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Starbucked: A Double Tall Tale of Caffeine, Commerce, and Culture by Taylor Clark
Berlin Wall, commoditize, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, deskilling, Edmond Halley, fear of failure, Honoré de Balzac, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, McJob, McMansion, Naomi Klein, Ray Oldenburg, Ronald Reagan, The Great Good Place, trade route
When Harry Roberts found himself struggling to put the communal appeal of Starbucks into words, he shared his trouble with his wife, who soon stumbled across the solution in a bookstore: an out-of-print book called The Great Good Place, by a sociology professor named Ray Oldenburg. In his book, Oldenburg describes America’s need for the neutral, safe, public gathering spots that had gradually disappeared; he calls this nexus the “third place,” with home and work being places one and two. His words were eerily prescient — he even pointed out that third places generally revolve around beverages, like with tea-houses and pubs. As Schultz might have said, the synergy was too good to be true. The company now had its philanthropic rallying cry: it wasn’t a coffee company, but a third place bringing people together through the social glue of coffee. And who could disagree? Well, Ray Oldenburg, for one. Now retired, Oldenburg is grateful for the renewed attention that Starbucks brought to his third-place idea, but he remains displeased that the company co-opted his concept.
A sparkling Starbucks store can also make a historically bleak place seem that much more livable — to the point where real estate agents in Hyde Park, on Chicago’s South Side, include the distance to a new Starbucks in their home listings. Arthur Rubinfeld boasted to me of having received stacks of letters from thankful homeowners who credit a nearby Starbucks with boosting long-stagnant property values. Even Ray Oldenburg, the father of the “third place” idea who later refused to endorse the chain, offered surprising praise for Starbucks’s ability to help revitalize a depressed town. “To their credit, they brought Naperville [Illinois] back to life single-handedly, and now it’s one of the five most livable cities in the country,” he said. One might ask if the company is really causing all of this, or if Starbucks is just smart enough to piggyback onto a community at the right time.
Naylor, Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic (San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler, 2005); Robert D. Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000); David Brooks, Bobos in Paradise: The New Upper Class and How They Got There (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000); Juliet B. Schor, The Overspent American: Why We Want What We Don’t Need (New York: HarperPerennial, 1998); and Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place: Cafés, Coffee Shops, Bookstores, Bars, Hair Salons, and Other Hangouts at the Heart of a Community (New York: Marlowe, 1999). Page 75. The Staffan Linder information comes from de Graaf, Wann, and Naylor, Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic. Page 76. Terry Lefton, “Schultz’s Caffeinated Crusade,” Brandweek, July 5, 1999. Page 77. My source for the oft-repeated Polgar quotation was Paul Hofmann, “Savoring the World, Cup by Cup,” New York Times, January 29, 1995.
Because Internet: Understanding the New Rules of Language by Gretchen McCulloch
4chan, book scanning, British Empire, citation needed, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Flynn Effect, Google Hangouts, Internet Archive, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, moral panic, multicultural london english, natural language processing, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Great Good Place, upwardly mobile, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
“Bringing Mobiles into the Conversation: Applying a Conversation Analytic Approach to the Study of Mobiles in Co-Present Interaction.” In Deborah Tannen and Anna Marie Trester, eds., Discourse 2.0: Language and New Media. Georgetown University Press. pp. 119–132. idea of a third place: Matthew Dollinger. June 11, 2008. “Starbucks, ‘The Third Place,’ and Creating the Ultimate Customer Experience.” Fast Company. www.fastcompany.com/887990/starbucks-third-place-and-creating-ultimate-customer-experience. What Ray Oldenburg: Ray Oldenburg. 1989. The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts, and How They Get You Through the Day. Paragon House. Examples include pubs: Leo W. Jeffres, Cheryl C. Bracken, Guowei Jian, and Mary F. Casey. 2009. “The Impact of Third Places on Community Quality of Life.” Applied Research in the Quality of Life 4(4). pp. 333–345.
It was the promise that somewhere out in the world, you could find other people who matched your unique weirdnesses, or at least understood your niche passions. But to send someone a message, you need to find them first, and for that, you need some sort of shared space that several people can drop in on. The idea of a third place is often invoked to explain the appeal of Starbucks: the first place is home, the second place is work, but people also need a third place to socialize that’s neither home nor work, like a coffeeshop. What Ray Oldenburg, the sociologist who coined the term in a 1989 book called The Great Good Place, had in mind was something more specific than just any convenient spot where you might stop by for a cup of joe. Oldenburg’s third places are first of all social centers, distinguished by an emphasis on conversation and playfulness, regular attendees who set the tone for newcomers, the freedom to come and go as you please, a lack of formal membership requirements, and a warm, unpretentious feeling of home away from home.
a new format for posts: Robinson Meyer. August 3, 2016. “Why Instagram ‘Borrowed’ Stories from Snapchat.” The Atlantic. www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/08/cameras-with-constraints/494291/. Ian Bogost. May 3, 2018. “Why ‘Stories’ Took Over Your Smartphone.” The Atlantic. www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2018/05/smartphone-stories-snapchat-instagram-facebook/559517/. “Third place conversation”: Ray Oldenburg. 1989. The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts, and How They Get You Through the Day. Paragon House. Popular email lists: (No author cited.) January 7, 2000. “Mailing List History.” Living Internet. www.livinginternet.com/l/li.htm. later technology such as: Lori Kendall. 2002. Hanging Out in the Virtual Pub: Masculinities and Relationships Online.
Palaces for the People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life by Eric Klinenberg
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, assortative mating, basic income, big-box store, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Filter Bubble, ghettoisation, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, universal basic income, urban planning, young professional
Community organizations, including churches and civic associations, act as social infrastructures when they have an established physical space where people can assemble, as do regularly scheduled markets for food, furniture, clothing, art, and other consumer goods. Commercial establishments can also be important parts of the social infrastructure, particularly when they operate as what the sociologist Ray Oldenburg called “third spaces,” places (like cafés, diners, barbershops, and bookstores) where people are welcome to congregate and linger regardless of what they’ve purchased. Entrepreneurs typically start these kinds of businesses because they want to generate income. But in the process, as close observers of the city such as Jane Jacobs and the Yale ethnographer Elijah Anderson have discovered, they help produce the material foundations for social life.
Some studies show an increase, likely because new commercial development creates new targets and opportunities for crime, while others show a decrease, often attributed to more eyes on the street. The variation suggests that gentrification plays out differently depending on the local context, and also that groups are likely to be affected by gentrification in divergent ways. In all neighborhoods, though, commercial establishments are important parts of the social infrastructure. As Jane Jacobs and Ray Oldenburg famously argued, grocery stores, diners, cafés, bookstores, and barbershops draw people out of their homes and into the streets and sidewalks, where they create cultural vitality and contribute to the passive surveillance of shared public space. When I did research in Chicago, I discovered that poor neighborhoods with active retail corridors were surprisingly resilient during the devastating heat wave, because people who lived in them could easily go out and get air-conditioning or support from neighbors.
quickly return to their private lives: Mario Small, Unanticipated Gains: Origins of Network Inequality in Everyday Life (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009). largest and most heterogeneous public space: Stéphane Tonnelat and William Kornblum, International Express: New Yorkers on the 7 Train (New York: Columbia University Press, 2017). “participator rather than spectator”: MassObservation, The Pub and the People (1943; repr., London: Cresset Library, 1987), 17. people in public can feel like they’re at home: Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place: Cafés, Coffee Shops, Bookstores, Bars, Hair Salons and Other Hangouts at the Heart of a Community (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 1989). the air that pedestrians breathe a little cleaner: See Vanessa Quirk, “The 4 Coolest ‘High Line’ Inspired Projects,” ArchDaily, July 16, 2012, https://www.archdaily.com/254447/the-4-coolest-high-line-inspired-projects. an unrelated concern: Several recent books champion infrastructure investment, including Rosabeth Moss Kanter’s Move: How to Rebuild and Reinvent America’s Infrastructure (New York: W.
The Coffee Book: Anatomy of an Industry From Crop to the Last Drop by Gregory Dicum, Nina Luttinger
California gold rush, clean water, corporate social responsibility, cuban missile crisis, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, European colonialism, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, open economy, price stability, Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place
As teenagers, they had no safe place to hang out except shopping malls. Now that they are older, some find that bars are too noisy and raucous and threatening for companionship. So they hang out in cafés and coffee bars. The music is quiet enough to allow conversation. The places are well-lit. No one is carded, and no one is drunk.4 Schultz makes much of the “Third Place,” a term coined by the sociologist Ray Oldenburg to describe the non-home, non-work environment that had once been the forum for public life but that had almost disappeared under the postwar regime of highly regimented schedules, commuter life, and television. This had clearly been the role of the old coffeehouses in Europe and had been present in America in the form of neighborhood gathering places such as bars and coffee shops. Disintegration of these spaces under the postwar regime was responsible, argues Oldenburg, for the anomie rampant in modern industrial civilization.
Slywotzky and Kevin Mundt, “Hold the Sugar; Starbucks Corp.’s Business Success,” Across the Board, September 1996, 39. 2 Specialty Coffee Association of America and National Coffee Association, personal interviews, October 2005. 3 Information Resources, Inc., 2004. 4 Howard Schultz and Dori Jones Yang, Pour Your Heart into It: How Starbucks Built a Company One Cup at a Time (New York: Hyperion, 1997), 120–21. 5 Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place (New York: Paragon House, 1989), 296. 6 Faith Popcorn, The Popcorn Report (New York: HarperBusiness, 1992), 39–40. 7 Unscrupulous blending has also had a hand in this travesty—mixing a little genuine Kona into a Central American blend and calling it “Kona” or “Kona Blend.” 8 The growth of the specialty coffee industry has also helped cultivate a rising demand for specialty teas, which, like coffees, focus on distinguishing themselves based on origin, cultivation, processing, and blending techniques.
The Village Effect: How Face-To-Face Contact Can Make Us Healthier, Happier, and Smarter by Susan Pinker
assortative mating, Atul Gawande, Bernie Madoff, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, facts on the ground, game design, happiness index / gross national happiness, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, Kickstarter, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, neurotypical, Occupy movement, old-boy network, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, Ray Oldenburg, Silicon Valley, Skype, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steven Pinker, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tony Hsieh, urban planning, Yogi Berra
Leary, “The Need to Belong: Desire for Interpersonal Attachments as a Fundamental Human Motivation,” Psychological Bulletin 117 (1995); David G. Myers, “Close Relationships and Quality of Life,” in Well-being, ed. Kahneman, Diener, and Schwarz. 8. For more about the characteristics of “third places,” see Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts, and How They Get You Through the Day (New York: Paragon, 1989); Ray Oldenburg, Celebrating the Third Place: Inspiring Stories about the “Great Good Places” at the Heart of Our Communities (New York: Marlowe, 2000). Thanks are due to my brother Steve for introducing me to the term meatspace. 9. Kyungjoon Lee et al., “Does Collocation Inform the Impact of Collaboration?” PLOS One 5, no. 12 (2010); Jonah Lehrer, “Groupthink: The Brainstorming Myth,” New Yorker, January 30, 2012; Greg Lindsay, “Engineering Serendipity,” New York Times, April 7, 2013; Michelle Young, “Googleplex, Mountain View: Designing Interior Spaces at an Urban Scale,” Untapped Cities, January 2, 2012, http://untappedcities.com/2012/01/02/googleplex-mountainview-designing-interior-spaces-at-an-urban-scale/; Paul Goldberger, “Exclusive Preview: Google’s New Built from Scratch Googleplex,” Vanity Fair, February 22, 2013.
But given the sobering impact of decreasing intimate contact on public health, among other things, it seems that it’s time for a slight course correction. Principle 1 Live in a community where you know and talk to your neighbors. Making Tradeoffs The digital revolution, like the automotive revolution that preceded it, has enhanced society in countless ways. But it has also had unintended consequences. Many of the hangouts where people used to meet (which sociologist Ray Oldenburg called third places and techies call meatspaces) are disappearing.8 And given the impact of less social contact on people’s health and morale, not to mention on the bottom line, it’s no wonder that employers such as Yahoo and Bank of America are calling their remote workers back to the office. It’s not that their employees are less productive at home. It’s that without the opportunity to bump into colleagues and have real conversations, innovation and social cohesion take a hit.
Stacy Mitchell by Big-Box Swindle The True Cost of Mega-Retailers, the Fight for America's Independent Businesses (2006)
big-box store, business climate, business cycle, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, European colonialism, Haight Ashbury, income inequality, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, price discrimination, race to the bottom, Ray Oldenburg, RFID, Ronald Reagan, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, union organizing, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game
On the same basement level as the video store is Anthony’s Italian Kitchen, another good local hangout, and Bull Moose Music, where many residents make weekly pilgrimages to check out new releases and flip through the bins of newly arrived used CDs. Upstairs is Casco Bay Books, a bookstore café that is a favorite place to lounge, and, across the hall, Casablanca Comics, which serves as a second home to a crowd of comic book aﬁcionados. This cluster of local businesses constitutes what sociologist Ray Oldenburg has dubbed a “third place”—a place where people can put aside the concerns of home and work (the ﬁrst and second places) and ﬁnd good company and lively conversation among their neighbors. Third places are the bars, coƒeehouses, bookstores, and barber shops at the heart of a community’s informal public life, its social vitality and democratic spirit. To function as a third place, a business must be relatively modest in scale, be embedded in a neighborhood or small downtown, and provide space for loitering and casual interaction.
I am grateful to all of the people who agreed to be interviewed for this book and generously gave of their time and expertise. Chuck D’Aprix contributed valuable research to the ﬁnal chapter. Like all books, this one is built on the work of many other writers, including Joanna Blythman, Barbara Ehrenreich, Liza Featherstone, Thom Hartmann, Jane Jacobs, Marjorie Kelly, David Korten, James Howard Kunstler, Greg LeRoy, David Morris, Al Norman, Ray Oldenburg, Eric Schlosser, E. F. Schumacher, and Michael Shuman. I want to thank David Korten, who ﬁrst suggested I write this book. My agent, Anna Ghosh, was wonderfully enthusiastic about this project and found a great home for it in Beacon Press, which has been independently publishing books for more than 150 years. I am also indebted to Gayatri Patnaik, for her wise editing and guidance, and Melissa Dobson, whose ﬁne-tuning of the text much improved the ﬁnal product.
Jack Gold, interview, Oct. 4, 2005; John McGettrick, cochair of the Red Hook Civic Association, interview, Sept. 18, 2005; Margaret Foster, “To Clear Site for Home Depot, Owner Illegally Demolishes Nashville House,” Preservation Magazine, Oct. 5, 2005. 27. Store counts from Starbucks.com; Brad Wong, “Great Wall Breached: Starbucks Sets Up Shop,” Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Sept. 22, 2005. 28. Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coƒee Shops, Bookstores, Bars, Hair Salons, and Other Hangouts at the Heart of Community, 2nd ed. (New York: Marlowe & Company, 1999). 29. Ibid., 21–85; 70. 30. Hollie Lund, “Testing the Claims of New Urbanism: Local Access, Pedestrian Travel, and Neighboring Behaviors,” Journal of the American Planning Association, Sept. 22, 2003, 414–29. 31. Putnam, Bowling Alone, 213–14. 32.
Where Good Ideas Come from: The Natural History of Innovation by Steven Johnson
Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, cleantech, complexity theory, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, digital Maoism, digital map, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Ernest Rutherford, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, greed is good, Hans Lippershey, Henri Poincaré, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invention of air conditioning, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Johannes Kepler, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, mass immigration, Mercator projection, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, online collectivism, packet switching, PageRank, patent troll, pattern recognition, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, six sigma, Solar eclipse in 1919, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, urban planning
The cultural diversity those subcultures create is valuable not just because it makes urban life less boring. The value also lies in the unlikely migrations that happen between the different clusters. A world where a diverse mix of distinct professions and passions overlap is a world where exaptations thrive. Those shared environments often take the form of a real-world public space, what the sociologist Ray Oldenburg famously called the “third place,” a connective environment distinct from the more insular world of home or office. The eighteenth-century English coffeehouse fertilized countless Enlightenment-era innovations; everything from the science of electricity, to the insurance industry, to democracy itself. Freud maintained a celebrated salon Wednesday nights at 19 Berggasse in Vienna, where physicians, philosophers, and scientists gathered to help shape the emerging field of psychoanalysis.
For more on urban subcultures, see Claude Fischer’s essays “Toward a Subcultural Theory of Urbanism” and “The Subcultural Theory of Urbanism: A Twentieth-Year Assessment.” Jane Jacobs’s Death and Life of Great American Cities and The Economy of Cities contain many similar insights about the capacity of big cities to cultivate small clusters of interests. (Chris Anderson discusses this in the context of his “long tail” theory in The Long Tail.) For more on the concept of the “Third Place,” see Ray Oldenburg’s The Great Good Place. For more on the innovations of the British coffeehouse, see Brian Cowan’s Social Life of Coffee, Tom Standage’s History of the World in Six Glasses, and my Invention of Air. Freud’s Vienna salon is described in the context of innovation in Howard Gardner’s Creating Minds. Martin Ruef’s research appears in his essay “Strong Ties, Weak Ties and Islands,” originally published in Industrial and Corporate Change.
Affluenza: The All-Consuming Epidemic by John de Graaf, David Wann, Thomas H Naylor, David Horsey
big-box store, Community Supported Agriculture, Corrections Corporation of America, Donald Trump, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, God and Mammon, greed is good, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Mark Shuttleworth, McMansion, medical malpractice, new economy, Peter Calthorpe, Ralph Nader, Ray Oldenburg, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, The Great Good Place, trade route, upwardly mobile, Yogi Berra, young professional
Will Disney hire extras to play the roles of other suburbanites who can’t drive—elderly, disabled, and low-income residents, peeking out from behind living-room curtains? BOWLING ALONE Where can America’s stranded nondrivers go, in today’s world? There’s no colorful cafô down the block, or bowling alley or tavern, where neighbors can “be apart together, and mutually withdraw from the world,” in the words of writer Ray Oldenburg.1 Such “great good places” or “third places,” that are apart from both home and work environments, are now often illegal—violations of zoning codes. The truth is, the term “community life” is perceived as archaic in a world so dominated by business and government. “We’ve mutated from citizens to consumers in the last sixty years,” says James Kuntsler, the author of The Geography of Nowhere.
Laurie Mazur in discussion with John de Graaf, April 1996. 11. Kenneth Burnley in discussion with John de Graaf, May 1996. 12. Alex Molnar in discussion with John de Graaf, April 1996. 13. Interview with psychologist David Elkind, October 1993. 14. David Korten, The Post-Corporate World: Life after Capitalism (San Francisco: Kumarian/Berrett-Koehler, 2000), 33. 15. Jennifer Gailus in discussion with John de Graaf, May 1996. CHAPTER 8 1. Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Bookstores, Bars, Hair Salons, and Other Hangouts at the Heart of a Community (New York: Paragon House, 1989), xv. 2. James Kuntsler in discussion with David Wann, March 1997. 3. Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000), 49. 4. Eileen Daspin, “Volunteering on the Run,” Wall Street Journal, November 15, 1999, W1. 5.
In Pursuit of Privilege: A History of New York City's Upper Class and the Making of a Metropolis by Clifton Hood
affirmative action, British Empire, coherent worldview, David Brooks, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, family office, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, jitney, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, P = NP, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Scientific racism, selection bias, Steven Levy, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, urban planning, We are the 99%, white flight
Another defense was provided by the voluntary societies that proliferated after midcentury, such as the New York Harmonic Society, which staged concerts featuring the works of Bach, Handel, and Haydn, and the New York Society Library, a subscription library established in 1754 that numbered Robert R. Livingston, Philip Livingston, and William Walton on its membership rolls. Early social libraries were a space apart from both work and home—semiprivate, membership-only institutions that one historian says served as “a place to converse as well as read, to debate publicly as well as study quietly.”66 These voluntary societies were “third places,” Ray Oldenburg’s phrase for “a great variety of public places that host the regular, voluntary, informal and happily anticipated gatherings of individuals beyond the realms of home and work.”67 In the eighteenth century, third places validated the sophisticated tastes of their upper-class patrons and preserved their exclusivity by recruiting members through friendship and family networks. Yet the genteel code stressed that the threat of rudeness and coarseness was ever present, and even in some third places the lines between polite and rude society were not always clear.
.: Cornell University Press, 1989), 72–108; Blumin, Emergence of the Middle Class, 17–28. 66. Adam Arenson, “Libraries in Public Before the Age of Public Libraries: Interpreting the Furnishings and Design of Athenaeums and Other ‘Social Libraries,’ 1800–1860,” 41, in The Library as Place: History, Community, and Culture, ed. John E. Buschman and Gloria J. Leckie (Westport, Conn.: Libraries Unlimited, 2006). 67. Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place: Cafés, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts, and How They Get You Through the Day (New York: Paragon House, 1989), 16. 68. Laura Lewison, “Lawn Bowling,” 724, in Jackson, Encyclopedia of New York City; Steven A. Reiss, “Horse Racing,” 611–12, in Jackson, The Encyclopedia of New York City; Austin Baxter Keep, History of the New York Society Library (New York: De Vinne, 1908), 123–78; Walter Friedman, “Scots,” 1160–61, in Jackson, The Encyclopedia of New York City; Burrows and Wallace, Gotham, 172–75, 248; New York Gazette (Weyman’s), February 23, 1761, June 6, 1763, November 28, 1763; New York Mercury, May 5, 1755; and Singleton, Social New York, 40–45. 69.
., 1888), 24–27; Officers, Members, Constitution and By-Laws of the Union Club, 96–98; Porzelt, Metropolitan Club, 57–104; New York Times, February 12, 1886, February 13, 1890, September 6, 1891, February 25, 1894, May 9, 1897; Louise L. Stevenson, The Victorian Homefront: American Thought and Culture, 1860–1880 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1991), xxiii–xxxv; Jane Tompkins, West of Everything: The Inner Life of the Westerns (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 3–19, 43; and Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place: Cafés, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts, and How They Get You Through the Day, 1st ed. (New York: Paragon, 1989), 16. 63. New York Times, June 17 and 18, 1924, March 4, 1928, October 8, 1949; Harper S. Mott Diary, 1886, entries for May 3 and 5, 1886, Library of the New-York Historical Society, New York, N.Y. [hereafter N-YHS]; Mott Diary, 1888, entries for February 3, 7, 18, and 22, March 1, 2, 7, 12, 14, and 15, 1888, N-YHS; James Norman Whitehouse Diary, 1890, entries for March 8, 15, and 19, April 12, May 26, June 20, 1890, N-YHS; Whitehouse Diary, 1892, entries for February 19 and 22, May 15, 1892, N-YHS; Whitehouse Diary, 1900, entries for August 15 and 17, 1900, N-YHS. 64.
Framing Class: Media Representations of Wealth and Poverty in America by Diana Elizabeth Kendall
Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, Bonfire of the Vanities, call centre, David Brooks, declining real wages, Donald Trump, employer provided health coverage, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, framing effect, Georg Cantor, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, haute couture, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, payday loans, Ponzi scheme, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, telemarketer, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, working poor
Mapping helps them learn about the ideas, attitudes, and opinions that really exist among diverse groups of people, not just “public opinion” or politicians’ views of events. By seeking out “third places”—locations where people gather and often end up talking about things that are important to them—journalists can find other voices, hear different stories, and perhaps learn more about people from diverse backgrounds and what they are actually thinking and experiencing.42 According to sociologist Ray Oldenburg, the term third place describes “a great variety of public places that host the regular, voluntary, informal, and happily anticipated gatherings of individuals beyond the realms of home and work.”43 If the first place is the home, and the second place is the work setting, then the third place includes churches, community centers, cafes, coffee shops, bookstores, bars, and other spots where people gather informally.
Steve Smith, “Developing New Reflexes in Framing Stories,” Pew Center for Civil Journalism, 1997, http://www.pewcenter.org/doingcj/civiccat/displayCivcat .php?id=97 (accessed July 3, 2004). 40. Richard Harwood, “Framing a Story: What’s It Really About?” Pew Center for Civic Journalism, 2004, http://www.pewcenter.org/doingcj/videos/framing.html (accessed July 3, 2004). 41. Smith, “Developing New Reflexes in Framing Stories.” 42. “Finding Third Places.” 43. Ray Oldenburg, The Great Good Place: Cafés, Coffee Shops, Bookstores, Bars, Hair Salons and Other Hangouts at the Heart of a Community (New York: Marlowe, 1999), 16. 44. “The State of the News Media 2004,” Committee of Concerned Journalists, http://www.journalism.org (accessed June 17, 2004). 45. Mantsios, “Media Magic,” 108. 9781442202238.print.indb 262 2/10/11 10:47 AM Notes to Pages 228–229 263 46.
Howard Rheingold by The Virtual Community Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier-Perseus Books (1993)
Apple II, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, commoditize, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, experimental subject, George Gilder, global village, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, license plate recognition, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mitch Kapor, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, rent control, RFC: Request For Comment, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telepresence, The Great Good Place, The Hackers Conference, urban decay, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, young professional
I still believe that, but I also know that life online has been unhappy at times, intensely so in some circumstances, because of words I've read on a screen. Participating in a virtual community has not solved all of life's problems for me, but it has served as an aid, a comfort, and an inspiration at times; at other times, it has been like an endless, ugly, long-simmering family brawl. I've changed my mind about a lot of aspects of the WELL over the years, but the sense of place is still as strong as ever. As Ray Oldenburg proposed in The Great Good Place, there are three essential places in people's lives : the place we live, the place we work, and the place we gather for conviviality. Although the casual conversation that takes place in cafes, beauty shops, pubs, and town squares is universally considered to be trivial, idle talk, Oldenburg makes the case that such places are where communities can come into being and continue to hold together.
The idea of the common room changes when you know who is in there. One premise behind going to the trouble of adding a video channel to group communication is that it can stimulate the kind of informal, serendipitous conversation that takes place in the hallway or at the coffee machine, but in such a way that the informal space extends to wherever your colleagues are located. In a sense, they are trying to synthesize what sociologist Ray Oldenburg calls "informal public spaces." Another recent Xerox experiment linked a wall-sized monitor in a common room in the Palo Alto laboratory with a common room in a sister laboratory in Oregon. People in Oregon could walk down the hall in the material world, notice on the monitor that you are in the California half of the common room, and engage you in conversation. I didn't see the video wall experiment, but computer pundit John Barlow saw a demonstration.
Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World by Mark Pendergrast
business climate, business cycle, commoditize, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Honoré de Balzac, land reform, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, open economy, out of africa, profit motive, Ray Oldenburg, Ronald Reagan, The Great Good Place, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, women in the workforce
The grateful charity responded by giving Starbucks its International Humanitarian award. Indeed, Schultz appeared to be a master image builder. As he himself has said, “My story is as much one of perseverance and drive as it is of talent and luck. I willed it to happen. I took my life in my hands, learned from anyone I could, grabbed what opportunity I could, and molded my success step by step.” In 1989 the sociologist Ray Oldenburg published The Great, Good Place, a lament over the passing of community meeting places like the old country store or soda fountain. The book contained an entire chapter on coffeehouses, concluding: “The survival of the coffeehouse depends upon its ability to meet present day needs and not those of a romanticized past.” Schultz loved the book and adopted Oldenburg’s academic term, christening Starbucks as a “third place” beyond home or work, “an extension of people’s front porch,” where people could gather informally.
Furnas; Modern Times (1983), by Paul Johnson; American Policies Abroad (1929), by Chester Lloyd Jones et al.; Manias, Panics and Crashes (1989), by Charles P. Kindleberger; The Boston Tea Party (1964), by Benjamin Woods Labaree; The Fifties (1977), by Douglas T. Miller and Marion Nowak; The New Winter Soldiers (1996), by Richard R. Moser; The Sugar Trust (1964), by Jack Simpson Mullins; Fighting Liberal (1945), by George W. Norris; The Great Good Place (1989), by Ray Oldenburg; The Early English Coffee House (1893), by Edward Robinson; We Say No to Your War (1994), by Jeff Richard Schutts; Hard Times (1970), by Studs Terkel; History and Reminiscences of Lower Wall Street and Vicinity (1914), by Abram Wakeman; The Life of Billy Yank (1952), by Bell Irvin Wiley. On shade-grown coffee and migratory birds: Birds Over Troubled Waters (1991), by Russell Greenbeg and Susan Lumpkin; Proceedings, Memorias: 1st Sustainable Coffee Congress (1997), edited by Robert A.
The Purpose Economy: How Your Desire for Impact, Personal Growth and Community Is Changing the World by Aaron Hurst
Airbnb, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, big-box store, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, Elon Musk, Firefox, glass ceiling, greed is good, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, longitudinal study, means of production, Mitch Kapor, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, QR code, Ray Oldenburg, remote working, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Tony Hsieh, too big to fail, underbanked, women in the workforce, young professional, Zipcar
Peter Tufano, Dr. Jonathan Guryan, Dr. Erik Hurst, Bob Epstein and Nicole Lederer, Ryan Gravel, Cathy Woolard, Tom Cousins, Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield, Craig Jelinek, Bernie Glassman, Juliet Ellis, Freelancers Union, Paul Rice, Charles Montgomery, Jacob Wood & William McNulty, Jennifer Pahlka, Melinda Gates, Jeffrey Stewart, Indra Nooyi, Ryan Howard, Dr. Risa Lavizzo-Mourey, Steve Ells, Ray Oldenburg, Vivek Kundra, Tony Hsieh, Brian Chesky, Joe Gebbia and Nathan Blecharczyk, John Tolva, Rob Spiro and Alon Salant, Yancey Strickler, Charles Adler, Perry Chen, Meg Garlinghouse, Mitchell Baker, Dr. Tom X. Lee, Elon Musk, Peter Koechley & Eli Pariser, David Payne and Michael Tavani, Michael Bloomberg, Rachel Kleinfeld, John Mackey, Michael Pollan, Brad Neuberg, Chris Anderson, David Edinger, Scotty Martin, Dr.
Road to ruin: an introduction to sprawl and how to cure it by Dom Nozzi
business climate, car-free, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, Parkinson's law, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, skinny streets, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban decay, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game
Free parking, on the other hand, is not taxed.22 An IRS rule that assigned an income value to what is now free parking would help encourage commuters to switch to noncar travel.The 20th Century was about getting around. The 21st Century will be about staying in a place worth staying in. —Jim Kunstler The most important task of the urbanist is controlling size. —David Mohney As sociology professor and planning consultant Ray Oldenburg points out in The Great Good Place: Cafes, Coffee Shops, Community Centers, Beauty Parlors, General Stores, Bars, Hangouts, and How They Get You Through the Day, segregation, isolation, compartmentalization, and sterilization seem to be today’s guiding principles for community growth and renewal. Desirable experiences occur in places conducive to them, Oldenburg claims, or they do not occur at all.
More Joel on Software by Joel Spolsky
a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, barriers to entry, Black Swan, Build a better mousetrap, business process, call centre, Danny Hillis, David Heinemeier Hansson, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, George Gilder, Larry Wall, low cost airline, low cost carrier, Mars Rover, Network effects, Paul Graham, performance metric, place-making, price discrimination, prisoner's dilemma, Ray Oldenburg, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, The Great Good Place, type inference, unpaid internship, wage slave, web application, Y Combinator
Instead of building usability labs, they’ll go out into the field and write ethnographies. And hopefully, we’ll figure out the new principles of social interface design. It’s going to be fascinating . . . as fun as user interface design was in the 1980s . . . so stay tuned. sixteen BUILDING COMMUNITIES WITH SOFTWARE Monday, March 3, 2003 In his book, The Great Good Place (Da Capo Press, 1999), social scientist Ray Oldenburg talks about how humans need a third place, besides work and home, to meet with friends, have a beer, discuss the events of the day, and enjoy some human interaction. Coffee shops, bars, hair salons, beer gardens, pool halls, clubs, and other hangouts are as vital as factories, schools, and apartments. But capitalist society has been eroding those third places, and society is left impoverished.
Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson
Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Edward Thorp, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, lone genius, mass immigration, megacity, Minecraft, moral panic, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern
For the first time, people began talking explicitly about the court of “public opinion”; they began to seek “publicity” for their work or ideas, a word that originates with the French publicité. Habermas argued that the political and intellectual revolutions of the eighteenth century had been facilitated by the creation of this new public sphere, largely housed in semipublic gathering places like taverns and pubs. (A few decades after Habermas, the American sociologist Ray Oldenburg would develop a similar thesis in a book called The Great Good Place—coining the now-common expression “the third place” for these venues.) For Habermas, the public sphere had a profoundly egalitarian bias, creating “a kind of social intercourse that, far from presupposing equality of status, disregarded status altogether. [Participants] replaced the celebration of rank with a tact befitting equals.”
All Your Base Are Belong to Us: How Fifty Years of Video Games Conquered Pop Culture by Harold Goldberg
activist lawyer, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, Apple II, cellular automata, Columbine, Conway's Game of Life, G4S, game design, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Mars Rover, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Oldenburg, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning
Then he traveled to some churches to see what the bingo crowd was all about. What he saw was groups of women having a raucous time, drinking, playing, and being social. The experience was totally unlike the bingo games on the Web at the time, primarily single-player affairs that made you refresh your browser each time you wanted a new bingo ball to drop. Kapulka, an avid reader and thinker, was concerned with what’s called the Third Place, which Ray Oldenburg, an urban sociologist, so succinctly espoused in his 1989 book, The Great Good Place. Kapulka thought, “You’ve got the home, work, and this public area where you socialize, a pub, a restaurant, a bingo hall. There’s a big difference between sitting in a bar drinking by yourself and sitting at home drinking by yourself, almost like the difference between aloneness and loneliness.” For TEN’s bingo game, he told executives, “Let’s slap on a big chat room so you have fifty people in there and it feels more alive, like a real Third Place.”
The Cheating Culture: Why More Americans Are Doing Wrong to Get Ahead by David Callahan
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, business cycle, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, David Brooks, deindustrialization, East Village, fixed income, forensic accounting, full employment, game design, greed is good, high batting average, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, job satisfaction, mandatory minimum, market fundamentalism, McMansion, microcredit, moral hazard, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old-boy network, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, Thorstein Veblen, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, young professional, zero-sum game
This section on sprawl and new urbanism draws heavily from David Callahan and Stephen Heintz, eds., Quality of Life 2000: The New Politics of Work and Community (New York: Demos, 2002), 77–118. Relevant essays in the book include Robert Liberty, "Is the American Dream Endless Sprawl?"; Philip Langdon, "New Development, Traditional Patterns"; "Growth: New Challenges and Opportunities in a New American Landscape—An Interagency Report by the Clinton/Gore Administration"; and Ray Oldenburg, "Our Vanishing 'Third Places.'" [back] 11. Robert Frank, Luxury Fever: Why Money Fails to Satisfy in an Age of Excess (New York: The Free Press, 1999), chapters 14–17. [back] 12. Carol Swain, New White Nationalism in America: Its Challenge to Integration (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002). [back] 13. Don Oldenberg, "Street-Smart Business Ethics," Washington Post, 29 July 1987, D5; and George C.
Pour Your Heart Into It by Howard Schultz
Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, clean water, corporate raider, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, job satisfaction, market design, Ray Oldenburg, shareholder value, The Great Good Place, urban renewal, working poor, zero-sum game
But somehow, just being in a Starbucks store, they felt they were out in the world, in a safe place yet away from the familiar faces they saw every day. In America, we are in danger of losing the kind of casual social interaction that is part of the daily routine for many Europeans. In the 1990s, coffee bars became a central component of the American social scene in part because they fulfilled the need for a nonthreatening gathering spot, a “third place” outside of work and home. Ray Oldenburg, a Florida sociology professor, wrote most eloquently of this need in his book, The Great Good Place (1989). Oldenburg’s thesis is that people need informal public places where they can gather, put aside the concerns of work and home, relax, and talk. Germany’s beer gardens, England’s pubs, and French and Viennese cafés created this outlet in people’s lives, providing a neutral ground where all are equal and conversation is the main activity.
Cities Are Good for You: The Genius of the Metropolis by Leo Hollis
Airbnb, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, East Village, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, Firefox, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Y2K, Yom Kippur War
For example, in order to promote urban agriculture, it was suggested that the government create property tax incentives for the conversion of vacant plots to farm land; other proposals were the inclusion of ‘community gardening’ and ‘personal gardening’ into the standard zoning code; allowing commercial food farming in all city zones; subsidising water, and finally: ‘De-pave paradise and put a tax on parking lots’.22 All these initiatives could be started from the ground up by groups coming together and campaigning on a single issue in the local area. The only impediments are the will, the time and the places to plan and launch. In addition to the commons we need places to meet up, kick back and develop the brilliant schemes that will increase our shared enjoyment of the metropolis. The city is filled with such ‘third spaces’, places supercharged to reboot the community, if only we looked harder. As sociologist Ray Oldenburg explains: the café table on the Parisian street, the English pub, the Brooklyn coffee shop where you can sit by the window for the whole day, the secondhand bookshop that offers conversation as well as the unexpected volume, the barbershop where the hours of the day are marked with banter, the candy store at the corner of Jane Jacobs’s Hudson Street, the coffee houses of seventeenth-century Amsterdam where ideas circulated like money – these informal spaces are at the heart of the community; they are the incubators and the forcing ground of society.