Nelson Mandela

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pages: 641 words: 147,719

The Rough Guide to Cape Town, Winelands & Garden Route by Rough Guides, James Bembridge, Barbara McCrea

affirmative action, Airbnb, blood diamonds, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, colonial rule, F. W. de Klerk, ghettoisation, haute cuisine, Maui Hawaii, Murano, Venice glass, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Skype, sustainable-tourism, trade route, transfer pricing, young professional

The centre is combined with an area where the resident rockhopper penguins can sometimes be observed frolicking underwater during the day. The top floor, accessed via a ramp, accommodates the Penguin Exhibit, featuring a small breeding colony of endangered African penguins (which you can see in their natural habitat at Boulders Beach) and the rockhopper penguins. Nelson Mandela Gateway Clock Tower Precinct • Daily 7.30am–5.30pm • Free • 021 413 4200, robben-island.org.za The imposing Clock Tower by the Waterfront’s swing bridge was built as the original Port Captain’s office in 1882. Adjacent to this is the Nelson Mandela Gateway, the embarkation point for ferries to Robben Island and sometimes referred to as Jetty 1. Here, the Robben Island Museum has installed a number of exhibitions that are open to the public and free of charge. Displays cover the individual and collective struggles of those who went through this portal on their way to prison, including accounts by ex-political prisoners, ex-prison warders and the families of both.

essentials: ROBBEN ISLAND Getting there The ferry from the Waterfront’s Nelson Mandela Gateway (May–Aug daily 9am, 11am & 1pm; Sept–April daily 9am, 11am, 1pm & 3pm) takes 30min–1hr. Tours are sometimes cancelled due to bad weather or boat problems and refunds are issued, so check ahead. Tours Visits are by guided tour only, led by former political prisoners who share their experiences. The 4hr tours are of varying quality. After arrival at Murray’s Bay harbour, you go by bus around the island and on foot inside the prison. Tickets Although a number of vendors sell tickets for cruises that go close to Robben Island, the only ones that will get you onto it (adults R320, under-18s R180, for voyage, entry and tour) are from the Nelson Mandela Gateway. Book in advance; the boats are often full, especially around December and January (021 413 4200, www.robben-island.org.za).

From the Campanile, the walk up to the lighthouse is rich in anti-apartheid history, with information plaques relating to Nelson Mandela, and some funky sculptures, such as the line of life-size laser-cut steel figures of voters giving triumphal fist pumps in 1994. Reaching the lighthouse, there’s a pleasant green space and you can enjoy views of the harbour, beaches and bay. Donkin Street Heading west up hilly Donkin Street, you’ll come upon a curious stone pyramid commemorating Elizabeth Donkin, after whom PE was named. Elizabeth was the young wife of the Cape’s acting governor in 1820, Sir Rufane Donkin; she died of fever in India in 1818. The nineteen Donkin Houses, built in the mid-nineteenth century and declared National Monuments in 1967, reflect the desire of the English settlers to create a home from home in this strange, desiccated land. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Art Museum 1 Park Drive • Mon & Wed–Fri 9am–5pm, Tues 2–5pm • Free The Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Art Museum, situated in two buildings framing the entrance to St George’s Park, sounds grander than it is, but has a collection of contemporary local work, visiting exhibitions and a small shop selling postcards and local arts and crafts.


One More Thing: Stories and Other Stories by B. J. Novak

Bernie Madoff, carbon-based life, citation needed, dark matter, F. W. de Klerk, Nelson Mandela, Saturday Night Live

When he slows down, and it starts to be clear what he’s saying, I ask him if he’s saying what I think he’s saying, and he says yes, but it’s still not clear for some reason, and I keep asking him again, and he says yes, again, more clearly, more bluntly each time until it’s finally the truth, unmistakable. We figured it out, he says. We can make everything what it was, now that you understand the significance of everything that happened. And then they put her on the phone, and she says one more thing. The Comedy Central Roast of Nelson Mandela The following is a transcript of excerpts from the unaired 2012 special The Comedy Central Roast of Nelson Mandela. There is currently no broadcast date for this special. ANNOUNCER: Welcome to the Comedy Central Roast of Nelson Mandela! With Jeffrey Ross! Lisa Lampanelli! Archbishop Desmond Tutu! Archbishop Don “Magic” Juan! Winnie Mandela! Sisqo! Anthony Jeselnik! Pauly D! Former South African prime minister F. W. de Klerk! Sarah Silverman! A special appearance by His Holiness the Dalai Lama! And Gilbert Gottfried!

JEFFREY ROSS: Ladies and gentlemen, a living legend, one of the great men of all time, Gilbert Gottfried. Sustained standing ovation. GILBERT GOTTFRIED: NELSON MANDELA IS ONE OF THE GREAT MEN OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY. (Applause) AND ONE OF THE GREAT MEN OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AND OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY AND OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY AND OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY AND OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY AND OF THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY AND OF THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY AND OF THE TWELFTH CENTURY AND OF THE ELEVENTH CENTURY. NELSON, LOOK AT YOU, HOW OLD ARE YOU? NELSON MANDELA IS SO OLD, HE HATES HIS PRESIDENTIAL LIMOUSINE BECAUSE HE STILL CAN’T GET USED TO THE WHEELS! NELSON MANDELA IS ONE OF THE GREAT MEN OF THE TENTH CENTURY AND ONE OF THE GREAT MEN OF THE NINTH CENTURY AND ONE OF THE GREAT MEN OF THE EIGHTH CENTURY AND ONE OF THE GREAT MEN OF THE SEVENTH CENTURY— JEFFREY ROSS: And now, ladies and gentlemen, the man of the hour, a living legend, President Nelson Mandela!

NELSON MANDELA IS ONE OF THE GREAT MEN OF THE TENTH CENTURY AND ONE OF THE GREAT MEN OF THE NINTH CENTURY AND ONE OF THE GREAT MEN OF THE EIGHTH CENTURY AND ONE OF THE GREAT MEN OF THE SEVENTH CENTURY— JEFFREY ROSS: And now, ladies and gentlemen, the man of the hour, a living legend, President Nelson Mandela! A standing ovation almost as long as the one for Gilbert Gottfried. PRESIDENT NELSON MANDELA: Thank you. The day I was released from prison, I said that any man that tries to rob me of my dignity will lose. (Applause) After tonight, I think it is fair for me to add Lisa Lampanelli to that list of men. (Laughter) You know, when I accepted my Nobel Peace Prize, I said that nothing bothered me more deeply than man’s injustice to his fellow man. However, this was before I heard the sound of Gilbert Gottfried’s voice. (Laughter as Mandela playfully covers his ears) Now, let me tease myself first, for I did not know exactly what this event would entail. I was informed that the Nelson Mandela Foundation would receive a sum of money and that comedians would poke fun at me on television.


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Lonely Planet Cape Town & the Garden Route (Travel Guide) by Lucy Corne

Berlin Wall, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, haute couture, haute cuisine, load shedding, Mark Shuttleworth, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, Robert Gordon, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, urban sprawl

Bicycles can also be hired from Up Cycles ( GOOGLE MAP ; www.upcycles.co.za; gNobel Square), near the Clock Tower, and Awol Tours. TOP SIGHT Robben Island Robben Island’s best-known prisoner was Nelson Mandela, which makes it one of the most popular pilgrimage spots in all of Cape Town. Set some 12km out in Table Bay, the flat island – a Unesco World Heritage site – served as a jail from the early days of VOC (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie; Dutch East India Company) control right up until 1996. The Tour The small island, just 2km by 4km, can only be visited on a tour that starts with a ferry journey (30 to 60 minutes, depending on the vessel) from Nelson Mandela Gateway at the Waterfront. Once on the island you'll be introduced to a guide, typically a former inmate, who will lead a walk through the old prison (with an obligatory peek into Mandela’s cell).

It includes a map detailing the stories of many prominent activists and events in South Africa's 20th-century history. Path to Democracy In 1982 Nelson Mandela and other ANC leaders were moved from Robben Island to Pollsmoor Prison in Cape Town. (In 1986 senior politicians began secretly talking with them.) Concurrently, the state’s military crackdowns in the townships became even more pointed. In early 1990 President FW de Klerk began to repeal discriminatory laws, and the ANC, PAC and Communist Party were legalised. On 11 February the world watched in awe as a living legend emerged from Victor Verster Prison near Paarl. Later that day Nelson Mandela delivered his first public speech since being incarcerated 27 years earlier to a massive crowd overspilling from Cape Town’s Grand Parade. From this time onwards virtually all the old apartheid regulations were repealed; in late 1991, the Convention for a Democratic South Africa (Codesa) began negotiating the formation of a multiracial transitional government, and a new constitution extending political rights to all groups.

Schedule time for a hike: the park’s 245 sq km include routes to suit all levels of fitness and ambition, from gentle ambles to spot fynbos (literally ‘fine bush’, primarily proteas, heaths and ericas) to the five-day, four-night Hoerikwaggo Trail. 1Garden & Surrounds Table Mountain GUNTER LENZ/GETTY IMAGES © Cape Town’s Top 10 Robben Island 2A World Heritage site, the former prison on Robben Island is a key location in South Africa’s long walk to freedom. Nelson Mandela and other Freedom struggle heroes were incarcerated here, following in the tragic footsteps of earlier fighters against the various colonial governments that ruled over the Cape. Taking the boat journey here and the tour with former inmates provides an insight into the country’s troubled history – and a glimpse of how far it has progressed on the path to reconciliation and forgiveness. 1Green Point & Waterfront Robben Island MARK HARRIS/GETTY IMAGES © Cape Town’s Top 10 Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens 3There’s been European horticulture on the picturesque eastern slopes of Table Mountain since Jan van Riebeeck’s time in the 17th century, but it was British imperialist Cecil Rhodes, owner of Kirstenbosch Farm and surrounding properties, who really put the gardens on the map when he bequeathed the land to all Capetonians.


pages: 325 words: 97,162

The 5 AM Club: Own Your Morning. Elevate Your Life. by Robin Sharma

Albert Einstein, dematerialisation, epigenetics, Grace Hopper, hedonic treadmill, impulse control, index card, invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, large denomination, Mahatma Gandhi, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Rosa Parks, telemarketer, white picket fence

The tour guide, who also happened to be a former political prisoner, was a large man with a gruff voice. As he led his guests toward the cell where Nelson Mandela was forced to live for so many long and harsh years, he answered each of the questions they asked. “Did you know Nelson Mandela?” queried The Spellbinder thoughtfully. “Yes, I served with him for eight years here on Robben Island.” “What was he like as a person?” asked the artist, appearing overwhelmed by the emotions that he was feeling as they walked down the main corridor of the jail that had been home to so many atrocities during the apartheid era. “Oh,” said the guide gently with a gracious and even wise smile across his face, “that man was a humble servant.” “And what was Nelson Mandela like as a leader?” pressed the entrepreneur. “Tremendous. Dignified. Inspirational by the way he handled himself and all he went through.

Nothing as severe as what went on here, of course. I read that Nelson Mandela said his greatest regret was not being allowed out of this prison to attend the funeral of his eldest son after he was killed in a car accident,” expressed the billionaire. He looked up to the sky. “I guess we all have our regrets. And no one gets out without their own ordeals and tragedies.” The tour guide pointed to the fourth window, to the right of the entrance into the courtyard. “There,” he stated. “That’s Nelson Mandela’s cell. Let’s go in.” The cell was incredibly small. No bed. A small wooden table that the prisoner would kneel at to write in his journal as there was no chair, a concrete floor and a brown woolen blanket, with green and red flecks in it. “For the first year of his imprisonment, Nelson Mandela wasn’t even permitted to wear long pants, though it was freezing over the South African winter.

You could detect this from the way he walked. “This is a special day for them,” remarked the pilot, his voice getting louder. “These people have come a long way to see the prison cell where Nelson Mandela was jailed. They have come to view the limestone quarry where he was forced to hack away at stones for over a decade, in the torturous sun that reflected off the rock to the point where it damaged his eyesight permanently. They want to view the courtyard where the statesman would exercise and throw tennis balls with confidential messages inside to his fellow political prisoners in the next cell-block. They need to go to the spot where Nelson Mandela’s manuscript for Long Walk to Freedom, his autobiography, would be secretly buried in the dirt after he’d spent many hours working on it. They need to experience—at least a little—the suffering Mr.


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When They Go Low, We Go High: Speeches That Shape the World – and Why We Need Them by Philip Collins

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collective bargaining, Copley Medal, Corn Laws, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Donald Trump, F. W. de Klerk, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, full employment, invention of the printing press, late capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, plutocrats, Plutocrats, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Rosa Parks, stakhanovite, Thomas Malthus, Torches of Freedom, World Values Survey

In Bombay, the sirens of hundreds of mills and factories, the whistling of railway engines and hooting from ships ushered in independence at midnight. There was, indeed, a mountain of hard work ahead, and it is not done yet, but Nehru’s words defined the possibility of the nation that India is in the constant process of becoming. NELSON MANDELA An Ideal for Which I Am Prepared to Die Supreme Court of South Africa, Pretoria 20 April 1964 Nelson Mandela (1918–2013) became, for a generation of people, within South Africa and far beyond, the captain of their soul. There is a case for suggesting that Mandela’s incarceration was a blessing for his political reputation. Deprived of the capacity to speak and make public errors, Mandela emerged from a quarter of a century in prison as a candidate for sainthood, which his subsequent grace justified.

Kennedy: Ask Not What Your Country Can Do for You, Washington DC, 20 January 1961 Barack Obama: I Have Never Been More Hopeful about America, Grant Park, Chicago, 7 November 2012 Pericles: Funeral Oration, Athens, Winter, c. 431 BC David Lloyd George: The Great Pinnacle of Sacrifice, Queen’s Hall, London, 19 September 1914 Woodrow Wilson: Making the World Safe for Democracy, Joint Session of the Two Houses of Congress, 2 April 1917 Winston Churchill: Their Finest Hour, House of Commons, 18 June 1940 Ronald Reagan: Tear Down This Wall, The Brandenburg Gate, Berlin, 12 June 1987 Elizabeth I of England: I Have the Heart and Stomach of a King, Tilbury, 9 August 1588 Benjamin Franklin: I Agree to This Constitution with All Its Faults, The Constitutional Convention, Philadelphia, 17 September 1787 Jawaharlal Nehru: A Tryst with Destiny, Constituent Assembly, Parliament House, New Delhi, 14 August 1947 Nelson Mandela: An Ideal for Which I Am Prepared to Die, Supreme Court of South Africa, Pretoria, 20 April 1964 Aung San Suu Kyi: Freedom from Fear, European Parliament, Strasbourg, 10 July 1991 William Wilberforce: Let Us Make Reparations to Africa, House of Commons, London, 12 May 1789 Emmeline Pankhurst: The Laws That Men Have Made, The Portman Rooms, 24 March 1908 Isidora Dolores Ibárruri Gómez (La Pasionaria): No Pasarán, Mestal Stadium, Valencia, 23 August 1936 Martin Luther King: I Have a Dream, The March on Washington, 28 August 1963 Neil Kinnock: Why Am I the First Kinnock in a Thousand Generations?

Speeches get made about such unpromising subjects as environmental directives and the gradient of welfare benefit tapers. The great causes, at least in the rich, fortunate democracies, have gone. If there are fewer uplifting speeches today than there once were, then the chief cause is a heartening one. Momentous speeches are always given in answer to a signal injustice or crisis – think of Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela. The success of the developed democracies means injustice is less acute than it once was. The great questions – the entitlement to vote, material and gender equality, freedom of association and speech, war and peace – are not entirely resolved, but the first decades of the twenty-first century show progress that would have been unimaginable two centuries before. The line towards freedom is crooked, as we shall see.


pages: 195 words: 58,462

City Squares: Eighteen Writers on the Spirit and Significance of Squares Around the World by Catie Marron

Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, deindustrialization, do-ocracy, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, too big to fail, urban planning

For years, the Grand Parade had been a place of protest, sometimes violent, sometimes peaceful—but always the stage for the city’s most important events. But I’m not an expert in how the Grand Parade fits into the life and architecture of Cape Town, so I called someone who is: a distinguished professor of urban studies at the University of Cape Town, Vanessa Watson. Watson lives in the same suburb where she was living when Nelson Mandela dropped by her house on his way to the Grand Parade. The baby boy whom Nelson Mandela held is now a twenty-four-year-old law student. Watson speaks in a firm voice with a strong South African accent. She says it was logical that the ANC would have chosen Grand Parade: “It’s the largest and most important public space in Cape Town. It’s the most iconic meeting place. The obvious choice.” She describes the parking lot as “unfortunate” and notes that the Grand Parade was close to the coast until a major landfill in 1940 put it significantly farther away.

Rory Stewart tells the story of a square in Kabul, which has come and gone several times over five centuries, due to both the local culture and, equally, the will of one individual, the latest iteration involving Rory himself in the leadership role. Ari Shavit describes the changes of central Tel Aviv’s Rabin Square, which began as a forum for rallies and assemblies, then became the symbolic site of a national tragedy, and is now an almost empty void, even as hectic urban life bustles with energy around its edges. Rick Stengel recounts Nelson Mandela’s choice of the Grand Parade, Cape Town, a huge market square that was transformed into a public space of historic magnitude when he spoke to the world right after his release from twenty-seven years in prison. In Euromaidan, Tahrir, and Taksim squares, social media—the new virtual square—summoned people to the physical square. Gillian Tett delves into social media’s growing significance and the way the physical and virtual meet.

That is when you see how change could happen. A consciousness pervades the square. There is a mystique to the place that carried the memories, the nobility, and the pride of the people who stood their ground to create a new Egypt. They created a conscious space that pulled people in and made them see beyond their limits. We often see the greatest hits of change. We see Martin Luther King, Jr., lead a march on Washington; we see Nelson Mandela freeing South Africa. But we don’t see the process of change. We don’t experience the agony of King’s family over the years, and we don’t spend twenty-seven years in prison with Mandela. In the square, I saw the quiet, determined, and relentless fight for change. Change does not happen overnight. One speech doesn’t change things. Other movements have taken a very long time. But a certain consciousness is what has been found and what will grow.


pages: 288 words: 90,349

The Challenge for Africa by Wangari Maathai

Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, deliberate practice, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Scramble for Africa, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, sustainable-tourism, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

The two superpowers encouraged leaders to accept, in theory at least, the proposition that the one-party rule that had been the norm for decades hadn't fulfilled the aspirations of the African peoples, and that multipartism was worth trying. This was initially resisted. The reintroduction of multipartism in many African nations resulted from demands by donor nations, as well as from the many years of struggle by African civil society for better governance. Another powerful sign that the Cold War was over and that entrenched systems could change was the release of Nelson Mandela in February 1990 after twenty-seven years in prison, followed by the formal end of apartheid in South Africa four years later. Mandela's release also fulfilled one of the main aims of the much-maligned Organization for African Unity: the political decolonization of the entire African continent. The end of apartheid heartened citizen-activists in Africa and, indeed, around the world. In many African nations, civil society intensified its challenge to the policies of dictatorial governments and engaged in opposition politics.

It is also crucial to take on the challenge of trying to imagine what the original stool could have looked like, in what ways its pillars served the people, and how those pillars might be reenvisioned for the challenges of today. No nation has developed these three pillars without the people themselves chiseling them, sometimes at a great price. In Africa, independence movements throughout the continent struggled to free their fellow citizens from colonialism and imperialism—including those led by Jomo Kenyatta, Patrice Lumumba, Kwame Nkrumah, Nelson Mandela, and Walter Sisulu. One is reminded of the courage and determination of those who fought for women's suffrage in the early part of the twentieth century; Mahatma Gandhi's campaign for Indian independence, which mobilized hundreds of thousands of individuals in nonviolent resistance to British rule; and the civil rights movement in the United States, for which many people gave their lives. All these movements included in their ranks many whose names aren't recorded by history, or whose bones still lie unburied in the forests where they fell fighting for their land and freedom, or who are interred in unmarked graves.

One might ask: What does it take to produce leaders with such values, whose lives become their message and who humble themselves and sacrifice for the common good? It should not be impossible to find leaders in Africa willing to raise the standard of leadership and to nurture them so that they be come beacons for the continent. To be sure, some leaders tried, often at great personal sacrifice, to give that hope to their people and to the African people at large—men such as Nelson Mandela in South Africa, Julius Nyerere in Tanzania, Seretse Khama in Botswana, Léopold Senghor in Senegal, Ahmed Ben Bella in Algeria, and even Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana in his early years. Will their example ever be followed by leaders and would-be leaders in Africa today and in coming decades? The exercise of good leadership would end government violations of human rights and restrictions on freedoms such as the right to move, assemble, access information, and organize.


pages: 202 words: 8,448

Blueprint for Revolution: How to Use Rice Pudding, Lego Men, and Other Nonviolent Techniques to Galvanize Communities, Overthrow Dictators, or Simply Change the World by Srdja Popovic, Matthew Miller

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, British Empire, corporate governance, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, Kickstarter, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, Rosa Parks, urban planning, urban sprawl

Norton, 2012). 53. 2. Gene Sharp de nes this all-important principle: Gene Sharp, There Are Realistic Alternatives (Boston: Albert Einstein Institution, 2003), 21. 3. “the conception of how best to achieve objectives in a con ict”: Ibid., 21. Chapter IX: The Demons of Violence 1. “At the beginning of June 1961”: “ ‘I Am Prepared to Die’: Nelson Mandela’s Opening Statement from the Dock at the Opening of the Defence Case in the Rivonia Trial,” United Nations website for Nelson Mandela Day, www.​un.​org/​en/​events/​mandeladay/​court_​statement_​ 1964.​shtml. 2. the Spear launched almost two hundred attacks: Janet Cherry, Spear of the Nation (Athens: Ohio University Press, 2012), 23. 3. “We should have the ability to defend ourselves”: Mahatma Gandhi, The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas (New York: Vintage, 2002), 109. 4.

(Riahi Brothers, Arman and Arsh T. Riahi) 8.1 Hundreds of thousands of protesters were preparing for the nonviolent takeover of the Serbian Parliament Building in Belgrade on October 5, 2000. (Igor Jeremic) 8.2 “2000—This is the Year”: Otpor!’s campaign following the group’s Orthodox New Year Concert in January 2000. 8.3 Celebrating OPTOR’s victory in the October 5 revolution, Slavija Square, Belgrade. (Igor Jeremic) 9.1 Nelson Mandela’s cell in Robben Island Prison in South Africa. (Paul A. Mannix) 9.2 Nonviolence sculpture by Carl Frederick Reuterswärd. (MHM55) 10.1 A Muslim holding the Koran and a Coptic Christian holding a cross in Tahrir Square. Cairo, February 6, 2011. (Dylan Martinez) 10.2 “We Are Watching You”: Otpor!’s billboard campaign holding the newly elected post-Milošević government accountable to Serbia’s vision of tomorrow following the October 5 revolution.

In the West, our culture begins with the Iliad—with its scenes of nipples pierced with spears and helmets lled with blood—and continues to this day as a threethousand-year celebration of violence and heroes and conquest. Think about it: how many movies have you seen about World War II or the Vietnam War? Plenty, I’m sure. But try to count the number of major lms that have been made about famous nonviolent struggles. There’s Gandhi, of course, with Ben Kingsley; Milk, with Sean Penn; plus a few moving tributes to Nelson Mandela. But that’s pretty much it. We revere the warriors, but have the warriors really shaped history? Consider the following: the main outcome of World War I was World War II, and the main outcome of World War II was the Cold War, which in turn gave us Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan, the war on terror, and so on. But what did the world get from Martin Luther King Jr.? Civil rights and a black president in 2008.


Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower by William Blum

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, collective bargaining, Columbine, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, union organizing

For several years, Haiti and its supporters in the United Nations Commission on Human Rights and in the General Assembly have tried to bring to a vote a resolution calling for the United States to return the documents. But the US delegation has been able to maneuver the proceedings to block such a vote.11 CHAPTER 23 : How the CIA Sent Nelson Mandela to Prison for 28 Years When Nelson Mandela was released from prison in February 1990, President George Bush personally telephoned the black South African leader to tell him that all Americans were "rejoicing at his release".1 This was the same Nelson Mandela who was imprisoned for almost 28 years because the CIA tipped off South African authorities as to where they could find him. And this was the same George Bush who was once the head of the CIA and who for eight years was second in power of an administration whose CIA and National Security Agency collaborated closely with the South African intelligence service, providing information about Mandela's African National Congress.2 The ANC was a progressive nationalist movement whose influence had been felt in other African countries; accordingly it had been perceived by Washington as being part of the legendary International Communist Conspiracy.

They trust us to be on the side of decency. They trust us to do what's right. George Bush, 1992 3 How can they have the arrogance to dictate to us where we should go or which countries should be our friends? Gadhafi is my friend. He supported us when we were alone and when those who tried to prevent my visit here today were our enemies. They have no morals. We cannot accept that a state assumes the role of the world's policeman. Nelson Mandela, 1997 4 When I came into office, I was determined that our country would go into the 21st century still the world's greatest farce for peace and freedom, for democracy and security and prosperity. Bill Clinton, 1996 5 Throughout the world, on any given day, a man, woman or child is likely to be displaced, tortured, kitted or "disappeared", at the hands of governments or armed political groups.

Encouragement of the Use of CBW by Other Nations 120 A Rogue State versus the World 17. A Concise History of United States Global Interventions, 1945 to the Present 125 18. Perverting Elections 168 19. Trojan Horse: The National Endowment for Democracy 179 20. The US versus the World at the United Nations 184 21. Eavesdropping on the Planet 200 22. Kidnapping and Looting 210 23. How the CIA Sent Nelson Mandela to Prison for 28 Years 215 24. The CIA and Drugs: Just Say "Why Not?" 218 25. Being the World's Only Superpower Means Never Having to Say You're Sorry 227 26. The United States Invades, Bombs and Kills for It...but Do Americans Really Believe in Free Enterprise? 236 27. A Day in the Life of a Free Country 243 Notes 274 Index 305 About the Author 310 Author's Foreword: Concerning September 11, 2001 and the Bombing of Afghanistan Shortly after the publication of this book, the momentous events of September 11, 2001 occurred.


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Originals: How Non-Conformists Move the World by Adam Grant

Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, availability heuristic, barriers to entry, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, double helix, Elon Musk, fear of failure, Firefox, George Santayana, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, minimum viable product, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, risk tolerance, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Wisdom of Crowds, women in the workforce

Malala Yousafzai was moved: Jodi Kantor, “Malala Yousafzai: By the Book,” New York Times, August 19, 2014, www.nytimes.com/2014/08/24/books/review/malala-yousafzai-by-the-book.html. King was inspired by Gandhi: Rufus Burrow Jr., Extremist for Love: Martin Luther King Jr., Man of Ideas and Nonviolent Social Action (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2014). as was Nelson Mandela: “Nelson Mandela, the ‘Gandhi of South Africa,’ Had Strong Indian Ties,” Economic Times, December 6, 2013, articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2013-12-06/news/44864354_1_nelson-mandela-gandhi-memorial-gandhian-philosophy. Elon Musk . . . Lord of the Rings: Tad Friend, “Plugged In: Can Elon Musk Lead the Way to an Electric-Car Future?” New Yorker, August 24, 2009, www.newyorker.com/magazine/2009/08/24/plugged-in. Peter Thiel . . . Lord of the Rings: Julian Guthrie, “Entrepreneur Peter Thiel Talks ‘Zero to One,’” SFGate, September 21, 2014, www.sfgate.com/living/article/Entrepreneur-Peter-Thiel-talks-Zero-to-One-5771228.php.

The more core principles: Andrew Carton, Chad Murphy, and Jonathan Clark, “A (Blurry) Vision of the Future: How Leader Rhetoric About Ultimate Goals Influences Performance,” Academy of Management Journal 57 (2014): 1544–70. field of evidence-based management: Trish Reay, Whitney Berta, and Melanie Kazman Kohn, “What’s the Evidence on Evidence-Based Management?,” Academy of Management Perspectives (November 2009): 5–18. 8: Rocking the Boat and Keeping It Steady “I learned that courage”: Nelson Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela (New York: Little, Brown, 1995). Instead of visualizing success: Personal interview with Lewis Pugh, June 10, 2014, and personal communication, February 15, 2015; Lewis Pugh, Achieving the Impossible (London: Simon & Schuster, 2010) and 21 Yaks and a Speedo: How to Achieve Your Impossible (Johannesburg and Cape Town, South Africa: Jonathan Ball Publishers, 2013); “Swimming Toward Success” speech at the World Economic Forum, Davos, Switzerland, January 23, 2014.

“I want a ballplayer with guts enough not to fight back.” Finding the right mentor is not always easy. But we can locate role models in a more accessible place: the stories of great originals throughout history. Human rights advocate Malala Yousafzai was moved by reading biographies of Meena, an activist for equality in Afghanistan, and of Martin Luther King, Jr. King was inspired by Gandhi, as was Nelson Mandela. In some cases, fictional characters may be even better role models. Growing up, many originals find their first heroes in their most beloved novels, where protagonists exercise their creativity in pursuit of unique accomplishments. When asked to name their favorite books, Elon Musk and Peter Thiel each chose Lord of the Rings,, the epic tale of a hobbit’s adventures to destroy a dangerous ring of power.


pages: 299 words: 87,059

The Burning Land by George Alagiah

fear of failure, land reform, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, pre–internet, urban decay, white flight, éminence grise

There was wistfulness in her voice, which Motlantshe both recognised and loathed. He knew that everything else that was wrong in their marriage had grown out of this one central accusation – that he had forgotten where they had both started out. They had met in the seventies. Josiah Motlantshe was the most prominent in a new generation of activists that was emerging inside South Africa, carrying the mantle of leadership while the likes of Nelson Mandela, Oliver Tambo and Joe Slovo were either jailed or in exile. He was an extrovert, a fiery orator. Priscilla was the opposite, but what she lacked in public presence she more than made up for with a quiet determination. When Motlantshe and some others were jailed it was said that, of all the women who were left behind, Priscilla would cope best. And so she did, raising the son who barely knew his father.

Lindi Seaton thought she’d left all that behind. Missenden had been her line manager in what she now regarded as a previous life. That was in the days when she was a junior diplomat at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, a position she owed to her fast-track appointment straight out of university. Because of her family’s links to South Africa, Lindi had been asked to prepare a draft paper on what South Africa might look like post-Nelson Mandela. Among other things, her report contained the memorable, if dramatic, assessment that if land ownership became an issue, the ensuing agitation would ‘make what happened in Zimbabwe look like a picnic’. She’d argued that apartheid’s legacy of white ownership might be eclipsed by the more recent land purchases: everyone from Gulf sheikhs, Chinese government agencies and private-equity magnates, many of them based in London, had been at it.

‘Just head down the corridor and she should be at the first desk as you enter the big newsroom,’ she said. Lindi walked into a large, open-plan office. There must have been a dozen desks, each cluttered with PC screens, TV monitors and headphones. On one wall a line of clocks showed the time locally and in Lagos, Nairobi, London, Washington and Beijing. Underneath them, as if surveying the newsroom, was a life-size cut-out image of a beaming Nelson Mandela, his right arm raised in an iconic closed-fist salute. The great man had signed the picture. Lindi saw that its wooden base was screwed to the floor, presumably because it was the kind of memento for which there was a lucrative market. On another wall there was a row of screens, each tuned to a different channel – CNN, ENCA, BBC World and Al Jazeera. The six or seven people in the office had congregated under them.


pages: 401 words: 115,959

Philanthrocapitalism by Matthew Bishop, Michael Green, Bill Clinton

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Bernie Madoff, Bob Geldof, Bonfire of the Vanities, business process, business process outsourcing, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, cleantech, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Dava Sobel, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, don't be evil, family office, financial innovation, full employment, global pandemic, global village, God and Mammon, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, James Dyson, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Live Aid, lone genius, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, mass affluent, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Singer: altruism, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, profit motive, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, wealth creators, winner-take-all economy, working poor, World Values Survey, X Prize

It is using money and connections—whether personal, family, or business—to create public benefit.” If they ask, the superrich can usually get face time with both global experts and those people on the ground who know what is really going on. When wealthy donors from the Global Philanthropists Circle visited South Africa in 2002, they were shown around the jail on Robben Island by its most famous former inmate, Nelson Mandela. In short, “richesse oblige” and a belief in hyperagency are the driving spirit of philanthrocapitalism today. The multibillion-dollar question is whether that spirit will be enough to change the world. CHAPTER 4 Billanthropy “ARE WE BIG ENOUGH TO PLAY OUR role in AIDS? Are we big enough to play our role in malaria? No, we are not big enough,” says Bill Gates. “We’re a tiny, tiny little organization.”

Yet Ibrahim thinks it is worth a bet, and all he has to lose is some money—of which he has plenty. WE WILL NEVER know how close British billionaire Sir Richard Branson came to preventing the bloody war in Iraq, but the instantly recognizable bearded boss of Virgin certainly tried. In early 2002, he recalls, “I was thinking, ‘How can we find a graceful way out for Saddam Hussein?’ I happen to know Nelson Mandela well. He had spoken out against the war. We talked about him going to Iraq, speaking to Saddam, confronting him with the truth. Maybe he could go into exile in Libya, the same way [1970s Ugandan dictator Idi] Amin went to Saudi, and we could avoid war.” If anyone could talk sense to Saddam, surely it was Mandela, the saintlike statesman who, as South Africa’s first black president, had overseen the country’s miraculously peaceful postapartheid transition to majority rule after his release from jail.

The idea of creating elders for the global village is certainly imaginative and addresses a clear need—especially given the deficit of credibility in the existing institutions of global governance, not least because of the failings of the U.N. (for all Turner’s efforts). But Branson understood that launching a self-appointed group presented a huge branding challenge—along the lines of “who do these people think they are?” Wisely, he did not include himself as an Elder, nor the other philanthropists who agreed to back the group. Instead, he asked Nelson Mandela and his wife, Graça Machel, to appoint the first Elders. Branson describes the Elders group as an attempt to extend the brand of Mandela beyond his current frailties and limited remaining lifespan: “Mandela is not going to live forever. How do we replace, continue him?” This strategy certainly worked in the recruiting phase. “I was skeptical to start with. But there is something compelling about an invitation from Madiba [Mandela’s pet name to close friends] and Graça, asking us to carry forward their vision of the world,” says Mary Robinson, a former president of Ireland and now an Elder.


pages: 578 words: 131,346

Humankind: A Hopeful History by Rutger Bregman

Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Broken windows theory, call centre, David Graeber, Donald Trump, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Hans Rosling, invention of writing, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, placebo effect, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Stanford prison experiment, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, universal basic income, World Values Survey

‘As things stand now,’ Constand replies, ‘we have only one option, and that is to fight.’17 Then Braam makes a proposal, a plan he and Nelson Mandela have hammered out together in the utmost secrecy. What would Constand say, Braam asks, to sitting down with the ANC leadership for direct talks about the position of his people? By this point, Constand has already rejected nine such overtures. But this time his response is different. This time it’s his brother asking. And so it transpires that a pair of identical twins arrive together on the doorstep of a villa in Johannesburg on 12 August 1993. They expect to be greeted by household staff, but standing before them with a big grin is the man himself. Nelson Mandela. It’s a historic moment: the hero of the new South Africa standing eye to eye with the hero of the old. The peacemaker opposite the man mobilising for war.

A tale of two brothers who for decades stood on opposing sides, yet in the end managed to prevent a full-blown civil war. Sounds like a good story, doesn’t it? In a pile of old notes, I found the brothers’ names, and after that, I wanted to know everything about them. 2 The story of the brothers is inextricably bound up with one of the most renowned figures of the twentieth century. On 11 February 1990, millions of people sat glued to their televisions to see him. Nelson Mandela, imprisoned for twenty-seven years, became a free man on that day. Finally, there was hope for peace and reconciliation between black and white South Africans. ‘Take your guns, your knives and your pangas,’ shouted Mandela shortly after his release, ‘and throw them into the sea!’1 Four years later, on 26 April 1994, the first elections were held for all South Africans. Again the images were enthralling: endless lines at the polling stations, twenty-three million voters in all.

Initially, this left Pettigrew and his colleagues with a puzzle. Because if we have a better memory for bad interactions, how come contact nonetheless brings us closer together? The answer, in the end, was simple. For every unpleasant incident we encounter, there are any number of pleasant interactions.24 The bad may seem stronger, but it’s outnumbered by the good. If there’s one person who understood the power of contact it was Nelson Mandela. Years earlier, he had chosen a very different path – the path of violence. In 1960, Mandela had been one of the founding members of the armed wing of the ANC. But twenty-seven years behind bars can utterly change a person. As the years passed, Mandela began to realise what scientists would later show: nonviolent resistance is a lot more effective than violence. Take the recent work of Erica Chenoweth, an American sociologist who started out believing the ‘Mandela Method’ was naive.


pages: 484 words: 155,401

Solitary by Albert Woodfox

airport security, Donald Trump, full employment, income inequality, index card, mandatory minimum, mass immigration, means of production, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, side project

See also Free the Angola 4 beginning of, 261–65 creating the support and legal teams, 288–96 effectiveness of efforts, 329 King working outside with, 313, 373 protesting Camp J conditions, 284 selling candy to support, 277 support for AW, 286 support for habeas corpus petition, 275 support for Herman Wallace release, 355 support from Amnesty International, 331–32 National Commission n Correctional Health Care, 354 National Football League, 408 National Prison Project (ACLU), 341 National Rainbow Coalition, 68 national Registry of Exonerations (NRE), 409–10 National Rifle Association (NRA), 69 Native American Housing Committee, 68 Native Americans, 162 Native Son (Wright), 170, 208 Nazi Germany, 71 “Nelson Mandela Rules,” 411 Nelson Mandela’s Institute for Global Dialogue, 287 Neville, Charles, 37 New Orleans 6th Ward, 3–4, 46 13th Ward, 195–96 as “prison capital of the world,” 345 AW birth and living in, 1–2, 221 AW family departure to LaGrange, NC, 2–3 AW family escape from Daddy’s abuse, 3–4 AW friends in lockup from, 25, 27–28, 37, 91, 195–97 AW making a home in, 4–9, 318 AW relocation to Harlem, 58 AW return from lockups, 38, 46, 402 Civil War-era “convict-leasing,” 24–25 Contemporary Arts Center, 328 dealing drugs, 48 gangs/gang activities, 14–16, 18–19, 24, 46 habitual felon law, 54–55 Herman transferred to hospital, 365–66 Hurricane Katrina, 342 Mardi Gras, 4, 7 NAACP Legal Defense Fund, 349–50 national hearing on penal reform, 91, 306 police misconduct, 321, 342 presence of ACLU, 263 presence of Black Panthers, 80–81, 104, 126–27, 236–40, 263, 402 segregation and Jim Crow, 7–9 VOTE activist group, 409 New Orleans Legal Assistance (NOLA), 168 New Orleans Times-Picayune, 105, 120, 283, 345 New York City AW drug buying trips, 48 AW escape from New Orleans, 56–58 AW extradition to New Orleans, 79 AW plea deal and Rikers Island, 78–79 Black Panther presence, 58 incarceration at the Tombs, 58–60, 79, 410 incarceration in New Queens, 76–78 number of prisoners incarcerated, 74 prisoner riots, 74–78 New York Times, 63, 411 Newton, Huey P., 67–69, 72, 91, 126–27, 405, 407 “nigger” (racial slur), 7–8, 24, 30, 35, 77, 100–101, 228 “nigger lover,” 90 Nigger Miles (inmate guard), 42 Nightly News (TV program), 316 19th Judicial District Court, Baton Rouge, 169, 218, 234, 277, 289–92, 296, 350, 373 90-day review board.

Chapter 14 Angola, 1971 Prison is designed to break one’s spirit and destroy one’s resolve. To do this, the authorities attempt to exploit every weakness, demolish every initiative, negate all signs of individuality—all with the idea of stamping out that spark that makes each of us human and each of us who we are. Our survival depended on understanding what the authorities were attempting to do to us, and sharing that understanding with each other. —Nelson Mandela Nothing had changed at Angola. Sexual slavery was still a part of prison culture. Violence was still a constant threat. Armed inmate guards were still in use, on cellblocks, in guard towers, on horseback in the fields. Stabbings and beatings happened every day. Angola was the same. But I was different. I came with orders to start a chapter of the Black Panther Party. I was told to resist, educate, agitate.

We both came to the conclusion that everything we’d been through was necessary. We knew that we were not locked up in a cell 23 hours a day because of what we did. We were there because of who we were. Sacrifice was required in order to achieve change. Neither of us had any regrets. We never talked about it again. Around this time, Goldy was released from Angola. Months later we heard he died on the street using dope. 1980s Nelson Mandela taught me that if you have a noble cause, you are able to carry the weight of the world on your shoulders. Malcolm X taught me that it doesn’t matter where you start out; what matters is where you end up. George Jackson taught me that if you’re not willing to die for what you believe in, you don’t believe in anything. Chapter 27 “I Got You” Living in concrete you get used to noise.


pages: 391 words: 117,984

The Blue Sweater: Bridging the Gap Between Rich and Poor in an Interconnected World by Jacqueline Novogratz

access to a mobile phone, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, business process, business process outsourcing, clean water, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, Hernando de Soto, Kibera, Lao Tzu, market design, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, transaction costs, zero-sum game

(April 16, 1963) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (General Assembly of the United Nations, December 10, 1948) LIBERTY AND SOCIAL ORDER “The Contrariness of the Mad Farmer” by Wendell Berry in Farming: A Hand Book (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich) “Democracy” by Langston Hughes Leviathan by Thomas Hobbes “Message to the Congress of Angostura, 1819” by Simón Bolívar The Prince by Niccolò Machiavelli “Two Concepts of Liberty” by Isaiah Berlin (address before University of Oxford, October 31, 1958) EQUALITY AND THE QUEST FOR SOCIAL JUSTICE The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Democracy in America by Alexis de Tocqueville Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela by Nelson Mandela (Little, Brown and Company) “O Yes” by Tillie Olsen in Tell Me a Riddle (Random House) The Social Contract by Jean-Jacques Rousseau COMMUNITY AND THE SEARCH FOR HUMANITY The Book of Genesis The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism “How to Write about Africa” by Binyavanga Wainaina (Granta 92, Winter 2005) On Identity by Amin Maalouf (Harvill Panther) Silent Spring by Rachel Carson (Houghton Mifflin) “Speech upon Receiving the Philadelphia Liberty Medal” by Václav Havel (July 4, 1994) PROPERTY AND PRODUCTIVITY Development as Freedom by Amartya Sen (Anchor) Equality and Efficiency: The Big Tradeoff by Arthur M.

They allowed me to believe we could—and therefore must—create a world in which every person on the planet has access to the resources needed to shape their own lives. For this is where dignity starts. Not only for the very poor, but for all of us. CHAPTER 1 INNOCENT ABROAD “There is no passion to be found playing small in settling for a life that is less than the one you are capable of living.” —NELSON MANDELA It all started with the blue sweater, the one my uncle Ed gave me. He was like Santa to me, even in the middle of July. Of soft blue wool, with stripes on the sleeves and an African motif across the front—two zebras walking in front of a snowcapped mountain—the sweater made me dream of places far away. I hadn’t heard of Mount Kilimanjaro, nor did I have any idea that Africa would one day find a prominent place in my heart.

Slowly, with each foot feeling the ground beneath it, I walked out of the temple and into the light. CHAPTER 9 BLUE PAINT ON THE ROAD “There are only two mistakes one can make along the road to truth; not going all the way, and not starting.” —BUDDHA In 1994, along with the rest of the world, I witnessed the horror of the Rwandan genocide, as well as the brilliant inspiration of Nelson Mandela’s forgiveness of his captors and historic inauguration in South Africa. Coupled with an unfortunate encounter with personal violence on the beach in Tanzania, these contradictory events solidified a worldview that was growing more complex, grounded in the recognition of the potential for both good and evil in each one of us. On a bleak midwinter day in New York City, I received a call from Dan Toole, my old friend from Rwanda days, who was then second in command at UNICEF’s Tanzania office: “I need you to come for a month and review a microfinance program we’ve helped the government implement across the country.


pages: 437 words: 115,594

The Great Surge: The Ascent of the Developing World by Steven Radelet

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, colonial rule, creative destruction, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, off grid, oil shock, out of africa, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, women in the workforce, working poor

Where new leaders at all levels of society stepped forward to forge change, developing countries began to build more effective institutions and make progress. Where old dictators stayed in place, or new tyrants stepped in to replace the old, political and economic systems remained rigged. Strong leadership, smart policy choices, and committed and courageous action at the village, local, and national levels made all the difference in beginning to build the institutions needed to ignite and sustain progress. New national leaders such as Nelson Mandela of South Africa, Cory Aquino of the Philippines, Oscar Arias of Costa Rica, Lech Wałesa of Poland, and many others worked to build new and more inclusive political systems while introducing stronger economic management. Civil-society and religious leaders like Rigoberta Menchú Tum of Guatemala, Desmond Tutu of South Africa, Muhammad Yunus of Bangladesh, Jaime Sin of the Philippines, and Wangari Maathai of Kenya gave greater voice to everyday citizens and pushed for expanded economic opportunities for the poor.

Archbishop Desmond Tutu called for justice in South Africa and beyond. Citizens in developing countries were not just angry. They were now emboldened. The push to democracy was on. THE SPREAD OF DEMOCRACY Changes began to unfurl around the world. Namibia gained its independence from South Africa and held its first elections for a new assembly the same day that the Berlin Wall fell. In February 1990—just twelve weeks later—South Africa released Nelson Mandela from jail. The apartheid government, propped up for so long by anticommunist fervor, followed its arch-nemesis the Soviet Union into the dustbin of history. Democracy spread across Africa: to Benin, Mali, Zambia, Lesotho, and Malawi. Czechoslovakia launched its Velvet Revolution against the ruling Communist Party just a week after the Wall fell, and just eleven days later, the government announced it would relinquish power and dismantle the single-party state.

Hungary elected a new parliament and sent a hundred thousand Soviet troops home. Within two years, new governments swept into power in Bulgaria, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine, and several other countries. The effects went well beyond Eastern Europe. In South Africa, within days of the fall of the Wall, President F. W. de Klerk called together his cabinet to discuss legalizing the African National Congress Party and freeing Nelson Mandela. They did so twelve weeks later. When Mobutu Sese Seko—one of Africa’s most ruthless dictators—watched television coverage of Ceauşescu’s execution, he reportedly concluded that his own regime was in trouble. He soon announced steps toward “democratization.” Augusto Pinochet, who had grabbed power in Chile in a US-supported 1973 coup d’état against the Socialist-Marxist leadership of Salvador Allende, was forced to relinquish power to a new elected government in December 1989.


pages: 297 words: 69,467

Dreyer's English: An Utterly Correct Guide to Clarity and Style by Benjamin Dreyer

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Albert Einstein, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, elephant in my pajamas, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Jane Jacobs, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, non-fiction novel, Norman Mailer, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities

There’s a sentence, reputed to have shown up in The Times,*6 often schlepped out in defense of the series comma, and though I’m weary of seeing it, I schlep it out myself to point out its weakness as a series-comma defense. So here it is, hopefully for the last time in all our lives, though I doubt it: Highlights of his global tour include encounters with Nelson Mandela, an 800-year-old demigod and a dildo collector. Oh la la, one is intended to merrily note, is Nelson Mandela really an eight-hundred-year-old demigod and a dildo collector? Oh la la, I note, even if one sets a series comma, as in: Highlights of his global tour include encounters with Nelson Mandela, an 800-year-old demigod, and a dildo collector. Mandela can still be an eight-hundred-year-old demigod. Some sentences don’t need to be repunctuated; they need to be rewritten.*7 7. Re the school of “Apply the series comma when it’s needed for clarity and not when it’s not needed for clarity”: 7a.

*6  The Times is a U.K. newspaper whose name is not, never has been, and likely never will be The London Times. The New York Times is an American newspaper that you may refer to, familiarly, as “the Times,” no matter that it persists in referring to itself, grandly and pushily, as The Times. *7  “Highlights of his global tour include encounters with a dildo collector, an 800-year-old demigod, and Nelson Mandela.” Was that so hard? And seriously: What sort of global tour was that? *8  When Alan Bennett’s 1991 play The Madness of George III was filmed, we’re told, the title was tweaked to The Madness of King George so as not to alienate potential attendees—especially ignorant Yanks—who hadn’t seen The Madness of George and The Madness of George II. Though many such too-good-to-be-true stories turn out to be utter malarkey, this one’s partly for real


Because We Say So by Noam Chomsky

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Chelsea Manning, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Powell Memorandum, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Slavoj Žižek, Stanislav Petrov, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

The scope is illustrated by the first Guantánamo case to come to trial under President Obama: that of Omar Khadr, a former child soldier accused of the heinous crime of trying to defend his Afghan village when it was attacked by U.S. forces. Captured at age 15, Khadr was imprisoned for eight years in Bagram and Guantánamo, then brought to a military court in October 2010, where he was given the choice of pleading not guilty and staying in Guantánamo forever, or pleading guilty and serving only eight more years. Khadr chose the latter. Many other examples illuminate the concept of “terrorist.” One is Nelson Mandela, only removed from the terrorist list in 2008. Another was Saddam Hussein. In 1982 Iraq was removed from the list of terrorist-supporting states so that the Reagan administration could provide Hussein with aid after he invaded Iran. Accusation is capricious, without review or recourse, and commonly reflecting policy goals—in Mandela’s case, to justify President Reagan’s support for the apartheid state’s crimes in defending itself against one of the world’s “more notorious terrorist groups”: Mandela’s African National Congress.

A remarkable illustration of this rapid inversion of history is the American reaction to the current atrocities in Fallujah. The dominant theme is the pain about the sacrifices, in vain, of the American soldiers who fought and died to liberate Fallujah. A look at the news reports of the U.S. assaults on Fallujah in 2004 quickly reveals that these were among the most vicious and disgraceful war crimes of that aggression. The death of Nelson Mandela provides another occasion for reflection on the remarkable impact of what has been called “historical engineering”: reshaping the facts of history to serve the needs of power. When Mandela at last obtained his freedom, he declared that “during all my years in prison, Cuba was an inspiration and Fidel Castro a tower of strength. . . . [Cuban victories] destroyed the myth of the invincibility of the white oppressor [and] inspired the fighting masses of South Africa . . . a turning point for the liberation of our continent—and of my people—from the scourge of apartheid. . . .

., 31 Mearsheimer, John, 158 Meir, Golda, 77 Menachem Begin, 69 Mexico, 39, 42–43, 116, 147, 154 Miami, 124, 137 Micronesia, 86, 141 Middle East, 35–36, 58, 60, 65, 74, 83–87, 117, 153–154, 176, 183, 190 Mill, John Stuart, 145, 149 Mladic, Ratko, 46 Molina, Perez, 42 Monroe Doctrine, 41 Montt, Rios, 110, 111 Morales, Evo, 121–122 Morgenthau, 129–130 Morsi, Mohammed, 74, 75 Moscow, 55, 61 Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, 132 Moyn, Samuel, 47–48 Mozambique, 99 Mubarak, Hosni, 74 Mukhabarat, 99 Murray, William, 138 Namibia, 156 Nasr, Hassan Mustafa Osama, 124 National Defense Authorization Act, 32 Negev, 27–28 Nelson Mandela, 155 Netanyahu, Benjamin, 185 Nevada, 86 New Spirit of the Age, 53 Nicaragua, 111, 113, 180–181 Nicolaides, Kypros, 47 Nile Valley, 189 Nixon, Richard, 24, 64 Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), 60, 84 Norman Ornstein, 135 North American Free Trade Agreement, 116 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 25, 160, 163–164, 171 Northern Laos, 31, 108 NPT, 35, 65, 84, 86, 139–141 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), 35, 65, 84, 139 Nuremberg Trials, 31, 131, 155 Nystrom, Paul, 54 Obama, Barack, 32, 52, 63, 65, 85–86, 105, 107, 128, 129, 131, 139, 140, 154, 158, 159, 166, 169, 171, 174, 175, 179, 181, 185, 186 Okinawa, 55 Oklahoma, 166 Olmert, Ehud, 71, 73 Olstrom, Elinor, 53 Open Society Institute, 124 Operation Cast Lead, 70, 71, 186 Operation Gatekeeper, 116 Operation Mongoose, 56 Operation Pillar of Defense, 79, 184 Operation Protective Edge, 185 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 62 Organization of American States (OAS), 41, 121 Orwell, George, 26, 29 Oslo, 125 Oslo Accords, 70, 73, 75, 82, 125, 127 Oslo process, 127 Owl of Minerva, 189 Pacific Rim, 53 Pakistan, 35, 57, 106–107, 116, 153, 160, 192 Palau, 86, 128, 141 Palestine, 71, 79, 99, 101, 103, 117, 127–128, 161, 184–185 Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), 125 Panetta, Leon, 59 Pantucci, Raffaello, 81 Parry, Robert, 110 Pashtuns, 116 Peace Union of Finland, 85 Pearl Harbor, 29 Peck, James, 45, 48 People’s Summit, 54 Peres, Shimon, 127 Peri, Yoram, 69 Petersen, Alexandros, 81 Petrov, Stanislav, 164 Philippines, 108 Phoenicia, 189 Portugal, 42, 121 Powell, Lewis, 39 Power, Samantha, 132 Pretoria, 156 Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, 158 Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA), 21, 22 Putin, Vladimir V., 129, 169, 171 Rabbani, Mouin, 183 Rabin, Yitzhak, 125, 127 Rafah Crossing, 74, 75 Raz, Avi, 77 Reagan, Ronald, 32, 109–111, 163, 175 Red Crescent, 46 Reilly, John, 23 Republicans, 28, 135–136 Riedel, Bruce, 35 Rio+20 Conference, 54 Roberts, Leslie, 106 Rocker, Rudolf, 146, 149 Romney, Mitt, 64, 83 Rose, Frank, 141 Ross, Dennis, 87, 126, 128 Rousseff, Dilma, 121 Roy, Sara, 72, 101 Rubinstein, Danny, 127 Rudoren, Jodi, 141 Rumsfeld, Donald, 178 Russia, 23, 25, 33, 56, 61, 140, 163–164, 171–172 Ryan, Paul, 62 Sakharov, Andrei D., 47 Samidin, 76 San Diego, 158 Sanger, David E., 141 Santos, Juan Manuel, 42 Saudi Arabia, 23, 60, 166, 190 Scahill, Jeremy, 107 Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr., 55, 138 Schlosser, Eric, 164 Schneider, Nathan, 147 Seko, Mobutu Sese, 180 Shafi, Haidar Abdul, 125 Shalit, Gilad, 27, 79 Shane, Scott, 52 Shehadeh, Raja, 70, 99 Sick, Gary, 57 Silk Road, 85 Sinai Peninsula, 77 Singapore, 91 Smith, Adam, 38, 91, 146 Snowden, Edward J., 121–123, 157, 173–176 Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr I., 47 Sourani, Raji, 71, 74, 82, 183 South Africa, 21, 25, 110, 155–156 South Vietnam, 29–30, 45 Soviet Union, 48, 164, 175 Spain, 121, 147 Sponeck, Hans von, 189 Stearns, Monteagle, 107 Stevenson, Adlai III, 161 Stiglitz, Joseph E., 38 Stratcom, 164–165 Stratfor, 46 Summer Olympics, 45 Sweden, 61 Swift, Jonathan, 62 Sykes-Picot Agreement, 115 Syria, 117, 131, 154, 177, 180, 189–190 Taiwan, 37, 91 Taksim Square, 118–119 Taliban, 178–179 Tehran, 65, 84, 141 Telhami, Shibley 141, 159 Tigris, 189 Trans-Pacific Partnership, 159 Trilateral Commission, 39 Tripoli, 137 Truman Doctrine, 175 Tsarnaev, Dzhokhar, 105 Turkey, 25, 33, 49, 56, 85, 118, 140, 170 U.K., 35 Ukraine, 169, 171 Union Carbide, 46 Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), 121 United Nations (U.N.), 30, 128, 132, 137 U.N.


pages: 613 words: 151,140

No Such Thing as Society by Andy McSmith

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Brixton riot, call centre, cuban missile crisis, Etonian, F. W. de Klerk, Farzad Bazoft, feminist movement, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, full employment, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, greed is good, illegal immigration, index card, John Bercow, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Live Aid, loadsamoney, long peace, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, old-boy network, popular capitalism, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, Sloane Ranger, South Sea Bubble, spread of share-ownership, strikebreaker, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban decay, Winter of Discontent, young professional

Dammers also devoted three years to putting together another Special AKA album, In The Studio, issued in 1984, which was a commercial failure, though one track has enduring fame. This was ‘Free Nelson Mandela’, a rare example of a popular song that called for the release of a political prisoner. The venture left the record company with heavy debts. Dammers stopped making records and diverted his energies into Artists Against Apartheid. He was the main organizer of a concert held in Wembley Stadium in 1988 to mark Mandela’s seventieth birthday. Mandela spent his birthday in prison, with no release date, which Spitting Image noted by making a spoof version of the Dammers song in which, instead of singing ‘Free Nelson Mandela’, latex puppets with Afrikaans accents sang ‘still basically locked up Nelson Mandela’. Elvis Costello, who had produced The Specials’ debut album, also had a huge hit in 1979 with an anti-militarist song called ‘Oliver’s Army’, and in 1983 he had a hit under the pseudonym ‘The Imposter’ with the track ‘Pills and Soap’, which was aimed at putting voters off re-electing Thatcher.

In the circumstances, it might be expected that right-wing opinion would also carry the day on other issues, such as sexual morality or race relations. Perhaps surprisingly, this did not happen. People who were basking in the experience of having ‘loadsamoney’ may have been selfish, but they were not trying to force everyone else to be like them. Race and sexuality were the greatest social issues of the 1980s, and on both counts society was more liberal at the end of the decade than at the start. In the final years of Nelson Mandela’s long imprisonment an increasing number of white Britons saw him as a prisoner of conscience, despite the prime minister’s unchanging belief that he was the head of a terrorist organization. It is claimed that gays suffered a setback at the government’s hands with the introduction of Clause 28, which banned local authorities from ‘promoting’ homosexuality. Gay men suffered something much worse than a setback in the 1980s, not from bigots, but from the AIDS epidemic, while Clause 28 had almost no effect on them.

It was very uncertain that any satellite television could make a profit in Britain, competing against four well-established terrestrial channels; two rival satellite channels would have been doomed to fail. Before Sky was launched, twenty-four-hour rolling news bulletins were unknown and there was a great deal of scepticism about whether or not the public needed the service, but Sky was blessed in its early years by such events as the collapse of communism, the release of Nelson Mandela, the World Cup and the fall of Thatcher, all of which suited the twenty-four-hour format well. As the press barons and television companies thrived, so did members of an unloved profession that feasted off them – the libel lawyers. Britain’s libel laws have been the recipient of endless criticism, because it is so much easier to sue than to defend a libel case. In the latter half of the 1980s, they had the additional cachet that juries were awarding higher and higher damages so that, in the absence of a national lottery, one of the most obvious ways to get rich quickly was to be libelled.


When Cultures Collide: Leading Across Cultures by Richard D. Lewis

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, business climate, business process, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, global village, haute cuisine, hiring and firing, invention of writing, lateral thinking, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, old-boy network, open borders, profit maximization, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

Changing Notions of Leadership In the twenty-first century, with multinationals and conglomerates expanding their global reach, corporate governance and international teams will learn a lot about leading multicultural enterprises and workforces. The new impetus provided by fresh managers from Asia, Russia, Poland, Hungary, East European states, Latin America and Africa will change notions of leadership as will the increasing number of women in management positions. At cross-century, two of the world’s most respected leaders—Nelson Mandela and Kofi Annan—were African. The ultimate numerical superiority of nonwhite leaders, already significant in the political world, will permeate business. Based on Singapore’s commercial success and development within a given time frame, Lee Kuan Yew stakes a reasonable claim to have been the most successful “manager” of the last three decades of the twentieth century. His tenets were largely those enshrined in Asian precepts.

Kings and queens often commanded blind allegiance from their subjects down through the centuries, from Boadicea and Henry V to Peter the Great and Queen Victoria. Japanese samurai, in their allegiance to their lord, were faithful unto death and demonstrated that quality regularly, as indeed did the cavalry and foot soldiers of Napoleon Bonaparte. Great leaders captivated willing disciples through sheer charisma—Alexander the Great, Caesar, Tamerlane, Hernan Cortés, Simón Bolívar, Kemal Atatürk, Mahatma Gandhi, Winston Churchill, Chou-en-Lai and Nelson Mandela are a few who come to mind. In the modern era, business leaders have occasionally shown the charismatic and visionary leadership that attracts loyal followers; examples are Henry Ford, Akio Morita, Konosuke Matsushita and Richard Branson. Religion has also played a major role in mass-motivation throughout the historical era. Twenty-First Century Aspirations If you consider the main cultural categories I introduced in Chapter 3— linear-active, multi-active and reactive—you can discern differences in the motivational patterns of cultural groups in each category, both in terms of traditional features and developing aspirations as a new century of opportunity gets under way.

While they are not as well educated as the whites, they are very well educated in comparison with the rest of Africa, and their incomes are higher than other Africans. Furthermore, among the 50 percent who are already urbanized, there is a substantial and rapidly growing middle class. Their access to government posts and the international contact this will bring AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND AND SOUTH AFRICA 217 will quickly add to their experience and sophistication. Nelson Mandela himself is a shining example of a black South African politician. South Africa’s gross domestic product (GDP) is already four times that of the combined GDP of the ten other countries of southern Africa. Black South Africans Because black South Africans are playing—and will continue to play—such a vital role in the development of the nation, I will emphasize this group above the whites, Indians, and Coloureds.


pages: 346 words: 101,255

The Big Necessity: The Unmentionable World of Human Waste and Why It Matters by Rose George

American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Anton Chekhov, Bob Geldof, Celtic Tiger, clean water, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, informal economy, job satisfaction, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, land reform, low cost airline, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, Pepto Bismol, Potemkin village, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Steven Pinker, urban planning

I try to market the subject like a religion.” Religion needs a charismatic high priest, so Sim plans to turn to Bollywood or Hollywood. “I think for us to come to terms with the fact that we go to the toilet would be quite easy. It only needs a few movie stars to talk openly about it.” Talk to anyone who is trying to improve the world’s sanitation, and this idea will become a refrain. We need a champion. A Bono or a Geldof. A Nelson Mandela or an Angelina Jolie. A film star or a politician who has the courage to talk about toilets, when most people only want to talk about faucets. The Netherlands-based International Water and Sanitation Center recently listed celebrities who do charity work for water. Hollywood star Matt Damon has launched the NGO H2O, whose mission is to “bring clean water to Africa.” In the music world, the rapper Jay-Z did a three-part series for MTV on the world’s water crisis.

Yet when the MDGs were announced, there was a notable absence. HIV/AIDS killed fewer children than sanitation-related disease, but sanitation was nowhere to be seen. An impact needed to be made. At the AfricaSan conference, a video was played. It showed an old man washing the hands of a young girl. It was nothing that hadn’t been seen on a thousand UNICEF videos. Then the camera pulled away and the old man was shown to be Nelson Mandela, who said, “Now we must all wash our hands.” In the words of one audience member, the effect was “Wow. Bang.” (That a not very creative video could be “Wow” showed how stagnant and unloved the sanitation sector felt.) The effect was strengthened by colorful photo opportunities, including one that featured Richard Jolly and Ronnie Kasrils seated on toilets brandishing toilet paper. Stunts, admittedly, but they made sanitation visible because no one had done such things before.

I don’t know who decided that low-cost airlines had to try to be funny, but they did and they do. The flight attendant says, “We have landed in Cape Town. If that’s not where you want to be, that’s your problem.” We do want to be here, partly to meet Trevor’s daughter, the presidential hopeful. We’re also here to meet Shoni, an old acquaintance who got in touch after hearing the radio interview. Shoni is a manager at Robben Island, Nelson Mandela’s former prison, and gives us free tickets to visit. “I can’t accompany you, I’m afraid,” he says over dinner. “I have to take the president of Singapore on a tour.” The next morning, we arrive at Robben Island as the president is leaving. Trevor tells people that he runs the South African Toilet Organization, though there isn’t yet any such thing. But Shoni has told this to the president, who knows Jack Sim and the WTO and wants to meet Trevor.


pages: 513 words: 156,022

Dictatorland: The Men Who Stole Africa by Paul Kenyon

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, falling living standards, friendly fire, land reform, mandatory minimum, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade, Yom Kippur War

But a new generation was coming of age, young Africans who had been educated, like Mugabe, in the few educational establishments available to them, the missionary schools, and who now wanted a say in the running of their country. Mugabe, who at one stage had considered entering the priesthood, was still unsure of his own future. At the age of twenty-five he won a scholarship to Fort Hare University College in South Africa’s Eastern Cape, an elite establishment that would ignite the political senses of several future African nationalist leaders. The ANC’s Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo had studied there ten years earlier, and when Mugabe arrived, he was plunged into a campus burning with anti-imperialist fervour. He devoured Marxist literature and became captivated by Mahatma Ghandi and Jawaharlal Nehru’s campaign of nonviolence in India. But Mugabe was still deeply conservative. When he returned to Rhodesia in 1955, he took no part in the growing protests over British rule in what had become the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, an uneasy grouping of three territories – Northern and Southern Rhodesia and the tiny protectorate of Nyasaland – governed as a unit by a knight from Kent, Sir Godfrey Huggins.

Gone was the quiet restraint, the gentle tug on the sleeve that counselled ‘no’ to his wildest schemes, the homely feasts of custard and tea on the veranda. In marched a princess who thought she was entitled to whatever she wished. Grace Mugabe’s marriage to the Zimbabwean president in 1996 was billed, by state-controlled Zimbabwe papers, as the ‘wedding of the century’. Six thousand guests arrived in Harare from across the world, including Nelson Mandela. It wasn’t long before the new First Lady began taking advantage of her position. Mugabe himself had toured the country searching for land for his new wife even before the wedding. Now she joined him. First to catch her eye was a 1,000-acre estate called Highfields, which she bought from a willing seller. But it wasn’t enough. Grace wanted the country’s largest dairy farm, and, after violent intimidation, the white owners were forced out.

Later Gaddafi converted her room into a shrine, with glass casing placed over her damaged bed. On the rough ground in front of the bombed-out building, he erected a defiant memorial, a 15-foot golden arm with its fist crushing an F-111. It became a backdrop for countless speeches, photo-calls and visits from international statesmen, some more surprising than others. After being released from a South African jail in 1990, Nelson Mandela was eager to visit Gaddafi to thank him personally for helping train and fund ANC fighters. Brushing aside a UN air ban on Libya, Mandela gained access by road, driving across the border from Tunisia. Gaddafi’s international reputation was at an all-time low, and he seized the moment for a PR coup: the universally admired African leader meets the misunderstood outcast. He took Mandela to Bab al-Azizia and the two men were photographed holding hands and punching the air in front of the damage inflicted by the US Air Force.


pages: 470 words: 148,444

The World as It Is: A Memoir of the Obama White House by Ben Rhodes

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, demand response, different worldview, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, illegal immigration, intangible asset, Mahatma Gandhi, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

“We’re sixty percent pregnant across the region,” I said, and ticked off a list of complaints that I’d been keeping in my head over the last year. “We’re half in on Middle East peace, on Syria, on Egypt, on the pursuit of a nuclear agreement with Iran. We have to go big.” He asked me to follow him back to his private dining room, where we could continue the conversation while he ate lunch. There on the wall was a painting of Lincoln, deep in thought, consulting Grant at the height of the Civil War; a photo of Obama meeting Nelson Mandela; a pair of boxing gloves used by Muhammad Ali. Obama sat at the table while I remained standing. I worried that I was overstepping my bounds. On Middle East peace, he told me, he had tried repeatedly, but Bibi wouldn’t make a deal. On Syria, he kept asking for them, but there were no good options. “And on Iran,” he said, “what do you want me to do? Give a speech offering to recognize their right to enrich [uranium]” in return for easing sanctions?

In one of the more brazen acts that I’d experienced in my job, the Emirati ambassador to the United States, Yousef Al Otaiba—a man treated as a leading voice on the affairs of the region in the corridors of power in Washington—sent me a photo of a poster that cast Patterson in this light with no other message attached. Morsi sounded tired but defiant as Obama spoke to him from the makeshift NSC office. Obama urged him to do something to reach out to his growing opposition, some gesture at a unity government that could hold the country together. “You know,” he said, “I just left South Africa, where Nelson Mandela is in the hospital and is very sick. You know when he came to power he could have gone to the white minority in South Africa and said, ‘We are now the majority and we’re going to do what we want. We’ll follow the rules but you are a small minority in this country.’ But he didn’t do this. He went out of his way to reach out to the minority. He even put his former prison guard, the man who had been the warden of the prison where he had been held, in charge of the security services.

In meetings, once again, I was in a small minority of people arguing on behalf of democracy in Egypt, saying that we should label it a coup for the sake of our credibility; I lost the argument, and I didn’t press the point. As with intervention in Syria, my heart wasn’t entirely in it anymore. I could tell which way the argument was going to go, and which way events were going. Obama was the most powerful man in the world, but that didn’t mean he could control the forces at play in the Middle East. There was no Nelson Mandela who could lead a country to absolution for its sins and ours. Extremist forces were exploiting the Arab Spring. Reactionary forces—with deep reservoirs of political support in the United States—were intent on clinging to power. Bashar al-Assad was going to fight to the death, backed by his Russian and Iranian sponsors. Factions were going to fight it out in the streets of Libya. The Saudis and Emiratis were going to stamp out political dissent in Egypt before it could come to their kingdoms.


pages: 276 words: 78,061

Worth Dying For: The Power and Politics of Flags by Tim Marshall

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, white picket fence

Here was a moment in history, a moment made up of a thousand collective decisions adding up to the future of a nation, to life and death. One of those decisions was made by Fred. He is a quiet, unassuming man, not prone to flights of fancy or hyperbole, which is perhaps why, when the challenge came, he rose to it. His moment began when the phone rang at his home in Pretoria on a Saturday night in February 1994. President de Klerk was on his way out, Nelson Mandela was already out of prison and about to rise to the highest office in the land, and the new South Africa needed a new flag. The existing one had been based on the Dutch flag and was so identified with both colonialism and the apartheid government that it had to go. The phone call came after 7,000 designs had been rejected and the ideas of graphic design studios had failed to come up with the answer.

Acutely aware of the sensitivities of the decision, he felt it was not one he could take on his own, and so showed them to a hastily convened Cabinet meeting, which chose the version we now know. This was then sent to the chief ANC negotiator, Cyril Ramaphosa. He, understanding that the decision on what would be the symbolic embodiment of the new nation needed to have the blessing of the physical embodiment of the new era, in turn faxed it to Nelson Mandela. At this point one of those fascinating details of history enters the story. This was before emails were in widespread use and faxes were in black and white. Fred chuckled as he retold what happened next, although at the time he was oblivious to it. ‘Mr Mandela was up in the north-east when the fax came through. Someone there had to run down to the local shop, buy some colouring pencils, then come back and colour in the fax.

There were about 100,000 flagpoles in the country, all of which would require the new flag to be flown on the day of the changeover, but the country could only produce 5,000 a week, which would leave three-quarters of the flagpoles embarrassingly naked. Dutch factories stepped in and saved the day, but not before using up Europe’s stock of flag-making materials. And the result? ‘There was initially a muted reaction from the public’, says the designer, but in the weeks between polling day and Nelson Mandela’s inauguration as President, the design and the colours began to seep into the collective consciousness: ‘Within a matter of two or three weeks attitudes changed, and in many cases people began to have a fond attachment to it. Now people have bought into it – after all, colours are a psychological component of life, part of the essence of life.’ And is he proud of this? ‘Well, I was doing what I considered to be my job.


pages: 251 words: 76,225

The Geek Feminist Revolution by Kameron Hurley

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, clean water, commoditize, desegregation, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, Kickstarter, means of production, Nelson Mandela, Skype, women in the workforce

But you can be less of an enemy, a more welcoming villain, a force for good and change who fades quietly ahead of the onslaught of new, more powerful voices you helped over the wall. You can learn how to get out of the way, instead of impeding them. Terrorist or Revolutionary? Deciding Who Gets to Write History Before he was the first democratically elected president of South Africa and a symbol for peaceful resistance, Nelson Mandela was a terrorist. This is not rhetoric, or a purposefully inflammatory statement. It’s just fact. The government of South Africa and the U.S. government, among others, categorized the African National Congress, the party to which Mandela belonged, as a terrorist organization, and Mandela and his colleagues were terrorists. I spent nearly two years in South Africa studying South African resistance movements.

If I shut the fuck up, then all the people you quote, all the people who write the postnarrative, the big pieces that folks look back on to create the history and narrative of an event, even a successful one, will be made by the powerful, influential people who believe their hurt feelings at being called out as problematic somehow outweigh the concerns of an entire community of folks with no media pull and no platform whose voices have been marginalized their whole lives and who are now being reduced to a crazy, screaming, angry mob acting up out of nowhere instead of a passionate community of folks reacting to an event they see as existing on a problematic continuum. We have a strange habit of falling back on “civility,” as if every social movement was entirely civil. Like unions didn’t bust up on scabs. Like Nelson Mandela didn’t blow shit up.5 Like MLK would tell us all to shut the fuck up,6 and women never chained themselves to the fences in city squares, stormed political buildings, or committed acts of arson and violence in an effort to achieve suffrage. Surprise! My specialization is in the history of revolutionary movements, and let me tell you, folks—being nice and holding hands didn’t get shit done.

Cora Buhlert, “The media spin machine at full power or This is totally not what happened,” corabuhlert.com, http://corabuhlert.com/2014/03/07/the-media-spin-machine-at-full-power-or-this-is-totally-not-what-happened/. 4. Michael Hogan, “It really is time people stopped hating Jonathan Ross,” The Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/men/thinking-man/10679808/It-really-is-time-people-stopped-hating-Jonathan-Ross.html. 5. Douglas O. Linder, “The Nelson Mandela (Rivonia) Trial: An Account,” University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) School of Law, http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/mandela/mandelaaccount.html. 6. Matt Berman, “The Forgotten, Radical Martin Luther King Jr.” National Journal, http://www.nationaljournal.com/politics/the-forgotten-radical-martin-luther-king-jr-20140120. We Have Always Fought: Challenging the “Woman, Cattle, and Slaves” Narrative 1.


pages: 137 words: 36,231

Information: A Very Short Introduction by Luciano Floridi

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, carbon footprint, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, industrial robot, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of writing, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Laplace demon, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, Nelson Mandela, Norbert Wiener, Pareto efficiency, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Thomas Bayes, Turing machine, Vilfredo Pareto

Guelzo LINGUISTICS Peter Matthews LITERARYTHEORY Jonathan Culler LOCKE John Dunn LOGIC Graham Priest MACHIAVELLI Quentin Skinner THE MARQUIS DE SADE John Phillips MARX Peter Singer MATHEMATICS Timothy Gowers THE MEANING OF LIFE TerryEagleton MEDICAL ETHICS Tony Hope MEDIEVAL BRITAIN John Gillingham and Ralph A. Griffiths MEMORY Jonathan K. Foster MODERN ART David Cottington MODERN CHINA RanaMitter MODERN IRELAND Senia Paseta MODERN JAPAN Christopher Goto-Jones MOLECULES Philip Ball MORMONISM Richard Lyman Bushman MUSIC Nicholas Cook MYTH Robert A. Segal NATIONALISM Steven Crosby NELSON MANDELA Elleke Boehmer NEOLI BERALISM Manfred Steger and Ravi Roy THE NEW TESTAMENT AS LITERATURE Kyle Keefer NEWTON RobertIliffe NIETZSCHE Michael Tanner NINETEENTH-CENTURY BRITAIN Christopher Harvie and H. C. G. Matthew THE NORMAN CONQUEST George Garnett NORTHERN IRELAND Marc Mulholland NOTHING Frank Close NUCLEAR WEAPONS Joseph M. Siracusa THE OLD TESTAMENT Michael D. Coogan PARTICLE PHYSICS Frank Close PAUL E.

The New Testament as Literature 169. American Political Parties and Elections 170. Bestsellers 171. Geopolitics 172. Antisemitism 173. Game Theory 174. HIV/AIDS 175. Documentary Film 176. Modern China 177. The Quakers 178. German Literature 179. Nuclear Weapons 180. Law 181. The Old Testament 182. Galaxies 183. Mormonism 184. Religion in America 185. Geography 186. The Meaning of Life 187. Sexuality 188. Nelson Mandela 189. Science and Religion 190. Relativity 191. History of Medicine 192. Citizenship 193. The History of Life 194. Memory 195. Autism 196. Statistics 197. Scotland 198. Catholicism 199. The United Nations 200. Free Speech 201. The Apocryphal Gospels 202. Modern Japan 203. Lincoln 204. Superconductivity 205. Nothing 206. Biography 207. The Soviet Union 208. Writing and Script 209.


pages: 117 words: 36,809

Help by Simon Amstell

Nelson Mandela, Stephen Hawking

Years later, having achieved this, I had a minor meltdown on live radio, which, having thought about it, was possibly about my ‘safe space’ – showbusiness, a place of endless joy and freedom – suddenly seeming unbearably dull and possibly racist. At the end of last year, I was promoting my stand-up special numb on the Radio 1 breakfast show. It happened to be the morning of Nelson Mandela’s death, which of course was very sad and shocking news. Even though he was ninety-five and human. I was asked not to make any jokes about it, which confused and upset me because I’m not an insensitive lunatic, I’m a brilliant, vulnerable clown. On the way to the studio, I walked past the ‘urban’ music station, 1 Xtra, where I saw black people in a booth (this is not their jingle). Then I arrived at the Radio 1 studio, which was exclusively white people in a booth. Nelson Mandela had just died. Black people in one booth, white people in a separate, nicer booth. And I thought, Don’t mention that. The host of the show told me he hadn’t written any questions, so opened with a story about a sandwich that he’d eaten.


pages: 161 words: 37,042

Viruses: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions) by Crawford, Dorothy H.

clean water, coronavirus, discovery of penicillin, Francisco Pizarro, hygiene hypothesis, Louis Pasteur, megacity, Nelson Mandela, stem cell

Griffiths MEMORY • Jonathan K. Foster MICHAEL FARADAY • Frank A. J. L. James MODERN ART • David Cottington MODERN C Portals of virus entry into the human body–0SHINA • Rana Mitter MODERN IRELAND • Senia Paseta MODERN JAPAN • Christopher Goto-Jones MODERNISM • Christopher Butler MOLECULES • Philip Ball MORMONISM • Richard Lyman Bushman MUSIC • Nicholas Cook MYTH • Robert A. Segal NATIONALISM • Steven Grosby NELSON MANDELA • Elleke Boehmer NEOLIBERALISM • Manfred Steger and Ravi Roy THE NEW TESTAMENT • Luke Timothy Johnson THE NEW TESTAMENT AS LITERATURE • Kyle Keefer NEWTON • Robert Iliffe NIETZSCHE • Michael Tanner NINETEENTH-CENTURY BRITAIN • Christopher Harvie and H. C. G. Matthew THE NORMAN CONQUEST • George Garnett NORTHERN IRELAND • Marc Mulholland NOTHING • Frank Close NUCLEAR WEAPONS • Joseph M.

The New Testament as Literature 169. American Political Parties and Elections 170. Bestsellers 171. Geopolitics 172. Antisemitism 173. Game Theory 174. HIV/AIDS 175. Documentary Film 176. Modern China 177. The Quakers 178. German Literature 179. Nuclear Weapons 180. Law 181. The Old Testament 182. Galaxies 183. Mormonism 184. Religion in America 185. Geography 186. The Meaning of Life 187. Sexuality 188. Nelson Mandela 189. Science and Religion 190. Relativity 191. The History of Medicine 192. Citizenship 193. The History of Life 194. Memory 195. Autism 196. Statistics 197. Scotland


Poisoned Wells: The Dirty Politics of African Oil by Nicholas Shaxson

Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, business climate, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hernando de Soto, income per capita, inflation targeting, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, mobile money, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

I was extremely distressed, disorientated and extremely vulnerable.” 63 Mann also tried to sneak a letter out to his wife, which was intercepted. It mentioned “Scratcher” (alleged to be Mark Thatcher, the son of the former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher), a J. H. Archer— allegedly the former British Conservative Party politician Jeffrey Archer64— among others. Archer denies involvement,65 but Thatcher, no friend of South Africa’s ruling African National Congress (his mother once called Nelson Mandela a “terrorist”), was arrested at his luxury home in Cape Town. The letter said: Our situation is not good and it is very URGENT. [The lawyers] get no reply from Smelly [alleged to be Ely Calil—who strongly denies any involvement in the plot], and Scratcher asked them to ring back after the Grand Prix race was over! This is not going well. I must say once again, what will get us out is MAJOR CLOUT.

It is hard to prove something like that on the spur of the moment, so I felt shifty for the rest of the interview. When I asked him an admittedly illinformed question, he turned on Guilherme. “How can you bring people like this to me?” he repeated twice, very loudly. Guilherme quailed. I switched to a more personal note. Who did Fradique admire most, I asked. “Myself!” he answered, straight away. “I am joking, of course!” he guffawed, and settled for Nelson Mandela. The interview settled down. Fradique said that he had never intended to be president. “When I leave office I will return to my business, and I can live in freedom.” I put to him what his enemies said: he wants to be king of oil; he is autocratic, undisciplined, and does not listen. Fradique cut me off angrily before I could finish. “Me? Autocratic? You are being manipulated! When I see the insistence and the aggression . . .

He married in 1990 and took another wife in 1996 (later admitting that he had a “tendency of having four wives,” adding that he was more in love with the struggle than with anything else, including his wives). Asari has claimed: “Today in most of our villages you’ll find out that most of our ladies have gone into prostitution. Things that were unheard of before like homosexuality are being practiced. The Ijaw man is slowly being killed by the Nigerian state.” Among his heroes he cites not only Nelson Mandela but also Osama bin Laden; he has put up at least one poster of the Saudi militant, and even named one of his children Osama.10 Mandela and Bin Laden “fought against the arrogance of men who were playing God,” Asari said. “Apartheid was, ‘God gave the white man authority to rule the black man because the black man is not human’; for America it’s, ‘our civilization is superior . . . so we must impose our way of life, our civilization, on all people, whether they like it or not.’


pages: 482 words: 122,497

The Wrecking Crew: How Conservatives Rule by Thomas Frank

affirmative action, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, edge city, financial deregulation, full employment, George Gilder, guest worker program, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, P = NP, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Telecommunications Act of 1996, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, War on Poverty

In this respect, the IFF was merely a large-scale replay of the political entrepreneurship we saw at the USAF, with Jack and the gang yet again hiring themselves out to a wealthy client to perform a hit on a troublesome left-wing group.12 High points in this campaign included hearings by the House Republican Study Committee in 1987 to blame “the plight of the children of South Africa” on the commie-terrorist ANC; reports playing up the ANC’s commie-derived taste for atrocities against kids; newspaper ads designed to throw cold water on Nelson Mandela during his triumphant visit to America in 1990; and an endless war on Ted Kennedy, a leading proponent of the 1986 sanctions.13 All of this specifically South African stuff was mixed in with a large quantity of standard-issue winger-talk. The IFF manifesto was a 1987 statement bearing the ultimate conservative seal of approval: a photo of Jack Abramoff proudly shaking hands with Ronald Reagan.

A handful of genuine thinkers did actually publish pieces in International Freedom Review, the group’s respectable-looking American magazine, but for the most part it was a showplace for pontifications by Congress’s rightmost members, gripes about betrayal from embittered South Africans, and gussied-up undergraduate term papers. It was also a showplace for the right’s unrelenting suspicion toward the world. Nothing was as it seemed; everything was an act of cold-war trickery or deception. International Freedom Review featured articles with titles like “Getting Beyond the [Nelson] Mandela Smokescreen” and “Afghanistan: Has Reagan Sold Out the Mujahideen?” In issue number one, a redbaiting book coauthored by Dinesh D’Souza is lauded as a well-observed description of how the sly Soviets are “manipulating public opinion” in the United States. In issue number two, the IFF lavishes its highest praise on Requiem in the Tropics—a feverish tract the foundation also happened to be selling via mail order—describing it as “the book they don’t want you to read.”

What would come after the white-minority regime was anyone’s guess, and a mania for “scenario planning” swept over the South African business community as its leaders tried to set the stage for a favorable outcome.27 The government privatized and downsized itself, even dismantling its collection of atomic bombs, working frantically to close off the possibility that some future South African government might nationalize basic industries (as Nelson Mandela confirmed in 1990 that the ANC still planned to do) or take some other costly step toward social democracy.28 The ideal scenario espoused by the IFF addressed just these fears: a country where everyone could vote but where those votes had no bearing on private property. Foundation publications constantly offered advice for the framers of a future South African constitution, recommending, for example, that it include “clauses establishing and protecting free enterprise.”29 White supremacy was not going to survive for long, but with a covering barrage of free-market propaganda, the country’s ruling class might yet come through the revolution unscathed.


pages: 487 words: 139,297

Dancing in the Glory of Monsters: The Collapse of the Congo and the Great War of Africa by Jason Stearns

Berlin Wall, business climate, clean water, colonial rule, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, technology bubble, transfer pricing, unemployed young men, working-age population, éminence grise

He agreed to meet with Kabila on May 4, 1997. The meeting place itself was the subject of long negotiations. Kabila refused to meet in Gabon or the Republic of Congo, fearing a French-backed assassination plot in its former colonies. Mobutu could not travel to South Africa because of his health. Finally, both parties agreed on a meeting on the South African navy ship Outenika, anchored just off the coast. South African president Nelson Mandela would mediate. Since Mobutu was unable to walk the thirty-one steps onto the boat, the hosts had to cobble together a plank strong enough for Mobutu’s limousine to be driven on board. For once, Mobutu was outshone in superstition. Laurent Kabila refused to look into his eyes during the meeting and instead stared at the ceiling; according to the prevailing rumor, he was afraid that the Old Leopard still had enough magical power left to curse him with his stare and prevent him from reaching his prize, now so close.

After all, there were over three hundred political parties in Kinshasa when Kabila arrived, many of them so-called partis alimentaires, political guppies whose sole function was to “be fed” by the Mobutist system. There was little culture of democratic debate, and the one-party elections under Mobutu had hinged on cults of personality, ethnic politics, and the corruption of key opinion makers. An immediate opening to multiparty democracy and elections in this context could have led to a rebound by the Mobutists. Even Nelson Mandela, the dean of African democracy, deemed it “suicidal” for Kabila to allow free party activities before he had a firm grip on the government.6 A group of visiting U.S. congresspeople accepted Kabila’s measures, saying that the country needed stability first, even if it meant suppressing political protests in the short term.7 Kabila himself addressed these matters with typical flair during his inauguration speech: “You see, that’s very nice all that.

In addition, another Angolan rebel movement, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC), appeared to be making inroads in Cabinda, a tiny Angolan enclave just north of the Kitona airbase, where around 60 percent of Angola’s oil is drilled, providing it with about half of all national revenues. According to French government officials, FLEC had been in touch with the Rwandan government before the Kitona airlift.21 The diplomatic tug-of-war continued for several days, with South African president Nelson Mandela attempting to mediate between the two sides to prevent a continent-wide war breaking out. His attempt earned him the scorn of Mugabe, who told him to shut up if he didn’t want to help defend the Congo. Kabila’s office was equally blunt, suggesting that “age had taken its toll” on the venerable African leader.22 At Malik Kijege’s makeshift headquarters at the Tshatshi military camp, he began receiving distress calls from Tutsis hiding in Kinshasa.


pages: 282 words: 89,266

Content Provider: Selected Short Prose Pieces, 2011–2016 by Stewart Lee

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Boris Johnson, call centre, centre right, David Attenborough, Etonian, James Dyson, Livingstone, I presume, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, Right to Buy, Robert Gordon, Saturday Night Live, sensible shoes, Socratic dialogue, trickle-down economics, wage slave, young professional

And yet this Norton, like Blatter, chose to accept the award as if he deserved it. Of course, like those of Sepp Blatter, Eurovision’s tentacles are long and covered in suckers, and it is very useful for the organisation to have a public face that brings BAFTA-winning credibility to its tawdry TV competition. Just as Sepp Blatter paraded a grieving Nelson Mandela at the 2010 World Cup final in order to ennoble his vile carnival of ball control, so the presence of BAFTA-winning Graham Norton, TV’s Nelson Mandela of celebrity chat, at Eurovision lends the disgusting singing event a legitimacy it no longer deserves. Eurovision is nothing more than music’s FIFA. But what can be done with the bent football body now? Obviously this discredited organisation can’t be allowed to run a football franchise, but is it right to squander FIFA’s vast infrastructure?

And yet there never seems to be any obvious relationship between the idea of opening the back door for negotiations with the IRA and the content of the printed texts the handwritten recommendations append. I checked the dates. Thatcher writes “open the back door for negotiations with the IRA” on documents dated 31 March 1982, 2 May 1982, 9 February 1985, 3 March 1985, 19 July 1987, 24 May 1988, and every 10 May, or the Friday nearest to it, throughout. On the first six dates, respectively, terrorist Nelson Mandela was moved out of sight to Pollsmoor prison; the Argentinian warship the General Belgrano was torpedoed outside the Falklands exclusion zone with the loss of 323 lives; Russ Abbott’s haunting pop single “Atmosphere” peaked at number 7 in the UK chart; the miners’ strike ended; Nick Faldo claimed victory in the Open; and the anti-gay Section 28 legislation was passed. All these events would have been causes for celebration either for Margaret Thatcher herself (Russ Abbott fan), for her husband Denis (left-handed golfer) or for both Thatchers (known right-wingers).


pages: 162 words: 51,445

The Speech: The Story Behind Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. S Dream by Gary Younge

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, immigration reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, urban decay, War on Poverty, white flight

It is the historian who has decided for his own reasons that Caesar’s crossing of that petty stream, the Rubicon, is a fact of history, whereas the crossing of the Rubicon by millions of other people before or since interests nobody at all.” The speeches we believe to be most decisive can come only from those speeches we have heard about. Those given by a poor woman in Swahili, Kurdish, or Quechua are far less likely to make it through the filter of race, sex, class, and language than those given by wealthy white men in English, French, or Spanish. One wonders whether Nelson Mandela’s most famous oration, before his conviction by apartheid South Africa’s Supreme Court on April 20, 1964 (“[Nonracial democracy] is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die”), would have been as fondly or well remembered had it been delivered in his native tongue of Xhosa or the nation’s most popular first language, Zulu, instead of English, its fourth most widely spoken.

So that its conscience would collectively see as a nation the contradiction between the way it treated 12 percent of its population who are dark-skinned and the precepts and principles enshrined in our Declaration of Independence. And that recovery program enabled America to embark on the greatest political transformation in history.” So white America came to embrace King in the same way that most white South Africans came to accept Nelson Mandela—grudgingly and gratefully, retrospectively, selectively, without grace but with considerable guile. By the time they realized that their dislike of him was spent and futile, he had created a world in which admiring him was in their own self-interest. Because, in short, they had no choice. The only question remaining was what version of King should be honored. To remember him as a leader who sought greater government intervention to help the poor and branded the United States “the greatest purveyor of violence in the world today” would sacrifice posterity for accuracy.


pages: 181 words: 50,196

The Rich and the Rest of Us by Tavis Smiley

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Corrections Corporation of America, Credit Default Swap, death of newspapers, deindustrialization, ending welfare as we know it, F. W. de Klerk, fixed income, full employment, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, job automation, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, mega-rich, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, traffic fines, trickle-down economics, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

The sheer humanity of each and every one of us warrants our steadfast commitment to the well-being of each other. This is what Dr. King had in mind when he suggested that justice is what love looks like in public. This is what John Coltrane had in mind when he composed “A Love Supreme.” This is what Toni Morrison had in mind when she wrote Beloved. This is what Dorothy Day had in mind when she embodied a dark and dangerous love. This is what Nelson Mandela had in mind when he opted for justice over revenge. This is what Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel had in mind when he spoke of the compassion of the Hebrew prophets. This is what Mahmoud Mohamed Taha had in mind when he preached of the mercy of Allah. This is what Mahatma Gandhi had in mind when he lived the loving soul force he talked about. This is what that first-century Palestinian Jew named Jesus had in mind when he commanded us to love our neighbor as ourselves.

She was a suffragist, pacifist, socialist, co-founder of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), and an early supporter of birth control. She joined with like-minded others to advance the causes she valued the most. Keller traveled internationally and testified before Congress to raise awareness and advocate for the blind and handicapped. It took the victory of one oppressed man to inspire the multitude and dismantle the oppressive apartheid system in South Africa. After 27 years in prison on charges of treason, Nelson Mandela emerged, resolve unbroken, as a symbol of resistance that inspired Black South Africans and the world. In 1990, South African president F. W. de Klerk ordered the release of Mandela. Still fiercely active at the age of 72, Mandela led negotiations with the minority government that resulted in the end of apartheid and the beginning of a multiracial government. In 1994, Mandela was elected South Africa’s president in the country’s first free election.


pages: 197 words: 49,296

The Future We Choose: Surviving the Climate Crisis by Christiana Figueres, Tom Rivett-Carnac

3D printing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, clean water, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, new economy, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, the scientific method, trade route, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra

Cleverly programmed algorithms turbocharge that process on the internet and social media.11 This means that often we have no idea what other people deeply value or think. Get offline and get to know your neighbors, people in the grocery line, or fellow commuters. Challenge your own assumptions, and be mindful of misinformation and disinformation. Share your hopes and fears in person, listen to others, and be honest and respectful. * * * — In 1990, after spending twenty-seven years in prison, Nelson Mandela was informed by President F. W. De Klerk that he would be freed in less than twenty-four hours. The following day Mandela walked out of Victor Verster Prison and into history. He had to pass through a courtyard, beyond which he would be a free man. As he later recounted, he knew that if he did not forgive his captors before he reached the outer wall, he never would. So he forgave them. This did not mean that he forgot.

Movements of civil disobedience from the early twentieth-century suffragettes to Gandhi’s drive for Indian independence to Martin Luther King, Jr., and the 1960s civil rights movement to the 2003 Rose Revolution in Georgia—to name just a few—are all inspirational insofar as they mobilized vast numbers of people to champion their causes. An open, inclusive narrative and a sense of working collectively to change history for the better took them further than they ever imagined possible. As Nelson Mandela said, “It always seems impossible until it is done.” Now is the time for us to participate—in our schools, businesses, communities, towns, and countries—to ensure that the battle to survive the climate crisis becomes the biggest political movement in history. It is not about changing governments or political leaders. It is about waging sustained political action and engagement. The ingredients to achieve our goal are ripe.


pages: 322 words: 99,066

The End of Secrecy: The Rise and Fall of WikiLeaks by The "Guardian", David Leigh, Luke Harding

4chan, banking crisis, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, Downton Abbey, drone strike, eurozone crisis, friendly fire, global village, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, post-work, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

He told Assange it was improbable anybody would attack him physically; that would be a global embarrassment for the US. Rather, Davies predicted, the US would launch a dirty information war, and accuse him of helping terrorists and endangering innocent lives. WikiLeaks’ response had to be that the world was entitled to know the truth about the murky US-led wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. “We are going to put you on the moral high ground – so high that you’ll need an oxygen mask. You’ll be up there with Nelson Mandela and Mother Teresa,” Davies told Assange. “They won’t be able to arrest you. Nor can they shut down your website.” Assange was receptive. This wasn’t the first time WikiLeaks had worked with traditional news media, and Assange had decided it might be a good idea on this occasion to do so again. Then Assange revealed the scale of his cache. WikiLeaks had in fact obtained, he confided, logs detailing every single US military incident in the Afghanistan war.

There would be no triumphant press conference, however; instead Assange was carted off in a “meat wagon” to HM Wandsworth prison, his new home. This forbidding ensemble of grey Victorian buildings might have come from the pages of Charles Dickens. It proved to be an excellent setting for another reel in what would surely become Assange’s biopic. His life story already had the trajectory of a thriller. But now it had an unexpected change of pace, with a sequence to come on its protagonist’s suffering and martyrdom. Nelson Mandela, Oscar Wilde, Alexander Solzhenitsyn (Assange’s hero), all had spent time in prison. They had used their confinement to meditate and reflect on the transitory nature of human existence and – in Solzhenitsyn’s case – on the brutalities of Soviet power. Now it was Assange’s turn to be incarcerated, as some saw it, in a dank British gulag. Assange’s situation attracted a group of glamorous left-wing Assangistas, many initially rounded up by his lawyers to offer sureties for bail.

Just before close of play, the bail conditions were met. At 5.48pm Assange emerged on to the steps of the high court into the flash-flare of TV cameras and photographers – clutching his bail papers, his right arm raised in triumph. There were whoops and cheers from his supporters. He had been in prison a mere nine days. But the atmosphere was as if he was had made the long walk to freedom, just like Nelson Mandela. Assange addressed the crowd: It’s great to smell [the] fresh air of London again … First, some thank-yous. To all the people around the world who had faith in me, who have supported my team while I have been away. To my lawyers, who have put up a brave and ultimately successful fight, to our sureties and people who have provided money in the face of great difficulty and aversion. And to members of the press who are not all taken in and considered to look deeper in their work.


pages: 335 words: 96,002

WEconomy: You Can Find Meaning, Make a Living, and Change the World by Craig Kielburger, Holly Branson, Marc Kielburger, Sir Richard Branson, Sheryl Sandberg

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, blood diamonds, business intelligence, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, Colonization of Mars, corporate social responsibility, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, energy transition, family office, future of work, global village, inventory management, James Dyson, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, market design, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, pre–internet, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, working poor, Y Combinator

Oprah Winfrey Some Things You Might Not Know The Oprah Winfrey Show was the highestrated television talk show in U.S. history. It drew in 48 million viewers per week.1 O, The Oprah Magazine, has the highest women's magazine circulation in North America with 2.4 million copies sold per year.2 Oprah invested $40 million to create the Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy for Girls. The school in South Africa for disadvantaged girls was lauded by Nelson Mandela. Oprah's Book Club leads to 55 million books sold after promotion on the show. Fortune magazine named her the world's most charitable celebrity. People want to be Oprah because she fosters her passions while giving back—and she gets paid to do so. The Oprah Winfrey Show was devoted to health and fitness, relationships, and literacy because Oprah commiserates with our family issues and wants to be part of our book club.

Thomas went above and beyond to exemplify those values to his team during a ME to WE trip to northern India, the farthest leg on the company's long journey with us to boost team values and satisfaction. Watch highlights from a ME to WE trip to India to see what the group experienced: Click for video KPMG, one of the “Big Four” professional services networks in the world, performs scrupulous audits for major corporations, organizations, and governments (the firm certified the election of Nelson Mandela in South Africa in 1994).1 It measures complex data and scrutinizes the tiniest of details in financial deals. So, several years ago when they asked us to a meeting to discuss a partnership, we arrived equipped with piles of metrics and third-party studies to show the impact of our domestic and international programming. “Quantifiable data only” had been our mantra. When I finished, the executives in the room exchanged knowing glances.

Capturing and living your plan: We spent a whole lot of time as a family coming up with experiences and ways of working together, identifying a wise circle of advisors, rituals, and other ideas that will support us every day in living our plan—and having the impact we dream about in this world. The Elders: The Elders are an independent group of global leaders working together for peace and human rights. The Elders represent an independent voice, not bound by the interests of humanity, and the universal human rights we all share. Meet the Elders: Nelson Mandela (1918–2013) Founder, Martti Ahtisaari, Kofi Annan (Chair), Ban Ki-moon, Ela Bhatt (Elder Emeritus), Lakhdar Brahimi, Gro Harlem Brundtland, Fernando H Cardosa (Elder Emeritus), Jimmy Carter (Elder Emeritus), Hina Jilani, Ricardo Lagos, Graca Machel, Mary Robinson, Desmond Tutu, and Ernesto Zedillo. Ocean Unite: Definitive science and clear policy options point the way to what must be done to restore and protect marine life.


Rethinking Islamism: The Ideology of the New Terror by Meghnad Desai

Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, full employment, global village, illegal immigration, income per capita, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, liberation theology, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, means of production, Nelson Mandela, oil shock, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Yom Kippur War

฀The฀Black฀Hands฀group฀to฀which฀Gavrilo฀Princip฀belonged฀ was฀ such฀ an฀ outfit,฀ committed฀ to฀ Slav฀ independence฀ from฀ the฀ Habsburgs.฀Terrorism฀was฀their฀weapon,฀but฀as฀it฀was฀deployed฀in฀ a฀nationalist฀cause฀after฀independence฀the฀terrorists฀are฀celebrated฀ as฀martyrs.฀The฀terrorist/martyr฀if฀he฀dies฀or฀the฀terrorist/leader฀ if฀ he฀ survives฀ until฀ independence฀ is฀ equally฀ a฀ familiar฀ figure฀ in฀ modern฀history.฀Nelson฀Mandela฀is฀the฀most฀famous฀example฀of฀this฀ type,฀who฀was฀denounced฀as฀a฀terrorist฀by฀the฀apartheid฀regime,฀ and฀indeed฀by฀British฀prime฀minister฀Margaret฀Thatcher,฀but฀lived฀ on฀to฀become฀a฀statesman฀of฀world฀stature. The฀ empires฀ of฀ Europe฀ disappeared฀ in฀ two฀ waves.฀ First,฀ after฀ the฀end฀of฀the฀First฀World฀War,฀the฀land-based฀empires฀of฀Austria– Hungary฀ and฀ the฀ Ottomans฀ broke฀ up,฀ though฀ (as฀ we฀ saw฀ above)฀ their฀ after-effects฀ are฀ still฀ with฀ us.฀ The฀ Romanov฀ Empire฀ of฀ the฀ tsars฀was฀taken฀over฀by฀the฀Bolsheviks,฀and฀indeed฀expanded฀after฀ ฀ ฀  the฀Second฀World฀War฀through฀their฀formal฀and฀informal฀control฀ over฀eastern฀Europe.

.฀ Even฀ though฀ it฀ has฀ now฀ lasted฀ for฀ more฀ than฀ a฀ dozen฀ years฀(since฀the฀first฀attempt,฀in฀February฀,฀to฀bomb฀the฀World฀ Trade฀ Center฀ in฀ New฀ York),฀ many฀ people฀ still฀ deny฀ its฀ novelty.฀ They฀argue฀that฀one฀man’s฀terrorist฀is฀another’s฀liberation฀fighter.฀ However,฀ liberation฀ struggles฀ are฀ for฀ a฀ nationalist฀ cause,฀ often฀ against฀an฀imperial฀power,฀and฀the฀aim฀has฀been฀confined฀to฀winning฀independence฀for฀the฀nation.฀Nevertheless,฀we฀were฀told฀that฀ Nelson฀Mandela฀was฀a฀terrorist฀by฀no฀less฀a฀person฀than฀Margaret฀ Thatcher.฀Bin฀Laden,฀though,฀is฀not฀Mandela.฀Mandela’s฀struggle฀ was฀ anti-racist฀ and฀ was฀ for฀ equality฀ for฀ his฀ people฀ in฀ their฀ own฀ home฀against฀their฀white฀fellow฀countrymen.฀ People฀point฀out,฀quite฀rightly,฀that฀in฀the฀war฀on฀terror฀America฀has฀committed฀gross฀violations฀of฀human฀rights.฀Yet฀there฀is฀a฀ better฀ than฀ evens฀ chance฀ that฀ legal฀ processes฀ will฀ try฀ to฀ pin฀ the฀ blame฀where฀it฀belongs,฀so฀long฀as฀what฀has฀happened฀is฀illegal.


pages: 487 words: 147,891

McMafia: A Journey Through the Global Criminal Underworld by Misha Glenny

anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, colonial rule, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, forensic accounting, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, Pearl River Delta, place-making, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, trade liberalization, trade route, Transnistria, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile

Instead, in a near cataleptic panic, she haltingly asked the officer where she could get a bus to Santa Monica. He paused. “Wait here one moment, ma’am.” May 1, 1994, was a joyous day for most South Africans. The country’s first free elections three days earlier had given the African National Congress a thumping majority, and Nelson Mandela, the most admired politician in the world, had just become president-elect of his country. “I received my passport on April 18, my birthday,” Lucy recalled, “and a week later I went to vote. I told myself I was a lucky person and that this vote was the chance of a lifetime.” “I wanted to see pictures of Nelson Mandela celebrating our victory, but then the customs man came back—with big, big shiny dogs! Big black shiny dogs.” Lucy’s voice deepens and her hand gestures expand as she draws an imaginary pair of shiny sniffer dogs. They were still sniffing with gusto as customs officers led Tshabalala away for a strip search.

The post–World War II order began to crumble in the first half of the 1980s. Its dissolution followed no obvious pattern, occurring instead as a series of seemingly disparate events: the spectacular rise of the Japanese car industry; Communist Hungary’s clandestine approach to the International Monetary Fund to explore a possible application for membership; the stagnation of India’s economy; President F. W. de Clerk’s first discreet contacts with the imprisoned Nelson Mandela; the advent of Deng Xiaoping’s reforms in China; Margaret Thatcher’s decisive confrontation with Britain’s trades union movement. Individually, these and other events seemed to reflect the everyday ups and downs of politics; at most they were adjustments to the world order. In fact, powerful currents below the surface had provoked a number of economic crises and opportunities, especially outside the great citadels of power in Western Europe and the United States, that were to have profound consequences for the emergence of what we now call globalization.

This created great confusion—you can’t imagine…you had Swedes and Dutch coming over here and telling them about how policemen had to respect human rights! South African cops! Ha, ha, ha!” Gastrow bursts out laughing at the thought of a shock troop of Scandinavians in woolly sweaters teaching battle-scarred Boer hard nuts how to relate to someone else’s pain. In the first half of the 1990s, Nelson Mandela and the ANC’s liberal allies knew that the apartheid police represented a real threat to a peaceful transition. As Gastrow argues, some disgruntled whites were encouraging the incipient civil war among Zulus between ANC supporters and those of the more conservative Inkhata Freedom Party. They were doing so as if, were this conflict among the Zulus to escalate, it could fatally undermine the move to black majority rule.


pages: 335 words: 104,850

Conscious Capitalism, With a New Preface by the Authors: Liberating the Heroic Spirit of Business by John Mackey, Rajendra Sisodia, Bill George

Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, business process, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, en.wikipedia.org, Everything should be made as simple as possible, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, Flynn Effect, income per capita, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, lone genius, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, shareholder value, six sigma, social intelligence, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, wealth creators, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Everyone can and should aspire to integrity in life—to unify his or her values and virtues and express them within the context of the larger community, including where a person works. People who fail to achieve integrity can be accurately described using terms such as hypocrites, opportunists, yes-men (or yes-women), and ethical cowards.11 Famous historical leaders with high integrity include Socrates, Abraham Lincoln, Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., Nelson Mandela, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Margaret Thatcher, and Liu Xiaobo. These exceptional leaders greatly inspire us to seek to attain higher levels of integrity, especially in their expression of moral courage. Capacity for Love and Care Conscious leaders have a great capacity for love and care. They recognize how important it is to drive fear out of their organizations. When leaders combine their intellectual abilities with their ability to care for things beyond themselves, they have real power.

We’re naturally attracted to people who embody the qualities, ideals, and character virtues we most want to realize within ourselves. Those qualities and virtues are usually already within us, but are not yet fully developed. It is very healthy to look up to admirable people. They could be friends, parents, siblings, or teachers. They could be people from history, such as Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King Jr., or Gandhi. We can admire and try to emulate living people whom we’ve never met, such as Nelson Mandela or Muhammad Yunus. If we follow a particular religious faith, our inspiration might come from Moses, Jesus, St. Francis, Mohammed, Patanjali, Krishna, or Buddha. We can even look to fictional characters who vividly express admirable virtues, such as Atticus Finch in Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird or Albus Dumbledore in J. K. Rowling’s series of Harry Potter novels. We should make a conscious decision and effort to begin practicing the virtues of people we admire.

Our institutions magnify or depress our capacity to care.”7 Most corporate cultures don’t value love and caring enough, because their leaders have not fully integrated these virtues into their own lives. We need role models who are fully integrated human beings, loving as well as strong, and who show that there need not be any contradiction between the two. Leaders like Abraham Lincoln, Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., Nelson Mandela, and Mother Teresa are considered strong as well as truly loving and compassionate. Few prominent business leaders can be described in the same way (Herb Kelleher of Southwest Airlines comes to mind). Business leaders should aspire to enter into the pantheon of strong and effective leaders who are also caring, loving, and compassionate. A very healthy development in business today is that women are increasingly stepping into leadership roles.


The Case for Israel by Alan Dershowitz

affirmative action, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, different worldview, facts on the ground, Jeffrey Epstein, Nelson Mandela, one-state solution, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, Yom Kippur War

Second, any Arab leader who has even the slightest possibility of defeating Israel will be praised and rewarded for trying, and condemned, perhaps even overthrown, for not trying. This is why it is so important for the preservation of peace that Israel remains qualitatively stronger militarily than all the combined Arab armies that surround it. If that military superiority were ever to be lost, it is virtually certain that Israel would again be attacked. That is why Nelson Mandela was wrong in suggesting any analogy between Israel’s defensive nuclear program and Iraq’s efforts to develop weapons of mass destruction for aggressive use. c15.qxd 6/25/03 8:24 AM Page 103 THE CASE FOR ISRAEL 103 This is what Mandela said: “But what we know is that Israel has weapons of mass destruction. Nobody talks about that. Why should there be one standard for one country, especially because it is black, and another one for another country, Israel, because it is white.”11 Israel has had nuclear weapons since the 1960s.

The underdog rationale for supporting the Palestinians is short-sighted and inconsistent with the lack of support for real underdogs. With regard to support for people of color, Israel is truly a nation of color. It has one of the most diverse populations in the world, including black Africans from Ethiopia; brown Africans and Asians from North Africa, Yemen, Egypt, Iraq, and Morocco; Jews from Central Asia, Russia, and the Caucasus; and families from Romania, Latin America, and the former Yugoslavia. Nelson Mandela was simply wrong when he described Israel as a “white” nation as contrasted with Iraq, which he called a “black” nation. cconcl.qxd 6/25/03 228 8:39 AM Page 228 THE CASE FOR ISRAEL As far as Israel being a tool of the United States, that is simply false. It is an ally. Both countries are democracies fighting against terrorism. Israel is also an independent nation pursuing its own self-interest.

Lecture, Harvard University, November 25, 2002. CHAPTER 15 Was the Yom Kippur War Israel’s Fault? 1. Laqueur and Rubin, p. 143. 2. “The Spirit of October,” Al-Ahram Weekly (Egypt), October 8–14, 1998. 3. Morris, p. 390. 4. Ibid., p. 413. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Quoted in Morris, p. 406. Morris, p. 419. Ibid., p. 223. Quoted in Laqueur and Rubin, p. 148. Ibid., p. 143. Morris, p. 387. Tom Masland, “Nelson Mandela: The U.S.A. Is a Threat to World Peace,” Newsweek, September 10, 2002. 12. Morris, p. 632. CHAPTER 16 Has Israel Made Serious Efforts at Peace? 1. “Israel Sharpens Its Axe,” CounterPunch, July 13, 2001, www.counterpunch.org /saidaxe.html, (last visited April 5, 2003). 2. Lecture, Harvard University, November 25, 2002. 3. Morris, p. 578. 4. Laqueur and Rubin, pp. 341–348. 5. Morris, pp. 578–579. 6.


pages: 415 words: 103,231

Gusher of Lies: The Dangerous Delusions of Energy Independence by Robert Bryce

addicted to oil, Berlin Wall, Charles Lindbergh, Colonization of Mars, decarbonisation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, financial independence, flex fuel, hydrogen economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, low earth orbit, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, price stability, Project for a New American Century, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize, Yom Kippur War

He shared it with Egyptian president Anwar al-Sadat. Available: http:// search.nobelprize.org/search/nobel/?q=sadat&i=en&x=0&y=0. 39. Kati Marton’s A Death in Jerusalem provides a clear-eyed account of Bernadotte’s murder as well as a history of the Stern Gang and Irgun, both of which used terror in order to secure a Zionist state in Palestine. 40. Ibid., 1. 41. Nelson Mandela, from Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela. London; Little, Brown Book Grooup, 1995: 166. 42. For more, see Robb’s blog, Global Guerillas. For his discussion on financing terrorism, see: http://globalguerrillas.typepad.com/globalguerrillas/2004/ 04/global_guerrill.html. 43. Chris Abbott, Paul Rogers, and John Sloboda, “Global Responses to Global Threats: Sustainable Security for the 21st Century,” Oxford Research Group, briefing paper, June 2006, 4. 44.

The bombing, at noon on July 22, 1946, killed 91 people and injured 45.37 Despite Begin’s direct involvement in the killing of dozens of innocent Why We Think We Want Energy Independence 59 people, he became a respectable politician and was awarded a share of the 1978 Nobel Peace Prize.38 Shamir was a leader of the Stern Gang, which regularly used terror tactics to further the Zionist cause. Shamir ordered the murder of a Swedish diplomat, Count Folke Bernadotte, even though Bernadotte had gone to Jerusalem as a United Nations– appointed peacemaker.39 On September 17, 1948, Bernadotte was gunned down by Shamir’s lieutenants as he was being driven through Jerusalem.40 Similar facts surround the case of another Nobel laureate, the former president of South Africa, Nelson Mandela. In the early 1960s, Mandela led the armed faction of the African National Congress, through which he coordinated a sabotage campaign against military targets and government installations in South Africa. During his nearly three decades in captivity, Mandela refused to renounce violence— even when offered freedom if he did so. One of Mandela’s most famous quotes is “A freedom fighter learns the hard way that it is the oppressor who defines the nature of the struggle, and the oppressed is often left no recourse but to use methods that mirror those of the oppressor.


pages: 413 words: 119,379

The Looting Machine: Warlords, Oligarchs, Corporations, Smugglers, and the Theft of Africa's Wealth by Tom Burgis

Airbus A320, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, British Empire, central bank independence, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, F. W. de Klerk, Gini coefficient, Livingstone, I presume, McMansion, megacity, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, purchasing power parity, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transfer pricing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

His relationship with De Beers soon soured, and he took a job at Rio Tinto, working on a copper mine close to the Kruger National Park, where the racial division was even more apparent. ‘I was working on the mine, in production, and I was really exposed to how things are,’ Moloi remembers. By 1990 mass protests and international sanctions had brought the apartheid regime to the verge of collapse. F. W. de Klerk released Nelson Mandela and lifted the ban on the African National Congress. The party set up working groups to prepare itself for government, and Moloi joined the one on science and technology. By 1993 the leading lights of the ANC’s economics team had identified the usefulness of a man who knew the mining business from the inside. Moloi was brought onto the party’s economic planning team as it made ready to face the sky-high expectations of black South Africans, many of whom believed that their imminent liberation would bring swift deliverance from poverty.

Rhodes, who served as prime minister of the Cape Colony for five years beginning in 1890 and had private armies at his command, was an avowed imperialist. He sought relentlessly to expand northward the interwoven projects of British colonial rule and his own corporate interests by way of treaties, force of arms and duplicity. His most hegemonic venture, the British South Africa Company, had a royal charter affording it powers akin to those of a government. The region’s black inhabitants, from the Xhosa of the eastern Cape – Nelson Mandela’s people – to Robert Mugabe’s Shona ancestors in Rhodesia, were gradually subjugated and marginalized. Rhodes died in 1902, humbled by his support of the disastrous Jameson Raid into Boer territory. W. T. Stead, the great crusading newspaperman of Victorian Britain, called Cecil Rhodes ‘the first of the new Dynasty of Money Kings which has evolved in these later days as the real rulers of the modern world’.33 That description echoes down the century that followed and past the turn of the millennium.

In the first months of 2014 alone it shuttled between Hong Kong, Singapore, Mauritius, Madagascar, the Maldives, Angola, Zimbabwe, Indonesia (where China Sonangol has a slice of a natural gas field) and Beijing.48 Like Rhodes before him, Pa’s African horizons are forever widening. In December 2013 Ernest Bai Koroma, the president of Sierra Leone, a nation scarred by its diamond-funded war but where peace has started to take hold, stopped off in Angola on his way home from Nelson Mandela’s memorial service in South Africa. Over dinner and red wine at Luanda One, the Queensway Group’s golden skyscraper, Koroma held what a statement from his office described as ‘fruitful discussions with Chinese Business Tycoon and Vice Chairman of China International Fund Limited, Mr Sam, on key infrastructural developments to be implemented in Sierra Leone’.49 A photograph shows Koroma engrossed in conversation with Pa, who is dressed in his usual dark suit and spectacles, a mobile phone on the table in front of him, gesturing as through ticking off items on a checklist.


pages: 481 words: 121,300

Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij

agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

Even as murderous regimes such as those of Amin (Uganda), Bokassa (Central African "Empire"), Abacha (Nigeria), Mobutu (Congo), and Doe (Liberia) shocked the world with their excesses, other, more stable African states began to appear on lists of the world's most corrupt countries. Kenya, where Daniel arap Moi had succeeded Jomo Kenyatta, headed this depressing roster. In Southern Africa, the long-imprisoned Nelson Mandela made possible that almost unimaginable, peaceful transition from apartheid to democracy, setting one glorious and final example of African leadership and statecraft in the liberation era. But in South Africa's neighbor, Zimbabwe, the revolutionary hero Robert Mugabe turned into another of Africa's destructive tyrants—in the process ruining one of the continent's most promising economies. When Nelson Mandela was democratically succeeded in South Africa by Thabo Mbeki, the new South African president found it difficult to express toward Zimbabwe the moral standards he inherited from the founder.

No brief acknowledgment of her role in making this effort possible could begin to reflect the measure of my gratitude. Harm de Blij WHY GEOGRAPHY MATTERS WHY GEOGRAPHY MATTERS Ten years ago it seemed that the world could not possibly change any faster than it had over the previous decade. The Soviet Union had disintegrated into 15 newly independent countries, China's Pacific Rim was transforming the economic geography of East Asia, South Africa was embarked on a new course under the guidance of Nelson Mandela (a new course that relied on the complete reconstruction of its administrative map), NAFTA linked Canada, the United States, and Mexico in an economic union that would change the commercial map of North America, the European Community was renamed the European Union and added three members to its roster to create a 15-nation entity, and Yugoslavia was collapsing amid uncontrolled carnage. All this change in the human geography of the world was matched by permutations of nature ranging from global climate change to local environmental extremes among which the "thousand-year" flooding of the Mississippi-Missouri river systems of 1993 was but one of the many dramatic events.


pages: 264 words: 74,313

Wars, Guns, and Votes: Democracy in Dangerous Places by Paul Collier

business cycle, dark matter, deskilling, failed state, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, price stability, structural adjustment programs, zero-sum game

A sense of national identity does not grow out of the soil: it is constructed by political leadership. A few political leaders of low-income societies have succeeded in countering the problems posed by ethnic diversity by superimposing a constructed national identity. Two outstanding instances were Sukarno, who was president of Indonesia from 1945 until 1967, and Julius Nyerere, who was president of Tanzania from 1964 until 1985. More recently Nelson Mandela set South Africa on the same path. Both Sukarno and Nyerere got their economic policies seriously wrong, falling victim to the fashionable nostrums of their times, but on the key issue of building the nation they were political giants. Sukarno had the more difficult task, a vast territory of more than six thousand inhabited islands. This has indeed always been how national identity comes about: it is a political construction.

With sufficiently visionary political leadership, the states of the bottom billion could build a shared identity within the society, thereby transforming state into nation, and cooperate with the other nations of their region. Combined, these approaches would enhance the supply of the public goods, providing the security and the checks and balances that their citizens need. From time to time people capable of such leadership gain political power, but not very often. It is not by chance that the visionary leaders Julius Nyerere, Sukarno, and Nelson Mandela were all founding presidents. Once political power can readily be won by the self-serving, the self-serving will step forward to try their luck and the honorable will step back. Bad currency drives out good. In this book I have spared you the fancy terminology of economics, but since you have reached the end you On Changing Reality 231 can take delight in one technical term: in economic language the quality of political leadership is endogenous.


pages: 293 words: 74,709

Bomb Scare by Joseph Cirincione

Albert Einstein, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, energy security, Ernest Rutherford, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, uranium enrichment, Yogi Berra

Ireland was perhaps the first to demonstrate the important role smaller nations can play in great power politics by introducing the first resolution at the United Nations in 1958 calling for a treaty on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. South Africa is a more recent example. In 1993, on the eve of the transition to majority rule, the apartheid government disclosed its secret nuclear program and announced that all its weapons had been dismantled. Nelson Mandela, the first president of the new majority government, could have reversed this decision. But he decided that South African security was better served in a continent where there were no nuclear weapons than in one where there was a nuclear arms competition. South African representatives made their new government’s first major foray into international affairs at the 1995 Non-Proliferation Treaty review conference.

• Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine inherited thousands of nuclear weapons after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Within a few years, they were convinced to give them up and join the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as non–nuclear weapon states. • The apartheid government in South Africa, on the eve of transition to majority rule in 1993, announced that it had destroyed its six secret nuclear weapons. Nelson Mandela could have reversed that decision, but he concluded that South Africa’s security would be better served in a region where no state had nuclear weapons than in one with a nuclear arms race. • Similarly, civilian governments in Brazil and Argentina in the 1980s stopped the nuclear weapon research that military juntas had started. Both nations have since joined the NPT. • We now know with great certainty that United Nations inspection and dismantlement programs ended Iraq’s nuclear weapon program in 1991


pages: 272 words: 76,089

Billions & Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium by Carl Sagan

addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, clean water, cosmic abundance, dark matter, demographic transition, Exxon Valdez, F. W. de Klerk, germ theory of disease, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invention of radio, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, stem cell, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, zero-sum game

Examples: Your sister-in-law ignores your snub and invites you over for Christmas dinner; should you accept? Shattering a four-year-long worldwide voluntary moratorium, China resumes nuclear weapons testing; should we? How much should we give to charity? Serbian soldiers systematically rape Bosnian women; should Bosnian soldiers systematically rape Serbian women? After centuries of oppression, the Nationalist Party leader F. W de Klerk makes overtures to the African National Congress; should Nelson Mandela and the ANC have reciprocated? A coworker makes you look bad in front of the boss; should you try to get even? Should we cheat on our income tax returns? If we can get away with it? If an oil company supports a symphony orchestra or sponsors a refined TV drama, ought we to ignore its pollution of the environment? Should we be kind to aged relatives, even if they drive us nuts? Should you cheat at cards?

The Rules of the Game • 221 Nonviolent civil disobedience has worked notable political1 change in this century—in prying India loose from British rule and stimulating the end of classic colonialism worldwide, and in providing some civil rights for African-Americans—although the threat of violence by others, however disavowed by Gandhi and King, may have also helped. The African National Congress (ANC) grew up in the Gandhian tradition. But by the 1950s it was clear that nonviolent noncooperation was making no progress whatever with the ruling white Nationalist Party. So in 1961 Nelson Mandela and his colleagues formed the military wing of the ANC, the Umkhonto we Sizive, the Spear of the Nation, on the quite un-Gandhian grounds that the only thing whites understand is force. Even Gandhi had trouble reconciling the rule of nonviolence with the necessities of defense against those with less lofty rules of conduct: "I have not the qualifications for teaching my philosophy of life.


pages: 317 words: 79,633

Buzz: The Nature and Necessity of Bees by Thor Hanson

airport security, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, Columbine, Honoré de Balzac, if you build it, they will come, Nelson Mandela, new economy, out of africa, wikimedia commons

The meeting’s location changes annually, but even an exotic venue can’t alter the fundamental irony that it must take place indoors, in stuffy rooms, which is pretty much the last place that a bunch of field scientists want to be. After a day or two, antsiness sets in, and it’s not unusual to spot groups of people piling into rental cars and skipping out to the nearest national park. Sometimes, however, the best things to see lie right outside the windows of the conference room. When South Africa hosted the gathering a few years back, it took place at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, on the outskirts of Port Elizabeth. Aside from the main cluster of buildings, most of the school’s 2,100-acre (830-hectare) campus remains in undisturbed fynbos, a dry, shrubby habitat named after the Afrikaans phrase for “fine bush.” On the second afternoon, after I’d given my paper and answered a few questions, I was gazing out the window as the next session got underway.

.), 3, 4 mites, 1 Mojave Desert, 1 Monet, Claude, 1, 2(fig.), 3 Monodontomerus wasp, 1 Muir, John, 1(quote), 2 Multiple Stress Disorder, 1 mutations, 1 mutualism, 1 nature walks, 1 navigation by bees, 1 Neanderthals, 1 nectar history of beekeeping, 1 honey stomach, 1 mutualism versus exploitation in pollination, 1 pollinator manipulations in orchids, 1 wetting pollen while gathering, 1, 2 Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa, 1 neonicotinoids, 1, 2 nest boxes, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 nest-building materials and techniques, 1 alkali bees, 1 biodiversity in a nesting habitat, 1 creating nesting sites, 1 digger bees, 1, 2, 3(fig.) diversity and opportunism of bees, 1 in Apidae family, 1 influencing social behavior, 1 masons, leafcutters, and wool-carders, 1 nesting in aggregations, 1, 2(fig.)


pages: 240 words: 73,209

The Education of a Value Investor: My Transformative Quest for Wealth, Wisdom, and Enlightenment by Guy Spier

Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Benoit Mandelbrot, big-box store, Black Swan, Checklist Manifesto, Clayton Christensen, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Exxon Valdez, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, information asymmetry, Isaac Newton, Kenneth Arrow, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Nelson Mandela, NetJets, pattern recognition, pre–internet, random walk, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, winner-take-all economy, young professional, zero-sum game

Or, A Good Hard Look at Wall Street by Fred Schwed Your Money and Your Brain: How the New Science of Neuroeconomics Can Help Make You Rich by Jason Zweig Literature 100 Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez Hamlet by William Shakespeare Jonathan Livingston Seagull by Richard Bach Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance: An Inquiry into Values by Robert Pirsig Miscellaneous Autobiography: The Story of My Experiments with the Truth by Mahatma Gandhi City Police by Jonathan Rubinstein Endurance: Shackleton’s Incredible Voyage by Alfred Lansing Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela by Nelson Mandela Metaphors We Live By by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson Reagan: A Life in Letters by Ronald Reagan The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin by Benjamin Franklin The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right by Atul Gawande The Hero with a Thousand Faces by Joseph Campbell The New British Constitution by Vernon Bogdanor The Power of Myth by Joseph Campbell with Bill Moyers Vor 1914: Erinnerungen an Frankfurt geschrieben in Israel by Selmar Spier Walden: or, Life in the Woods by Henry David Thoreau Why America Is Not a New Rome by Vaclav Smil Philosophy and Theology A Theory of Justice by John Rawls Anarchy, the State, and Utopia by Robert Nozick Destination Torah: Reflections on the Weekly Torah Readings by Isaac Sassoon Halakhic Man by Joseph Soloveitchik Letters from a Stoic by Lucius Annaeus Seneca Man’s Search for Meaning by Viktor Frankl Meditations by Marcus Aurelius Pirke Avot: A Modern Commentary on Jewish Ethics by Leonard Kravits and Kerry Olitzky Plato, not Prozac!


pages: 510 words: 141,188

Bottle of Lies: The Inside Story of the Generic Drug Boom by Katherine Eban

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, global pandemic, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Ponzi scheme, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

A few years later, Hamied read in a medical journal that a cocktail of three drugs called HAART (highly active anti-retroviral therapy) was effective in controlling AIDS. The three drugs in question—stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine—were made by three different multinational drug companies. The combined price for a single patient reached $12,000 a year. Not only was the treatment regimen onerous, but few could afford it. Hamied immediately set out to make the drugs in the cocktail. In 1997, under the leadership of Nelson Mandela, South Africa altered its law to make it easier to sidestep pharmaceutical patents and import low-cost medicine. No country needed the AIDS cocktail more badly than South Africa, which had emerged as an epicenter of the epidemic. But South Africa, along with over 130 nations, was bound by an international trade agreement called TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights), which required that all members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) ensure basic protection for intellectual property.

Even among the industry’s lowest moments—the illegal marketing of drugs for off-label uses; the payoffs to doctors who acted as promotional mouthpieces; the concealment of negative safety data for high-profile drugs—its stance in South Africa seemed uniquely horrible. As the Wall Street Journal summed it up: “Can the pharmaceuticals industry inflict any more damage upon its ailing public image? Well, how about suing Nelson Mandela?” It was an outrage that William Haddad would never forget. “Big Pharma, those cock-sucking bastards,” he yelled to a journalist years later. “Thirty-four million people had AIDS and every single one of them would die without the medicine. Would die and were dying. And they charged $15,000 dollars a year, and only four thousand people [in Africa] could afford the medicine.” The disgust was mutual.

biggest industry was making wooden coffins: Neil Darbyshire, “Land Where Only Coffin Makers Thrive,” Telegraph, June 24, 2002. 90 million Africans by 2025: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), AIDS in Africa: Three Scenarios to 2025, January 2005, http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/jc1058-aidsinafrica_en_1.pdf (accessed December 8, 2018). In 1991, Dr. Rama Rao: Peter Church, Added Value: 30 of India’s Top Business Leaders Share Their Inspirational Life Stories (New Delhi: Roli Books Pvt., 2010), 92. In 1997, under the leadership of Nelson Mandela: Helene Cooper, Rachel Zimmerman, and Laurie McGinley, “AIDS Epidemic Puts Drug Firms in a Vise: Treatment vs. Profits,” Wall Street Journal, March 2, 2001, https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB983487988418159849 (accessed May 25, 2018); see also Deshpande, Sucher, and Winig, “Cipla 2011,” 5. On September 28, 2000, he took to the podium: Y. K. Hamied, speech at the Round Table Conference, European Commission, Brussels, September 28, 2000.


pages: 900 words: 241,741

Total Recall: My Unbelievably True Life Story by Arnold Schwarzenegger, Peter Petre

Berlin Wall, California gold rush, call centre, clean water, cleantech, Donald Trump, financial independence, Golden Gate Park, illegal immigration, index card, Maui Hawaii, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, pension reform, risk tolerance, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Y2K

Courtesy of Universal Licensing, LLC Christopher, one, and Patrick, four, also visited the set. Courtesy of Universal Licensing, LLC I loved working with Danny Hernandez, on my left, the ex-Marine who masterminded the Hollenbeck Youth Center in East LA. It provides kids in a poor, gang-infested neighborhood with a place to go and gives problem kids a second chance. Schwarzenegger Archive I get goose bumps when Nelson Mandela talks about inclusion, tolerance, and forgiveness. In 2001 we met at Robben Island, where he spent twenty-seven years in prison, to light the Flame of Hope for the Special Olympics African Hope Games. Christian Jauschowetz My first political campaign was crusading in 2002 to pass a ballot initiative to set up after-school programs at every elementary and middle school in California. Frazer Harrison / Getty Images At the request of New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani, I toured Ground Zero three days after 9/11 to thank the first responders and help boost morale.

He opened the way for me to do bodybuilding exhibitions in the townships and said, “Every time you do something for whites, I’d like to see you do something for blacks.” He’d also taken the lead in getting South Africa to bid for the Mr. Olympia competition, and I’d been part of the delegation from the International Federation of Body Building that worked with him. Now apartheid was long gone, and Nelson Mandela was the nation’s distinguished former president. Since leaving office, Mandela had committed himself to raising the profile of the Special Olympics across the entire continent, where millions of people with intellectual disabilities were stigmatized, ignored, or worse. Sarge and Eunice had planned to come with us, but Eunice, who’d just turned eighty, broke her leg in a car crash a day before we left.

The United Nations secretary-general Ban Ki-moon and I had been working on an ambitious response to global warming. Two years earlier, in 2007, he’d been so impressed by California’s climate change initiative that he’d invited me to speak at the opening session of the United Nations. When I stepped to the podium that fall, I was almost overwhelmed to realize that I was standing where John F. Kennedy, Nelson Mandela, and Mikhail Gorbachev had all addressed the UN before me. The occasion gave California a world stage—and an opportunity to contribute to a crucial international conversation. Now, two years later, the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen was meant to be the most important meeting on global warming since the completion of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. After years of environmental conferences and programs and debates, leaders from more than 110 nations were coming to Copenhagen to hammer out an action plan.


pages: 158 words: 16,993

Citation Needed: The Best of Wikipedia's Worst Writing by Conor Lastowka, Josh Fruhlinger

airport security, citation needed, en.wikipedia.org, jimmy wales, Nelson Mandela, peak oil, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_the_Octopus Hamburger Helper Tuna Helper is designed to be used with tuna. Never overestimate the intelligence of someone who is reading the Wikipedia article for Hamburger Helper. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamburger_Helper Serial comma The Times once published an unintentionally humorous description of a Peter Ustinov documentary, noting that “highlights of his global tour include encounters with Nelson Mandela, an 800-year-old demigod and a dildo collector”. This is ambiguous as it stands, and would still be ambiguous if a serial comma were added, as Mandela could then be mistaken for a demigod. So yes, we admit it is completely worthless as an example and has no business being on the Serial Comma page. And yet, we offer this counterpoint: dildo collector. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_comma Robot (dance) The robot is simply the illusion of being a robot.


pages: 276 words: 81,153

Outnumbered: From Facebook and Google to Fake News and Filter-Bubbles – the Algorithms That Control Our Lives by David Sumpter

affirmative action, Bernie Sanders, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kenneth Arrow, Loebner Prize, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Nelson Mandela, p-value, prediction markets, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Robert Mercer, selection bias, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, traveling salesman, Turing test

There was, naturally, a YouTuber on hand to explain the whole thing. He explained Pikachu’s tail, the question of whether the Monopoly guy had a monocle or not, what Darth Vader really said to Luke Skywalker and other examples of false memories. This was all fine. What surprised me was the original story about Mandela. According to the YouTuber, lots of people believe that Nelson Mandela died in jail in the 1980s. He and many others like him, including my own children, it seemed, considered Nelson Mandela dying in jail to be the original example of false memories. But it isn’t. There is no convincing evidence that a large number of people believed that Mandela died in jail. A little research of my own showed that the entire idea could be attributed to one single blog post, written by ‘paranormal consultant’ Fiona Broome in 2010. I was back again in the world of conspiracy theories spilling over into the mainstream.


pages: 296 words: 78,112

Devil's Bargain: Steve Bannon, Donald Trump, and the Storming of the Presidency by Joshua Green

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bernie Sanders, business climate, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, coherent worldview, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate raider, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, Fractional reserve banking, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, liberation theology, low skilled workers, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, quantitative hedge fund, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, urban planning

They will attack you; they will slander you; they will seek to destroy your career and your family. . . . They will lie, lie, lie.” Democrats were giddy, believing that they were finally witnessing the self-destruction of a candidate who seemed impervious to so much. Paul Begala, an adviser to the Clinton-aligned Super PAC Priorities USA, watched Trump’s rally and pronounced him finished. “To quote the late, great Nelson Mandela, it’s like drinking poison and thinking it’s going to hurt your enemy,” Begala said. “He’s a billionaire tycoon in a total meltdown, and he’s going to try to take as many people down with him. It’s not a political strategy, but it will be an unlovely twenty-six days until we dispatch him to the ash heap of history.” — The wave of new accusers put Trump’s campaign on a war footing. With Trump himself appearing increasingly unhinged, Bannon’s instinctive hyper-aggressiveness met no internal resistance.

Debate Officials Said No,” Washington Post, October 10, 2016, www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-politics/wp/2016/10/10/trumps-debate-plan-to-seat-bill-clintons-accusers-in-family-box-was-thwarted/?postshare=811476078962605&tid=ss_tw. NBC News/SurveyMonkey: Christine Wang, “Positive Opinions of Trump Grow After Second Debate, NBC/Surveymonkey Poll Says,” CNBC.com, October 12, 2016, www.cnbc.com/2016/10/11/positive-opinions-of-trump-grow-after-second-debate-nbcsuveymonkey-poll-says.html. “To quote the late, great Nelson Mandela”: Philip Rucker and Sean Sullivan, “Trump Says Groping Allegations Are Part of a Global Conspiracy to Help Clinton,” Washington Post, October 13, 2016, www.washingtonpost.com/politics/trump-says-groping-allegations-are-part-of-a-global-conspiracy-to-help-clinton/2016/10/13/e377d7e4-915a-11e6-a6a3-d50061aa9fae_story.html. “We’re gonna go buck wild”: Joshua Green, “Trump to Intensify Attacks on Clinton over Husband’s Accusers,” Bloomberg.com, October 12, 2016, www.bloomberg.com/politics/articles/2016-10-12/trump-takes-a-back-to-the-future-focus-on-bill-clinton-s-women.


pages: 287 words: 81,014

The Charisma Myth: How Anyone Can Master the Art and Science of Personal Magnetism by Olivia Fox Cabane

airport security, cognitive dissonance, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, hedonic treadmill, Lao Tzu, Nelson Mandela, Parkinson's law, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, Ralph Waldo Emerson, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, social intelligence, Steve Jobs

Researchers who started experimenting with these kinds of visualizations with highly self-critical people reported “significant reductions in depression, anxiety, self-criticism, shame, and inferiority” while noting a “significant increase in feelings of warmth and reassurance for the self.”11 If the Metta visualization didn’t work for you, try putting up, throughout your home or office, photographs of people for whom you feel affection. These pictures could be of friends or family members, or even public figures who you feel could have affection for you, such as the Dalai Lama, Nelson Mandela, or whichever figures resonate with your personal beliefs or bring warmth to your heart (pets and stuffed animals included). To nurture my internal warmth I set up a “Metta circle” of photographs in the area where I practice every morning. I also carry a small book of favorite wisdoms with me when I want to ensure that I’ll be in the right charismatic mental state. The heart-softening and rising warmth I feel every time I glance through it is invaluable.

Think of the people you want your charisma to impact. What standard would you like them to live up to or exceed? Express this expectation as if you have full confidence that they can live up to it. Better yet, act like you assume they already are meeting these standards. Third, articulate a vision. A charismatic vision is what will give your charisma staying power when the crisis is over. Think of Nelson Mandela, whose vision of unity and modernism for South Africa was so powerful that even after the crisis of apartheid had passed and his service as president was over, he continued to be seen as a transnational leader for all of southern Africa and an influential voice in international politics. On the other hand, President George H. W. Bush, who had enjoyed 90 percent approval ratings during the Gulf War, was voted out of office the very next year.


pages: 227 words: 81,467

How to Be Champion: My Autobiography by Sarah Millican

Albert Einstein, call centre, Downton Abbey, index card, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Nelson Mandela, Nick Leeson

Frustrated astronomy nerds forced to look at Tom Cruise and whichever actress is stood beside him at the moment. We paid, we queued and, as happens with us, if something’s shit we make it fun. Not that Madame Tussauds is shit. As far as rooms full of lifelike waxworks of famous people go, it’s the best there is. That’s just not our cup of tea. As we walked through briskly, an old Indian man came up to us and asked why there were two Nelson Mandelas. He was a great man but it seemed odd. Then we pointed out to him that the Nelson Mandela standing between Brad Pitt and John Travolta was actually Morgan Freeman. Gary wanted to have his photo taken with Captain Jean-Luc Picard and Albert Einstein, so we nailed those two, but in the world-leader room he decided he wanted a quick picture with Hitler. You know, for a laugh. The room was almost empty so he got in position, arm around his shoulders, like pals on a night out.


pages: 511 words: 148,310

Winning the War on War: The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide by Joshua S. Goldstein

Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, business cycle, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Doomsday Clock, failed state, immigration reform, income inequality, invention of writing, invisible hand, land reform, long peace, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, selection bias, Steven Pinker, Tobin tax, unemployed young men, Winter of Discontent, Y2K

And that is how Kofi Annan became secretary-general and Bernard Miyet became undersecretary-general for peacekeeping. By the way, France got its money’s worth from this maneuver, as Miyet was succeeded by another Frenchman in 2000 and yet another in 2008. Annan became a famous and popular figure, even in the United States, where the UN had many opponents and few champions. Journalist James Traub describes him as “perhaps the most popular figure ever to occupy the office.” Annan and Nelson Mandela, two gray-haired African men, were described as the “only two people with great moral stature in the world today.” Annan and his tall Swedish wife, Nane, were a glamorous presence in New York social circles. To top it off, Annan won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001. Before leaving to accept his prize in Norway, Annan even appeared on Sesame Street to resolve a conflict among Muppets. After the September 11, 2001, attacks on the United States, Annan supported the U.S. position that under the UN Charter it could invoke the right of self-defense to attack al Qaeda and its Taliban hosts in Afghanistan.

In the 1990s, Nigeria contributed between 62 and 86 percent of troops to the ECOWAS force. Similarly, in 1998 Angola and Zimbabwe sent troops to the Congo under the banner of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), and saved the Kabila government there. In its efforts in the Congo, Zimbabwe “consistently sought to sideline South Africa,” a fellow member of SADC, because the South African president, Nelson Mandela, opposed military action in the Congo. AFRICAN ISSUES African regional organizations have particular weaknesses in peacekeeping. In Africa, six different regional organizations have undertaken peacekeeping since 1979. The Organization of African Unity, predecessor of the AU, ran eleven operations, mostly small-scale. In French-speaking West Africa, a group of countries created an organization that sent military observers to monitor the border between Burkina Faso and Mali in 1986.

UNICEF’s influential report The State of the World’s Children 1996 included a version in its section on “Children in War,” citing the Ahlström book. Also in 1996 the UN released a major report, “The Impact of Armed Conflict on Children,” authored by a high-profile figure of great moral stature, Graça Machel. (She was former education minister and first lady of Mozambique, and the future spouse of Nelson Mandela.) Machel had been commissioned by the UN secretary-general to lead the two-year process culminating in the report, which was requested by the UN General Assembly in 1993 and presented to the General Assembly in 1996. In the report, Machel writes, “In recent decades, the proportion of war victims who are civilians has leaped dramatically from 5 per cent to over 90 per cent.” The UN put the claim in a press release for the report, and highlighted it the next year in its “cyberschoolbus” publication aimed at classroom use, putting it thus: “Civilian fatalities in wartime climbed from 5 percent at the turn of the century, to 15 percent during World War I. . . .


pages: 482 words: 161,169

Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry by Peter Warren Singer

barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, colonial rule, conceptual framework, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, Jean Tirole, joint-stock company, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, market friction, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, RAND corporation, risk/return, rolodex, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith

Known as the "terrible onesM by its opponents, the 32nd was honored at the time for having the highest kill ratio of any unit in the SADF, but later accused of egregious human rights violations by the South .African Truth Commission/2 Equally, the CCB was anything but a mild civil organization. It was discovered in 1990 to be the front for a covert assassination and espionage unit, used to eliminate enemies of the apartheid regime abroad.3 While in the CCB, Barlow, who is recognizable by his one green and one blue eye, was assigned to Western Europe. There, he was in charge of spreading disinformation against Nelson Mandela's African National Congre^ (ANC), for example, releasing propaganda in England that the ANC was working with IRA terrorists. He was also responsible for setting up front corporations to evade sanctions and sell South African weapons abroad. During this time, Barlow is suspected to have made many of his corporate world contacts that would later prove useful for EO. The sophisticated manner in which Executive Outcomes was linked within a complex structure of multinational holdings, purposefully created to mask its operations and the exact involvement of its allied firms, also seems to be a result of his CCB expertise.

Although regular unemployment is ahvays a concern to governments, unemployed former soldiers possess skills that, if thev become disaffected, can make them uniquely dangerous and disruptive. South Africa is a prime example of this factor. Given the checkered history of the soldiers who had served in the elite units of the apartheid-era South African military, the new African National Congress (ANC) government in South .Africa led by Nelson Mandela had a particular incentive to see that these soldiers stayed out of domestic trouble, especially during the first multiracial elections in 1994- This may in part explain the lack of sanction when EO first fought in the Angolan civil war. In public, the Mandela government was decidedly against the firm's activities, as EO w7as acting in contravention of the "new7" South Africa's attempt to become a responsible regional power.r>1 How7ever, in private, it quietly tolerated and even facilitated earlv EO recruitment of these forces.

To begin, there is no standard metric for deciding what is a "legitimate" government- The contestation over the government's legitimacy is often the reason for the PMFs hire in the first place.59 The main criterion for determining state legitimacy is often simply whichever regime happened to be in power at the time. The problem is that by limiting themselves to state regimes, PMFs would be agents of the status quo, aiding only those regimes with the money to retain power, while potentially suppressing more legitimate resistance movements or preventing the chances for a conflict to reach a negotiated solution. For example, the Nelson Mandela-led African National Congress and even the Founding Fathers of the United States were groups once classified as rebels or terrorists before they overturned unpop- MORALITY AND THE PRIVATIZED Mil ITARY FIRM 22X ular regimes and became internationally recognized, democratic governments. On the other hand, even when a government is formally recognized by the international community, it still may not be seen as legitimate by a large proportion of its society.


pages: 669 words: 210,153

Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss

Airbnb, Alexander Shulgin, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, lateral thinking, life extension, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, post scarcity, post-work, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

And it gives the wrong impression—that you can do it alone. I couldn’t. And odds are, you can’t either. We all need fuel. Without the assistance, advice, and inspiration of others, the gears of our mind grind to a halt, and we’re stuck with nowhere to go. I have been blessed to find mentors and idols at every step of my life, and I’ve been lucky to meet many of them. From Joe Weider to Nelson Mandela, from Mikhail Gorbachev to Muhammad Ali, from Andy Warhol to George H.W. Bush, I have never been shy about seeking wisdom from others to pour fuel on my fire. You have probably listened to Tim’s podcasts. (I particularly recommend the one with the charming bodybuilder with the Austrian accent.) He has used his platform to bring you the wisdom of a diverse cast of characters in business, entertainment, and sports.

“I also figured out that I could use my workouts as a form of meditation because I concentrate so much on the muscle, I have my mind inside the bicep when I do my curls. I have my mind inside the pectoral muscles when I do my bench press. I’m really inside, and it’s like I gain a form of meditation, because you have no chance of thinking or concentrating on anything else at that time.” ✸ Who do you think of when you hear the word “successful”? He mentioned several people, including Warren Buffett, Elon Musk, Nelson Mandela, and Muhammad Ali, but his final addition stuck out: “Cincinnatus. He was an emperor in the Roman Empire. Cincinnati, the city, by the way, is named after him because he was a big idol of George Washington’s. He is a great example of success because he was asked to reluctantly step into power and become the emperor and to help, because Rome was about to get annihilated by all the wars and battles.

I later purchased an InnoGear 200 ml aromatherapy diffuser in “wood grain” (most diffusers look cheap otherwise) for home use. * * * Tony Robbins Tony Robbins (TW/FB/IG: @tonyrobbins, tonyrobbins.com) is the world’s most famous performance coach. He’s advised everyone from Bill Clinton and Serena Williams to Leonardo DiCaprio and Oprah (who calls him “superhuman”). Tony Robbins has consulted or advised international leaders including Nelson Mandela, Mikhail Gorbachev, Margaret Thatcher, François Mitterrand, Princess Diana, Mother Teresa, and three U.S. presidents. Robbins has also developed and produced five award-winning television infomercials that have continuously aired—on average—every 30 minutes, 24 hours a day, somewhere in North America, since 1989. Back Story I first read Tony Robbins’s Unlimited Power in high school, when it was recommended by a straight-A student.


pages: 91 words: 26,009

Capitalism: A Ghost Story by Arundhati Roy

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Bretton Woods, corporate governance, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, informal economy, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, megacity, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, neoliberal agenda, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, reserve currency, special economic zone, spectrum auction, stem cell, The Chicago School, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

The report warned of the growing influence of the Soviet Union on the African National Congress (ANC) and said that US strategic and corporate interests (that is, access to South Africa’s minerals) would be best served if there were genuine sharing of political power by all races. The foundations began to support the ANC. The ANC soon turned on the more radical organizations like Steve Biko’s Black Consciousness movement and more or less eliminated it. When Nelson Mandela took over as South Africa’s first Black president, he was canonized as a living saint, not just because he is a freedom fighter who spent twenty-seven years in prison but also because he deferred completely to the Washington Consensus. Socialism disappeared from the ANC’s agenda. South Africa’s great “peaceful transition,” so praised and lauded, meant no land reforms, no demands for reparation, no nationalization of South Africa’s mines.


pages: 809 words: 237,921

The Narrow Corridor: States, Societies, and the Fate of Liberty by Daron Acemoglu, James A. Robinson

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, AltaVista, Andrei Shleifer, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Dava Sobel, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, information asymmetry, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Kula ring, labor-force participation, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, openstreetmap, out of africa, PageRank, pattern recognition, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Skype, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, the market place, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

But relationships and guarantees are not enough unless there is trust between the partners in the coalition, and here symbolic gestures of compromise matter greatly. This is where Nelson Mandela’s inspiring leadership played a critical role. One episode epitomizing Mandela’s efforts took place on June 24, 1995, on the day of the first Rugby World Cup final in South Africa. The country’s national team, the Springboks, was allowed to compete for the first time, after the end of the international boycott against the apartheid regime, and was facing the odds-on favorite, the New Zealand All Blacks. The Springbok rugby team was closely identified with apartheid, and its jersey was an Afrikaner symbol, much hated by the black population. How would the president of the new, post-apartheid South Africa perform his duties as head of state on this day? Brilliantly, as it turned out. Nelson Mandela added to his year-long efforts to remove the bitterness and distrust between the black majority and the white minority by turning up wearing the Springbok jersey with the number 6 of the captain, François Pienaar.

Although the notion was formulated in the government’s 1994 Reconstruction and Development Programme, it was in fact the private sector that initiated the first wave of BEE projects. These involved the transfer of equity from a white company to a black person or black-run company. As early as 1993 the financial services company Sanlam sold 10 percent of its stake in Metropolitan Life to a black-owned consortium led by Nthato Motlana, a former secretary of the ANC’s Youth League and onetime doctor to the ANC’s leader and future president Nelson Mandela and Archbishop Desmond Tutu. After 1994 the number of such BEE deals began to grow rapidly, reaching 281 by 1998. By this time some estimates suggest that as much as 10 percent of the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) was owned by black businesses. The problem was that the black people who wanted to buy shares often could not afford to. Solution: the companies lent them the money to buy their own shares at massive discounts, usually 15 to 40 percent below market value.

It depends on compromise so that the contests for power do not become completely polarized and zero-sum. It depends too on the shape of the corridor, in particular, on how wide or narrow it is. We next discuss factors affecting the shape of the corridor and what these imply for the future of Shackled Leviathans and democracy. The Shape of the Corridor In South Africa, just as important as Nelson Mandela’s charismatic and farsighted leadership was the fact that economic conditions and thus the shape of the corridor were very different in the 1990s from how they were at the beginning of the century. In the previous chapter, we saw how the width of the corridor affects the likelihood that a country in the corridor will stay there. It’s no different for a country trying to move into the corridor.


pages: 351 words: 96,780

Hegemony or Survival: America's Quest for Global Dominance by Noam Chomsky

anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, Doomsday Clock, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, liberation theology, long peace, market fundamentalism, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, uranium enrichment

It is illuminating to see how they reacted, say, to Tony Blair’s repetition of the official reasons for the bombing of Serbia in 1999: failure to bomb “would have dealt a devastating blow to the credibility of NATO” and “the world would have been less safe as a result of that.” The objects of NATO’s solicitude did not seem overly impressed by the need to safeguard the credibility of those who had been crushing them for centuries. Nelson Mandela, for example, condemned Blair for “encouraging international chaos, together with America, by ignoring other nations and playing ‘policeman of the world’” in their attacks on Iraq in 1998 and Serbia the next year. In the world’s largest democracy—which, after independence, began to recover from the grim effects of centuries of British rule—the Clinton-Blair efforts to shore up NATO’s credibility and make the world safe were also not appreciated, but official and press condemnations in India remained unheard.

Turning elsewhere, during the Reagan years Washington’s South African ally had primary responsibility for more than 1.5 million dead and $60 billion in damage in the newly liberated Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique. A UNICEF study estimated a death toll of 850,000 infants and young children in these two countries—150,000 in 1988 alone, reversing gains of the early post-independence years primarily through the weapon of “mass terrorism.” That is putting aside South Africa’s practices within its own borders, where it was defending civilization against the onslaughts of Nelson Mandela’s African National Congress, one of the “more notorious terrorist groups,” according to a 1988 Pentagon report. Meanwhile the Reaganites evaded sanctions, increased trade, and provided valuable diplomatic support for South Africa.3 One of the endeavors of the current incumbents has become well known: the success of the CIA and its associates during the 1980s in recruiting radical Islamists and organizing them into a military and terrorist force.


pages: 337 words: 103,273

The Great Disruption: Why the Climate Crisis Will Bring on the End of Shopping and the Birth of a New World by Paul Gilding

airport security, Albert Einstein, Bob Geldof, BRICs, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, Climategate, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, decarbonisation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fear of failure, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Joseph Schumpeter, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, nuclear winter, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, University of East Anglia

Gandhi, Mandela, King, and Churchill all told a story of hope for the future despite the desperate conditions around them. Each held different levels of personal spiritual alignment with this position of hope, but they were all united in their strategic pragmatism. Hope works. Martin Luther King’s famous speech was not “I have a nightmare based on the evidence of racism all around me every day and the inability of people to change,” it was “I have a dream.” Nelson Mandela faced a country that was on the verge of collapse and chaos, with devastating violence between blacks and a ruthless white government that had been fighting change with military force for decades with the support of the white population. Despite having been imprisoned for decades, he drew on the best of humanity in himself and called on all the people of South Africa to aspire to a united country.

Fossil fuel is wrecking the one earth we’ve got. It’s not going to go away because we ask politely. If we want a world that works, we’re going to have to raise our voices. McKibben is right. This is a time we need to be clear, loud, and focused in our message. What big oil and coal companies are doing is just plain wrong, and it must be stopped, urgently. The right strategy model for this is Nelson Mandela and the end of apartheid. He was a leader who never once backed way from the rightness of his cause or compromised his goal, but still approached those who opposed him with humanity. This was all the more remarkable remembering that his enemies kept him in jail for twenty-seven years and murdered his friends and colleagues. Yet he still worked hard to reach them as human beings. We must advance our cause with determination and strength, but also with the highest integrity.


pages: 537 words: 99,778

Dreaming in Public: Building the Occupy Movement by Amy Lang, Daniel Lang/levitsky

activist lawyer, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bonus culture, British Empire, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deindustrialization, different worldview, facts on the ground, glass ceiling, housing crisis, Kibera, late capitalism, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Port of Oakland, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, the medium is the message, too big to fail, trade liberalization, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, white flight, working poor

When I visit prisoners at the supermaximum security prison in Youngstown, more than one officer has called out, ‘Remember me, Staughton? I used to be your client.’ When they could not find other work in our depressed city, which has the highest rate of poverty in the United States, many former steelworkers and truck drivers took prison jobs. Nelson Mandela befriended a guard at Robben Island whose particular assignment was to watch over him. The officer, James Gregory, has written a book about it sub-titled Nelson Mandela: My Prisoner, My Friend. Mr Gregory had a seat near the front at Mr Mandela’s inauguration. The same logic applies to soldiers in a volunteer army. Thus one Occupier has written, ‘A thoughtful soldier, a soldier with a conscience, is the 1%’s worst nightmare.’2 In the end, I think, consensus decision-making and nonviolence both have to do with building a community of trust.


pages: 315 words: 99,065

The Virgin Way: Everything I Know About Leadership by Richard Branson

barriers to entry, call centre, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, clean water, collective bargaining, Costa Concordia, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, index card, inflight wifi, Lao Tzu, low cost airline, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Nelson Mandela, Northern Rock, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, trade route, zero-sum game

But, all joking aside, listening and taking notes are clearly habits that have served Stelios well . . . oops, correction, make that Sir Stelios; he was knighted by the Queen in 2006 for ‘services to entrepreneurship’ – and note-taking. I can’t promise knighthoods for everyone, but if you’re still not convinced let me suggest you try a self-imposed crash course in listening more and talking less and I promise you will be amazed at the immediate benefits you’ll observe. SAY LESS – CONTRIBUTE MORE While the late Nelson Mandela was a man of innumerable talents, one that always impressed me the most about him was his unfailing willingness to listen to what others had to say. Even during his long years in prison he took time to listen to what his jailers had to say about life, so much so that he made them the first people he publicly forgave when he was released. Whenever I spent time with Madiba I was amazed at his ability to make you feel like the only and most important person in the room through his desire to hear what you had to say and, of course, his willingness to act on those things he believed in.

Whenever I spent time with Madiba I was amazed at his ability to make you feel like the only and most important person in the room through his desire to hear what you had to say and, of course, his willingness to act on those things he believed in. Few other people could have galvanised the formation of the Elders in the way that Madiba did and yet few people were better qualified to appreciate the critical role the ability to listen plays in diplomacy, business and life in general. Another remarkable human being and listener par excellence is Archbishop Desmond Tutu, who as a close friend of Nelson Mandela’s was a founding member of the Elders and chaired the group from 2007 until 2013. Seldom in history has a nation put more faith in the healing power of listening than post-apartheid South Africa did with its Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC). President Mandela named Desmond Tutu to chair the historic commission’s work, the primary focus of which was on those who had suffered human rights abuses as a result of apartheid between 1960 and 1994.


pages: 359 words: 96,019

How to Turn Down a Billion Dollars: The Snapchat Story by Billy Gallagher

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, computer vision, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Hyperloop, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, Justin.tv, Lean Startup, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, Nelson Mandela, Oculus Rift, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, QR code, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, social graph, sorting algorithm, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, Y Combinator, young professional

It had only been two short years since Snapchat took advantage of front-facing cameras on iPhones to explode from an unknown startup to one of the fastest-growing tech companies on the planet. As Snapchat grew, the selfie tipped over into the mainstream. President Barack Obama made worldwide headlines when he joined Danish prime minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt and British prime minister David Cameron in a smiling selfie during a memorial celebration for Nelson Mandela in Johannesburg, South Africa. And the trend would only continue. At the start of 2014, Academy Awards host Ellen DeGeneres walked down the aisle of the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood with her phone out, taking a selfie with Liza Minelli and talking about it like a teenage Snapchatter. She stopped by Meryl Streep and said she wanted to pay homage to Streep’s record eighteen Oscar nominations by breaking the record for most retweeted picture ever.

Evan hates the expansive, all-company open-floor plans that many tech giants favor, preferring places where small groups can be in the same room. Each team works in the same room, but only with their team, not the entire division or company. Evan has arranged for artists who inspire him to decorate Snapchat’s offices. Inside, the exposed brick walls are covered in illustrated portraits of Tina Fey, George Clooney, Andy Warhol, Nelson Mandela, Daft Punk, and other celebrities. Every one of the stars is portrayed through a phone screen taking a selfie. In August 2013, a friend of Evan’s had been meeting with Paramount Television president Amy Powell and snapped a portrait of Steve Jobs in her office to him. Evan loved it and tracked down the artist, ThankYouX, aka Ryan Wilson. Now, a dozen of Wilson’s “Selfie Portraits” hang throughout Snapchat’s office, with a thirteenth, a portrait of Steve Jobs that Wilson made for the first time he met Evan, hanging in Evan’s office.


Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, liberation theology, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, one-state solution, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population

Similarly, in Iran we honor the courageous dissidents and condemn those who defend the clerical establishment. And so on elsewhere generally. In this way, the honorable term “dissident” is used selectively. It does not, of course, apply, with its favorable connotations, to value-oriented intellectuals at home or to those who combat U.S.-supported tyranny abroad. Take the interesting case of Nelson Mandela, who was only removed from the official State Department terrorist list in 2008, allowing him to travel to the United States without special authorization. Twenty years earlier, he was the criminal leader of one of the world’s “more notorious terrorist groups,” according to a Pentagon report.12 That is why President Reagan had to support the apartheid regime, increasing trade with South Africa in violation of congressional sanctions and supporting South Africa’s depredations in neighboring countries, which led, according to a UN study, to 1.5 million deaths.13 That was only one episode in the war on terrorism that Reagan declared to combat “the plague of the modern age,” or, as Secretary of State George Shultz had it, “a return to barbarism in the modern age.”14 We may add hundreds of thousands of corpses in Central America and tens of thousands more in the Middle East, among other achievements.

-backed terrorist operations in Angola, Cuban forces drove South African aggressors out of the country, compelled them to leave illegally occupied Namibia, and opened the way for the Angolan election in which, after his defeat, Savimbi “dismissed entirely the views of nearly 800 foreign elections observers here that the balloting … was generally free and fair,” as the New York Times reported, and continued the terrorist war with U.S. support.4 Cuban achievements in the liberation of Africa and the ending of apartheid were hailed by Nelson Mandela when he was finally released from prison. Among his first acts was to declare that “during all my years in prison, Cuba was an inspiration and Fidel Castro a tower of strength … [Cuban victories] destroyed the myth of the invincibility of the white oppressor [and] inspired the fighting masses of South Africa … a turning point for the liberation of our continent—and of my people—from the scourge of apartheid.… What other country can point to a record of greater selflessness than Cuba has displayed in its relations to Africa?”


pages: 391 words: 102,301

Zero-Sum Future: American Power in an Age of Anxiety by Gideon Rachman

Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sinatra Doctrine, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, zero-sum game

Thatcher was not exaggerating hugely when she wrote in her memoirs, “The West’s system of liberty, which Ronald Reagan and I personified in the eastern bloc, was increasingly in the ascendant; the Soviet system was showing its cracks.”21 While Thatcher and Reagan’s support of democracy in Eastern Europe fits a narrative in which the advances of economic and political freedom throughout the 1980s were essentially inseparable, elsewhere things were more complicated. The exigencies of the cold war and Thatcher’s admiration for capitalism and aversion to socialism meant that she enjoyed cordial relations with some right-wing dictators and excoriated some genuine freedom fighters. Thatcher notoriously referred to Nelson Mandela’s African National Congress as a “terrorist” organization—and there are warm references in her memoirs to dictators such as Suharto of Indonesia and General Augusto Pinochet in Chile. But while Thatcher may have exaggerated the extent to which she and Ronald Reagan always represented “freedom,” there is no doubt about the potency and importance of their transatlantic partnership and their promotion of free markets.

In South Africa, the leadership of the African National Congress, which was struggling against apartheid, had traditionally been closely entwined with the Communist Party and so, indirectly, with the Soviet Union. But by the time apartheid was brought down in the mid-1990s and South Africa achieved its freedom, the Soviet Union no longer existed. The collapse of the Soviet Union freed white South Africa of its fear of the “red menace” and made it easier to contemplate the end of apartheid. The government of the new South Africa did contain members of the Communist Party. But the ministers in Nelson Mandela’s first government donned suits and ties, pursued orthodox economic policies, and embraced globalization. The idea of “roundtable negotiations” that helped to bring a peaceful end to communism in Central Europe also served as a model for the negotiations that brought a peaceful end to apartheid and a transition to democracy in South Africa. The collapse of the Soviet model also had profound implications for the left in India and Latin America.


pages: 332 words: 106,197

The Divide: A Brief Guide to Global Inequality and Its Solutions by Jason Hickel

Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Attenborough, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, dematerialisation, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, European colonialism, falling living standards, financial deregulation, Fractional reserve banking, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, Howard Zinn, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, James Watt: steam engine, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land value tax, liberal capitalism, Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, plutocrats, Plutocrats, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration

When Angola finally won its independence and Neto became president, the US feared that Neto, a developmentalist, would nationalise the oil reserves, so they threw substantial support behind his opponent, the brutal rebel leader Jonas Savimbi, fuelling a civil war that would last until 2002 and leave Angola in ruins. And then there was South Africa. Both the United States and Britain actively supported the apartheid regime all the way through the 1980s, for they feared that if Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress ever came to power they would nationalise the country’s enormous deposits of gold, diamonds and platinum, which American and British companies controlled. But no Western power intervened in postcolonial Africa as much as France. After Francophone Africa won formal independence in 1960, France worried it would lose control over the region’s resources to the nationalist movements.

Interventions by the World Bank and the IMF in the name of development have shifted political power away from democratically elected decision-making bodies and placed it in the hands of remote, unelected bureaucrats. Economic and political freedom has been attacked, ironically, in the name of economic and political freedom. Structural adjustment is a powerful manifestation of this paradox, but it has also been perpetrated in other, more insidious ways. Six Free Trade and the Rise of the Virtual Senate Only free men can negotiate. Prisoners cannot enter into contracts. Nelson Mandela At the same time that structural adjustment was being imposed across the global South, cracking open markets and clearing the way for Western exports and multinational companies, there was already something else afoot – yet another tactic with which the South would have to contend. A new organisation was being designed that would govern the emerging world of global commerce. At first glance it seemed banal – the domain of bleary-eyed technocrats sitting behind computer screens in Geneva offices – but this new organisation quickly came to be the most powerful in the world, and today enjoys the prerogative to override the sovereignty of even independent nations.


pages: 708 words: 176,708

The WikiLeaks Files: The World According to US Empire by Wikileaks

affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, energy transition, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, experimental subject, F. W. de Klerk, facts on the ground, failed state, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, high net worth, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, liberal world order, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Northern Rock, Philip Mirowski, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game, éminence grise

In response, the de Klerk regime was forced to release political prisoners and legalize opposition movements such as the African National Congress. The release in February 1990 of ANC leader Nelson Mandela epitomized this momentum toward majority rule. The growing unrest and clamor for change are reflected in a March 1990 cable, for instance, that transcribes a speech delivered in Durban by the US ambassador, which vividly reflects the contentious relations between the African nationalists led by Mandela and the Bush administration. The ambassador emphasized that the US continued to oppose apartheid but vowed that the US would reject any settlement that was not acceptable to all parties [90CAPETOWN623_a]. The ambassador noted that President Bush had invited both F. W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela to the White House. He took time to praise de Klerk for releasing political prisoners, and called on US allies in Europe to support the South African prime minister.

The ambassador clearly signaled the Bush administration’s ambivalence about the US sanctions mandated by the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 and 1988. His boss, George Bush, had opposed both pieces of legislation as vice president in the Reagan administration. The Clinton administration established a closer relationship with South Africa. This is reflected in the diplomats’ unusual interest in Thabo Mbeki, the presumed successor to Nelson Mandela. In March 1995, for example, in a confidential intelligence assessment, the INR posited that Thabo Mbeki would probably succeed Mandela as ANC leader and thus as the next South African president [1995STATE51417_a]. The report describes Mbeki as a “moderate” but warns that “growing rifts within the ANC will increasingly test Mbeki’s leadership.” One of these rifts is between moderates, led by Mbeki and Mandela, and “party militants.”


pages: 124 words: 39,011

Beyond Outrage: Expanded Edition: What Has Gone Wrong With Our Economy and Our Democracy, and How to Fix It by Robert B. Reich

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, banking crisis, business cycle, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, full employment, Home mortgage interest deduction, job automation, Mahatma Gandhi, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, Nelson Mandela, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

One of my favorites, Dolores Huerta, co-founded (with Cesar Chavez) the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers. In 1966, Huerta negotiated a contract between the farmworkers and the Schenley Wine Company; it was the first time farmworkers effectively negotiated a contract to improve their pay and working conditions. Or think of other great leaders who had no formal authority but changed the world—Martin Luther King Jr., Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela. Leaders get people to actively work on what needs to be done. To do this, leaders need to help people overcome the four “work-avoidance mechanisms” that most of the rest of us carry around in our heads. Those mechanisms are denial that a problem exists, the desire to escape responsibility even when we recognize the problem, the tendency to scapegoat others for causing it, and—worst of all—cynicism about the possibility of ever remedying the problem.


Small Change: Why Business Won't Save the World by Michael Edwards

Bernie Madoff, clean water, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, different worldview, high net worth, invisible hand, knowledge economy, light touch regulation, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Shuttleworth, market bubble, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs

The Skoll Foundation is helping an NGO called Peaceworks in its efforts to connect Israelis and Palestinians who are committed to deepening the peace process within and across their societies. The Omidyar Network is investing heavily in civil society development in West Africa through a new African foundation called TrustAfrica. Richard Branson and others are supporting interventions in conflict situations by the Elders, a group of eminent statesmen and stateswomen whose numbers include Nelson Mandela, Mary Robinson, and Jimmy Carter. And some of the important commons-based experiments cited above are funded by software companies such as Sun Microsystems and Microsoft, presumably not entirely without self-interest, given that they rely on the infrastructure of computers and the Internet. the good, the bad, and the ugly 31 the bad Less good, and merging into bad, is corporate social responsibility, or at least those parts of CSR that are closer to windowdressing than substantive reform — for example, Coca-Cola, releasing its first review of corporate responsibility at the same time as contaminating water supplies in India; Intel, which exited the One Laptop per Child project because of “philosophical differences” that turned out to be a more basic desire to protect its market for higher-priced hardware and more profits for itself; Walmart, now selling environmentally friendly light bulbs and the like but still engaged in “wage theft” (depressing living wages by withholding benefits and opposing unionization), as author Kim Bobo puts it; and a whole raft of oil companies, mining companies, supermarkets, and others whose performance in CSR doesn’t match their public statements.28 As in these examples, too much CSR is a case of one step forward, two steps back, giving with one hand and taking with the other.


9-11 by Noam Chomsky

Berlin Wall, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

The first war on terror was declared by the Reagan administration, which came into office announcing that a primary focus of foreign policy would be state-directed international terrorism, “the plague of the modern age,” “a return to barbarism in our time,” and so on. The impressive rhetoric had considerable merit, though not exactly as intended. The toll of Reagan’s war on terror included hundreds of thousands of corpses in Central America, over a million in Angola and Mozambique where Reagan was strongly supporting the apartheid South African regime in its defense against “one of the more notorious terrorist groups” in the world (1988, Nelson Mandela’s African National Congress), tens of thousands in the Middle East, and much else. All dispatched to the memory hole along with other matters of little consequence. 19. I know of no comprehensive study, but it seems quite clear that reactions were considerably different in the West and the Global South, where events of little consequence tend to be remembered. The remarks that follow are adapted from my comments shortly after the assassination, at http://www.zcommunications.org/there-is-much-more-to-say-by-noam-chomsky. 20.


pages: 122 words: 38,022

Kill All Normies: Online Culture Wars From 4Chan and Tumblr to Trump and the Alt-Right by Angela Nagle

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, citizen journalism, crony capitalism, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, feminist movement, game design, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, mass immigration, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, open borders, post-industrial society, pre–internet, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, The Wisdom of Crowds, WikiLeaks

Second, it is universal in scope; it is directed at all and everyone, including the carnival’s participants. The entire world is seen in its droll aspect, in its gay relativity. Third, this laughter is ambivalent; it is gay, triumphant, and at the same time mocking, deriding. The transgressive style is not without precedent on the formally political conservative right, either. The Federation of Conservative Students in the UK famously shocked with a poster saying ‘Hang Nelson Mandela’ and criticized Thatcher for her soft touch, perhaps an early version of the ‘cuckervative’ jibe. They also had libertarian and authoritarian wings of thought, but certainly constituted a break from the decorum of the Burkeans, adopting some of the harder edge of the Thatcher era, even flirting with far-right ideas. The reformist-left writer Christopher Lasch applied the Freudian conception of transgression as anti-civilizational to his critique of the vacuous nihilism and narcissism of post 60s American consumer society.


pages: 453 words: 117,893

What Would the Great Economists Do?: How Twelve Brilliant Minds Would Solve Today's Biggest Problems by Linda Yueh

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, currency peg, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, endogenous growth, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information asymmetry, intangible asset, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, lateral thinking, life extension, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, market bubble, means of production, mittelstand, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, negative equity, Nelson Mandela, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price mechanism, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, universal basic income, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working-age population

It was ended after the release from prison in 1990 of Nelson Mandela, who was later elected president. Mandela had worked for decades to end the unfair system that designated the majority of the South African population second-class citizens. Even though official discrimination against blacks has ended, they remain less well off economically more than two decades later. It’s an example of Douglass North’s path dependence and why institutions are slow to change, even with the will to do so. And how it takes time for a disadvantaged group to advance even after the formal barriers have been removed since they start from a weaker economic position. It’s one of the challenges holding back the country’s growth potential decades after Nelson Mandela led the nation into a new era. This jars with the perception that South Africa is an attractive destination for investors.


pages: 374 words: 113,126

The Great Economists: How Their Ideas Can Help Us Today by Linda Yueh

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, bank run, banking crisis, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, currency peg, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, endogenous growth, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information asymmetry, intangible asset, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, lateral thinking, life extension, manufacturing employment, market bubble, means of production, mittelstand, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, negative equity, Nelson Mandela, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, price mechanism, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, universal basic income, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working-age population

It was ended after the release from prison in 1990 of Nelson Mandela, who was later elected president. Mandela had worked for decades to end the unfair system that designated the majority of the South African population second-class citizens. Even though official discrimination against blacks has ended, they remain less well off economically more than two decades later. It’s an example of Douglass North’s path dependence and why institutions are slow to change, even with the will to do so. And how it takes time for a disadvantaged group to advance even after the formal barriers have been removed since they start from a weaker economic position. It’s one of the challenges holding back the country’s growth potential decades after Nelson Mandela led the nation into a new era. This jars with the perception that South Africa is an attractive destination for investors.


pages: 411 words: 114,717

Breakout Nations: In Pursuit of the Next Economic Miracles by Ruchir Sharma

3D printing, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, cloud computing, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, eurozone crisis, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inflation targeting, informal economy, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land reform, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population, zero-sum game

Given both countries’ histories of racial strife, many observers figured it was only a matter of time before South Africa, too, succumbed to violent demands that whites yield a share of the wealth to the millions of blacks who were still mired in poverty, without jobs or land of their own. That March I decided to go see for myself if these dark predictions had merit. Arriving on a Sunday morning in Cape Town, my first stop was Robben Island, the infamous former penal colony where Nelson Mandela and other leaders of the black liberation movement were held for decades. Its squalid jail cells were the very symbol of apartheid-era oppression, but I found to my astonishment that many of the retired white prison guards were still living on the island with several former black prisoners, who were serving as guides to visitors like me. The ex-prisoners were living quietly alongside their ex-jailers, with no sign of imminent explosion.

Robben Island was typical of the “forget the past and get on with the future” attitude I found among most South Africans during my travels from Port Elizabeth at the tip of the eastern Cape to Pretoria in the north. In South Africa the limits to racial integration outside the office environment are clear in fine restaurants, where it is hard to find blacks among the diners. For many years it struck me as remarkable that most black South Africans were so determined to reconcile—the grace and statesmanship for which Nelson Mandela became internationally famous appeared to spring from a steadfast national character. Now, after many years without real progress, that statesmanship is starting to look like stagnation. During the years of the economic boom from 2003 to 2007, South African growth did accelerate but only from 3 percent to 5 percent, much slower than the emerging-market average, and it has since fallen back to 3 percent.


Hopes and Prospects by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, colonial rule, corporate personhood, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, invisible hand, liberation theology, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, nuremberg principles, one-state solution, open borders, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus

Corporations were beginning to abide by the (1977) Sullivan principles of pulling out, and Congress was soon to pass sanctions (over Reagan’s veto). But the South African minister’s insight into world affairs retained its force. Through the 1980s, U.S. trade with South Africa increased despite the 1985 congressional sanctions (which Reagan evaded), and Reagan continued to back South African depredations in neighboring countries that led to an estimated 1.5 million deaths. As late as 1988 the administration condemned Nelson Mandela’s African National Congress as one of the world’s “more notorious terrorist groups.”40 The Apartheid regime remained strong, some thought invulnerable. But then U.S. policy shifted, and within a few years, the regime had collapsed. There are clear lessons here both for Israelis and for those outside who are committed to bringing some measure of peace and justice to the region. As long as U.S. rejectionism remains firm, Israel may feel that it can defy the world, but it is treading on dangerous ground.

That war on terror has also been expunged from historical consciousness, because the outcome cannot readily be incorporated into the canon: hundreds of thousands slaughtered in the ruined countries of Central America and many more elsewhere, among them an estimated 1.5 million in the terrorist wars sponsored in neighboring countries by Reagan’s favored ally, Apartheid South Africa, which had to defend itself from Nelson Mandela’s African National Congress, one of the more world’s “more notorious terrorist groups,” so Washington determined in 1988. In fairness, it should be added that twenty years later Congress voted to remove the ANC from the list of terrorist organizations, so that Mandela is now at last able to enter the United States without obtaining a waiver from the government.14 The reigning doctrine is sometimes called “American exceptional-ism.”


The Next Great Migration by Sonia Shah

Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, open borders, out of africa, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, trade route, urban sprawl

In late 1989 Soviet-aligned officials1 in East Germany announced that the Berlin Wall—an eighty-seven-mile-long wall encircling West Berlin and one of the most potent symbols of the Cold War—would be torn down. We watched on television, the night the news came out, as thousands of ecstatic young people stormed the wall en masse for an impromptu, all-night dance party atop it. A few months later there was dancing in the streets again when the president of South Africa released the revolutionary leader Nelson Mandela from a twenty-seven-year imprisonment, ushering in the end of the harsh system of racial segregation known as apartheid. New graduates like me felt a deep sense of relief. The world seemed immeasurably safer without two superpowers loudly threatening nuclear holocaust. But soon a new global bogeyman2 emerged, one even more chaotic and disruptive than nuclear missiles. The national security expert Robert D.

a robotics professor plotted fifteen years Adele Peters, “Watch the Movements of Every Refugee on Earth Since the Year 2000,” Fast Company, May 31, 2017. Over the last few years “Global Animal Movements Based on Movebank Data (Map),” Movebank, YouTube, August 16, 2017, https://youtu.be/nUKh0fr1Od8. 2: PANIC In late 1989 Soviet-aligned officials “Revellers Rush on Hated Gates,” Guardian, November 10, 1989; “February 11, 1990: Freedom for Nelson Mandela,” On This Day 1950–2005, BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/february/11/newsid_2539000/2539947.stm. But soon a new global bogeyman Robert D. Kaplan, “The Coming Anarchy,” Atlantic, February 1994. The idea of migrants as a national security threat McLeman, Climate and Human Migration due to sea-level rise McLeman, Climate and Human Migration, 212. One billion! McLeman, Climate and Human Migration, “one of the foremost human crises …” Norman Myers, “Environmental Refugees,” Population and Environment 19, no. 2 (1997):167.


pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist lawyer, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

A provision of the Chilean constitution was actually amended in response to a judgement of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, which ruled that Chile should not have banned a film called ‘The Last Temptation of Christ’.129 Some of these traditions and values may have come originally in the wake of European colonialism, but even where they did, they have taken root in local soil and been changed in the process. South Africa combines a Dutch and English legal heritage with strong native traditions, memorably evoked in Nelson Mandela’s Long Walk to Freedom. A comparable blending can be observed in English-, French-, Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking countries around the world, from Australia to Chile and Kenya to Venezuela. India has an ancient, original heritage of religious and political thought relating to freedom of expression, yet its contemporary free speech debates often revolve around the proper interpretation of a penal code originally drafted by the nineteenth-century English historian and politician Thomas Babington Macaulay.130 All are also influenced by the international legal and human rights framework developed since 1945.

The distinction between objective and subjective, meanwhile, takes us to the frontier zone between harm and offence. Jeremy Waldron argues that the law should protect people’s dignity but that it should not protect them from offence. He suggests that dignity concerns the ‘objective or social aspects of a person’s standing in society’, but offence ‘subjective aspects of feeling, including hurt, shock and anger’. ‘Offence’, he says, ‘is inherently a subjective reaction’.63 But, what if I choose, like Nelson Mandela and many dignified African Americans in the last century, to maintain that those who are truly demeaned are not the targets of racist abuse but their abusers? Are we to say ‘no, objectively, Comrade Mandela, your dignity has been demeaned, even if you maintain it has not. Who are you to say whether you have kept your dignity?’ In the early 1960s, the African American writer James Baldwin proudly insisted, ‘Whoever debases others is debasing himself.

The ignorance of literature and history behind this writing is indeed laughable; more regrettably, the author forgot precisely the most important political ideal which Yu the Great has left the Chinese people: “Those who regulate rivers lead the flood; those who regulate people dredge [channels] and let them talk”’.109 (The ignorance is ‘laughable’ because Yu the Great is a legendary figure, as well known to the Chinese reader as King Arthur is to the British, and is thought to have lived some 4,000 years ago, not 2,000.) In his autobiography, Nelson Mandela recalls the almost Athenian practice of his African home village: Everyone who wanted to speak did so. It was democracy in its purest form. There may have been a hierarchy of importance among the speakers, but everyone was heard: chief and subject, warrior and medicine man, shopkeeper and farmer, landowner and labourer. People spoke without interruption and the meetings lasted for many hours.


A United Ireland: Why Unification Is Inevitable and How It Will Come About by Kevin Meagher

Boris Johnson, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, deindustrialization, knowledge economy, kremlinology, land reform, Nelson Mandela, period drama, Right to Buy, trade route, transaction costs

Engagement and encouragement, and, indeed, validation, of the kind offered by Corbyn and many others on Labour’s left during the 1980s spurred on those in Sinn Féin who wanted to go down the political route. Indeed, without such support, the balance may well have tipped towards the militarists who were content to make ‘the long war’ against the British state even longer. Like many on the left, Corbyn saw Ireland as a classic struggle for national selfdetermination against colonial rule. But he was by no means alone. Nelson Mandela may be the safest of safe options for any politician responding to the question ‘who do you most admire in politics?’ but he was also a strong supporter of Irish Republicanism. It was an association that weathered his transformation into international statesman. Indeed, Gerry Adams was part of the honour guard for Mandela’s funeral. No British politicians or antiapartheid activists were granted similar status.


pages: 145 words: 41,453

You Are What You Read by Jodie Jackson

delayed gratification, Filter Bubble, framing effect, Hans Rosling, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, race to the bottom, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, yellow journalism

New ideas and behaviours that challenge the status quo often receive an unenthusiastic reception or out-and-out resistance to begin with from those in the establishment. The news industry’s resistance to change will only be overcome by seeing worthwhile results. Industries that have gone through their own consumer-driven evolution all have one thing in common: they rely on a conscious consumer. And a critical requirement for us to become conscious about our consumption is education. It was Nelson Mandela who said, ‘Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world.’ Once we are educated about the helpful and harmful effects of the news, we are equipped to shift from being consumers to being conscious consumers. Wilbur Schramm, a sociologist researching the relationship between news and national development, said, ‘Change will not take place unless those who are expected to change know and accept the reasons, the methods, and the rewards for changing.’2 Those of us who learn the ‘why’ of anything will always find the ‘how’.


pages: 494 words: 116,739

Geek Heresy: Rescuing Social Change From the Cult of Technology by Kentaro Toyama

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blood diamonds, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, delayed gratification, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, global village, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, liberation theology, libertarian paternalism, longitudinal study, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, North Sea oil, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, Powell Memorandum, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, school vouchers, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, World Values Survey, Y2K

Recently popular virtues such as grit and resilience are similar recombinations of heart, mind, and will. Cross-cultural analyses show that these and other virtues are valued throughout the world, even if their relative emphasis varies.20 When you ask people who they believe to be civilization’s wisest people, they nominate people like Socrates, Mahatma Gandhi, Mother Teresa, Benjamin Franklin, Nelson Mandela, Daw Aung Sang Suu Kyi, and so on.21 Notably, the lists typically exclude the likes of Mozart and Steve Jobs, even if the latter might have been wise in limited domains. Intelligence, talent, and brilliance aren’t the same as heart, mind, and will, although some IQ might be needed for good discernment. Gandhi went on hunger strikes to free India from British rule, and Mandela emerged from twenty-seven years in prison only to seek reconciliation with his captors.

Much of their success is visible in the job placements of graduates. As World Bank economist Harry A. Patrinos and his colleague George Psacharopoulos noted, “it is established beyond any reasonable doubt that there are tangible and measurable returns to investment in education.” Based on data from a range of countries, they estimated the economic rate of return to nationwide education programs to be roughly 10 percent.36 But Nelson Mandela once said that “education is the most powerful weapon we can use to change the world,” and he was certainly not just talking about economic change.37 In fact, education’s benefits go well beyond economic productivity. Here, for example, is Patrinos’s own catalog of the benefits of girls’ education: A year of schooling for girls reduces infant mortality by 5 to 10 percent. Children of mothers with five years of primary education are 40 percent more likely to live beyond age 5.


pages: 391 words: 123,597

Targeted: The Cambridge Analytica Whistleblower's Inside Story of How Big Data, Trump, and Facebook Broke Democracy and How It Can Happen Again by Brittany Kaiser

Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Burning Man, call centre, centre right, Chelsea Manning, clean water, cognitive dissonance, crony capitalism, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Etonian, haute couture, illegal immigration, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, off grid, open borders, Renaissance Technologies, Robert Mercer, rolodex, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, statistical model, the High Line, the scientific method, WikiLeaks, young professional

Then, through “data modeling,” the team’s data gurus created algorithms that could accurately predict those people’s behavior when they received certain messages that had been carefully crafted precisely for them. “What message does Brittany need to hear?” Alexander asked me, and clicked over to another slide. We need to create “adverts just for Brittany,” he said, looked at me again, and smiled. “Just for the things she cares about and not for anything else.” At the end of his presentation, he pulled up an image of Nelson Mandela. Mandela was in my pantheon of superheroes. I had worked with one of his best friends in South Africa, someone who had been imprisoned with him on Robben Island. I had even helped run a Women’s Day event in South Africa for Mandela’s longtime partner, Winnie, but I’d never gotten the chance to shake the hand of the man himself. Now, here he was, right before me. Alexander said that in 1994, the work SCL did with Mandela and the African National Congress had stopped election violence at the polls.

BDI began to look at the ways in which human behavior could be understood, and then influenced, through communication. Out of this research, BDI produced significant findings useful for stopping violence, and it began to consult in the defense industry. When the Oakes brothers ran a defense campaign to stop election violence in South Africa in 1994, they helped to bring about the peaceful election of Nelson Mandela. As Alexander had shown me when I first visited the SCL offices, Mandela himself had endorsed SCL. The company’s first golden age began after September 11, 2001, when SCL became an essential partner with governments, including the United Kingdom, in the fight against terrorism. It was an integral part of helping to fight Al-Qaeda messaging. It ran training programs for armies all over the world, and won accolades from NATO.


pages: 378 words: 121,495

The Abandonment of the West by Michael Kimmage

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas L Friedman, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, Washington Consensus

In the words of the journalist Charles Krauthammer, who blurbed The End of History and the Last Man (1992), which had gained a clause and lost a question mark from the article, Fukuyama’s theses were “bold, lucid, scandalously brilliant. Until now, the triumph of the West was merely a fact. Fukuyama has given it a deep and highly original meaning.”32 An intervening event between the 1989 revolutions in Eastern Europe and the appearance of Fukuyama’s book was the release of the anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela from a South African prison in February 1990. The pernicious legacy of European imperialism had fallen on Mandela’s shoulders, and throughout the Cold War the United States had stood with the practitioners of apartheid. The CIA may even have assisted the South African government in Mandela’s arrest in August 1962. The geopolitics of the Cold War had engendered many such alliances. The freeing of Mandela and the simultaneous unwinding of the apartheid regime in South Africa, just when the Cold War was ending, added to the mood of Western jubilation after 1989.

On the publishing success of The Closing of the American Mind, see Levine, Opening of the American Mind, 6. 30. Bloom, Closing of the American Mind, 322, 320, 321, 380, 256. 31. Bloom, Closing of the American Mind, 312, 79, 382. 32. See Francis Fukuyama, “The End of History?” National Interest, no. 16 (Summer 1989): 3–18; and Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man (New York: Free Press, 1992). 33. On the CIA and Nelson Mandela, see Borstelmann, Cold War and the Color Line, 156. 34. Fukuyama, End of History, 323, 48. 35. Fukuyama, End of History, xiii, 7, 48. 36. Fukuyama, End of History, 18. 37. Fukuyama, End of History, 45. CHAPTER SIX: THE POST–COLUMBIAN REPUBLIC, 1992–2016 1. McNeill, Pursuit of Truth, 133, 136. 2. William McNeill, “Debunking Columbus,” New York Times, October 7, 1990. See Kirkpatrick Sale, The Conquest of Paradise: Christopher Columbus and the Columbian Legacy (New York: Knopf, 1990); and Jan Carew, Rape of Paradise: Columbus and the Birth of Racism in the Americas (New York: A&B Publishers, 1994). 3.


pages: 1,072 words: 297,437

Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, Nelson Mandela, new economy, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, surplus humans, the market place, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

After so much war, drought, and catastrophe, the world stopped and looked at the true face of Africa and Africans. The South African election brought Nelson Mandela to power – a man whose strengths had been preserved intact by twenty-seven years of incarceration. By imprisoning him indefinitely, the apartheid regime had sought to remove Mandela's influence from the mainstream of political development, but in fact they had intensified it. Nelson Mandela emerged from prison perfectly equipped for his role in the new South Africa – unbowed by the oppression and indignities of the white regime, untainted by the failures and corruption of independent black Africa, steeled by years of study and reflection. Nelson Mandela and the shift in political power that he represents affirm the value of integrity and ideals in an era when economic pragmatism is the dominant theme of world affairs.

In April that year, as Rwanda had descended into chaos, South Africa had raised the hopes of humanity to Utopian heights. Free elections had taken place on 26 April 1994. For the first time ever, the black majority of the country's 22.7 million electorate had voted. As had been expected, the African National Congress (ANC) secured a convincing majority in a multiracial parliament with a power-sharing government. Nelson Mandela, the man gaoled for treason in 1964 and released only in 1990, became president. The events which occurred simultaneously in Rwanda and South Africa in April 1994 were at opposite extremes of human social behaviour; they demonstrate the depths and the heights to which humanity may fall or rise as it contends with the fundamentals of human existence. At root it is a matter of numbers and available resources; at the operational level it is a matter of leadership calibre and accountability.


pages: 165 words: 47,405

Imperial Ambitions: Conversations on the Post-9/11 World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

British Empire, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, Westphalian system

During the Reagan years, the administration had a policy toward South Africa of “constructive engagement.” There was strong opposition to apartheid at the time, and Congress had passed legislation banning aid for South Africa. The Reaganites had to find ways to get around congressional legislation in order to in fact increase their trade with South Africa. So they said that South Africa was defending itself against one of the “more notorious terrorist groups” in the world, namely Nelson Mandela’s African National Congress.8 This was a period of massacres, devastation, and destruction, all of which is effaced. One of the things that happened during Reagan’s administration was the invasion of Grenada. You were in Boulder, Colorado, that day, October 25, 1983, and you began your talk by saying, “The latest U.S. intervention as of this morning is Grenada.” Reagan said that the building of an airfield in Grenada “can only be seen as Soviet and Cuban power projection into the region.”9 Again the kindest thing you can say about Reagan is that he probably didn’t know what he was saying.


The Kingdom of Speech by Tom Wolfe

Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, complexity theory, Copley Medal, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, failed state, Isaac Newton, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, Steven Pinker, Thomas Malthus

In 1979 a Sunday New York Times review of Chomsky’s Language and Responsibility (Paul Robinson’s “The Chomsky Problem”) began: “Judged in terms of the power, range, novelty and influence of his thought, Noam Chomsky is arguably the most important intellectual alive today.”114 In 1986, in the Thomson Reuters Arts & Humanities Citation Index, which tracks how often authors are mentioned in other authors’ work, Chomsky came in eighth…in very fast company…the first seven were Marx, Lenin, Shakespeare, Aristotle, the Bible, Plato, and Freud.115 The Prospect–Foreign Policy world thinkers poll for 2005 found Chomsky to be the number one intellectual in the world, with twice the polling numbers of the runner-up (Umberto Eco).116 In the New Statesman’s 2006 “Heroes of Our Time” listings—the heroes being mainly fighters for justice and civil rights who had been imprisoned for the Cause, such as Nelson Mandela, the Nobel Peace Prize winner (1993) who had served twenty-seven years of a life sentence for plotting the violent overthrow of the South African government, and another Nobel winner, Aung San Suu Kyi, who was under house arrest in Myanmar at the time—Chomsky came in seventh.117 His arrests were of the token variety that seldom caused the miscreant to miss dinner out. But his status made up for the never-lost time.


pages: 385 words: 133,839

The Coke Machine: The Dirty Truth Behind the World's Favorite Soft Drink by Michael Blanding

carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, Exxon Valdez, Gordon Gekko, Internet Archive, laissez-faire capitalism, market design, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, Upton Sinclair

—joined the call, however, Coke compromised by moving its concentrate plant supplying the bottlers to black-ruled Swaziland, and establishing a $10 million fund to support African-Americans administered by Nobel Prize winner Archbishop Des­ mond Tutu. That mollified the SCLC, even as Coke—and the apartheid govern­ ment—continued to profit from its South African bottling franchises. For years after his release from prison, Nelson Mandela denied Coke’s offers of travel aid, and even required hotels to remove Coke products from his sight during his stay. The company assiduously courted the sainted leader, putting its highest-ranking African-American executive on the case. By 1993, Coke was contributing heavily to Mandela’s campaign to be elected president of a new South Africa, and he was flying around on one of Coke’s corporate jets.

Page 153 call to boycott . . . work stoppages at Coke plants: Frundt, 105–107. Page 154 buyout by two handpicked bottling executives: Frundt, 163–167. Page 154 But Coke’s stalling had left eight workers dead: Gatehouse and Reyes, 12–13. Page 154 Per-caps in Latin America: Pendergrast, 367. Page 154 minutiae of foreign markets: Allen, 421–422. Page 154 “Our success”: Pendergrast, 389. Page 155 Nelson Mandela denied Coke’s offers: Lawrence Jolidon, “Divestment, Sanctions, Not Always Simple,” USA Today, June 19, 1990; Clarence Johnson, “ANC’s Oakland Headquarters,” San Francisco Chronicle, June 27, 1990. Page 155 contributing heavily . . . corporate jets: Deborah Scroggins, “Mandela in Atlanta: Regular Folk to Coke Elite Vie to Help His Cause,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, July 11, 2009; Lewis Grizzard, “Respect for Mandela Went down the Drain,” Atlanta JournalConstitution, July 18, 1993.


pages: 452 words: 135,790

Seeds of Hope: Wisdom and Wonder From the World of Plants by Jane Goodall

Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, European colonialism, Google Earth, illegal immigration, language of flowers, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, phenotype, transatlantic slave trade

Enlightened inner-city schools realize this and make an effort to give the children at least some experience with planting things, watching flowers bloom, growing something they can eat—even if it is only in pots in the schoolroom. But that is a lot better than nothing. Perhaps the best endorsement of the effect of a garden on the well-being of the gardener comes from that most inspirational of people, Nelson Mandela. He survived twenty-seven years in Robben Island Prison in South Africa, and this is something he wrote in his autobiography: “A garden is one of the few things in prison that one could control. Being a custodian of this patch of earth offered a small taste of freedom.” Renewal on the Reservation Nowhere is the power of gardens and gardening more apparent than in Pine Ridge, an Oglala Lakota (Sioux) Native American reservation located in South Dakota.

“prisons are sponsoring onsite gardening programs” Mike Maddox, “Using Gardening to Teach Life Skills to Jail Inmates,” University of Wisconsin-Extension, accessed July 29, 2013, http://rock.uwex.edu/files/2011/01/RECAP-2010.pdf. James Jiler, Doing Time in the Garden: Life Lessons Through Prison Horticulture (Oakland, CA: New Village Press, 2006). Rachel Cernansky, “Prison Gardens a Growing Trend, Feeding Inmates on the Inside and Food Banks on the Outside,” TLC: How Stuff Works, accessed July 29, 2013, http://recipes.howstuffworks.com/prison-gardens-growing-trend1.htm. 12. “ ‘A garden is one of the few things’ ” Nelson Mandela, Long Walk to Freedom (Abacus 40th Anniversary) (New York: Little, Brown and Company, 2008). 13. “ ‘Going out there and taking responsibility’ ” Louise Gray, “The Secret Life of the ‘Guerilla Gardener,’ ” Telegraph, April 15, 2009, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/lifestyle/5154388/The-secret-life-of-the-guerilla-gardener.html. 14. “biggest new gardening trends in the United States” “Top Garden Trends for 2013: Less Grass—More Flowers,” Better Homes and Gardens, accessed August 15, 2013, http://www.bhg.com/gardening/gardening-trends/top-garden-trends/#page=17. 15.


pages: 193 words: 48,066

The European Union by John Pinder, Simon Usherwood

Berlin Wall, BRICs, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, failed state, illegal immigration, labour market flexibility, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, new economy, non-tariff barriers, open borders, price stability, trade liberalization, zero-sum game

Hendrix THE MARQUIS DE SADE • John Phillips MARX • Peter Singer MATHEMATICS • Timothy Gowers THE MEANING OF LIFE • Terry Eagleton MEDICAL ETHICS • Tony Hope MEDIEVAL BRITAIN • John Gillingham and Ralph A. Griffiths MEMORY • Jonathan K. Foster MICHAEL FARADAY • Frank A. J. L. James MODERN ART • David Cottington MODERN CHINA • Rana Mitter MODERN IRELAND • Senia Paseta MODERN JAPAN • Christopher Goto-Jones MODERNISM • Christopher Butler MOLECULES • Philip Ball MORMONISM • Richard Lyman Bushman MUSIC • Nicholas Cook MYTH • Robert A. Segal NATIONALISM • Steven Grosby NELSON MANDELA • Elleke Boehmer NEOLIBERALISM • Manfred Steger and Ravi Roy THE NEW TESTAMENT • Luke Timothy Johnson THE NEW TESTAMENT AS LITERATURE • Kyle Keefer NEWTON • Robert Iliffe NIETZSCHE • Michael Tanner NINETEENTH-CENTURY BRITAIN • Christopher Harvie and H. C. G. Matthew THE NORMAN CONQUEST • George Garnett NORTHERN IRELAND • Marc Mulholland NOTHING • Frank Close NUCLEAR WEAPONS • Joseph M.


pages: 165 words: 50,798

Intertwingled: Information Changes Everything by Peter Morville

A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, augmented reality, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, business process, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, disruptive innovation, index card, information retrieval, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Lean Startup, Lyft, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, Nelson Mandela, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, source of truth, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, uber lyft, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, zero-sum game

By framing and re-framing, we build the mental muscles of curiosity and imagination, and we nurture our capacity to be cheeky, sassy, wise. Buddha opposed the caste system and dogma in general. He said “place no head above your own.” Of course, to question the categories of custom, convention, rule, and order is to risk your neck. Galileo was found “gravely suspect of heresy” for confirming the Copernican re-classification of the universe, Joan of Arc was burned to death for “dressing as a man” and Nelson Mandela was categorized as a domestic terrorist by South Africa and the United States for defying the taxonomy – black, white, coloured, Indian – of apartheid. Mostly what we do isn’t quite so heavy. But it’s unwise to ask certain questions before understanding politics and culture. In all organizations, from libraries, nonprofits, and government agencies to Fortune 500s and Silicon Valley startups, visible categories are built on invisible fault lines.


Power Systems: Conversations on Global Democratic Uprisings and the New Challenges to U.S. Empire by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, American ideology, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate personhood, David Brooks, discovery of DNA, double helix, drone strike, failed state, Howard Zinn, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, land reform, Martin Wolf, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, Powell Memorandum, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, single-payer health, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Tobin tax, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

So, for example, the wording of the judgment suggests that if you talk to somebody they call a terrorist and urge them to turn to nonviolence, you’re guilty of giving material assistance to terrorist groups. The potential scope of that is incredible. These are executive decisions—without review, without recourse. If you look at the record of who is designated a terrorist, it’s shocking. Maybe the most extreme case is Nelson Mandela, who just got off the terrorist list about four years ago.7 The Reagan administration, which supported the apartheid regime in South Africa right to the end, condemned the African National Congress as one of “the more notorious terrorist groups” in the world.8 So Mandela is a terrorist because they say so. He’s only now for the first time free to come to the United States without special authorization.9 Saddam Hussein was taken off the terrorist list in 1982 so the United States could provide him with agricultural and other support that he needed.10 The whole record is grotesque.


pages: 186 words: 49,595

Revolution in the Age of Social Media: The Egyptian Popular Insurrection and the Internet by Linda Herrera

citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, informal economy, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, minimum wage unemployment, Mohammed Bouazizi, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, WikiLeaks

In Egypt, plainclothes police officers beat Khaled Said in view of neighbors. These two men became symbols of mass movements, the detonators which touched the fiber of people and the hooks that motivated them to join, as the anti-FARC campaigner Oscar Morales wrote about in the AYM manual for cyberdissidents. Activists have long understood the power of symbols in galvanizing people to join a movement; think of what Rosa Parks meant to the civil rights movement, or Nelson Mandela to the anti-apartheid struggle. In the age of social media activism, the difference has been that an image and story can proliferate in the guise of a meme and travel across space at breakneck speed. In the breathtaking pace at which images and stories spread, there is little time for fact-checking, reflection, or bottom-up movement building. The meme-like spread of Mohamed Bouazizi seems to have traveled a path via social media similar to that traversed by Khaled Said.


pages: 149 words: 48,700

The Rules Do Not Apply by Ariel Levy

Cape to Cairo, East Village, indoor plumbing, Nelson Mandela, out of africa

The story became an international tabloid sensation. Semenya’s countrymen were appalled by the idea of a person who thought she was one thing suddenly being told that she was something else: The classification and reclassification of human beings has a haunted history in South Africa. When Semenya returned to Johannesburg, thousands of supporters waited to cheer her at O. R. Tambo International Airport. Nelson Mandela and President Jacob Zuma made a point of meeting her to offer their congratulations. People were outraged that a teenager had been examined and analyzed, like the Hottentot Venus before her, by European men who were fascinated by her exotic, anomalous appearance. The truth is, I was fascinated, too. It was a story that made you question the meaning of gender: What makes a person female? A vagina?


I You We Them by Dan Gretton

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, British Empire, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Desert Island Discs, drone strike, European colonialism, financial independence, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Honoré de Balzac, IBM and the Holocaust, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, laissez-faire capitalism, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, place-making, pre–internet, Stanford prison experiment, University of East Anglia, wikimedia commons

The records of these meetings should be made public. It would be instructive to know exactly what was said at these meetings (particularly in regard to Saro-Wiwa’s case) – and also to know which other senior figures in Shell were present at those meetings with Abacha. Some presumably who may have gone on to ‘higher things’ in their careers – both in the oil industry and in the world of politics. Appeals did come, from the Pope and Nelson Mandela and some prominent Commonwealth leaders. Mandela made one of the most tragic mistakes of his life (as he later admitted), calling for ‘quiet diplomacy’ with Nigeria, the old African National Congress ally. But the efforts that did come, came too late, and were to no avail. On the morning of 10 November 1995, in Port Harcourt prison, Ken and eight of his colleagues were hanged. Ken was the first, crying out as he was led to the gallows, ‘You can only kill the messengers, you cannot kill the message!

The same argument was used to try and explain why Shell stayed in South Africa during apartheid, from two different ex-Shell employees. This made me sense that there had been a co-ordinated internal company ‘line’ issued to all employees. Incidentally, it’s fascinating to look at the language both Anna and David used – making the oil company sound more like a provider of local social services rather than a profit-making business: Anna: I believe Shell was a force for good within that society, and Nelson Mandela said, after his release, that he was glad Shell stayed and that, erm, Shell had been instrumental in, erm, challenging the government on black housing, and providing black housing, which was technically illegal at the time, and they were able to get the law changed to allow Shell to provide black housing, and the standards by which Shell upheld during that period and respect for human rights and diversity, erm, I felt was a beacon in a very bleak period, where other companies were cutting and running.

The Federation of Conservative Students were in their deeply offensive, extreme-Thatcherite heyday, aided by the far-right Monday Club – and, at an NUS conference I attended at Warwick University, many of them (including, I recall, the current Speaker of the House of Commons – who was then secretary of the Monday Club’s ‘Immigration and Repatriation Committee’ – and several other future Tory MPs and ministers), proudly sported badges reading ‘Hang Nelson Mandela’. 3 The Bishopsgate Institute in London has recently acquired the Platform archive, which is publicly accessible. I recently spent a very nostalgic couple of hours going through some of the earliest files of material from the Cambridge and Addenbrooke’s campaign days, finding notes that J. and I had written, and publicity materials typed on my old Olympia typewriter. Other figures in Platform’s early days, many of who became artists and activists in their own right subsequently, were Paula Webb, Ravi Mirchandani, Rod Bolt and David Evans; Richard Fredman, Ingrid Simler, John Parry and Abigail Morris (the Corn Exchange project); Anna Wright, Wesley Stace, Mel Steel, Graham Burns and Mark Whelan (‘Addenbrooke’s Blues’). 4 ‘The being together of two human beings …’ Rilke, from ‘On Being With Others’ in Letters on Life. 5 ‘Let’s be alone together …’ Leonard Cohen, ‘Waiting for the Miracle’. 6 At the end of our Ottoneum performance we chalked two sentences (translated into German) on vertical blackboards: ‘The silence of the earth is our blindness’ ‘The silence of our country is your deafness’ And then we wrote our ‘6 Questions for FIU Kassel from FIU.


pages: 184 words: 54,833

Why Orwell Matters by Christopher Hitchens

anti-communist, British Empire, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Etonian, hiring and firing, land reform, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes

Ever since the white-settler revolt in Southern Rhodesia in 1965, I had involved myself with the white and black advocates of majority rule and independence. I made several visits to the country, and interviewed many of the guerrilla leaders in exile, of whom the most impressive was Robert Mugabe. His ultimate election victory in 1980, transforming Rhodesia into Zimbabwe, was a foretaste of the later triumph of Nelson Mandela. But the abolition of racism and the end of colonial rule was succeeded by a dirty war in Matabeleland against the supporters of Mugabe’s rival Joshua Nkomo, and by the awarding of confiscated agricultural property to the party loyalists of the regime. Displaying signs of megalomania, especially after the tragic death of his wife, Mr Mugabe set up a ‘youth brigade’ that was named the 21st February Movement in honour of his own birthday.


pages: 171 words: 54,334

Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

On the Sunday after Thanksgiving, some of the same news outlets begin publishing selected US diplomatic cables from a corpus WikiLeaks says numbers over a quarter of a million and dates back to 1966. The first 260, published on 28 November, reveal instructions to US diplomats to gather information about UN officials which the Guardian describe as “blur[ring] the line between diplomacy and spying”, as well as historic cables about the release of Nelson Mandela in 1990 and a number of cables from around the Middle East that have to do with Iran, its nuclear programme, and the 2009 Iranian elections. The days that follow feature tittle-tattle with high entertainment value (Prince Andrew acting like a tit in his role as special trade representative; US diplomats across the world making snarky comments about national leaders) mixed in with the odd serious revelation about corruption and extra-judicial killing in Pakistan, or China’s weakening diplomatic stance over North Korea.


pages: 175 words: 54,497

The Naked Eye: How the Revolution of Laser Surgery Has Unshackled the Human Eye by Gerard Sutton, Michael Lawless

Isaac Newton, Lao Tzu, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela

It’s a strange book called The Book of the Way or Tao Te Ching written in about 500 BC by Lao Tzu, a Chinese scholar. It’s a fabulous book of short verses, beautifully written, that talks about why the world is how it is and how to live your life. Even though it might seem a bit obvious in parts, the fact that it was written two and half thousand years ago makes it quite remarkable. Which living person do you most admire? Nelson Mandela, the captain of the ship that was his life. As for someone who is personally known to me, our business partner, Dr Chris Rogers is someone for whom I have enormous respect and admiration. He has been one of the most important influences in my professional life. Together with Dr Peter Cohen, Chris and I brought the first excimer laser for short-sightedness to Australia in September 1991. His clinical knowledge is superb and his understanding of what mattered to patients helped us navigate our way through the early days of vision correction surgery in Australia.


Masters of Mankind by Noam Chomsky

affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, failed state, God and Mammon, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), land reform, Martin Wolf, means of production, Nelson Mandela, nuremberg principles, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system

They objected to a passage recognizing “the right to self-determination, freedom, and independence, as derived from the Charter of the United Nations, of people forcibly deprived of that right, . . . particularly peoples under colonial and racist regimes and foreign occupation.” The term “colonial and racist regimes” was understood to refer to South Africa, a US ally, resisting the attacks of Nelson Mandela’s ANC, one of the world’s “more notorious terrorist groups,” as Washington determined at the same time. And “foreign occupation” was understood to refer to Washington’s Israeli client. So, not surprisingly, the US and Israel voted against the resolution, which was thereby effectively vetoed—in fact, subjected to the usual double veto: inapplicable, and vetoed from reporting and history as well, though it was the strongest and most important UN resolution on terrorism.


pages: 495 words: 154,046

The Rights of the People by David K. Shipler

affirmative action, airport security, computer age, facts on the ground, fudge factor, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, mandatory minimum, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, RFID, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, working poor, zero-sum game

“Fear” was the word that one of his closest colleagues, Politburo member Aleksandr Yakovlev, used when I asked what he had been feeling at the time. I thought he might say pride or exhilaration, but no, he had feared the unknown consequences of their uncharted path. “I am surprised I am still alive,” Yakovlev declared. It got me wondering if Václav Havel felt fear as he brought Czechoslovakia out of communism, and if Nelson Mandela, beneath his inspirational assuredness, endured fear as he led South Africa from its bondage of apartheid. Perhaps if you’re not at least a little scared, if you do not go to the edge of your comfort zone and beyond, you are not doing anything worthwhile. In other circumstances, though, fear in high places can infect values, as it did following September 11. With heavy responsibility for preventing further attacks, those in powerful offices moved rapidly into a wartime mentality, with all the world a battlefield.

This will now be legally risky, perhaps impossible, unless prosecutors look the other way and human rights advocates ignore the law, as both sides have mostly done in the past. The State Department has typically been slow to remove certain movements from the “terrorist” list after violence has subsided. The Nepali Maoists remained designated long after they had ceased fighting and had become the largest party in a freely elected government; being on the list hampered even American diplomats who needed to deal with Nepal’s Maoist prime minister. Nelson Mandela’s African National Congress was designated because of the violence to which it finally resorted in its struggle against apartheid in South Africa, notwithstanding Mandela’s inspirational leadership in healing racial wounds. Congress could fix the problem if it were so inclined. As the Court observed, to prove a violation under the existing statute, prosecutors must show only that the trainer or adviser knew that the organization appeared on the terrorist list, “without requiring the Government to prove that plaintiffs had a specific intent to further the unlawful ends of those organizations.”


pages: 353 words: 355

The Long Boom: A Vision for the Coming Age of Prosperity by Peter Schwartz, Peter Leyden, Joel Hyatt

American ideology, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, centre right, computer age, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, hydrogen economy, industrial cluster, informal economy, intangible asset, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, life extension, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shock, open borders, Productivity paradox, QR code, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, Y2K

It's easy to lose sight of the incredible strides taken in South Africa just since the 1980s. That country has gone from seemingly unresolvable guerrilla warfare over apartheid to a functioning democracy that balances the rights of whites and blacks. It is critically important that South Africa's example of embracing democracy spreads to the rest of the continent. South Africa's most prominent political prisoner, Nelson Mandela, became one of the most respected national leaders in the world. Instead of a riot of violent retribution, the country has engaged in a formal process of reconciliation. This is one of the most impressive displays in the world of trying to dissipate violence and hatred through dialogue. Africans have a deep belief in the value of forgiveness. That ability to forgive is one of the foundations of the healing process going on in South Africa, and it could be a key to rapid progress for all of Africa in the future.


pages: 184 words: 58,557

The Bedwetter: Stories of Courage, Redemption, and Pee by Sarah Silverman

haute couture, index card, Nelson Mandela, Saturday Night Live, Skype

It would be uncouth to divulge this musician's identity, though the wide-eyed earnestness with which he employed the word "nigger" leads me to believe he sees no fault in his use of it, as he sees no fault (or difference) in the way I had used it. But I will tell you that after that incident I Stopped Believin'. I know that all this crap is what I should expect when I choose to build a career on shock and profanity, but since I've got this book, I'm going to try to get the message out: I'm not interested in seeing pictures of anyone's bowel movements. The two exceptions would be (1) Clive Owen's, for obvious reasons; and (2) Nelson Mandela's, because his life has just been such an incredibly rich journey. This all relates to the larger point of this chapter: That I am not an animal. Of course I am literally an animal, but I mean "I am not an animal" the way the Elephant Man meant it (though he was pretty gross). I feel I have life pretty much figured out, and I would now like to share this gift with you. I have a mantra, and that is: "Make It a Treat."


On Palestine by Noam Chomsky, Ilan Pappé, Frank Barat

Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, facts on the ground, failed state, ghettoisation, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, one-state solution, Stephen Hawking

Whether they have an alternative to that is not so clear, but if they were to refuse the US demand for negotiations on completely unacceptable terms, their basis for support would erode. And they do have support—external support—enough so that the Palestinian elite can live a fairly decent, often lavish, lifestyle, while the society around them collapses. FB: So would the crumbling and disappearance of the PA be a bad thing after all? NC: It depends on what would replace it. If, say, Marwan Barghouti were permitted to join the society the way, say, Nelson Mandela was finally, that could have a revitalizing effect in organizing a Palestinian society that might press for more substantial demands. But remember: they don’t have a lot of choices. In fact, go back to the beginning of the Oslo agreements, now twenty years old. There were negotiations under way, the Madrid negotiations, at which the Palestinian delegation was led by Haider Abdel-Shafi, a highly respected, left-nationalist figure in Palestine.


pages: 196 words: 58,886

Ten Myths About Israel by Ilan Pappe

British Empire, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, one-state solution, WikiLeaks

The final reason offered for the Zionist reclamation of the Holy Land, as determined by the Bible, was the need of Jews around the world to find a safe haven, especially after the Holocaust. However, even if this was true, it might have been possible to find a solution that was not restricted to the biblical map and that did not dispossess the Palestinians. This position was voiced by a quite a few well-known personalities, such as Mahatma Gandhi and Nelson Mandela. These commentators tried to suggest that the Palestinians should be asked to provide a safe haven for persecuted Jews alongside the native population, not in place of it. But the Zionist movement regarded such proposals as heresy. The difference between settling alongside the native people and simply displacing them was recognized by Mahatma Gandhi when he was asked by the Jewish philosopher, Martin Buber, to lend his support to the Zionist project.


pages: 215 words: 59,188

Seriously Curious: The Facts and Figures That Turn Our World Upside Down by Tom Standage

agricultural Revolution, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blood diamonds, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, failed state, financial independence, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gini coefficient, high net worth, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, Internet of things, invisible hand, job-hopping, Julian Assange, life extension, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mega-rich, megacity, Minecraft, mobile money, natural language processing, Nelson Mandela, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, ransomware, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, South China Sea, speech recognition, stem cell, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks

Only two countries outside Latin America contain cities in the top 50: the United States and South Africa. In America, the only rich country on the list, a spike in homicides propelled two more cities, Detroit and New Orleans, to join St Louis and Baltimore, which also figured on 2015’s list. Each has a rate that is around ten times the national average of 4.9 homicides per 100,000 people. South Africa is the only country outside the Americas in this ranking. Two new cities, Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City, have been added to the list, mainly because data collection is improving in the country. The homicide rate in South Africa climbed by 5% last year, though other violent crime dropped. Why young Britons are committing fewer crimes Crime in Britain has been falling, as in many rich countries. In England and Wales the decline has been dramatic: since the mid-1990s the number of offences has fallen by half.


pages: 186 words: 57,798

Nonviolence: The History of a Dangerous Idea by Mark Kurlansky

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, desegregation, European colonialism, Khyber Pass, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, polynesian navigation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, working poor

The history of the struggle to emancipate people of color in South Africa is one of shifting tactics between violence and nonviolence. Gandhi's campaign at the beginning of the twentieth century was nonviolent. The African National Congress, modeled on Gandhi's Indian National Congress, was also nonviolent and focused on fighting legal battles. After 1948, when an openly racist National Party won elections, a new generation of militants, led by Nelson Mandela, energized the old movement, while remaining committed to nonviolence. They went to jail for deliberately defying laws of segregation. But by 1953 some demonstrations turned into riots and the government passed laws approving such practices as whipping protesters. In 1960, to protest the requirement of black people to carry official passes, thousands showed up at once in police stations to be arrested for not having them.


pages: 199 words: 64,616

The Double Comfort Safari Club by Alexander McCall Smith

Nelson Mandela

She knew the warning signs with middle-aged men--they were like a set of traffic lights that glowed brightly in the dark. Greater attention to personal grooming? Bad sign. Pulling-in of the stomach to conceal paunch? Bad sign. Purchase of a more powerful car in bright red? Very, very bad sign. Of course, the shirt could be interpreted in various ways. It was a loose-fitting, open-neck shirt of the sort worn by Nelson Mandela. Such shirts were not tucked into one's trousers, but hung about the waist, allowing for air to circulate. They suited older men very well, those on whose physique prosperity, and particularly a diet of good Botswana beef, might have taken its toll, and they were perfect, of course, for Mr. Mandela himself, who lent them that grace and dignity that came so naturally to him. You might conclude, thought Mma Ramotswe, that Mr.


pages: 258 words: 63,367

Making the Future: The Unipolar Imperial Moment by Noam Chomsky

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, deindustrialization, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Frank Gehry, full employment, Howard Zinn, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, liberation theology, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, precariat, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, working poor

The similarity to Israel’s behavior today is striking—for example, the attack on Gaza in December 2008–January 2009 and on the Gaza freedom flotilla in May 2010. When President Reagan took office in 1981, he lent support to South Africa’s domestic crimes and its murderous depredations in neighboring countries. The policies were justified in the framework of the war on terror that Reagan had declared on coming into office. In 1988, his administration designated Nelson Mandela’s African National Congress one of the world’s “more notorious terrorist groups” (Mandela himself was only removed from Washington’s “terrorist list” in 2008). South Africa was defiant, and even triumphant, with its internal enemies crushed, and enjoying solid support from the one state that mattered in the global system. Shortly after, U.S. policy shifted. U.S. and South African business interests very likely realized they would be better off by maintaining the class structure and ending the apartheid burden.


pages: 222 words: 60,207

Circus Maximus: The Economic Gamble Behind Hosting the Olympics and the World Cup by Andrew Zimbalist

airline deregulation, business cycle, carbon footprint, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, longitudinal study, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, principal–agent problem, race to the bottom, selection bias, urban planning, young professional

After the last strike, the workers were fired and the project was completed with subcontractors. Serious corruption charges were made, and at least three persons were murdered in connection with the allegations. Many more received death threats. Mbombela is also rarely used, and both Mokaba and Mbombela may have to be demolished to avoid the crippling operating and maintenance costs. Green Point Stadium in Cape Town has yearly maintenance costs of $6.2 million. The Nelson Mandela Bay Stadium is still looking for an anchor tenant and will cost an estimated $8.7 million a year to run.35 FIFA has a 420-page stadium manual that explains that a new stadium “provides many benefits for the local community” and enhances community pride. In too many cases, this is fanciful nonsense, but either the executives at FIFA are willfully ignorant or they just don't want any facts getting in the way of their PR machine.


Payback: Debt and the Shadow Side of Wealth by Margaret Atwood

carbon footprint, delayed gratification, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, financial independence, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Nelson Mandela, plutocrats, Plutocrats, trickle-down economics, wage slave

THERE ARE TWO antidotes to the endless chain reaction of revenge and counter-revenge. One is through the courts of law, which are supposed to settle questions of the weighing and measuring and resolving of debtor/creditor issues in a fair and equitable way. Whether they always do so is of course open to a lot of questions, but in theory that is their function. The other antidote is more radical. It is told of Nelson Mandela that, after much persecution, and when he was finally freed from the prison where he’d been put by the apartheid government in South Africa, he said to himself that he had to forgive all those who had wronged him by the time he reached the prison gates or he would never be free of them. Why? Because he’d be bound to them by the chains of vengeance. They and he would still be twin Shadow figures, joined at the hip.


pages: 202 words: 62,773

The Wordy Shipmates by Sarah Vowell

illegal immigration, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan

Cotton says, “If God be the gardener, who shall pluck up what he sets down?” Hear that, Indians? No weeding of the white people allowed. Unless they’re Catholic. Or one of those Satan-worshipping Virginians. John Cotton is forty-six years old. He is the most respected, famous, and beloved Puritan minister in England. Getting him to bless the send-off of these relatively unimportant castaways would be like scoring Nelson Mandela to deliver the commencement address at the neighbor kid’s eighth-grade graduation. In fact, once the colonists arrive in Massachusetts they will name their settlement Boston, in honor of Cotton’s hometown. These people listening to this man are scared. There’s a boat in the harbor that just might sail them to their deaths. They may never see their friends again until heaven (or hell, depending on how this dumb plan goes).


pages: 202 words: 62,199

Essentialism: The Disciplined Pursuit of Less by Greg McKeown

Albert Einstein, Clayton Christensen, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Lao Tzu, lateral thinking, loss aversion, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, minimum viable product, Nelson Mandela, North Sea oil, Peter Thiel, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, Shai Danziger, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, sovereign wealth fund, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Jobs, Vilfredo Pareto

The concreteness of the objective made it real. The realness made it inspiring. It answered the question: “How will we know when we have succeeded?” Living with Intent Essential intent applies to so much more than your job description or your company’s mission statement; a true essential intent is one that guides your greater sense of purpose, and helps you chart your life’s path. For example, Nelson Mandela spent twenty-seven years in jail becoming an Essentialist. When he was thrown in jail in 1962 he had almost everything taken from him: his home, his reputation, his pride, and of course his freedom. He chose to use those twenty-seven years to focus on what was really essential and eliminate everything else—including his own resentment. He made it his essential intent to eliminate apartheid in South Africa and in doing so established a legacy that lives on today.


Inside British Intelligence by Gordon Thomas

active measures, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, job satisfaction, Khyber Pass, kremlinology, lateral thinking, license plate recognition, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

On the morning of April 11, 2002, Judge Willie Hartzenberg concluded that, having considered the evidence of 153 witnesses, thousands of pages of affidavits by those who had worked for him, and documents, Wouter Basson was not guilty on any of the charges he had faced. To this day, four metal trunks filled with classified information about Project Coast remain locked in a government vault in Pretoria. Only two keys exist that can open the vault. One of them remained in the possession of President Nelson Mandela until his retirement. He has steadfastly refused to discuss Project Coast. Who holds the keys remains unknown. 15 A New World: Adjust or Die On that March day in 1991 when he celebrated his sixty-seventh birthday with his wife, Lynda, and added another honorary degree to the growing number he had already acquired from colleges and universities, Judge William Webster knew his four-year tenure as CIA director was coming to an end.

The station had led the fight against Soviet penetration of Central Africa by infiltrating subversive organizations and then turning them into informers. It had developed the plans that led to the election of pro-British leaders like Kenya’s Tom Mboya, Julius Nyerere of Tanganyika, Nysaland’s Hastings Banda, Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia, and Joshua Nkomo of Rhodesia. They had all been given substantial funds to become “agents of influence.” On August 5, 1962, Nelson Mandela, by then a key member of the African National Congress, was arrested near the town of Howick in Natal. It was a time when the country was filled with foreign spies, mostly from MI6 and the CIA, but also a number of French and German intelligence officers. Some were “declared”—their presence announced to the apartheid regime, and so protected by diplomatic immunity; many more were “undeclared” and subject to prosecution if caught.


pages: 236 words: 66,081

Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age by Clay Shirky

Andrew Keen, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, citizen journalism, corporate social responsibility, Dean Kamen, experimental economics, experimental subject, fundamental attribution error, invention of movable type, invention of the telegraph, Kevin Kelly, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, social software, Steve Ballmer, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, ultimatum game

Further, their success begat success—other groups of Grobanites started pursuing charitable work as well. Grobanites for Africa, a wholly unowned subsidiary of Grobanites for Charity, is specifically dedicated to raising money for organizations fighting poverty and the effects of HIV/AIDS on that continent. This group started after Groban’s first international concert tour took him to South Africa, where he met Nelson Mandela and announced his support for charitable work on behalf of African children. A group of Grobanites, preparing the meet-and-greets for a tour stop in Atlanta, decided to adopt this cause and, true to form, organized themselves separately; they work closely with other Grobanites and with the Josh Groban Foundation, a pattern established by the original fund-raising efforts. To date, Grobanites for Africa have generated over $150,000 for those causes.


pages: 238 words: 68,384

The Charming Quirks of Others: An Isabel Dalhousie Novel by Alexander McCall Smith

cuban missile crisis, Nelson Mandela

Perhaps there could be a book of photographs exploring face and character. Goebbels and Mussolini—they could be there to illustrate the proposition at the beginning: Goebbels with his pinched, rat-like features; Mussolini with his thuggish bully’s face; both perfect illustrations of the proposition that character shines through. And from the other end of the spectrum? She wondered about that. Nelson Mandela, perhaps, would be a good candidate: his face was suffused with kindness, with a sort of joy that was unmistakable; or Mother Teresa of Calcutta, whose lined, careworn features were so transformed when she smiled. She could look severe sometimes, but that was the effect of suffering and the day-to-day toll of caring for those for whom nobody else would care. And then there were the politicians, some of whom so neatly illustrated pride, ambition and cunning; the various types of bullies; soldiers whose faces often seemed trained into hard, wooden expressions; sleek bankers to remind us of the face of human greed; gentle doctors … It would be a book of clichés, she decided, demonstrating that stereotypes—for all that they be derided—are so often true.


pages: 257 words: 68,383

Bottled and Sold: The Story Behind Our Obsession with Bottled Water by Peter H. Gleick

Boris Johnson, carbon footprint, clean water, commoditize, cuban missile crisis, John Snow's cholera map, Nelson Mandela, place-making, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley

If bottled water isn’t going to disappear, then maybe the biggest problem with ethical bottled water is that there isn’t more of it. CHAPTER 12 The Future of Water Making predictions is very difficult, especially about the future. —Casey Stengel, famous philosopher (and Major League Baseball legend) It is one thing to find fault with an existing system. It is another thing altogether, a more difficult task, to replace it with another approach that is better. —Nelson Mandela, speaking of water resource management1 THE WORLD’S rapidly growing dependence on expensive, commercial bottled water is a symptom of the fundamental failure to provide safe and affordable drinking water to everyone on the planet—which should be a basic human right. Those of us who live in the richer nations of the world are buying more and more bottled water because we increasingly fear or dislike our tap water, we distrust governments to regulate, monitor, and protect public water systems adequately, we can’t find public fountains anywhere anymore, we are convinced by advertisers and marketers that bottled water will make us healthier, thinner, or stronger, and we’re told that it is just another benign consumer “choice.”


pages: 234 words: 63,149

Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World by Ian Bremmer

airport security, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, clean water, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global rebalancing, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Nixon shock, nuclear winter, Parag Khanna, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

* Google is among the few willing to discuss this issue publicly. * The phrase did not actually come from Obama. It was attributed to an unnamed administration official who was describing the president’s approach to Gadhafi’s Libya. As Ryan Lizza, the journalist who published the “leading from behind” comment in the New Yorker, has acknowledged, the concept was first championed years ago by Nelson Mandela. Ryan Lizza, “Leading from Behind,” New Yorker, April 27, 2011, http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/newsdesk/2011/04/leading-from-behind-obama-clinton.html. * In late 2011, Myanmar showed signs of trying to become a pivot state. Political concessions and a shift in rhetoric earned a visit from Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. It remains to be seen if Myanmar will follow through, but even Myanmar’s leaders recognize that a single powerful friend can’t beat the power of the pivot


pages: 239 words: 56,531

The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld

Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, anti-globalists, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

The identified scenario drivers are then allayed in a spectrum (along one axis), a matrix (with two axes and four 2-D spaces), or a volume (with three axes and eight 3-D spaces). Some of the better-known successes of the scenario planning process were Royal Dutch Shell’s ability to plan successfully for the expansions and contractions of global oil demands after the price shocks of the 1970s, the apartheid government of South Africa developing the capacity to imagine a peaceful turnover of power to Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress, and somewhat less globally significant, the identification and development of a U.S. “gardening lifestyle” by the retailer Smith & Hawken.20 Crafting Bespoke Futures Peter Schwartz and Jay Ogilvy, cofounders of the Global Business Network (or GBN as it is better known), are two of the better-known scenario planners. They have invested a great deal in condensing and distributing the memes of scenario planning.


pages: 274 words: 66,721

Double Entry: How the Merchants of Venice Shaped the Modern World - and How Their Invention Could Make or Break the Planet by Jane Gleeson-White

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, British Empire, business cycle, carbon footprint, corporate governance, credit crunch, double entry bookkeeping, full employment, Gordon Gekko, income inequality, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Islamic Golden Age, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Ponzi scheme, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, source of truth, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile

As such, practitioners of the rare mathematic arts can become the powerful priests of investing, thanks to their strange and obscure language, much the way the medieval church trafficked in Latin’. The antics of the share market and its mathematical wizards manipulate not only the wealth of individuals and corporations, they also dramatically shape the political life of nations. Naomi Klein gives a stark example of the impact of markets on politics. Following the election of Nelson Mandela as President of South Africa, ‘Every time a top party official said something that hinted that the ominous Freedom Charter might still become policy, the market responded with a shock, sending the rand into free fall. The rules were simple and crude, the electronic equivalent of monosyllabic grunts: justice—expensive, sell; status quo—good, buy.’ The market proved to be the greatest constraint on Mandela’s new government.


pages: 252 words: 65,990

HWFG: Here We F**king Go by Chris McQueer

call centre, Donald Trump, Kickstarter, Nelson Mandela, sensible shoes

Wish I’d recorded her saying that on my old Motorola flip phone cause now she says she never said that and that she’s seen snails in Scotland since she was a wee lassie. Absolute fucking liar. A lot of folk will say I’m just misremembering things from my childhood, a lot of folk will say I’m just being daft. But this is the hill I will die on. I read up online about other people saying things along the same lines as my snail nightmare and there’s a phenomenon called the Mandela effect. So-called because apparently lots of people say they remember Nelson Mandela dying in jail in the 80s and even remember watching his funeral on the telly. There’s people that swear Sex and the City used to be called Sex in the City. I know a couple of people who claim Scott’s Porage Oats used to be spelled on the box as Scott’s Porridge Oats. There’s theories that say the Mandela effect is down to time travellers from the future messing about with past or that people have somehow slipped from an alternate universe into our own.


pages: 207 words: 64,598

To Show and to Tell: The Craft of Literary Nonfiction by Phillip Lopate

Charles Lindbergh, Columbine, desegregation, fear of failure, index card, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban planning, white flight

Jung: Memories, Dreams and Reflections Kate Simon: Bronx Primitive Lewis Mumford: Sketches from Life Loren Eiseley: All the Strange Hours Thomas Merton: The Seven-Storey Mountain Colette: My Mother’s House Michel Leiris: Manhood, Rules of the Game Geoffrey Wolff: The Duke of Deception Hilary Masters: Last Stands Frank Conroy: Stop-Time Peter Handke: A Sorrow beyond Dreams John Updike: Self-Consciousness Anatole Broyard: Kafka Was the Rage, Intoxicated by My Illness V. S. Naipaul: “Prologue to an Autobiography,” The Enigma of Arrival Chester Himes: The Quality of Hurt Luis Buñuel: My Last Sigh Elia Kazan: A Life Sylvia Ashton-Warner: Teacher Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom Gregor von Rezzori: The Snows of Yesteryear Recent Memoirs Philip Roth: Patrimony Vivian Gornick: Fierce Attachments Richard Rodriguez: Hunger of Memory Lucy Grealy: Autobiography of a Face Joanne Beard: The Boys of My Youth Mary Karr: The Liar’s Club Frank McCourt: Angela’s Ashes, Teacher Man Dave Eggers: A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius Doris Lessing: Under My Skin, Walking in the Shade Amos Oz: A Tale of Love and Darkness Art Spiegelman: Maus Marjane Satrapi: Persepolis 1 and 2 David Shields: Remote Emily Fox Gordon: Mockingbird Years Lorna Sage: Bad Blood Spalding Gray: Swimming to Cambodia Jill ker-Conway: The Road from Corain Elizabeth Kendall: American Daughter J.


pages: 262 words: 66,800

Progress: Ten Reasons to Look Forward to the Future by Johan Norberg

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, availability heuristic, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, clean water, continuation of politics by other means, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, Flynn Effect, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Island, Hans Rosling, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, more computing power than Apollo, moveable type in China, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, open economy, place-making, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, special economic zone, Steven Pinker, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, very high income, working poor, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

Twenty-five years ago, many claimed that ‘Asian values’ made democracy unlikely in Asia, but were proven wrong by countries such as Taiwan, South Korea and Indonesia. Equally, democracy never seemed likely in poor and conflict-ridden Africa. Not a single African country saw a peaceful transfer of power at the ballots in the 1960s and 1970s, and there was only one in the 1980s. But then suddenly, in the 1990s, twelve countries held peaceful elections. Few people thought that it would be possible to abolish apartheid peacefully, but in 1994, Nelson Mandela was elected president of South Africa. Since 1990, more than thirty African governments and presidents have been voted out of office. In 1959 the political sociologist Seymour Martin Lipset made the case that one important factor that contributes to democratization is increased wealth. He argued that development consolidates democracy, since it increases levels of education and literacy, reduces poverty and builds a middle class.


pages: 243 words: 66,908

Thinking in Systems: A Primer by Meadows. Donella, Diana Wright

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, clean water, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, game design, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, peak oil, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Stanford prison experiment, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Whole Earth Review

They may seem a bit dated to you, but in editing her work I chose to keep them because their teachings are as relevant now as they were then. The early 1990s were the time of the dissolution of the Soviet Union and great shifts in other socialist countries. The North American Free Trade Agreement was newly signed. Iraq’s army invaded Kuwait and then retreated, burning oil fields on the way out. Nelson Mandela was freed from prison, and South Africa’s apartheid laws were repealed. Labor leader Lech Walesa was elected president of Poland, and poet Václav Havel was elected president of Czechoslovakia. The International Panel on Climate Change issued its first assessment report, concluding that “emissions from human activities are substantially increasing the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and that this will enhance the greenhouse effect and result in an additional warming of the Earth’s surface.”


ECOVILLAGE: 1001 ways to heal the planet by Ecovillage 1001 Ways to Heal the Planet-Triarchy Press Ltd (2015)

Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, Community Supported Agriculture, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Food sovereignty, land tenure, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, off grid, Ronald Reagan, young professional

What seems more trustworthy, instead, is searching the edge, coming down to the ground, meeting the people, welcoming tangible experience and the general messiness and complexity of life. My engagement with the ecovillage and intentional community movement has been inspired by all the above. When I turned 23, I went on a pilgrimage through my home country at a time when violence was at its peak. It was in 1991 and Nelson Mandela had just been released. The country was bristling with suppressed anger and frustrated hope. For a while, I had worked for various anti-apartheid organisations. Now, at last, I had the courage to walk an actual exploration of my country, to visit all those places that were taboo to a young white ‘Afrikanermeisie’: the black taxis, the townships, wilderness and night sky-solitude. I walked up the coast for three months, ending up in the Transkei, one of the black homelands at that time.


pages: 247 words: 68,918

The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations? by Ian Bremmer

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, race to the bottom, reserve currency, risk tolerance, shareholder value, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

During the apartheid era, increasingly isolated white governments found global markets closed to them and were forced to rely on direct management of many aspects of a resource-rich domestic economy. The oil crisis of the mid-1970s and growing international criticism of apartheid forced the country toward deeper self-reliance and active state promotion of companies like Eskom (the state-owned power utility), Iscor (a steel producer), and Sasol (a developer of coal-to-fuel technology). With the end of apartheid in 1994, Nelson Mandela’s government took up the challenge of reversing decades of institutional racism and its impact on an undereducated, underemployed black majority. Knowing that South Africa’s new government needed to avoid large-scale capital flight, Mandela worked to persuade white businessmen and landowners to remain in the country and to create favorable terms to attract foreign investment. At the same time, his government’s first major policy document, the 1994 Reconstruction and Development Program, called for stimulating growth through redistribution of wealth, a plan that included an ambitious social-welfare program.


Survival of the Friendliest: Understanding Our Origins and Rediscovering Our Common Humanity by Brian Hare, Vanessa Woods

Cass Sunstein, cognitive bias, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, Law of Accelerating Returns, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, out of africa, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, smart cities, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, white flight, zero-sum game

It is not racist to want to live among your own….Though media [the Jews] lie about the Holohoax, and the slave trade, Jews were the slave traders, not Europeans. Many people do not even understand these simple things. Though the historical and social misconceptions are very clear in this population, the most important finding about SDO and RWA personality is that education has very little effect. “No one is born hating another person because of the color of his skin, or his background, or his religion,” wrote Nelson Mandela. “People must learn to hate, and if they can learn to hate, they can be taught to love, for love comes more naturally to the human heart than its opposite.” It is a beautiful saying, and it captures what people want to believe about intolerance—that it is a result of “closed-mindedness and ignorance”38 and that we can teach people to think differently. “According to this wishful understanding of reality,” the political scientist Karen Stenner writes, “the different can remain as different as they like and the intolerant will eventually have the intolerance educated out of them.”37 However, trying to “educate” intolerant people might actually make things worse.


pages: 209 words: 68,587

Stephen Hawking by Leonard Mlodinow

Albert Michelson, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, dark matter, Dmitri Mendeleev, Ernest Rutherford, Isaac Newton, Murray Gell-Mann, Nelson Mandela, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method

I knew that she was an important force in Stephen’s universe. When you requested time with Stephen, it was she who decided whether he was free. When you called, it was she who picked up, and brought him the call (or didn’t). When you wrote him, it was she who decided whether to relay the letter, and, if important, to read it to him. The only time I ever heard of someone getting the better of her was when Stephen, while in South Africa, went to see Nelson Mandela, whom he very much admired. Mandela was around ninety then. He wasn’t at all tech savvy, and for some reason he was freaked out by the way Stephen’s computer spoke for him. He wasn’t well, either. He was in frail health. “A little past it” was how Stephen described him, which was ironic because Stephen was having a bad day, too, and almost hadn’t made it to the appointment. Judith, though, was part of the entourage on that trip and was keen on meeting Mandela, so she saw to it that Stephen went, and she joined him and his carer for the ride over.


pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, business cycle, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, long peace, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanford prison experiment, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, twin studies, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Where states are relatively weak and capricious, both fears and opportunities encourage the rise of local would-be rulers who supply a rough justice while arrogating the power to ‘tax’ for themselves and, often, a larger cause.”48 Just as the uptick in civil warfare arose from the decivilizing anarchy of decolonization, the recent decline may reflect a recivilizing process in which competent governments have begun to protect and serve their citizens rather than preying on them.49 Many African nations have traded in their Bokassa-style psychopaths for responsible democrats and, in the case of Nelson Mandela, one of history’s greatest statesmen.50 The transition required an ideological change as well, not just in the affected countries but in the wider international community. The historian Gérard Prunier has noted that in 1960s Africa, independence from colonial rule became a messianic ideal. New nations made it a priority to adopt the trappings of sovereignty, such as airlines, palaces, and nationally branded institutions.

Conversely, just as the feedback from a microphone can be squelched if the gain is turned down, cycles of communal violence can be squelched if the severity of retributive justice is modulated. A damping of the desire for justice is particularly indispensable after civil conflicts, in which the institutions of justice like the police and prison system are not only fragile but may themselves have been among the main perpetrators of the harm. The prototype for reconciliation after a civil conflict is South Africa. Invoking the Xhosa concept of ubuntu or brotherhood, Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu instituted a system of restorative rather than retributive justice to heal the country after decades of violent repression and rebellion under the apartheid regime. As with the tactics of the Rights Revolutions, Mandela and Tutu’s restorative justice both sampled from and contributed to the pool of ideas for nonviolent conflict resolution. Similar programs, Long and Brecke discovered, have cemented civil peace in Mozambique, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and El Salvador.

Fiske notes that utilitarian morality, with its goal of securing the greatest good for the greatest number, is a paradigm case of the Market Pricing model (itself a special case of the Rational-Legal mindset).199 Recall that it was the utilitarianism of Cesare Beccaria that led to a reengineering of criminal punishment away from a raw hunger for retribution and toward a calibrated policy of deterrence. Jeremy Bentham used utilitarian reasoning to undermine the rationalizations for punishing homosexuals and mistreating animals, and John Stuart Mill used it to make an early case for feminism. The national reconciliation movements of the 1990s, in which Nelson Mandela, Desmond Tutu, and other peacemakers abjured in-kind retributive justice for a cocktail of truth-telling, amnesty, and measured punishment of the most atrocious perpetrators, was another accomplishment of violence reduction via calculated proportionality. So is the policy of responding to international provocations with economic sanctions and tactics of containment rather than retaliatory strikes.


May We Be Forgiven by A. M. Homes

anti-communist, Burning Man, dumpster diving, friendly fire, if you build it, they will come, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, Mason jar, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea

There’s a way to do that, have things go quiet for a while—for as long as it takes.” “Son of a bitch who the hell does he think he is—Charlton Heston in the Ten Commandments. SOB…” I glance up and see Wanda in the hall chatting with Marcel, who pushes the chrome mail basket around delivering mail. Later, I ask Marcel what he knows about Wanda. “Not much,” he says. “Only that she’s the granddaughter of Nelson Mandela—or Desmond Tutu, or someone like that…” He trails off. “Born in South Africa, sent to England for school, came here, sold her memoir for three-quarters of a million dollars,” he adds as an afterthought. “Why is she working here?” “Going to law school in the fall,” he says. “And she gave away the advance, donated to charity.” “Really,” I say. “Really,” Marcel says, echoing my tone, as he pushes his cart down the carpeted hall.

“Okay,” Wanda says. “Any travel tips? Pointers about great places to go, fabulous restaurants?” “Not a clue,” she says. “But aren’t you the granddaughter of—?” “The Nixons’ old cleaning lady in Washington?” she says, cutting me off. “Marcel tells everyone that my mother worked for Mrs. Nixon.” “That’s weird,” I say and go no further. “What’s Marcel’s story?” “Well, he’s either the illegitimate son of Nelson Mandela who was sent to Harvard to get a divinity degree and flunked out, or he’s a kid from New York City who does stand-up comedy at the Upright Citizens Brigade.” “I wonder where the truth lies,” I say, knowing I’ve been had. “It’s an open question,” she says. As the days go by, everything becomes more urgent. I’m juggling passports, plane tickets, health forms for camp, iron-on name tags. Cheryl and I are in the drugstore at the mall, shopping for supplies.


pages: 649 words: 181,179

Diamonds, Gold, and War: The British, the Boers, and the Making of South Africa by Martin Meredith

back-to-the-land, banking crisis, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, liberation theology, Nelson Mandela, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, trade route

Table of Contents Title Page Epigraph AUTHOR’S NOTE Introduction PART I Chapter 1 - DIAMOND FEVER Chapter 2 - BLUE GROUND Chapter 3 - KIMBERLEY Chapter 4 - THE DIGGERS’ REVOLT Chapter 5 - ENTER THE MAGNATES PART II Chapter 6 - THE IMPERIAL FACTOR Chapter 7 - OOM PAUL Chapter 8 - THE WASHING OF SPEARS Chapter 9 - MAJUBA PART III Chapter 10 - THE DIAMOND BUBBLE Chapter 11 - THE STRIPPING CLAUSE Chapter 12 - DREAMS AND FANTASIES Chapter 13 - THE ROAD TO THE NORTH Chapter 14 - THE GERMAN SPECTRE Chapter 15 - THE MOST POWERFULCOMPANY IN THE WORLD PART IV Chapter 16 - A CHOSEN PEOPLE Chapter 17 - JOHANNESBURG Chapter 18 - THE CORNER HOUSE Chapter 19 - A MARRIAGE OF CONVENIENCE PART V Chapter 20 - THE PLACE OF SLAUGHTER Chapter 21 - THE BALANCE OF AFRICA Chapter 22 - TO OPHIR DIRECT Chapter 23 - KRUGER’S PROTECTORATE PART VI Chapter 24 - GROOTE SCHUUR Chapter 25 - A BILL FOR AFRICA Chapter 26 - NOT FOR POSTERITY Chapter 27 - THE LOOT COMMITTEE PART VII Chapter 28 - A TALE OF TWO TOWNS Chapter 29 - THE RANDLORDS Chapter 30 - THE RHODES CONSPIRACY Chapter 31 - JAMESON’S RAID Chapter 32 - MISSING TELEGRAMS Chapter 33 - BY RIGHT OF CONQUEST PART VIII Chapter 34 - THE RICHEST SPOT ON EARTH Chapter 35 - NEMESIS Chapter 36 - THE GREAT GAME Chapter 37 - THE DRUMBEAT FOR WAR Chapter 38 - ULTIMATUMS PART IX Chapter 39 - THE FORTUNES OF WAR Chapter 40 - MARCHING TO PRETORIA Chapter 41 - SCORCHED EARTH Chapter 42 - THE BITTER END Chapter 43 - ENVOI PART X Chapter 44 - THE SUNNYSIDE STRATEGY Chapter 45 - VUKANI BANTU! Chapter 46 - THE BLACK ORDINANCE Chapter 47 - THE SPHINX PROBLEM EPILOGUE CHAPTER NOTES SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX Copyright Page ALSO BY MARTIN MEREDITH The Past Is Another Country: Rhodesia—UDI to Zimbabwe The First Dance of Freedom: Black Africa in the Postwar Era In the Name of Apartheid: South Africa in the Postwar Era Nelson Mandela: A Biography Coming to Terms: South Africa’s Search for Truth Elephant Destiny: Biography of an Endangered Species in Africa Mugabe: Power, Plunder, and the Struggle for Zimbabwe The Fate of Africa: A History of Fifty Years of Independence I speak of Africa, and golden joys . . . Shakespeare Henry IV, Part 2, Act v, Sc. iii AUTHOR’S NOTE During my travels around southern Africa over the past forty years I have often been struck by the long-term repercussions that came from the making of the modern state of South Africa.

Under the apartheid system, every facet of African life - residence, employment, education, public amenities and politics - was regulated to ensure their subordination. In their quest for political rights, the black opposition tried public protests, petitions, passive resistance, boycotts and eventually sabotage, guerrilla warfare and urban insurrection. Their struggle lasted for much of the twentieth century. It was not until 1994, after years of internal strife, that South Africa’s first democratic elections were held and Nelson Mandela became president of a democratic government. CHAPTER NOTES The material for this book is based on memoirs and reminiscences; on biography and autobiography; on government reports and correspondence; and on the work of several generations of historians. These chapter notes include references to books I found to be of particular interest and value. A more complete list is contained in the Select Bibliography.


pages: 1,261 words: 294,715

Behave: The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst by Robert M. Sapolsky

autonomous vehicles, Bernie Madoff, biofilm, blood diamonds, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Brownian motion, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, desegregation, different worldview, double helix, Drosophila, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, framing effect, fudge factor, George Santayana, global pandemic, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, John von Neumann, Loma Prieta earthquake, long peace, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mouse model, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, placebo effect, publication bias, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Rosa Parks, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanford prison experiment, stem cell, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, twin studies, ultimatum game, Walter Mischel, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

Even bigger surprise—stop the presses—Zimbardo criticized the study, arguing that its structure invalidated it as a chance to replicate the SPE; that guard/prisoner assignments could not have really been random; and that filming made this a TV spectacle rather than science; and asking, how can this be a model for anything when the prisoners take over the prison?73 Naturally, Reicher and Haslam disagreed with his disagreement, pointing out that prisoners have de facto taken over some prisons, such as the Maze in Northern Ireland, which the Brits filled with IRA political prisoners, and the Robben Island prison, in which Nelson Mandela spent his endless years. Zimbardo called Reicher and Haslam “scientifically irresponsible” and “fraudulent.” They pulled out all the stops by quoting Foucault: “Where there is [coercive] power there is resistance.” Let’s calm down. Amid the controversies over Milgram and the SPE, two deeply vital things are indisputable: When pressured to conform and obey, a far higher percentage of perfectly normal people than most would predict succumb and do awful things.

In 2010 Robinson was upended in a major scandal involving his politician wife, who had committed some major financial improprieties in the name of another type of impropriety—funneling money to her nineteen-year-old lover. And history was then made when McGuinness offered, and Robinson accepted, a commiserative handshake. A guy-code sacred-value moment.*31 Something similar happened in South Africa, much of it promulgated by Nelson Mandela, a genius at appreciating sacred values.32 Mandela, while at Robben Island, had taught himself the Afrikaans language and studied Afrikaans culture—not just to literally understand what his captors were saying among themselves at the prison but to understand the people and their mind-set. At one point just before the birth of a free South Africa, Mandela entered into secret negotiations with the Afrikaans leader General Constand Viljoen.

., “Sacred Barriers to Conflict Resolution,” Sci 317 (2007): 1039. 30. Hussein quote from CNN, Nov 6, 1995. 31. D. Thornton, “Peter Robinson and Martin McGuinness Shake Hands for the First Time,” Irish Central, January 18, 2010, www.irishcentral.com/news/peter-robinson-and-martin-mcguinness-shake-hands-for-the-first-time-81957747-237681071.html. 32. J. Carlin, Playing the Enemy: Nelson Mandela and the Game That Made a Nation (New York: Penguin Press, 2008); D. Cruywagen, Brothers in War and Peace: Constand and Abraham Viljoen and the Birth of the New South Africa (Cape Town, South Africa: Zebra Press, 2014). Chapter 16: Biology, the Criminal Justice System, and (Oh, Why Not?) Free Will 1. Innocence Project, “DNA Exonerations in the United States,” www.innocenceproject.org/dna-exonerations-in-the-united-states/. 2.


pages: 248 words: 72,174

The $100 Startup: Reinvent the Way You Make a Living, Do What You Love, and Create a New Future by Chris Guillebeau

Airbnb, big-box store, clean water, fixed income, follow your passion, if you build it, they will come, index card, informal economy, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, late fees, Nelson Mandela, price anchoring, Ralph Waldo Emerson, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh, web application

This isn’t simply about being generous, because as a business helps people, the business owner gets paid. Some people design an entire for-profit business around the social component, others shift to focus on it as they go along, and still others integrate a social project within a for-profit business. Apartheid came to an end in South Africa in 1994, ending nearly half a century of white-only rule in Africa’s most economically developed country. Nelson Mandela was elected the first black president the same year, and the country began a slow process of creating true equality for its “rainbow nation” of people. In addition to the negative association of apartheid, South Africa was known for many good things, one of which was its popular prize-winning wine. The wine region of the Western Cape is older than California’s. South Africa provided the royal courts of Europe with wine for over 350 years, and South African vines were used to start the Australian wine industry in 1781.


pages: 366 words: 76,476

Dataclysm: Who We Are (When We Think No One's Looking) by Christian Rudder

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, cloud computing, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Howard Zinn, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John Snow's cholera map, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, p-value, pre–internet, race to the bottom, selection bias, Snapchat, social graph, Solar eclipse in 1919, Steve Jobs, the scientific method

But here’s the thing: rock star or no, big noises have been the sound of mankind so far. Conquerors, tycoons, martyrs, saviors, even scoundrels (especially scoundrels!)—their lives are how we’ve told our larger story, how we’ve marked our progression from the banks of a couple of silty rivers to wherever we are now. From Pharaoh Narmer in BCE 3100, the first living man whose name we still know, to Steve Jobs and Nelson Mandela—the heroic framework is how people order the world. Narmer was first on an ancient list of kings. The scribes have changed, but that list has continued on. I mean, the 1960s, power to the people and so on, is the perfect example: that’s the era of Lennon and McCartney, Dylan, Hendrix, not “Guy at Party.” Above all, Everyman’s existence hasn’t been worth recording, apart from where it intersects with a legend’s.


pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, Bob Geldof, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

But in 1995, when Nigeria’s maligned and disenfranchised Ogoni tribe of five hundred thousand in the Niger Delta region grew tired of protesting the military government’s squandering of oil wealth, they turned their attention to Shell, which generated 15 percent of its global oil production in the country. Ken Saro-Wiwa, a noted Nigerian author, led peaceful mass protests with people chanting, “The flames of Shell are the flames of hell.” Amnesty International, Greenpeace, and Friends of the Earth joined the Ogoni cause, but governments said nothing as the Nigerian military began a brutal crackdown. Even Nelson Mandela didn’t intervene. After a 1993 coup that brought General Sani Abacha to power, Saro-Wiwa and eight other Ogoni were sentenced to death and hanged. Shell had already pulled its personnel out of the Delta, but its reputation was damned. Today, Moody-Stuart has a new mantra: “If it is a problem for society, it is a problem for business.” He made Royal Dutch Shell the first energy firm to combine its social and financial reports in one, believing that investors should see the full picture of the company’s performance.


pages: 280 words: 75,820

Rapt: Attention and the Focused Life by Winifred Gallagher

Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Build a better mousetrap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, epigenetics, Frank Gehry, fundamental attribution error, Isaac Newton, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, music of the spheres, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Walter Mischel, zero-sum game

Just as different individuals focus on their physical appearance in different ways, we vary in how much attention we pay to the gap between the beau-ideal self and the all-too-real one. Being the best you can be is a major top-down focus for saints, workaholics, and others who continually strive to improve; some may decide to listen to Prozac to help ensure that they’re functioning at 110 percent of normal. Others figure that hey, nobody’s perfect, and easily suppress comparisons between themselves and Nelson Mandela or Hillary Clinton. As Rozin says, “How much do you attend to your desire to be a certain way? How much of a disparity between your real and ideal self is there? As a focus, it may or may not be important to you, but it’s an attentional issue.” The particular ways in which you direct your focus to cope with your mixed emotions about dirt, food, body image, and ego illustrate your ability to use attention to shape and improve your experience in general.


pages: 352 words: 80,030

The New Silk Roads: The Present and Future of the World by Peter Frankopan

active measures, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, cashless society, clean water, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, land reform, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Nelson Mandela, purchasing power parity, ransomware, Rubik’s Cube, smart cities, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

‘The heroic deeds of Boris Yeltsin and the Russian people’ had steered Russia onto a course of reform and democracy, said President Bill Clinton at a meeting with the Russian president in Vancouver in 1993. The prospect of a ‘newly productive and prosperous Russia’ was good for everyone, he noted.1 Hopeful times lay ahead too in South Africa, where fraught negotiations to end apartheid had advanced sufficiently for the Nobel committee to award the Peace Prize for 1993 to F. W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela for their ‘their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa’.2 The award of the prestigious prize was a moment of hope for South Africa, for Africa and for the world – even if it later emerged that many of Mandela’s closest confidants urged him not to accept the prize if it meant having to share it with a man they referred to as ‘his oppressor’.


pages: 256 words: 75,139

Divided: Why We're Living in an Age of Walls by Tim Marshall

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, end world poverty, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, open borders, openstreetmap, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, the built environment, trade route, unpaid internship, urban planning

The trend for living in gated communities started to re-emerge during the twentieth century and has been gathering pace ever since. Now such communities are being built the length and breadth of Africa, with Zambia, South Africa, Kenya and Nigeria leading the way. South Africa pioneered the African gated trend. According to The Economist, as early as 2004 Johannesburg alone had 300 enclosed neighbourhoods and 20 security estates, while in 2015 Graça Machel, widow of Nelson Mandela, inaugurated the ‘parkland residence’ Steyn City in South Africa – a development four times the size of Monaco – which includes South Africa’s most expensive house. This is not limited to Africa, of course. In the USA, for example, the use of ‘fortified towns’ seems to have begun in California in the 1930s with gated enclaves such as the Rolling Hills Estate. Some scholars identify an acceleration in the building of gated communities in the 1980s and suggest that as governments cut back on welfare and spent less on communal areas, the people who could afford to do so withdrew from the public space.


pages: 237 words: 74,966

The Sociopath Next Door by Martha Stout

Albert Einstein, estate planning, long peace, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, risk tolerance, Rosa Parks, twin studies

Conscience protects the privileges of intimacy, makes friends keep their promises, prevents the angered spouse from striking back. It induces the exhausted doctor to pick up the phone for his frightened patient at three in the morning. It blows whistles against institutions when lives are endangered. It takes to the streets to protest a war. Conscience is what makes the human rights worker risk her very life. When it is combined with surpassing moral courage, it is Mother Teresa, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Aung San Suu Kyi. In small and large ways, genuine conscience changes the world. Rooted in emotional connectedness, it teaches peace and opposes hatred and saves children. It keeps marriages together and cleans up rivers and feeds dogs and gives gentle replies. It makes individual lives better and increases human dignity overall. It is real and compelling, and it would make us crawl out of our skin if we devastated our neighbor.


pages: 290 words: 72,046

5 Day Weekend: Freedom to Make Your Life and Work Rich With Purpose by Nik Halik, Garrett B. Gunderson

Airbnb, bitcoin, Buckminster Fuller, business process, clean water, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, delayed gratification, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, estate planning, Ethereum, fear of failure, fiat currency, financial independence, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Home mortgage interest deduction, Isaac Newton, litecoin, Lyft, market fundamentalism, microcredit, minimum viable product, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Nelson Mandela, passive income, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, side project, Skype, TaskRabbit, traveling salesman, uber lyft

You stop wishing and start truly living. The ultimate quantification of success is not how much time you spend doing what you love. It’s how little time you spend doing what you hate. Most people work for their money. I’m going to show you how to get your money working for you. “There is no small passion to be found playing small — in settling for a life that is less than the one you are capable of living.” —NELSON MANDELA CHAPTER 2 NEW MINDSET, MORE FREEDOM Retirement. That great American Dream. Work at a job you don’t even like for forty years. Scrimp and save in retirement plans. Then become economically dead and after that, as this plan is sold to us, live the “good life.” The only problem with this plan is that it doesn’t work. (How many people do you know who have become truly wealthy by saving in retirement plans?)


pages: 232

Planet of Slums by Mike Davis

barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, jitney, jobless men, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, liberation theology, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor

Houses are turned into virtual fortresses by surrounding them with high walls topped by glass shards, barbed wire, and heavy iron bars on all windows. 75 This "architecture of fear," as Tunde Agbola describes fortified lifestyles in Lagos, is commonplace in the Third World and some parts of the First, but it reaches a global extreme in large urban societies with the greatest socio-economic inequalities: South Africa, Brazil, Venezuela, and the United States.76 In Johannesburg, even before the 73 Solomon Benjamin, "Governance, Economic Settings and Poverty in Bangalore," Environment and Urbanisation 12:1 (April 2000), p. 39. 74 Harald Leisch, "Gated Communities in Indonesia," Gties 19:5 (2002), pp. 341, 344-45. 75 Berner, Defending a Place, p. 163. 76 For a description of Lagos's fortress homes, see Agbola, Architecture of Fear, pp. 68-69. election of Nelson Mandela, big downtown businesses and affluent white residents fled the urban core for northern suburbs (Sandton, Rand burg, Rosebank, and so on) which were transformed into highsecurity analogues of American "edge cities." Within these sprawling suburban laagers with their ubiquitous gates, housing clusters, and barricaded public streets, anthropologist Andre Czegledy finds that security has become a culture of the absurd.


pages: 273 words: 21,102

Branding Your Business: Promoting Your Business, Attracting Customers and Standing Out in the Market Place by James Hammond

Albert Einstein, call centre, Donald Trump, intangible asset, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, market design, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Steve Jobs, the market place

You can instead create a story based on your travels, adventures, situations you have experienced, humorous times, difficult times – anything that will evoke strong emotional ties with your audiences.  Your mentors. Who has provided the source of inspiration in your life? Family members, friends, teachers or coaches, or perhaps the people you most admire in the world, past and present? Great figures such as Mother Theresa, Gandhi or Nelson Mandela have given inspiration to countless men and women who saw in them qualities they admired, and desired to have themselves, whether it be succeeding against all odds, having a disciplined mind, living with honesty and integrity at the highest level or reaching a particular level of accomplishment. If Creating your Brand Storybook™ 225 they are qualities you have sought after and applied in your business, then you have a story to tell.  Your achievements.


A Schoolmaster's War by Jonathan Ree

anti-communist, Nelson Mandela, unemployed young men, V2 rocket

His reticence may have had something to do with the Official Secrets Act, but it was also part of his attitude to life. He had a rooted distaste for all kinds of boasting, personal or institutional, and he used to brush off enquiries about his war by saying – with the self-deprecating good humour that seems to have charmed everyone he met – that the whole thing had been like a glorious summer holiday. The closest he came to taking pride in his war was when Margaret Thatcher denounced Nelson Mandela as a terrorist, and he was able to say, ‘But I was a terrorist too, and I got a medal from George VI.’ Another reason for his reticence was disappointment at the condition of post-war France, where the spirit of solidarity and optimism which sustained him in the Resistance gave way to recrimination, obfuscation, and vindictive partisanship. Some nationalists denounced British agents as reckless clowns who had exposed their French colleagues to unnecessary risks, while Communists saw them as outriders for American capitalism.


pages: 286 words: 79,305

99%: Mass Impoverishment and How We Can End It by Mark Thomas

"Robert Solow", 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, bank run, banks create money, bitcoin, business cycle, call centre, central bank independence, complexity theory, conceptual framework, creative destruction, credit crunch, declining real wages, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, full employment, future of work, Gini coefficient, gravity well, income inequality, inflation targeting, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, North Sea oil, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Own Your Own Home, Peter Thiel, Piper Alpha, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Jobs, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, wealth creators, working-age population

Access to policymakers and politicians There are many examples of individuals who found ways to pull some of these levers without great wealth – but they are the exceptions. Martin Luther King may have been able to meet with the president5 but most members of the population of the United States cannot. Being a billionaire, however, is helpful in this respect: Bill Gates, for example, has met President Barack Obama of the United States,6 President Xi Jinping of China7 and President Nelson Mandela of South Africa,8 among others. The most accessible of the four levers is access to elite education – the top schools and universities in each country, from which a high proportion of the future elite are drawn. The power of this lever is surprising. In the UK, for example, 35 per cent of members of Parliament were educated in private schools, against 7 per cent of the population as a whole.9 Even more strikingly, David Cameron, the former Prime Minister of the UK, and four of his most trusted aides all attended the same school, Eton College, and more than half of the Cabinet were privately educated and attended either Oxford or Cambridge University.10 As with meeting the president, it is not impossible to attend these schools without a privileged background – they all offer scholarships – but it does require exceptional ability.


pages: 225 words: 74,210

Wanderland by Jini Reddy

Airbnb, Google Earth, invisible hand, Nelson Mandela

I’d spent the Friday with an environmentalist friend who works for DEFRA but who on the side secretly bangs gongs, twirls mallets round crystal bowls, and shakes rain sticks. I’d spent an entertaining afternoon round hers and the next day had ended up at a gig by Johnny Clegg, a South African musician-activist. He knew he was dying and it was to be one of his last tours. There was dancing and swaying and fist pumps and tributes to Nelson Mandela and me feeling South African and teary, even though I’ve only been to my parents’ homeland three times. So by the time I board the train, I’m feeling a little flat. Do I really want to go to landlocked Derbyshire? Once more I have that strange feeling of contraction I sometimes feel when I head north. What is that all about? Maybe it has to more to do with being in a county that is far from the coast.


pages: 212 words: 80,393

Getting By: Estates, Class and Culture in Austerity Britain by Lisa McKenzie

British Empire, call centre, credit crunch, delayed gratification, falling living standards, financial exclusion, full employment, income inequality, low skilled workers, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, unpaid internship, urban renewal, working poor

Lewis, O. (1966) Four men – Living the revolution: Oral history of contemporary Cuba, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. Levitas, R. (2005) The inclusive society (2nd edn), London: Macmillan. Lister, R. (1996) Charles Murray and the underclass: The developing debate commentaries, London: IEA Health and Welfare Unit in association with The Sunday Times. Lister, R. (2004) Poverty, Cambridge: Polity. Littlejohn, R. (2014) ‘Duggan was a gangster not Nelson Mandela’, Mail Online, 10 January (http://dailym.ai/1tvagLR). MacDonald, R., Shildrick, T., Webster, C. and Simpson, D. (2005) ‘Growing up in poor neighbourhoods: the significance of class and place in the extended transitions of “socially excluded” young adults’, Sociology, vol 39, no 5, December, pp 873-91. Malone, C. (2008) ‘Force low-life to work for a living’, News of the World, 7 December, p 23.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

Peter’s Basilica.32 No wonder the “selfie”—defined as “a photograph that one has taken of oneself, typically one taken with a smartphone or webcam and uploaded to a social media site”—was the Oxford English Dictionary’s word of the year in 2013, its use increasing by 17,000% over the year.33 And no wonder that almost 50% of the photos taken on Instagram in the United Kingdom by 14–21-year-olds are selfies, many of whom use this medium to reify their existence.34 “All too often, selfies involve shooting yourself in the foot,” Gautam Malkani noted about Barack Obama and David Cameron’s selfie debacle at Nelson Mandela’s memorial service in December 2013. But the unfortunate truth is that we are all—from Barack Obama to James Franco to the other 150 million selfie addicts on Kevin Systrom’s social network—collectively shooting ourselves in more than just our feet with our battery of Hello this is me snaps. These “Advertisements for Myself” are actually embarrassing commercials both for ourselves and for our species.


pages: 306 words: 79,537

Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps That Explain Everything About the World (Politics of Place) by Tim Marshall

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hans Island, Kickstarter, LNG terminal, market fragmentation, megacity, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, Transnistria, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, zero-sum game

In 2012, he wrote an article for Germany’s best-selling daily newspaper, Bild, and was clearly still haunted by the possibility that, because of the financial crisis, the current generation of leaders would not nurture the postwar experiment in European trust: “For those who didn’t live through this themselves and who especially now in the crisis are asking what benefits Europe’s unity brings, the answer despite the unprecedented European period of peace lasting more than 65 years and despite the problems and difficulties we must still overcome is: peace.” 5 * * * AFRICA It always seems impossible until it is done. —Nelson Mandela Africa’s coastline? Great beaches—really, really lovely beaches—but terrible natural harbors. Rivers? Amazing rivers, but most of them are worthless for actually transporting anything, given that every few miles you go over a waterfall. These are just two in a long list of problems that helps explain why Africa isn’t technologically or politically as successful as Western Europe or North America.


pages: 307 words: 82,680

A Pelican Introduction: Basic Income by Guy Standing

bank run, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial intermediation, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gunnar Myrdal, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, intangible asset, job automation, job satisfaction, Joi Ito, labour market flexibility, land value tax, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, open economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, rent control, rent-seeking, Sam Altman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, The Future of Employment, universal basic income, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working poor, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Springing into prominence in the US in the late 1960s, this term was briefly adopted, though later dropped, by Democrat Senator George McGovern during his unsuccessful presidential campaign. It remains an attractive name, suggesting a link between ‘democracy’ and ‘grants’. Freedom grant. This was the name proposed by the writer for a basic income grant (BIG) advocated in South Africa after Nelson Mandela became the country’s first post-apartheid president.11 Sadly, the International Monetary Fund and the then South African finance minister opposed the BIG, since when inequality and chronic insecurity have persisted and grown. Stabilization grant. This term, another proposed by the writer, refers to a form of basic income, or a component of it, that would vary with the economic cycle, rising in recessions to encourage spending and falling in better times.


pages: 316 words: 87,486

Listen, Liberal: Or, What Ever Happened to the Party of the People? by Thomas Frank

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American ideology, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Burning Man, centre right, circulation of elites, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, deindustrialization, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, George Gilder, gig economy, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, mandatory minimum, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, microcredit, mobile money, moral panic, mortgage debt, Nelson Mandela, new economy, obamacare, payday loans, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, pre–internet, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Republic of Letters, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, union organizing, urban decay, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Anyone inquiring how an obscenity like this came to pass—how it is that the home of the free outstripped what we used to call “captive nations” as well as countries philosophically dedicated to wholesale imprisonment like apartheid South Africa—anyone looking into these things soon realizes that this cannot be laid simply and neatly at the doorstep of the Republican Party and Those Awful Wingers. It is true that the Republican Richard Nixon started the war on drugs, and that the Republican Ronald Reagan escalated it. But the Democrat Bill Clinton—the buddy of Bono and Nelson Mandela, the man repeatedly nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize—easily bested both of these Republicans as well as all other presidents in his zeal to incarcerate.8 Alexander writes as follows of Clinton’s 1994 crime law: Far from resisting the emergence of the new caste system, Clinton escalated the drug war beyond what conservatives had imagined possible a decade earlier. As the Justice Policy Institute has observed, “the Clinton Administration’s ‘tough on crime’ policies resulted in the largest increases in federal and state prison inmates of any president in American history.”9 If anything, Alexander is soft-pedaling her indictment.


pages: 322 words: 84,752

Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, butter production in bangladesh, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, digital map, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

The stories of the Zapatistas and the Arab Spring are not about nationalist fervor inspiring political revolution. They are not about religious fundamentalism. These movements were not particularly Marxist, Maoist, or populist. They had leaders, but employed comparatively flat organizations of informal teams compared with the formal and hierarchical unions and political parties behind Václav Havel, Nelson Mandela, and Lech Wałęsa. Instead, digital photos circulated widely and kept grievances alive. Periods of political history are not easy to define. They begin and end slowly. Their features are not absolute, but are prominent and distinctive. That’s how these two social movements demark the interregnum. Despite Francis Fukuyama’s claim that history was at an “end” in the early 1990s, I argue that device networks have given history a new beginning.27 Two moments of upheaval in international affairs mark the transition.


pages: 432 words: 85,707

QI: The Third Book of General Ignorance (Qi: Book of General Ignorance) by John Lloyd, John Mitchinson

Albert Einstein, Boris Johnson, British Empire, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, dark matter, double helix, epigenetics, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Kickstarter, music of the spheres, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route

Barrie inadvertently came up with the name for Quality Street chocolates. Decades after it was written, the name and characters from his 1901 play Quality Street were used in the product’s advertising and packaging. Most Barrie scholars now think he got the idea for the name ‘Wendy’ from five-year-old Margaret Henley, who tried to call him ‘friendy’ but mispronounced it ‘fwendy’. Margaret was the daughter of the one-legged poet William Ernest Henley, who wrote Nelson Mandela’s favourite poem ‘Invictus’. The character of Long John Silver in Robert Louis Stevenson’s Treasure Island was based on Henley – so Long John Silver was Wendy Darling’s father. Peter Pan was named after Pan, the Greek god who was abandoned by his mother as a child. The title of the first Peter Pan book (1902) was initially going to be The Boy Who Hated Mothers, and in the play Barrie intended Peter to be ‘a demon boy, the villain of the story’.


pages: 388 words: 211,074

Pauline Frommer's London: Spend Less, See More by Jason Cochran

Bonfire of the Vanities, Boris Johnson, British Empire, congestion charging, David Attenborough, Etonian, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Haight Ashbury, haute couture, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, Kickstarter, low cost airline, Nelson Mandela, Skype, urban planning

But by 1905, its fortunes reversed when it was elevated to a cathedral, which now serves 2.5 million across southern London, and in 2000, it was given a lavish cleaning—so much of one that it’s hard to discern the true age and sordid past of the place. The cathedral’s entrance is to the left. Go in, go straight across the sanctuary, through the glass doors opposite, up a short flight of stairs, and turn right to the end of the glass-roofed corridor, which traces the line of an alley that was called @ Lancelot’s Link Nelson Mandela opened this building in 2001. Have a look at the display here, which preserves surprising discoveries made in this small area during a 1999 renovation. Look down into the well on the far right, and you’ll see the original paving stones from the Roman road that cut through this space in the 1st century. You crossed over this same road several times already today; you were standing above it when you entered Borough Market.

Find more events at London’s city website (www.london.gov.uk/gla/events), at Visit London’s site (www.visitlondon.com), and in Time Out magazine (www.timeout.com/london). The regular events below are by no means the full list. There are always short-run, one-off events popping up unexpectedly throughout the year, such as the installation of a temporary lawn across Trafalgar Square to promote London parks, open-air rock concerts like the one honoring Nelson Mandela’s 90th birthday, and wacky art installations like the “Telectroscope” that offered live, life-size views of Brooklyn in its lens in 2008. Time Out and the commercial weblog Londonist (www.londonist.com) are good places to find advance word. January or Early February London International Mime Festival Chinese New Year Festival (% 020/ (% 020/7637-5661; www.mimefest. 7851-6686; www.chinatownchinese. co.uk): Not just for silent clowns, but co.uk): In conjunction with the Chinese also for funky puppets and Blue Man–style New Year, the streets around Leicester Square come alive with dragon and lion dances, children’s parades, performances, screenings, and fireworks displays.


pages: 323 words: 89,795

Food and Fuel: Solutions for the Future by Andrew Heintzman, Evan Solomon, Eric Schlosser

agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate social responsibility, David Brooks, deindustrialization, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, flex fuel, full employment, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, hydrogen economy, Kickstarter, land reform, microcredit, Negawatt, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment

Every step of the way, important choices were made by politicians, chief executives, and unwitting consumers. Different choices can still be made. In 1959, the year I was born, people of colour in much of the United States were forbidden to use the same public toilets as white people or to sleep at the same hotels. The Soviet Union oppressed its own citizens and ruled half of Europe. Blacks in South Africa were treated like serfs. In 1959, if you’d predicted that Nelson Mandela would one day be elected president of a free, multiracial South Africa, people would have said you were out of your mind. In my lifetime, I’ve seen segregation, the Berlin Wall, and apartheid vanish from the Earth. So I refuse to believe that the way we feed ourselves today must endure forever. Our current system won’t last because it can’t last. It is not sustainable. This centralized, industrialized agricultural system has been in place for just a few decades — and look at the destruction it has already caused.


pages: 304 words: 87,702

The 100 Best Vacations to Enrich Your Life by Pam Grout

Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, complexity theory, David Brooks, East Village, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, global village, Golden Gate Park, if you build it, they will come, Maui Hawaii, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, supervolcano, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra

Unlike your average cruise ship, the Explorer has no casinos, spas, or fancy nightclub entertainment. What the 24,300-ton vessel does offer is an 8,000-volume library, nine classrooms, a computer lab, a student union, a campus bookstore, a swimming pool, a fitness center, a spa, and a health clinic. But the best perks are the interport lecturers. Over the years, students at sea have been treated to talks by Nelson Mandela, Mikhail Gorbachev, Indira Gandhi, Corazon Aquino, Mother Teresa, and Fidel Castro, who one year met with students for eight entire hours. Desmond Tutu, a frequent interport lecturer and big fan of the floating campus for global studies, even signed on to be a guest lecturer for the entire spring semester voyage of 2007. Most of the onboard faculty are visiting professors from colleges across the country.


pages: 309 words: 92,177

The Ghost by Robert Harris

airport security, carbon footprint, en.wikipedia.org, Nelson Mandela, stakhanovite, white picket fence

He opened a door and I followed him into a room straight out of Rick’s London club: dark green wallpaper, floor-to-ceiling books, library steps, overstuffed brown leather furniture, a big brass lectern in the shape of an eagle, a Roman bust, a faint odor of cigars. One wall was devoted to memorabilia: citations, prizes, honorary degrees, and a lot of photographs. I took in Emmett with Bill Clinton and Al Gore, Emmett with Margaret Thatcher and Nelson Mandela. I’d tell you the names of the others if I knew who they were. A German chancellor. A French president. There was also a picture of him with Lang, a grin-and-grip at what seemed to be a cocktail party. He saw me looking. “The wall of ego,” he said. “We all have them. Think of it as the equivalent of the orthodontist’s fish tank. Do take a seat. I’m afraid I can only spare a few minutes, unfortunately.”


pages: 349 words: 27,507

E=mc2: A Biography of the World's Most Famous Equation by David Bodanis

Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, Berlin Wall, British Empire, dark matter, Ernest Rutherford, Erwin Freundlich, Fellow of the Royal Society, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Mercator projection, Nelson Mandela, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Stephen Hawking, Thorstein Veblen

They are individuals who can venture to that Other Side, before returning back to ordinary life, here with us on Earth. As a result, we’ll try to glimpse, in the expression on their face, or in the potent equations they’ve plucked and brought back down, what things are like up there, in that higher realm, which so many of us believe in, but know we’ll never get to visit directly. Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela have been considered such prophets, carrying down a vision of racial harmony, their words spreading afterward with a power that came from the feeling that they had originated from that higher source. In post–World War I Europe, Einstein’s findings were received with the veneration King’s or Mandela’s words would be granted later. And since very few people understood Einstein’s work at first, all the feeling it suggested—all the desire for transcendence and for knowledge from Einstein’s divine library—would soon be shifted onto images of Einstein himself.


pages: 395 words: 94,764

I Never Knew That About London by Christopher Winn

Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, Clapham omnibus, Desert Island Discs, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, God and Mammon, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Nick Leeson, old-boy network, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble

‘I have neither eyes to see, nor tongue to speak in this place, but as this House is pleased to direct me,’ was Speaker Lenthall’s reply, and no monarch has been allowed to set foot in the Commons ever since, except for George VI, who was invited to visit the new chamber when it had been rebuilt after the Second World War. Since the law courts moved to the Strand, Westminster Hall has been used for mainly ceremonial occasions. The first person to lie in state here was William Gladstone in 1898, then George VI in 1952, Queen Mary in 1953, Sir Winston Churchill in 1965 and Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, in 2002. In 1996 Nelson Mandela addressed both Houses of Parliament in the Hall. * * * The Exchequer Westminster Hall was for many years the home of the ‘exchequer’, or treasury. The term exchequer derived from the chequered table, based on the abacus and resembling a chess board, on which counters representing different values were placed and used to calculate expenditure and receipts. Money received by the Treasury was recorded on sticks about 8 inches (20 cm) long, on which notches were made of different sizes according to the amount of money involved.


pages: 372 words: 92,477

The Fourth Revolution: The Global Race to Reinvent the State by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Asian financial crisis, assortative mating, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, cashless society, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, circulation of elites, Clayton Christensen, Corn Laws, corporate governance, credit crunch, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, liberal capitalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, mobile money, Mont Pelerin Society, Nelson Mandela, night-watchman state, Norman Macrae, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, old age dependency ratio, open economy, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, pension reform, pensions crisis, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, popular capitalism, profit maximization, rent control, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Skype, special economic zone, too big to fail, total factor productivity, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working-age population, zero-sum game

When Spain temporarily restored parliamentary government in 1931, Mussolini had likened it to returning to oil lamps in the age of electricity. In 1941 Franklin Roosevelt had worried that it might not be possible to shield “the great flame of democracy from the blackout of barbarism,” a fear repeated during the cold war. But democracy had eventually won. The great heroes of the late twentieth century were heroes of democracy: Think of Nelson Mandela leading the peaceful transition to majority rule in South Africa or Václav Havel constructing the velvet revolution in the Czech Republic. In the introduction to Democracy in America Tocqueville argued that “the effort to halt democracy appears as a fight against God himself.”5 Substitute the word “history” for “God” and by 2000 that was a statement of conventional wisdom. Yet today things look very different: Democracy’s advance has come to a shuddering halt.


pages: 289 words: 87,137

What Patients Say, What Doctors Hear by Danielle Ofri

big-box store, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, stem cell

Patients were more satisfied with their doctor visits after both did the training. The one skill area that did not improve, interestingly, was the same for both doctors and patients: time management skills. Maybe it’s time to admit we just need longer visits! Research continues to bear out that communication can be broken down into discrete skills that can be taught and retained,5 that one needn’t be born a Nelson Mandela or Winston Churchill to do a decent job communicating. Just as doctors can be taught how to suture, how to run a code, how to hear a heart murmur, and how to brake a gurney without severing their toes, they can also be taught how to communicate better. One area that is rightfully getting attention is teaching how to break bad news. Grave illness comes with the territory in medicine, so giving bad news is a regular event for most doctors.


pages: 347 words: 86,274

The Power of Glamour: Longing and the Art of Visual Persuasion by Virginia Postrel

Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, factory automation, Frank Gehry, indoor plumbing, job automation, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, placebo effect, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, urban renewal, washing machines reduced drudgery, young professional

But if you understand his appeal as glamour, in which the audience supplies the meaning, then it’s not surprising that Obama means different things to different people and thus, especially in his first term, often had difficulty rallying his supporters in favor of a given course of action. Glamour is an asset in a campaign, but charisma is more useful once you’re elected. A few particularly gifted leaders—Ronald Reagan, Nelson Mandela, and, outside of politics, Steve Jobs—have had both. GLAMOUR CHARISMA Barack Obama Bill Clinton Che Castro Thomas Jefferson Andrew Jackson Jackie Kennedy Eleanor Roosevelt Michael Jordan Earvin “Magic” Johnson John Lennon Janice Joplin Leonardo Raphael Spock Kirk Tupac Shakur Snoop Dogg Joan of Arc dead Joan of Arc alive Early Princess Diana Late Princess Diana It’s rare for a charismatic leader to be as self-contained as Reagan or Mandela, which is one reason glamour rarely accompanies charisma.


pages: 264 words: 90,379

Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking by Malcolm Gladwell

affirmative action, airport security, Albert Einstein, complexity theory, David Brooks, East Village, haute couture, Kevin Kelly, lateral thinking, medical malpractice, medical residency, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, new economy, pattern recognition, phenotype, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, theory of mind, young professional

They may bubble up from the unconscious—from behind a locked door inside of our brain—but just because something is outside of awareness doesn’t mean it’s outside of control. It is true, for instance, that you can take the Race IAT or the Career IAT as many times as you want and try as hard as you can to respond faster to the more problematic categories, and it won’t make a whit of difference. But, believe it or not, if, before you take the IAT, I were to ask you to look over a series of pictures or articles about people like Martin Luther King or Nelson Mandela or Colin Powell, your reaction time would change. Suddenly it won’t seem so hard to associate positive things with black people. “I had a student who used to take the IAT every day,” Banaji says. “It was the first thing he did, and his idea was just to let the data gather as he went. Then this one day, he got a positive association with blacks. And he said, ‘That’s odd. I’ve never gotten that before,’ because we’ve all tried to change our IAT score and we couldn’t.


pages: 366 words: 87,916

Fluent Forever: How to Learn Any Language Fast and Never Forget It by Gabriel Wyner

card file, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, index card, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Skype, spaced repetition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Yogi Berra

Principle 5: Rewrite the Past Timing Is Everything: The End of Forgetting Do This Now: Learn to Use a Spaced Repetition System 3: Sound Play Train Your Ears, Rewire Your Brain Train Your Mouth, Get the Girl Train Your Eyes, See the Patterns Do This Now: Learn Your Language’s Sound System 4: Word Play and the Symphony of a Word Where to Begin: We Don’t Talk Much About Apricots Games with Words The Gender of a Turnip Do This Now: Learn Your First 625 Words, Music and All 5: Sentence Play The Power of Input: Your Language Machine Simplify, Simplify: Turning Mountains into Molehills Story Time: Making Patterns Memorable On Arnold Schwarzenegger and Exploding Dogs: Mnemonics for Grammar The Power of Output: Your Custom Language Class Do This Now: Learn Your First Sentences 6: The Language Game Setting Goals: Your Custom Vocabulary Words About Words Reading for Pleasure and Profit Listening Comprehension for Couch Potatoes Speech and the Game of Taboo Do This Now: Explore Your Language 7: Epilogue: The Benefits and Pleasures of Learning a Language The Toolbox The Gallery: A Guide to the Flash Cards That Will Teach You Your Language The Art of Flash Cards The First Gallery: Do-It-Yourself Pronunciation Trainers The Second Gallery: Your First Words The Third Gallery: Using and Learning Your First Sentences The Fourth Gallery: One Last Set of Vocabulary Cards A Glossary of Terms and Tools Appendices Appendix 1: Specific Language Resources Appendix 2: Language Difficulty Estimates Appendix 3: Spaced Repetition System Resources Appendix 4: The International Phonetic Alphabet Decoder Appendix 5: Your First 625 Words Appendix 6: How to Use This Book with Your Classroom Language Course One Last Note (About Technology) Notes Acknowledgments Index CHAPTER 1 Introduction: Stab, Stab, Stab If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his language, that goes to his heart. —Nelson Mandela Americans who travel abroad for the first time are often shocked to discover that, despite all the progress that has been made in the last 30 years, many foreign people still speak in foreign languages. —Dave Barry Language learning is a sport. I say this as someone who is in no way qualified to speak about sports; I joined the fencing team in high school in order to get out of gym class.


Pirates and Emperors, Old and New by Noam Chomsky

American ideology, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, drone strike, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land reform, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, union organizing, urban planning

Their terrorist acts inside Russia were serious enough to have brought a Russia–Pakistan war ominously close (John Cooley, Global Dialogue 2.4, Autumn 2000). 85. Barry Munslow and Phil O’Keefe, Third World Quarterly, January 1984. During the Reagan years, South African depredations in the neighboring countries left 1.5 million killed and caused over $60 billion in damage, while Washington continued to support South Africa and condemned Nelson Mandela’s ANC as one of the “more notorious terrorist groups” in the world. Joseba Zulaika and William Douglass, Terror and Taboo (Routledge, 1996), 12. 1980–88 record, Merle Bowen, Fletcher Forum, Winter 1991. On expansion of U.S. trade with South Africa after Congress authorized sanctions in 1985 (overriding Reagan’s veto), see Gay McDougall, Richard Knight, in Robert Edgar, ed., Sanctioning Apartheid (Africa World Press, 1990). 86.


pages: 326 words: 88,905

Days of Destruction, Days of Revolt by Chris Hedges, Joe Sacco

Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, dumpster diving, Exxon Valdez, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Howard Zinn, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban decay, wage slave, white flight, women in the workforce

The more concessions one makes to privilege and power, the more it diminishes one’s capacity to fight for justice and truth. This understanding should have been heeded by Havel, who as president served systems of state power and supported the invasion and occupation of Iraq. Havel’s positions as a politician tarnished all he had fought for as an outsider and a dissident. The same can be said of Nelson Mandela, who, once in office, bowed to the demands of foreign investors and international banks and abandoned the African National Congress’s thirty-five-year-old socialist economic policy, known as the Freedom Charter, which called for the nationalization of mines, banks, and monopoly industries. 28. Jonathan Mirsky, “Liu Xiaobo’s Plea for the Human Spirit,” New York Times, December 30, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/01/books/review/liu-xiaobos-plea-for-the-human-spirit.html. 29.


pages: 302 words: 95,965

How to Be the Startup Hero: A Guide and Textbook for Entrepreneurs and Aspiring Entrepreneurs by Tim Draper

3D printing, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, business climate, carried interest, connected car, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Deng Xiaoping, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, family office, fiat currency, frictionless, frictionless market, high net worth, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pez dispenser, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, school choice, school vouchers, self-driving car, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

Bob Dylan Liberty, when it begins to take root, is a plant of rapid growth. George Washington Conformity is the jailer of freedom and the enemy of growth. John F. Kennedy If you're not ready to die for it, put the word 'freedom' out of your vocabulary. Malcolm X I would like to be remembered as a person who wanted to be free so other people would be also free. Rosa Parks Money won't create success, the freedom to make it will. Nelson Mandela Some people get rich first. Deng Xiaoping Freedom is never more than one generation away from extinction. We didn't pass it to our children in the bloodstream. It must be fought for, protected, and handed on for them to do the same. Ronald Reagan Freedom Matters Most The more I live, the more I travel, and the more people I meet, the more I realize that freedom matters most. Free people are capable of anything.


pages: 322 words: 87,181

Straight Talk on Trade: Ideas for a Sane World Economy by Dani Rodrik

3D printing, airline deregulation, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, endogenous growth, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, full employment, future of work, George Akerlof, global value chain, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Kenneth Rogoff, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market fundamentalism, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Pareto efficiency, postindustrial economy, price stability, pushing on a string, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steven Pinker, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, éminence grise

For the latter to accede to political reform, it had to have credible guarantees against expropriation. In view of the international sanctions and the economic decline they faced, the elites would have been better off under democracy—but only provided that moderate future taxation could be assured. In the absence of such guarantees, it remained in the elites’ interest to keep suppressing the black majority even at substantial economic cost to themselves and the country. Nelson Mandela was keenly aware of the problem: “Especially in the first few years of the democratic government,” he said in 1991, “we may have to do something to show that the system has got an inbuilt mechanism which makes it impossible for one group to suppress the other.”6 In the run-up to the democratic transition of 1994, South Africa’s federal institutions were specifically designed to prevent the expropriation of the rich white minority by the poor black majority.


pages: 344 words: 94,332

The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity by Lynda Gratton, Andrew Scott

3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, disruptive innovation, diversification, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Economic Geography, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, pension reform, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, uber lyft, women in the workforce, young professional

Either through boredom or technological obsolescence, the acquisition of new skills and new specialisms will become a lifelong endeavour. Given that across a 100-year lifespan there are 873,000 hours available and if, as is often claimed, a specialist expertise takes 10,000 hours to acquire, then mastery in more than one field is neither daunting nor impossible. Valuing knowledge Learning is an important part of life and has a value way beyond the income it can generate. Nelson Mandela was right when he said ‘Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world’, and he wasn’t talking about GDP or income. There is a lot of sense in choosing to learn what one is passionate about and interested in. However, for most people, income matters – and it matters even more over the course of a 100-year life. Looking forward, is it possible to know what might be the subjects of passion and interest that will also secure a good income?


pages: 420 words: 98,309

Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me): Why We Justify Foolish Beliefs, Bad Decisions, and Hurtful Acts by Carol Tavris, Elliot Aronson

Ayatollah Khomeini, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, false memory syndrome, fear of failure, Lao Tzu, longitudinal study, medical malpractice, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, placebo effect, psychological pricing, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, telemarketer, the scientific method, trade route, transcontinental railway, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

But their analysis, in our view, applies to group conflicts as well, where the third way is not merely the best way; it is the only way. In South Africa, the end of apartheid could easily have left a legacy of self-justifying rage on the part of the whites who supported the status quo and the privileges it conferred on them, and of self-justified fury on the part of the blacks who had been its victims. It took the courage of a white man, Frederik de Klerk, and a black man, Nelson Mandela, to avert the bloodbath that has followed in the wake of most revolutions, and to create the conditions that made it possible for their country to move forward as a democracy. De Klerk, who had been elected president in 1989, knew that a violent revolution was all but inevitable. The fight against apartheid was escalating; sanctions imposed by other countries were having a significant impact on the nation's economy; supporters of the banned African National Congress were becoming increasingly violent, killing and torturing people whom they believed were collaborating with the white regime.


Hiding in Plain Sight: The Invention of Donald Trump and the Erosion of America by Sarah Kendzior

"side hustle", 4chan, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, borderless world, Chelsea Manning, Columbine, corporate raider, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, Julian Assange, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QAnon, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, white flight, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game

The horror of the present is realizing that many adults had no sense of what was really going on during my 1980s childhood either—and that those who did know, and lived to tell the tale, are the ones who stole the future. 3 The 1990s: Elite Exploits of the New World Order The early 1990s ushered in an anomalous period of accountability. This was the era after the Iran-Contra criminals were sentenced but before future Trump attorney general William Barr helped pardon them; when the Berlin Wall fell and the Soviet Union soon followed; when dissidents like Nelson Mandela, Lech Walesa, and Václav Havel went from prisons to presidencies; when America had a war and a recession and both of them came to a seemingly definitive end. This was an actual era of hope and change, and it did not last long. At the time, I was too young to appreciate the novelty of this reversal of fortune—or to appreciate that political and economic fortunes could be reversed at all. I took global shifts in stride like a preteen Francis Fukuyama, lumping “the USSR” in with “gangster rap” in the category of “things only adults are dumb enough to fear.”


Betrayal of Trust: The Collapse of Global Public Health by Laurie Garrett

accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, biofilm, clean water, collective bargaining, desegregation, discovery of DNA, discovery of penicillin, Drosophila, employer provided health coverage, Fall of the Berlin Wall, germ theory of disease, global pandemic, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Induced demand, John Snow's cholera map, Jones Act, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mouse model, Nelson Mandela, new economy, nuclear winter, phenotype, profit motive, Project Plowshare, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, stem cell, the scientific method, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism

All Zairois were commanded in 1971 to also change their names, dropping the Christian appellations that had been used for more than two centuries. The new leader changed his own name from Joseph to Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa za Banga, or “the all-conquering warrior who triumphs over all obstacles.” The nationalistic veneer fooled many pan-Africanists, who thought Mobutu the equal of such contemporaries on the continent as Kwame Nkrumah in Ghana, Nelson Mandela in South Africa, and Tanzania’s Julius Nyerere. Prophetically, on his cancer deathbed in 1961, the Algerian intellectual Franz Fanon warned, “Our mistake is to have believed that the [Western] enemy had lost his combativeness and his harmfulness. If Lumumba is in the way, Lumumba disappears…. Let us be sure never to forget it: the fate of all of us is at stake in the Congo.” Throughout the 1970s and 1980s Mobutu proved a ready ally for Europe and the United States, offering his country as a staging and training ground for counterinsurgency forces bent on toppling governments and guerrilla fronts considered hostile to the apartheid state of South Africa: Angolan troops fighting in opposition to the MPLA (the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola); mercenaries and South African Special Forces troops battling Namibia’s SWAPO (Southwest African People’s Organization); Frelimo (Mozambique’s anticolonial organization); and all presences of Cuban troops in Africa.

The Zaire/DROC war was threatening to expand, drawing in adversaries from all over Africa. Angola now backed Kabila. Uganda and Rwanda had switched their allegiances, supporting Tutsi dissidents that formerly were part of the Kabila alliance. Zimbabwe sent military “advisers” to Kinshasa. Namibia flew in twenty-one tons of military equipment, also backing Kabila. Water and electricity for Kinshasa were cut off by rebels. From South Africa President Nelson Mandela pleaded for a peaceful resolution. He was ignored. By September 1998 troops from at least five African countries were on the ground in DROC, fighting alongside either the Kabila government’s soldiers or rebel forces. The entire east of the country was under rebel/Rwanda/Uganda control. By October it seemed that, thanks to foreign troops, Kabila had driven the rebels back to the far east and maintained control.

And immediately when they hear of anything they are on the plane and into the fight. We are fortunate to have very qualified help in South Africa.” Prior to 1994 South Africa was cut off from its African neighbors, who opposed the nation’s apartheid policies, which separated the races and gave the white minority population virtually absolute control over every facet of the society. But with the election of Nelson Mandela to the presidency and elimination of all apartheid policies South Africa has become the darling of the continent, and the number one destination for young fortune seekers from every corner of Africa. “The old borders are colonial,” Dr. Neil Cameron, secretary-general of communicable diseases for South Africa, explained. “A huge paranoia against immigrants exists here, and its advocates use communicable diseases as a barrier.”


pages: 879 words: 233,093

The Empathic Civilization: The Race to Global Consciousness in a World in Crisis by Jeremy Rifkin

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, animal electricity, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hedonic treadmill, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, off grid, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, scientific worldview, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social intelligence, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey

A Christian parent at the close of the first millennium AD might look into the eyes of a newborn for clues as to whether the devil lurked somewhere deep inside, ready to possess them. Today, at the beginning of the third millennium AD, a parent is more likely to scrutinize a child’s inner being for signs of his or her inherent good nature and sociability. That’s not to say that parents expect their children to grow up to be a Mahatma Gandhi or a Nelson Mandela or a Martin Luther King, Jr. Only that they expect them to be more like them than, say, an Adolf Hitler or a Joseph Stalin. All of which points to the fact that while most human beings are neither saints nor monsters, we expect pro-social behavior rather than antisocial behavior of one another. That’s because it is in our nature to be affectionate and caring and not remote and hateful. The misanthrope is always the exception and never the norm in any culture.

The very basis of freedom, then, is trust and openness among people. Freedom is never a solitary affair, as the rationalists contend—John Wayne alone in the frontier—but a deeply communal experience. We are only really free when we come to trust one another and allow ourselves to be open to sharing each other’s struggle to be and flourish. Trust, in turn, opens up the possibility of extending empathetic consciousness into new more intimate domains. Nelson Mandela is a good case study of the embodied sense of freedom. In the more than twenty-three years he was imprisoned, often in solitary confinement, he chose to befriend his jailers. He reached out to them as unique individuals with their own personal struggles. Rather than attempting to be invulnerable and stoic, he chose to be humane. His jailers began to experience him as a human being. Their preconceived biases melted away as they came to admire Mandela and finally trust him as a fellow human being whose struggles were not unlike their own.


pages: 334 words: 98,950

Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism by Ha-Joon Chang

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, liberal world order, liberation theology, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, mega-rich, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shock, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, urban sprawl, World Values Survey

With no tariffs against American imports, disappearing subsidies and shrivelling government procurement programmes, compounded by a flood of lawsuits, Soares Tecnologia was in a dire state when Paulo – may his soul rest in peace – had a massive stroke and died in 2035. As a result, Luiz was forced to quit his MBA course at the Singapore campus of INSEAD, the French business school (which, by that time, was considered to be better than the original campus in Fontainebleau), break up with Miriam, his half-Xhosa/half-Uzbek girlfriend (a distant cousin of Nelson Mandela on her Xhosa side), and return to Brazil to take over the family firm at the age of 27. Things have not improved much since Luiz took over. True, he has successfully fought off several patent suits. But if he loses even one of the three that are still pending (none of them is looking hopeful), he will face ruin. His Ecuadorian partner, Nanotecnologia Andina, is already threatening to sell off its share in the company.When his firm disappears with the rest of the Brazilian nano-technology industry, most of Brazil’s manufacturing industries – except for aerospace and alcohol fuel, in which Brazil had established a world class position in the late 20th century before the rise of neo-liberalism – will have disappeared.


Fodor's Dordogne & the Best of Southwest France With Paris by Fodor's Travel Publications Inc.

call centre, glass ceiling, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute couture, haute cuisine, Murano, Venice glass, Nelson Mandela, urban planning, young professional

And Sarkozy’s legacy project Le Grand Paris—a €21-billion plan to remake Paris into an economic and cultural mega-capital—was creeping ahead as construction was set to begin in early 2013 on key components, including an 80-mi-long automatic subway system ringing Paris. CAPTIVATED BY CARLA Lucky for Sarkozy his best asset may be his popular wife, Carla Bruni-Sarkozy—the supermodel-turned-singer-turned–demure First Dame, whose every move is slavishly tracked by French magazines. The former bad girl has made headlines as much for her turns in the spotlight (performing for Nelson Mandela; signing on for a part in a Woody Allen film) as for her philanthropy (she’s an anti-AIDS ambassador; she has her own charitable foundation). The Italian-born Carla B holds considerable influence over her lovesick husband, and isn’t afraid to wield it. SIZING UP Despite a diet dripping in butter and fat, the French are among the world’s thinnest people, with one of the world’s longest life expectancies to boot.


Falter: Has the Human Game Begun to Play Itself Out? by Bill McKibben

23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Legislative Exchange Council, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, Bernie Sanders, Bill Joy: nanobots, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, David Attenborough, Donald Trump, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, energy transition, Flynn Effect, Google Earth, Hyperloop, impulse control, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, life extension, light touch regulation, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, Menlo Park, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart meter, Snapchat, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, supervolcano, technoutopianism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, traffic fines, Travis Kalanick, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator, Y2K, yield curve

Everything has to happen in a twelve-hour day.” And so, they worked quickly to wire their first community. Our car was now bumping to a stop outside one of these first-to-be-wired villages, Kofihuikrom. We got out and inspected the small, fenced-in array of solar panels and then walked to the most prominent building in the settlement, a cement-block clinic with a big poster on one wall showing Nelson Mandela talking about tuberculosis. The clinic’s director was there to shake our hands. “I always had to store vaccines in different villages—in a different district,” he said. “No refrigerator. Now—now I can make ice packs for people. When I came here, we were using flashlights to see patients. That had to stop. We were trying to deliver babies with flashlights. Not the good kind you wear on your head, but holding it in your mouth to see.


pages: 417 words: 103,458

The Intelligence Trap: Revolutionise Your Thinking and Make Wiser Decisions by David Robson

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, cognitive bias, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, deliberate practice, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Flynn Effect, framing effect, fundamental attribution error, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, lone genius, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, pattern recognition, price anchoring, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, theory of mind, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

Besides reducing bias, that’s also thought to be essential for creativity; tolerance of ambiguity is linked to entrepreneurial innovation, for instance.43 Given the effort involved, no one would advise that you learn a language solely to improve your reasoning – but if you already speak one or have been tempted to resuscitate a language you left behind at school, then the foreign language effect could be one additional strategy to regulate your emotions and improve your decision making. If nothing else, you might consider the way it influences your professional relationships with international colleagues; the language you use could determine whether they are swayed by the emotions behind the statement or the facts. As Nelson Mandela once said: ‘If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his language, that goes to his heart.’ One of the most exciting implications of the research on emotional awareness and reflective thinking is that it may finally offer a way to resolve the ‘the curse of expertise’. As we saw in Chapter 3, greater experience can lead experts to rely on fuzzy, gist-based intuitions that often offer rapid and efficient decision making, but can also lead to error.


pages: 283 words: 98,673

Into Thin Air: A Personal Account of the Mt. Everest Disaster by Jon Krakauer

Joan Didion, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela

Camped beside us at Base Camp was a twenty-five-year-old Norwegian climber named Petter Neby, who announced his intention to make a solo ascent of the Southwest Face,* one of the peak’s most dangerous and technically demanding routes—despite the fact that his Himalayan experience was limited to two ascents of neighboring Island Peak, a 20,274-foot bump on a subsidiary ridge of Lhotse involving nothing more technical than vigorous walking. And then there were the South Africans. Sponsored by a major newspaper, the Johannesburg Sunday Times, their team had inspired effusive national pride and had received a personal blessing from President Nelson Mandela prior to their departure. They were the first South African expedition ever to be granted a permit to climb Everest, a mixed-race group that aspired to put the first black person on the summit. Their leader was Ian Woodall, thirty-nine, a loquacious, mouselike man who relished telling anecdotes about his brave exploits as a military commando behind enemy lines during South Africa’s long, brutal conflict with Angola in the 1980s.


pages: 329 words: 102,469

Free World: America, Europe, and the Surprising Future of the West by Timothy Garton Ash

Albert Einstein, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, centre right, clean water, Columbine, continuation of politics by other means, cuban missile crisis, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, postnationalism / post nation state, Project for a New American Century, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Washington Consensus, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

The war on terror will end, that senior Bush administration official told me, “with the elimination of the terrorists.” But there is no finite stock of terrorists to be eliminated. People are not born terrorists, as they are born English, Chinese, or Creek Indians. They become terrorists in specific political and personal circumstances, and might cease to be terrorists when those circumstances change. At one point in his career, Nelson Mandela was arguably, by the State Department’s definition, a terrorist. If you kill ten terrorists, without changing the political circumstances, they can become martyrs for their own community and give birth to a hundred more. Terror is a means, not an end—except for a few psychopaths. To be sure, even for non-psychopaths, terrorism can, with time, become a way of life, and of supposedly honorable death.


pages: 319 words: 95,854

You Are What You Speak: Grammar Grouches, Language Laws, and the Politics of Identity by Robert Lane Greene

anti-communist, British Empire, centre right, discovery of DNA, European colonialism, facts on the ground, haute couture, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, Parag Khanna, Ronald Reagan, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Steven Pinker, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Elsewhere, it may have even toppled at least one regime. South Africa’s Constitutional Court, in Pretoria, abounds in symbolism. In an unhappier, earlier era, it was a detention facility. It has the distinction of holding, at different times, two of the world’s most famously righteous freedom fighters: Mahatma Gandhi was held there by British authorities in the early twentieth century, and Nelson Mandela would be locked up there half a century later. Today, South Africa’s Constitutional Court is a symbol of reconciliation and justice. Some of the old brickwork has been kept as a reminder of what the building once was. But the rest is new. The ceiling is designed to evoke an outdoor setting beneath trees, making semiliteral a traditional African concept: “justice under the tree” is dispensed by elders in traditional communal gatherings.


pages: 302 words: 97,076

The Trigger: Hunting the Assassin Who Brought the World to War by Tim Butcher

centre right, colonial rule, Kickstarter, land reform, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, Scramble for Africa, trade route, urban sprawl, éminence grise

Night on Mount Igman was ‘hideous’ for Princip, but for me it was something quite different, a life-affirming thrill. After crossing the mountain into safe territory we drove through the small hours to reach a hotel down on the Croatian coast, where I fell into a delicious sleep. When I woke I turned on the television to witness an event of great significance to the country I now call home: South Africa’s victory in the 1995 Rugby World Cup. It was a moment made magical by Nelson Mandela’s grand gesture of forgiveness. Rugby had long been associated with South Africa’s white community, the dominant minority that had so cruelly exploited the black majority, yet there was Mandela willing on the Springboks, even wearing a Springbok shirt. It was a rare but inspiring example of past hatreds being buried, people looking to tomorrow and letting go of yesterday, breaking the cycle of victimhood and vengeance.


pages: 299 words: 19,560

Utopias: A Brief History From Ancient Writings to Virtual Communities by Howard P. Segal

1960s counterculture, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, complexity theory, David Brooks, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, deskilling, energy security, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, G4S, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban planning, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

A notable exception was Japan, which, having escaped colonization and having become a world power early in the twentieth century, never relinquished its old attitudes about racial supremacy and homogeneity.78 Interestingly, in recent years there have been controversies about the alleged African origins of Western (especially Greek) science and technology and condemnations of the supposed Western theft of these intellectual and material treasures (despite that post-World War I skepticism about modern developments). But 170 Utopia Reconsidered such attempted revisionism had been decisively refuted, especially in Mary Lefkowitz’s superb Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History (1996). Meanwhile, in a throwback to that skepticism about Western science, South Africa’s President Thabo Mbeki (born in 1942), the successor to Nelson Mandela and the nation’s second black president, set back his country’s response to its widespread AIDS epidemic during his administration. Mbeki repeatedly questioned what was the scientific consensus on the causes and treatment of AIDS, condemning these as remnants of Western colonial oppression, and simultaneously insisted on the use instead of traditional African medical remedies. The latter failed and caused many unnecessary deaths and endless misery to countless numbers of his fellow South Africans.


pages: 347 words: 99,317

Bad Samaritans: The Guilty Secrets of Rich Nations and the Threat to Global Prosperity by Ha-Joon Chang

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land reform, liberal world order, liberation theology, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, mega-rich, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, oil shock, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, urban sprawl, World Values Survey

With no tariffs against American imports, disappearing subsidies and shrivelling government procurement programmes, compounded by a flood of lawsuits, Soares Tecnologia was in a dire state when Paulo – may his soul rest in peace – had a massive stroke and died in 2035. As a result, Luiz was forced to quit his MBA course at the Singapore campus of INSEAD, the French business school (which, by that time, was considered to be better than the original campus in Fontainebleau), break up with Miriam, his half-Xhosa/half-Uzbek girlfriend (a distant cousin of Nelson Mandela on her Xhosa side), and return to Brazil to take over the family firm at the age of 27. Things have not improved much since Luiz took over. True, he has successfully fought off several patent suits. But if he loses even one of the three that are still pending (none of them is looking hopeful), he will face ruin. His Ecuadorian partner, Nanotecnologia Andina, is already threatening to sell off its share in the company.


pages: 317 words: 100,414

Superforecasting: The Art and Science of Prediction by Philip Tetlock, Dan Gardner

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, availability heuristic, Black Swan, butterfly effect, buy and hold, cloud computing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, desegregation, drone strike, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, forward guidance, Freestyle chess, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, hindsight bias, index fund, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Arrow, Laplace demon, longitudinal study, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, obamacare, pattern recognition, performance metric, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, placebo effect, prediction markets, quantitative easing, random walk, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, scientific worldview, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

The more sophisticated forecaster knows about confirmation bias and will seek out evidence that cuts both ways. But if you are constantly thinking the question is “Will he get his visa?” your mental playing field is tilted in one direction and you may unwittingly slide into confirmation bias: “This is South Africa! Black government officials suffered under apartheid. Of course they will give a visa to Tibet’s own Nelson Mandela.” To check that tendency, turn the question on its head and ask, “Will the South African government deny the Dalai Lama for six months?” That tiny wording change encourages you to lean in the opposite direction and look for reasons why it would deny the visa—a desire not to anger its biggest trading partner being a rather big one. Dragonfly Forecasting Outside views, inside view, other outside and inside views, second opinions from yourself … that’s a lot of perspectives—and inevitably a lot of dissonant information.


The King of Oil by Daniel Ammann

accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, business intelligence, buy low sell high, energy security, family office, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, oil shock, peak oil, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Upton Sinclair, Yom Kippur War

In the United States, Marc Rich was branded a traitor primarily because of his dealings with Iran and Cuba. Other countries took a more pragmatic view. Remarkably, a striking example of this pragmatism was the new democratic government in South Africa. Rich continued to do business with South Africa after the end of apartheid despite all of the anti-Rich rhetoric from the African National Congress, which won the first democratic elections. The new government under Nelson Mandela relied on Rich’s services. “We continued to do oil business with the new government,” Rich told me. “It was completely normal for us to continue the business. We think in the long term.” SURPRISING SERVICES How Rich Helped Israel and the USA sraeli tourist Anita Griffel was spending the weekend of October 5–6, 1985, in the Sinai Peninsula together with her five-year-old daughter and a couple of friends.


Pale Rider: The Spanish Flu of 1918 and How It Changed the World by Laura Spinney

Albert Einstein, British Empire, colonial rule, dark matter, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, experimental subject, Francisco Pizarro, global pandemic, Hernando de Soto, invisible hand, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, placebo effect, trade route, urban renewal

The age of discovery had borne fruit by 1914, when more of the globe was colonised by Europeans than at any other time. From that apogee, a long process of decolonisation would break up those empires and liberate their colonies. But 1918 also saw one of the last battles in one of the last colonial wars–the American Indian Wars, in which the European settlers of North America fought, and ultimately defeated, its indigenous peoples. Future heads of state Nicolae Ceau¸sescu and Nelson Mandela were born in 1918, as was the future dissident writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, the film director Ingmar Bergman and the actress Rita Hayworth. Max Planck won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on quantum theory, while Fritz Haber won the chemistry prize for inventing a way of producing ammonia, which is important in the manufacture of fertilisers and explosives (the Nobel committees decided not to award prizes in medicine, literature or peace that year).


pages: 330 words: 99,044

Reimagining Capitalism in a World on Fire by Rebecca Henderson

Airbnb, asset allocation, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, dark matter, decarbonisation, disruptive innovation, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, fixed income, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, greed is good, Hans Rosling, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, Kickstarter, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, mittelstand, Mont Pelerin Society, Nelson Mandela, passive investing, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, profit maximization, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Pinker, stocks for the long run, Tim Cook: Apple, total factor productivity, Toyota Production System, uber lyft, urban planning, Washington Consensus, working-age population, Zipcar

Martin Luther King did not create the civil rights movement. It grew from decades of work by thousands of African Americans and their allies, each doing the dangerous and difficult work of standing up for change. Rosa Parks was not a lone heroine who simply decided to stay in her seat one evening. She was a deeply committed civil rights worker whose decision that night was taken in close collaboration with a network of experienced female activists. Nelson Mandela did not single-handedly end apartheid in South Africa. He built on fifty years of struggle in which thousands of people participated and hundreds died. Remember Erik Osmundsen, the CEO who took a corrupt waste collection company and made it a leader in recycling? Whenever he visits my class, he begins by saying that it’s not about him. Instead, he insists, it’s about the team of people he works with, the people willing to do the actual work—the often dull, day-to-day work—of cleaning up the waste industry.


Rough Guide to San Francisco and the Bay Area by Nick Edwards, Mark Ellwood

1960s counterculture, airport security, back-to-the-land, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, Burning Man, California gold rush, carbon footprint, City Beautiful movement, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, glass ceiling, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Joan Didion, Kickstarter, Loma Prieta earthquake, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, period drama, pez dispenser, Port of Oakland, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strikebreaker, transcontinental railway, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white picket fence, Works Progress Administration, young professional

The Black Panthers once held court in West Oakland (see box above), and in 1989, Panthers co-founder Huey Newton was gunned down here in a drug-related revenge attack; later the same year, the double-decker I-880 freeway that divided the neighborhood from the rest of the city collapsed in on itself during an earthquake, killing dozens of commuters. Local AfricanAmerican leaders successfully resisted government plans to rebuild that concrete eyesore; the broad, street-level Nelson Mandela Parkway has replaced it, thereby removing the physical justification for the “other side of the freeway” stigma once linked to the place. Now the neighborhood is a magnet for artists and skate punks from across the Bay, who revel in its dirtcheap rents and open spaces – indicating that the first signs of its surprisingly tardy gentrification are finally afoot. One area where gentrification has been well under way for years is the district of Emeryville, effectively the northern portion of West Oakland.

Magnes Museum ................................... 310 Justin Herman Plaza....... 61 Kesey, Ken.................... 133 King Ridge-Meyers Grade ................................... 368 kitesurfing...................... 268 435 i n de x | Miwok tribe.................... 391 mobile phones................. 43 money.............................. 41 Montara Lighthouse...... 341 Monte Rio...................... 387 Montgomery Block.......... 58 Mooney, Tom................. 399 Morcom Amphitheater of Roses.......................... 298 Mormon Temple............ 297 Morrison Reading Room ................................... 306 Moscone, George.......... 125 Moss Beach.................. 341 motor sports.................. 275 Mount Diablo................. 320 Mount Livermore........... 358 Mount St Helena........... 376 Mount Tamalpais........... 356 mountain biking............. 268 Mountain View Cemetery ................................... 298 movies................. 232–234, 412–420 Muir Beach.................... 355 Muir Woods National Monument.................. 356 Muir, John...................... 287 MUNI............................... 26 Municipal Rose Garden ................................... 337 Murphy Windmill........... 147 Musée Méchanique.... 12, 84 Museo Italo-Americano....90 Museum of Paleontology ................................... 306 Music Concourse.......... 144 music, live see “live music” N 436 Napa.............................. 371 Napa County Historical Society........................ 371 Napa Firefighters Museum ................................... 373 Napa Valley.......... 369–378 Napa Valley Wine Library ................................... 374 Napa Valley wineries..... 372 National AIDS Memorial Grove.......................... 144 National Institute of Art and Disabilities.................. 315 National Shrine of St Francis..................... 72 Nelson Mandela Parkway ................................... 296 Neptune Society Columbarium.............. 139 Newsome, Gavin........... 404 newspapers..................... 33 Newton, Huey................ 296 Nickelodeon.................. 131 nightlife........................... 16 East Bay............................ 322 Marin County.................... 364 Palo Alto............................ 332 San Francisco................... 224 San Jose........................... 339 Wine Country........... 377, 384, 388 Nike Missile Site............ 352 Nob Hill............................ 79 Noe Valley...................... 127 North Bay...................... 316 North Beach............. 69–74 North Beach and the hills. ..................................... 69 North Beach Museum..... 73 North Berkeley.............. 309 North Oakland............... 298 northeast waterfront........ 78 northern waterfront .............................. 81–98 northern waterfront and Pacific Heights...... 82–83 Northside....................... 310 Norton, Joshua................ 53 O O’Neill, Eugene.............. 319 Oakland................ 288–301 Oakland......................... 289 Oakland, downtown..... 291 Oakland Airport............. 287 Oakland Ice Center...... 270, 293 Oakland Museum.......... 294 Oakland Zoo.................. 298 Oakville.......................... 374 Oakville Grade............... 368 Ocean Beach................. 148 Ocean Shore Railroad Depot.......................... 340 Octagon Museum............ 91 Ohlone tribe................... 391 Old Faithful Geyser....... 375 Old Mint......................... 105 Old St Hilary’s Church ................................... 358 Old St Mary’s Church...... 66 Olema............................ 360 opera............................. 227 Orinda............................ 318 P Pacific Avenue................. 63 Pacific Coast Stock Exchange...................... 57 Pacific Film Archive....... 307 Pacific Heights......... 92–94 Pacific Heights and the northern waterfront. ............................... 82–83 Pacific Heritage Museum ..................................... 58 Pacifica.......................... 340 Painted Ladies, the........ 14, 134 Palace Hotel.................. 102 Palace of Fine Arts.......... 90 Palo Alto........................ 329 Palomarin Trailhead....... 356 Pan Toll Road................ 357 Panhandle..................... 130 Panoramic Highway...... 355 Paradise Beach............. 358 Paramount Theatre......... 16, 292 Paramount’s Great America ................................... 338 party buses.................... 224 Peace Pagoda............... 136 Peninsula, the...... 326–345 Peninsula, the............... 327 People’s Park................ 307 Peralta Adobe................ 335 Performance and Design, Museum of................. 115 performing arts and film ........................... 227–234 Pescadero..................... 344 Petrified Forest.............. 376 Pez Museum................. 326 Phelan Mansion............... 92 phones............................. 42 Piedmont Avenue.......... 298 Pillar Point..................... 341 Pink Triangle Park.......... 124 Pioneer Park.................... 74 Pixar.............................. 296 Plaza de Cesar Chavez ................................... 335 Point Bonita Lighthouse ................................... 352 Point Reyes Bird Observatory................ 356 Point Reyes National Seashore.................... 360 Point Reyes Station....... 360 Point Richmond............. 315 Polk Gulch..................... 109 Port Costa..................... 316 Port View Park............... 295 Portsmouth Square......... 64 postal services................ 40 Potrero Hill..................... 124 Power Exchange........... 111 Precita Eyes Mural Arts Center......................... 123 Preservation Park.......... 292 Presidio Visitor Center..... 95 Presidio, the............. 94–97 Princeton-by-the-Sea.... 341 Pumpkin Festival........... 343 Q Quarry Beach................ 359 Queen Wilhelmina Tulip Garden........................ 147 Safari West.................... 383 Sailboat House.............. 294 sake tasting................... 311 sales tax.......................... 37 Samuel Taylor State Park ................................... 360 San Anselmo................. 359 San Augustín................. 392 San Francisco Art Institute ..................................... 77 San Francisco Arts Commission Gallery .................................... 115 San Francisco Museum of Modern Art................... 14 San Francisco National Cemetery...................... 94 San Francisco Public Library......................... 113 San Francisco State University.................... 148 San Francisco Theological Seminary..................... 359 San Francisco Zeum..... 104 San Francisco Zoo........ 148 San Gregorio beaches ................................... 343 San Jose............... 333–339 San Jose....................... 334 San Jose Museum of Art ................................... 335 San Jose Repertory Theater....................... 336 San Mateo..................... 327 San Pedro Point............ 340 San Pedro Square......... 335 San Quentin State Prison ................................... 359 San Rafael..................... 361 Sanchez Adobe............. 340 Santa Clara.................... 338 Santa Rosa.................... 382 Sather Gate................... 306 Sausalito........................ 353 Sea Cliff......................... 141 Sea Horse/Friendly Acres Ranch......................... 341 accessories, shoes, and jewelry............................ 248 art galleries....................... 260 books........................ 243, 308 casualwear........................ 250 delis and groceries............ 255 department stores and malls . ..................................... 247 designer clothing.............. 251 East Bay............................ 324 farmers’ markets........ 62, 257, 295 fashion.............................. 248 food and drink................... 255 gifts and oddities.............. 261 health and beauty............. 258 music................................. 258 shopping streets............... 244 specialty stores................. 260 tea, coffee, and spices..... 256 vintage clothes and thrift stores............................. 253 wines and spirits............... 257 Shoreline Highway........ 354 Sierra Club.................... 319 Silicon Valley................. 330 Silverado Museum........ 374 Sir Francis Drake Boulevard ................................... 359 Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence.................. 126 Six Flags Discovery Kingdom..................... 318 skateboarding................ 269 Skyline Boulevard.......... 340 Skywalker Ranch........... 362 Snoopy’s Home Ice . .... 383 soccer............................ 275 Society of California Pioneers...................... 105 SoFA (San Jose)............ 336 Solano Avenue.............. 309 SoMa (South of Market) ............................. 99–109 SoMa, the Tenderloin, and Civic Center....... 100–101 Sonoma......................... 380 Sonoma State Historic Park ................................... 380 Sonoma Valley............. 378 | radio................................ 33 Ramona Street.............. 329 Red Rocks nudist beach ................................... 355 Redwood Forest Theater ................................... 387 restaurants, see “eating” Rexroth, Kenneth.......... 132 Richardson, William....... 394 Richmond (East Bay)..... 315 Richmond Museum of History........................ 315 Richmond, the..... 138–140 Richmond, Golden Gate Park, and the Sunset. ................................... 138 Rincon Center............... 102 Rivera, Diego................... 74 Robert Crown Memorial Beach......................... 295 Robert Louis Stevenson Park............................ 376 Robert Sibley Regional Preserve...................... 299 Robson-Harrington Park ................................... 359 rock climbing................. 266 Rockridge...................... 299 Rodeo Beach................ 353 Rodeo Lagoon............... 353 Rodin, Auguste.............. 139 Rolling Stones............... 321 Rosicrucian Museum..... 337 Rowell House................ 310 S Seal Rock...................... 142 Seale, Bobby................. 296 senior travelers................ 43 Seventh Street (Oakland) ................................... 295 sex industry................... 111 SFMOMA...................14, 89 Shakespeare Garden..... 147 Sharpsteen Museum and Sam Brannan Cottage ................................... 375 shopping i n de x R running.......................... 266 Russian Hill...................... 77 Russian River Blues Festival....................... 387 Russian River Valley ........................... 384–388 Russian River Valley wineries...................... 386 437 i n de x | Sonoma Valley wineries ................................... 380 Sony Metreon................ 103 South Hall, UC Berkeley ................................... 306 South of Market, see “SoMa” sports and outdoor activities............ 264–276 Spreckels Mansion.......... 92 Sproul Plaza, UC Berkeley ................................... 305 St Helena....................... 374 St Patrick’s Catholic Church........................ 106 St Paul’s Episcopal Church ................................... 317 Stanford Linear Accelerator ................................... 332 Stanford University ........................... 329–332 State Capitol, first......... 317 Steep Ravine................. 355 Stein, Gertrude.............. 290 Stern Grove................... 148 Stinson Beach............... 355 Stockton Street............... 67 Stow Lake..................... 147 Strauss, Levi.................. 122 Strybing Arboretum....... 147 Summer of Love............ 133 Sunset, the.................... 148 Sunset, Richmond, and Golden Gate Park . ... 138 surfing............................ 268 Sutro Baths................... 142 Sutro, Adolph................ 141 Sweeney Ridge............. 340 swimming...................... 267 Symbionese Liberation Army........................... 290 T 438 Takara Sake Tasting Room ................................... 311 Tank Hill......................... 127 Tao House..................... 319 taquerias.......................... 13 taxis................................. 28 Tech Museum of Innovation ................................... 335 Telegraph Avenue.......... 307 Telegraph Hill................... 74 telephones....................... 42 television......................... 33 Temelpa Trail................. 357 Temple Emanu-El.......... 139 Tenderloin, the..... 109–111 Tenderloin, SoMa, and Civic Center, the. ........................... 100–101 Tennessee Valley........... 354 tennis............................. 269 theater.................. 229–231 Theater District................ 54 Tiburon.......................... 357 Tilden Park.................... 310 Tomales Point................ 361 tour companies in San Francisco...................... 32 tourist offices................... 45 trains to San Francisco....21 Transamerica Pyramid 58 travel agents.................... 23 travel essentials............... 36 travelers’ checks............. 41 Tribune Tower................ 292 Triton Museum of Art..... 338 tule elk........................... 361 Twin Peaks.................... 126 U UC Berkeley Art Museum ................................... 307 UC Theatre.................... 307 Union Square.................. 49 Union Square.................. 52 Union Street.................... 91 United Nations Plaza..... 112 University Avenue (Palo Alto)............................ 328 University Avenue (Berkeley).................... 310 University of California (Berkeley).......... 304–307 US Mint......................... 132 USS Potomac................ 295 V Vaillancourt Fountain....... 61 Valencia Street.............. 122 Vallejo Naval & Historical Museum...................... 318 Vallejo............................ 318 Venice Beach................. 341 Veterans Building.......... 115 Veterans Memorial Beach ................................... 387 Victorian architecture...... 93 visas................................ 37 Volcanic Witch Project.... 299 W walking tours................... 31 War Memorial Opera House ................................... 115 Warren Billings.............. 399 Washington Square......... 73 Wave Organ..................... 91 Waverly Place temples.... 66 websites.......................... 46 Wells Fargo History Museum........................ 56 West Berkeley............... 310 West Oakland................ 295 West Portal.................... 152 Western Addition........... 135 Westfield San Francisco Center......................... 105 whale watching............. 270 Wildcat Beach............... 356 Winchester Mystery House ................................... 337 windsurfing.................... 268 Wine Country................ 11, 365–388 Wine Country................ 366 Wine Train...................... 368 wineries.........372, 380, 386 wire transfers................... 41 Wolf House.................... 381 Women’s Building.......... 122 Woodside...................... 328 Wright, Frank Lloyd....... 362 Y Yahoo!............................


pages: 322 words: 107,576

Bad Science by Ben Goldacre

Asperger Syndrome, correlation does not imply causation, experimental subject, hygiene hypothesis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, p-value, placebo effect, publication bias, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), the scientific method, urban planning

At the age of fourteen he tried to burn down his school, and you might have done the same in similar circumstances. He has been arrested and imprisoned under South Africa’s violent, brutal white regime, with all that entailed. He is also gay, and HIV-positive, and he refused to take anti-retroviral medication until it was widely available to all on the public health system, even when he was dying of AIDS, even when he was personally implored to save himself by Nelson Mandela, a public supporter of anti-retroviral medication and Achmat’s work. And now, at last, we come to the lowest point of this whole story, not merely for Matthias Rath’s movement, but for the alternative therapy movement around the world as a whole. In 2007, with a huge public flourish, to great media coverage, Rath’s former employee Anthony Brink filed a formal complaint against Zackie Achmat, the head of the TAC.


pages: 376 words: 110,796

Realizing Tomorrow: The Path to Private Spaceflight by Chris Dubbs, Emeline Paat-dahlstrom, Charles D. Walker

Berlin Wall, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, desegregation, Donald Trump, Doomsday Book, Elon Musk, high net worth, Iridium satellite, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Mark Shuttleworth, Mikhail Gorbachev, multiplanetary species, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, private space industry, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, technoutopianism, X Prize, young professional

The HIV study addressed an issue particularly important to Africa, where the disease has been devastating. Shuttleworth was the first person from Africa to fly in space, and he saw himself as an unofficial representative of his country and the continent. His flight aroused a national pride, and he would conduct in-flight phone calls with South African president Thabo Mbeki and former president Nelson Mandela, but he was also aware of how his experience could inspire all of Africa. When BBC News Online interviewed him from space, Shuttleworth stressed how important it was for Africa to embrace its future and create a sense of excitement for the people. "One of the things I hoped to do by fulfilling my own dream was to do it in a way that might reach out to particularly children and learners in Africa and show them that dreams can come true, and that's a very powerful thought.


pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Travis Kalanick, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

India began a series of economic reforms to liberalize its economy, eventually bringing more than a billion people onto the global economic playing field. China reversed its economic model, creating a new form of hybrid capitalism and pulling more than half a billion people out of poverty. The European Union was created. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into effect, integrating the United States, Canada, and Mexico into what is now the world’s largest free trade zone. Apartheid ended and Nelson Mandela was elected president of South Africa. While I was in college, the world was also newly coming online. The World Wide Web was launched to the public, along with the web browser, the search engine, and e-commerce. Amazon was incorporated while I was driving to a training site for my first job out of college. At the time, these political and technological shifts did not seem as important to me as they do now, but the changes that took place while I was growing up in West Virginia and that accelerated with the rise of the Internet have made the lives we lived even just 20 years ago seem like distant history.


pages: 319 words: 105,949

Skyfaring: A Journey With a Pilot by Mark Vanhoenacker

Airbus A320, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, computer age, dark matter, digital map, Edmond Halley, Joan Didion, John Harrison: Longitude, Louis Blériot, Maui Hawaii, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, the built environment, transcontinental railway, Year of Magical Thinking

Some beacons are in places that although famous are geographically incidental; you might not expect them to be elevated on aviation charts in a manner so independent of their historical prominence. Point Reyes is the name of a lighthouse on the Northern California coast; a beacon near it, known by the same name, features on arrivals in San Francisco. On flights over India, we may fly over the beacon of Delhi, and like so many Taj Mahal–bound travelers below, our next stop is Agra. Robben Island, off Cape Town, where Nelson Mandela was incarcerated, was a prison even in the seventeenth c