempts to reduce emissions. We cannot continue to assume that because there is no way gently to reduce our numbers it is sufficient merely to improve our carbon footprints. Too many also think only of the profit to be made from carbon trading. It is not the carbon footprint alone that harms the Earth; the people’s footprint is larger and more deadly. We already face the adverse consequences of a total accumulation of greenhouse gases amounting to over 430 ppm of carbon dioxide equivalent – the loss of land‐based ecosystems, the desertification of the land and ocean surfaces, and the loss of polar ice; these act together in positive feedback and probably commit the Earth to irreversible heating.
This may seem an odd statement after all that I have said about the way twentieth‐century humans became almost a planetary disease organism. But it has taken Gaia 3.5 billion years to evolve an animal that can think and communicate its thoughts. If we become extinct she has little chance of evolving another. I will enlarge this thought later in the book. When I am warned that my pessimism discourages those who would improve their carbon footprint or do good works such as planting trees, I’m afraid I see such efforts as at best romantic nonsense, or at worst hypocrisy. Agencies now exist which allow air travellers to plant trees to offset the extra carbon dioxide their plane adds to the overburdened air. How like the indulgences once sold by the Catholic Church to wealthy sinners to offset the time they might otherwise spend in purgatory.
In a similar and equally deluded way we assume that the human presence on the Earth is all that matters, yet when considering energy and our use of it we must never forget that the natural flux of energy and those essential gases oxygen and carbon dioxide from the biosphere is nearly twenty times larger than all of our emissions, and it changes as the world warms. We are bemused by carbon, and when we talk and think about our abuse of the Earth we concentrate almost exclusively on greenhouse‐gas emissions from transport and industry and from domestic heating and air‐conditioning. We try to convince ourselves that if we sufficiently improved our carbon footprint all would be well again and business as usual could continue. In reality increasing numbers of people increases the population of livestock and of the area of land we use for ourselves. True enough, the world total of domestic and industrial emissions of 30 gigatons of carbon dioxide annually is far too great, but so are the consequences of too many people competing for land with the natural forests of the world.
Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, financial innovation, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar
When Paul Polman became the firm’s CEO in January 2009, after many years with P&G and Nestlé, he introduced an ambitious environmental, social and business agenda, manifested in the November 2010 launch of the Sustainable Living Plan. The plan aimed to double sales and halve the company’s environmental impact by 2020. This is no small undertaking. Unilever owns and operates 260 factories and 460 warehouses in 90 countries, serving 2 billion consumers worldwide. It plans to add a further 2 billion consumers over the next decade, mostly in emerging markets, and still reduce its carbon footprint. The Sustainable Living Plan also includes social goals, such as improving both the nutritional value of its food products and the livelihoods of over 500,000 smallholder farmers and distributors that it works with worldwide. David Blanchard, Unilever’s chief R&D officer, says of the plan:13 This was frugal innovation by definition … We either say “I don’t know how to do that” or use the plan as a way to challenge ourselves to think and act differently.
As noted in Chapter 4, large companies increasingly recognise that there is only so much they alone can do to become sustainable. Customers must also learn to do more with less. This is especially important because customers are often more wasteful than their suppliers. Unilever’s chief supply chain officer, Pier Luigi Sigismondi, estimates that half the water consumption, and 68% of a Unilever product’s total carbon footprint, relates to how consumers use it. Similarly, Michael Kobori, Levi Strauss’s vice-president of global sustainability, observes that 58% of the energy used during the lifetime of a pair of Levi’s 501 jeans occurs during the customer-use phase as a result of washing and drying them. Given this, Sigismondi and Kobori note that if their respective companies are to become truly frugal, they must first encourage their customers to change their habits.
Tesco, a UK retailer, calculated that two-thirds of its products’ carbon emissions occur at the end of the food chain: in homes or on trips to their stores. So too with fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) companies. In 2007, Reckitt Benckiser, which produces Dettol, Clearasil and Strepsils, was one of the first FMCG companies to launch a full life cycle carbon-reduction programme. It set out to reduce its total carbon footprint by 20% by 2020, a target achieved in 2012. Reckitt Benckiser realised that its customers were responsible for two-thirds of its products’ greenhouse-gas emissions, so it redesigned its products to have a lower impact once in the customers’ hands. The company understood that it may not be sufficient to rely on what consumers say they want, but rather to respond to what they do, and then help them change.
Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth by Juliet B. Schor
Asian financial crisis, big-box store, business climate, carbon footprint, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Gini coefficient, global village, income inequality, income per capita, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, life extension, McMansion, new economy, peak oil, pink-collar, post-industrial society, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, smart grid, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Zipcar
Britain has been described as “carbon crazy,” with significant government, business, NGO, and media attention paid to reducing the carbon footprint. Supermarket chains now label packages with carbon scores, and chains such as Marks and Spencer have signed on to carbon neutrality. In 2007 Parliament passed a major climate-change bill that mandated a 26 percent reduction below 1990 levels of greenhouse gases by 2020, and a 60 percent cut by 2050. On the other hand, the Labour government has been adamant about its commitment to growth, arguing that efficiency, clean energy, and a market for carbon will do the trick. They claim that they can decarbonize, or sever the link between emissions and GDP. The environment ministry has enacted programs on food waste and plastics use to encourage behavior change among citizens, and a variety of efforts to reduce the carbon footprint of businesses. In the academic literature, this approach is known as ecological modernization.
Biocapacity is not a fixed number because land is brought in and out of cultivation; new technologies improve the productivity of land, enabling more production on less acreage; degradation turns arable land into desert; and fisheries rise and fall. Between 1961 and 1995, measured global biocapacity increased slightly, but it has fallen since then as ecosystems have degraded. When the human footprint is below the world’s biocapacity, we’re in a viable situation. When it exceeds it, we’ve begun to eat into natural capital and are undermining the reproduction of future generations. FIGURE 2.10 Ecological Footprint, Carbon Footprint, and Biocapacity Source: Global Footprint Network (2009) By these calculations, the world first reached its limits in 1986. Since then resource use has increasingly outstripped biocapacity. According to the latest data available (2006), there are about 1.8 available hectares (or 4.5 acres) for every person globally, but we’re using 2.6, for a per capita deficit of 0.8. We’ve entered the zone of what the Meadowses and others called overshoot, and are living beyond our planetary means.
One hopeful sign is that there has been a decline in the last few years, after a large rise in the 1990s. 46 America accounts for a third of paper consumption: Worldwatch (2008). 46 Western Europe has done much better than North America: North American and European materials consumption from 1980-2005 is from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2008b), “Materials Mix by OECD Region,” p. 40. 46 wealthy countries have been off-loading: Hertwich and Peters (2009) calculate carbon footprints accounting for global trade patterns. That the United States outsourced 20 percent of emissions is from Ghertner and Fripp (2007). 48 a synthetic gas called nitrogen trifluoride: NF3 and televisions is discussed in Weiss et al. (2008) and Udell (2008). 50 their book sensation, The Limits to Growth: Meadows et al. (1972). 50 The Limits to Growth asked what would happen over the long run: The most pessimistic of the scenarios is discussed in Meadows, Randers, and Meadows (2005), p. xi. 51 “brazen . . . impudent nonsense”: Beckerman (1972), p. 327. 51 Nordhaus . . . argued that the Limits model failed to incorporate: Nordhaus’s first paper is Nordhaus (1973).
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar
The five-week program exposes CEOs and business executives from around the world to the emerging issues and challenges they will face in the twenty-first century. The idea soon found its way into corporate suites and became part of the political lexicon among heads of state in the European Union. By the year 2000, the European Union was aggressively pursuing policies to significantly reduce its carbon footprint and transition into a sustainable economic era. Europeans were readying targets and benchmarks, resetting research and development priorities, and putting into place codes, regulations, and standards for a new economic journey. By contrast, America was preoccupied with the newest gizmos and “killer apps” coming out of Silicon Valley, and homeowners were flush with excitement over a bullish real estate market pumped up by subprime mortgages.
In the Roman biosphere, 80,000 of the 150,000 hectares of Roman land are designated as green space, a currently underused resource that could be more agriculturally productive. In the twentieth-century model of urban development, cities became increasingly divorced from the production of the food they consumed. The distant production and long-haul transportation of food has become a major source of greenhouse gas emissions. This problem is frequently underestimated, as urban carbon footprint calculations tend to focus only on emissions generated by processes within the city boundaries, rather than emissions embedded in the food consumed by city dwellers and produced elsewhere. A city’s ecological footprint can be significantly impacted by its dietary choices. A beef-based diet, in particular, increases the emission of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide, the critical greenhouse gases that have the most significant impact on climate change.
While US manufacturing employment grew by 25 percent, San Antonio experienced a net loss of 40,000 manufacturing jobs.13 The city was banking on the prospect that the creation of a five-pillar Third Industrial Revolution infrastructure over the next twenty years would put thousands of people back to work—especially in the manufacturing sector and building trades—and provide new vocational opportunities for a fast-growing younger population. San Antonio’s weak manufacturing sector turned out to be a plus. Because there was so little manufacturing activity in the county compared to other major metropolitan areas (the number of manufacturing jobs per capita in San Antonio is about half the number in other regions in the United States), San Antonio began with a smaller carbon footprint. If San Antonio could narrow the socioeconomic gap between the Latino and Anglo communities and, at the same time, address the dual challenge of climate change and energy security, it would become a lighthouse for the rest of the country. We created a detailed economic model of the city and projected growth trends, factoring in a wide range of economic and sociological variables, and then calculated what San Antonio’s CO2 gas emissions would be in a “business as usual” scenario—using a 2005 emissions inventory—between 2008 and 2030.
airline deregulation, carbon footprint, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, New Urbanism, principal–agent problem, race to the bottom, urban planning, young professional
The example of South Africa, which hosted the 2010 World Cup, suggests the difficulty of making a net improvement on this dimension. There were advances in wastewater treatment, and technological knowledge was gained regarding more efficient energy use. However, there was also increased pollution from construction materials, as well as a massive carbon footprint from international air travel to and from the competition (more than 80 percent of the 2010 Cup's carbon footprint came from jet travel). While jet travel to games anywhere will leave a significant carbon footprint, when the host country is located in the southern part of the Southern Hemisphere and isolated from population centers longitudinally, the footprint grows measurably. In the case of Brazil in 2014, the government's PR boasted of the BRT transportation system that was created in several cities.
Its achievement was undermined by a combination of insufficient public resources to deliver an ambitious city building programme, the impact of government social policies that capped housing benefit support for the lower waged and unemployed—putting the purchase or rent of new housing units out of the reach of many local people—and the operations of a London property market in which the activities of international investors pushed up rent and property prices in iconic locations such as the Olympic Park and its borders.89 What about the other legacy goals? One goal was to advance the greening of London. The reduction of the carbon footprint from the games’ facilities beyond the regulatory standards was accomplished, but the set targets were not met. For instance, one pledge was to supply 20 percent of the power for Olympic Park from renewable energy sources; according to the New York Times, the actual amount during the games was closer to 9 percent.90 Another goal was to transform the United Kingdom into a leading sports state and to inspire its citizens to engage in more physical activity.
Nothing substantial came of it; in fact, the process only became more involved and more expensive. Early indications from the working group were not encouraging about more substantial change. At the IOC meeting prior to the Sochi Olympics in February 2014, two reform ideas were discussed. The first was to allow countries as well as cities to bid to host. Such a change might lower the burden on the city but raise it on the country, and would entail higher transportation costs (and carbon footprint) and security spending. As a reform, it is hardly a game-changer. The second was to reinstate the pre–Salt Lake City policy of having IOC members visit the bidding cities.12 The idea here is that firsthand visits provide more information than videos, so the plausibility of each city's plan could be better assessed. Perhaps, but such visits would raise costs and reopen avenues for payoffs and bribes, which of course is why they were scrapped in the first place.
Business Lessons From a Radical Industrialist by Ray C. Anderson
Albert Einstein, banking crisis, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, cleantech, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, dematerialisation, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, invisible hand, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, music of the spheres, Negawatt, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, renewable energy credits, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, supply-chain management, urban renewal, Y2K
That is the way this big, complicated problem is going to be solved, one smart, self-interested decision at a time. But sometimes self-interest points us in the other direction. Controlling our carbon footprint, even when it seems to save money, is not always the best strategy. Remember what I said about the next order at Interface, that it’s just like that next heartbeat: If you don’t get it you’re dead? Well, I like to think that just about every person in Interface understands that. Our sales force is really tuned into the message, and they believe that getting samples of carpet to potential customers fast gives them a competitive edge. Not next week. Not in a few days. Tomorrow. But speed (think air) and reducing carbon footprints are opposite goals. What did we do? We let our sales force keep checking off that “next-day delivery” box, but they had to make a few other changes in the way they conduct their business, changes that were tough to implement but have offset all the effects of all of those overnight deliveries, and then some.
But there are large benefits to Interface, even if the savings seem small. Why? When you examine the total carbon footprint of one square yard of our carpet, you quickly discover that Interface is directly responsible for only 10 to 20 percent of it; everyone else, from the user, the installer, the distributor, all the way back to the wells and mines, contributes the overwhelming 80 to 90 percent. So any change we can help them make in their operations has an outsized positive effect. It not only promotes and encourages the concept of sustainability and widens our circle of influence, it shrinks our own environmental footprint. And by the way, if you don’t think that reducing your carbon footprint is terribly important now, you may want to reconsider when you start being taxed on its size. Is that coming?
While the GHG reduction will grow with Procter & Gamble’s business, those saved dollars will also grow with every uptick at the fuel pump. One of the poster children for outsized transportation footprints has got to be Fiji Water. These are the folks who bottle and ship and sell spring water they collect on an island way out in the middle of a very big ocean. When they did an audit to see where they stood, they found that a full 40 percent of their company’s total carbon footprint came from ocean freight and distribution (like carpet tiles, water is heavy). Stung by public criticism over marketing such a clean and healthy product in such a carbon-intensive, unsustainable way, Fiji Water set themselves the goal of cutting their 2010 GHG emissions by 25 percent, which is a significant step in the right direction. More promisingly, through optimizing loads and making changes in distribution, they have already reduced their trucking miles by 26 percent and cut the fuel used by their trucks on Fiji by half.
An Economist Gets Lunch: New Rules for Everyday Foodies by Tyler Cowen
agricultural Revolution, big-box store, business climate, carbon footprint, cognitive bias, cross-subsidies, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, food miles, guest worker program, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, informal economy, iterative process, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, price discrimination, refrigerator car, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce
Actually Helping the Environment There is a broader point here, and I am reminded of a Financial Times interview with Tyler Brûlé, a very well dressed man with flair, a member of the jet set, an expert on travel and high-end consumer goods, and editor-in-chief of a fancy international periodical called Monocle, as well as a regular columnist for the Financial Times. Here is a snippet of his views on “being green”: REPORTER: Do you feel bad about your carbon footprint? BRÛLÉ: On balance, I don’t think my carbon footprint is particularly large. I do fly an enormous amount, but I don’t own a car, I walk most places in London and opt for trains over aircraft where possible (in Europe and Japan). I believe that to a lot of readers, especially those familiar with Brûlé’s public profile, this answer was less than convincing. How could this famous rich guy not have a large carbon footprint? Maybe Brûlé is right or maybe not (I should note, by the way, that once I was paid a small amount to write a piece for Monocle). The broader point is that we can’t trust our intuitions.
Food System,” by Patrick Canning, Ainsley Charles, Sonya Huang, Karen R. Polenske, and Arnold Waters, United States Department of Agriculture, March 2010; the 29 percent figure is taken from p. 17; see also p. 20. On Pirog, see James E. McWilliams, Just Food: Where Locavores Get it Wrong and How We Can Truly Eat Responsibly (New York, Back Bay Books, 2009), pp. 25–26. On the refrigerated apple example, see Mike Berners-Lee, How Bad Are Bananas?: The Carbon Footprint of Everything (London, England: Profile Books, 2010), p. 27. For information on April, see her blog and twitter feed, http://web.me.com/aprildavila/MWM/Check_My_Work.html. http://web.me.com/aprildavila/MWM/Blog/Blog.html. http://web.me.com/aprildavila/MWM/Blog/Entries/2010/2/20_Food_For_Thought.html. https://twitter.com/WithoutMonsanto. There is also this article, http://blogs.riverfronttimes.com/dailyrft/2010/04/la_woman_boycotts_monsanto_for_a_month.php?
., 248 boycotts, 172–75, 181 Brazil, 111, 161, 183–84 breads, 185 breakfasts, 6, 52, 54 Bridgewater, Virginia, 137–39 brisket, 89, 91 Bronx, New York, 73–74 Brooklyn, New York, 73–74 Brûlé, Tyler, 176 Brunswick stew, 91–92, 109 Buddhist restaurants, 236 buffets, 136, 223–24 bul-gogi, 126–27 Burkina Faso, 163 cacao, 6 calamari, 72 Calcutta, India, 224 California, 21 Camilo, Juan, 160 Canada, 114, 129, 130, 135, 162 Cancún, Mexico, 207 canned foods, 25, 258 Cantonese style Chinese food, 131, 134, 220–21 capitalism, 14, 151–52 carbon footprints, 176–77 carbon taxes, 179–81 Caribbean, 89–90 cars, 90, 185–86 casinos, 61–63 cassava, 155 casseroles, 135 caterers, 244–45 cattle, 190. See also beef Central Mexico, 98, 145 cereals, 49 Ceylon, 146 chain restaurants, 34–35, 188, 206. See also fast foods Chairman Mao’s Braised Pork Belly, 131, 260 Chang, David, 259 charque, 244 cheap foods, 8–9, 11, 28 cheeses, 9, 196–99, 246 Chesman, Andrea, 171 Chicago, Illinois, 65, 122, 133 chicharrónes, 194 chicken, 24, 71–72, 194–95, 221, 246 Chihuahua cheeses, 196, 198 children, 22–23, 31–33, 36, 68, 235 Chile, 130, 208 chili peppers and barbecue, 90 and Bolivian food, 60 chili-based sauces, 245 chili crab, 220 influence on American food, 31 and Mexican food, 206–7 and Sichuan food, 132 and Singaporean foods, 220–21 China and Chinese food.
The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky
Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, Google Earth, Internet of things, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar
Customers used Scott’s site to pick their tree and delivery time (and one can easily imagine how mobile phones and tweets could sharpen the delivery details even further). No tying the tree to the roof of the car with bungee cords. No tripping and falling on the stoop and scratching your face. No wondering when the tree has become a fire hazard, figuring out the day for the city pickup, and dragging the needle-shedding tree carcass out to the curb. Customers could even take comfort in reducing their carbon footprint just a little. Like Scott’s business, this book is about a simple idea: some things are better shared. There is much to be said for owning things. But the dominant ownership mindset has often blinkered our business brains. The fact is that our commerce, not to mention our social lives, has always depended on sharing. When you start looking for them, “share platforms” are everywhere. During that holiday season in New York, essential shared goods and businesses seemed to jump out at me—hotels and apartment buildings, subways and taxis, airports and planes, churches and libraries.
If you hit a target heart rate and cholesterol level, Blue Shield (whose financial risk is lowered) rewards you with a $100 deposit into a SmartyPig savings account. For every dollar that you save in SmartyPig, you get half-price deals with four hundred other companies in their Mesh network. As a member of this Mesh “ecosystem” you are: (1) eating healthy food; (2) getting in a little exercise walking to the car-share garage; (3) congratulating yourself on lowering your cholesterol and your carbon footprint; and (4) collecting a bonus from your health insurance and getting money in your bank account, which you can leverage for discounts at businesses whose offers are specifically tailored to you. Maybe a deal on a family ski vacation in Aspen? Your four-door hybrid—with tire chains in the trunk and a (shared) Thule ski rack on top—is waiting. 2 The Mesh Advantage WHAT’S HERE: network power, leveraged; panning for gold, or meet my friend, the filter; spice up your mesh with partners.
Designers should imitate nature by using structures and materials that endure. Of course, the most durable shared bike, car, watch, or other product does have a finite life cycle, even if it is well maintained. The goal is to start with good quality, conserve the core materials, and preserve the virtues of the product as it goes through its life cycle. Earth is the ultimate share platform. Thoughtful product design conserves nature by reducing the carbon footprint and lowering waste. As citizens on the planet, as well as entrepreneurs in Mesh businesses, we should all want this. Reducing waste is also called operating efficiently. In fact, for economic reasons alone, all businesses should aspire to reduce waste. DuPont, for example, saved over $2 billion by reducing its emissions by 70 percent between 1990 and 2004. Successful Mesh enterprises strive to equal the convenience of the ownership model while trimming out the extra fat, environmentally and financially.
The Gated City (Kindle Single) by Ryan Avent
big-box store, carbon footprint, deindustrialization, edge city, Edward Glaeser, income inequality, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, offshore financial centre, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Silicon Valley, Thorstein Veblen, transit-oriented development, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation
In denser cities, residences tend to be smaller and more energy efficient, and more compact cities reduce the need to develop green land on the urban fringe, in the process preserving trees and limiting carbon emissions. For all these reasons, the average New Yorker has a carbon footprint about half that of the average American. Residents of New York City have a carbon footprint less than one-third that of the national average. Growth rules are especially bad for the climate in places like coastal California. The temperate climate in cities like San Francisco and Los Angeles means that energy use is dramatically lower in such cities than it is elsewhere. By limiting development, San Franciscans are raising home prices and encouraging residents to move to places where it will be far more difficult to constrain and reduce their carbon emissions. In many of the destination cities for American migrants, carbon footprints are distressingly high. In Houston, for instance, household transportation emissions are much higher than in the Loser cities.
Who Owns the Future? by Jaron Lanier
3D printing, 4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, augmented reality, automated trading system, barriers to entry, bitcoin, book scanning, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Graeber, delayed gratification, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Filter Bubble, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, packet switching, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks
The process will not be perfect, since the laws of thermodynamics cannot be revoked, but it will be hugely more efficient than what we do today. Between the obsolescence of shipping and an extreme increase in recycling precision, 3D printing could create a massive explosion of convenience and fun, and at the same time vastly reduce humanity’s carbon footprint and reliance on nonrenewable resources. All this modulo the gotchas we don’t know about yet, of course. But supposing that some portions of the benefits appear, it certainly would be foolish to oppose this stream of progress. How could a liberal not like the reduced carbon footprint? How could a conservative not like the efficiency? And of course techies will be in love. And yet the transformation will throw factory workers out of work in a massive wave. Will China be destabilized? As happened with the file-sharing of other things like music, the transformation of fabrication into a file-sharing phenomenon could happen very quickly.
The little gotchas and annoyances of technology are not predictable and can add decades of uncertainty to the timing of technological change. But it seems likely that 3D printing can close the various loops and become a fairly complete technology in this century. But notice that once a 3D printer can be deployed in a factory, it might just as well be placed close to where the product will be used. Being able to make things on the spot could remove a huge part of humanity’s carbon footprint: the transportation of goods. Instead of fleets of container ships bringing tchotchkes from China to our ports, we’ll print them out at home, or maybe at the neighborhood print shop. What will be distributed instead will be the antecedent “goops.” These are the substances squirted out by the printer’s nozzles. At the time of writing, there are about one hundred goops in use by 3D printers.
If we were for a moment to forget the mirror maze of economics, and the circular firing squad of politics, and only think about the fundamentals, then a rational response to global climate change would be to supercharge all large-scale curative climate research, at least at the scale of the Manhattan and Apollo projects combined. There would also be massive social engineering experiments in order to reduce the carbon footprint of humanity in case the tech fixes don’t work as soon as we’d like. Doing these things seems unimaginable now, and yet the creation of giant stupid ghost suburbs in places like Las Vegas during the leveraged mortgage debacle of the last decade was practically automatic. This was a remarkably expensive activity at the time and turned out after only a few more years had passed to be catastrophically more expensive than anyone anticipated.
air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, dematerialisation, employer provided health coverage, energy security, European colonialism, Firefox, Food sovereignty, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, global supply chain, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, McMansion, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, supply-chain management, the built environment, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Wall-E, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar
Then they ask you to share the check, even though you didn’t get to eat.”100 A first-ever analysis and comparison of the carbon footprints of different countries was created by researchers at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology and the Center for International Climate and Environment Research-Oslo. Not surprisingly, it shows that the higher a country’s per-capita consumption expenditures are, the bigger its carbon footprint. The national average per-capita footprints varied from 1 ton of carbon dioxide equivalents per year in African countries such as Malawi and Mozambique to roughly 30 tons per year in industrialized countries such as the United States and Luxembourg. The study also found that in poorer countries, food and services are a bigger contributor to the carbon footprint, while mobility—transportation—and the consumption of manufactured goods result in the greatest greenhouse gas emissions in rich countries.101 One of the key innovations of the study is that it assigns the global carbon footprint from imports to the country that imports the goods—not the country that manufactures the goods.
To grow the cotton for just my one shirt, about 2 pounds of CO2 are generated—to make petrochemical-based fertilizers and pesticides, and for the electricity used in pumping irrigation water. The cleaning, spinning, knitting, and finishing processes add another 3 pounds. So in total my little T-shirt generates about 5 pounds of CO2. That’s before it gets transported to and from the store and then gets washed and dried over its lifetime, which at least doubles its carbon footprint.31 When I visited the website of the clothing company Patagonia recently, it allowed me to calculate the footprints of several of their items, including one of their organic cotton T-shirts. The site told me where “nearly half” of the cotton came from (Turkey); that’s a long way away. The next stop listed was Los Angeles, for knitting, cutting, and sewing in one factory and dyeing in another, using oil-based dyes, some of which are not PVC free.
The study also found that in poorer countries, food and services are a bigger contributor to the carbon footprint, while mobility—transportation—and the consumption of manufactured goods result in the greatest greenhouse gas emissions in rich countries.101 One of the key innovations of the study is that it assigns the global carbon footprint from imports to the country that imports the goods—not the country that manufactures the goods. This approach is really important because globalized production chains allow companies to outsource the manufacturing of carbon-intensive products, thus hiding the real carbon costs of imported goods. What we need to avoid is a scenario in which countries with tight carbon emission limits can simply outsource the production of Stuff they consume to countries where the emission limits are not so restrictive. Redistribution and Reverence Around the world, current consumption patterns are destroying remaining environmental resources and the services that the earth provides and exacerbating inequalities.
MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams
accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar
Take your diet: livestock are responsible for an estimated 18 percent of global carbon emissions, so when you chow down on a hamburger, you’re effectively emitting CO2 as well.9 Even something as small as an iPod Nano will add to your carbon footprint, thanks to both the energy used to produce and ship it and the energy later needed to charge it (68 lbs. of CO2 over its lifetime, according to the British design consultancy IDC).10 One’s personal carbon footprint is a rough measure of all the greenhouse gases we’re responsible for emitting. But unlike Karas, not everyone has a degree in environmental economics. And until recently, it’s been pretty near impossible for the average consumer to get a reliable estimate of their personal carbon footprint. “Back when we started, most of the information available online regarding climate change or global warming was pretty technical,” says Duane Dahl, the founder of EarthLab.com, one of the Web’s most used carbon calculators.
There is now a new engine of innovation and wealth creation and a powerful new force that radically drops collaboration costs and as such enables communities to collaborate on shared concerns, endeavors, and challenges. Greater openness in innovation and science, for example, is creating more economic opportunity for citizens and businesses that learn how to tap into global innovation webs. In the fight against climate change, ordinary people are forging a mass movement to bring greater consumer awareness and a sense of community to making ordinary household and business decisions that can reduce our carbon footprints. In education, leading universities are breaking down their ivory towers and building a global network for higher learning—a rich tapestry of world-class educational resources that every aspiring student on the planet can use and return to throughout his or her lifetime. Innovators across the public sector are harnessing the Web to generate more productive and equitable services, bolster public trust and legitimacy, and unlock new possibilities to co-innovate solutions to local, national, and global challenges.
Make people and businesses pay the full environmental costs of what they produce and consume and suddenly every investment and purchasing decision made in retail stores, financial markets, and small and large companies around the world will be made in pursuit of the least-cost low-carbon option. Weaving carbon emissions into every business decision will drive innovation and deployment of clean technologies to a whole new level, and make energy efficiency much more affordable. Industries will need to invent and adopt new technologies that boost efficiency to limit their emissions. And consumers will curtail their own carbon footprints as the prices they pay for things like air travel and exotic fruits begin to reflect their true costs to the planet. It’s true that centrally managed taxes, credits, and incentives provide important levers for steering society toward low-carbon solutions. But the erroneous assumption underlying conventional wisdom is that politicians and other powerful interests can “manage” climate change with new regulations issued from a patchwork of national capitals around the world.
The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton
1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator
Our design interest therefore is not aligned with a notional sustainability conceived as conservative homeostasis, but with the force routes of a disequilibrium that reverberate through matter and transform the world in creative rhythms, slow and fast, including especially its plastics and fleshes. The Cloud layer, just above the Earth layer in The Stack, makes epic, rapidly expanding energy demands (the total carbon footprint of the world's data centers has already surpassed that of the airline industry and is presumed to triple by 2020), and so risk is not hard to find. Data centers are located to mitigate cost and uncertainty, away from likely natural disasters, in proximity of cheap or clean energy sources, diverse power grid interconnects, favorable land use zoning, and inexpensive intermediate bandwidth, for example.51 Because there is no planetary computational economy that is not first a planetary energy economy, the limits to growth for The Stack are not only Moore's law and Shannon's law (accelerating the speed of processors and squeezing more information into existing channels) but also, and perhaps foremost, to secure the energy necessary to power those data centers, smart cities, homes, cars, roads, smart objects, and phones, as well as the real costs (or benefits) of doing so at the expense of other infrastructure, like new roads and buildings.52 In principle, there is a potentially virtuous correlation at work for innovation across computation and energy sectors, and the gamble on that potential is another generative accident of the Earth layer.
Any activity that generates more energy than it uses to sustain itself could invest that surplus into a vast metabolic agora where it powers and animates distant and complex projects, its muscular and cellular force captured, stored, and routed to where it can best collaborate with other aggregated exertions to power another unknown project. Yes, you are a battery. Our most visionary plots have the Stack's carbon footprint measured not in debt but in surplus, and likely in our lifetimes or not, the geopolitics of a postscarcity Earth layer is worth articulating and defending as an ideal. In the meantime, we note that many of the most important positive potential effects of ubiquitous computationally intensive, point-to-point energy flows are on “non-Stack” industries. The Climate Group's Smart2020: Enabling the Low Carbon Economy in the Information Age report issues confident, sunny scenarios for carbon savings from ICT in five critical areas: smart grids, transportation, dematerialization, buildings, and information management.
Some of these would redefine city-states as carefully policed service platforms, and for this, their urban-planning expertise relies on CRM (Customer Relationship Management), DRM (Digital Rights Management), server virtualization, end-User usage metrics, object synchronization across multiple devices and device synchronization across multiple data objects, at least as much as it does on architectural design, and often not at all on things that are normally thought to make interesting cities interesting.24 Like all Ballardesque metropoli, these cities are “post-interesting,” which is itself interesting. Contrary to parametricism's claims, figural virtuosity is subordinated to building forms that are recognizable and ad hoc, popular and stupid, but amenable to the real estate metrics that outvote other politics of the envelope. A partial list of these benchmarks includes both the sensible and the sinister: on-site carbon footprint minimization, energy and water management, replaceable and recombinant building materials, perimeter gate security, civic control contingency planning, bomb-resistant membranes, crowd circulation administration, tightly curated digital signage, assigned parking spaces, account credit-issuing recycling bins, and, for some, separate public entrances for citizens, tourists, women, unclean animals, and service staff.25 38.
The Weather of the Future by Heidi Cullen
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, air freight, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, availability heuristic, back-to-the-land, bank run, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, megacity, millennium bug, out of africa, Silicon Valley, smart cities, trade route, urban planning, Y2K
“There is no other city in the world that can say that.” Cities cover less than 1 percent of the Earth’s surface, but they hold half the population and produce about 70 percent of the total greenhouse gas emissions. That’s why focusing on reducing emissions in cities is so important. Actually, despite their big collective carbon footprint, the cities’ reliance on mass transit and smaller, stacked living spaces makes them very energy-efficient. For example, the carbon footprint of the average New Yorker is less than one-third the size of the average American’s carbon footprint.3 Another compelling reason to tackle global warming in cities is that they are very vulnerable to a changing climate. And when you live in a city that is also an island, you’ve got even bigger worries. The NPCC, using data and models to project future climate change for New York City, has identified some of the most serious potential risks to New York’s infrastructure.
Though these prophecies, as I’ve suggested, contain the seeds of a Greek tragedy, ultimately the forecasts also contain a kernel of hope, because unlike the prophecies in Greek tragedy, they are changeable. The forecasts paint a picture of just one possible future. While these forecasts, or indeed any forecasts, make certain assumptions about how trends will continue, one true variable they cannot approximate with much accuracy is our own behavior. We are the factor that could render all these predictions false, because we alone have the power to reduce our global carbon footprint. The question that we must now answer is how. In the end, these forecasts pose a question that is vital to our collective future: if we are really capable of forecasting the future and seeing the devastation of a changing climate in advance, will we act to prevent it? Can we rally around this forty-year forecast for the good of the world, or will we wait until the levees break before we decide to act?
“I believe in decentralized infrastructure, but that doesn’t mean decentralized cities. I believe in cities!” In keeping with this building-by-building approach, the rooftops of New York City hold a lot of hidden potential. One study cited by PlaNYC calculates that if all the rooftops in the city were covered with solar panels, they could produce nearly 18 percent of the city’s energy needs during daytime hours. In New York, roughly 40 percent of the carbon footprint comes from electricity consumed, and another 40 percent comes from the heating fuels burned directly in buildings. So making buildings more efficient is a major part of the strategy to reduce carbon emissions. It can also reduce air pollution. Nearly one-third of locally produced particulate matter in our air comes from heating fuel. Public health can improve quickly as a result of efforts that improve air quality and building efficiency.
This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein
1960s counterculture, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
As Australian political scientist Robyn Eckersley puts it, this was “the pivotal moment that set the shape of the relationship between the climate and trade regimes” because, “Rather than push for the recalibration of the international trade rules to conform with the requirements of climate protection . . . the Parties to the climate regime have ensured that liberalized trade and an expanding global economy have been protected against trade-restrictive climate policies.” This practically guaranteed that the negotiating process would be unable to reckon with the kinds of bold but “trade-restrictive” policy options that could have been coordinated internationally—from buy-local renewable energy programs to restrictions on trade in goods produced with particularly high carbon footprints.28 A few isolated voices were well aware that the modest gains being made in the negotiations over “sustainable development” were being actively unmade by the new trade and investment architecture. One of those voices belonged to Martin Khor, then director of the Third World Network, which has been a key advisor to developing country governments in both trade and climate talks. At the end of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, Khor cautioned that there was a “general feeling among Southern country delegates . . . that events outside the [summit] process were threatening to weaken the South further and to endanger whatever positive elements exist in” the Rio agenda.
Still, the study was a bombshell, and though it remains controversial, a steady stream of newer work has bolstered the case for a high rate of methane leakage in the fracking process.III48 The gas industry isn’t the only one turning to dirtier, higher-risk methods. Like Germany, the Czech Republic and Poland are increasingly relying on and expanding production of extra-dirty lignite coal.49 And the major oil companies are rushing into various tar sands deposits, most notably in Alberta, all with significantly higher carbon footprints than conventional oil. They are also moving into ever deeper and icier waters for offshore drilling, carrying the risk of not just more catastrophic spills, as we saw with BP’s Deepwater Horizon disaster, but spills that are simply impossible to clean up. Increasingly, these extreme extraction methods—blasting oil and gas out of rock, steaming oil out of tarlike dirt —are being used together, as when fracked natural gas is piped in to superheat the water that melts the bitumen in the tar sands, to cite just one example from the energy death spiral.
It’s a challenge, too, to those parts of the left that equated socialism with the authoritarian rule of the Soviet Union and its satellites (though there was always a rich tradition, particularly among anarchists, that considered Stalin’s project an abomination of core social justice principles). Because the fact is that those self-described socialist states devoured resources with as much enthusiasm as their capitalist counterparts, and spewed waste just as recklessly. Before the fall of the Berlin Wall, for instance, Czechs and Russians had even higher carbon footprints per capita than Canadians and Australians. Which is why one of the only times the developed world has seen a precipitous emissions drop was after the economic collapse of the former Soviet Union in the early 1990s. Mao Zedong, for his part, openly declared that “man must conquer nature,” setting loose a devastating onslaught on the natural world that transitioned seamlessly from clear-cuts under communism to mega-dams under capitalism.
affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional
One of the great ironies of Mitchell and McHarg’s environmentalism is that they tried to build a green community with plenty of trees and energy-efficient homes, but home owners drive so much that they undo most of those environmental benefits. Moreover, as I’ll discuss in the next chapter, Texas has such a hot, humid climate that cooling those homes and restaurants inevitably generates a big carbon footprint. Because The Woodlands is thirty miles from Houston’s downtown towers, you might think that its residents face horrendous commutes. MapQuest gives the driving time from The Woodlands to Houston as thirty-seven minutes, and that optimistic estimate is based on light traffic, not a normal rush hour. Yet for 2006-2008, the Census Bureau gave the average commute time in The Woodlands as 28.5 minutes because so many people there aren’t commuting into Houston at all.
Many of São Paulo’s suburbs are the traditional poor settlements of the developing world, whose people ride public transit to work and live in small homes that would be substandard in the United States or Europe. But there are also plenty of wealthier enclaves that look like Houston’s suburbs. You can find similar places around Bangalore, Mumbai, Cairo, Mexico City, and pretty much any growing city throughout the world. If the entire world starts looking like Houston, the planet’s carbon footprint will skyrocket. Houston residents, for all the sensible suburban logic of their lives, are some of the biggest carbon emitters in the country. All those 90-degree days and all that humidity mean that Houston is a ravenous consumer of electricity. All that driving gobbles up plenty of gas. Urbanization will continue in India and China, and that’s a good thing—there is no future in rural poverty.
In 2006, the United States produced about 6 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide, which doesn’t include the emissions related to the goods we import from elsewhere on the planet. That figure represents about one fifth of total world carbon dioxide emissions, more than any other country except China and more than the amount emitted by Europe and Latin America. Together, homes and cars account for about 40 percent of an average household’s output and also about 40 percent of America’s and 8 percent of the world’s carbon footprint. About 20 percent of America’s carbon dioxide emissions are related to residential energy use, and almost another 20 percent is associated with our motor vehicles. Using a gallon of gas produces about twenty-two pounds of carbon dioxide, if you factor in the carbon used in refining and distributing gasoline. An average family in the United States buys about a thousand gallons of gas a year, which is associated with about ten tons of carbon dioxide.
Carjacked: The Culture of the Automobile and Its Effect on Our Lives by Catherine Lutz, Anne Lutz Fernandez
barriers to entry, car-free, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, failed state, feminist movement, fudge factor, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, inventory management, market design, market fundamentalism, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, New Urbanism, oil shock, peak oil, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Thorstein Veblen, traffic fines, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar
Many used cars come with warranties as good as those on new cars, and state lemon laws protect you from dealers (and sometimes from private sellers, too).8 Numerous makes and models have proven themselves to be highly reliable used car purchases; check Consumer Reports for a list of these. Buying used not only saves you money but is environmentally friendly. Well-meaning people sometimes reason that they should buy a new, more energy-efficient car in order to have a lighter carbon footprint. However, about a fifth of a car’s lifetime carbon emissions are produced in the manufacturing process.9 Even if the new car you are 214 Carjacked considering is much more fuel-efficient, it is usually greener to keep your old car, which would continue to be driven by someone else in any case. For financial or other reasons, however, you may still decide to buy a new, more fuel-efficient car.
Even people who are not comfortable being at the forefront of automotive technology can buy a car today with emissions quite below average and with outstanding gas mileage. Honda, Toyota, and MINI are producing most of the high-mpg small cars out there. Check out www.fueleconomy.gov to see a list of cars with the best mile-per-gallon performance for the kind of driving you tend to do and to see how your current car rates in terms of its carbon footprint and contribution to air pollution. Use Greenercars.org to comparisonshop for an environmentally friendlier car that meets your other needs. Invest in safety, both for yourself and for your neighbors on the road. Over the past few decades, car manufacturers have been continually adding new safety features to their cars, but not all come standard. When you buy a new or used car, choose one with options that make it easier to avoid collisions or help protect you during one, such as antilock brakes, front and rear side impact air bags, head-protection curtain air bags, and electronic stability control (ESC), which helps a driver gain control of a vehicle that is skidding or sliding in a turn by automatically braking individual wheels.
Do the math on the commute you will be required to make each day: a 15-mile commute from work to one poten- CONCLUSION 223 tial house purchase versus an 18-mile commute to another may not seem like much—just three miles, for goodness’ sake—but it would add up to 1,440 additional miles each year, or more than $1,000 a year. Depending on traffic, that could mean an additional 58 hours of time away from home, 58 additional hours of highway crash risk, and a bigger carbon footprint. Ask your potential employer about public transportation to their site. If public transit is not an option, test drive the route you would have to take during the morning and evening rush hours. Factor the cost in terms of time, health, and finances into your decision. A job paying a lower salary that is easier to get to may well leave you with more spending money. If a new job opportunity will require you to buy a new car, even if you think you can carpool to work, complete the car calculation sheet at www.webwinder.com before accepting an offer.
Living in a Material World: The Commodity Connection by Kevin Morrison
barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, clean water, commodity trading advisor, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, energy security, European colonialism, flex fuel, food miles, Hernando de Soto, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, hydrogen economy, Long Term Capital Management, new economy, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, out of africa, peak oil, price mechanism, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, young professional
Government representatives from 189 countries, Al Gore – the former US vice president turned businessman and environmental campaigner – and a myriad of industry lobbyists, environmentalists, lawyers, bankers, students, journalists and hundreds of television camera crews flood the spacious Bali convention centre for the two-week talkfest. The conference’s wordy title is typical of the lexicon of titles, agreements and groupings that characterize the travelling circus of climate change talks. The carbon footprint of the 2007 event was astronomical; 137 000 trees1 would need to be planted to offset all the emissions that were generated – from the flights to Bali to the air conditioners to cool the sauna-like temperatures. Not to mention the thousands of laptops, mobile phones, cameras and battery chargers needed to photograph and record the event for television, radio, print and the internet – this is just some of the vast amount of electrical consumption that the event required.
My childhood winters may well have been the tail end 128 | LIVING IN A MATERIAL WORLD of a mini-global cooling period, although the world was still warmer in the 1970s than it was 100 years previously.7 The debate around these long-term climate changes is whether we are accelerating the process through human activity – in particular the carbon emitted from power stations, cars, homes, farms and the cutting down of rainforests. Emissions Daily Each of us has a carbon footprint. We emit carbon whenever we switch on a light, turn the radio on for the morning news or boot up the computer to check our emails. Even having a cup of tea or a slice of toast releases emissions, because these daily acts use electrical power, which, in most parts of the world, is generated by burning coal and gas. We can minimize our individual carbon output by switching from conventional light bulbs to compact fluorescent light bulbs, turning off the tap when brushing teeth, cutting down on car trips, walking more or taking the bus or train, and by replacing plastic shopping bags with reusable ones.
Funds are then invested in forestry schemes, which mean planting more trees or looking after existing ones. But voluntary schemes are not regulated and they can be opaque. Consumers who want a carbon neutral lifestyle can install solar panels, put a wind turbine on the roof, sell the car and wear more clothes around the house in winter – or they can purchase carbon credits via carbon brokers such as The CarbonNeutral Company, Climate Care and co2balance.com to offset their carbon footprint. Despite some confusion in how these different schemes calculate emissions (a flight from London to Sydney, for example, can cost between £14.25 and £36 to offset), Britons spent £60 million offsetting their CO2 emissions in 2006 and this is expected to rise to £250 million by 2009, according to the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Copping, 2007). CLIMATE | 145 Even religious leaders want to be carbon neutral.
An Optimist's Tour of the Future by Mark Stevenson
23andMe, Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, augmented reality, bank run, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, clean water, computer age, decarbonisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, flex fuel, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hans Rosling, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Louis Pasteur, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, packet switching, peak oil, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, the scientific method, Wall-E, X Prize
The ice across Hudson Bay melted almost a month later than normal, and polar bears, who feed and give birth on the ice, had a greater number of healthy cubs that summer (offspring dubbed ‘Pinatubo cubs’). Then again, other aerosols like soot absorb sunlight and have a warming effect. Some believe that this kind of ‘black carbon’ may be the world’s leading cause of global warming after CO2. Although on the positive side, as Mike Berners-Lee says in his book, How Bad Are Bananas?: the carbon footprint of everything: ‘black carbon lasts only a few days in the atmosphere [so] if we reduce the amount we create, the benefit will be instant. Hence some experts think that reducing black carbon pollution should be a number one priority in tackling global warming.’ The problem is that we don’t know how much of each sort of aerosol is in the atmosphere. In January 2010, a Nature article entitled ‘The Real Holes in Climate Science’ summed up the situation by saying estimates of the net aerosol effect vary by an order of magnitude.
The phosphorous-doped ‘negative’ wafer faces the sun, and when an electron gets dislodged in this part of the cell it will head off in the direction of the boron-doped ‘positive’ wafer underneath, setting off a chain reaction of ‘charge passing’ between atoms and creating an electrical current. Silicon cells, however, are costly, complex to manufacture – and, ironically, have quite a high embedded carbon footprint (the ‘doping’ process, for instance, requires the wafers to be heated to slightly below the melting point of silicon). In recent years, ‘thin-film’ solar cell technologies have emerged that use much slimmer wafers of silicon or combinations of materials with catchy names like ‘cadmium telluride’ and ‘copper indium gallium diselenide.’ These cells can be made much thinner and lighter and are often cheaper than their crystalline silicon counterparts, which means that even though they generate less electricity per square foot, the cost of the energy produced can compare favourably.
Indeed, Nasheed has already talked about setting up a ‘sovereign fund’ to buy land elsewhere should worse come to the worst. At the same time, the country is leading the way in creating a carbon neutral economy, which is no small feat when the nation is made up of over a thousand tiny islands, nearly all of which get their energy from diesel generators. Not to mention the fact that the Maldivian economy – and its carbon footprint – are dominated by tourism and associated aviation. The Maldives also rather neatly demonstrates the carbon divide between ‘developed’ and ‘developing’ nations. Resorts renowned for their opulence host small numbers of wealthy tourists who consume luxury foods flown in to meet their demands. Sumptuous villas are filled with every electronic convenience. By contrast, neighbouring non-resort islands often have populations of thousands, many of whom live in poverty.
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar
“Keep doing what you’re doing,” is the message, just add another solar panel, a wind turbine, a bamboo floor, whatever. But a solar-heated house in the suburbs is still a house in the suburbs, and if you have to drive to it—even in a Prius—it’s hardly green.10 We planners have taken to calling this phenomenon gizmo green: the obsession with “sustainable” products that often have a statistically insignificant impact on the carbon footprint when compared to our location. And, as already suggested, our location’s greatest impact on our carbon footprint comes from how much it makes us drive. This point was pounded home in a recent EPA study, “Location Efficiency and Building Type—Boiling It Down to BTUs,”11 that compared four factors: drivable versus walkable location; conventional construction versus green building; single-family versus multifamily housing; and conventional versus hybrid automobiles.
The coolest are smack-dab in the center of town. To be accurate: Bernstein’s maps have a limitation. They do not show full carbon output; they only show CO2 from household automobile use—data that are much easier to collect. But this limitation turns out to be useful, for several reasons: first, because it causes us to confirm that automobile use is not only the single greatest contributor to our total carbon footprint, but also a reliable predictor of that total; and second, because limiting our greenhouse gas emissions, for many, is a much less pressing issue than our dependence on foreign oil. YOU CAN’T SPELL CARBON WITHOUT CAR At last measure, we are sending $612,500 overseas every minute in support of our current automotive lifestyle.1 Cumulatively, over recent decades, this has amounted to a “massive, irreversible shift in wealth and power from the United States to the petro-states of the Middle East and energy-rich Russia.”2 This cash transfer, which is quickly working its way up to a third of a trillion dollars each year, is building some truly stunning metro-rail systems in Dubai and Abu Dhabi—our cars are buying their trains.
Well, because the building is LEED● (green) certified, of course.13 Kaid Benfield, a long-serving environmental watchdog at the Natural Resources Defense Council, did some numbers, and he found that while “an average resident in the vicinity of the current EPA Region 7 headquarters emits 0.39 metric tons of carbon dioxide per month … the transportation carbon emissions associated with the new location are a whopping 1.08 metric tons per person per month … one and a half times the regional average.”14 These numbers are, of course, just a stand-in for the actual increased carbon footprints of the EPA’s staffers, most of whom will probably not move from their current homes. Presuming these employees’ houses are distributed around Kansas City in the normal manner, the vast majority will have their commutes lengthened, many by twenty miles or more each way. Those who used to take transit to work will now have to get on the highway. This would be funny if it weren’t so sad. The carbon saved by the new building’s LEED status, if any, will be a small fraction of the carbon wasted by its location.■ This missing the forest for the trees is what David Owen calls “LEED Brain.”
The Land Grabbers: The New Fight Over Who Owns the Earth by Fred Pearce
Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, clean water, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, index fund, Jeff Bezos, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, out of africa, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, smart cities, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks
The most dramatic example is oil palm. It is often grown on land formerly occupied by rain forest and carbon-rich peat bogs. Clearing the forests and draining the peat bogs will create a huge carbon footprint. Taking that into account, the overall carbon footprint of biodiesel from palm oil is often much greater than that of fossil oil. More often, biofuels are grown on former pastures, in which case we need to know how much carbon the grass would have absorbed. Or they might be grown on fields that once grew food. Assuming the food now has to be grown somewhere else, we then need to know where it is grown, and what the carbon footprint of the food crop is. Maybe someone somewhere chopped down a forest to keep people fed. Or added extra fertilizer to another field to increase yields. Making fertilizer is an extremely energy-intensive, carbon-producing activity.
It was a poverty-stricken community of pearl divers until the development of oil reserves in the 1950s. Then came the discovery, just offshore, of vast reserves of natural gas. Today, Qatar is the world’s largest exporter of natural gas (8.8 trillion cubic feet a year, for anyone who is counting). It is superrich even by Gulf standards. The 800,000 Qataris have both the highest average income and the largest per-capita carbon footprint on the planet. Its capital, Doha, is planning on being the next Dubai. Qatar is an absolute monarchy. It has been dominated for more than a century by the Al Thani family, a Bedouin clan originally from Arabia. The current all-powerful emir, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, took power from his father in a palace coup in 1995. He has since secured his power by locking up a cousin, allegedly for using state funds to go on a billion-dollar shopping spree in the world’s art auction rooms.
Like any other carbon-based fuel, when biofuels are burned, they release the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. But if the fuel comes from a crop, then growing the plant will absorb the same amount of carbon dioxide from the air as is eventually released by the burning. Carbon in; carbon out. A cycle is created, in which growing new plants neutralizes the emissions. The logic is impeccable, but it leaves out two things. First, there is the carbon “footprint” of growing, transporting, and processing the crop. And second, the question of what else might have happened on that land and what its carbon consequences would be. The first can be calculated. The math makes growing corn for ethanol look dumb. The large amount of energy needed to manufacture fertilizer to grow the corn, and then to process that corn into ethanol, often means it would be more climate friendly to stick with regular fossil oil.
A Line in the Tar Sands: Struggles for Environmental Justice by Tony Weis, Joshua Kahn Russell
Bakken shale, bilateral investment treaty, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial exploitation, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, Deep Water Horizon, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, global village, guest worker program, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, immigration reform, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, LNG terminal, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, profit maximization, race to the bottom, smart grid, special economic zone, working poor
In a series dubbed “The War for the Oil Sands in Washington,” Tyee reporter Geoff Dembicki examined how “Doer has devoted much of his professional energy to promoting the oil sands industry, flying to industry roundtables, meeting with US policymakers, and speaking to national magazines.”27 On the legislative front, the Conservative government’s first target was a law established at the end of 2007: Section 526 of the Energy Security and Independence Act, which is often referred to as the Waxman bill, having been introduced by Democratic congressman Henry Waxman. The Waxman bill effectively forbids government agencies—including the US military, by far the largest government purchaser—from buying oil with a larger than average carbon footprint. In response, Canadian embassy officials began strategic communications with the American Petroleum Institute and its offshoot, the Center for North American Energy Security, as well as with companies such as Exxon Mobil, BP, Chevron, Marathon, Devon, and Encana.28 The goal was to ensure that the Waxman bill would not apply to the tar sands, as Waxman had intended. In addition to helping build a coalition of domestic oil lobbyists, the Canadian government protested the Waxman bill through diplomatic channels that stretched upwards to the US Secretary of Defense.29 The larger fear, as Canadian energy advisor Paul Connors put it, was that the Waxman bill “would grow into a larger debate in which the US would consider a wider LCFS [Low Carbon Fuel Standard] for transportation fuels.”30 These perceived risks grew as Barack Obama campaigned with a promise to consider just such a thing.
And few outside of the Canadian embassy were any wiser.”32 Canadian lobbying efforts in the US have extended beyond the federal government and taken aim at state policies designed to reduce carbon emissions from fuel. To the chagrin of Ottawa, in 2007 California governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed the world’s first LCFS into law. The bill mandated California’s Air Resources Board to assign carbon footprints to different fuels in a bid to deter oil suppliers from using high-carbon fuel sources. According to Geoff Dembicki, Canadian officials attempted to intervene at least five times to affect how California defined its LCFS.33 In April 2009, Canada’s minister of natural resources, Lisa Raitt, wrote to Governor Schwarzenegger expressing a fear that “your LCFS regulation … could serve as a model for other states and perhaps the US federal government,” and urging “that the LCFS regulation should assign all mainstream crude oil fuel pathways the same CI [carbon intensity] rather than distinguish among different sources of crude oil.”34 The pressure did not stop there.
A more ambitious just transition would extend workers’ collective rights and point towards new socio-ecological relations21—that is, a militant rejection of the quantitative commodification of nature and life, for a transition to qualitative growth in de-carbonized and de-commodified sectors of production and work. Such an “eco-imaginary” is a rupture with the chase after “green jobs” in a thoroughly commodified society. It could inform specific interventions at the scale of workplaces and building workers’ collective capacities, such as: the incorporation of carbon-reduction strategies within collective agreements through clauses on reductions of the carbon footprint, energy committees, and adjustment plans for jobs affected by climate change; workers’ plans forged to extend best practices for carbon reduction in labour processes and between workplaces; building democratic planning capacities for plant conversion to sustain capital equipment, workers’ skills, and community infrastructure as ecologically responsible production norms are internalized; and participatory planning structures built at the level of local wards for carbon reduction and ecological clean-up in neighbourhoods.
Hot: Living Through the Next Fifty Years on Earth by Mark Hertsgaard
Berlin Wall, business continuity plan, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, defense in depth, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, peak oil, Port of Oakland, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, the built environment, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, transit-oriented development, University of East Anglia, urban planning
"I attended a conference recently and found myself talking with an executive of DuPont, the chemical company," said Chris West, the director of the UK Climate Impacts Programme, a British government agency that educates local governments, businesses, and individuals on how to manage the impacts of climate change. "[This executive] told me about all the green initiatives that DuPont had launched—shrinking its carbon footprint, reducing its toxic emissions, just treating the environment better in general. 'Jolly good,' I said. 'But is DuPont also prepared for how the environment might treat you?' He didn't know what I was talking about. I asked how many facilities his company had around the world. 'About three hundred,' he said. I asked how many of them were located in floodplains. He didn't know. I said, 'Don't you think you should?'"
Climate change would also worsen New York's already ferocious summertime heat and humidity and stress its water and energy supplies. Bloomberg urged facing these problems "not in the future, not when it's too late, but right now." Toward that end, his speech outlined a long-term sustainability plan for the city, a plan he called PlaNYC. Bloomberg's remarks focused overwhelmingly on mitigation—he pledged to cut the city's carbon footprint by 30 percent by 2030—but PlaNYC included adaptation as well. Having become a billionaire before his election as mayor in 2002, Bloomberg clearly grasped the economic appeal of energy efficiency, and he made it the centerpiece of his mitigation strategy. Most of the projected cuts in greenhouse gas emissions would come from increases in energy efficiency, including retrofitting buildings and mandating the purchase of more efficient lights and appliances—what the mayor called "Spend an extra dollar today, save two tomorrow."
One reason is the state government, which in 2008 voted down Bloomberg's proposal for congestion pricing after the New York City Council had approved it. That defeat in turn undermined Bloomberg's proposed expansion of mass transit, which was to be financed in part by congestion fees. The state government had also declined the city's request for a sixfold increase in energy efficiency funding. "Changing the carbon footprint of a city as big as New York is like changing the direction of a supertanker," Aggarwala told me, and individual New Yorkers weren't making the job any easier. " Plasma TVs take three times more power than conventional TVs, and more and more people are buying them," Aggarwala added. "And air conditioners! New Yorkers used to have an air conditioner in one room of their apartment. Now, it's in two or three rooms.
Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend
1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar
According to Ian Marlow, a consultant who served as the lead technical and business advisor for Songdo’s intelligent infrastructure, building-in smart added only 2.9 percent to the project’s construction budget.29 Scale that share planet-wide, and global spending on smart infrastructure is on the order of $100 billion over the next decade alone.30 That sum spans a big territory, according to one market forecast, including “installing municipal wireless networks, implementing e-government initiatives by providing access to city departments and initiatives through websites, integrating public transportation with intelligent transportation systems, or developing ways to cut their carbon footprints and reduce the amount of recyclables consigned to the trash heap.”31 Cisco and IBM both have long histories as suppliers to governments, designing systems to bring paper-based bureaucracies into the digital age. Until recently, this was an incremental process that proceeded at the snail’s pace of government. The companies’ main focus lay elsewhere, on the multinational corporations that were their bread and butter.
52 Scale this model up, and it is possible to imagine a rich trade of power between many producers and consumers, incentivized by any number of causes, interests, or goals. A social meta-layer on the smart power grid could have enormous impact on our consumption choices. Deregulation now allows many consumers to choose which producer to buy their electricity from, even as that power is still delivered across a single grid controlled by the local utility. Power providers compete on price and carbon footprint. But we are moving into a world where the data about electricity will become as valuable as the power itself. Already, start-ups like Arlington, Virginia–based Opower are showing how smart meters will enable utilities to bundle information and services with basic electricity to add value. These tools can help consumers save money, and are very convenient. They also hold the potential to make us more understanding and conscientious about how we use electricity.
“She was as opposed to new towns as she was to slum clearance—anything that threatened the vitality of traditional urban forms was the enemy. . . . How odd that such a conservative, even reactionary stance would galvanize an entire generation.” Worse, the advocacy turn she inspired for a generation of young planners had been co-opted by the NIMBYism of urban elites who “weaponized Jane Jacobs to oppose anything they perceived as threatening the status quo—including projects that would reduce our carbon footprint, create more affordable housing and shelter the homeless.”34 The car wars show us the awful longevity of the choices we make about technology’s role in the city. In the end, despite the social turmoil, the destruction of cities and countryside, the discrediting of city planning, the car remains at the center of the city—not just in America. “In some ways the war is finished,” remarked Georges Amar, the head of innovation for the Paris Metro at a New York University lecture in October 2011, “Cars are part of the mobility system.”
Stuffocation by James Wallman
3D printing, Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Black Swan, BRICs, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Fall of the Berlin Wall, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, James Hargreaves, Joseph Schumpeter, Martin Wolf, McMansion, means of production, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, World Values Survey, Zipcar
A psychologist, like Oliver James, or a philosopher, such as Alain de Botton, will tell you we’ve had enough of stuff because our possessions, and the lifestyle that comes with them, are causing us more stress than happiness. James calls this problem “affluenza”. De Botton says keeping up with the Joneses is giving us “status anxiety”. An environmentalist will tell you we’ve had enough because of global warming, landfill, our carbon footprint. We are worried that we are using up more resources than the planet can sustain. A demographer might say that they can see that the stress of stuff, our stable upbringing and the environment may all be valid, but there are four other, much more important, reasons for Stuffocation: the ageing population, the growing population, the rise of the global middle class, and the move to cities. As people get older they are less interested in having more things.
If you also consider the problems causing Stuffocation, you can see still more reasons why experientialism is better, and why it is likely to appeal not just to a few pioneering hippies with calculators, but to the majority of those in the rich, currently materialistic world. Since, in a world underpinned by experientialism, status and happiness and meaning are no longer based on material goods, it is likely to cause far fewer environmental problems. Many experiences, to be sure, require material goods and do create a footprint. Consider the carbon footprint of an experiential purchase like a holiday to Borneo, for instance. But since experiences are, by definition, less predicated on material possessions they are likely, overall, to cause less damage to the environment. Since in an experientialist system we are less likely to accumulate possessions, we are likely to have fewer things, less clutter and less of the stress that comes with all that stuff.
Consider, for instance, the rise of experiential events, e-books, TOMS shoes, the Common Threads Initiative, Puma’s Clever Little Shopper, collaborative consumption, the runaway success of Apple, and why London is one of the most visited cities in the world. These are stellar examples, the pioneers, if you like, of the experience economy. Here is why. As someone who has made the shift to reading on a digital device, you already know how e-books help solve the problem of Stuffocation: fewer trees cut down, lower carbon footprint, instant access so no need to actually go to the shops, and, best of all, fewer books cluttering up the house or your bag or your suitcase when you go on holiday. Instead of the “buy one get one free” offer – known as BOGOF by retailers – of the old economy, TOMS shoes come with a “buy one give one away” offer: BOGOA, you could call it. For every pair of TOMS shoes you buy, rather than hand you something tangible, they give another pair to a child in need, and, by doing so, they give you the feel-good sense that you have helped someone out.
agricultural Revolution, Anne Wojcicki, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Drosophila, food miles, invention of gunpowder, out of africa, personalized medicine, placebo effect, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Ronald Reagan, Simon Singh, Skype, stem cell, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, Upton Sinclair, X Prize
The origin of nearly every product is on display, the better to assess its carbon footprint, the burden it places on the environment, and the likelihood that the food is fresh. Signs at the meat counter promise animals raised without hormone injections or antibiotics and nourished only by vegetables. Whole Foods adheres to the “Organic Rule,” which, according to one of the store’s many informational brochures, Organics and you, is principally about integrity. Traditional grocery stores rarely made much of a fuss about their philosophies, but Whole Foods isn’t just about food, it’s about living a particular kind of life, an approach the company sums up nicely in the Whole Foods Credo: “Eat seasonally grown food, reduce the distances from farm to plate, shrink one’s carbon footprint, promote sensitivity and a ‘shared fate.’ ” (Eating locally produced food has become such a phenomenon that in 2007 the editors of the New Oxford American Dictionary selected “locavore” as their word of the year.)
To put that into perspective, producing one kilogram of the grass-fed beef so revered by organic devotees and high-end restaurants causes the same amount of greenhouse gas emissions as driving a small car 70.4 miles. Even for beef raised less luxuriously (fed by grain on industrial farms) the figure is nearly forty-five miles. Eating meat is ecologically ruinous: according to a 2008 study by researchers at Carnegie Mellon University, if we all skipped meat and dairy just one day each week it would do more to lower our collective carbon footprint than if the entire population of the United States ate locally produced food every day of the year. Malthus may have badly underestimated human ingenuity, but he did get one formula right: combine intense population pressure with high levels of poverty, reduce the opportunity for technological advances, and the guaranteed result will be famine and death. In 2005, an average hectare of land could feed four and a half people; by 2050 that same plot will need to support at least six people (and possibly closer to eight).
American Made: Why Making Things Will Return Us to Greatness by Dan Dimicco
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American energy revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, carbon footprint, clean water, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, fear of failure, full employment, Google Glasses, hydraulic fracturing, invisible hand, job automation, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Loma Prieta earthquake, manufacturing employment, oil shale / tar sands, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration
North Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania are booming right now. The United States is on track to replace Saudi Arabia as the largest oil producer on the planet.36 But what a lot of people don’t know is that even as we’re tapping into this resource, shale and gas, we’re actually reducing our carbon footprint. Not perfectly. The guys who want it done perfectly can go away. We’re not going to be perfect, and we’re not going to get carbon out of our economy any time soon, if ever. But we’re going to reduce our carbon footprint by switching from coal to natural gas, and by incorporating it into transit. For example, Nucor opted for a natural gas–fed DRI plant in Louisiana, which will produce iron units with 60 percent less CO2 generation per iron unit than a traditional coal-based blast furnace and coke-making facility.37 That’s pretty damn good.
The state understands the economic benefits that come with new construction and high-paying manufacturing jobs. We worked closely with Governor Bobby Jindal and Steve Moret, Jindal’s secretary of economic development. State officials helped with site selection, permitting, financing, and infrastructure. But it still took three years to get permits for proven technology that is cleaner than just about all of the alternatives: technology, in fact, with a carbon footprint about one-third that of a traditional coke oven and blast furnace. We can use furnaces now that not only recapture and recycle heat but also filter out soot and other byproducts. We designed the plant to sit in the middle of 4,000 acres so that local residents won’t even know it’s there. This isn’t your great-granddad’s steel mill. When we announced our decision to build in St. James Parish in September 2010, Jindal hailed it as one of the largest industrial projects in the state’s history.
The Ripple Effect: The Fate of Fresh Water in the Twenty-First Century by Alex Prud'Homme
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, carbon footprint, Chance favours the prepared mind, clean water, Deep Water Horizon, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, hydraulic fracturing, invisible hand, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, megacity, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, renewable energy credits, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl
The dimensions of dead zones change over time, according to wind, weather, and nutrient flows. Some are small, perhaps one square kilometer, while others, such as the persistent dead zone off the coast of Oregon, measure three hundred square miles. “We believe that nitrogen is the main problem,” said Hirsch, who is frustrated by the lack of research on the subject. “A lot of people are focused on CO2 these days—we hear about carbon emissions, carbon footprints, carbon trading, carbon caps, carbon sequestration, you name it—which is all well and good, don’t get me wrong. But when it comes to discussing big environmental issues, carbon tends to ‘suck all of the oxygen out of the room.’ There’s little discussion of other issues, like nitrogen—which is arguably an even bigger problem than carbon.” Some scientists have labeled nitrogen a “missing greenhouse gas” because it is not one of the four gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulfur hexafluoride) and two groups of gases (hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons) named in the Kyoto Protocol, the global accord on climate change.
But David Spath, who once headed the California health department’s drinking-water division, said that while some concerns about using reclaimed water are legitimate—treatment equipment can malfunction, for instance—the risks are “no greater, and probably in some cases better, than in what people may be drinking from river systems around the country.” Most California environmentalists, such as the San Diego Coast-keeper, support the initiative. City planners have noted that in the long run, toilet-to-tap water is going to be cheaper and have a smaller carbon footprint than pumping water from hundreds of miles away. THE TEST CASE Orange County managed to avoid the yuck-factor trap by conducting extensive public outreach—“a battle for minds”—before proposing its enhanced reclaimed-water system on the grounds of Water Factory 21. The mission was led by Ron Wildermuth, a retired navy captain who had served as the public relations officer for General Norman Schwarzkopf during the first Persian Gulf War.
After a scathing 2007 report by Doug Radke, Canada’s former deputy minister of the environment, on Alberta’s “inadequate” enforcement of “outdated and incomplete” environmental regulations for tar sands mining, the provincial government produced an interim plan to guide water withdrawals from the Athabasca River. But Alberta prides itself on a freewheeling Wild West ethos, and the development of new tar sand mine sites hasn’t slowed a bit. • • • As US states try to cut their carbon footprints and search for alternatives to hydrocarbons, the Obama administration has considered building new nuclear power plants for the first time in decades. But nuclear power uses more water—for steam generation and cooling—than any other kind of power plant, which will have to be taken into account. In 2007–8, a heat wave forced a power plant in Georgia to reduce its output because discharge water could not be cooled enough to stay within the environmental limit.
Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, Zipcar
Here is the remarkable paradox: the more crowded Vancouver gets, the more people want to live there and the higher the city has risen on international surveys ranking the world’s best places to live. It now usually sits at or near the top of quality-of-life lists published by Mercer, Forbes magazine, and the Economist Intelligence Unit. Prices have doubled on many condominium units in the past fifteen years, and they remained buoyant right through the global economic crisis. To top it off, Vancouver has the lowest per capita carbon footprint of any major city on the continent—a dividend achieved in part by people living closer together, reducing the energy used in transportation and home heating.* Part of what made Vancouver’s vertical experiment both unique and desirable was the way it accommodated residents’ biophilic needs. The city’s new downtown was shaped to a large extent by the local obsession with views. Despite its dark winters, almost nobody in the city wants to face south, where the sun occasionally appears through the rain clouds.
He built replicas of Paris Plages and launched a homegrown version of Bogotá’s Ciclovía, shutting down miles of downtown roads on Sundays so that citizens could treat their streets like parks. He copied Bogotá’s mobility system, laying down a network of metrolike rapid buses that have even lured the public-transit-phobic business class out of their cars. He called in Gil Peñalosa and Jan Gehl to create a plan to wrestle 186 miles of road space away from drivers and hand it over to cyclists. As part of the city’s Plan Verde, the measures not only shrink the city’s carbon footprint and make commuting easier (these days in the Mexican capital, just about any cyclist can move faster than cars, which have slowed to an average of about 7.5 miles per hour), but most important, they are intended to give a new sense of security to citizens who have for years been afraid of their streets. Despite the attention given to the country’s bloody drug war, more Mexicans die on the roads every year than as a result of narco-violence.* Martha Delgado, the city’s environmental secretary until 2012, told me, “A city that lives under the hostility and insecurity of car traffic can change only if its citizens retake ownership of its public spaces.”
But when cities find ways to mix housing and jobs and places to shop, then carbon goals and lifestyle goals start to converge.” Boston has experienced these dividends firsthand. First he helped create a climate action plan for the City of North Vancouver, a mountainside suburb just across a broad saltwater harbor from Vancouver. His metrics were straightforward: if the city was going to reduce its carbon footprint, it needed to give lots more people a chance to do a lot more things closer together. This did not necessarily mean building a mini-Manhattan. It meant weaving more apartments, more town houses, more shops, and more jobs along Lonsdale Avenue, the city’s central spine. Indeed, that’s what the city was already doing in the name of prosperity. The area had attracted hundreds of new residents—including Boston and his partner, who moved there to start a family two years after he helped hammer out the city’s climate action plan.
air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, BRICs, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, energy security, food miles, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Just-in-time delivery, market clearing, megacity, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, profit maximization, reserve currency, South Sea Bubble, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization
The run-up in oil prices from $20 per barrel in 2000 to $70 per barrel in 2007 literally brought emission growth to a halt in most OECD countries, including the United States. Consider what a near doubling of those prices could do to carbon emissions in the future. Even with the additional emissions from the return of some heavy industries like steel, the emission cuts that will come from the transport sectors in North America will be overwhelming. Hence, North America’s carbon footprint will get fainter and fainter just as carbon footprints get heavier and heavier in China and the rest of the developing world. Just as oil consumption has peaked in the US, so too have US greenhouse gas emissions. Ironically, the US may ultimately yet comply with the Kyoto commitments it never signed on to. Emission reductions will be mandated not by legislation or international treaties, but by soaring fuel prices at the pumps and comparable increases in the price of jet fuel.
The surprising calculation that biofuel can be hundreds of times worse for the environment than fossil fuels comes from a study called “Climate Change and Energy: The True Cost of Biofuels,” produced by The Nature Conservancy and the University of Minnesota. It is the carbon released by the destruction of grassland, rainforests, peat-lands or savannas in countries like Brazil and the U.S. that adds so much to the carbon footprint of the tailpipe emissions and fossil fuel inputs for the feedstock. CHAPTER 4: HEADING FOR THE EXIT LANE p. 111: During the breakup of Yugoslavia, the Belgrade government tried to control the exchange rate of the dinar, with predictable results, particularly in a largely black-market economy imposed by UN sanctions. Inflated dinars were of no use to smugglers, since they had to buy gasoline, or drugs, or whatever else it was they were bringing into the country, in some other currency, usually German marks.
The End of Growth by Jeff Rubin
Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, deglobalization, energy security, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, flex fuel, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Hans Island, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income per capita, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, McMansion, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, Yom Kippur War
Where China’s carbon footprint now dwarfs every other country in the world, though, Denmark’s is actually shrinking. How can this be? To answer this energy riddle, you need to look past how power is generated in Denmark and into the prices Danish citizens pay for electricity. Households in Copenhagen pay roughly 30 cents per kilowatt-hour for power. That’s two to three times the average price in North America. In Denmark, government-regulated power prices are laden with carbon taxes, which means electricity isn’t cheap, whether it’s wind powered or coal fired. Not surprisingly, Danes use a fraction of the power that North Americans consume. All those world-famous windmills, it turns out, aren’t behind Denmark’s falling emissions. The real reason for its smaller carbon footprint is its high electricity prices, which put a huge damper on power demand.
Environmentalists countered that foregone emissions from grounded air travel more than offset the volcanic activity. (What I can say for certain is that Eyjafjallajökull cost me a trip to Portugal.) The presence of large natural sources of carbon emissions hardly takes polluters off the hook. Just because nature can overwhelm us with a volcanic eruption at any moment doesn’t mean our effect on the environment isn’t just as profound. We can’t excuse our contributions to the global carbon footprint because multiple sources of emissions exist. As the IPCC points out, our current rate of carbon emissions combined with the atmospheric buildup since the Industrial Revolution puts us on track to reach dangerous concentrations of greenhouse gases irrespective of random volcanic events. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is now greater than at any time in the last 640,000 years.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Bill Joy: nanobots, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, dark matter, double helix, failed state, global supply chain, industrial robot, iterative process, Mars Rover, means of production, Menlo Park, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, performance metric, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas Malthus, V2 rocket, Vannevar Bush
CHAPTER 14How to Accelerate Progress PART 6BENDING THE ARC OF THE FUTURE CHAPTER 15Transforming the Material Basis of Civilization CHAPTER 16Managing a Catastrophic Success CHAPTER 17Security for an Unconventional Future CHAPTER 18Changing Our Conversation About the Future Appendix I: The Molecular-Level Physical Principles of Atomically Precise Manufacturing Appendix II: Incremental Paths to APM Acknowledgments Notes Index A NECESSARY PRELUDE IMAGINE WHAT THE WORLD might be like if we were really good at making things—better things—cleanly, inexpensively, and on a global scale. What if ultra-efficient solar arrays cost no more to make than cardboard and aluminum foil and laptop supercomputers cost about the same? Now add ultra-efficient vehicles, lighting, and the entire behind-the-scenes infrastructure of an industrial civilization, all made at low cost and delivered and operated with a zero carbon footprint. If we were that good at making things, the global prospect would be, not scarcity, but unprecedented abundance—radical, transformative, and sustainable abundance. We would be able to produce radically more of what people want and at a radically lower cost—in every sense of the word, both economic and environmental. This isn’t the future most people expect. Over recent decades the world has been sliding toward a seemingly inevitable collision between economic development and global limits.
Once again, APM-based production can improve the cost and performance of the necessary equipment, and beyond this, APM-level technologies can provide new capabilities for capturing and sequestering toxic materials from groundwater and soil, and for more subtle challenges of remediation. Reversing the Primary Driver of Climate Change With APM-based production and products, energy sources and most energy uses can be engineered for a zero net carbon footprint; liquid hydrocarbon fuels, for example, can be produced using hydrogen from water and carbon from recycled CO2. Reversing the effects of past emissions, however, would require atmospheric CO2 capture on an enormous scale—some three trillion tons—a remediation task that appears to be beyond the capacity of the industrial civilization that created the problem. The energy requirements are daunting.
Adding up costs in a summary overview: Source of cost component Typical ratio Reason for cost reduction Raw materials < 1/10 Low product masses, low-cost raw materials Energy inputs ~ 1 Low product masses offset increments in per-mass energy cost Land required < 1/100 Compact high-throughput process equipment Labor inputs < 1/100 No direct process intervention Waste disposal < 1/100 Low mass processed, precise process control, zero carbon footprint Accidents < 1/100 No hazardous materials or direct human exposure Physical capital < 1/1 High-throughput, low cost production equipment With a wide range of performance improvements relative to current products and a wide range of current dollar-per-kilogram production costs, cost-reduction ratios of 1/10 to 1/1000 can be expected. Chapter 12: Today’s Technologies of Atomic Precision 179Chemists make compounds/molecules, the objects of their own contemplation: R.
Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson
Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, linked data, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar
We’ve already had sweatshop-free clothing brands and the return of neighborhood retail, but we haven’t really seen anything yet. In the future shoppers will be swayed by various green and ethical issues, some of which will be serious while others will be just plain silly. For example, there will be a crusade against retailers that sell lettuce on the basis that growing lettuces uses too much water; and a campaign to stop eating foreign food on the basis of its carbon footprint. Thus fair-trade products, food-miles, minimal and reusable packaging and products that benefit a local community or the wider world in some way will be in demand. Storytelling, authenticity and trust We are fed an endless diet of half-truths and manipulated statistics by companies (and governments) wanting us to buy something. The result is cynicism and a compensatory interest in authenticity or “realness”.
This problem will be solved once the issue reaches crisis proportions, but before that there will be a major switch to other forms of slower transport and a renaissance of local travel. Long-haul flight will again become an expensive luxury enjoyed only by the rich, who will have to withstand accusations of selfishness and ecovandalism. Hotels will similarly come under pressure to reduce their carbon footprints and conserve vital resources such as water. Staying at home If flying from one city or country to another becomes too expensive, too time-consuming or too stressful, many people will simply choose to stay at home. This means that business and leisure travel alike will become more localized, making people both more insular and parochial. We will also holiday in virtual worlds on the internet or transform our homes and gardens into miniature resorts and entertainment complexes.
A 311 Index ‘O’ Garage 170 3D printers 56 accelerated education 57 accidents 159, 161–6, 173, 246 ACNielsen 126 adaptive cruise control 165 Adeg Aktiv 50+ 208 advertising 115–16, 117, 119 Africa 70, 89, 129, 174, 221, 245, 270, 275, 290, 301 ageing 1, 10, 54, 69, 93, 139, 147–8, 164, 188, 202, 208, 221, 228–9, 237, 239, 251, 261, 292, 295, 297–8 airborne networks 56 airlines 272 allergies 196–7, 234, 236 Alliance Against Urban 4x4s 171 alternative energy 173 alternative futures viii alternative medicine 244–5 alternative technology 151 amateur production 111–12 Amazon 32, 113–14, 121 American Apparel 207 American Express 127–8 androids 55 Angola 77 anti-ageing drugs 231, 237 anti-ageing foods 188 anti-ageing surgery 2, 237 antibiotics 251 anxiety 10, 16, 30, 32, 36, 37, 128, 149, 179, 184, 197, 199, 225, 228, 243, 251, 252, 256, 263, 283–4, 295–6, 300, 301, 305 Apple 61, 115, 121, 130, 137–8, 157 Appleyard, Bryan 79 Argentina 210 Armamark Corporation 193 artificial intelliegence 22, 40, 44, 82 131, 275, 285–6, 297, 300 Asda 136, 137 Asia 11, 70, 78, 89, 129, 150, 174, 221, 280, 290, 292 Asimov, Isaac 44 Asos.com 216 asthma 235 auditory display software 29 Australia 20–21, 72–3, 76, 92, 121, 145, 196, 242, 246, 250, 270, 282 Austria 208 authenticity 32, 37, 179, 194, 203–11 authoritarianism 94 automated publishing machine (APM) 114 automation 292 automotive industry 154–77 B&Q 279 baby boomers 41, 208 bacterial factories 56 Bahney, Anna 145 Bahrain 2 baking 27, 179, 195, 199 Bangladesh 2 bank accounts, body double 132 banknotes 29, 128 banks 22, 123, 135–8, 150, 151 virtual 134 Barnes and Noble 114 bartering 151 BBC 25, 119 Become 207 Belgium 238 313 314 benriya 28 Berlusconi, Silvio 92 Best Buy 223 biofuel 64 biomechatronics 56 biometric identification 28, 35, 52, 68, 88, 132 bionic body parts 55 Biosphere Expeditions 259 biotechnology 40, 300 blended families 20 blogs 103, 107, 109, 120 Blurb 113 BMW 289 board games 225 body double bank accounts 132 body parts bionic 55 replacement 2, 188, 228 Bolivia 73 Bollywood 111 books 29, 105, 111–25 boomerang kids 145 brain transplants 231 brain-enhancing foods 188 Brazil 2, 84, 89, 173, 247, 254, 270, 290 Burger King 184 business 13, 275–92 Bust-Up 189 busyness 27, 195, 277 Calvin, Bill 45 Canada 63, 78, 240 cancer 251 car sharing 160, 169, 176 carbon credits 173 carbon footprints 255 carbon taxes 76, 172 cars classic 168–9 driverless 154–5 flying 156, 165 hydrogen-powered 12, 31, 157, 173 pay-as-you-go 167–8 self-driving 165 cascading failure 28 cash 126–7, 205 cellphone payments 129, 213 cellphones 3, 25, 35, 51, 53, 120, 121, FUTURE FILES 129, 156, 161, 251 chicken, Christian 192 childcare robots 57 childhood 27, 33–4, 82–3 children’s database 86 CHIME nations (China, India, Middle East) 2, 10, 81 China 2, 10, 11, 69–72, 75–81, 88, 92–3, 125, 137, 139–40, 142, 151, 163, 174–5, 176, 200, 222, 228, 247, 260, 270–71, 275, 279, 295, 302 choice 186–7 Christian chicken 192 Christianity, muscular 16, 73 Chrysler 176 cinema 110–11, 120 Citibank 29, 128 citizen journalism 103–4, 108 City Car Club 168 Clarke, Arthur C. 58–9 Clarke’s 187 classic cars 168–9 climate change 4, 11, 37, 43, 59, 64, 68, 74, 77–9, 93, 150, 155, 254, 257, 264, 298–9 climate-controlled buildings 254, 264 cloning 38 human 23, 249 CNN 119 coal 176 Coca-Cola 78, 222–3 co-creation 111–12, 119 coins 29, 128, 129 collective intelligence 45–6 Collins, Jim 288 comfort eating 200 Comme des Garçons 216 community 36 compassion 120 competition in financial services 124–5 low-cost 292 computers disposable 56 intelligent 23, 43 organic 56 wearable 56, 302 computing 3, 33, 43, 48, 82 connectivity 3, 10, 11, 15, 91, 120, Index 233, 261, 275–6, 281, 292, 297, 299 conscientious objection taxation 86 contactless payments 123, 150 continuous partial attention 53 control 36, 151, 225 convenience 123, 178–9, 184, 189, 212, 223, 224 Coren, Stanley 246 corporate social responsibility 276, 282, 298 cosmetic neurology 250 Costa Rica 247 Craig’s List 102 creativity 11, 286; see also innovation credit cards 141–3, 150 crime 86–9 forecasting 86–7 gene 57, 86 Croatia 200 Crowdstorm 207 Cuba 75 cultural holidays 259, 273 culture 11, 17–37 currency, global 127, 151 customization 56, 169, 221–2, 260 cyberterrorism 65, 88–9 Cyc 45 cynicism 37 DayJet 262 death 237–9 debt 123–4, 140–44, 150 defense 63, 86 deflation 139 democracy 94 democratization of media 104, 108, 113 demographics 1, 10, 21, 69, 82, 93, 202, 276, 279–81, 292, 297–8 Denmark 245 department stores 214 deregulation 11, 3 Destiny Health 149 detox 200 Detroit Project 171 diagnosis 232 remote 228 digital downloads 121 evaporation 25 315 immortality 24–5 instant gratification syndrome 202 Maoism 47 money 12, 29, 123, 126–7, 129, 132, 138, 150, 191 nomads 20, 283 plasters 241 privacy 25, 97, 108 readers 121 digitalization 37, 292 Dinner by Design 185 dirt holidays 236 discount retailers 224 Discovery Health 149 diseases 2, 228 disintegrators 57 Disney 118–19 disposable computers 56 divorce 33, 85 DNA 56–7, 182 database 86 testing, compulsory 86 do-it-yourself dinner shops 185–6 dolls 24 doorbells 32 downshifters 20 Dream Dinners 185 dream fulfillment 148 dressmaking 225 drink 178–200 driverless cars 154–5 drugs anti-ageing 231, 237 performance-improving 284–5 Dubai 264, 267, 273 dynamic pricing 260 E Ink 115 e-action 65 Earthwatch 259 Eastern Europe 290 eBay 207 e-books 29, 37, 60, 114, 115, 302 eco-luxe resorts 272 economic collapse 2, 4, 36, 72, 221, 295 economic protectionism 10, 15, 72, 298 economy travel 272 316 Ecuador 73 education 15, 18, 82–5, 297 accelerated 57 lifelong learning 290 Egypt 2 electricity shortages 301 electronic camouflage 56 electronic surveillance 35 Elephant 244 email 18–19, 25, 53–4, 108 embedded intelligence 53, 154 EMF radiation 251 emotional capacity of robots 40, 60 enclosed resorts 273 energy 72, 75, 93 alternative 173 nuclear 74 solar 74 wind 74 enhancement surgery 249 entertainment 34, 121 environment 4, 10, 11, 14, 64, 75–6, 83, 93, 155, 171, 173, 183, 199, 219–20, 252, 256–7, 271, 292, 301 epigenetics 57 escapism 16, 32–3, 121 Estonia 85, 89 e-tagging 129–30 e-therapy 242 ethical bankruptcy 35 ethical investing 281 ethical tourism 259 ethics 22, 24, 41, 53, 78, 86, 132, 152, 194, 203, 213, 232, 238, 249–50, 258, 276, 281–2, 298–9 eugenics 252 Europe 11, 70, 72, 81, 91, 141, 150, 174–5, 182, 190, 192, 209 European Union 15, 139 euthanasia 238, 251 Everquest 33 e-voting 65 experience 224 extended financial families 144 extinction timeline 9 Facebook 37, 97, 107 face-recognition doors 57 fakes 32 family 36, 37 FUTURE FILES family loans 145 fantasy-related industries 32 farmaceuticals 179, 182 fast food 178, 183–4 fat taxes 190 fear 10, 34, 36, 38, 68, 150, 151, 305 female-only spaces 210–11, 257 feminization 84 financial crisis 38, 150–51, 223, 226, 301 financial services 123–53, 252 trends 123–5 fish farming 181 fixed-price eating 200 flashpacking 273 flat-tax system 85–6 Florida, Richard 36, 286, 292 flying cars 165 food 69–70, 72, 78–9, 162, 178–201 food anti-ageing 188 brain-enhancing 188 fast 178, 183–4 functional 179 growing your own 179, 192, 195 history 190–92 passports 200 slow 178, 193 tourism 273 trends 178–80 FoodExpert ID 182 food-miles 178, 193, 220 Ford 169, 176, 213, 279–80 forecasting 49 crime 86–7 war 49 Forrester Research 132 fractional ownership 168, 175, 176, 225 France 103, 147, 170, 189, 198, 267 Friedman, Thomas 278–9, 292 FriendFinder 32 Friends Reunited 22 frugality 224 functional food 179 Furedi, Frank 68 gaming 32–3, 70, 97, 111–12, 117, 130, 166, 262 Gap 217 Index gardening 27, 148 gas 176 GE Money 138, 145 gendered medicine 244–5 gene silencing 231 gene, crime 86 General Motors 157, 165 Generation X 41, 281 Generation Y 37, 41, 97, 106, 138, 141–2, 144, 202, 208, 276, 281, 292 generational power shifts 292 Genes Reunited 35 genetic enhancement 40, 48 history 35 modification 31, 182 testing 221 genetics 3, 10, 45, 251–2 genomic medicine 231 Germany 73, 147, 160, 170, 204–5, 216–17, 261, 267, 279, 291 Gimzewski, James 232 glamping 273 global currency 127 global warming 4, 47, 77, 93, 193, 234 globalization 3, 10, 15–16, 36–7, 63–7, 72–3, 75, 81–2, 88, 100, 125, 139, 143, 146, 170, 183, 189, 193–5, 221, 224, 226, 233–4, 247–8, 263, 275, 278–80, 292, 296, 299 GM 176 Google 22, 61, 121, 137, 293 gout 235 government 14, 18, 36, 63–95, 151 GPS 3, 15, 26, 50, 88, 138, 148, 209, 237, 262, 283 Grameen Bank 135 gravity tubes 57 green taxes 76 Greenpeace 172 GRIN technologies (genetics, robotics, internet, nanotechnology) 3, 10, 11 growing your own food 178, 192, 195 Gucci 221 Gulf States 125, 260, 268 H&M 217 habitual shopping 212 Handy, Charles 278 317 Happily 210 happiness 63–4, 71–2, 146, 260 health 15, 82, 178–9, 199 health monitoring 232, 236, 241 healthcare 2, 136, 144, 147–8, 154, 178–9, 183–4, 189–91, 228–53, 298; see also medicine trends 214–1534–7 Heinberg, Richard 74 Helm, Dieter 77 Heritage Foods 195 hikikomori 18 hive mind 45 holidays 31, 119; see also tourism holidays at home 255 cultural 259 dirt 236 Hollywood 33, 111–12 holographic displays 56 Home Equity Share 145 home baking 225 home-based microgeneration 64 home brewing 225 honesty 152 Hong Kong 267 hospitals 228, 241–3, 266 at home 228, 238, 240–42 hotels 19, 267 sleep 266 human cloning 23, 249 Hungary 247 hybrid humans 22 hydrogen power 64 hydrogen-powered cars 12, 31, 157, 173 Hyperactive Technologies 184 Hyundai 170 IBM 293 identities, multiple 35, 52 identity 64, 71 identity theft 88, 132 identity verification, two-way 132 immigration 151–2, 302 India 2, 10, 11, 70–72, 76, 78–9, 81, 92, 111, 125, 135, 139, 163, 174–5, 176, 247, 249–50, 254, 260, 270, 275, 279, 302 indirect taxation 86 318 individualism 36 Indonesia 2, 174 industrial robots 42 infinite content 96–7 inflation 151 information overlead 97, 120, 159, 285; see also too much information innovation 64, 81–2, 100, 175, 222, 238, 269, 277, 286–8, 291, 297, 299 innovation timeline 8 instant gratification 213 insurance 123, 138, 147–50, 154, 167, 191, 236, 250 pay-as-you-go 167 weather 264 intelligence 11 embedded 53, 154 implants 229 intelligent computers 23, 43 intelligent night vision 162–3 interaction, physical 22, 25, 97, 110, 118, 133–4, 215, 228, 243, 276, 304 interactive media 97, 105 intergenerational mortgages 140, 144–5 intermediaries 123, 135 internet 3, 10, 11, 17–18, 25, 68, 103, 108, 115–17, 124, 156, 240–41, 261, 270, 283, 289, 305 failure 301 impact on politics 93–4 sensory 56 interruption science 53 iPills 240 Iran 2, 69 Ishiguro, Hiroshi 55 Islamic fanaticism 16 Italy 92, 170, 198–9 iTunes 115, 130; see also Apple Japan 1, 18, 26, 28–9, 54–5, 63, 80–81, 114, 121, 128–9, 132, 140, 144–5, 147, 174, 186, 189, 192, 196, 198, 200, 209–10, 223, 240, 260, 264, 271, 279, 291 jetpacks 60 job security 292 journalism 96, 118 journalism, citizen 103–4, 107 joy-makers 57 FUTURE FILES Kaboodle 207 Kapor, Mitchell 45 Kenya 128 keys 28–9 Kindle 60, 121 Kramer, Peter 284 Kuhn, Thomas 281 Kurzweil, Ray 45 Kuwait 2 labor migration 290–91 labor shortages 3, 80–81, 289–90 Lanier, Jaron 47 laser shopping 212 leisure sickness 238 Let’s Dish 185 Lexus 157 libraries 121 Libya 73 life-caching 24, 107–8 lighting 158, 160 Like.com 216 limb farms 249 limited editions 216–17 live events 98, 110, 304 localization 10, 15–16, 116, 128, 170, 178, 189, 193, 195, 215, 220, 222–3, 224, 226, 255, 270, 297 location tagging 88 location-based marketing 116 longevity 188–9, 202 Longman, Philip 71 low cost 202, 219–22 luxury 202, 221, 225, 256, 260, 262, 265–6, 272 machinamas 112 machine-to-machine communication 56 marketing 115–16 location-based 116 now 116 prediction 116 Marks & Spencer 210 Maslow, Abraham 305–6 masstigue 223 materialism 37 Mayo Clinic 243 McDonald’s 130, 168, 180, 184 McKinsey 287 Index meaning, search for 16, 259, 282, 290, 305–6 MECU 132 media 96–122 democratization of 104, 108, 115 trends 96–8 medical outsourcing 247–8 medical tourism 2, 229, 247 medicine 188, 228–53; see also healthcare alternative 243–4 gendered 244–5 genomic 231 memory 229, 232, 239–40 memory loss 47 memory pills 231, 240 memory recovery 2, 228–9, 239 memory removal 29–30, 29, 240 Menicon 240 mental health 199 Meow Mix 216 Merriman, Jon 126 metabolomics 56 meta-materials 56 Metro 204–5 Mexico 2 micromedia 101 micro-payments 130, 150 Microsoft 137, 147, 293 Middle East 10, 11, 70, 81, 89, 119, 125, 129, 139, 174–5, 268, 301 migration 3, 11, 69–70, 78, 82, 234, 275, 290–91 boomerang 20 labor 290–91 Migros 215 military recruitment 69 military vehicles 158–9 mind-control toys 38 mindwipes 57 Mitsubishi 198, 279 mobile payments 123, 150 Modafinil 232 molecular biology 231 monetization 118 money 123–52 digital 12, 29, 123, 126–7, 129, 132, 138, 150, 191 monitoring, remote 154, 168, 228, 242 monolines 135, 137 319 mood sensitivity 41, 49, 154, 158, 164, 187–8 Morgan Stanley 127 mortality bonds 148 Mozilla Corp. 289 M-PESA 129 MTV 103 multigenerational families 20 multiple identities 35, 52 Murdoch, Rupert 109 muscular Christianity 16, 73 music industry 121 My-Food-Phone 242 MySpace 22, 25, 37, 46, 97, 107, 113 N11 nations (Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, South Korea, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Turkey, Vietnam) 2 nanoelectronics 56 nanomedicine 32 nanotechnology 3, 10, 23, 40, 44–5, 50, 157, 183, 232, 243, 286, 298 napcaps 56 narrowcasting 109 NASA 25, 53 nationalism 16, 70, 72–3, 139, 183, 298, 302 natural disasters 301 natural resources 2, 4, 11, 64, 298–9 Nearbynow 223 Nestlé 195 Netherlands 238 NetIntelligence 283 networkcar.com 154 networks 28, 166, 288 airborne 56 neural nets 49 neuronic whips 57 neuroscience 33, 48 Neville, Richard 58–9 New Economics Foundation 171 New Zealand 265, 269 newspapers 29, 102–9, 117, 119, 120 Nigeria 2, 73 Nike 23 nimbyism 63 no-frills 224 Nokia 61, 105 Norelift 189 320 Northern Rock 139–40 Norwich Union 167 nostalgia 16, 31–2, 51, 169–70, 179, 183, 199, 203, 225, 303 now marketing 116 nuclear annihilation 10, 91 nuclear energy 74 nutraceuticals 179, 182 Obama, Barack 92–3 obesity 75, 190–92, 199, 250–51 oceanic thermal converters 57 oil 69, 72–3, 93, 151, 174, 176, 272, 273, 301 Oman 2, 270 online relationships 38 organic computers 56 organic food 200, 226 osteoporosis 235 outsourcing 224, 292 Pakistan 2 pandemics 4, 10, 16, 59, 72, 128, 232, 234, 272, 295–7, 301 paper 37 parasite singles 145 passwords 52 pictorial 52 pathogens 233 patient simulators 247 patina 31 patriotism 63, 67, 299 pay-as-you-go cars 167–8 pay-as-you-go insurance 167 payments cellphone 129, 213 contactless 123, 150 micro- 130, 150 mobile 123, 150 pre- 123, 150 PayPal 124, 137 Pearson, Ian 44 performance-improving drugs 284–5 personal restraint 36 personal robots 42 personalization 19, 26, 56, 96–8, 100, 102–3, 106, 108–9, 120, 138, 149, 183, 205–6, 223, 244–5, 262, 267, 269 Peru 73 FUTURE FILES Peters, Tom 280 Pharmaca 244 pharmaceuticals 2, 33, 228, 237 Philippines 2, 212, 290 Philips 114 Philips, Michael 232–3 photographs 108 physical interaction 22, 25, 97, 110, 118, 133–4, 215, 228, 243, 276, 304 physicalization 96–7, 101–2, 106, 110, 120 pictorial passwords 52 piggy banks 151 Pink, Daniel 285 plagiarism 83 polarization 15–16, 285 politics 37, 63–95, 151–2 regional 63 trends 63–5 pop-up retail 216, 224 pornography 31 portability 178, 183–4 power shift eastwards 2, 10–11, 81, 252 Prada 205–6, 216 precision agriculture 181–2 precision healthcare 234–7 prediction marketing 116 predictions 37, 301–2 premiumization 223 pre-payments 123, 150 privacy 3, 15, 41, 50, 88, 154, 165–7, 205, 236, 249, 285, 295 digital 25, 97, 108 Procter & Gamble 105, 280 product sourcing 224 Prosper 124, 135 protectionism 67, 139, 156, 220, 226, 301 economic 10, 15, 72, 299 provenance 178, 193, 226 proximity indicators 32 PruHealth 149 psychological neoteny 52 public ownership 92 public transport 171 purposeful shopping 212 Qatar 2 quality 96–7, 98, 101, 109 Index quantum mechanics 56 quantum wires 56 quiet materials 56 radiation, EMF 251 radio 117 randominoes 57 ranking 34, 83, 109, 116, 134, 207 Ranking Ranqueen 186 reality mining 51 Really Cool Foods 185 rebalancing 37 recession 139–40, 202, 222 recognition 36, 304 refrigerators 197–8 refuge 121 regeneration 233 regional food 200 regional politics 63 regionality 178, 192–3 regulation 124, 137, 143 REI 207 Reid, Morris 90 relationships, online 38 religion 16, 58 remote diagnosis 228 remote monitoring 154, 168, 228, 242 renting 225 reputation 34–5 resistance to technology 51 resorts, enclosed 273 resource shortages 11, 15, 146, 155, 178, 194, 254, 300 resources, natural 2, 4, 11, 64, 73–4, 143, 298–9 respect 36, 304 restaurants 186–8 retail 20–21, 202–27, 298 pop-up 216, 224 stealth 215 theater 214 trends 202–3 Revkin, Andy 77 RFID 3, 24, 50, 121, 126, 149, 182, 185, 192, 196, 205 rickets 232 risk 15, 124, 134, 138, 141, 149–50, 162, 167, 172, 191, 265, 299–300, 303 Ritalin 232 321 road pricing 166 Robertson, Peter 49 robogoats 55 robot department store 209 Robot Rules 44 robotic assistants 54, 206 concierges 268 financial advisers 131–2 lobsters 55 pest control 57 soldiers 41, 55, 60 surgery 35, 41, 249 robotics 3, 10, 41, 44–5, 60, 238, 275, 285–6, 292, 297 robots 41, 54–5, 131, 237, 249 childcare 57 emotional capacity of 40, 60 industrial 42 personal 42 security 209 therapeutic 41, 54 Russia 2, 69, 72, 75, 80, 89, 92–3, 125, 174, 232, 254, 270, 295, 302 safety 32, 36, 151, 158–9, 172–3, 182, 192, 196 Sainsbury’s 215 Salt 187 sanctuary tourism 273 satellite tracking 166–7 Saudi Arabia 2, 69 Schwartz, Barry 186 science 13, 16, 40–62, 300 interruption 53 trends 40–42 scramble suits 57 scrapbooking 25, 108, 225 Sears Roebuck 137 seasonality 178, 193–4 second-hand goods 224 Second Life 133, 207–8 securitization 124, 140 security 16, 31, 151 security robots 209 self-driving cars 165 self-medication 242 self-publishing 103, 113–14 self-reliance 35, 75 self-repairing roads 57 322 self-replicating machines 23, 44 Selfridges 214 sensor motes 15, 50, 196 sensory internet 56 Sharia-based investment 125 Shop24 209 shopping 202–27 habitual 212 laser 212 malls 211–5 purposeful 212 slow 213 social 207 Shopping 2.0 224 short-wave scalpels 57 silicon photonics 56 simplicity 169–70, 179, 186, 202, 218, 224, 226, 272 Singapore 241 single-person households 19–20, 202–3, 208–9, 221, 244, 298, 304 skills shortage 293, 302 sky shields 57 sleep 159–60, 188, 228, 231, 246–7, 265 sleep debt 96, 266 sleep hotels 266 sleep surrogates 57 slow food 178, 193 slow shopping 213 slow travel 273 smart devices 26–7, 28, 32, 35, 44, 50, 56, 57, 164, 206, 207 smart dust 3, 15, 50, 196 smartisans 20 Smartmart 209 snakebots 55 social networks 97, 107, 110, 120, 133, 217, 261 social shopping 207 society 13, 15–16, 17–37 trends 15–16 Sodexho 193 solar energy 74 Sony 114, 121 South Africa 84, 149, 242 South America 82, 270 South Korea 2, 103, 128–9 space ladders 56 space mirrors 47 space tourism 271, 273 FUTURE FILES space tugs 57 speed 164, 202, 209, 245, 296–7 spirituality 16, 22, 282, 298, 306 spot knowledge 47 spray-on surgical gloves 57 St James’s Ethics Centre 282 stagflation 139 starch-based plastics 64 stealth retail 215 stealth taxation 86 Sterling, Bruce 55 storytelling 203 Strayer, David 161 street signs 162–3 stress 32, 96, 235, 243, 245–6, 258–9, 265, 257–9, 275, 277, 283–5 stress-control clothing 57 stupidity 151, 302 Stylehive 207 Sudan 73 suicide tourism 236 Super Suppers 185 supermarkets 135–6, 184–6, 188, 191–2, 194, 202–3, 212, 215, 218–19, 224, 229 surgery 2, 31 anti-ageing 2, 237 enhancement 249 Surowiecki, James 45 surveillance 35, 41 sustainability 4, 37, 74, 181, 193–5, 203, 281, 288, 298–9 Sweden 84 swine flu 38, 251, 272 Switzerland 168, 210, 215 synthetic biology 56 Taco Bell 184 Tactical Numerical Deterministic Model 49 tagging, location 86, 88 Taiwan 81 talent, war for 275, 279, 293; see also labor shortages Target 216 Tasmania 267 Tata Motors 174, 176 taxation 85–6, 92, 93 carbon 76, 172 conscientious objection 86 Index fat 190 flat 85–6 green 76 indirect 86 stealth 86 Tchibo 217 technology 3, 14–16, 18, 22, 26, 28, 32, 37, 40–62, 74–5, 82–3, 96, 119, 132, 147–8, 154, 157, 160, 162, 165–7, 178, 182, 195–8, 208, 221, 229, 237, 242–3, 249, 256, 261, 265–6, 268, 275–6, 280, 283–4, 292, 296–7, 300 refuseniks 30, 51, 97 trends 40–42 telemedicine 228, 238, 242 telepathy 29 teleportation 56 television 21, 96, 108, 117, 119 terrorism 67, 91, 108, 150, 262–3, 267, 272, 295–6, 301 Tesco 105, 135–6, 185, 206, 215, 219, 223 Thailand 247, 290 therapeutic robots 41, 54 thermal imaging 232 things that won’t change 10, 303–6 third spaces 224 ThisNext 207 thrift 224 Tik Tok Easy Shop 209 time scarcity 30, 96, 102, 178, 184–6, 218, 255 time shifting 96, 110, 116 time stamps 50 timeline, extinction 9 timeline, innovation 8 timelines 7 tired all the time 246 tobacco industry 251 tolerance 120 too much choice (TMC) 29, 202, 218–19 too much information (TMI) 29, 51, 53, 202, 229; see also information overload tourism 254–74 cultural 273 ethical 259 food 273 323 local 273 medical 2, 229, 247 sanctuary 273 space 271, 273 suicide 238 tribal 262 Tourism Concern 259 tourist quotas 254, 271 Toyota 48–9, 157 toys, mind-control 38 traceability 195 trading down 224 transparency 3, 15, 143, 152, 276, 282, 299 transport 15, 154–77, 298 public 155, 161 trends 154–6 transumerism 223 travel 2, 3, 11, 148, 254–74 economy 272 luxury 272 slow 273 trends 254–6 trend maps 6–7 trends 1, 5–7, 10, 13 financial services 123–5 food 178–80 healthcare 228–9 media 96–8 politics 63–5 retail 202–3 science and technology 40–42 society 15–16 transport 154–6 travel 254–6 work 275–7 tribal tourism 262 tribalism 15–16, 63, 127–8, 183, 192, 220, 260 trust 82, 133, 137, 139, 143, 192, 203, 276, 282–3 tunnels 171 Turing test 45 Turing, Alan 44 Turkey 2, 200, 247 Twitter 60, 120 two-way identity verification 132 UAE 2 UFOs 58 324 UK 19–20, 72, 76, 84, 86, 90–91, 100, 102–3, 105, 128–9, 132, 137, 139–42, 147–9, 150, 163, 167–8, 170–71, 175, 185, 195–6, 199, 200, 206, 210, 214–16, 238, 259, 267–8, 278–9, 284, 288 uncertainty 16, 30, 34, 52, 172, 199, 246, 263, 300, 303 unemployment 151 Unilever 195 University of Chicago 245–6 urban rental companies 176 urbanization 11, 18–19, 78, 84, 155, 233 Uruguay 200 US 1, 11, 19–21, 23, 55–6, 63, 67, 69, 72, 75, 77, 80–83, 86, 88–90, 92, 104–5, 106, 121, 129–33, 135, 139–42, 144, 147, 149, 150, 151, 162, 167, 169–71, 174, 185, 190–3, 195, 205–6, 209, 211, 213, 216, 218, 220, 222–3, 237–8, 240–8, 250, 260, 262, 267–8, 275, 279–80, 282–4, 287, 291 user-generated content (UGC) 46, 97, 104, 289 utility 224 values 36, 152 vending machines 209 Venezuela 69, 73 verbal signatures 132 VeriChip 126 video on demand 96 Vietnam 2, 290 Vino 100 113 Virgin Atlantic 261 virtual adultery 33 banks 134 economy 130–31 protests 65 reality 70 sex 32 stores 206–8 vacations 32, 261 worlds 157, 213, 255, 261, 270, 305 Vocation Vacations 259–60 Vodafone 137 voice recognition 41 voice-based internet search 56 voicelifts 2, 237 FUTURE FILES Volkswagen 175 voluntourism 259 Volvo 164 voting 3, 68, 90–91 Walgreens 244 Wal-Mart 105, 136–7, 215, 219–20, 223, 244, 282 war 68–9, 72 war for talent 275, 279; see also labor shortages war forecasting 49 water 69–70, 74, 77–9, 199 wearable computers 55 weather 64 weather insurance 264 Web 2.0 93, 224 Weinberg, Peter 125 wellbeing 2, 183, 188, 199 white flight 20 Wikipedia 46, 60, 104 wild swimming 273 Wilson, Edward O. 74 wind energy 74 wine producers 200 wisdom of idiots 47 Wizard 145 work 275–94 trends 275–94 work/life balance 64, 71, 260, 277, 289, 293 worldphone 19 xenophobia 16, 63 YouTube 46, 103, 107, 112 Zara 216–17 Zipcar 167 Zopa 124, 134
The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross
23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional
Collectively, miners spend nearly: Mark Gimein, “Virtual Bitcoin Mining Is a Real-World Environmental Disaster,” Bloomberg, April 12, 2013, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-04-12/virtual-bitcoin-mining-is-a-real-world-environmental-disaster.html; Tim Worstall, “Fascinating Number: Bitcoin Mining Uses $15 Million’s Worth of Electricity Every Day,” Forbes, December 3, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/timworstall/2013/12/03/fascinating-number-bitcoin-mining-uses-15-millions-worth-of-electricity-every-day/. In 2013, the Bitcoin community: Michael Carney, “Bitcoin Has a Dark Side: Its Carbon Footprint,” Pando, December 16, 2013, http://pando.com/2013/12/16/bitcoin-has-a-dark-side-its-carbon-footprint/. A British programmer decided: Nathaniel Popper, “Into the Bitcoin Mines,” New York Times, December 21, 2013, http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2013/12/21/into-the-bitcoin-mines/. Charlie Lee, a former Google: Danny Bradbury, “Litecoin Founder Charles Lee on the Origins and Potential of the World’s Second Largest Cryptocurrency,” CoinDesk, July 23, 2013, http://www.coindesk.com/litecoin-founder-charles-lee-on-the-origins-and-potential-of-the-worlds-second-largest-cryptocurrency/.
Many of Bitcoin’s competitors seek to correct perceived shortcomings in Bitcoin itself, including its limited (and thus potentially deflationary) supply; its “irreversibility,” which does not allow for errors to be corrected; and even its negative environmental impact. Mining requires significant computing power, which in turn requires significant energy. Serious bitcoin miners can spend upward of $150,000 a day on electricity nearby. Collectively, miners spend nearly $15 million in electricity each day. In 2013, the Bitcoin community had a comparable carbon footprint to Cyprus: 8.25 megatons. One solution to electric costs and overheated computers is to mine in cold weather if there is a cheap power source for electricity. A British programmer decided to build his mine in Reykjanesbaer, Iceland, so his computers can run on geothermal and hydroelectric energy while being cooled by the arctic air. Litecoin markets itself as being more abundant and faster to mine than bitcoins.
Stuff White People Like: A Definitive Guide to the Unique Taste of Millions by Christian Lander
It is recommended that you buy one of these as soon as possible. Having one will give you precious leverage over any white person who is drinking from a plastic bottle. “Oh, bottled water? Really? I mean, it’s cool, but I kind of thought you cared about the Earth.” If you see someone drinking a Fiji water you have the opportunity to go in for the kill. “Do you know that your bottle of water has a bigger carbon footprint than me? I think they were originally going to call it Aboriginal Blood but that bottle was as close as they could get. You know, legally.” Again, this should only be used in extreme situations. Following your confrontation, the white person is likely to have a metal bottle just like yours. If this happens, there will be an implicit pact whereby they will do favors for you provided you do not tell everyone they got their bottle after seeing yours. 77 Musical Comedy One of the more interesting things about white people is that they love singing comedians.
Your point will be to prove the lesson about the value of a sensitive person over a good-looking one. There is no chance you will even be able to finish this story, as the white person you are talking to will interrupt you to tell you their version of the story. All you need in order to seal the friendship is to nod and reaffirm how right they are. 121 Reusable Shopping Bags Many white people have been able to decrease their carbon footprint by using plastic shopping bags for such diverse purposes as garbage bags and bathing-suit transport. Though helpful, the accumulation of bags is often at a much quicker pace than the reusing process, and within months, drawers and closets begin to fill up and are not emptied until the white person moves. It is one of the great tragedies of modern white culture. Fortunately, as with all white problems, there is a simple, expensive solution!
Airbnb, bounce rate, call centre, carbon footprint, Deng Xiaoping, financial independence, follow your passion, income inequality, iterative process, Ralph Waldo Emerson, search engine result page, Skype, software as a service, South China Sea, Steve Jobs
Vision-MAP for Village Green Energy After working on clean energy projects as an investment banker, I co-founded a company called Village Green Energy (VGE) to work directly in the carbon credit and compliance market. VGE purchases clean energy credits from solar, wind and biogas energy generators and sells them retail to businesses and households who want to reduce their carbon footprint. We also built a Facebook application which addressed sustainability in the wine industry. The company was sold in 2010. Vision: Provide a realistic way for concerned businesses and individuals to reduce their carbon footprint and communicate their efforts with customers, friends and family. Mission: Build a portfolio of renewable energy generators to sell VGE wholesale energy credits. Build a network of businesses and customers to purchase retail energy credits. Actions: Design VGE Renewable Energy Certificates.
Meat: A Benign Extravagance by Simon Fairlie
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, call centre, carbon footprint, Community Supported Agriculture, deindustrialization, en.wikipedia.org, food miles, Food sovereignty, Haber-Bosch Process, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, informal economy, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, megacity, Northern Rock, Panamax, peak oil, refrigerator car, scientific mainstream, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce
This book is most valuable because it will convince the open-minded reader that when we start making grand statements about the earth’s food-carrying capacity, more than a little humility is in order. No matter how fervently we support the no-meat or the pro-meat point of view, or how much allegiance we have for any particular dietary bible, or what kind of farming we think best serves humanity’s food purposes, or what we think about carbon footprints, global warming, greenhouse gases and any of the other trendy phrases with which the news batters us, or what economic religion we think best serves the purpose of providing food for all, I challenge anyone to read this book and not realize that no one has all the right answers, because neither science nor ideology knows all the right answers yet. Humility is a wonderful asset in the pursuit of knowledge, and Simon Fairlie gives the reader plenty of opportunity to acquire some.
At the farm level the FAO states that ‘the most promising approach for reducing methane emissions from livestock is by improving the productivity and efficiency of livestock production through better nutrition and genetics. ’Higher yielding cows produce more milk for less methane. This advice is widely repeated throughout the agricultural press, for example Farmers Weekly writes: Want to reduce your herd’s carbon footprint? Then the easiest way is to increase milk yields … A 9000-litre cow produces 125 kg of methane a year, a 5000-litre cow produces 103 kg of methane.75 While there may well be advantages in increasing yields from dairy animals, there are also drawbacks: a high yielding cow will be less likely to survive on default produce from the farm, and will require both more and higher grade nourishment that can usually only easily be provided by carbon intensive farming practices such as tillage, irrigation or use of synthetic fertilizers.
International Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, UNEP, 1995. 72 Stern, N (2007), The Economics of Climate Change, Cambridge, p 223. 73 IPCC (2007), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Chapter 2,pp 140-142 http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg1/ar4-wg1-chapter2.pdf 74 DEFRA (2008), UK Climate Change Sustainability Indicator: 2006 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Final Figure,http://www.defra.gov.uk/news/2008/080131a.htm; EIA (2008), Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the US 2008, ftp://ftp.eia.doe.gov/pub/oiaf/1605/cdrom/pdf/ggrpt/057308.pdf; Padma, T V, India and Climate Change: Facts and Figures, Sci Dev Net, 31 August 2006, http://www.scidev.net/en/climate-change-and-energy/mitigation/features/india-climate-change-facts-and-figures.html 75 Farmers Weekly (2007), ‘Milk Yield Holds the Key to Lower Carbon Footprint’, Farmers Weekly, 20 August 2007. 76 FAO (2006), op cit 77 IPCC (2007), Climate Change 2007: Mitigation, Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the IPCC (Introduction) eds B Metz et al, Cambridge University Press, 2007, pp 103-5. 78 Ibid., p 104. 79 Goodland, Robert (1998), ‘Environmental Sutainability in Agriculture: Bioethical and Religious Arguments Against Carnivory’, in J Lemons et al (eds), Ecological Sustainability and Integrity, Kluwer, 1998, pp 235-65. 80 Goodland, R and Anhang, J (2009), Livestock and Climate Change: What if the Key Actors in Climate Change are Cows, Pigs and Chickens?
Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, cashless society, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, Diane Coyle, fiat currency, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, German hyperinflation, greed is good, Isaac Newton, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, mental accounting, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, offshore financial centre, Peter Thiel, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, Steven Levy, the payments system, transaction costs
A 2010 British government report entitled “The UK’s Payment Revolution” put it this way: “With around a billion bank notes created, distributed, collected and destroyed every year, the production and secure transportation of notes is an expensive and environmentally costly business paid for by the tax payer. A progressive move away from cash could hold many benefits.”8 In the United States, between 2008 and 2010, the coining process alone used up more than 32,397 tons of zinc, 41,245 tons of copper, and 4,185 tons of nickel. And cash’s carbon footprint doesn’t stop there. Metals like zinc, nickel, and copper have many other, arguably more important, uses, like in the wiring of homes or in electric-car batteries. According to the multinational mining giant BHP Billiton, world consumption of copper over the next twenty-five years will exceed that of all copper ever mined to date.9 Pollution? Nickel smelters belch sulfur dioxide, which is the main cause of acid rain.
See United States: Bureau of Engraving and Printing BerkShare currency Bernanke, Ben Bhat currency BHP Billiton Biases Bible Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Bill of Rights Bills of credit Biometric devices Birch, Dave Bitcoin Black market Blind/visually impaired Americans Bling. See also Jewelry Bloomberg News Boca Raton, Florida Boggs, J.S.G. Borges, Jorge Luis Brazil Bribery Brinks Britain De La Rue printing firm in Digital Money Forum in London transit system Royal Mint Serious Fraud Office See also Bank of England Brixton Pound currency Budapest Buffett, Warren Bulgaria Bush, George W. California Cambodia Canada Capitalism Carbon footprint Cash anonymity of carried by average American consumer cash deposits into ATMs cashless battlefield cashless societies cash transactions on planes and cheating costs concerning and crime (see also Counterfeiting; Robberies) and cultures doing without and emergencies emotional forces concerning (see also Biases) end of (see also Cash: war on cash: Mark of the Beast) and envelope method evolution of fungibility of inconvertibility of and poverty for small-value transactions as stealth tax and tax evasion transporting war on cash(see also Cash: end of) See also Coins: Paper money Casinos Catcher in the Rye Cellphones adoption rates bought by poor people (n) selling airtime minutes for used for money transactions See also Smartphones Centers for Disease Control Certificates of deposit Chaloner, William Chandan, Ravi Chant, John Chase, Salmon P.
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, Exxon Valdez, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hydraulic fracturing, oil shale / tar sands, stem cell, sustainable-tourism, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, urban planning, urban sprawl
We know how much carbon dioxide can be reabsorbed by all the green things in the oceans and on land, and we know we are exceeding those limits. That’s why carbon is building up in the atmosphere. So our goal is clear. All of humanity must find a way to keep emissions below the limits imposed by the biosphere. The only equitable course is to determine the acceptable level of emissions on a global per capita basis. Those who fall below the line should be compensated for their small carbon footprint while those who are far above should be assessed accordingly. And the economy must be aligned with the limits imposed by the biosphere, not above them. 6. It’s Getting Hot Down Here CLIMATE CHANGE IS a reality. We’d all love it if it weren’t, if the deniers and industry PR folks were right. But mountains of scientific evidence and direct observation show that by burning fossil fuels, humans have added too much carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, which has contributed significantly to global warming.
Aside from their merits as a sustainable food source, small fish are inexpensive, typically caught without using a lot of fossil fuels, and are among the healthiest foods a person can eat. Health experts recommend that pregnant women eat sardines and similar seafood because they are valuable sources of omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, calcium, and protein. Because these fish are found in tight schools, capturing them requires little chasing around, dragging of nets, or setting of lines, so their carbon footprint is low. Some research suggests that small pelagic fish may be the most efficient protein system in the world in terms of the energy used to capture them. In 2009, sardine fishermen in British Columbia got about three cents a fish. I could go to Port Hardy during sardine season and buy a truckload for the price of an average Canucks ticket, $150. This same mass of halibut would cost about $15,000—one hundred times more.
How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna
Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, invisible hand, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize
This may seem like hard work, but we should know better than to live behind the lies of numbers divorced from the ecosystem. When it comes to the environment, there is an element of personal responsibility that people don’t feel with other issues, a sense that particularly a younger generation has innately grown up with. Many seventh graders in America log on to CarbonRally.com as part of a nationwide competition to reduce their carbon footprint. Citizen activists promote causes town by town, from flushing toilets less frequently to Paul McCartney’s “Meat Free Monday” campaign in favor of vegetarianism—a “low-carbon” diet—to preserve forests slashed for cattle grazing in Brazil. In New Delhi, the paper versus plastic debate in supermarkets and bazaars has been settled in favor of cotton: keep and reuse. And in Hong Kong, an NGO recycles rice sacks into sturdy grocery bags labeled “re-sack-le” and makes them available across the densely populated city.
In a world where less than fifty cities cause most of the greenhouse gas output, curbing emissions is as much the job of mayors and governors as presidents. Stockholm and London began congestion pricing earlier this past decade, while Copenhagen has steadily removed parking places in the city center to encourage people to take buses, ride bicycles, or walk. Berlin has contracted companies to green fifteen hundred buildings, reducing the city’s carbon footprint by 25 percent. The greening of the Empire State Building presently under way in New York City is self-financing through savings in utility bills and will achieve the emissions reduction equivalent of taking nineteen thousand cars off the street. Even poor cities can change citizen and consumer behavior, leapfrogging to low-carbon, off-grid solutions such as distributed power networks that draw from multiple sources of energy.
Golden Holocaust: Origins of the Cigarette Catastrophe and the Case for Abolition by Robert N. Proctor
bioinformatics, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, facts on the ground, friendly fire, germ theory of disease, index card, Indoor air pollution, information retrieval, invention of gunpowder, John Snow's cholera map, language of flowers, life extension, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pink-collar, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, speech recognition, stem cell, telemarketer, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Upton Sinclair, Yogi Berra
American automobiles emit an average of about 4.4 tons of carbon per year (driving 12,000 miles), which means that if cigarettes were to disappear from the United States the country would see a carbon benefit equivalent to taking nearly 4 million cars off the road.7 The benefit would actually be significantly higher than this, however, since EIOLCA modelers measure the carbon footprint of an industry (or product) only as far as the factory gate. Ignored are whatever emissions may stem from transporting cigarettes to retail outlets, or from smokers driving to the store to get their fix. More important, though, are the carbon costs of the medical care required to treat illnesses caused by smoking. Health care in the United States is estimated to have a total carbon footprint of about 550 million metric tons of carbon dioxide,8 and since about 5 percent of all U.S. health care costs stem from tobacco—about $100 billion per year—we can assume that about 5 percent of this health care carbon burden could be avoided by eliminating smoking.
Snodgrass in the United States Tobacco Journal.6 Snodgrass was talking only about the United States, but the global toll is now larger by more than an order of magnitude. Six billion kilograms of cigarettes are smoked worldwide every year, which doesn’t count the packaging, cartons, or cases in which they are housed and transported. So it should hardly come as a surprise that cigarettes are leaving a sizable carbon footprint on the planet. Global climate change has stimulated a great deal of interest in what are known as “life cycle” comparisons, meaning comparisons of how different industries contribute to greenhouse warming. And sophisticated models have been developed to calculate impacts for different kinds of industry. In 2002, for example, according to the Economic Input-Output Lifecycle Assessment (EIOLCA) models developed by Carnegie Mellon University’s Green Design Institute, the $47 billion tobacco industry in the United States was responsible for generating about 16 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents.
A WIN-WIN-WIN SITUATION Cigarettes contribute substantially to the global climate crisis. In the United States alone, eliminating cigarettes would yield carbon savings equivalent to raising the fuel efficiency of all cars and trucks by several miles per gallon—or to converting the entire electrical grid of a state like Massachusetts to solar power. Eliminating cigarettes would probably make a bigger dent in the country’s total carbon footprint than is presently made by all of the nation’s wind and solar energy combined. We tend of think of saving the planet as involving painful sacrifices or breakthroughs in science and technology, but in this case global environmental health could be boosted by eliminating the world’s leading cause of preventable death. This is a win-win-win situation, given that most smokers don’t even enjoy their cigarettes—and wish they didn’t smoke.
Bernie Madoff, carbon footprint, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, flex fuel, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Indoor air pollution, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Menlo Park, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog
Boone Pickens and former vice president Al Gore to New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman and media darling Amory Lovins, the chairman and chief scientist at the Rocky Mountain Institute, a Colorado-based think tank. For Pickens, the bogeyman to be slain is foreign oil. For Gore, the villain is carbon dioxide. And while the sin to be cured varies with the preacher, the message of deliverance is largely the same: Repent. Give up those evil hydrocarbons and embrace the virtues of renewable energy before you face the eternal damnations of foreign oil, global warming, and a carbon footprint that’s bigger than Boone Pickens’ ego. Lovins is among the most quoted purveyors of energy happy talk. In 2007, he wrote a short piece called “Saving the Climate for Fun and Profit” in which he said that curbing carbon dioxide emissions “will not cost you extra; it will save you money, because saving fuel costs less than buying fuel.”1 In 2008, he claimed that the issues of “climate change, oil dependence, and the spread of nuclear weapons—go away if we just use energy in a way that saves money, and since that transition is not costly but profitable, it can actually be led by business.”2 Venture capitalist Vinod Khosla is another veteran happy talker.
But the potential offered by thorium, modular reactors, pebble-bed reactors, and other reactor designs is obvious.19 Furthermore, it’s clear that nuclear power must be part of the energy mix if the world is to achieve any significant progress in cutting the growth of carbon dioxide emissions. In its 2009 World Energy Outlook, the International Energy Agency declared that “nuclear technology is the only large-scale, baseload, electricity-generation technology with a near-zero carbon footprint.”20 If policymakers are going to agree that carbon dioxide is a problem, then, as the Pulitzer Prize–winning author Richard Rhodes has put it, “nuclear power should be central.” In 2000, Rhodes—who has probably written more about nuclear weapons and nuclear power than any other author—along with Denis Beller of Los Alamos National Laboratory, writing in an article in Foreign Affairs called “The Need for Nuclear Power,” concluded that “despite its outstanding record, [nuclear power] has ... been relegated by its opponents to the same twilight zone of contentious ideological conflict as abortion and evolution.
Cap-and-trade plans Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), myth about Carbon credits, buying, issue with Carbon dioxide emissions of the developing world myths involving and natural gas offsetting, happy talk on per-capita total, of OECD countries vs. non-OECD countries world average, comparing countries to (fig.) yearly, expectations for See also under specific countries Carbon dioxide emissions reduction as a global priority nuclear power and See also Global climate change; Kyoto Protocol; Zero-emissions Carbon footprint Carbon intensity, reductions in, comparing (fig.) “Carbon neutral” claims, issue with Carbon tax, myth involving Cardinal Mine(fig.) Carter, Jimmy Causation, issue of Cellulosic ethanol Center on Global Change Central African Republic CEPOS (Danish Center for Political Studies) Chad Charcoal, issues with Cheatham, Don Cheney, Dick Chernobyl nuclear accident Chesapeake Energy Chevron Chile(fig.)
The World According to Bertie by Alexander McCall Smith; Robert Ian MacKenzie
After that day’s meeting, it was taking some time for him to move back from the professional to the personal. Here, approaching him, was a sixty-year-old woman, with two point four children, twenty-three years to go, with a weekly income of … and so on. Now there were carbon footprints to consider, too, and that was fun. This woman was walking, but had probably taken a bus. She did not go on holiday to distant destinations, Spain at the most, and so she used little aviation fuel. Her carbon footprint was probably not too bad, particularly by comparison with … with those who went to international conferences on carbon footprints. The thought amused him, and he smiled again. “You laughing at me, son?” The woman had stopped in front of him. Stuart was startled. “What? Laughing at you? No, not at all.” “Because I dinnae like being laughed at,” said the woman, shaking a finger at him.
The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey
3D printing, Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zimmermann PGP
Months later, Guy Lane, an Australian environmental scientist, came up with his BitCarbon method for calculating the carbon footprint of bitcoin. Based on his assumption that a bitcoin miner will on average spend 90 percent of the value of the mined bitcoin on electricity, Lane calculated that a $1,000 bitcoin price would result in 8.2 million tons of carbon per year, about the size of Cyprus’s emissions, and that a $100,000 bitcoin price would produce 825 megatons annually, or the equivalent of Germany’s emissions. If the bitcoin’s currency exchange rate ever got to $1 million, a number that some argue is feasible if bitcoin becomes a world-dominant payment system, its network would have a carbon footprint of 8.2 gigatons, or 20 percent of the planet’s carbon output. Bitcoin’s Mining Hashrate over Time (Source: Blockchain.info) The problem with these alarming projections is that they were based on flawed data from Blockchain.info, which was still using outdated GPU-based assumptions about electricity usage.
Abed, Gabriel Abridello, Mike accelerators Accel Partners Adams, Douglas Afghan Citadel Afghanistan Africa A-Grade Investments Ahmadi, Parisa AIG Airbnb Akimbo Alamgir, Nadia Alcoholics Anonymous Aleph Alibaba Alipay Alisie, Mihai Allaire, Jeremy al-Qaeda altcoins dogecoin litecoin Realcoin Alyattes, King Alydian Amazon Amazon Cloud American Express AME Ventures Amidi, Saeed Andolfatto, David Andreessen, Marc Andreessen Horowitz Andresen, Gavin Android angel investors anonymity anonymous remailers AntMinter Antonopoulos, Andreas ANX Apache tribe APIs (application programming interfaces) Apple Argentina exchange houses in trust problem in Aristotle Armstrong, Brian ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) chips Assange, Julian assassination AstroPay AT&T Atlas ATS Australia Austrian school of economics automobile loan payments Avalon Average Is Over (Cowen) Babylonians Back, Adam Bacon, Francis Bagehot, Walter Banco Popular Banga, Ajay Bank of America Bank of England (BOE) bankruptcy banks, banking central fees of fractional reserve Glass-Steagall Act and ledger and Medici modern payment system centered around people excluded from system of shadow system of tellers in too-big-to-fail Baran, Paul Barbados Barbie, Johann Barclays Barrett, John barter Beckstrom, Rod Bel Bruno, Joe Bell, Jim Bernanke, Ben Betamax BitAngels BitCarbon bitcoin(s): addresses in artwork and songs about balance in blockchain ledger in boom in brand of carbon footprint of as commodity community around creation of; see also Nakamoto, Satoshi crime and cryptography mailing list and culture of as currency defined as deflationary currency dollar and double-spending of early adopters of encryption in evangelists of exchange rate of fraud and future of Genesis Block in imitators of, see altcoins issuance of meetups for mining, see bitcoin mining and miners merchants accepting as movement as payments protocol as property regulation of, see regulation release of reward program in security and software for symbols of as technology thefts of traceability of transaction confirmation in transaction fees and transaction malleability bug and transaction volumes of trust and value of volatility of wallets for wealth concentration and Wild West phase of work in Bitcoin 2.0 (Blockchain 2.0) bitcoin barons bitcoin.com Bitcoin Decentral Bitcoin Faucet Bitcoin Forum Bitcoin Foundation Bitcoinica Bitcoin Magazine Bitcoin Market bitcoin mining and miners ASICs in cloud at data centers Dr.
Reinventing Organizations: A Guide to Creating Organizations Inspired by the Next Stage of Human Consciousness by Frederic Laloux, Ken Wilber
Albert Einstein, augmented reality, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, failed state, future of work, hiring and firing, index card, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Rogoff, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, randomized controlled trial, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, the market place, the scientific method, Tony Hsieh
Green Organizations consider their social responsibility an integral part of how they do business, contrary to their Orange counterparts who often deem such reports a distracting obligation. Social responsibility is often at the core of their mission, and it provides the motivation that spurs them on to innovate and become better corporate citizens. Green Organizations work with their suppliers in developing countries to improve local working conditions and prevent child labor; they try to reduce their carbon footprint and their use of water; they strive to recycle their products and reduce packaging. Leaders in Green Organizations maintain that the “stakeholder perspective” might come with higher costs in the short term, but it will deliver better returns in the long run for all parties, including shareholders. Family as the guiding metaphor Where Achievement-Orange views organizations as machines, the dominant metaphor of organizations in Pluralistic-Green is the family.
The same holds true for social concerns: when we come from a place of wholeness, we feel compelled to do our share to heal our broken relationship with life in all its forms. The organizations in this research have not yet reached the ultimate goal of zero waste, zero toxicity, and zero impact on ecosystems, but many have taken significant steps in that direction. AES, for instance, started planting millions of trees in the 1990s to offset the carbon footprint from its coal-fired plants, at a time when global warming was not yet center stage. It’s not so much in what they do, but in how they do it, that Teal Organizations have a different approach to dealing with their environmental and social impact. They look at the matter from a different angle. Instead of asking the question What will it cost? they start with the deeper, more personal question: What is the right thing to do?
Casey Sheahan, Patagonia’s current CEO, explains the journey the company took and its unexpected consequences: About four years ago, we took what was a traditional Corporate Social Responsibility report and we put everything online and it’s called the Footprint Chronicles. … We actually took video cameras, we took tape recorders and still cameras into the factories. We told our factories: we intend to show our customers where everything is made, how it’s made, what the conditions are like, what the impact of transportation and water usage is on the overall carbon footprint. The Footprint Chronicles talks about the good, the bad, and the ugly of everything we make. It’s tracking about 40 styles right now, which represent hundreds of our overall styles in our annual seasonal output. The factories at first, like all of us, were reluctant to go down this path of total transparency. But … what happened was that customers, biologists, and efficiency experts would give us ideas about how to do a better job of manufacturing and shipping apparel, providing that information to us via email.
Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, capital controls, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, dark matter, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, energy security, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, forensic accounting, forward guidance, full employment, ghettoisation, global rebalancing, global reserve currency, hiring and firing, inflation targeting, Irish property bubble, Just-in-time delivery, labour market flexibility, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market clearing, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mini-job, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, mutually assured destruction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, paradox of thrift, pension reform, price mechanism, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, reshoring, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, shareholder value, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, the payments system, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, two tier labour market, unorthodox policies, uranium enrichment, urban planning, value at risk, working-age population
Plenty of leading Indian businessmen treat climate change as if it was a neo-colonialist conspiracy to keep the BRICS countries down. Mr Ramesh had an especially blunt message for the British negotiator at the failed Copenhagen climate talks, now the leader of the Opposition at Westminster. ‘This constant preaching from Ed Miliband, for example. On India and China he became an evangelical, you know, but I can tell you that Ed Miliband’s carbon footprint is probably twenty times my carbon footprint.’ The global debate about climate change becomes tangible in India. Should all its people be connected to the electricity grid? Should Indians who want to travel from Mumbai to Kolkata have to catch a twenty-six-hour train, or should they be able to fly? The growing assertiveness of India and of China in recent years has caused the collapse of negotiations on both world trade and on the environment.
If we in the West readjust our lifestyles, then the carbon in that Iraqi oil field, in that Siberian gas field, in that Indian coalfield, might just remain under the ground – and not end up in the atmosphere. The carbon traders of Kingston upon Thames Europe did come up with a method of trying to restrict carbon output, a method dreamt up by the high priests of high finance. It was called carbon trading. Greed can never have been so good. At one point, because ‘almost everything has a carbon footprint’, the proponents of carbon trading believed that carbon could one day become the most traded commodity on the globe. Half the current trading comes through London, and the City of London is emerging as the world centre for carbon capitalism. Kingston upon Thames is an unlikely hub for anything, but nestled in the greenery beside the River Thames lies a futuristic office block designed to accommodate a small army of planet-saving, carbon-dioxide-sapping capitalists.
Any way you slice it, plastic is not good for the environment. It can’t be recycled, only downcycled, and really, humanity can use only so many plastic benches. Compostable toothbrushes (environmentaltoothbrush.com.au): Toothbrushes made with a bamboo handle and biodegradable bristles are another option to consider. These are sold by an Australian company, so you’ll also want to think about your carbon footprint if you choose to order them. They come in sets of twelve packaged in cardboard and paper. After use, these toothbrushes can be placed in your home compost pile, where they naturally biodegrade. Toothpaste Until recently, the Tom’s of Maine toothpaste company manufactured their toothpaste in recyclable aluminum tubes. The company’s switch to plastic toothpaste tubes left a number of zero-wasters in the lurch, for we had long relied on Tom’s of Maine products.
Besides the packaging garbage created from the plastic sleeves the flowers come in, there is a significant environmental impact created from cutting and transporting exotic flowers halfway around the world to the coolers of our grocery stores. You can minimize this impact by seeking out a local flower shop or nursery. Try to find locally grown, in-season flowers—they will have a much smaller carbon footprint if they were grown close to home. I once received a lovely gift from my eco-conscious husband—a single rose wrapped in a sleeve made from a banana leaf and tied with twine. You can also consider gifting a potted plant, which is a much better investment for the planet. St. Patrick’s Day Luckily St. Patrick’s Day doesn’t create much trash. The revelry of this holiday is mostly limited to food and libations.
The Human Age: The World Shaped by Us by Diane Ackerman
23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Earth, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, Internet of things, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Masdar, megacity, microbiome, nuclear winter, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, skunkworks, Skype, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the High Line, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog
When roads, power lines, and sewers lie closer together, they require fewer resources. Apartments are insulated by the civil geometry of the buildings, making them easier to heat, cool, and light. Crowded neighbors can share public transportation, and most destinations tend to be close, within walking or biking distance; people rarely need cars. As a result, city-dwellers actually create a much smaller carbon footprint than rural-dwellers do. Cities like New York boast the lowest amount of energy use per household and per person, and so, paradoxically, although the city as a whole uses more energy, each person uses less. It seems counterintuitive, but city life can be a more eco-friendly way for humans to live. Cities in developing countries also use less energy—but that’s because the number of poor tends to be higher there and they consume less, including less food and fresh water.
Worldwide, in such ways, the outdated idea of travel serving only to carry people from one place to another is gradually melting into the notion of piggybacking and recycling—transportation with bonuses. This pertains to cars and buses, of course, with companies aiming for ever greater mileage on ever less fuel of a preferably renewable sort such as hydrogen or electricity. A new twist on that is the Green Apple concept car, so named because it’s designed for use as a taxi in New York City, offering “street hails” in all five boroughs. Not adding to the carbon footprint, it could actually erase part of it. A three-seater shaped like an aerodynamic space helmet, it’s powered by turbines that whip in polluted air and purify it before exhaling it back onto the street. A snarky air-scrubber. Remember riding on the vacuum cleaner Mom or Dad propelled? Yes, the air could be called what it is, “recycled waste,” but where’s the fun in that? Speaking of fun, some wind-harvesting ideas look like they’ve sprung from either an aviary or pages of sci-fi.
Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams
3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population
Many commentators have rightly pointed to the history of technological change to show that it need not lead to mass unemployment. However, the primary periods of automation coincided with significant reductions in the working week; employment was often sustained by redistributing the work. A second benefit of this policy is its various environmental advantages. For instance, reductions in the working week would lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and our overall carbon footprint.76 Increased free time would also mean a reduction in all the convenience goods bought to fit into our hectic work schedules. More broadly, using productivity improvements for less work, rather than more output, would mean that energy efficiency improvements would go towards reducing environmental impacts.77 A reduction in working hours is therefore an essential plank in any response to climate change.
Without these technologies, postcapitalism would risk repeating all the economic problems already seen in the first communist experiment.108 Second, global logistics makes possible the use of a wide array of comparative advantages – not simply wage differentials. To cite one example: research has found that it is more environmentally friendly for certain agricultural goods to be produced in New Zealand and shipped to the UK, as opposed to being produced and consumed in the UK.109 Even after being shipped across the world, they still have a smaller carbon footprint. The simple reason for this is that reproducing the appropriate climate in the UK would involve intense energy consumption. Such environmental comparative advantages only exist where there is an efficient and global logistics network. Finally, logistics is at the forefront of the automation of work, and therefore represents a prime example of what a postcapitalist world might look like: machines humming along and handling the difficult labour that humans would otherwise be forced to do.
3D printing, Airbnb, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, clean water, fear of failure, Google X / Alphabet X, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, new economy, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Thomas L Friedman, Toyota Production System, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator, Zipcar
Casey Sheahan, the CEO of the outdoor-apparel company Patagonia, admits that even a company such as his—with a strong, well-defined mission that is tied to encouraging outdoor activity and protecting the environment—has to revisit questions about purpose and mission regularly. “There is great tension every day7 in the company between being successful in terms of growth, and what this means in terms of our environmental impact.” The bigger Patagonia gets, the more challenging this becomes. Sheahan grapples constantly with the question How can we minimize the environmental impact of the tremendous carbon footprint of operating a $570 million business? What helps guide the company at all times, he said, is the knowledge of how it began. “When the company was started by the founders, it was basically about protecting what they loved, nature, and trying expand the sphere of influence in order to inspire others.” Not only is that the reason Patagonia exists—it’s also the reason people come to work there, to this day.
How can we save a little bit of money, make it a little more efficient, where can we cut costs? Why does the world need another company? Why should anyone care about us? How in the world are we going to break through? Why are we in business? (And by the way—what business are we really in?) Who have we (as a company) historically been, when we’ve been at our best? How can we minimize that [environmental] impact given that there is a tremendous carbon footprint operating a $570 million business?, (Patagonia’s enduring question) What was our higher purpose at the outset? And how can we rally people around that today? Who must we fearlessly become? What is true about us, at our core? Are we really who we say we are?, (HBO’s big question) Was it an original and worthwhile idea? And was this show the very best realization of that idea? What if a running shoe could run your life?
Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff
3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar
Early efforts have been very promising for business and people alike. Juliet Schor, a sociologist at Boston College, believes we must overcome our fear of appearing fanciful or naïve and get on with the business of reducing work hours.51 Her research shows that more working hours do not lead to a better economy, a better environment, or a better quality of life. Countries that have just begun instituting worktime reduction already have smaller carbon footprints than those that haven’t. Schor has also shown how spending fewer hours on the job frees people to pursue the sorts of things they already do for free and that ultimately contribute even more greatly to the economy—from caring for the sick to teaching children. In the words of New Economics Foundation researcher Julia Slay, “What would the cost to your business be if your workers were never potty trained?”
Robert McMillan, “The Inside Story of Mt. Gox, Bitcoin’s $460 Million Disaster,” wired.com, March 3, 2014. 37. Ryan Lawler, “Bitcoin Miners Are Racking Up $150,000 a Day in Power Consumption Alone,” techcrunch.com, April 13, 2013. 38. Mark Gimein, “Virtual Bitcoin Mining Is a Real-World Environmental Disaster,” bloomberg.com, April 12, 2013. 39. Michael Carney, “Bitcoin Has a Dark Side: Its Carbon Footprint,” pando.com, December 16, 2013. 40. Lawler, “Bitcoin Miners Are Racking Up $150,000 a Day.” 41. Jon Evans, “Enter the Blockchain: How Bitcoin Can Turn the Cloud Inside Out,” techcrunch.com, March 22, 2014. 42. Vitalik Buterin, “DAOs, DACs, DAs and More: An Incomplete Terminology Guide,” blog.ethereum.org, May 6, 2014. 43. David Johnston, Sam Onat Yilmaz, Jeremy Kandah, Nikos Bentenitis, Farzad Hashemi, Ron Gross, Shawn Wilkinson, and Steven Mason, “The General Theory of Decentralized Applications, Dapps,” github.com, June 9, 2014. 44.
Cold: Adventures in the World's Frozen Places by Bill Streever
Stadials such as these (and the Little Ice Age) remind us of the variability of climate, but this variability should not be confused with the kind of variability that is occurring now, which appears to be much more significant and linked to greenhouse gas emissions. JUNE According to the Environmental Protection Agency, burning a gallon of gasoline releases almost twenty pounds of carbon dioxide. Many carbon footprint calculators are available on the Internet. The carbon footprint of even environmentally conscious people is shocking. No one would willingly and knowingly dump ten or twenty pounds (or more) of garbage from their car during the daily commute to and from work, yet that is exactly what most people do every day. Joseph Fourier’s 1827 essay “Mémoire sur les températures du globe terrestre et des espaces planétaires” (“Report on the Temperature of the Earth and Planetary Spaces,” Mémoires de l’Académie Royale des Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 569–604) is often cited as the first description of the greenhouse effect.
The Virgin Way: Everything I Know About Leadership by Richard Branson
barriers to entry, call centre, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, clean water, collective bargaining, Costa Concordia, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, index card, inflight wifi, Lao Tzu, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Northern Rock, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, trade route
In 2005, long before they started to collaborate with Wal-Mart on the CFL drive, GE’s CEO Jeffrey Immelt launched their ‘Ecomagination’ business push, which was neatly encapsulated by the slogan ‘Green Can Be Green’ (as in the ‘greenback’ dollar). Among a multitude of projects ‘Ecomagination’ has spawned programmes like ‘Ecomagination Nation’ a global power and water initiative designed to reduce GE’s carbon footprint, energy and water use. To date eighteen global sites are participating, reducing water use in 2012 by 669 million gallons, the equivalent to shutting down Niagara Falls for seventy-seven minutes. Another GE programme has produced the natural gas-powered ‘Flex Efficiency’ power plant – the emissions reduction in a year from operating just one of these instead of a coal-powered unit is the equivalent to eliminating the annual CO2 emissions of nearly three million cars in Japan.
The Carbon War Room’s research team is constantly working to identify opportunities that have cost-negative, billion ton per annum carbon reduction potential over the next ten years and has to date found seven of them: industry, forestry, agriculture, waste management, transport, energy and construction. Across seventeen sub-sectors these seven sectors combined could account for a fourteen per cent reduction in the world’s CO2 annual emissions! If these numbers sound ambitious, they are. But Christopher Columbus was told the same thing when, with nothing but the courage of his own convictions, he went in search of the East Indies. And just look at what happened there – without any carbon footprint whatsoever! All these huge numbers are very grand, I know, and a common question is what does all this mean for existing small businesses and entrepreneurs looking to start one? The simple answer is – a lot. In the long term, value or purpose-driven entrepreneurs stand a much better chance of succeeding in a global marketplace in which regulators everywhere are steadily tightening the compliance rules.
Information: A Very Short Introduction by Luciano Floridi
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, carbon footprint, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of writing, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, phenotype, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Turing machine
The physics of information can be highly energy-consuming and hence potentially unfriendly towards the environment. In 2000, data centres consumed 0.6% of the world's electricity. In 2005, the figure had increased to 1%. They are now responsible for more carbon dioxide emissions per year than Argentina or the Netherlands and, if current trends hold, their emissions will have grown four-fold by 2020, reaching 670 million tonnes. By then, it is estimated that the carbon footprint of ICTs will be higher than that of aviation. However, according to recent studies, ICTs will also help to eliminate almost 8 metric gigatons of greenhouse gas emissions annually by 2020, which is equivalent to 15% of global emissions today and five times more than the estimated emissions from ICTs in 2020. This positive and improvable balance leads me to a final comment. The greenest machine is a machine with 100% energy efficiency.
AI winter, call centre, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, demand response, discovery of DNA, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, global supply chain, Internet of things, John von Neumann, Mars Rover, natural language processing, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, planetary scale, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, smart grid, smart meter, speech recognition, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
They needed a digital model of a city that they could experiment with.So they built a framework of knowledge about each individual’s activities, including detecting meaningful locations, segmenting trips, calculating the duration of stays, identifying the purpose of each trip, plotting origins and destinations of each trip, tracking the time of day, and specifying the mode of transportation. They even estimated the carbon footprint of each trip. Then they aggregated all of the information about individuals to generate citywide patterns. The team used the results to optimize the routes and schedules for the city’s bus system. The objective was to minimize the sum of operator costs, user costs, and unsatisfied demand costs for the entire network. Costs aren’t just expressed in dollars. For users, for instance, they include factors like waiting, walking, and driving a car.
Frommer's Oregon by Karl Samson
airport security, Burning Man, carbon footprint, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Works Progress Administration
You can also listen to podcasts, connect with other Frommers.com members through our active-reader forums, share your travel photos, read blogs from guidebook editors and fellow travelers, and much more. 03_537718-flast.indd viii 3/17/10 2:03 PM 1 The Best of Oregon To 19th-century pioneers, Oregon was the promised land, a land of plenty, a land of opportunity. Things haven’t changed that much in the ensuing 150 years. People looking to start new lives are still moving to Oregon in droves, and many native Oregonians are envisioning new ways to make Oregon a better place. Farmers are pioneering organic and sustainable farms close to urban centers so that the farms can reduce their carbon footprint. Urban pioneers, young creative types, are eschewing cars in favor of bicycles and public transit. There are organic wineries and breweries, microdistilleries, and tiny coffee roasters. There are mountains and beaches and deserts and vineyards. Together the people and the landscape spell the good life in Oregon, and for the visitor, it is these same factors that make the state such a great vacation destination.
MEDITERRANEAN/SEAFOOD This casual little place may ostensibly be a Mediterranean restaurant specializing in seafood, but lots of people know it for its great fish and chips, which are available with a variety of seafood, including salmon, albacore tuna, shrimp, and oysters. However, they also do a good cioppino. At dinner, try the pesto halibut or the sole piccata. Clemente’s also works hard to reduce its carbon footprint, purchases local ingredients as much as possible, and has its waste oil converted to biodiesel. Clemente’s 1198 Commercial St. & 503/325-1067. www.clementesrestaurant.com. Reservations recommended. Main courses $10–$15 lunch, $12–$31 dinner. AE, DISC, MC, V. Tues–Sun 11am–3pm and 5–9pm. Columbian Café VEGETARIAN/SEAFOOD With offbeat and eclectic decor, this tiny place looks a bit like a cross between a college hangout and a seaport 10_537718-ch07.indd 180 3/17/10 2:06 PM diner, and, indeed, the clientele reflects this atmosphere.
T H E CO LU M B I A G O R G E Nora’s Table NORTHWEST South Indian mussel curry; house-made gnocchi with brown butter, hazelnuts, sage, pumpkin, and bleu cheese; seared rockfish tacos with chipotle slaw; coho salmon on white beans, chard, and celeriac with tomato confit and fennel frites. The menu here is as eclectic as the population of Hood River. And everything is so delicious, you just want to keep going back again and again. Owner Kathy Watson formerly operated the restaurant Viento across the river in Bingen, Washington, and that restaurant was also a favorite of mine. If you’re concerned with sustainability and carbon footprints, note that the wine list here is exclusively wines from the Columbia Gorge. Look for Nora’s downstairs and just off Oak Street. 509 Cascade Ave. & 541/386-5737. www.sixthstreetbistro.com. Reservations recommended. Main courses $7–$11 lunch, $13–$21 dinner. AE, MC, V. Sun–Thurs 11:30am–9:30pm; Fri–Sat 11:30am–10pm. HOOD RIVER AFTER DARK Double Mountain Brewery & Taproom This little brewery produces some of the most distinctive brews in Oregon and is one of my favorite brewpubs in the state.
Cyclopedia by William Fotheringham
Wilkinson reached close to 80 mph on long descents, and covered the distance in 41 hours, 4 minutes, 22 seconds including a stop of almostan hour to replace a rear axle. Dick Poole’s End-to-End Eats = Between Land’s End and John O’Groats in 1965 Poole got through 2 pounds of fruitcake, 11 packets of malt loaf, a gallon of rice and fruit salad, 7 pints of Complan, 12 oranges, 8 pints of coffee, 13 pints of tea, and 8 pints of Ribena. ENVIRONMENT Cycling is now a recognized means of lowering one’s carbon footprint. The figures speak for themselves—100 calories takes a cyclist 3 miles, a car all of 280 feet. In 2009 research indicated that if cycling use in cities doubles from 4 percent of journeys to 8 percent, there would be a total drop of 1.1 percent in carbon emissions. If those journeys are intermodal (public transport + bike), the figure can go up to 1.8 percent because greater distances can be covered.
If those journeys are intermodal (public transport + bike), the figure can go up to 1.8 percent because greater distances can be covered. On the other hand, cycling as a pastime rather than a means of transport is by no means carbon friendly. Driving from London to the south of France with a bike on the roofrack creates 360 kgm of CO2; taking the train and hiring a bike creates 100 kgm; flying with the bike in the hold creates 850 kgm, more than heating the average house for a year. Few studies exist into the carbon footprint of bike races but the number of vehicle miles involved suggest that it is horrendous. That is borne out by a study from the International Institute for Sport Science and Technology, which calculated that the Tour of Romandie, a six-day stage race for pros, produced 138 tons of CO2, which is just under the amount of CO2 emissions produced by Nauru, an island state in the South Pacific. ÉTAPE DU TOUR The most celebrated CYCLOSPORTIVE event, and the first with the now universal format of prerace party, classic route, accurate timing, well-filled goody bag, and ample technical support.
The Coke Machine by Michael Blanding
carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, Exxon Valdez, Gordon Gekko, Internet Archive, laissez-faire capitalism, market design, Naomi Klein, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, Upton Sinclair
As awareness of the Tap Water Challenges spread, however, the activists found the issue that resonated most with consumers had less to do with the quality of the water, much less privatization and control of water resources. Instead, they were most concerned with the bottles themselves. In 2006, former Vice President Al Gore had just released the documentary An Inconvenient Truth, warning of the apocalyptic consequences of climate change and spurring consumers to measure their personal carbon footprints and carry canvas bags to the grocery store instead of wasting excess plastic. Likewise, there seemed something especially galling about wasting all of that plastic for a product that could just as easily be had from the tap. According to a 2009 report by the nonprofit Pacific Institute, it takes the equivalent of 17 million barrels of oil to produce the plastic for all bottled water consumed in the United States in a year—enough to power 1 million cars.
The following year, of course, BP was responsible for one of the worst environmental disasters in U.S. history when one of its deep-sea oil rigs exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, discharging thousands of barrels of oil a day. After the incident, it was revealed, BP had lobbied against a simple safety measure that could have prevented the accident. Even when the environmental branding isn’t such obvious “greenwashing,” it obscures one simple fact: Most of the initiatives companies have taken to increase efficiency and drive down their carbon footprints are also just good business. That’s certainly the case with Coke, whose efforts to reduce emissions, water use, and electricity, after all, also mean reducing costs. Asked to name anything the company is doing that is actually costing it money, Roselli hesitates. “Well, the hybrid trucks cost more,” he says. “It will take three years to recoup the money we spend on those.” Asked if any of the projects will cost the company money in the long run, he responds, “Well, the bottom line is the bottom line,” he says.
The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves by Matt Ridley
23andMe, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, food miles, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, packet switching, patent troll, Pax Mongolica, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Productivity paradox, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supervolcano, technological singularity, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, working poor, working-age population, Y2K, Yogi Berra
Getting food from the farmer to the shop causes just 4 per cent of all its lifetime emissions. Ten times as much carbon is emitted in refrigerating British food as in air-freighting it from abroad, and fifty times as much is emitted by the customer travelling to the shops. A New Zealand lamb, shipped to England, requires one-quarter as much carbon to get on to a London plate as a Welsh lamb; a Dutch rose, grown in a heated greenhouse and sold in London, has six times the carbon footprint of a Kenyan rose grown under the sun using water recycled through a fish farm, using geothermal electricity and providing employment to Kenyan women. In truth, far from being unsustainable, the interdependence of the world through trade is the very thing that makes modern life as sustainable as it is. Suppose your local laptop manufacturer tells you that he already has three orders and then he is off on his holiday so he cannot make you one before the winter.
The distinction between needs and wants, as expressed by Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, is a mischievous one: people evolved to be ambitious, to start exaggerating their social status or sexual worth, long before they have satisfied their basic needs. See Miller, G. 2009. Spent. Heinemann. p. 41 ‘the entire concept of food miles is “a profoundly flawed sustainability indicator”’. Bailey, R. 2008. The food miles mistake. Reason, 4 November 2008. http://www.reason.com/news/show/129855.html. p. 41 ‘Ten times as much carbon’. See https://statistics.defra.gov.uk/esg/reports/foodmiles/final.pdf. p. 42 ‘six times the carbon footprint of a Kenyan rose’. Specter, M. 2008. Big foot. The New Yorker, 25 February 2008. http://www.new yorker.com/reporting/2008/02/25/080225fa_fact_specter. See also http://grown underthesun.com. p. 42 ‘just as it did in Europe in 1315–18’. Jordan, W.C. 1996. The Great Famine: Northern Europe in the Early Fourteenth Century. Princeton University Press. p. 43 ‘Today, 1 per cent works in agriculture and 24 per cent in industry’.
Food Revolution, The: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our World by John Robbins, Dean Ornish M. D.
Albert Einstein, carbon footprint, clean water, complexity theory, double helix, Exxon Valdez, food miles, laissez-faire capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, profit motive, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Rosa Parks, telemarketer
Comparing eating little or no animal products with driving a Prius, and likewise comparing eating meat with driving a Huninier, may seem farfetched. But this comparison, as striking as it is, actually understates the amount of greenhouse gases that stem from meat production. In 2006, a University of Chicago study found that a vegan diet is far more effective than driving a hybrid car in reducing our carbon footprint.'' The scientists who did the calculations said that a Prins driver who consumes a meat-based diet actually contributes more to global warming than a Hummer driver who eats low on the food chain. As Ezra Klein wrote in the Washington Post in 2009, "The evidence is strong. It's not simply that meat is a contributor to global warming; it's that it is a huge contributor. Larger, by a significant margin, than the global transportation sector."'""
Similarly, a 2009 report published in Scientific American remarked that "producing beef for the table has a surprising environmental cost: it releases prodigious amounts of heat-trapping greenhouse gases. ""` The greenhouse gas emissions from producing a pound of beef, the study found, are 58 times greater than those from producing a pound of potatoes. Some people thought the Live Earth concert handbook was exaggerating when it stated that, "Refusing meat is the single most effective thing you can do to reduce your carbon footprint," but it wasn't. This is literally true. Even Environmental Defense, a group hardly known for taking radical stands, calculates that if every meat eater in the U.S. swapped just one meal of chicken per week for a vegetarian meal, the carbon savings would be equivalent to taking half a million cars off the road. Not surprisingly, the U.S. meat industry has claimed that livestock production isn't to blame for global warming, and has tried to persuade the public, opinion leaders, and government officials that the FAO indictment of meat is overstated.
airport security, Atahualpa, carbon footprint, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, financial independence, Google Earth, megacity, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Ronald Reagan, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, urban renewal
That distinction, meanwhile, belongs to the United States, and Chinese have a point when they say that those in developed countries who complain about China’s pollution are like ex-smokers who walk into a room of people smoking and declare, “No smoking!” When you are the world’s factory you necessarily make a bit of a mess, and most of it, after all, affects you more than anybody else. One could also note, in China’s defense, that the typical Chinese person’s carbon footprint remains tiny. The average person in China travels about 1,000 kilometers (621 miles) per year, compared with 15,000 kilometers (9,320 miles) per year for Europeans and over 24,000 kilometers (14,913 miles) per year for Americans. In 2004 there were only 9 cars per 1,000 people in China, compared to 700 per 1,000 in the United States, “400 in Japan, 350-500 in Europe, and 150-200 in middle income countries like Mexico, Brazil and Korea.”
Last, roads have long provided a solution, in American life and elsewhere, to disappointments and the lack of local opportunity. You go somewhere else, you start again. Or you get started for the first time. As Bruce Springsteen sang in “Thunder Road”: “It’s a town full of losers / And I’m pulling out of here to win.” That ethos might be poised for reassessment in light of high oil prices, the concept of the carbon footprint, and the notion that, given the disappearance of the frontier and the recognition that there is limited space on earth for ever-growing numbers of people, we need to stay put and clean up after ourselves, not simply forever move on. And yet, stasis is not an option. In the words of Ibn al-’Arabi, a twelfth-century philosopher from Spain, “The origin of existence is movement. Immobility can have no part in it, for if existence were immobile, it would return to its source, which is the Void.
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov
3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks
Once such allowances are exceeded, additional allowances must be purchased, with the proceeds usually going to create and bolster so-called carbon sinks, carbon-sequestering natural or artificial reservoirs that absorb carbon. The logic of carbon offsetting—and the idea that sustainability can be bought through market relations—has now trickled down from nations and corporations to individuals. Thus, we are now asked to monitor—yet another instance of self-tracking—our carbon footprint and to minimize our own carbon emissions by buying more efficient products or using greener transportation methods. But even as we gain the ability to monitor our own carbon footprint, do we really know what those numbers actually mean? Or is taking such measurements yet another way to make us feel good about our own sacrifices without making any fundamental changes to the system? Do we know the relative importance of our tiny contribution? If everyone makes the same small efforts, will they be enough to reverse the troubling trends?
Overbooked: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism by Elizabeth Becker
airport security, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, BRICs, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, corporate governance, Costa Concordia, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Masdar, Murano, Venice glass, open borders, out of africa, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, statistical model, sustainable-tourism, the market place, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave, young professional, éminence grise
We had to leave before sunset. Fuller said Bill Marriott was attracted by the enormity of this vision and by Dr. Viana’s modern business approach. After a thorough review by independent accountants Marriott contributed an initial $2 million to the project. It will never become a tourist resort or provide any income for the corporation. “This preserve works. It does what it says it would do and offsets some of our carbon footprint,” said Mr. Fuller. That matter-of-fact appraisal reflects the consensus among the elite ranks of the industry that tourism has to improve its environmental record. We trod carefully down the permanently damp stairs and climbed back into the boats. As we pulled out, a flock of parakeets rose above the trees, their cries echoing unimpeded in silence. In that clean evening sky, the sun turned a blood-orange before it disappeared behind the curve of the earth
., 385 Leon, Donna, 85–86 Leonardo da Vinci, 39 Leshan Giant Buddha, 339 Levy, Michael, 319 Liang Sicheng, 298 Liberia, 157, 161 ship registry of, 139, 140 Libya, 193 LICADHO, 110 Lichtenwald, Janice, 266 Lindblad Expeditions, 246, 248, 257 Lin Xi, 329–34 Living Planet report, 196 Livingstone, Zambia, 237 “Living Working Countryside” (Taylor), 74 Lloyds Cruise International, 164 London, 1851 Exposition in, 49 London Daily Mail, 72 Los Angeles Times, 30 “Lost Decade, The” (report), 360 Louvre, Abu Dhabi, 191, 192 Louvre, Paris, 38–39, 66 Lovdal, Trond, 225 Love Boat, The (TV show), 137 Luangwa River valley, 211, 212, 218 Lufthansa, 172 Lula da Silva, Luis Inácio, 272–73, 276 Lusaka, Zambia, 209–10, 229 Lustenberger, Joe, 372–73 Maasai, 242 Macao, 113, 295, 306, 314, 368–69 McBride, Kelly, 31 McCain, John, 366 McCartney, Mike, 387 McCullough, David, 248 McDonald’s, 243 McGhee, Dorothy, 376 McMafia (Glenny), 115 Madrid, 7–8, 34 Magic Planet, 176 Maine, 161 Malafante, Marco, 78, 82 Malawi, 218 Malaysia, 377–78 Malkovich, John, 73 Mall of Emirates, 167, 176 Malraux, André, 55–56, 59 Mam, Somaly, 117–18 Manaus, Brazil, 274 Mann, Thomas, 82 Manuel Antonio National Park, 261 Mao Zedong, 292, 297, 299, 300, 313, 330 Marchetti, Marco, 47, 70 Mardi Gras (cruise ship), 136, 137 Marina Bay Sands, 113, 369 marine life, threats to, 156 maritime transport industry: environmental standards for, 157–58 flags of convenience in, 139, 142, 256 pollution from, 156 Marriott, J. W. “Bill,” Jr., 44, 276, 359, 361 Marriott family, 367 Marriott International, 340, 380 Brazilian rainforest preserve of, 271, 274–76 carbon footprint of, 271, 276 Chinese hotels of, 313–14, 315, 322 Marshall Plan, 52–54 Martin, Esmond, 234–35 Masdar, UAE, 195 Masdar Initiative, 195 mass tourism: at Angkor temples, 91, 94–95, 98 dangers of, 47 in Venice, 75, 76–86 Matthews, Charlie, 63–64 Matthews, Kathleen, 270–71, 274 Maud’hui, Philippe, 47, 57, 66, 75 Mauriac, François, 62 Mavrogiannis, Anthony, 381–82 Maxa, Rudy, 32 Mayle, Peter, 72, 73 Mecca, Saudi Arabia, 181–85 media, see travel writers, travel writing medical tourism, 18–19, 348, 376–79 Medina, Saudi Arabia, 182 MediTour Expo, 377 Mérimée, Prosper, 56 Mexico, 116, 377 Meyer, Chris, 371–72, 374 Meyers, Arlen, 377, 378 Mfuwe Lodge, 211–12, 214, 219, 223, 225, 226–27, 240 Miami, Fla., 34 Miami Herald, 26, 27, 32 Miami News, 26 MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions) business, 18, 370–74 middle classes, as tourists, 10, 12 Middleton, Drew, 28 Minc, Alain, 71 mining: in Costa Rica, 258–59 in Zambia, 210, 228, 236 Mitterrand, François, 38 Mitterrand, Frédéric, 67 Mohammed, Prophet, 185, 190 Mohammed Al-Maktoum, Sheikh, 169, 172 Moi, Daniel arap, 221 Moller, Eric, 324–25 Moloka’i, Hawaii, 152 Mona Lisa (Leonardo), 39 Monet, Claude, 47–48, 70, 309 Monterey Bay, 161 Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, 253–54 Morella, Connie, 348–49, 353 Mosi-oa-Tunya National Park, 237 Motse Lodge, 240 Moulinier, Alain, 68 Mozambique, 208, 235, 238–39 M.
Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott
Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social software, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar
Some people in the blockchain ecosystem are making back-of-the-envelope calculations that become memes in the community. Estimates liken the bitcoin network’s energy consumption to the power used by nearly seven hundred average American homes at the low end of the spectrum and to the energy consumed by the island of Cyprus at the high end.11 That’s more than 4.409 billion kilowatt-hours,12 a Godzilla-sized carbon footprint, and it’s by design. It’s what secures the network and keeps nodes honest. In early 2015, The New Republic reported that the combined processing power of the bitcoin network was hundreds of times greater than the aggregate output of the world’s top five hundred supercomputers. “Processing and protecting the more than $3 billion worth of bitcoins in circulation requires more than $100 million in electricity each year, generating a volume of carbon emissions to match.”
BitFury, for example, has two data centers—one in Iceland and another in the country of Georgia—with plans for additional centers in North America, and it acquired the Hong Kong–based start-up Allied Control, which specializes in immersion cooling technology.21 And so BitFury is working to reduce the ecological impact of the bitcoin infrastructure. Even if these initiatives limit mining’s carbon footprint, we still have the rapid consumption and disposal of these continually upgraded devices. Miners who want to make a career of it must continually upgrade and specialize their systems. Most mining equipment has a useful life span of three to six months.22 Bob Tapscott likened firms such as BitFury to those Yukon shopkeepers during the great gold rush: they made their real fortune by selling better and better shovels to the miners.23 We found one miner’s description of his Cointerra TerraMiner IV bitcoin with an ASIC chip that was so energy intensive that his home’s electrical system couldn’t handle it.
How to Be Black by Baratunde Thurston
affirmative action, carbon footprint, Columbine, dark matter, desegregation, housing crisis, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, supply-chain management, the scientific method, transatlantic slave trade
She loved that car and wielded it almost as if it were a part of her body. By the time I graduated from high school, we had traveled from Nova Scotia, Canada, to Disney World in it. I can only recall one plane journey in my childhood, but we moved about by Amtrak train quite often. When I was twelve, we took a nearly three-week train trip around the entire United States and deep into Mexico. In many of the places we visited, we chose highly efficient, low-carbon-footprint accommodations, also known as “camping.” The Mexico part of that epic train journey was a trip itself. I met travel writers in Los Mochis, saw forest fires from our bus on the Mexican highway near the U.S.-Mexico border, and heard country music blasting out of a car stereo for the first time in my life. I didn’t know it was even possible to blast country music! I’m not sure I thought it wasn’t possible.
3D printing, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, big-box store, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, Elon Musk, Firefox, glass ceiling, greed is good, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, Ray Oldenburg, remote working, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, underbanked, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar
The most powerful source of purpose comes from this concept: purpose comes when we know we have done something that we believe matters—to others, to society, and to ourselves. From the small and mundane daily choices we make to systemic and historic impact, we strive to contribute to the well-being of the world around us. Societal purpose isn’t isolated to volunteering and philanthropy, or careers in education and social work. While these often spark feelings of purpose, we can also derive purpose through decisions about how we consume, from decreasing our carbon footprint to buying local produce at the farmers’ market. We can also discover meaning through our daily work, where we help the people on our teams and provide consumers with our products and services. Seventh Generation makes cleaning, baby and feminine personal care products that aim to be healthy and safe for the air, the surfaces, the fabrics, the pets, and the people within the home—and for the community and environment outside it.
Payback: Debt and the Shadow Side of Wealth by Margaret Atwood
All religious leaders have realized that their mandate includes helping to preserve the Almighty’s gift of the Earth and have condoned birth control; there are no more noisy, polluting gas-powered leaf blowers or lawn mowers; and global warming has been dealt with at a summit during which world leaders gave up paranoia, envy, rivalry, power-hunger, greed, and the debate over who should start cutting down the carbon footprint first, and rolled up their sleeves and got on with it. There is Scrooge himself, looking very fit in a hemp suit, signing several enormous cheques for conservation organizations: rain-forest stewardship, underwater marine parks, bird habitats. “In this future,” says the Spirit, “the albatross has been saved; largely — I must add — through your efforts. I ought to say also that a lot of these miraculous changes have been brought about by a Victory Bond drive, in which people lent to their governments to finance eco-repairs; and through microeconomics, like that already being practised by the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh, whereby mini-amounts are lent at fair interest rates to very poor people to help them start local, small-scale businesses; and also through massive and voluntary debt cancellations on the part of the rich nations, like those of the ancient Israelites, who decreed a jubilee year every fifty years in which all debts became void.”
Digital Barbarism: A Writer's Manifesto by Mark Helprin
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, computer age, crowdsourcing, hive mind, invention of writing, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, the scientific method, Yogi Berra
Macaulay’s claim is disproved only by the structure of the society in which he lived, and those throughout almost all the world at almost all times; by the actions and motives of aristocracy; by inheritance; by concern for the extension of one’s line; and by the millions who sacrificed their lives to build nations, protect tribes and ethnicities, accumulate wealth, and advance every conceivable cause and belief—all beyond the span of their natural lives. What of someone who reduces his “carbon footprint” in the belief that it will benefit people with no connection to him whatsoever, hundreds of years from now? How “faintly” is he “affected by the prospect of very distant advantages”? I cannot believe that because Macaulay had neither wife nor child he would be numb to mankind’s universal concern for future generations, especially one’s descendants, especially, if we are considering the term he disapproved, one’s own children and grandchildren.
Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, business continuity plan, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, iterative process, Maui Hawaii, Nicholas Carr, platform as a service, Silicon Valley, software as a service, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs
It was a good question, and I knew the answer, but instead of giving her some half-baked information on our recycling programs and initiatives we were considering, I decided to 161 BEHIND THE CLOUD encourage her to contribute her ideas. ‘‘I’m not sure,’’ I said. ‘‘You have six paid days to ﬁgure it out; I’ll support you.’’ I suggested that Sue speak with Suzanne, the foundation’s executive director. Not long after the meeting, Sue came back to me with a plan for saleforce.com to reduce its carbon footprint. These discussions began to take place around the time of the release of An Inconvenient Truth, the eye-opening ﬁlm that captures Al Gore’s crusade to halt global warming. Many people in our company rallied behind the cause. Although we were energized about the effort, we were hardly experts in this area. We searched for leaders in this ﬁeld and engaged respected organizations, including Clean Air-Cool Planet, NativeEnergy, and Conservation International, for guidance.
Bottled and Sold: The Story Behind Our Obsession with Bottled Water by Peter H. Gleick
As we become increasingly savvy consumers and learn more about the implications of our purchases for natural resources and the environment, new and complicated questions arise. Were those inexpensive running shoes made by child labor in bad working conditions? Was the cotton in my blue jeans grown organically and with efficient irrigation? Are the Central American coffee growers who provided the beans for my morning cup being fairly compensated? What is the carbon footprint of my daily commute? And what are the true costs of my convenient plastic water bottle—the costs of making the plastic bottle and shipping it to me as well as the environmental costs of disposing of the plastic garbage when I’m done drinking? Resources are required to make, package, transport, chill, use, and recycle bottled water and its packaging, including both energy and, ironically, water.
What's Mine Is Yours: How Collaborative Consumption Is Changing the Way We Live by Rachel Botsman, Roo Rogers
Airbnb, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bike sharing scheme, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, experimental economics, George Akerlof, global village, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, information retrieval, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, out of africa, Parkinson's law, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Simon Kuznets, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, South of Market, San Francisco, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, web of trust, women in the workforce, Zipcar
Chris Arkenberg, a regular blogger on technology and culture, wrote, “For the past 20 years, millions upon millions of CDs, DVDs, cases and printed inserts have been consuming resources, fixing materials into unrecoverable or ‘downcycled’ hard media and filling landfills. Apple has fundamentally rewritten this paradigm by dematerializing the content.”3 But the benefits of dematerialization are not just convenience and choice. A recent study conducted by Intel and Microsoft comparing the environmental impact of various forms of music delivery showed that purchasing music digitally on the Internet reduced the carbon footprint and energy usage associated with delivering music to consumers by 40 to 80 percent compared with buying a CD at a retail outlet.4 Another instance of unintended consequences: Most people’s reason for downloading music isn’t environmental friendliness; but nevertheless, downloading is environmentally friendly. The debate rages about whether the “digital way” is better or worse than what it is replacing, with critics pointing to serious implications in the areas of privacy, piracy, and property.
According to experts, these power suckers add 5 to 10 percent, or even more, to the typical electric bill. Unplug electrical leeches when they’re not in use, or for greater convenience attach multiple appliances to a single power strip (like my favorite, the Gem Sound SP-8500) that can easily be flipped on and off. Savings: A 10 percent savings on the average U.S. household electric bill would be more than $120 a year. This revelation kicked me in the butt like a giant carbon footprint one day when I saw a segment on a morning news show about “eco-friendly fashions.” The runway model was sporting a skimpy (and, yes, very sexy) dress. I was shocked to hear the price—nearly $900—but then it started to make sense. The dress, they said, was made out of hemp. Eyeing the runway model and mentally backing out what I estimated to be her 103.69 pounds of bulimic body weight, I figured you’d be left with the better part of a pound of hemp.
Discardia: More Life, Less Stuff by Dinah Sanders
Atul Gawande, big-box store, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwatching, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, credit crunch, endowment effect, Firefox, game design, Inbox Zero, income per capita, index card, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Kevin Kelly, late fees, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, Merlin Mann, side project, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand
Of all the things in that house, you would think that the chair would be most likely to be sitting in my home now, but it's not. That chair needs to rock babies to sleep. That chair needs to hold little children with their fingers in their mouths listening to fairy tales. I'd already decided years ago not to have kids, which was perhaps the most significant Discardian choice of my life for its impact on my carbon footprint as well as the space it’s created for other opportunities. Because of this decision, I knew the chair needed to be with someone else. I gave it to friends, who were pregnant with their first child, so that it could serve at least one more generation and create happy childhood memories. Perhaps if I'd taken the chair my memories would have become diluted. Maybe sometimes the most emotionally significant things need to be preserved in our hearts rather than in our homes.
23andMe, Andy Kessler, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, California gold rush, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, computer age, disintermediation, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, fiat currency, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, income inequality, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Netflix Prize, packet switching, personalized medicine, pets.com, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, social graph, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, transfer pricing, Yogi Berra
“These Fun Suckers are very interesting and they have been around forever and they are certainly not limited to any one political party or one political point of view. But they do gravitate towards politics and they are the people who come and tell you that everything you do is bad for you, bad for other people, insensitive, divisive, harms the climate, is unsustainable, it leaves too large a carbon footprint, it tangles things in the tuna nets that shouldn’t be tangled in them. Everything you do, wrong colored bathing suit destroys the manta ray population. Whatever. They’ve always got some reason to tell you what to do.” “Again and again.” I added. “Of course,” P.J. continued, “and if you really think about it, it’s just a form of bullying for weaklings. These are not the kind of people that got to do a lot of bullying on the school yard.
The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett
3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP
It’s the possibility of a tech-powered ‘great leap forward’ that excites transhumanists like Zoltan, who believes the possible benefits of near- and medium-term technology are too important to ignore. In addition to the personal goal of immortality, he believes synthetic biology could solve food shortages, genetic medicine may help cure diseases, bionic limbs already do transform the lives of disabled people. (Zoltan explains that, as a computer file, his carbon footprint would be greatly reduced.) They believe that connecting our brains to computer servers would dramatically increase human cognition and intelligence, which would help us solve the sort of problems we humans are likely to face in the future. For transhumanists, not to pursue every avenue to improve human capability is irrational, even a derogation of a duty to relieve suffering and improve well-being.
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, British Empire, carbon footprint, corporate governance, credit crunch, double entry bookkeeping, full employment, Gordon Gekko, income inequality, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Islamic Golden Age, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, Naomi Klein, Ponzi scheme, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile
In order for profits to be as high as possible, corporations keep costs as low as possible. The real costs of their business are higher than their stated costs—but they remain hidden. For example, Patel has estimated the real cost of a Big Mac to be US$200. The reason Big Macs sell for almost one-hundredth of this figure is that their drive-through price does not account for their real costs. These include their carbon footprint, their impact on the environment in terms of water use and soil degradation, and the enormous health costs of diet-related illnesses such as diabetes and heart disease. Traditional accounting models do not take these costs into account, but they still have to be paid. It is just that the McDonald’s Corporation does not pay them. So, who does pay? We do. Society as a whole pays, in the form of environmental disasters, climate-change-related migration and higher health costs.
Tomorrowland: Our Journey From Science Fiction to Science Fact by Steven Kotler
Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Burning Man, carbon footprint, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, Dean Kamen, epigenetics, gravity well, haute couture, interchangeable parts, Kevin Kelly, life extension, Louis Pasteur, North Sea oil, Oculus Rift, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, theory of mind, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
New York Times journalist and author of Power to Save the World: The Truth About Nuclear Power Gwyneth Cravens explains further: “If an American got all his or her lifetime electricity solely from nuclear power, that person’s share of waste would fit into one soda can. If an American got all his or her electricity from coal, that person’s waste would weigh 68.5 tons and fit into six 12-ton railroad cars. And their share of carbon dioxide coal emissions would come to 77 tons.” Nukes, meanwhile, have virtually no carbon footprint. Coal is also a serious pollutant, containing arsenic, mercury, lead, and a host of radioactive materials — uranium, thorium, and radium at levels 100 to 400 times the level of nuclear plants — yet remains exempt from hazardous-waste regulations. 24,000 people die coal-related deaths in the US each year. In China, it’s 400,000. “Worldwide,” says Cravens, “nuclear power is responsible for the fewest deaths of all large-scale energy production.”
Simple Rules: How to Thrive in a Complex World by Donald Sull, Kathleen M. Eisenhardt
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, Basel III, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, Checklist Manifesto, complexity theory, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, diversification, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, haute cuisine, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, Network effects, obamacare, Paul Graham, performance metric, price anchoring, RAND corporation, risk/return, Saturday Night Live, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Startup school, statistical model, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Wall-E, web application, Y Combinator, Zipcar
He had the company’s management team work as a group to answer three questions that are fundamental to any company’s ability to create economic value: Who will we target as customers? What product or service will we offer? How will we provide this product at a profit? Not all customers will be willing (or able) to pay a premium—many construction contracts, for example, go to the low-cost bidder regardless of the concrete’s quality or carbon footprint. Some customers, moreover, are costlier to serve than others—the cost of delivering concrete to remote locations with poor infrastructure is very high. The same logic applies to products. Not every product a company sells will command a premium price or be cheaper to make than competitors’ offerings. Equally important are the choices on who not to serve and what not to offer. In their quest to grow revenues, companies are constantly tempted to chase unattractive customers or sell unprofitable products.
The Fair Trade Scandal: Marketing Poverty to Benefit the Rich by Ndongo Sylla
British Empire, carbon footprint, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Doha Development Round, Food sovereignty, global value chain, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mont Pelerin Society, Naomi Klein, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus
‘Ethical label proliferation and competition cause concern’, article published on 3 December 2010 at: http://www.foodnavigator.com/Financial-Industry/Ethicallabel-proliferation-and-competition-cause-concern 8. Faced with this laissez-faire attitude, it is not surprising to notice some innovative initiatives such as ‘halal cosmetics’. Chapter 3 1. Drescher (1992), for instance, provides an excellent discussion on this point. 155 Sylla T02779 01 text 155 28/11/2013 13:04 the fair trade scandal 2. Drawing probably from the notion of ‘carbon footprint’, an American sustainable development organisation recently introduced a ‘slavery footprint’. This indicator shows for instance how many ‘men, women and children have to work’ in order for consumers of the North to easily access common consumption goods such as denim trousers, MP3 players, etc. For further details, see: http://slaveryfootprint. org 3. Schumpeter (2006 : 179–80) wrote: But no matter what he actually learned or failed to learn from predecessors, the fact is that the Wealth of Nations does not contain a single analytic idea, principle, or method that was entirely new in 1776 […].
Rethinking Money: How New Currencies Turn Scarcity Into Prosperity by Bernard Lietaer, Jacqui Dunne
3D printing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, business climate, business process, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, clockwork universe, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, conceptual framework, credit crunch, discounted cash flows, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, fiat currency, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, Marshall McLuhan, microcredit, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, Occupy movement, price stability, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, the payments system, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban decay, War on Poverty, working poor
What are the stories we would like them to tell their children and friends about something memorable they did growing up in that particular place?’ Suppose they could say, ‘We had a TimeBank or cooperative currency that helped veterans’ families and made sure that no third-grader went on to fourth grade without being at a third-grade reading level and having a buddy or mentor as 172 PROSPERITY they passed to fourth grade.’ Suppose it was a tree-planting campaign as a way of reducing the carbon footprint. Why not have a brainstorming session to create place-based memories? “Set up a TimeBank Rotating Loan Club wherever anyone who has a cause, a dream, a vision of what they would like to change or what they would like to see happen could get a time commitment of 90 days to make that happen. Like Rotating Loan Clubs, everyone would have a chance to do that: I’ll help with your cause for 90 days if you will help with mine.
An Edible History of Humanity by Tom Standage
agricultural Revolution, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, carbon footprint, Columbian Exchange, Corn Laws, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, financial innovation, food miles, Haber-Bosch Process, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Louis Pasteur, Mikhail Gorbachev, special economic zone, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce
Similarly, a study carried out at Lincoln University in New Zealand found that lamb produced in that country produced far less carbon dioxide (563 kilograms per metric ton of meat) than lamb produced in Britain (2,849 kilograms per metric ton). This is largely because there is more room for pasture in New Zealand, so the lambs eat grass, whereas British lambs are given feed, the production of which is carbon-intensive. Shipping New Zealand lamb to Britain then incurred further emissions of 125 kilograms per metric ton, so that the “carbon footprint” of New Zealand lamb was much smaller even when transport was taken into account. It may be that the least polluting way to organize food production would be for countries or regions to concentrate on producing foods that can be made particularly efficiently given the local conditions, and to trade the resulting foods with each other. Focusing on food’s transport-related emissions may also be picking the wrong target.
Cooking for Geeks by Jeff Potter
3D printing, A Pattern Language, carbon footprint, centre right, Community Supported Agriculture, crowdsourcing, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, fear of failure, food miles, hacker house, haute cuisine, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, iterative process, Parkinson's law, placebo effect, random walk, slashdot, stochastic process, the scientific method
These are great for breakfast or you can have them as a side dish or snack. Environmentally Sound Inputs First they say farm-raised salmon is better, then it’s wild salmon. Or the blogs light up with posts about how many metric tons of greenhouse gases or gallons of water are associated with producing an average cheeseburger. Then there’s the whole "local food" movement wanting to help with reducing our collective carbon footprint. What’s an environmentally conscious geek to do? It depends. How much are you willing to give up? Let’s start with the good news, with the greenest of the green: your veggies. Locally grown veggies combined with a minimum of transportation and sold unpackaged are about as good as you can get for the environment, and they’re about as good as you can get for yourself. Look for a farmers’ market in the summer (or if you’re lucky enough to live in California, year-round).
Regardless of anything else, your mother was right: eat your veggies. (On a personal note unrelated to the environment, I believe the typical American diet doesn’t include enough veggies. Eat more veggies! More!) In the other corner, there are red meats like corn-fed beef. It’s environmentally expensive to produce: the cow has to eat, and if fed corn (instead of grass), the corn has to be grown, harvested, and processed. All this results in a higher carbon footprint per pound of slaughtered meat than that of smaller animals like chickens. Then there’s the fuel expended in transportation, along with the environmental impact of the packaging. By some estimates, producing a pound of red meat creates, on average, four times the greenhouse-gas emissions as a pound of poultry or fish. See Weber and Matthews’ "Food-Miles and the Relative Climate Impacts of Food Choices in the United States" (http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/es702969f).
airport security, Albert Einstein, BRICs, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, Climategate, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fear of failure, income inequality, Joseph Schumpeter, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, new economy, nuclear winter, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, University of East Anglia
This is also a fine example of the power of markets to deliver. Another of Generation’s investments is in Ocado, a new supermarket model based in the United Kingdom. This is a potentially disruptive business that exemplifies what we discussed in chapters 11 and 12 about Schumpeter’s creative destruction. Based entirely online without any retail stores, Ocado claims their home delivery shopping service has a lower carbon footprint than walking to the supermarket! How’s that? Today’s “megamarts,” with so much retail display space, open refrigerators, and the like, have huge physical and environmental footprints. They are designed to encourage you to purchase more, not for operational efficiency. By basing their entire operation out of a centralized, automated warehouse, Ocado has completely eliminated this impact. Given that most people don’t walk to the supermarkets anyway because such stores tend to lie on the edge of town surrounded by huge parking lots, a single delivery van can take countless cars off the road.
affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, energy security, full employment, illegal immigration, immigration reform, low skilled workers, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, North Sea oil, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, World Values Survey
These include the Champions League (football), the Eurovision Song Contest, and perhaps even the Ryder Cup (golf). Discount airlines (like Dublin-based Ryanair) allow Europeans to travel cheaply to even small towns in each other’s countries. The motorway system, train networks, and bus service have become steadily integrated into a European grid. Europeans of all nations holiday with each other more often at the major resorts. With so much travel, there is now even an egalitarianism to the carbon footprints that Europeans are leaving. But as we have found in this book, national stereotypes, antipathies, phobias, rivalries, and biases still affect mutual attitudes and behavior in old and new Europe. As reprehensible as they may be, individual nations have constructed unofficial ethnic hierarchies. Xenophobic orientations are stronger in some countries than others. There is a fundamental difference between accusing foreigners of running an unhygienic pizza parlor and bombing their hostel.
Oil Panic and the Global Crisis: Predictions and Myths by Steven M. Gorelick
California gold rush, carbon footprint, energy security, energy transition, flex fuel, income per capita, invention of the telephone, meta analysis, meta-analysis, North Sea oil, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, price stability, profit motive, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, statistical model, Thomas Malthus
The growth of developing nations helped by inexpensive oil would not be an economic sacrifice to the US if the cost of using alternative fuels were competitive with the cost of oil. Unfortunately, the direct cost of current alternatives has been too high. What about reducing carbon emissions? The emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is a global problem that is immune to where the carbon is released. Suppose the US reduced its oil consumption and its national carbon footprint. Once again, if oil that is no longer demanded by the US is consumed by developing nations, their loading of carbon to the atmosphere would grow as America’s declined. To reduce global carbon emissions, all nations must participate; merely shifting emissions from one place to another would have no global benefit. It does not appear that developing nations like China and India will sacrifice economic growth to support a global community effort to move from oil to alternatives merely to produce less carbon dioxide.
The End of Growth: Adapting to Our New Economic Reality by Richard Heinberg
3D printing, agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Gini coefficient, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Kenneth Rogoff, late fees, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, naked short selling, Naomi Klein, Negawatt, new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, price stability, private military company, quantitative easing, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, short selling, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade liberalization, tulip mania, working poor
We are committed to doing this not just through education, but through action. Our printed, bound books are printed on Forest Stewardship Council-certified acid-free paper that is 100% post-consumer recycled (100% old growth forest-free), processed chlorine free, and printed with vegetable-based, low-VOC inks, with covers produced using FSC-certified stock. New Society also works to reduce its carbon footprint, and purchases carbon offsets based on an annual audit to ensure a carbon neutral footprint. For further information, or to browse our full list of books and purchase securely, visit our website at: www.newsociety.com Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication Heinberg, Richard The end of growth : adapting to our new economic reality / Richard Heinberg. ISBN 978-0-86571-695-7 1.
Stuff: Compulsive Hoarding and the Meaning of Things by Gail Steketee, Randy Frost
Affluenza—both the PBS show and the book—hit a nerve in American culture and prompted efforts to counteract this trend. The voluntary simplicity movement was born out of the concern that lives full of consumption were losing their meaning. The movement promotes a lifestyle minimizing consumption and emphasizing the enjoyment of life without a large number of possessions. It is consistent with the growing environmental movement to reduce each person's carbon footprint, or impact on the planet. Materialism produces a large footprint and fosters the tendency to replace perfectly good items with brand-new ones. Much of the stuff we collect is readily thrown away and replaced when a new model comes out or styles change. Many barely used items end up in landfills across the country. Based on the rate at which we are acquiring and disposing of possessions, the earth's natural resources will be exhausted within a few generations.
The Caryatids by Bruce Sterling
And it needed a cold-blooded ability to make firm choices among disgusting alternatives. George was a merchant and a fixer, never the kind of man she liked. Yet George, for all his countless demerits, had a definite rapport for ubiquitous systems. George had a positive genius for handling border delays, security compliances, fuel costs, detours on the planet’s weather-shattered roads and bridges, documentation hurdles, no-fly zones and confiscatory carbon-footprint taxes, port congestion, cargo security, regulations both in-state and offshore, liaisons with manufacturers, out-sized and overweight shipping modules … Boring things, dull things. Yet George could ship things to her, and that mattered. Bravery mattered much less. A brave woman could be “very brave” in a field hospital. She might hold the hand of a dying child while it coughed up blood. That moral act required a courage that left dents all over one’s soul, while, in the meantime, any tedious holdup in the flow of medical supplies could kill off entire populations, not tender children killed tragically in their ones and twos, but masses killed statistically in their hundreds and thousands.
Visit Sunny Chernobyl: And Other Adventures in the World's Most Polluted Places by Andrew Blackwell
carbon footprint, clean water, Google Earth, gravity well, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, place-making, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the scientific method, young professional
We emerged from our naps, the musicians among us climbed into the pickup truck, and we set out en masse for the closest town. It was a tiny village, modest to an extreme, a densely packed assemblage of brick and earthen houses. A buffalo or goat twitched on every other stoop. With its total absence of cars—and air-conditioners, and televisions, and electricity—the town must have represented the platonic ideal of small carbon footprint. But it was disorientingly poor. Not even a day’s drive away, I had seen Delhi’s cosmopolitan set sipping twelve-dollar cocktails in bars and lounges as chic as anything in Manhattan. Now we were here, on the other side of the planet, in a world fueled with patties of dried cow dung. The gulf—in culture, in economy, and above all, in class—was impossible to fathom. I’ll just say it. India.
The Skeptical Economist: Revealing the Ethics Inside Economics by Jonathan Aldred
airport security, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, clean water, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Diane Coyle, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, framing effect, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, invisible hand, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, libertarian paternalism, new economy, pension reform, positional goods, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, school choice, spectrum auction, trade liberalization, ultimatum game
First published by Earthscan in the UK and USA in 2009 Copyright © Dr Jonathan Aldred, 2009 All rights reserved ISBN: 978-1-84407-705-2 Typeset by FiSH Books Cover design by Rob Watts For a full list of publications please contact: Earthscan Dunstan House 14a St Cross St London, EC1N 8XA, UK Tel: +44 (0)20 7841 1930 Fax: +44 (0)20 7242 1474 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.earthscan.co.uk 22883 Quicksilver Drive, Sterling, VA 20166-2012, USA Earthscan publishes in association with the International Institute for Environment and Development A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Aldred, Jonathan, The skeptical economist: revealing the ethics inside economics/Jonathon Aldred p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-84407-705-2 (hardback) 1. Economics- Moral and ethical aspects, 2. Economics. I. Title. HB72.A345 2009 174-dc22 2008046911 At Earthscan we strive to minimize our environmental impacts and carbon footprint through reducing waste, recycling and offsetting our CO2 emissions, including those created through publication of this book. For more details of our environmental policy, see www.earthscan.co.uk. This book was printed in the UK by Cromwell Press. The paper used is FSC certified and the inks are vegetable based. Contents Acknowledgements The ideas in this book span a wide range of academic disciplines and I have benefited greatly from working in a multidisciplinary environment: Emmanuel College has been the site of many stimulating conversations which have helped develop my thinking.
The God Species: Saving the Planet in the Age of Humans by Mark Lynas
back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Haber-Bosch Process, ice-free Arctic, invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Negawatt, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, planetary scale, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, special drawing rights, Stewart Brand, University of East Anglia
Seven billion people is an incredible number, but standing shoulder to shoulder we would all comfortably fit within the city of Los Angeles.61 City living is seldom lauded by environmentalists, but it may be our most environmentally friendly trait as a species, because urban dwelling is vastly more efficient than living in the countryside. Shops and other services are more concentrated in town and city neighborhoods, and urban residents are much more likely to use public transportation, share heating and housing, and have lower carbon footprints than their rural brethren. But given the scale of global population growth, the challenge still seems daunting: the world will need to accommodate 2 billion more urban dwellers by 2030, a rate of expansion equivalent to building about 13 great cities (each with over 5 million inhabitants) per year, almost all in developing countries.62 But consider against this two pieces of good news. First the rate of population growth is declining, having fallen from 2.2 percent at its highest in the early 1960s to 1.2 percent today.63 UN projections for peak absolute population numbers keep being revised downward, and its “low variant” projection has now come down to just eight billion people by 2050.64 In some countries the population is already falling in absolute terms: In Russia the overall population has fallen from 148 million to 142 million since the 1990s.
The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs. Private Sector Myths by Mariana Mazzucato
Apple II, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, cleantech, computer age, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demand response, deskilling, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Financial Instability Hypothesis, full employment, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, incomplete markets, information retrieval, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, natural language processing, new economy, offshore financial centre, popular electronics, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
Global new investment in renewable energy (US$, billions) Source: Frankfurt School of Finance and Management (2012). Yet, failure of some governments to provide the ‘vision’ and to really ‘push’ clean technology is having an impact on the amount of investment occurring. Countries that pursue a ‘patchy’ policy towards clean technology will not stimulate enough investment to alter their ‘carbon footprints’, nor should they expect to host the clean technology leaders of the future. An example of a country going for a ‘big push’ is China; Germany is also a first mover among European countries. The US has shown contradictory trends, with the State making early and substantive investments in green technologies. By proceeding without a clear vision and goal in mind, however, and without a long-term commitment to several key technologies, the US has failed to significantly alter its energy mix.
4chan, Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, carbon footprint, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, George Akerlof, Gödel, Escher, Bach, high net worth, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, job automation, l'esprit de l'escalier, Loebner Prize, Menlo Park, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Skype, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
(New York: Springer, 2008). 9 Robert Epstein, “From Russia, with Love,” Scientific American Mind, October/November 2007. 10 97 percent of all email messages are spam: Darren Waters, citing a Microsoft security report, in “Spam Overwhelms E-Mail Messages,” BBC News, April 8, 2009, news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7988579.stm. 11 Say, Ireland: Ireland consumes 25,120,000 megawatt hours of electricity annually, according to the CIA’s World Factbook, www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2042rank.html. The processing of spam email consumes 33,000,000 megawatt hours annually worldwide, according to McAfee, Inc., and ICF International’s 2009 study, “The Carbon Footprint of Email Spam Report,” newsroom.mcafee.com/images/10039/carbonfootprint2009.pdf. 12 David Alan Grier, When Computers Were Human (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2005). 13 Daniel Gilbert, Stumbling on Happiness (New York: Knopf, 2006). 14 Michael Gazzaniga, Human: The Science Behind What Makes Us Unique (New York: Ecco, 2008). 15 Julian K. Finn, Tom Tregenza, and Mark D.
The Darwin Economy: Liberty, Competition, and the Common Good by Robert H. Frank
carbon footprint, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, clean water, congestion charging, corporate governance, deliberate practice, full employment, income inequality, invisible hand, Plutocrats, plutocrats, positional goods, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, sealed-bid auction, smart grid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, winner-take-all economy
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimated that a tax of $80/ton on carbon emissions would be needed by 2030 to achieve climate stability by 2100.5 A tax that high would raise the price of gasoline by $0.70 a gallon. This figure was determined, however, before the arrival of the more pessimistic MIT estimates. So let’s assume a tax of $300 a ton, just to be safe. Under such a tax, the prices of goods would rise in proportion to their carbon footprints—in the case of gasoline, for example, by roughly $2.60 a gallon. As we saw in 2008, a sudden price increase of that magnitude could indeed be painful. But if phased in gradually, it would cause much less harm. Facing steadily increasing fuel prices, for example, manufacturers would TAXING HARMFUL ACTIVITIES 181 scramble to develop more efficient vehicles. Many Europeans now pay $4 a gallon more for gas than Americans do.
The Ghost by Robert Harris
“In summer Marty likes to leave his office in Manhattan at four,” said Ruth, “and be on the beach by six.” “I suppose he has a private jet,” I said in an attempt at knowingness. “Of course he has a private jet.” She gave me a look that made me feel like a hick who’d just used his fish knife to butter his roll. Of course he has a private jet. You don’t own a thirty-million-dollar house and travel to it by bus. The man must have a carbon footprint the size of a yeti’s. I realized then that just about everybody the Langs knew these days had a private jet. Indeed, here came Lang himself, in a corporate Gulfstream, dropping out of the darkening sky and skimming in low over the gloomy pines. Jeff put his foot down and a minute later we pulled up outside the little terminal. There was a self-important cannonade of slamming doors as we piled inside—me, Ruth, Amelia, Jeff, and one of the protection officers.
Dear Fatty by Dawn French
Hope you did. Otherwise you might still be as dangerously murderous as I was. Any time you want to do synchronised slow walking, with fabulous hairdos and matching accessories, let me know! Dear Dad, I AM TRYING to book a holiday. It has to be one week long and in the UK somewhere. We haven’t got enough time to go abroad, and besides, I don’t really want to do that – I’m feeling a bit carbon-footprint guilty, plus I hate flying. Flying, for me, is utterly exhausting, for the simple reason that it is my duty (on behalf of all the passengers, I hasten to add) to keep the plane in the air by sheer force of my mind … If I lose concentration for even a minute, the massive metal crate will surely plummet earthwards and hundreds of tragic deaths would be on my conscience. Well, if we could find my conscience, which will definitely have been ripped backwards through my arsebum on impact.
Conscious Capitalism, With a New Preface by the Authors: Liberating the Heroic Spirit of Business by John Mackey, Rajendra Sisodia, Bill George
Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, business process, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, Flynn Effect, income per capita, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, lone genius, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, Occupy movement, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, shareholder value, six sigma, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, women in the workforce
Earlier than most large companies, Walmart realized that a strong business case can be made for taking measures to enhance environmental sustainability—measures that do not depend on government subsidies or other incentive programs. The company is using its vast scale and power to change not only its own practices, but also those of its suppliers and many of its competitors.16 Here are some of Walmart’s initiatives: Since 2005, it has reduced the carbon footprint of its stores by more than 10 percent and that of its truck fleet to a much greater degree. It has done so by installing energy-efficient lighting and refrigeration, using better fuel, streamlining its trucks, and planning better routes. The company has helped its suppliers in the United States and China reduce their carbon emissions and energy bills by 20 to 60 percent. A major initiative to reduce packaging has saved hundreds of millions of dollars in shipping and material costs.
The New Economics: A Bigger Picture by David Boyle, Andrew Simms
Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, delayed gratification, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, garden city movement, happiness index / gross national happiness, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, land reform, loss aversion, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, neoliberal agenda, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, peak oil, pensions crisis, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, working-age population
Christian Hunt, lead author of the Climate Safety report and Managing Director of Cheatneutral The New Economics The New Economics A Bigger Picture David Boyle and Andrew Simms London • Sterling, VA First published by Earthscan in the UK and USA in 2009 Copyright © New Economics Foundation, 2009 All rights reserved ISBN: 978-1-84407-675-8 Typeset by MapSet Ltd, Gateshead, UK Cover design by Rob Watts For a full list of publications please contact: Earthscan Dunstan House 14a St Cross Street London EC1N 8XA, UK Tel:+44 (0)20 7841 1930 Fax: +44 (0)20 7242 1474 Email: email@example.com Web: www.earthscan.co.uk 22883 Quicksilver Drive, Sterling, VA 20166-2012, USA Earthscan publishes in association with the International Institute for Environment and Development A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Boyle, David, 1958– The new economics : a bigger picture / David Boyle and Andrew Simms. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-84407-675-8 (hardback) 1. Economics–Psychological aspects. 2. Well-being. 3. Sustainable development. I. Simms, Andrew, 1865– II. Title. HB74.P8B65 2009 330–dc22 2009022798 At Earthscan we strive to minimize our environmental impacts and carbon footprint through reducing waste, recycling and offsetting our CO2 emissions, including those created through publication of this book. For more details of our environmental policy, see www.earthscan.co.uk. This book was printed in the UK by MPG Books, an ISO 14001 accredited company. The paper used is FSC certified. There is no wealth but life. John Ruskin, Unto This Last Contents Acknowledgements List of Acronyms and Abbreviations ix xi 1 The Economic Problem 1 2 No Wealth but Life: A Brief History of the New Economics 17 3 Measurement: Why Did an Apparently Poor Pacific Island Hit the Top of the Happy Planet Index?
The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity by Lynda Gratton, Andrew Scott
3D printing, Airbnb, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, diversification, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, Lyft, Network effects, New Economic Geography, pattern recognition, pension reform, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, women in the workforce, young professional
Technological innovations will enable people to be more flexible about where and when they work (and therefore choose to work at home, or virtually);7 to make matches more easily – for example, between people and jobs, or between people with similar interests (and therefore enable entry to the job market with more ease); to communicate with ease and at lower cost (and therefore work more in virtual or global teams); and to make some individual problems more collaborative (and therefore learn how to create large communities with similar skills and attitudes). It is possible that the idea of the ‘office’ will come to look ridiculously traditional and expensive. Indeed, when executives at Unilever measured where and when carbon dioxide was produced, they discovered that expecting people to commute into large, central offices created an extraordinarily large carbon footprint. This and other drivers will move more people to work from home, in local hubs or in shared community centres. In part this will be supported by lower-cost technologies such as holograms and virtual meetings. It will also become the norm, as managers become more skilled at managing virtual workers and more encouraging of home working. However the move to home-based virtual working will always be balanced by the value of proximity.
3D printing, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, Deng Xiaoping, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, glass ceiling, global supply chain, information retrieval, Internet of things, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, reshoring, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, Tesla Model S, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, Y2K
(Since germanium is a by-product, some of that other material includes other metals.)12 According to Halada, if you tally up the entire environmental influence of producing a kilogram of rare earth elements, it is roughly equivalent to the effect of producing 1 ton of iron. Despite such precise figures, Halada and fellow researchers concede that comparing the effects of different metals is subjective because some metals have low carbon footprints and higher localized effects, such as wastewater runoff or deforestation. However, assigning an amount of material needed to make a certain quantity of a metal provides perspective. On average, industrial products use a total of materials thirty times their own weight.13 But for green and high-tech goods such as phones, LCD displays, and their internal components, the factor can increase into the hundreds and more because high-tech products use many rare metals.
carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, Exxon Valdez, Filipino sailors, Google Earth, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, intermodal, Isaac Newton, means of production, microbiome, Panamax, post-Panamax, profit motive, Skype, statistical model, Thorstein Veblen, traveling salesman
In hard hats and life vests, they took up their positions beside the yellow bollards, waiting for deckhands to throw them the lines. As soon as the ship had tied up, customs agents came aboard, and as soon as they cleared me, I rushed down the gangway onto the deserted sodium-lit pier.30 Among containers stacked six high in rows, I wandered, searching for the exit. I’d had enough of seafaring. I was ready to fly—not sail, carbon footprint be damned—to the insular city of the Manhattoes and stay there a good long while. Ready to pend myself up in lath and plaster, tie myself to a counter, nail myself to a bench or clinch myself to a desk, so long as said pending, tying, nailing, or clinching came with decent health benefits and a retirement plan. Ready to circumambulate the city of a dreamy Sabbath afternoon in the company of my long-suffering wife and my paternally neglected son.
The Coke Machine: The Dirty Truth Behind the World's Favorite Soft Drink by Michael Blanding
carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, Exxon Valdez, Gordon Gekko, Internet Archive, laissez-faire capitalism, market design, Naomi Klein, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, Upton Sinclair
The following year, of course, BP was responsible for one of the worst environmental disasters in U.S. history when one of its deep sea oil rigs exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, discharging thousands of barrels of oil a day. After the incident, it was revealed, BP had lobbied against a simple safety measure that could have prevented the accident. Even when the environmental branding isn’t such obvious “greenwash ing,” it obscures one simple fact: Most of the initiatives companies have taken to increase efficiency and drive down their carbon footprints are also just good business. That’s certainly the case with Coke, whose efforts to reduce emissions, water use, and electricity, after all, also mean reducing costs. Asked to name anything the company is doing that is actually cost ing it money, Roselli hesitates. “Well, the hybrid trucks cost more,” he says. “It will take three years to recoup the money we spend on those.” Asked if any of the projects will cost the company money in the long run, he responds, “Well, the bottom line is the bottom line,” he says.
With a Little Help by Cory Doctorow
autonomous vehicles, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, death of newspapers, don't be evil, game design, Google Earth, high net worth, margin call, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Ponzi scheme, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, sensible shoes, skunkworks, Skype, traffic fines, traveling salesman, Turing test, urban planning, Y2K
A crowd of journalists were piled up on the security fence, telephotos and parabolic mics aimed at us. It meant we couldn't talk, couldn't make unhappy faces, even. It was the longest walk of my life. 2689 The air-conditioning in her yurt was barely on, setting a good and frugal example for the rest of us. 2690 "You don't see this," she said, as she cranked the AC wide open and then fiddled with the carbon-footprint reporting system, using her override so that the journos outside wouldn't be able to see just how much energy the Institute's esteemed director was burning. 2691 "I don't see it," I agreed, and made a mental note to show her a more subtle way of doing that, a way that wouldn't leave an audit trail. 2692 She opened the small fridge next to her office and brought out two corn-starch-foam buckets of beer and punctured each one at the top with a pen from her desk.
Googled: The End of the World as We Know It by Ken Auletta
23andMe, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bioinformatics, Burning Man, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, corporate social responsibility, death of newspapers, disintermediation, don't be evil, facts on the ground, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hypertext link, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, spectrum auction, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, telemarketer, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, X Prize, yield management
Before one dismisses these approaches as the gauzy thinking of left-wing populists, consider how often traditional companies now promote their own “corporate social responsibility”—in part to ecumenically emulate Andrew Carnegie, in part to bathe in the favorable publicity, in part to profit from some of these endeavors, and in part as a reaction against almost daily ethical business lapses. Companies like the Gap and Hallmark donate a portion of their profits to fight AIDS; Starbucks gave comprehensive health care to its employees, including part-timers. General Electric devised what it called an ecomagination strategy to address climate change and reap profits from it. WPP started issuing a Corporate Responsibility Report in 2002, and has promised to reduce its carbon footprint by 20 percent. One of America’s most powerful marketers, Jim Stengel, in late 2008 left his job as global marketing chief for Procter & Gamble to fund a private consulting venture to advise companies how to build trust in brands. His task, he said, is to create “emotional equity,” by which he means that consumers will believe the company cares not just about their dollars but about them. This is what P&G did with Pampers, consulting parents and designing diapers that felt more like cloth and kept babies warmer.
That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum
3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks
Young Americans like them can be found literally all over the world today. They obviously did not get the word and they are unabashedly optimistic that if something they strongly believe in is not happening, it is because they’re not doing it. Howe and Ringwald joined with Kartikeya Singh, who was then starting the Indian Youth Climate Network (IYCN) to connect young climate leaders in India, a country coming under increasing global pressure to manage its carbon footprint. “India is full of climate innovators, but they are so spread out across this huge country that many people don’t get to see that these solutions are working right now,” Howe explained. “We wanted to find a way to bring people together around existing solutions to inspire more action and more innovation. There’s no time left just to talk about the problem.” Howe and Ringwald thought the best way to do that might be a climate-solutions road tour, using modified electric cars from India’s Reva Electric Car Company, whose CEO Ringwald knew.
Corduroy Mansions: A Novel by Alexander McCall Smith
“But it hasn’t got a kitchen, Dad. You said so. No kitchen.” William took this in his stride. “It has a kitchen space, Eddie. People see past an actual kitchen these days. Didn’t you know that?” But Eddie was not to be moved. “It’s kind of you, Dad. I appreciate the offer, but I think it’s premature. I’m actually quite comfortable living at home. And it’s greener, isn’t it? Sharing. It makes our carbon footprint much smaller.” And so William found himself living with his twenty-four-year-old son. Wine dealer, he thought, would like his son to meet a lively woman with view to his moving in with her. Permanently. Any area. He turned away from the bathroom mirror and stooped down to run his morning bath. It was a Friday, which meant that he would open the business half an hour late, at ten-thirty rather than ten.
Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham
airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, McMansion, megacity, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight
This ‘transnational capitalist class’ now forms what Citigroup researchers have called ‘the dominant drivers of demand’ in many contemporary economies. They operate to skim the ‘cream off productivity surges and technology monopolies, then spend … their increasing shares of national wealth as fast as possible on luxury goods and services.’17 In the process, they generate enormous ecological and carbon footprints. Meanwhile, amid the turmoil of collapsing finance systems, ‘most of the world watches the great binge on television’.18 On the other hand, and not surprisngly, social inequalities are also rising rapidly within nations, regions and cities. Many economists would concur with Giovanni Andrea Cornia when he argues that ‘most of the recent surge in income polarization [within nations] would appear to be related to the policy drive towards domestic deregulation and external liberalization.’19 This has tended to concentrate wealth within social classes, corporations and locations that are capable of profiting from privatization and the extension of finance capital, while undermining wages, wealth and security for more marginalized people and places.
One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness
active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War
The latter activity is defended with a Charlton Heston-esque vigor that positions the steering wheel as the device from which americans will ultimately have their cold, dead hands pried loose—a scenario that has, unfortunately, been the grim reality for millions of U.S. drivers since the beginning of the twentieth century. instead of assertively grappling with one of the major ecological problems of the day, we are settling instead for a charade of a debate about transportation and environmentalism in which fuel efficiency and hybrid power are buzzwords in a new “green” lexicon: an obfuscating discourse that (once again) directs attention to a set of individualized solutions for a complex of cultural, political, and otherwise globally embedded problems. We speak of one’s carbon footprint, for example, as the indelible mark of environmental impact when it would be more accurate to talk about a city’s tire track, a nation’s skid mark, or a culture’s road rash. Within these narrow parameters, corporations and other “green” capitalists prove themselves adept at reframing and repackaging environmentalism not as a radical political movement or a struggle for social justice, but rather, a feel-good lifestyle for a new demographic of consumers who are supposed to be satiated by the eco-friendliness of new automotive interior fabrics, or somehow impressed by the “green” features of new hybrid SUvs—vehicles capable of achieving the futuristic efficiency of Ford’s 1908 Model-T (up to twenty-one miles per gallon).10 in the United States, where the longevity of automobility is firmly secured by the country’s populist support for passive environmental goals and free market capitalism, it is likely that an affordable electric car will make the illusion of never-ending automobility that much more tenable, just as critiques of driving will seem all the more grouchy and unfounded if oil ceases to become the issue. yet buried within the burgeoning love affair with the electric car— or at least the idea of the electric car—is a much dirtier love affair with the invisible protagonist of the impending electric car drama: coal.
Common Wealth: Economics for a Crowded Planet by Jeffrey Sachs
agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, Edward Glaeser, energy security, failed state, Gini coefficient, Haber-Bosch Process, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, low skilled workers, microcredit, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, Skype, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, unemployed young men, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population
To manage our carbon budget, we must have a good look at its precise components, and then home in on the areas that are most effectively controlled by human activity. The bad news about the carbon budget is that every one of us on the planet participates in the carbon cycle, by driving, using electricity produced by fossil fuels, eating food, using fuel wood, and a thousand and one other actions. It often seems too complicated to get one’s arms around, especially if each of us is to adjust our own carbon budget (or carbon footprint, as our carbon-related actions are sometimes called). Yet we can simplify the picture by realizing that the vast bulk of carbon emissions is due to a small number of activities. Table 4.1 provides a useful breakdown. Table 4.1: Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions in 2007 (in gigatons and percent of total) Source: Author’s estimates based on fossil fuel emission estimates for 2005 from International Energy Agency (2007), extrapolated to 2007 assuming that all categories increase by 2.3 percent per annum during 2005–7.
Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cloud computing, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, debt deflation, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, discovery of the americas, discrete time, diversification, double helix, Edward Glaeser, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, inflation targeting, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Pasteur, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price discrimination, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, railway mania, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, unpaid internship, value at risk, Washington Consensus, working poor, éminence grise
The rest of the world is confronting multiple challenges too. Growth must be progressively decarbonised to limit atmospheric concentrations of ‘CO2 equivalent’ to 450 parts per million, a level that is believed to be consistent with a global average temperature increase of about two degrees centigrade. During the 2010s the foundations will be laid of an economy and society that must burn fewer fossil fuels and generate a lower carbon footprint. A start must be made on transforming the civilisation that was built on the car, the suburb and cheap individual mobility. The world economy is beset by a massive imbalance between those who save – China and, to a lesser extent, Japan and Germany – and those who do not – notably the United States and Britain. But the savers can no longer rely on the non-savers to buy their goods for ever, because they are not large enough and they cannot assume the foreign debts.
ZeroMQ by Pieter Hintjens
anti-pattern, carbon footprint, cloud computing, Debian, distributed revision control, domain-specific language, factory automation, fault tolerance, fear of failure, finite state, Internet of things, iterative process, premature optimization, profit motive, pull request, revision control, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Skype, smart transportation, software patent, Steve Jobs, Valgrind, WebSocket
If you write a 10KB message, you will receive a 10KB message. It does not impose any format on messages. They are blobs of zero bytes to gigabytes large. When you want to represent data you choose some other product on top, such as Google’s protocol buffers, XDR, and others. It handles network errors intelligently. Sometimes it retries, sometimes it tells you an operation failed. It reduces your carbon footprint. Doing more with less CPU means your boxes use less power, and you can keep your old boxes in use for longer. Al Gore would love ØMQ. Actually, ØMQ does rather more than this. It has a subversive effect on how you develop network-capable applications. Superficially, it’s a socket-inspired API on which you do zmq_msg_recv() and zmq_msg_send(). But the message processing loop rapidly becomes the central loop, and your application soon breaks down into a set of message processing tasks.
Fire and Steam: A New History of the Railways in Britain by Christian Wolmar
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Beeching cuts, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, computer age, Corn Laws, cross-subsidies, financial independence, hiring and firing, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, railway mania, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, strikebreaker, union organizing, upwardly mobile, working poor, yield management
While trains are indeed more environmentally friendly than any other form of transport, their record in that respect has deteriorated in recent years as rolling stock has become heavier and consequently less fuel-efficient due to safety and disability legislation, as well as the routine fitting of air conditioning. In order to retain its environmental advantage, rail transport must improve its fuel efficiency. In particular, the electrification programme needs to be revived, as electricity can be generated from non-carbon sources such as nuclear, wind and hydro, which reduces the carbon footprint. Technological developments on the track, too, may be significant in improving performance. It is quite remarkable that the same basic method of constructing railways – using rails laid on sleepers resting on ballast – that was used on the Liverpool to Manchester railway, opened in 1830, was also used on High Speed One, completed in 2007. For passengers, train journeys could be made much easier by provision of better information and easier methods of paying fares.
Diet for a New America by John Robbins
We need to replace fossil fuels with solar, wind, geothermal, and other renewable and nonpolluting sources of energy. We need to create economic policies that take into account the ecosystem on which all economic life depends. We need to invest our genius and our resources less in making war and more in reforestation, soil conservation, education, and family planning. We need to halt the liquidation of the planet’s natural assets. We need to develop food systems with a lower carbon footprint that are more local and more organic. And while we’re doing these things, we need to heed the avalanche of studies telling us that shifting to a plant-strong diet is clearly one of the most effective things we can do if we want to protect the climate. Not surprisingly, the U.S. meat industry has tried to counter these studies and has protested that livestock production isn’t to blame for global warming.
How I Escaped My Certain Fate by Stewart Lee
Indeed, all responsibility for the collapse of the entire sixties, seventies and eighties counter-culture in Britain can probably be extrapolated from Fantasy Football and laid at the door of Baddiel and Skinner, who shared a flat, and presumably a door, at the time. Rob Newman subsequently recognised the monster he had helped to create, and tried to make amends for his crimes. By the end of the decade Newman had changed his name by deed poll to Robert Newman and retreated from the front line to became a humble aesthete, quietly trying to save the world with his thoughtful and moving live shows, and with a carbon footprint the size of an ant’s. But in contrast, today David Baddiel and Frank Skinner have massive luxury homes on the moon and their own private spacecraft made of gold and seal fur. The rest of us, who wanted Alternative Comedy to offer us merely the chance to subsist in an endless utopia of CND benefits and Women Only Cabaret Nights, have only shattered memories and shat-upon dreams. When I was fourteen, I had a massive poster on my wall of a giant pop-art mouth advertising a Swiss exhibition of abstract art.
Inside the Nudge Unit: How Small Changes Can Make a Big Difference by David Halpern
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, availability heuristic, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cognitive dissonance, collaborative consumption, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, endowment effect, happiness index / gross national happiness, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, libertarian paternalism, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, nudge unit, peer-to-peer lending, pension reform, presumed consent, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, the built environment, theory of mind, traffic fines, World Values Survey
Imagine instead that you could get access to this same data in machine-readable form, and much more quickly. If you had an allergy, you could feed this data into allergies.com, which could warn you to avoid the cookies you didn’t notice had peanuts. Similarly saveonyourshopping.com might figure out which supermarket would be best for your particular habits; and carbon.com might advise you of the carbon footprint of your basket. In short, enabling consumers to access their data in machine-readable form could give them access to a host of ‘choice engines’ that make the comparisons that their busy lives, and limited cognitive capacities, make too difficult. The midata clause did not immediately oblige all companies to comply. In technical terms, it was a piece of primary legislation that still required a Minister to secure secondary legislation if they wanted an industry or sector to comply.
Fool Me Twice: Fighting the Assault on Science in America by Shawn Lawrence Otto
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Berlin Wall, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cepheid variable, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, cosmological constant, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dean Kamen, desegregation, double helix, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fudge factor, ghettoisation, Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, informal economy, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, mutually assured destruction, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, sharing economy, smart grid, Solar eclipse in 1919, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, War on Poverty, white flight, Winter of Discontent, working poor
Imagine how wonderful it would be if you could get on a shiny new high-speed train in Chicago and visit your relatives in Madison without having to go to the airport, and all the hassle. What if we had a robust energy-supply system with a smart grid, so that someone with a bright idea about putting energy into the grid could hook up and make money on that. Think of the possibilities! All the ways we can make life better, easier, and cheaper by doing things that also happen to reduce our carbon footprint.” What climate scientists, politicians, economists, and engineers should be talking about is the problem and the concrete solutions: How do we plan communities and energy supply in ways that work better for people, that give them more choices—that increase their liberty. That is what science and America have always been about. There’s emerging evidence that this is a successful strategy.
England by David Else
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent
If you’re staying in one area for a while, renting self-catering accommodation is by far the most cost-effective option. Return to beginning of chapter TRAVELLING RESPONSIBLY Eco-initiatives have cropped up all over the country, from transition towns and green B&Bs to yurt campsites and even Britain’s first plastic bag–free town (Modbury in North Devon). While there’s still a way to go, it’s perfectly possible to travel around the country while keeping your carbon footprint to a minimum. In a country as tiny as England there’s no need to fly anywhere (using trains and buses is much greener, despite the challenges of timetables and pricey fares). There’s also no need for a car in the main cities, although public transport is admittedly patchier in more rural areas. Cycling is worth considering (especially in the flatter and more pedal-friendly counties of the southeast); a huge investment in the Sustrans (www.sustrans.co.uk) cycle network has recently been announced, promising a great expansion in England’s bike lanes over the next few years.
Looking like a cross between a Venetian vaporetto and an English houseboat, complete with cushioned saloons and polished wood seats, it’s a stately way of seeing the lake, especially if you’re visiting Brantwood Click here. She makes five trips daily from mid-March to October. And you don’t need to fret about carbon emissions from the Gondola’s steam-plume; she’s switched from mucky coal to ecofriendly waste-wood logs, cutting her carbon footprint by 90%. Not to be outdone by the Gondola, the two Coniston Launches ( 015394-36216; www.conistonlaunch.co.uk) were converted to run on solar panels in 2005, making them just about the greenest ferries in England. The Northern route (adult/three to16 years return £6.20/3.10) calls at the Waterhead Hotel, Torver and Brantwood, while the Southern route (adult/three to 16 years return £8.60/4.80) sails to the jetties at Torver, Water Park, Lake Bank, Sunny Bank and Brantwood via Peel Island.
At any time of year, if you’re walking on the hills or open moors, it’s vital to be well equipped. You should carry warm and waterproof clothing (even in summer), a map and compass (that you know how to use), some drink, food and high-energy stuff such as chocolate. If you’re really going off the beaten track, leave details of your route with someone. Cycling Cycling is a cheap and enjoyable way of getting around, with a tiny carbon footprint. Legally, you can cycle on any public road except motorways, although main roads (A-roads) can be busy and should also be avoided. Many B-roads suffer heavy motor traffic too, so the best places for cycling are the small C-roads and unclassified roads (lanes) that cover rural England, where you can tour through quiet countryside relatively untroubled by infernal combustion engines. Away from the roads, cycling is not allowed on footpaths, but mountain bikers can ride on bridleways (also called bridlepaths, originally for horses but now for bikes too), byways and other tracks as long as they’re a right of way path.
Frommer's Los Angeles 2010 by Matthew Richard Poole
AltaVista, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, Haight Ashbury, Maui Hawaii, Saturday Night Live, sustainable-tourism, upwardly mobile
Before you commit to a v olunteer pr ogram, it ’s impor tant to make sure any money y ou’re giving is tr uly P L A N N I N G YO U R T R I P TO LO S A N G E L E S • Raise sensitivity to host countries’ political, environmental, and social climates. • Support international human rights and labor agreements. You can find some eco-friendly trav el tips and statistics, as w ell as touring companies and associations—listed by destination under “ Travel Choice”—at the TIES website, www.ecotourism.org. Greater Los Angeles is the smoggiest region of the U.S. S o if y ou’re concerned about size of your carbon footprint during your vacation to L.A., the single best effort you can make is to use L.A.’s public transportation system (see “By Public Transportation” in “G etting There & G etting Around,” p. 36). G ranted, it’s an inferior and often a frustrating experience for anyone who ’s used to getting ar ound via public transpor t in NY C, London, or Paris, but it’s slowly getting better. A more realistic alternative is to r ent a hybrid car (such as a Toyota P rius).
23andMe, airport security, Albert Einstein, Black Swan, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, Dean Kamen, game design, Gary Taubes, index card, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, microbiome, p-value, Parkinson's law, Paul Buchheit, placebo effect, Productivity paradox, publish or perish, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Thorstein Veblen, wage slave, William of Occam
It’s also where we’ll look at the dangers of PPBDs and my conclusions. TOOLS AND TRICKS None! You’ll need to read the next chapter to get those. End of Chapter Notes 12. This assumes the plants are not coming primarily from monocrops like soy, wheat, and corn. I believe that industrial production of annual grains has done as much damage to the environment as factory farms, based on habitat destruction (and therefore species eradication) and carbon footprint data. 13. How do you make vegetarians smarter? Have them take creatine. In one double-blind placebo- controlled study (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1691485/?tool=pmcenrez), 45 young-adult vegetarians were given 5 grams of creatine daily for 6 weeks, and the researchers concluded that “Creatine supplementation had a significant positive effect (p<0.0001) on both working memory (backward digit span) and intelligence (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices).” 2 grams per day did not replicate these results in separate studies.
agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, planetary scale, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey
While these sunrise energies still account for a small percentage of the global energy mix, they are growing rapidly as governments mandate targets and benchmarks for their widespread introduction into the market and their falling costs make them increasingly competitive. Billions of dollars of public and private capital are pouring into research, development, and market penetration, as businesses and homeowners seek to reduce their carbon footprint and become more energy efficient and independent. Although renewable energy is found everywhere and new technologies are allowing us to harness it more cheaply and efficiently, we need infrastructure to load it. This is where the building industry steps to the fore, to lay down the second pillar of the Third Industrial Revolution. As stated earlier, buildings are the major contributor to human-i nduced global warming and consume 30 to 40 percent of all the energy produced and are responsible for equal percentages of all CO2 emissions.
Bali & Lombok Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
active transport: walking or cycling, Airbnb, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, first-past-the-post, global village, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Skype, spice trade, sustainable-tourism
The altitude at which aircraft emit gases (including CO2) and particles also contributes to their climate change impact. Many websites offer ‘carbon calculators’ that allow people to estimate the carbon emissions generated by their journey and, for those who wish to do so, to offset the impact of the greenhouse gases emitted with contributions to portfolios of climate-friendly initiatives throughout the world. Lonely Planet offsets the carbon footprint of all staff and author travel. Air Although Jakarta, the national capital, is the gateway airport to Indonesia, there are also many direct international flights to Bali and a few to Lombok. Airports & Airlines Bali Airport The only airport in Bali, Ngurah Rai International Airport (DPS), is just south of Kuta. It is sometimes referred to internationally as Denpasar or on some internet flight-booking sites as Bali.
France (Lonely Planet, 8th Edition) by Nicola Williams
active transport: walking or cycling, back-to-the-land, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information trail, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Murano, Venice glass, pension reform, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket
Lille is an ideal place to sample Flemish architecture, cuisine and beer. More regional flavour is on offer in Arras, whose Flemish-style squares are unique in France. Amiens, not far from the battlefields of the Somme and a number of moving WWI memorials, boasts a magnificent Gothic cathedral. If you snag a promotional fare on the Eurostar, the region is a superb, reasonably priced weekend getaway from London – with a much smaller carbon footprint than flying. The most picturesque of the trans-Channel ports is Boulogne-sur-Mer. Dunkirk (Dunkerque), on the other hand, is so uncomely – much of the city was rebuilt after WWII – that you actually feel sorry for the locals, though there are still a few attractions. Although Calais has worthwhile museums and restaurants, not to mention The Burghers (see the boxed text), most see it only through the window of an accelerating train, boat or car.
Special last-minute offers are posted on the Air France website every Wednesday. Budget carriers offering flights within France include easyJet (www.easyjet.com), Airlinair (www.airlinair.com) and Twin Jet (www.twinjet.net). Any French travel agency can make air bookings and supply details on fare options. France’s vaunted TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse, ie High-Speed Train) network, which has a minimal carbon footprint because it’s powered by nuclear-generated electricity, has made rail travel between some cities (eg from Paris to Lyon and Marseille) faster and easier than flying. Return to beginning of chapter BICYCLE France is generally a great place to cycle. Not only is much of the countryside drop-dead gorgeous but it has a growing number of urban and rural pistes cyclables (bike paths and lanes), some linking one town to the next, and an extensive network of secondary and tertiary roads with relatively light traffic.
Lonely Planet France by Lonely Planet Publications
banking crisis, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, Murano, Venice glass, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket
And in the Somme, although WWI has been over for almost a century, the British, Canadians and Australians who perished in the trenches of the Western Front have not been forgotten. The moving memorials and cemeteries marking the front lines of 1916 remain places of pilgrimage and reflection. If you snag a promotional fare on the Eurostar, Lille, Flanders and the Somme make for a superb short trip from London – with a much smaller carbon footprint than flying. When to Go Feb & Mar Pre-Lenten carnivals bring out marching bands and costumed revellers . 1 Jul Remembrance ceremonies at Thiepval on the anniversary of the Battle of the Somme. Sep (1st weekend) The world’s largest flea market, the Braderie, takes over Lille. Best Places to Eat » Het Kasteelhof ( Click here ) » Chez la Vieille ( Click here ) » Histoire Ancienne ( Click here ) Best Places to Stay » L’Hermitage Gantois ( Click here ) » Grand Hôtel de l’Univers ( Click here ) » Maison St-Vaast ( Click here ) Lille, Flanders & the Somme Highlights Stroll around the chic and photogenic centre of Lille (Click here ) and explore the city’s trio of superb art museums Marvel at Amiens’ breathtaking Gothic cathedral ( Click here ) both inside and out Ramble along the spectacular, windswept Côte d’Opale ( Click here ), facing the white cliffs of Dover Be among the first to visit the brand-new Louvre-Lens museum (Click here ) in Lens Enjoy a hefty dose of Flemish culture and tour a working windmill in the pretty hilltop town of Cassel ( Click here ) Join the bustle of the Saturday market (Click here ) in Arras’ gorgeous Flemish-style Place des Héros Watch clacking machinery turn thread into lace at Cité Internationale de la Dentelle et de la Mode (Click here ) in Calais Ponder the sacrifices and horror of WWI at Vimy ( Click here ) History & Geography In the Middle Ages the Nord département (the sliver of France along the Belgian border; www.cdt-nord.fr), together with much of Belgium and part of the Netherlands, belonged to a feudal principality known as Flanders (Flandre or Flandres in French, Vlaanderen in Flemish).
The altitude at which aircraft emit gases (including CO2) and particles also contributes to their climate change impact. Many websites offer ‘carbon calculators’ that allow people to estimate the carbon emissions generated by their journey and, for those who wish to do so, to offset the impact of the greenhouse gases emitted with contributions to portfolios of climate-friendly initiatives throughout the world. Lonely Planet offsets the carbon footprint of all staff and author travel. Bicycle France is great for cycling. Much of the countryside is drop-dead gorgeous and the country has a growing number of urban and rural pistes cyclables (bike paths and lanes; see Voies Vertes (www.voievertes.com) and an extensive network of secondary and tertiary roads with relatively light traffic. French law requires that bicycles must have two functioning brakes, a bell, a red reflector on the back and yellow reflectors on the pedals.
Lonely Planet China (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Shawn Low
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bike sharing scheme, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, indoor plumbing, land reform, place-making, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, young professional
The ground floor has a ping pong table, a pool table and wi-fi, all of which are free to use, and there’s a fine rooftop bar-restaurant with outdoor seating. Bicycles can also be rented here. Down an alley off Jiaozhou Rd oUrbnBOUTIQUE HOTEL ( MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %5153 4600; www.urbnhotels.com; 183 Jiaozhou Rd; r from ¥1500; a; mChangping Rd) China’s first carbon-neutral hotel not only incorporates recyclable materials and low-energy products where possible, it also calculates its complete carbon footprint – including staff commutes and delivery journeys – and off-sets it by donating money to environmentally friendly projects. Open-plan rooms are beautifully designed with low furniture and sunken living areas exuding space. PuliLUXURY HOTEL (Puli Jiudian MAP GOOGLE MAP ; %3203 9999; www.thepuli.com; 1 Changde Rd; d from ¥3880; aWs; mJing’an Temple) With open-space rooms divided by hanging silk screens and an understated beige-and-mahogany colour scheme accentuated by the beauty of a few well-placed orchids, the Puli is an exquisite choice.
The altitude at which aircraft emit gases (including CO2) and particles also contributes to their climate change impact. Many websites offer ‘carbon calculators’ that allow people to estimate the carbon emissions generated by their journey and, for those who wish to do so, to offset the impact of the greenhouse gases emitted with contributions to portfolios of climate-friendly initiatives throughout the world. Lonely Planet offsets the carbon footprint of all staff and author travel. Air Airports Hong Kong, Beijing and Shanghai are China’s principal international air gateways; Baiyun International Airport in Guangzhou is of lesser, but growing, importance. Baiyun International AirportAIRPORT (CAN; Baiyun Guoji Jichang %020-3606 6999; www.baiyunairport.com) In Guangzhou; receiving an increasing number of international flights.
Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, distributed generation, diversification, diversified portfolio, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial intermediation, full employment, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, high net worth, Honoré de Balzac, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, index card, inflation targeting, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, market bubble, means of production, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, pension reform, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, refrigerator car, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, very high income, We are the 99%
Note, however, that if the rate of population growth observed from 1700 to 2012—0.8 percent per year—were to continue for the next three centuries, the world’s population would be on the order of 70 billion in 2300. To be sure, this cannot be ruled out: childbearing behavior could change, or technological advances might allow growth with much less pollution than is possible to imagine now, with output consisting of new, almost entirely nonmaterial goods and services produced with renewable energy sources exhibiting a negligible carbon footprint. At this point, however, it is hardly an exaggeration to say that a world population of 70 billion seems neither especially plausible nor particularly desirable. The most likely hypothesis is that the global population growth rate over the next several centuries will be significantly less than 0.8 percent. The official prediction of 0.1–0.2 percent per year over the very long run seems rather plausible a priori.
Lonely Planet Morocco (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Paul Clammer, Paula Hardy
air freight, Airbnb, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, illegal immigration, place-making, Skype, spice trade, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional
The altitude at which aircraft emit gases (including CO2) and particles also contributes to their climate change impact. Many websites offer 'carbon calculators' that allow people to estimate the carbon emissions generated by their journey and, for those who wish to do so, to off set the impact of the greenhouse gases emitted with contributions to portfolios of climate-friendly initiatives throughout the world. Lonely Planet off sets the carbon footprint of all staff and author travel. Bus The cheapest and most efficient way to travel around the country, buses are generally safe, although their drivers sometimes leave a little to be desired. Bus stations Some Moroccan bus stations are like madhouses, with touts running around calling any number of destinations of buses about to depart. Most cities and towns have a single central bus station (gare routière), but Supratours and CTM sometimes maintain separate terminals, and often have offices outside the station.
Great Britain by David Else, Fionn Davenport
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Beeching cuts, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Attenborough, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent
Some of the best guidebooks to individual national trails are produced by Trailblazer (www.trailblazer-guides.com) and Cicerone (www.cicerone.co.uk). For more information on other long walks in Britain see www.ramblers.org.uk. Return to beginning of chapter CYCLING A bike is the perfect transport for exploring back-road Britain; it’s a cheap and enjoyable way of getting around, with a tiny carbon footprint. And thanks to the success of Britain’s cyclists at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, cycling is enjoying a surge in popularity – even if it means pottering along country lanes rather than hammering round a velodrome. If you prefer cycle-touring, Britain boats a vast network of quiet roads leading through farmland, moorland and peaceful villages, while off-road riders can go further into the wilds on the many tracks and bridleways that cross the country
Southeast Asia on a Shoestring Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
active transport: walking or cycling, airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwatching, colonial rule, Google Earth, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, large denomination, low cost carrier, Mason jar, megacity, Skype, South China Sea, spice trade, superstar cities, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
The altitude at which aircraft emit gases (including CO2) and particles also contributes to their climate change impact. Many websites offer ‘carbon calculators’ that allow people to estimate the carbon emissions generated by their journey and, for those who wish to do so, to offset the impact of the greenhouse gases emitted with contributions to portfolios of climate-friendly initiatives throughout the world. Lonely Planet offsets the carbon footprint of all staff and author travel. * * * Air Air travel can be a bargain within the region, especially from transit hubs such as Bangkok, Singapore and Kuala Lumpur. No-frills regional carriers have made travelling between capital cities cheaper than taking land transport in some cases. Air routes between Southeast Asian countries are listed in the Getting There & Away sections of each country chapter.