friendly fire

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pages: 566 words: 144,072

In the Graveyard of Empires: America's War in Afghanistan by Seth G. Jones

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business climate, clean water, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, failed state, friendly fire, invisible hand, Khyber Pass, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murray Gell-Mann, open borders, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, trade route

He mistook a garbage fire at the Canadian location for his target, without verifying the target through his targeting pod and heads-up display. The forward air controller reacted immediately to the friendly-fire incident, screaming, “Abort! Abort! Abort!” on his radio.49 “I had been off to the side and heard the A-10 sound. I hit the ground, and when I got up I saw all the [injured] laying there,” said Corporal Jason Plumley.50 An aerial medevac team rapidly arrived. In less than thirty-six hours, Charles Company had lost much of its leadership at the officer and noncommissioned-officer level. All four of its warrant officers had been either killed or wounded. Captain Steve Brown was suddenly in charge of a company that had a corporal acting as company quartermaster and a sergeant as company sergeant major. There was a lull in ground operations after the friendly-fire incident, and the north, along Highway 1, then became the main theater of operation.51 So-called friendly fire is an unfortunate reality on the battlefield.

Captain Stewart was the forward public affairs officer for Operation Medusa, from the Task Force 306 Battle Group. 42. Board of Inquiry Minutes of Proceedings, Convened by LGen J. C. M. Gauthier, Commander CEFCOM, 22 September 2006, A-10A Friendly Fire Incident 4 September 2006, Panjwayi District, Afghanistan, p. 14. 43. Author interviews with Canadian soldiers, Kandahar, Afghanistan, January 13–17, 2007. 44. Captain Edward Stewart, Op MEDUSA—A Summary. 45. Board of Inquiry Minutes of Proceedings, p. 14; Captain Edward Stewart, Op MEDUSA—A Summary. 46. Author interviews with Canadian soldiers, Kandahar, Afghanistan, January 13–17, 2007. 47. Board of Inquiry Minutes of Proceedings, p. 14. 48. Alex Dobrota and Omar El Akkad, “Friendly Fire Claims Former Olympic Athlete,” Globe and Mail (Canada), September 5, 2006. 49. Board of Inquiry Minutes of Proceedings. 50. Captain Edward Stewart, Op MEDUSA—A Summary. 51.

In one incident in Balkh Province, police forces were attacked, captured, and disarmed by a drug cartel after an armed clash.37 And again, in the days following a police-led operation to capture Taliban fighters in Sangsar village in the southern province of Kandahar, an after-action report found that there was “no joint plan,” “no unity of command,” and “no intel sharing” between the police and Afghanistan’s intelligence service. The result was seven casualties and one friendly-fire incident. All Taliban escaped.38 In many ways, however, the police were an afterthought; the international training for law enforcement was simply not as good as it was for the Afghan National Army. In the course of four years, control over the police was shifted among three agencies—from the German lead in 2002, to the U.S. State Department in 2003, and finally to the U.S. Defense Department in 2005.


pages: 244 words: 82,548

Here I Am: The Story of Tim Hetherington, War Photographer by Alan Huffman

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blood diamonds, British Empire, friendly fire, illegal immigration, Skype

He reconciled this seeming inconsistency by treating his method as something akin to crime-scene photography—deliberate and methodically framed yet, he hoped, ultimately revealing. During his first trip he had observed that the Libyan war veered between moments of careful posturing and incredibly dangerous encounters, many of them brought about by the rebels’ ignorance of combat. The fighters weren’t trained soldiers and, as a result, there was a great risk of getting hit by friendly fire or being caught in an unplanned counterattack. Working in such an environment obviously had precious little in common with wedding photography; it was more like photographing a crime scene while the crime was still taking place. In the town of Brega, Hetherington had watched in alarm as the war turned its focus on him. The rebel lines had collapsed, which prompted the pro-Gaddafi townspeople to come out of their houses and begin shooting at both fighters and photographers.

The alternative, he said, was to go to war empty-handed. “Who would do that?” he asked. Mahmud el-Haddad, an anesthetist who worked at al-Hekma, observed, “No one in Misrata was trained to fight in a war. Nobody has a gun. Everybody is trying to find a weapon, and when they do, sometimes they don’t even know what the weapons are.” The results were occasionally disastrous, with many rebels killed or injured by friendly fire, but as Ibrahim Safar, a forty-four-year-old radio announcer who also joined the rebels, said, “We had no choice but to fight. The Gaddafi troops had come to kill us and our families. It was evil. Evil had come here, to our homes.” Computer engineers, journalists, lawyers, students, shopkeepers, truck drivers, mechanics, dock workers, businessmen, and unemployed laborers became soldiers overnight, arming themselves with anything they could get their hands on.

Among the rebel photographers was Abdulkader Fassouk, a slight man of twenty-six who smiled and laughed easily and whose filming earned him a terrific scar running down the middle of his neck, with a corresponding exit wound on the back of his shoulder. Fassouk, who been shot twice in previous episodes, was filming on the front lines when he was hit at close range by a round from a Kalashnikov, the result of friendly fire from a rebel who was trying to get his gun unjammed. Judging from Fassouk’s scar, it seemed impossible that he could have survived, and his brother later observed, “It was a kind of magic.” Not surprisingly, that episode was also photographed and filmed. Liohn also filmed Fassouk’s arrival at the hospital where, later that day, a mortar round killed one of the doctors. At the time, Fassouk was bleeding profusely from his wounds, which his cousin had tried to stanch with his head scarf.


pages: 423 words: 126,375

Baghdad at Sunrise: A Brigade Commander's War in Iraq by Peter R. Mansoor, Donald Kagan, Frederick Kagan

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Berlin Wall, central bank independence, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, friendly fire, HESCO bastion, indoor plumbing, land reform, open borders, RAND corporation, Saturday Night Live

The Special Forces major serving as liaison at division headquarters rarely communicated with the brigade combat teams, and we had to work hard to pull out of the system any information concerning their activities. This lack of unity of command occasionally caused problems, particularly when sof conducted raids in our area without informing anyone. The combat team then had to deal with the often lethal consequences to the Iraqi civilian population, while the sof departed back to their secure bases outside the area. The risk of “friendly fire” incidents in such circumstances was also high, but as time went on better liaison arrangements were fashioned and communications between organizations improved. It was not an ideal situation, but given the lines of authority in the sof world, there was zero chance of getting a firmer grip on their activities. The development of personal relationships went a long way to smoothing over the challenges in this regard.

We should have allowed them to read the contract and discuss its provisions. I believe we easily could have convinced them that it was in their best interests to sign. Instead, peeved at the behavior of the ird representatives, the Rusafa District Advisory Council refused to sign the contract, the ugly Americans stormed out of the meeting and back to their lair in the Green Zone, and Chuck Sexton and I were left holding the empty bag. Friendly fire and escalation-of–force (the procedures used by friendly forces to decide when to fire at possible assailants, including civilians in a number of regrettable episodes) incidents that could destroy innocent lives were constant concerns. One such episode during this period was particularly devastating. On 76 Rusafa the evening of August 7, the Gunners conducted a raid in Qahira, just across Army Canal Road from the “Bunker” manned by A Company, 1-37 Armor.

It turned out that the family was heading to the hospital to get treatment for one of the boys, whose asthma had flared up. Although mistakes occur in combat, the Ready First Combat Team had Rusafa 77 committed several fatal and near-fatal errors on these two nights and I was determined to do better in the future. I ordered the Ready First Combat Team S-3, Major Mike Shrout, to conduct a formal investigation into the friendly fire and the Ready First Combat Team Executive Officer, Major Cliff Wheeler, to investigate the killing of the civilians in al-Sha’ab. As usual, they did a professional and thorough job, and I had them summarize the results to the entire leadership of the combat team. We had committed three major errors. First, lack of air support for the raid gave the enemy the advantage of the high ground, the rooftops from which they had launched their attack against our forces.


pages: 413 words: 117,782

What Happened to Goldman Sachs: An Insider's Story of Organizational Drift and Its Unintended Consequences by Steven G. Mandis

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algorithmic trading, Berlin Wall, bonus culture, BRICs, business process, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, disintermediation, diversification, Emanuel Derman, financial innovation, fixed income, friendly fire, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, high net worth, housing crisis, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, merger arbitrage, new economy, passive investing, performance metric, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, The Nature of the Firm, too big to fail, value at risk

I asked myself whether, if I had conducted this study in 2006—before the financial crisis—I would have ended with the same conclusions. Therefore, I use a framework of organizational drift to help ensure consistency in the analysis. I have donated the entire advance I received from Harvard Business Review Press for this book to educational and medical charities. 36. See D. Vaughan, The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture, and Deviance at NASA (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996); and S. A. Snook, Friendly Fire: The Accidental Shootdown of U.S. Blackhawks over Northern Iraq (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002). 37. Vaughan, The Challenger Launch Decision, 238. Chapter 2 1. A. Blitz, interview with John Whitehead, 2002, http://www.hbs.edu/entrepreneurs/pdf/johnwhitehead.pdf. 2. “I believe the most important thing I did was to set down in writing what Goldman Sachs stood for. I did it out of necessity.

It’s about every single individual who manages people knowing that his or her key role is that of chief values officer, with Sarbanes–Oxley-like enforcement powers to match. It’s about knowing that at every performance review, employees are evaluated for both their numbers and their values …” See Welch and Welch, “Goldman Sachs and a Culture-Killing Lesson Being Ignored.” 14. Jack Welch with Suzy Welch, Winning (New York: HarperCollins, 2005). Appendix A 1. Scott A. Snook, Friendly Fire: The Accidental Shootdown of U.S. Blackhawks over Northern Iraq (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002), 225. 2. S. Dekker, Drift into Failure: From Hunting Broken Components to Understanding Complex Systems (Farnham, UK: Ashgate Publishing, 2011). Johan Bergstrøm (“Listen to Sidney Dekker Lecturing about Drift into Failure,” October 10, 2011, http://johanniklas.blogspot.com/2011/10/listen-to-sidney-dekker-lecturing-about.html.) notes, “The drift concept offers the theory of how organizational failure and success emerge in incubation periods not characterized by incomplete interaction, but by non-linear effects of local interactions in environments characterized by goal-conflicts, competition and uncertainties.” 3.

Johan Bergstrøm (“Listen to Sidney Dekker Lecturing about Drift into Failure,” October 10, 2011, http://johanniklas.blogspot.com/2011/10/listen-to-sidney-dekker-lecturing-about.html.) notes, “The drift concept offers the theory of how organizational failure and success emerge in incubation periods not characterized by incomplete interaction, but by non-linear effects of local interactions in environments characterized by goal-conflicts, competition and uncertainties.” 3. S. Dekker, Drift into Failure, 179. 4. Ibid. 5. Dekker, Drift into Failure, 14. 6. Dekker, Drift into Failure, 17. 7. Dekker, Drift into Failure, 17, 116. 8. Snook points out that the word “drift” implies a subtle movement. He believes that detecting such movement “requires a sensitivity to the passage of time. Single snapshots won’t do.” (See Snook, Friendly Fire, 225.) All explanations assume some passage of time. One of the goals of my study is to extend it further, beyond an event. 9. In Normal Accidents: Living with High-Risk Technologies (New York: Basic Books, 1984), Charles Perrow explains a normal accident as normal “not in the sense of being frequent or being expected … it is normal in the sense that it is an inherent property of the system to occasionally experience their interaction.” 10.


pages: 322 words: 99,066

The End of Secrecy: The Rise and Fall of WikiLeaks by The "Guardian", David Leigh, Luke Harding

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4chan, banking crisis, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, Downton Abbey, eurozone crisis, friendly fire, global village, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Mohammed Bouazizi, offshore financial centre, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

He would spend hours drilling down into top-secret documents and videos, wearing earphones and lip-synching to Lady Gaga. The more he read, the more alarmed and disturbed he became, shocked by what he saw as the official duplicity and corruption of his own country. There were videos that showed the aerial killing from a helicopter gunship of unarmed civilians in Iraq, there were chronicles of civilian deaths and “friendly fire” disasters in Afghanistan. And there was a mammoth trove of diplomatic cables disclosing secrets from all around the world, from the Vatican to Pakistan. He started to become overwhelmed by the scale of the scandal and intrigue he was discovering. “There’s so much,” he would later write. “It affects everybody on earth. Everywhere there’s a US post there’s a diplomatic scandal that will be revealed.

They identified a detachment of the Coldstream Guards which had recently taken up position at Camp Soutar in Kabul. The Coldstream Guards’ unofficial blog described their mood at the time: “The overriding threat is that of suicide bombers, of which there have been a number in the recent past.” Four times in as many weeks, this unit appears to have shot civilians in the town in order to protect its own members. The worst was on 21 October 2007, when the US soldiers reported a case of “blue-on-white” friendly fire in downtown Kabul, noting that some unknown troops had shot up a civilian vehicle containing three private security company interpreters and a driver. The troops had been in “a military-type vehicle that was brown with a gunner on top … There were no US forces located in the vicinity of the event that may have been involved. More to follow!” They updated a short while later, saying “INVESTIGATION IS CONTROLLED BY THE BRITISH.


pages: 316 words: 91,969

Gray Lady Down: What the Decline and Fall of the New York Times Means for America by William McGowan

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, corporate governance, David Brooks, East Village, friendly fire, haute couture, illegal immigration, immigration reform, medical residency, New Journalism, obamacare, payday loans, postnationalism / post nation state, pre–internet, uranium enrichment, young professional

While it seized on any evidence of malfeasance on the part of U.S. servicemen and women, the Times also disparaged or ignored instances of heroism. For example, when the former NFL football star Pat Tillman died after his unit of Army Rangers in Afghanistan came under friendly fire, it was a tragedy, and the Army commanders who tried to obscure the details in order to create a heroic narrative were deeply wrong. But could the whole, sad tale be reduced, as one Times editorial said, to a “bogus” story of heroism “used to bolster support for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan”? Was it so awful that his memorial service was “patriotism-drenched,” as Frank Rich put it? And just when did “friendly fire” become synonymous with “fratricide,” a much darker word that the Times used liberally in almost all of its Tillman stories? While the Times was quick to cover such unfortunate incidents and do scores of stories involving abuse at Abu Ghraib and elsewhere, TimesWatch noted that by the end of October 2007, the paper had reported on only two of the twenty men who had been awarded the Air Force Cross, the Distinguished Service Cross, the Navy Cross or the Congressional Medal of Honor.


pages: 369 words: 90,630

Mindwise: Why We Misunderstand What Others Think, Believe, Feel, and Want by Nicholas Epley

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affirmative action, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Cass Sunstein, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, friendly fire, invisible hand, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, payday loans, Peter Singer: altruism, pirate software, Richard Thaler, school choice, the scientific method, theory of mind

This lesser minds effect has many manifestations, including what appears to be a universal tendency to assume that others’ minds are less sophisticated and more superficial than one’s own.21 Members of distant out-groups, ranging from terrorists to poor hurricane victims to political opponents, are also rated as less able to experience complicated emotions, such as shame, pride, embarassment, and guilt than close members of one’s own group.22 One series of experiments even found that apologies from distant out-groups, such as Canadians being asked to forgive Afghan soldiers for a friendly-fire incident, are relatively ineffective because those distant others are seen as relatively unable to experience remorse. Their apologies therefore seemed disingenuous.23 When the mind of another person looks relatively dim because you are not engaged with it directly, it does not mean that the other person’s mind is actually dimmer. Standing Bear was seen as being less than fully human—as being unsophisticated, unintelligent, and unfeeling—and today this seems like a relatively rare instance of extreme prejudice.

feedback, 8.1, 8.2, nts.1n parroting and progressive storytelling and, n feelings Female Brain, The (Brizendine) feminism Fermilab fetuses, mind debate and Fighter, The financial literacy programs, 7.1, 7.2 first impressions Fish, Stanley fishing industry flat-earth thinking, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, nts.1n flattery, 7.1, 7.2 floods fMRI scanners, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 5.1 Fodor, Jerry football dehumanization of players in speed of motion and, n forgiveness For Love of Insects (Eisner) Fox News France, dehumanization of British by Francis of Assisi, Saint free will Fremont, Calif., GM-Toyota intrinsic motivation experiment at friendliness, experiments on perception of friendly-fire incidents frontal lobes Fryer, Roland Galilei, Galileo Gates, Robert gay rights, 4.1, 5.1, 5.2 “don’t ask, don’t tell” and Geller, Uri gender exaggeration of differences in, 6.1, 6.2, nts.1n, nts.2n similarities and stereotypes and, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, nts.1n, nts.2n General Dynamics Robotic Systems General Motors (GM) intrinsic motivation experiment and General Social Survey gift registries, n Gilbert, Daniel Gilles, Ralph Gilovich, Thomas God anthropomorphism and, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 5.1 egocentrism and, 5.1, 5.2 Goldman Sachs gorillas, 4.1, nts.1n Gould, Stephen Jay, 4.1, 6.1 Government Accountability Office (GAO), U.S.


pages: 797 words: 227,399

Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bill Joy: nanobots, blue-collar work, borderless world, clean water, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, cuban missile crisis, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Grace Hopper, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, private military company, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Yogi Berra

One Talon was riding in the back of a Humvee while the truck was crossing a bridge. The unit was ambushed and an explosion blew the Talon into the river. After the battle ended, the soldiers found the damaged control unit and drove the Talon right out of the river. Another Talon serving with the marines was once hit by three rounds from a .50-caliber heavy machine gun (meaning the robot was actually a victim of friendly fire), but still kept working. The repair facility in Waltham has even worked on one Talon that was blown up on three separate occasions, each time just giving it new arms and cameras. The iRobot team bristles at the idea that their systems are “agile but fragile.” They insist that the PackBot is tough too, but being more science-oriented, cite various statistics on how it can survive a 400 g-force hit, what they describe as the equivalent of being tossed out of a hovering helicopter onto a concrete floor.

In an urban environment, thousands of bullets filled with radioactive dust falling from the sky is more of a concern. So the shells had to be altered to incendiary rounds that blow up in midair, but are less effective. Also, R2-D2 apparently once mistook an American helicopter flying over Baghdad for the Emperor’s Death Star. It locked in on the chopper to shoot it down, as if it were a rocket with some funny rotors spinning on the top. So CRAM had to be reconfigured to avoid any “blue on blue” friendly fire incidents. Finally, R2-D2 does not come cheap. Once you count in all the radar and control elements, the CRAM required a congressional earmark of $75 million in funding. THE NEW WARRIOR AT HOME The “war on terrorism” hasn’t just taken place on battlegrounds far far away. The result has been the creation of immense bureaucracies and massive spending dedicated to this war at home, or what we now call “homeland security.”

The early success in Iraq seemed to indicate once again that the network-centric way of war had changed everything. The previous RMA “gold standard” of invasions had been the German blitzkrieg in 1940, in which the Nazis took over France in just forty-four days, “at a cost of ‘only’ 27,000 dead soldiers.” For the United States to seize Iraq in 2003, it took half the time, at .005 percent the cost (161 U.S. soldiers lost during the invasion, many of them actually killed by “friendly fire”). Again, the network-centric crowd cited that the key wasn’t that the United States was using fundamentally different weapons than its previous war, but that the networking into information technology had proven “central to American military dominance.” The transformation movement led by Admiral Cebrowski, and embraced by those in power, had seemingly proven that a revolution in war truly was at hand.


pages: 687 words: 209,474

Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East by Michael B. Oren

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Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, European colonialism, friendly fire, open economy, Yom Kippur War

The helicopters also arrived to ferry Col. Dani Matt’s paratroopers. These movements went totally unobserved by the Egyptians. Preoccupied with enemy probes against their perimeter, they waited in vain for Supreme Headquarters’ order to counterattack, without which they would not move.11 As night fell, the Israeli assault troops lit their flashlights, each battalion a different color, to prevent friendly fire exchanges. But before the final signal could be given, Sharon received a phone call from Gavish. The Southern Command chief recommended that the attack be postponed for twenty-four hours to allow the air force, now free for ground support, to soften up the target. Sharon disagreed, but his response was garbled by electrical interference. The conversation was cut off, but then another call came for Gavish.

They dropped grenades into our half-tracks and blocked the streets with trucks. Our men threw the grenades back and crushed the trucks with their tanks.” Between Tal and Sharon’s forces, close to midnight and with lights blazing, passed the third of Israel’s southern divisions—Gen. Yoffe’s—en route to Bir Lahfan and Jabal Libni. Skirting Abu ‘Ageila to the north, threading through Sharon’s battlefield and exchanging friendly fire with some of his tanks, the lead Centurions of Col. Elhanan Sela advanced and turned southwest. Farther to the north, in the sandy wastes of Wadi Haridin, inched the 200th Brigade of Col. Yissachar “Yiska” Shadmi. Believed impassable by the Egyptians, the wadi had been studied by IDF paratroopers in 1956 and found suitable for tanks. Bedeviled by mines and artillery bombardments, Sela and Shadmi nevertheless managed to cut off all the major road junctions—to Jabal Libni, Abu ‘Ageila, and al-’Arish—and to stop two Egyptian armored brigades attempting to encircle Sharon.

Egyptian T-55 tanks, entrenched around the sprawling military facilities at Bir Gafgafa, held their ground in the face of Tal’s advancing tanks. As many as twelve T-55’s and fifty armored personnel carriers were lost, but the Egyptians stalled the Israelis long enough for most of the 4th Division to escape across the Canal. Sharon’s Ugdah, while bogged down in a muddy riverbed, was hammered by missile fire that forced it to change direction—straight into a “friendly fire” duel with tanks from Yoffe’s Ugdah. The delay enabled Shazli’s Force to slip out of the trap Sharon was planning; the defenders of the al-Qusayma redoubt similarly managed to flee. Meanwhile, the Egyptian air force, though vastly reduced, continued to stage sorties, exploiting the proximity of their bases to the front. “Three cheers for our air force,” one Israeli officer, a doctor identified in the record as Asher, remembered thinking.


pages: 722 words: 225,235

The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East by Abraham Rabinovich

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Boycotts of Israel, friendly fire, Mahatma Gandhi, Yom Kippur War

As the tanks descended the first deep dip in the road, a waiting Syrian force unleashed tank fire and RPGs. All eight tanks that had begun the descent were hit. Mor was blinded and lost an arm but his men managed to extricate him under fire and carry him back up the hill. Some men who managed to escape their burning tanks, including a badly wounded company commander, were captured by Syrian infantrymen. Greengold’s tank was hit too, apparently by friendly fire, but he did not feel it. The gunner, whose clothing was afire, lunged for the turret, and for an absurd and terrifying moment he and Greengold filled the narrow aperture and were unable to move. Greengold finally forced his way back down into the tank as the gunner scrambled out. Something inside the tank exploded, peppering Greengold’s face, and his clothes caught fire. He leaped out and rolled on the ground to extinguish the flames.

Morag realized that the Sagger operators were firing at the tank antennas projecting above the depression and were attempting to guide the missiles down into the quarry with their joysticks even though they could not see the tanks themselves. He had his men lower the antennas and the firing ceased. Morag remounted the road and led his tanks forward, but a torrent of missiles sent them scurrying back. The battalion from Raviv’s brigade assigned to Reshef moved into position a mile north to provide covering fire. Morag was concerned about friendly fire and asked the commander of the tank behind him to keep his eye on the nearest tank in the covering force. As he moved up to the road, the tank commander behind him said, “He’s swiveling his gun.” Morag ordered his driver to pull back. As he did, a shell exploded where he had just been. Morag asked Reshef to have Raviv’s battalion withdraw. “I have troubles enough with the Egyptians,” he said.

A dozen Golani troopers would be found dead after the battle with bullet holes through their helmets, a penetration made possible because of the high velocity of the bullets fired from upslope at close proximity. The Syrians had sniper rifles and night sights but they were also using Israeli machine guns they had taken from the outpost. More than once, Golani soldiers, seeing the familiar reddish tracers—readily distinguishable from the greenish tracers of Soviet ammunition—and recognizing the rhythm of the machine gun, shouted “Cease fire,” believing it was friendly fire from a unit that had gotten ahead of them. When they rose, they were hit. As he neared the point of contact, Sergeant Elbaz could hear commanders to his front calling on their men to charge. A rush forward would be followed by the sound of sniper fire and the sight of falling figures. The sergeant had picked up a Kalashnikov rifle from a dead Syrian. It had a bayonet attached to it, which he tried unsuccessfully to detach.


pages: 752 words: 201,334

Like Dreamers: The Story of the Israeli Paratroopers Who Reunited Jerusalem and Divided a Nation by Yossi Klein Halevi

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back-to-the-land, Boycotts of Israel, Burning Man, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, New Journalism, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, Transnistria, Yom Kippur War

He retrieved a pen that he always kept, just in case a line to a song appeared, and wrote on the back of an envelope: “In your darkness Jerusalem . . .” The words conformed to Shemer’s melody. Meir was writing a parody, nothing more, a song for a future campfire. “Jerusalem of iron and of lead and of blackness . . .” “Meir,” a friend interrupted, “no one is going to pick up your mail here.” “I’m just doodling,” said Meir. Chapter 6 “THE TEMPLE MOUNT IS IN OUR HANDS” FRIENDLY FIRE GET SOME SLEEP, that’s an order,” Motta said to Arik, who hadn’t slept in two nights. “But first check on the readiness of the Seventy-First Battalion.” Of all the battalions, the 71st had emerged most intact from the battle for Jerusalem. In less than twenty-four hours, the brigade had suffered nearly a hundred dead and four hundred wounded. The most devastated battalion was the 66th, whose men had fought the toughest battle, hand-to-hand combat with elite Jordanian troops in the trenches of Ammunition Hill.

Arik and Yisrael each took responsibility for four families. Meanwhile Yisrael was editing a narrative history of the battle for Jerusalem. A team of volunteers had assembled hundreds of interviews, diary entries, and letters to wives and girlfriends from among the fighters. When Yisrael had a question about the accuracy of a detail, he consulted with Arik. Also on ethical questions, like whether to write that one of the officers had been killed by friendly fire. “We can’t write lies,” Arik said, “but we don’t have to reveal the whole truth.” Arik liked the diligent culture officer. He appreciated professionalism, and Yisrael was a fine editor. As for Yisrael’s right-wing politics, Arik dismissed that as harmless delusion. Let him and his friends imagine they can determine the future borders of the state; meanwhile, the Labor Party will continue to rein in the utopian fantasies of the Jews.

The paratroopers, he explained, called this the Alley of Death. A Jordanian machine gun had been positioned at the opposite end, toward which the paratroopers charged. “Over and over. When one fell, another charged. For paratroopers there is no such thing as not fulfilling a mission.” They approached the hexagonal tower of the Rockefeller Museum, and entered the courtyard. Yoel pointed to a plaque commemorating three Israeli soldiers killed here by friendly fire. The group walked toward the Old City walls. They came to a sculpture of basalt stone, shaped like a massive uprooted tree trunk, a memorial for the Israeli scouts killed on the night before the breakthrough into the Old City. Yoel told the story of how the scouts, veterans of Unit 101 and the most elite commandos of the IDF, had missed the turn toward the Mount of Olives and found themselves exposed beneath the Old City walls.


pages: 570 words: 151,259

Broken Angels by Richard Morgan

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friendly fire, gravity well, Lao Tzu, the High Line, urban sprawl

The Limon woman blinked and looked at him, but her eyes kept tugging back towards the screen. “Get back down to the Nagini and help Hansen prep the buoy for firing. And tell Vongsavath to get a launch and landing mapped for tonight. See if she can’t break through some of this jamming and transmit to the Wedge at Masson. Tell them we’re coming out.” He looked across at me. “I’d hate to get shot down by friendly fire at this stage.” I glanced at Hand, curious to see how he’d handle this one. I needn’t have worried. “No transmissions just yet, captain.” The executive’s voice was a study in absent detachment—you would have sworn he was absorbed in the gate countdown—but under the casual tone there was the unmistakable tensile strength of an order given. “Let’s keep this on a need-to-know basis until we’re actually ready to go home.

Sutjiadi’s jitters must have sparked across to me somehow though, because as the first twist took us out of sight of the activated gate, I had to admit that I felt something on the back of my neck. It was the same feeling you sometimes get when you turn your back on weapons systems you know are armed. No matter that you’re tagged safe, you know that the thing at your back has the power to turn you into small shreds of flesh and bone, and that despite all the programming in the world, accidents happen. And friendly fire kills you just as dead as the unfriendly kind. At the entrance, the bright, diffuse glare of daylight waited for us like some inversion of the dark, compressed thing within. I shook the thought loose irritably. “You happy now?” I enquired acidly, as we stepped out into the light. “I’ll be happy when we’ve deployed the buoy and put a hemisphere between us and that thing.” I shook my head.


pages: 487 words: 147,891

McMafia: A Journey Through the Global Criminal Underworld by Misha Glenny

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anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, colonial rule, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, forensic accounting, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, place-making, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, trade liberalization, trade route, Transnistria, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile

This came as a real shock to everyone—to the Colombian people; to its president, Alvaro Uribe; and to his government; and it came as a big and unpleasant shock to members of the U.S. Congress and President George W. Bush. The platoon commander, the square-jawed Colonel Bayron Carvajal, at first issued a statement describing the incident as a tragic case of “friendly fire.” It had happened at night, he claimed, and the soldiers had mistaken the unit for FARC guerrillas. The eyewitnesses from My Little Home and the neighboring Indian houses were baffled—they knew the attack took place in broad daylight and that the distinctive uniforms of the Special Forces would have been instantly recognized by the army. Far from being friendly fire, this bore the hallmarks of a calculated execution. Furthermore, as the attorney general Mario Iguarán investigated the matter a little closer, it seemed suspiciously as though the soldiers had been acting to protect whoever owned the drugs.


pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

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23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

once-secret techniques: Mobistealth (2014), “Ultimate cell phone monitoring software,” http://www.mobistealth.com. Stuxnet’s target was Iran: Jarrad Shearer (26 Feb 2013), “W32.Stuxnet,” Symantec Corporation, http://www.symantec.com/security_response/writeup.jsp?docid=2010-071400-3123-99. computers owned by Chevron: Matthew J. Schwartz (12 Nov 2012), “Cyber weapon friendly fire: Chevron Stuxnet fallout,” Information Week, http://www.darkreading.com/attacks-and-breaches/cyber-weapon-friendly-fire-chevron-stuxnet-fallout/d/d-id/1107339. industrial plants in Germany: Robert McMillan (14 Sep 2010), “Siemens: Stuxnet worm hit industrial systems,” Computer World, http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9185419/Siemens_Stuxnet_worm_hit_industrial_systems. failure of an Indian satellite: Jeffrey Carr (29 Sep 2010), “Did the Stuxnet worm kill India’s Insat-4B satellite?”


pages: 492 words: 153,565

Countdown to Zero Day: Stuxnet and the Launch of the World's First Digital Weapon by Kim Zetter

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Brian Krebs, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Earth, information retrieval, Julian Assange, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

An outsider might question why no one on the watch floor turned to the CIA or NSA analysts sitting in the room to ask with a wink, “Is this one of yours?” But McGurk insists this never occurred to them because attribution wasn’t the watch floor’s concern. Their mission was to uncover an attack code’s capabilities and determine the best way for US networks to defend against it. “At first when you look at [malware]… your assumption is that it’s not friendly fire. You don’t think the sniper on the roof is one of your guys shooting at you,” he says. “It could turn out to be … But in the heat of it, at the very beginning, you’re not overly concerned, nor do you naturally default to [that.]” But very quickly, Stuxnet became “an item of high interest” in Washington. Over the next few weeks and months, McGurk gave briefings to a number of high-level groups—to DHS secretary Janet Napolitano, to John Brennan and other members of the White House National Security staff, to the Senate and House intelligence committees, the DoD, and the Defense Intelligence Agency.

Available at cnn.com/2011/TECH/web/04/26/iran_computer_worm. 9 After news of Duqu broke, someone on Twitter who identified himself as an Iranian malware researcher in Virginia published a tweet saying that according to investigations by Iran’s CERT, “#Duqu is upgraded version of #Stars malware.” He deleted the tweet very quickly after posting it, however, and not long afterward also deleted his entire Twitter account. It’s unclear if there was any significance to the image of the galaxies in Duqu or if the attackers had just chosen a random picture, but Bencsáth thought it might have been used as a secret signal to identify Duqu as “friendly fire.” Sometimes various intelligence branches of the same government will target the same computers. If the United States or Israel was behind Duqu, the image might have been a signal to “friendlies” who came across the keylogger on an infected machine—in the course of trying to hack it themselves—that the machine was already infected by a compatriot. 10 Some criticized Symantec’s decision to go public so quickly.


pages: 392 words: 122,282

Generation Kill by Evan Wright

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Columbine, friendly fire, oil shale / tar sands, working poor

About this time they notice that all the red tracers streaming in at them are coming from the west, where Marines from Task Force Tarawa are hunkered down. The mini-firefight is Marines shooting at Marines. Scott’s men stop shooting, as do the Marines firing at them in the distance. In his diary that night, Scott writes a considerably more concise and less florid entry than his previous ones: “Combat was not what I expected. How we all made it out without a scratch is beyond me.” IN ADDITION TO THE PROBLEM of friendly fire, Patterson’s Alpha Company snipers on the riverfront are dealing with the ambiguities of guerrilla war, not covered in the Marine Rules of Engagement. The ROE under which the Marines operate are quite naturally based on the assumption that legitimate targets are people armed with weapons. The problem is Iraqis dressed in civilian clothes who are armed not with guns but with cell phones, walkie-talkies and binoculars.

Fick later finds out that we were shot at by Navy reservist surgeons on their way to set up a mobile shock-trauma unit on the road ahead. “Those were fucking doctors who a few weeks ago were doing nose and tit jobs in Santa Fe Springs,” Fick tells his men, laughing. “The fucking POGest of the POGs. Luckily, they’re not the best sharpshooters.” Several Humvees up the line are hit, but no Marines are injured. Within minutes of the latest near-death episode, Trombley is snoring, sound asleep. FIFTEEN ° AFTER THE FRIENDLY-FIRE incident outside Ar Rifa on the evening of March 26, Fick pokes his head into Colbert’s vehicle to inform him that the Marines’ night is just getting started. During the next six hours the battalion is going to race across open roads and desert trails, advancing twenty-five to thirty kilometers behind enemy lines, in order to set up observation on an Iraqi military airfield near a town called Qalat Sukhar.


pages: 432 words: 127,985

The Best Way to Rob a Bank Is to Own One: How Corporate Executives and Politicians Looted the S&L Industry by William K. Black

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, business climate, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, Donald Trump, fear of failure, financial deregulation, friendly fire, George Akerlof, hiring and firing, margin call, market bubble, moral hazard, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, The Market for Lemons, transaction costs

He was a vicious, unprincipled bigot (ibid.). Only desperation could have made Wright turn to Prins. Wright’s other alternatives on the committee must have been even worse. St Germain, for example, had one of the poorest reputations of any member of Congress and was not popular among Democrats on the committee. Moreover, St Germain probably secretly opposed Wright’s actions of the FSLIC recap bill. FRIENDLY FIRE: TREASURY’S BLUNDER The Treasury Department did a generally low-key, competent job of lobbying for the FSLIC recap in 1987. However, Treasury made a serious mistake that provided the league with its best substantive argument. The blunder was trying to add another argument to an already winning argument: the supplementary argument ended up undercutting the winning argument. The issue was how much money the FSLIC recap should provide.

Together they ensured that the FSLIC recap would face the May massacre. THE ADMINISTRATION MAKES A SEPARATE, SECRET PEACE WITH THE SPEAKER Barry makes clear that Wright had utter disdain for President Reagan; it is also clear that the contempt was mutual. The irony is that the administration almost saved the Speaker from himself. Having already unintentionally damaged chances for a $15 billion FSLIC recap bill with their “friendly fire” assertion of the FSLIC’s purported inability to spend more than $5 billion in any year, the administration now engaged in intentional fire at Gray. With “allies” like this, who needed the league and the Speaker as opponents? The Reagan administration decided to make a separate peace with Wright. In late April 1987, Treasury Secretary Baker asked Wright for a meeting on the FSLIC recap. Baker kept the meeting secret from Gray.


pages: 537 words: 158,544

Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order by Parag Khanna

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Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, complexity theory, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, knowledge economy, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Pax Mongolica, pirate software, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Potemkin village, price stability, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

London: Harcourt, 2004. Suisheng Zhao. A Nation-State by Construction: Dynamics of Modern Chinese Nationalism. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2004. Suisman, Doug, et al. The Arc: A Formal Structure for a Palestinian State. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, 2005. Sutter, Robert. China’s Rise in Asia: Promises and Perils. Boulder, Colo.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005. Sweig, Julia. Friendly Fire: Losing Friends and Making Enemies in the Anti-American Century. New York: Public Affairs, 2006. Talbott, Stobe. The Russia Hand: A Memoir of Presidential Diplomacy. New York: Random House, 2003. Taylor, A. J. P. The Struggle for Mastery in Europe, 1848–1918. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press, 1954. Telhami, Shibley. The Stakes: America and the Middle East. Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 2002. Tellis, Ashley J., and Michael Willis.

Mark Hertsgaard has identified a number of characteristic foreign views of the United States overseas that contradict American self-perceptions: America is parochial and self-centered, hypocritical and domineering, naïve about the world, full of philistines, self-righteous about democracy, and only looks out for itself. Hertsgaard, The Eagle’s Shadow: Why America Fascinates and Infuriates the World (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002), 21. See also Julia Sweig, Friendly Fire: Losing Friends and Making Enemies in the Anti-American Century (New York: Public Affairs, 2006). 9. Harold Nicolson, Peacemaking 1919. 10. For a discussion of the increasing costs to the United States of its alliances over the course of the twentieth century, see David A. Lake, Entangling Relations: American Foreign Policy in Its Century (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1999); see also Julianne Smith and Thomas Sanderson, “Evaluating Our Partners and Allies Five Years Later,” Washington Post, September 11, 2006. 11.


pages: 190 words: 52,570

The Planets by Dava Sobel

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Albert Einstein, Colonization of Mars, Dava Sobel, Edmond Halley, Eratosthenes, friendly fire, Isaac Newton, Kuiper Belt, music of the spheres

This possibility launches the first purely scientific voyage, under the command of Edmond Halley, the only Astronomer Royal ever to win a commission as captain in the Royal Navy. Between 1698 and 1700, Halley leads two expeditions across the Atlantic Ocean, and also to the Atlantic’s northern and southern limits until stopped by icebergs in fog. Off the coast of Africa and again near Newfoundland, Halley’s specially designed flat-bottomed vessel, the Paramore, draws friendly fire from English merchantmen and colonial fishermen who mistake her for a pirate ship. The map Halley publishes in color in 1701 fills the ocean with curving lines of varying lengths and widths describing degrees of magnetic variation east and west. The continents bordering the Atlantic serve merely to anchor the all-important lines, and to bear the cartouches, whose palm trees, muses, and naked natives have been bumped from the busy waters to the empty lands.


pages: 285 words: 81,743

Start-Up Nation: The Story of Israel's Economic Miracle by Dan Senor; Saul Singer

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Boycotts of Israel, call centre, Celtic Tiger, cleantech, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, friendly fire, immigration reform, labor-force participation, new economy, pez dispenser, post scarcity, profit motive, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social graph, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, web application, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

Harvard Business School Case 799-038, October 1998. Case Library, Harvard Business Publishing. Singer, Saul. “Superpower in Silicon Wadi.” Jerusalem Post, June 19, 1998. Solow, Robert M. “Growth Theory and After.” Nobel Prize lecture, December 8, 1987. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/lau reates/1987/solow-lecture.html. Snook, Scott A., Leslie J. Freeman, and L. Jeffrey Norwalk. “Friendly Fire.” Harvard Business School Case 404-083, January 2004. Case Library, Harvard Business Publishing. Steil, Benn, David G. Victor, and Richard R. Nelson, eds. Technological Innovation and Economic Performance. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002. Stern, Yoav. “Study: Israeli Arab Attitudes Toward Women Undergoing Change.” Haaretz, March 14, 2009. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/stages/1008797.html.


pages: 281 words: 70,908

Ringworld's Children by Larry Niven

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dark matter, friendly fire

She braced herself behind Louis's medical cage. Only her projectile weapon showed, aimed at the doorway. A voice spoke from somewhere, 'Tec Schmidt's voice sounding much too calm. "All hands, we're fighting from the radiation refuge. I can see invaders on the hull and in four, five, six, and ten. Our motors are burned out, but we're under acceleration anyway. We don't know where it's coming from. We're also facing friendly fire, ARM missiles incoming, sixty and counting, no alien attackers yet. 'Tec-Admiral Wrayne doesn't want us captured, I guess." "Why didn't we see it coming?" she whispered. "They've got an invisible ship! Shh." Schmidt's voice--"The missiles are veering away!"--died in a roar of static. A shadow blinked past the little door. Roxanny fired, and cursed. What came through then looked like a small man filmed fast-forward.


pages: 260 words: 79,471

A Captain's Duty: Somali Pirates, Navy SEALs, and Dangerous Days at Sea by Richard Phillips, Stephan Talty

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Bernie Sanders, friendly fire

Bring the ship to the splash and I’ll come to the other side of your ship.” If I escaped—and that was a big if—I wanted to get the Maersk Alabama between me and the lifeboat. The Somalis installed me in the third seat, port side. It gave me a good view of the cockpit and the rest of the ship and I wanted to stay there. And I wanted to stay in one place, so any allies that pulled up on the scene would know exactly where I was located. Friendly fire will kill you just as dead as enemy fire. I keyed the radio and let my crew know what seat I was in. The pirates closed both hatches. I guess they feared frog-men coming up and climbing down into the boat. That’s when the heat began: unbearable, unrelenting saunalike heat just permeated the entire vessel. It was pure hell. I probably nodded off a couple of times. I came to at around 2 a.m., Thursday morning.


pages: 233 words: 66,446

Bitcoin: The Future of Money? by Dominic Frisby

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3D printing, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer age, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, friendly fire, game design, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, litecoin, M-Pesa, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing complete, War on Poverty, web application, WikiLeaks

The one thing that’s missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash. Milton Friedman, economist The US Department of Defense called it the ‘largest leak of classified documents in its history’. It’s difficult to overstate how big a threat to the existing world order WikiLeaks was perceived to be in late 2010. There has been revelation after revelation – the Bradley Manning leaks, the video of US soldiers shooting at Reuters cameramen, the ‘friendly fire’ and civilian casualties, then the leak of another 400,000 documents relating to the Iraq war. WikiLeaks had caught the imagination of those opposed to the US and other governments. Many wanted to help. PayPal was the main means by which WikiLeaks was able to receive funds for its activities and, in 2010, its donors gave around one million dollars. But on December 4th 2010, under pressure from the US government, PayPal froze the WikiLeaks account.


pages: 279 words: 72,659

Gaza in Crisis: Reflections on Israel's War Against the Palestinians by Ilan Pappé, Noam Chomsky, Frank Barat

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, desegregation, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Islamic Golden Age, New Journalism, price stability, too big to fail

As before there were hardly any casualties on the Israeli side, although houses and flats were damaged and the afflicted citizens traumatized. The November 24 missile attack was the one the Israeli Army had waited for. From November 25 until January 21, 2009, the Israeli Army bombarded the million and half people of Gaza from the air, land, and sea. Hamas responded with missiles that ended with three casualties and another ten Israeli soldiers were killed, some by friendly fire. A GENOCIDAL POLICY? The evidence collected by Israeli-based human rights organizations, international agencies, and media (although the Israelis barred the media from entering the Strip) was perceived by many to be far more serious than just war crimes. Some referred to it as genocide. It is not often that the president of the UN General Assembly would accuse a member state of genocide.22 But when the Israeli Army bombarded the civilian population of Gaza, invoking the right of self-defense against terrorists launching missiles into civilian targets, Miguel D’Escoto Brockmann did not hesitate to describe such actions as genocide.


pages: 318 words: 77,223

The Only Game in Town: Central Banks, Instability, and Avoiding the Next Collapse by Mohamed A. El-Erian

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Airbnb, balance sheet recession, bank run, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, currency peg, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, financial repression, Flash crash, forward guidance, friendly fire, full employment, future of work, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, income inequality, inflation targeting, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Rogoff, Khan Academy, liquidity trap, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, mortgage debt, oil shale / tar sands, price stability, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, yield curve

Even measures that can command quite broad bipartisan support, such as trade pacts and basic infrastructure development, move at a glacial pace. The reason for this sad state of affairs is simple: Many moderate politicians fear that their willingness to compromise politically will cost them in their next primary—after all, in many cases these days, their electoral success depends less on defeating opponents from the other party and more on surviving friendly fire from the more extreme factions of their own. A sense of political despair has been accentuated by a recognition that elections are unlikely to make things better unless the outcome involves a broad sweep by one party of both the executive and legislative functions. As an illustration, consider what happened in the November 2014 midterm elections. In their “shellacking” of Democrats, Republicans gained control of the Senate and took their majority in the House of Representatives to a level not seen in many decades.

The Techno-Human Condition by Braden R. Allenby, Daniel R. Sarewitz

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airport security, augmented reality, carbon footprint, clean water, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, facts on the ground, friendly fire, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, land tenure, life extension, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Peter Singer: altruism, planetary scale, prediction markets, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, Whole Earth Catalog

Telepathic helmets would enhance the performance of small combat units, especially in situations in which Killer Apps 147 face-to-face and voice contact is difficult (army special operations, for example). The technology blends well with, and is synergistic with, the augmented-cognition helmets currently in development. 8 It will thus increase field effectiveness, reduce unnecessary mortality (including from friendly fire), and quite possible reduce collateral damage, especially if combined with other technologies (e.g., if telepathic helmets are linked to cyborg insects, or to augmented-cognition technologies gridded across the battlefield). So at Level I it's a go. Table 7.2 Technology-level matrix for telepathic helmet. Goals and effects Enhance performance of small units in combat Level II: Adoption in Protect civilian popucivil society lations from terrorists and, through mission creep, criminals by, e.g., enabling noninvasive distance capture of thoughts Level III: Social and Goal to ensure orcultural effects derly society with low risk to citizens, and to protect national security.


pages: 221 words: 71,449

Not My Father's Son: A Memoir by Alan Cumming

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British Empire, colonial rule, Downton Abbey, financial independence, friendly fire, Skype

When I gently asked her the circumstances of his death, my mother quietly described the story as it had been shared with her. He had been cleaning a gun. There was still a bullet in the chamber. He had shot himself accidentally. This was news to me. I had always remembered he had been shot accidentally on a shooting range, a stray bullet making him a victim of that particularly oxymoronic phrase “friendly fire.” I suppose my boyish imagination must have just made that up. The plot was definitely thickening. As the interview wound up I smiled at her and gave her a kiss. I knew Mum had been anxious but she had done a really good job. Now, as she scampered through to the kitchen to begin serving the lunch she’d prepared for me and the crew, I took a moment to reflect on how similar our situations were right now—both of us on the brink of finding out the truth about our fathers.


pages: 310 words: 82,592

Never Split the Difference: Negotiating as if Your Life Depended on It by Chris Voss, Tahl Raz

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banking crisis, Black Swan, clean water, cognitive bias, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Donald Trump, framing effect, friendly fire, iterative process, loss aversion, market fundamentalism, price anchoring, telemarketer, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment

But as a sheet of bullets from their rescuers fell on them, Gracia felt a searing burn flare through her right thigh. And then, she felt Martin go limp. Minutes later, after the last rebels fled, the squad of Philippine soldiers tried to reassure Gracia that her husband was fine, but she shook her head. After a year in captivity, she had no time for fantasies. Gracia knew her husband was dead, and she was right: he’d been hit in the chest, three times, by “friendly” fire. In the end, the supposed rescue mission killed two of the three hostages there that day (a Philippine nurse named Ediborah Yap also died), and the big fish—Sabaya—escaped to live a few more months. From beginning to end, the thirteen-month mission was a complete failure, a waste of lives and treasure. As I sat in the dark at home a few days later, dispirited and spent, I knew that something had to change.


pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

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Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, invisible hand, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

Blackwater, the notorious private military contractor, has deployed a small flotilla to escort oil and cargo vessels, while other companies are offering electric fencing and stun guns to shipping companies. Even though the gloves have come off, deploying expensive military convoys to float in the Gulf of Aden is hardly cost-effective. To avoid both an asymmetric arms race between Western navies and impoverished pirates, as well as potential friendly fire incidents among the dozen or more countries now patrolling the Arabian Sea, a more multidimensional strategy is required. On the other side of the Indian Ocean, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia jointly patrol the Strait of Malacca, with Malaysia, Singapore, and Japan funding the improvement of Indonesia’s coast guard capacity so that it can be a stronger participant in policing the waters rather than the weakest link.


pages: 251 words: 67,801

And Then All Hell Broke Loose: Two Decades in the Middle East by Richard Engel

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East Village, friendly fire, invisible hand, Mohammed Bouazizi, Skype, Yom Kippur War

I reported from there that US intelligence officials had told me that Israel had flown fifteen hundred combat sorties since the beginning of the war and fired more than twenty thousand rounds of artillery into south Lebanon. It was now estimated that seven hundred thousand people had fled their homes. That same day, twenty miles to the southeast, Israel Special Forces launched an attack on Bint Jbeil, a town of twenty thousand. After a massive artillery barrage, Israeli troops made an inauspicious advance from the east. Five soldiers were wounded by friendly fire, and the two tanks sent to evacuate them were disabled by Hezbollah defenders—the first when struck by a missile, the second when it went over a remote-controlled mine. Then an armor-plated bulldozer attempting to rescue the tank casualties was repulsed after being hit by a missile. Two Israeli soldiers were killed and eighteen were wounded, and another two died when their attack helicopter, assigned to fly support for the ground forces, crashed on the Israeli side of the border.


pages: 328 words: 100,381

Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State by Dana Priest, William M. Arkin

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airport security, business intelligence, dark matter, friendly fire, Google Earth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Julian Assange, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, WikiLeaks

As the Predator desk officer explained, both the CIA and JSOC had their own Predators, and they had other unmanned drones, their own dedicated aircraft, their own weapons, and their own target shops and review processes. Up on the big screen in the ops center, the flight path of these clandestine missions could be displayed—if needed—but usually just a few people would be notified of any potential conflicts or overlap with conventional forces. Still, the CIA and the secret military forces wanted to be in the “fur ball”—that is, to have their basic positions known, if for no other reason than to avoid friendly fire when they were out there clandestinely operating. The Predator video feeds were in real time, broadcast on television cameras to viewers in command centers around the world, as well as to people on the ground and in the air: the army or marine unit being supported, individual special ops teams with unique laptop receivers, analysts assigned to monitor every mission, manned intelligence collection planes, nearby fighter jets, and, of course, the very deadly Special Operations AC-130 gunships.


pages: 294 words: 81,292

Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era by James Barrat

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3D printing, AI winter, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, Automated Insights, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, brain emulation, cellular automata, cloud computing, cognitive bias, computer vision, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, don't be evil, Extropian, finite state, Flash crash, friendly AI, friendly fire, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, lone genius, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, prisoner's dilemma, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, smart grid, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero day

These numbers show that in dollar cost per incident, financial fraud competes with the most expensive terrorist act in history, and the subprime mortgage crisis dwarfs it. When researchers put advanced AI into the hands of businessmen, as they imminently will, these people will suddenly possess the most powerful technology ever conceived of. Some will use it to perpetrate fraud. I think the next cyberattack will consist of “friendly fire,” that is, it’ll originate at home, damage infrastructure, and kill Americans. Sound far-fetched? Enron, the scandal-plagued Texas corporation helmed by Kenneth Lay (since deceased), Jeffrey Skilling, and Andrew Fastow (both currently in prison), was in the energy trading business. In 2000 and 2001, Enron traders drove up energy prices in California by using strategies with names like “Fat Boy,” and “Death Star.”


pages: 389 words: 108,344

Kill Chain: The Rise of the High-Tech Assassins by Andrew Cockburn

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airport security, anti-communist, Edward Snowden, friendly fire, Google Earth, license plate recognition, RAND corporation, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, too big to fail

Reaper is extremely expensive: Winslow Wheeler, “Revisiting the Reaper Revolution,” Time’s Battleland defense blog, February 22, 2012. http://nation.time.com/2012/02/27/1-the-reaper-revolution-revisited/; Craig Whitlock, “When Drones Fall from the Sky,” Washington Post, June 20, 2014. In fact, it carries essentially the same sensors: U.S. Central Command, “Summary of Interview with Captain [name redacted] on April 19, 2011,” Report of investigation into friendly fire incident, Upper Sangin, Helmand, April 6, 2011, p. 203. Association of Unmanned Vehicle Systems International: Andrea Stone, “Drone Lobbying Ramps Up Among Industry Manufacturers, Developers,” Huffington Post, May 25, 2012. Cessna operation yielded at least 6,500 captives: Winslow Wheeler, “Finding the Right Targets,” Time’s Battleland defense blog, February 29, 2012. http://nation.time.com/2012/02/29/3-finding-the-right-targets/.


pages: 296 words: 95,377

Daring Raids of World War Two: Heroic Land, Sea and Air Attacks by Peter Jacobs

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friendly fire

Reportedly on the orders of Rommel, Keyes was buried in a local cemetery with full military honours; he now lies in the Benghazi War Cemetery. Geoffrey Keyes was later posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross. His citation concluded: By his fearless disregard of the great dangers which he ran and of which he was fully aware, and by his magnificent leadership and outstanding gallantry, Lieutenant Colonel Keyes set an example of supreme self-sacrifice and devotion to duty. It has since been suggested that Keyes was killed by friendly fire but, whatever the truth, his bravery was beyond doubt and his award of the VC was the first of eight VCs won by commandos during the war. Robin Campbell, who had been wounded in the leg and left behind at the villa, was fortunate to be taken as a prisoner of war rather than executed by the Germans. He was awarded the DSO, while Sergeant Jack Terry received the DCM. The raid on Rommel’s so-called headquarters at the villa brought an end to such audacious and seemingly gung-ho raids.


pages: 304 words: 93,494

Hatching Twitter by Nick Bilton

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4chan, Burning Man, friendly fire, index card, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, pets.com, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technology bubble, traveling salesman, WikiLeaks

“Sorry, my first tweet not pleasant,” Barham Salim said in his first 140-character proclamation. “Dust storm in Baghdad today & yet another suicide bomb. Awful reminder that it is not yet all fine here.” The Time 101 Flashes of white light exploded in the air like miniature fireworks in front of Jack, Biz, and Ev. Pop. Pop. Pop. “Over here!” “Look this way!” photographers yelled as their cameras rattled like muted gunfire. Friendly fire: Click. Click. Click. “This way!” they yelled. “Look over here!” The Twitter founders paused every few feet—pop, click, pop—then walked forward as they continued on the red carpet as if they were on a conveyor belt. Coiled white earpieces crawled up the necks of Secret Service agents who stood watch over the scene. “Hi, Jack Dorsey,” a young woman said as she approached with a clipboard in her hand.


pages: 391 words: 105,382

Utopia Is Creepy: And Other Provocations by Nicholas Carr

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Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, centralized clearinghouse, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, computer age, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, deskilling, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, factory automation, failed state, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, game design, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, hive mind, impulse control, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Kevin Kelly, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, mental accounting, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shale / tar sands, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, Snapchat, social graph, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

Even if their lyrics were about getting laid or getting high—as they frequently were—their songs were filled with political force. Those not busy being born, as Dylan put it shortly after taking an axe to his folkie roots, are busy dying. Now, youth culture is largely apolitical, and pop’s soundtrack is just a soundtrack. Those not busy being born are busy listening to their iPods. Whether it’s Fleet Foxes or Friendly Fires, Black Keys or Beach House, today’s bands are less likely to battle the past than to luxuriate in it. That doesn’t mean they aren’t good bands. As Reynolds is careful to note, there is plenty of fine pop music being made today, in an ear-boggling array of styles. But drained of its subversive energies, none of it matters much. It just streams by. Retromania is an important and often compelling work.


pages: 385 words: 103,561

Pinpoint: How GPS Is Changing Our World by Greg Milner

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Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, Edmond Halley, Eratosthenes, experimental subject, Flash crash, friendly fire, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, land tenure, lone genius, Mars Rover, Mercator projection, place-making, polynesian navigation, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, smart grid, the map is not the territory

The Iraqi army had assumed the Coalition forces would be at a disadvantage in the vast, faceless desert, limited to the few major roads and highways. But thanks largely to GPS, the Coalition accomplished the first large-scale deep desert advance in the history of warfare. Knowledge of GPS coordinates allowed tanks and mechanized infantry to move quickly, cutting down on the risk of accidents and friendly fire, especially during the first forty-eight hours of the war, when bad weather caused visibility to drop to as little as five meters. Soldiers found water sources by following goat tracks and marking the spots with GPS. They used GPS to report on the presence of mines, and for positioning artillery. Meal trucks used GPS to deliver food to troops. Special Forces, disguised as civilians, included GPS coordinates with intelligence on targets.


pages: 315 words: 99,065

The Virgin Way: Everything I Know About Leadership by Richard Branson

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barriers to entry, call centre, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, clean water, collective bargaining, Costa Concordia, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, index card, inflight wifi, Lao Tzu, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Northern Rock, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Tesla Model S, trade route

After their brief spell of working for the government, Northern Rock’s 2,000 or so employees were clearly excited about joining the Virgin family. They didn’t have to wait long to get a taste of their new corporate culture when Jayne-Anne Gadhia, CEO of Virgin Money, and I hosted a huge street party inside Northern Rock’s headquarters in Newcastle upon Tyne, at which everyone got an opportunity to behave in very ‘unbankerlike’ ways! It was kind of an initiation by friendly fire for all the former Northern Rock people who I don’t think had ever seen their previous bosses loosen their ties, let alone their purse-strings for a bank-sponsored megabash. By the end of the night I must have shaken a thousand hands and my fingers were literally numb from the process. Jayne-Anne and I posed for scores of group photographs and the bank’s staff even got to rub shoulders with some true local heroes in the form of several Newcastle United football stars who we’d invited to join in the festivities.


pages: 271 words: 92,271

The Battle of Mogadishu: Firsthand Accounts From the Men of Task Force Ranger by Matt Eversmann, Dan Schilling

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friendly fire

When we got back (another dry run) our distinguished visitor had already come and gone, and Gina was probably the only person to greet him in that part of the hangar. Colonel Oeser, our commander, read us the riot act when we got back, so down she came. We went out on another night mission on September 6, which is worth noting for several reasons. It was the first firefight between Task Force Ranger and the Somalis. It was also the first time I ever experienced friendly fire. The assaulters were again taking down a building north of K4 Circle. Ranger security had cordoned off a four-block area, and our convoy was parked adjacent to a place called the reviewing stand, where Aidid used to make speeches before we began hunting him. My C2 Humvee was in the middle of the convoy of vehicles, which were all in a line pointed north in case we were needed. McKnight, as was his habit, got out of his vehicle, and I went with him.


pages: 913 words: 299,770

A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn

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affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, death of newspapers, desegregation, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, friendly fire, full employment, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, land reform, Mercator projection, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, very high income, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration

Is the American “way of life” that you say my son is risking his life for the continued “right” of Americans to consume 25 to 30 percent of the world’s oil? . . . I intend to support my son and his fellow soldiers by doing everything I can to oppose any offensive American military action in the Persian Gulf. There were courageous individual acts by citizens, speaking out in spite of threats. Peg Mullen, of Brownsville, Texas, whose son had been killed by “friendly fire” in Vietnam, organized a busload of mothers to protest in Washington, in spite of a warning that her house would be burned down if she persisted. The actress Margot Kidder (“Lois Lane” in the Superman films), despite the risk to her career, spoke out eloquently against the war. A basketball player for Seton Hall University in New Jersey refused to wear the American flag on his uniform, and when he became the object of derision for this, he left the team and the university, and returned to his native Italy.

note: Much of the material in this chapter comes from my own files of social action by organizations around the country, from my collection of news clippings, and from publications outside the mainstream, including: The Nation. In These Times, The Nuclear Resister, Peacework, The Resist Newsletter, Rethinking Schools, Indigenous Thought. 23. THE COMING REVOLT OF THE GUARDS Bryan, C. D. B. Friendly Fire. New York: Putnam, 1976. Levin, Murray B. The Alienated Voter. New York: Irvington, 1971. Warren, Donald I. The Radical Center: Middle America and the Politics of Alienation. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1976. Weizenbaum, Joseph. Computer Power and Human Reason. San Francisco: Freeman, 1976. 24. THE CLINTON PRESIDENCY Bagdikian, Ben. The Media Monopoly. Boston: Beacon Press, 1992.


pages: 467 words: 116,902

The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

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affirmative action, cognitive bias, Columbine, deindustrialization, desegregation, ending welfare as we know it, friendly fire, illegal immigration, land reform, large denomination, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

Department of Justice, Department of Justice Drug Demand Reduction Activities, Report No. 3-12 (Washington, DC: Office of the Inspector General, Feb. 2003), 35, www.usdoj.gov/oig/reports/plus/a0312. 35 Radley Balko, Overkill: The Rise of Paramilitary Police Raids in America (Washington, DC: Cato Institute, July 17, 2006), 8. 36 Megan Twohey, “SWATs Under Fire,” National Journal, Jan. 1, 2000, 37; Balko, Overkill, 8. 37 Timothy Egan, “Soldiers of the Drug War Remain on Duty,” New York Times, Mar. 1, 1999. 38 Ibid., 8-9. 39 Scott Andron, “SWAT: Coming to a Town Near You?” Miami Herald, May 20, 2002. 40 Balko, Overkill, 11, citing Peter Kraska, “Researching the Police-Military Blur: Lessons Learned,” Police Forum 14, no. 3 (2005). 41 Balko, Overkill, 11, citing Britt Robson, “Friendly Fire,” Minneapolis City Pages, Sept. 17, 1997. 42 Ibid., 43 (citing Kraska research). 43 Ibid., 49 (citing Village Voice). 44 Ibid., 50; “Not All Marijuana Law Victims Are Arrested: Police Officer Who Fatally Shot Suspected Marijuana User Cleared of Criminal Charges,” NORML News, July 13, 1995, druglibrary.org/olsen/NORML/WEEKLY/95-07-13.html; Timothy Lynch, After Prohibition (Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2000), 82; and various sources citing “Dodge County Detective Can’t Remember Fatal Shot; Unarmed Man Killed in Drug Raid at His Home,” Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, Apr. 29, 1995, A1, and “The Week,” National Review, June 12, 1995, 14. 45 Ibid., 10, citing Steven Elbow, “Hooked on SWAT: Fueled with Drug Enforcement Money, Military-Style Police Teams Are Exploding in the Backwoods of Wisconsin,” Madison Capitol Times, Aug. 18, 2001. 46 Eric Blumenson and Eva Nilson, “Policing for Profit: The Drug War’s Hidden Economic Agenda,” University of Chicago Law Review 65 (1998): 35, 45. 47 Ibid., 64. 48 Blumenson and Nilson, “Policing for Profit,” 72. 49 Ibid., 71. 50 Ibid., 82. 51 Ibid. 52 Ibid., 83. 53 Ibid. 54 Ibid. 55 Ibid., 98. 56 Michael Fessier Jr., “Trail’s End Deep in a Wild Canyon West of Malibu, a Controversial Law Brought Together a Zealous Sheriff’s Deputy and an Eccentric Recluse; a Few Seconds Later, Donald Scott Was Dead,” Los Angeles Times Magazine, Aug. 1, 1993; and Office of the District Attorney of Ventura, California, Report on the Death of Donald Scott (Ventura: Mar. 30, 1993), available at www.fear.org/chron/scott.txt. 57 Peter D.


pages: 475 words: 141,189

Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War by Mark Bowden

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friendly fire, jitney

To David's relief, most of the Malaysian and Pakistani officers spoke English. There was little argument or discussion. The Malaysian officers at first balked at removing their infantry from the APCs, but relented when David agreed to let each vehicle retain a Malaysian driver and gunner. The various units did not have radios that were compatible, so American radios had to be placed with all the vehicles. They worked out fire control procedures, steps to prevent friendly fire incidents, call signs, the route, and a host of other critical issues. David felt a sense of urgency, but not an overriding one. He knew there were critically injured soldiers at the first stash site for whom every minute was important. On the other hand, this convoy was it. If they screwed up, failed to reach the crash site, and got broken up or bogged down, who was going to come in and rescue them?


pages: 514 words: 153,274

The Cobweb by Neal Stephenson, J. Frederick George

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Ayatollah Khomeini, computer age, cuban missile crisis, friendly fire, illegal immigration, industrial robot, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, uranium enrichment, éminence grise

He had hardly slept in three days, since the ground war had been launched and Desiree’s unit had gone thundering forward into Iraq. Casualties were light. But earlier today he had seen a report that several members of Desiree’s division had been killed when they had hit a mine in their Humvee. They were medics who had been coming to the aid of an armored personnel carrier that had been struck by friendly fire. At least two of the dead medics were female. As soon as Clyde had heard this report, he had known in his heart that Desiree had been in that Humvee—probably driving it. That would be just like her. He had called the Pentagon hot line for families of servicepeople over and over, but it was always busy. Right now at least a couple of dozen Dhonts were awake around Forks County, hitting the auto redial buttons on their telephones, trying to get through.


pages: 613 words: 151,140

No Such Thing as Society by Andy McSmith

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, call centre, cuban missile crisis, Etonian, F. W. de Klerk, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, full employment, glass ceiling, greed is good, illegal immigration, index card, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, strikebreaker, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban decay, Winter of Discontent, young professional

I thought it was a deliberate counterattack against the mass of opinion of this country on the part of the pacifist, liberal wet establishment.’ Fellow Tory Sir John Biggs-Davison thought: ‘it was revolting for cringing clergy to misuse St Paul’s to throw doubt upon the sacrifices of our fighting men’.55 Mrs Thatcher’s government allowed no bad news stories from the Falklands to spoil the sweet taste of victory. It was essential, for instance, that no one should know that four of the British dead had been killed by ‘friendly fire’. On 6 June, as troops were landing on East Falkland, a Gazelle helicopter was dispatched to Goose Green to collect two passengers. Seven minutes later, it was shot down, killing everyone on board. An inquest held in Southampton in December was told that it had been hit by an Argentine missile. This was not true, as the Ministry of Defence well knew; fragments found at the scene showed that the fatal missile was a Sea Dart fired from HMS Cardiff The truth was quietly slipped out in answer to a written question in the Commons four years later.56 When the navy eventually held an inquiry in November 1986, it established that the helicopter did not have its identification system switched on, so the navy assumed, without checking, that it must be Argentinian.


pages: 525 words: 138,747

Love All the People: Letters, Lyrics, Routines by Bill Hicks

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friendly fire, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live

A hundred and fifty thousand. We had . . . seventy-nine. Does that mean if we had sent over eighty guys, we still woulda won this fucking thing, or what? One guy in a ticker-tape parade: ‘I did it! Hey! You’re welcome!’ ‘Good work, Tommy, how d’you do it?’ ‘I pulled up G12. It was in the catalogue. Worked like a charm.’ Seventy-nine. After we had a war – we killed 150,000 people, we lost seventy-nine, mostly to friendly fire – did those army commercials even need to be aired any more? ‘We’re the army and we’re looking for a few good – fuck, we got enough good men. Screw it! We need eighty of ya, that’s it. Eighty of ya and that weapons catalogue.’ Y’all are about to win the election as the worst fucking audience I’ve ever faced. Ever . . . ever . . . ever! S’all right. S’all right. No, listen folks. Here’s the deal.


pages: 390 words: 119,527

Armed Humanitarians by Nathan Hodge

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Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, European colonialism, failed state, friendly fire, IFF: identification friend or foe, Khyber Pass, kremlinology, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Potemkin village, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, walking around money

This aircraft was delivering Meals-Ready-to-Eat and water destined for a Pathfinder infantry unit. I was a piece of spare cargo, and things were off to a rough start. The night before the battalion crossed north into Iraq, its staging base in Camp Udairi, Kuwait, saw a real missile attack. Startled from their cots by a deafening crack, soldiers donned gas masks and climbed back in their sleeping bags. The all-clear sounded soon after over the camp loudspeakers. It was friendly fire. As it turned out, we had heard the impact of a U.S. Patriot missile smacking into a Royal Air Force GR4A Tornado fighter. The missile battery failed to pick up the aircraft’s IFF (identification friend or foe) beacon, an electronic signal that is supposed to prevent fratricide.1 Both crew members were killed. Word of the incident spread quickly, but although it occurred within earshot, I did not learn the full details until I heard about it from the BBC (a young company commander, better prepared than I, had remembered to pack a shortwave radio).


pages: 509 words: 153,061

The Gamble: General David Petraeus and the American Military Adventure in Iraq, 2006-2008 by Thomas E. Ricks

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amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Berlin Wall, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, friendly fire, interchangeable parts, open borders, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, traveling salesman

Looking back on it now from the United States, Wallace said, “I feel guilty. I keep thinking there were a hundred things I could have done to prevent it.” He is scheduled to return to Iraq in November of 2009. When Efflandt left the battalion in 2008, his officers memorialized his command tour in Iraq with a print of Gen. Meade at Gettysburg titled Stand and Fight It Out. Sporadic fighting would continue in Tarmiyah through that year, at one point leading to a friendly fire shootout between American soldiers and Iraqi soldiers and police, killing 6 of the Iraqis. BLACK THURSDAY As the surge intensified, with the majority of the additional brigades in country, the situation actually worsened. Thursday, April 12, stands as perhaps the toughest day of this period. The previous day, news had broken in Washington that three retired generals had turned town the job of coordinating Iraq policy for the White House.


pages: 402 words: 123,199

In the Company of Heroes by Michael J. Durant, Steven Hartov

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back-to-the-land, friendly fire, job satisfaction, placebo effect, Saturday Night Live, trade route, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

I twisted on the floor and tried to take cover as I heard the rushing scream of the next shell heading directly for my cell. Wham! I woke up in a cold sweat. It was dead silent except for Firimbi, snoring peacefully on his mat. I searched my body for fresh gaping wounds, then lay flat back and sucked air. The whole thing had been nothing but a nightmare. I guess I was a little stressed out. I thought I had been killed by friendly fire. Chapter 11 THE BIBLE October 9, 1993 On my seventh day as a prisoner of war, I found religion. It has often been said that there are no atheists in foxholes, meaning that even a nonbeliever will begin to pray when faced with his own mortality. But I had never been a Catholic of convenience who only prayed when times were tough. Admittedly, as a boy I’d attended church regularly with my family, while as an adult and full-time army helicopter pilot I had allowed that tradition to lapse.


pages: 566 words: 155,428

After the Music Stopped: The Financial Crisis, the Response, and the Work Ahead by Alan S. Blinder

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, financial innovation, fixed income, friendly fire, full employment, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, Kenneth Rogoff, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, McMansion, moral hazard, naked short selling, new economy, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, price mechanism, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, the payments system, time value of money, too big to fail, working-age population, yield curve, Yogi Berra

Republicans didn’t like that idea, either; it was more government spending, not tax cuts. And a third big piece would be aid to state and local governments, so they would not have to slash their payrolls and raise taxes as much. Republicans opposed that, too, claiming it would not stimulate the economy. (How come? Aren’t government jobs jobs?) And then there were the three Ts. Despite some external criticisms, including some friendly fire, the administration-in-waiting argued that the need for stimulus was likely to be far less temporary than in past recessions—after all, this one looked like a whopper, both very long and very deep. (Good point.) That thought, in turn, made infrastructure spending a more plausible candidate for stimulus. (Also a good point.) Even if the spend-out took two years, the economy would probably still need support in 2011.


pages: 348 words: 116,848

Joker One: A Marine Platoon's Story of Courage, Leadership, and Brotherhood by Donovan Campbell

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friendly fire

I knelt in the courtyard and tore the radio off of my back, frantically trying to roll the radio to the frequency of the Cobras so that I could talk to them directly. Suddenly Yebra was at my side. He knelt, grabbed the radio, and silently began fixing it. I was momentarily nonplussed. I knew Yebra shouldn’t be out here because he should have been confined to his bunk, recovering from dysentery and on bed rest. However, my worry about friendly fire was too great, so I shoved my concerns aside. Straightening, I stood back and let my RO start punching buttons. Suddenly, the distinctive pilots’ voices rang out from the handset, crystal clear. “Joker COC, this is Cobra One. We have one Marine position below us, marked with red smoke. Looks like there’s enemy in the house next door. We’re beginning a gun run now. Over.” I grabbed the handset back from Yebra, truly panicked now.


pages: 372 words: 111,573

10% Human: How Your Body's Microbes Hold the Key to Health and Happiness by Alanna Collen

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Asperger Syndrome, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Berlin Wall, biofilm, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, discovery of penicillin, Drosophila, Fall of the Berlin Wall, friendly fire, germ theory of disease, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, illegal immigration, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, Maui Hawaii, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, phenotype, placebo effect, the scientific method

This would make us return to that location – perhaps a fruit tree in our evolutionary past, or a particular bakery today – making us eat more, and consequently boosting that strain of bacterium, producing further chemicals and extra cravings. Back to the emerging impact of the immune system on the brain. When the body’s armed forces are put on high alert in anticipation of an attack, rogue bullets in the form of chemical messengers called cytokines whizz around, sometimes causing unnecessary damage. These cytokines get the soldiers of the immune system all worked up and primed to fight, but if there’s no enemy, friendly fire is all that’s left. Depression doesn’t seem to be the only neurological outcome of this immune bellicosity. People suffering with many of the other mental health disorders I’ve mentioned already also show signs of immune overactivity, known as inflammation. ADHD, OCD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and even Parkinson’s disease and dementia appear to involve an immune overreaction. Adding beneficial bacteria to the gut, as with the people in the French clinical trial, has a calming effect on the immune system.


pages: 473 words: 156,146

They Gave Me a Seafire by Commander R 'Mike' Crosley Dsc Rn

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friendly fire, IFF: identification friend or foe, Isaac Newton, traveling salesman

We kept going downhill towards the glow. Coming round a corner at the bottom, we saw a brilliant bonfire. It turned out to be the rum store. Rum was pouring down the walls and windows, and, being already mixed with the right amount of water from the fire hoses, made a nice drink. So we settled down to a few grogs, our Petty Officer having gone off to find us some damage to control. We enjoyed ourselves, warmed by the friendly fire, and watching the sparks fly skywards as the grog slid smoothly down our throats. After about six doubles and when the Gosport fire brigade had put out the fire, we wound our way back to St. Vincent, the happiest bunch of neo-sailors that had ever been on Damage Control and only just in control of ourselves, too, as we came through the gates under the suspicious eye of the Duty Chief Petty Officer.


pages: 385 words: 115,697

The Forever War by Dexter Filkins

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friendly fire, Khyber Pass, Thomas L Friedman

They were shooting at us, the marines and me and Ash, but we were moving and now we were at the city limits, where the streets opened onto a big, flat plain of brush and trash, abruptly, just like a movie set. End of town. So where did the insurgents go? They were dead, under the rubble, that’s where they were. Buried. Vaporized. Ground to dust. “Have you ever seen what a 2,000 -pound bomb does to a person?” an American officer asked me once, not really bragging because in this case the victims had been American soldiers. Friendly fire, Afghanistan, five guys. “We put the remains in a sandwich bag,” he said. Still, it was a curiosity that we had seen so few bodies. The generals were reporting hundreds of dead, thousands even, we knew that from the radio, but we weren’t seeing many. You’d think by then we would have seen an arm. A head. Like in the suicide bombings in Baghdad. So I’d been rolling it over, the lack of bodies, considering the explanations: the Muslims bury their dead very quickly; it’s a religious thing.

The America That Reagan Built by J. David Woodard

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, friendly fire, glass ceiling, global village, Gordon Gekko, gun show loophole, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, postindustrial economy, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Ted Kaczynski, The Predators' Ball, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, Y2K, young professional

The American troops had been told that the Russian-made T-72 tank was almost unbeatable, but in actual combat it was no match for the M1A1 Abrams. Early in the morning of February 26, 1991, Lieutenant Colonel Pat Ritter’s battalion encountered one of the best Republican Guard units at a map location known as 73 Easting. The Americans took hits on their lightly armored Bradley fighting vehicles, and some of it was later shown to be ‘‘friendly fire’’ from American units. But the Iraqis suffered casualties like in a horror movie. After the battle, the Americans found fifteen T-72 tanks, eleven armored fighting vehicles, an anti-aircraft gun, and four tanks all burning from direct hits.34 After several such encounters, Saddam issued a general retreat order to save as much of his army as fast as he could. When U.S. commanders heard that the enemy was pulling out, F-15 planes turned the road from Kuwait City to Basra into ‘‘the highway of death.’’

One Bullet Away: The Making of a Marine Officer by Fick, Nathaniel C.(October 3, 2005) Hardcover by Nathaniel C. Fick

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clean water, defense in depth, double helix, friendly fire, John Nash: game theory, Khyber Pass, Silicon Valley

Marines walked up to them, and the hajis dropped their white flag and pulled AKs out from under their robes. Ten minutes later, some fucker was shooting at us with a rifle in one hand and a little girl in the other. My guys are trying to do the right thing, but I don’t want to get them fucking killed in the process. There’s a bunch of dead Marines on the road in town. You’ll see ’em when we roll through.” “What happened?” “Depends who you ask. RPG ambush. Friendly fire from an A-10. Hell if I know.” We had spent the day making veterans. Most of the Marine Corps had gone ten years without a real fight. I hoped we were up the steep part of the learning curve already. General Mattis had told us to survive the first five days in combat, the most dangerous days. That left four more. Just a day before, Marines talked about this being a repeat of the hundred-hour war.


pages: 475 words: 149,310

Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

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affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, conceptual framework, David Graeber, Defenestration of Prague, deskilling, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, global village, Howard Rheingold, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, land tenure, late capitalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, new economy, private military company, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Richard Stallman, Slavoj Žižek, The Chicago School, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, transaction costs, union organizing, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus

War thus becomes virtual from the technological point of view and bodyless from the military point of view; the bodies of U.S. soldiers are kept free of risk, the enemy combatants are killed efficiently and invisibly.63 There are, however, significant and growing contradictions in this technologist view of war associated with the RMA. First, at the simple level of fact, one has to question whether this ideology of war corresponds to reality. Doubts are raised, for example, by the continuing high level of “collateral damage” (when will they manage to perfect the technology?), the disproportionate number of U.S. and Allied troops lost to “friendly fire” (when will they better coordinate the information and command structures?), and the unending problems military forces face while conducting the “democratic transition” that follows after “regime change” (when will they train the army better in the social, political, and cultural tasks of nation building?). To what extent is all that even possible? Eventually, as such contradictions persist and accumulate, the ideology will become increasingly difficult to maintain.


pages: 1,800 words: 596,972

The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East by Robert Fisk

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Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, friendly fire, Howard Zinn, IFF: identification friend or foe, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, music of the spheres, Ronald Reagan, the market place, Thomas L Friedman, Transnistria, unemployed young men, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

Mechanized Infantry Division, the brief moment of compassion which this engendered probably had more to do with guilty consciences over Western inaction towards the Iraqi insurgents than it did with the enormous loss of human life that it represented.143 Only later would we learn some less heroic truths about the liberation of Kuwait. The Americans, it transpired, dropped nearly as many tons of bombs each day as were dropped on Germany and Japan daily during the Second World War. Of the 148 U.S. servicemen killed, 35—almost one-quarter—had lost their lives to “friendly fire” from other American forces.144 The non-partisan U.S. General Accounting Office would subsequently state that the Pentagon and its military contractors made claims for the precision of their Stealth fighter jets, Tomahawk cruise missiles and laser-guided “smart bombs” that were “overstated, misleading, inconsistent with the best available data or unverifiable.” The supposedly “invisible” Stealth achieved only around a 40 per cent success rate on bombing runs, while only 8 per cent of the bomb tonnage dropped on Iraqi targets were “smart” or guided munitions.

A day later, the American National Gulf War Resource Center, a coalition of U.S. veterans’ groups, announced that as many as 40,000 American servicemen might have been exposed to depleted uranium dust on the battlefield. In October 1998, Phil Garner telephoned me to ask how he could make contact with the doctors treating Iraq’s child cancer victims. He had been reading my reports on the growing evidence of links between cancers and depleted uranium shells. During the 1991 Gulf War, Garner was in the British Royal Army Medical Corps. He wasn’t in the front lines, but he handled the uniforms of Britain’s “friendly fire” casualties, men who were accidentally attacked by U.S. aircraft that were using depleted-uranium rounds. And now he was suffering from asthma, incontinence, pain in the intestines, and had a lump on the right side of his neck. What does this mean? I knew all about these lumps. I had seen them on the necks of the Iraqi children. In Basra again, I watch the anguish of a parent. “Oxygen, for God’s sake get some oxygen—my son is dying.”

Chapter Sixteen: Betrayal 646 “Rise to save the homeland”: See Middle East Reporter (Beirut), 25 February 1991, p. 4, “Iraqis Urged to Revolt, Save Country from Dictatorship, War.” 647 the Iraqis had tried to jam: See Middle East Reporter (Beirut), 4 January 1991, “Anti-Saddam Radio Believed Jammed.” 647 “the allies to liberate Iraq”: Interview with Haidar al-Assadi, Beirut, 3 May 1998. 649 Iraqi dead at up to 150,000: Middle East Reporter (Beirut), 1 March 1991. 649 had claimed that 26,000 Iraqis: Jumhouri-y Islami (Tehran), 19 February 1991, cited by Dilip Hiro in letter to The Independent, 8 February 1992. 649 When a Pentagon source: Newsday, 12 September 1991, cited by Hiro, as above. 650 dropped nearly as many tons: International Herald Tribune, 10 July 1996, quoting New York Times article by Tim Weiner, “Smart Arms in Gulf War Are Found Overrated.” 650 “35—almost one-quarter”: Associated Press report from Washington, 13 August 1991, “Gulf Friendly Fire Casualties Rise,” by Susanne M. Chafer. 650 The independent U.S. General Accounting Office: See International Herald Tribune, 10 July 1996, op. cit. 650 In fact, as Seymour Hersh: New Yorker, 26 September 1994, pp. 86–99, “Missile Wars,” by Seymour Hersh, esp. p. 92. (n.) 650 Timothy McVeigh, a promising young soldier: Reuters report in Irish Times, 3 June 1997. 652 All of this I duly reported: See Independent, 27 March 1991.


pages: 1,208 words: 364,966

Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War by Robert Fisk

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airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, friendly fire, haute couture, Mikhail Gorbachev, open economy, Ronald Reagan, Yom Kippur War

In west Beirut, we had seen Israeli troops stealing property from houses near the airport; video players, radios, televisions. When I accompanied a British citizen back to the home he had abandoned during fighting near Chatila, we found that the Israeli troops billeted in his house had smeared Hebrew graffiti on the walls with excrement. Examples of Israeli indiscipline were matched by evidence of their incompetence. Twenty per cent of their casualties during the 1982 invasion, it now emerged, had been caused by ‘friendly fire’, by their own rifles, tanks and aircraft. US officials were quoted as describing the Israeli army as ‘an inept, undisciplined horde’.* Even the Israeli air force had managed to kill 34 of its own soldiers in an air attack in the Bekaa Valley.† In Israel, the police discovered that 4,000 hand grenades, 300 Galil rifles, 200 M-16 rifles, seven bazookas, 45 light mortars and two heavy machine-guns had been filched from Israeli army stores in Lebanon and were presumed to be in private Israeli hands.‡ Israeli troops were found leaving Lebanon with hashish bought in the Bekaa.

But the resistance overwhelmed entire platoons of Lahd’s ‘South Lebanon Army’ and the Israelis were still keeping hundreds of occupation troops in the far south of Lebanon in 1990. * Obeid was to be kidnapped from his Jibchit home by Israeli troops in July 1989, an abduction which led to the murder of American UN hostage Col. William Higgins and a death threat against a second US captive. * See the conservative Washington Times, 27 August 1984: ‘Israeli "ineptitude" blamed for “friendly fire” casualties’. † I learned this quite by accident. Studying a list of Israeli military awards for the 1982 invasion, I noticed medals for courage under air attack. Dr Moshe Daniel, an Israeli army battalion medical officer, for example, received a citation from the Israeli chief of staff for treating and evacuating wounded Israelis after an air strike south of Lake Karaoun on 10 June 1982 (Awards ‘for service above and beyond the call of duty’, published Israel, 30 March 1983).


pages: 795 words: 212,447

Dead or Alive by Tom Clancy, Grant (CON) Blackwood

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affirmative action, air freight, airport security, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Benoit Mandelbrot, defense in depth, failed state, friendly fire, Google Earth, Panamax, post-Panamax, Skype, uranium enrichment, urban sprawl

The bathrooms are fore and aft, and they’re marked with pictures if you’re too dumb to read. Dumbing down society was happening in Canada, too. A pity, John thought. Unless United flew only American citizens. The flight was grossly ordinary, with nary a bump, taking hardly an hour before they touched down at O’Hare, named for a World War Two naval aviator who’d won the Medal of Honor before getting splashed, probably by friendly fire, which could kill you just as dead as the other sort. Clark wondered how hard it was for the pilot to find the right jetway, but then he’d probably made this flight before, maybe a hundred times. Now came the hard part, John realized. Where was Hadi going, and could he bag a seat on the same flight? A pity he couldn’t just ask the bastard. He had to go through immigration, because America had gotten serious about controlling who came into the country.


pages: 826 words: 231,966

GCHQ by Richard Aldrich

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Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, cuban missile crisis, friendly fire, illegal immigration, index card, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, New Journalism, packet switching, private military company, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, University of East Anglia, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

Their initial assault surprised five men who had returned to bed in one of the apartments after early-morning prayers. While they were being taken out at gunpoint, sympathisers in the adjacent apartment threw a grenade at the intelligence officers. A gun battle developed, and those inside hurled more grenades at the authorities.19 Terrified neighbours called the local police, who were unaware of the super-secret activities of the ISI. In the ensuing confusion twenty policemen were injured, many by friendly fire.20 Ramzi Binalshibh was among those captured. In the spring of 2003 an intercepted email led to the arrest of Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, who was very close to bin Laden, and had been a key figure in the planning of the 9/11 attacks.21 He was arrested at a house in Rawalpindi in a joint operation by ISI and the CIA’s paramilitary force, the Special Activities Division,22 and taken to one of the CIA’s secret prisons in northern Poland, where the US government has confirmed that he was repeatedly subjected to ‘simulated drowning’, or ‘waterboarding’.


pages: 546 words: 176,169

The Cold War by Robert Cowley

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doomsday Clock, friendly fire, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, transcontinental railway

The latest versions used in Korea, the F4U-5 and AG-1, were armed with four 20mm cannon, carried over five thousand pounds of bombs and rockets, and could absorb extremely high levels of damage. Their marine pilots delivered the mail quickly, spectacularly, and with what seemed like millimetric accuracy. Over half their strikes were within a half mile of the front lines. This was in sharp contrast to an air force whose difficulties with air–ground coordination resulted in numerous cases of friendly fire, the most notable being the napalming of a British battalion on September 23, 1950. Air support for MacArthur's end-run amphibious landing at Inchon was a marine-and-navy show—and a showcase. The newly organized 1st Marine Division and its army stablemate, the 7th Division, enjoyed air power à la carte. Ground-control parties could summon almost at will Corsairs and Skyraiders already in orbit with full combat loads.


pages: 736 words: 210,277

1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War by Benny Morris

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Albert Einstein, British Empire, family office, friendly fire, illegal immigration

The attackers ran the risk of British interference but claimed that they were retaliating for a Jewish attack on a bus. On io February 1948, about iSo Arabs poured out of the Old City and attacked the Yemin Moshe neighborhood to the west, across the Vale of Hinnom. They were protected by covering fire from the city walls. The Haganah, eventually aided by British troops, beat them off. Sixteen Arabs died and dozens were wounded (some by friendly fire); the Jews suffered one dead and five wounded.135 Attacks by Arab irregulars on rural settlements also began in early December 1947. On 4 December a band of 120-150 gunmen from Salame attacked Ef al, a small kibbutz northeast of Tel Aviv. The settlers, helped by Palmah reinforcements, beat them off. A more forceful attack was launched on 27 December against nearby Kfar Yavetz by militiamen from Qalansuwa and Taiyiba.


pages: 685 words: 203,949

The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload by Daniel J. Levitin

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airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anton Chekhov, big-box store, business process, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive bias, complexity theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Eratosthenes, Exxon Valdez, framing effect, friendly fire, fundamental attribution error, Golden Gate Park, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, impulse control, index card, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, invention of writing, iterative process, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, life extension, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, pre–internet, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, Skype, Snapchat, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Turing test, ultimatum game

AVERAGE SLEEP NEEDS Age Needed sleep Newborns (0–2 months) 12–18 hours Infants (3–11 months) 14–15 hours Toddlers (1–3 years) 12–14 hours Preschoolers (3–5 years) 11–13 hours Children (5–10 years) 10–11 hours Preteens and Teenagers (10–17) 8 1/2–9 1/4 hours Adults 6–10 hours One out of every three working Americans gets less than six hours’ sleep per night, well below the recommended range noted above. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) declared sleep deprivation a public health epidemic in 2013. The prevailing view until the 1990s was that people could adapt to chronic sleep loss without adverse cognitive effects, but newer research clearly says otherwise. Sleepiness was responsible for 250,000 traffic accidents in 2009, and is one of the leading causes of friendly fire—soldiers mistakenly shooting people on their own side. Sleep deprivation was ruled to be a contributing factor in some of the most well-known global disasters: the nuclear power plant disasters at Chernobyl (Ukraine), Three Mile Island (Pennsylvania), Davis-Besse (Ohio), and Rancho Seco (California); the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez; the grounding of the cruise ship Star Princess; and the fatal decision to launch the Challenger space shuttle.


pages: 780 words: 168,782

Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century by Christian Caryl

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, financial deregulation, financial independence, friendly fire, full employment, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet Archive, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, Yom Kippur War

At the Lubyanka, the KGB headquarters on Dzerzhinsky Square in Moscow,28 Andropov opted for a break with tradition. In the years before, the Soviet secret police had made a tradition of honoring operatives who lost their lives in the line of duty by hanging portraits of them in the buildings corridor’s. But the chaotic assault on Amin’s palace had taken the lives of at least one hundred members of the KGB’s elite commando squad; some of them, even more embarrassingly, were casualties of friendly fire. Andropov decided that such a large number of mourning portraits would draw unwanted attention to the losses. So the deaths of the men went unremarked by their comrades. It was a fitting portent of the squalid war to come.29 20 Solidarity On August 7, 1980, her bosses fired Anna Walentynowicz from her job at the Lenin Shipyard in the Polish city of Gdańsk. Walentynowicz was not a run-of-the-mill shipyard laborer.


pages: 834 words: 180,700

The Architecture of Open Source Applications by Amy Brown, Greg Wilson

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8-hour work day, anti-pattern, bioinformatics, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, Debian, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, Firefox, friendly fire, linked data, load shedding, locality of reference, loose coupling, Mars Rover, MVC pattern, premature optimization, recommendation engine, revision control, side project, Skype, slashdot, social web, speech recognition, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, WebSocket

Doing so brings these resources to the surface, allowing them to be used subsequently to build and ultimately expand the player's grip on the universe. Implemented in some rulesets, the Attack order allows a player to explicitly initiate combat with an enemy Fleet or Planet, fulfilling the final 4X imperative (exterminate). In team-based rulesets, the inclusion of a distinct Attack order (as opposed to simply using Move and Intercept to implicitly attack targets) is important to avoid friendly fire and to coordinate attacks. Since the Thousand Parsec framework requires ruleset developers to define their own order types, it is possible—even encouraged—for them to think outside the box and create custom orders not found elsewhere. The ability to pack extra data into any object allows developers to do very interesting things with custom order types. 21.1.3. Resources Resources are extra pieces of data that are packed into Objects in the game.

May We Be Forgiven by A. M. Homes

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anti-communist, Burning Man, dumpster diving, friendly fire, if you build it, they will come, Mason jar, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea

At the road, we’re met by two unmarked cars that escort us back to the deployment area. I get out. Someone hands me a bottle of eyewash. The first thing I see when my eyes are clear is the dented hood, ripped fender, a crack in the windshield, and blood. Walter Penny comes over to me, looks at the car, and takes a white claim form from his manila folder. “I always keep a few of these with me. It’s a government claim form, same for an auto accident as if you’re killed by friendly fire. The government is self-insured—one form for everything. But here’s the thing,” he says, dangling the form. “It only works if you were at the wheel. Did you drive yourself out?” Confused, I look around. The soldier has vanished. “Did you drive yourself out of the woods?” Walter asks again. “Apparently,” I say. “Alone?” “Guess so,” I say, plucking the form from Walter’s fingers. “Then you can use it for your car and your person.”

The Washington Connection and Third World Fascism by Noam Chomsky

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anti-communist, business climate, colonial rule, declining real wages, deliberate practice, European colonialism, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, land reform, land tenure, new economy, RAND corporation, strikebreaker, union organizing

I could not, of course, reach every village. But in each of the many places where I went, the testimony was the same: 100 killed here, 200 killed there. One old man summed up all the stories: “The Americans killed some VC but only a small number. But of civilians, there were a large number killed...” Buckley’s notes add further detail. In the single month of March, the Ben Tre hospital reported 343 people wounded by “friendly” fire as compared with 25 by “the enemy.” And as a U.S. pacification official noted, “Many people who were wounded died on the way to the hospitals,” or were treated elsewhere (at home, in VC hospitals or ARVN dispensaries). And, of course, unknown numbers were simply killed outright. Buckley’s actual citation about the “perhaps as many as 5,000 deaths” is that of a senior pacification official who estimated that “at least 5,000” of those killed “were what we refer to as non-combatants”—to which we may add that the “combatants,” who are considered fair game in most U.S. reporting and historical analysis, were of course also South Vietnamese attempting to resist the overwhelming power of a foreign enemy.


pages: 1,199 words: 332,563

Golden Holocaust: Origins of the Cigarette Catastrophe and the Case for Abolition by Robert N. Proctor

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bioinformatics, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, facts on the ground, friendly fire, germ theory of disease, index card, Indoor air pollution, information retrieval, invention of gunpowder, John Snow's cholera map, language of flowers, life extension, New Journalism, optical character recognition, pink-collar, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, speech recognition, stem cell, telemarketer, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Upton Sinclair, Yogi Berra

General Sherman raided the stocks of several tobacconists in his famous march to the sea, and when northerners came to like what they’d smoked, requests were sent down south for further supplies. Tobacco manufacturing shifted northward as a result, especially to New York, where dandies were eager to try new cultural fashions. World War I was another crucial turning point in the rise of the cigarette. The fighting dragged on for years, and many a long night in the trenches was warmed by the friendly fire of fags.2 Cigarettes were also a distinctly war-friendly form of smoke. Easy to light and quick to finish, they were conveniently smoked while standing, marching, or even (sometimes) shooting. And they didn’t require that extra burden or distraction of the pipe. Thousands of soldiers etched their enthusiasm for smoke into ornately carved tobacco boxes and lighters, born from boredom in the trenches.


pages: 1,118 words: 309,029

The Wars of Afghanistan by Peter Tomsen

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airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce

The American CIA and Special Forces assigned to Gul Agha’s offensive on Kandahar from the south may have heard about his reputation for corruption, repression, and drug trafficking. An Associated Press article examining his time in office before the Taliban reported that “Kandahar was so lawless that people there welcomed the Taliban, whose ruthless ways restored order.”67 The Taliban asked Hamid Karzai for permission to come to Shah Wali Kot to discuss surrender terms. Only hours before the Taliban delegation arrived, on the morning of December 5, a “friendly fire” 2,000-pound bomb exploded near Karzai’s command post outside Kandahar. The errant bomb killed three U.S. Special Forces troops and about fifty Afghans, many of them Karzai’s tribals who had been with him since the beginning of the Tarinkot campaign. Karzai suffered a flesh wound on his cheek caused by flying glass. Amerine was flown to Germany with a serious ear injury and shrapnel wounds in his leg.


pages: 1,117 words: 305,620

Dirty Wars: The World Is a Battlefield by Jeremy Scahill

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air freight, anti-communist, blood diamonds, business climate, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, failed state, friendly fire, Google Hangouts, indoor plumbing, Islamic Golden Age, land reform, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, private military company, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, WikiLeaks

As the situation in Afghanistan deteriorated and the Taliban and other insurgent groups gained ground, a stunning scandal rocked the US military and the Special Ops community that would ultimately lead to the resignation and retirement of General McChrystal, one of the architects of the post-9/11 US killing machine. But his demise had nothing to do with any of his actions with JSOC in Iraq or his involvement in covering up the friendly-fire death of Pat Tillman, the former NFL player turned Army Ranger in Afghanistan in 2004 or his role in transforming JSOC into a global hit squad. Instead, McChrystal was brought down by an article in Rolling Stone magazine written by Michael Hastings that captured McChrystal and his inner circle making disparaging remarks about President Obama, Vice President Biden and other top US civilian officials.


pages: 1,145 words: 310,655

1967: Israel, the War, and the Year That Transformed the Middle East by Tom Segev

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, distributed generation, friendly fire, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, invisible hand, open borders, Ronald Reagan, Yom Kippur War, young professional

The conquest of the West Bank, Narkis said, would fulfill the command’s “deep longings.” But Dayan denied Narkis permission to take over the Old City— “that Vatican,” he called it—and ordered that it be encircled instead.16 By June 6, the war in Jerusalem had claimed dozens of lives. In battles for the Jordanian officers’ school and a fortified target known as Ammunition Hill, not far from the border, many soldiers had died. Some were killed by friendly fire: they were mistakenly targeted by the air force. Narkis wrote, “It is very easy to make such mistakes.” He put more pressure on the General Staff, saying that Israel would have only itself to blame if the Wall remained in Jordanian hands.17 King Hussein requested a cease-fire, even begged for one. Ambassador Barbour sent the Foreign Ministry the four telegrams he had received from Amman, the first at 5:25 that morning.

The Dream Machine: J.C.R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal by M. Mitchell Waldrop

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Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Apple II, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, fault tolerance, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, John von Neumann, Menlo Park, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pink-collar, popular electronics, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Wiener process

and certification in Montana; in the rush to get them ready for use, squadron officials ended up overriding such key safety features as the multiple-key system, which meant that the mis- siles could have been launched by one person, acting on his own initiative. And there was the "intruder" detected in the middle of the night at Yolk Field in Wisconsin, resulting in a series of alarms that the crews interpreted as the signal to scramble their nuclear-armed F-I06 inter- ceptors. With the air full of B-52s circling on full alert, and the interceptors expecting to find Soviet bombers, the result might well have been nuclear friendly fire over U.S. soil. The F-I06s stood down only after an officer drove out onto the airstrip and got their attention by flashing his car lights; the "intruder" had turned out to be a bear. THE PHENOMENA SURROUNDING COMPUTERS 219 Nonetheless, says Fano, all the arrows kept pointing his way. Information theory wasn't so very far from computing, after all. He'd served on the Long Range Planning Committee.

Executive Orders by Tom Clancy

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affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, card file, defense in depth, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, experimental subject, financial independence, friendly fire, Monroe Doctrine, out of africa, Own Your Own Home, Plutocrats, plutocrats, rolodex, South China Sea, trade route

The Inter-Vehicle Information System was a data-link network the Army had been playing with for about five years. It had never been tested in combat, and it pleased Al Hamm that he would be the first to prove its worth. His command screens in the M4 got everything. Each single vehicle was both a source and a recipient of information. It began by telling everybody where all friendly units were, which, with GPS location equipment, was accurate to the meter, and that was supposed to prevent blue-on-blue “friendly fire” losses. At the touch of a key, Hamm knew the location of every fighting vehicle he had, plotted on a map which showed all relevant terrain features. In time he would have a similarly accurate picture of enemy dispositions, and with the knowledge of everyone's location came the option to pick his spots. The Saudi 2nd and 5th Brigades were to his northwest, coming down from the Kuwaiti border area.


pages: 1,773 words: 486,685

Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century by Geoffrey Parker

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agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Defenestration of Prague, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, friendly fire, Google Earth, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, Mercator projection, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Republic of Letters, South China Sea, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, World Values Survey

At this point his ruler taunts him: ‘Thou wast the first of my kingdom, and commander of all my forces’ – Fairfax's translation deviated from the original so that it matched his own position – ‘but hath mad thy selfe soe vile and contemptable as the very children mock att thee’. Fairfax remained in secluded retirement until his death in 1671.19 Similar sentiments afflicted Manchu Bannerman Dzengšeo, when he witnessed a ‘friendly fire’ incident on his way home after a tough but ultimately victorious campaign against the Three Feudatories (see chapter 5 above), mostly fought in mountains and jungle, often in torrential rain. The death of comrades profoundly upset him, and that night he recorded in his diary: ‘In my heart I was frightened and, to keep myself safe, I pondered: “I have served on a military campaign for ten years, and have not lost my life in battle.”’