Internet of things

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pages: 322 words: 84,752

Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day

Moreover, there’s no guarantee that you will have access to the data about your behavior. Putting the Civic into the Internet of Things, Domestically In this day and age, you either set the technology standards or you follow them. Many brilliant civic projects provide governance through the open, considered, and deliberate use of the internet. So we need an internet of things that allows expression and experimentation. Brett Frischmann makes this same argument in Infrastructure: all public works like the internet of things should be open and nondiscriminatory.25 We need to make sure the internet of things is designed for civic engagement. These days, it’s normal for civil-society groups to have an internet strategy or a social-media strategy. Are such groups ready with a strategy for the internet of things? Authoritarian regimes and unscrupulous politicians who stay in character will throw bots into the internet to obscure issues and muddy public opinion.

In the second chapter, I analyze the important developments in technology and politics during what I call the internet interregnum: the period after the collapse of the Soviet Union in which our internet grew from a network of computers into a network of mobile phones. The next internet, the internet of things, is going to allow us to draw even more nuanced maps of the most meaningful social networks. In the third chapter I map out some of the new relationships among people, data, and the internet of things. Chapter four moves from observations and examples to the conservative generalizations we can make about technology diffusion and political communication. In this chapter I offer five basic premises about how we use the internet in politics, and it is important because these premises render the likely consequences of the internet of things. In the fifth chapter I explore five reasonable political consequences of the emerging world order, this pax technica. What are the political consequences of an internet of things? The pax technica is not a guarantee of peace so much as a sociotechnical structure for political life, and in the sixth chapter I identify the major challenges to the stability of the evolving internet of things.

We are entering a period of global political life that will be profoundly shaped by how political actors use the internet of things. Indeed, the internet of things will define, express, and contain this period. The capacities and constraints of political life have often been shaped by technological innovation—and vice versa. Technology and politics have an impact on each other and on how current events and future prospects should be situated in the context of the recent past. More devices come online each month, and progressively more people are connected through these digital networks. Now almost every aspect of human security depends on digital media and this internet of things. Responsibility for creating this internet of things still rests with all of us. We use social media, and few of us are diligent about maintaining our privacy.


pages: 138 words: 40,787

The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things by Daniel Kellmereit, Daniel Obodovski

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3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, connected car, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Freestyle chess, Google X / Alphabet X, Internet of things, Network effects, Paul Graham, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, software as a service, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator, yield management

Chapter 3 looks into the future of M2M and the Internet of Things and focuses on what this brave new world may look like. We ask some provocative questions: What role will humans play when a lot of decision-making is done by machines, and might humans ever become a bottleneck to realizing the Internet of Things vision? We also take a peek at what the ubiquitous connectivity between various devices may look like in real terms. Chapter 4 is dedicated to the core industries of M2M. We picked connected cities, connected homes, connected health care, and connected cars. While these areas do not cover all the aspects of M2M (not even close), they do offer great examples of the impact Machine-to-Machine technology will have. We also hope this overview will help readers discover new areas for M2M and the Internet of Things on their own.

~ Bill Gates We made a point in chapter 1 that the exponential growth of the Internet of Things is going to have a profound effect on our lives over the next five to ten years. If we are correct, the quote above that opens Bill Gates’s book Business @ the Speed of Thought: Succeeding in the Digital Economy,15 written over a decade ago, seems to be more relevant today than ever. However, we decided to start this chapter with a provocative question: Will humans ever become a decision bottleneck in the Internet of Things? Considering how much decision-making ability has already been given to machines and how much more is going to go that way, and considering the speed at which information flows from sensors and devices to the cloud, will humans be able to comprehend? Are humans the major limiting factor in the development of the Internet of Things today? And, more importantly, will humans be able to cope with all this information?

CONCLUSION You have just finished reading The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things, a book that took us more than a year and a half to write. Quite a few things have changed in that time because the space has been growing so fast. Some of the things we viewed as hypotheses at the beginning became proven, companies merged, new entrants came in, and there have also been several successful exits for investors in this space. All these events point to the rapid growth of the Internet of Things, as more opportunities emerge and more companies jump on the M2M bandwagon. M2M is impossible to deny or ignore — it’s here to stay, and it will change our lives and the ways we do business in more profound ways than we can even imagine today. The impact of the Internet of Things will be comparable to that of the Web in the ’90s, but some think it will be more like the impact of the Industrial Revolution.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, Zipcar

The coming together of the Communications Internet with the fledgling Energy Internet and Logistics Internet in a seamless twenty-first-century intelligent infrastructure—the Internet of Things (IoT)—is giving rise to a Third Industrial Revolution. The Internet of Things is already boosting productivity to the point where the marginal cost of producing many goods and services is nearly zero, making them practically free. The result is corporate profits are beginning to dry up, property rights are weakening, and an economy based on scarcity is slowly giving way to an economy of abundance. The Internet of Things The Internet of Things will connect every thing with everyone in an integrated global network. People, machines, natural resources, production lines, logistics networks, consumption habits, recycling flows, and virtually every other aspect of economic and social life will be linked via sensors and software to the IoT platform, continually feeding Big Data to every node—businesses, homes, vehicles—moment to moment, in real time.

Evans and Marco Annunziata, “Industrial Internet: Pushing the Boundaries of Minds and Machines,” General Electric, November 26, 2012, http://www.ge.com/sites/default/files /Industrial_Internet.pdf, 4 (accessed January 5, 2013). 14. Ibid., 24. 15. “The Internet of Things Business Index: A Quiet Revolution Gathers Pace,” The Economist Intelligence Unit (2013), 10, http://www.arm.com/files/pdf/EIU_Internet_Business_Index_WEB .PDF (accessed October 29, 2013). 16. Ibid. 17. “The Difference Engine: Chattering Objects,” Economist (August 13, 2010), http://www.econo mist.com/blogs/babbage/2010/08/internet_things (accessed September 5, 2013). 18. Ibid. 19. Ibid. 20. Ibid. 21. “Conclusions of the Internet of Things Public Consultation,” Digital Agenda for Europe, A Europe 2020 Initiative, February 28, 2013, http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/news/conclu sions-internet-things-public-consultation (accessed March 21, 2013). 22. “Internet of Things Factsheet Privacy and Security: IoT Privacy, Data Protection, Information Security,” Digital Agenda for Europe, A Europe 2020 Initiative (February 28, 2013): 1, http://ec.europa.eu/digital-agenda/en/news/conclusions-internet-things-public-consultation (accessed March 21. 2013). 23.

Big Data, in turn, will be processed with advanced analytics, transformed into predictive algorithms, and programmed into automated systems to improve thermodynamic efficiencies, dramatically increase productivity, and reduce the marginal cost of producing and delivering a full range of goods and services to near zero across the entire economy. The Internet of Things European Research Cluster, a body set up by the European Commission, the executive body of the European Union, to help facilitate the transition into the new era of “ubiquitous computing,” has mapped out some of the myriad ways the Internet of Things is already being deployed to connect the planet in a distributed global network. The IoT is being introduced across industrial and commercial sectors. Companies are installing sensors all along the commercial corridor to monitor and track the flow of goods and services.

Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low skilled workers, millennium bug, pattern recognition, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, web application, WebRTC, WebSocket, Y2K

Industry 4.0 The Industrial Internet of Things ― Alasdair Gilchrist INDUSTRY 4.0 THE INDUSTRIAL INTERNET OF THINGS Alasdair Gilchrist Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things Alasdair Gilchrist Bangken, Nonthaburi Thailand ISBN-13 (pbk): 978-1-4842-2046-7 ISBN-13 (electronic): 978-1-4842-2047-4 DOI 10.1007/978-1-4842-2047-4 Library of Congress Control Number: 2016945031 Copyright © 2016 by Alasdair Gilchrist This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed.

However this book focuses on the largest vertical © Alasdair Gilchrist 2016 A. Gilchrist, Industry 4.0, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4842-2047-4_1 2 Chapter 1 | Introduction to the Industrial Internet of them all, the Industrial Internet of Things, which encompasses a vast amount of disciplines such as energy production, manufacturing, agriculture, health care, retail, transportation, logistics, aviation, space travel and many more. Figure 1-1. Horizontal and vertical aspects of the Internet of Things In this book to avoid confusion we will follow GE’s lead and use the name Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) as a generic term except where we are dealing with conceptually and strategically different paradigms, in which case it will be explicitly referred to by its name, such as Industry 4.0. Many industrial leaders forecast that the Industrial Internet will deliver unprecedented levels of growth and productivity over the next decade.

ICS, 185 PCL and DCS, 187–188 physical and behavioral security, 186 ping devices, 185 PLC, 183 Profibus, and Profinet, 189 system level, 190 VHF radio equipment, 192 VLAN network, 189 Y2K bug, 185 smartphones, 45 Ukraine power, 180 Wireless communication technology, 38 Industrial Internet. See Industrial internet of things (IIoT) Industrial operations technology (IOT), 1–2, 183 Industrial internet architecture framework (IIAF), 67 Industrial internet consortium (IIC), 66 Industrial internet of things (IIoT) B2C, 2 Big Data, 3, 5 building’s energy efficiency, 20 business gains, 3 catalysts and precursors adequately skilled and trained staff, 6 innovation, commitment to, 6 security, 7 cloud-computing model, 6 commercial market, 1 consumer market, 1 digital and human workforce, 11 digital twin, 11 green house gas emissions, 19 heath care, 14 Industry 4.0, 2 innovation, 7 installing sensors and actuators, 20 intelligent devices, 8 IOT, 1–2 IOT, disadvantages, 20 247 248 Index Industrial internet of things (IIoT) (cont.) IOT6 Smart Office, 21 IT sectors, 5 key opportunities and benefits, 8 logistics adopting sensor technologies, 24 advanced telemetric sensors, 26 augmented reality glasses, 25 automating stock control task, 24 barcode technology, 23 Big Data, 26–27 document scanning and verification, 26 forklift, 24–25 Google Glass, 25 multiple sensors, 26 pick-by-paper, 25 RFID, 23–24 SmartLIFT technology, 24–25 temperature and humidity sensors, 24 track and trace, 26 M2M, 3 manufacturers, 10 Oil and Gas industry automated remote control topology, 18 automation, 18 Big Data analytics, 19 cloud computing, 17 data analytics, 16 data collection and analysis, 18 data distribution system, 17 DDS bus, 18 down-hole sensors, 16 drilling and exploration, 16 industry regulations, 16 intelligent real-time reservoir management, 19 interconnectivity, 17 MQPP and XMPP, 17 remote node's status, 17 6LoWLAN and CoAP, 17 technological advances, 16 wireless technologies and protocols, 17 outcome economy, 10 power of 1%, 4 retailer innovations, 29 IT costs, 27 POS, 27–28 real-time reporting and visibility, 28 stock control, 28 sensor technology, 4 smartphone, 20 WSN, 21 WWAN, 5 Industrial Internet system communication protocols Ethernet protocol, 100 industrial Ethernet, 98 TCP/UDP containers, 100 concept of, IIoT, 88 diverse technology, 116 gateways, 115 heterogeneous networks, 116 industrial gateway, 118 industrial protocols current loop, 97 field bus technology, 98 RS232 serial communications, 96 proximity and access network address types, 114 IIoT context, 115 IPv4, 109 IPv6, 112 IPv6 Subnets, 114 NAT, 111 proximity network, 89 wireless communication technology, 102 bluetooth low energy, 103 IEEE 802.15.4, 102 NFC, 107 RFID, 106 RPL, 108 6LoWPAN, 107 Thread, 107 Wi-Fi backscatter, 105 ZigBee, 103 ZigBee IP, 104 Z-Wave, 105 WSN edge node, 90 functional layers, 93 IP layers vs.


pages: 230 words: 61,702

The Internet of Us: Knowing More and Understanding Less in the Age of Big Data by Michael P. Lynch

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, Internet of things, John von Neumann, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, patient HM, prediction markets, RFID, sharing economy, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, WikiLeaks

As Sue Halpern, an astute observer of the digital age, remarks: “The Internet of Things creates the perfect conditions to bolster and expand the surveillance state. In the world of the Internet of Things, your car, your heating system, your refrigerator, your fitness apps, your credit card, your television set, your window shades, your scale, your medications, your camera, your heart rate monitor, your electric toothbrush, and your washing machine—to say nothing of your phone—generate a continuous stream of data that resides largely out of reach of the individual but not of those willing to pay for it or in other ways commandeer it.”13 Earlier I noted there are two marks to information privacy: control and protection. Control over our information may be increasingly under threat by the Internet of Things. But that only makes concentrating on restricting and regulating information flow all the more important.

Internet wonks tend to think that we are seeing the arrival of the “third wave” of the Internet. First there was Web 1.0 (the ancient days of “Wow! You should check out this email thing!”). Then, starting in the early 2000s, there was Web 2.0. (“Wow! You should check out this Facebook thing!”). Now we have Web 3.0 (the “smart Web”) and, most significantly, the so-called Internet of Things (“Wow! You should check out my smart … watch, refrigerator, lamp, socks!”). In essence, the “Internet of Things” is a way of describing the phenomenon of networked objects—objects that are embedded with data-streaming sensors and software that connect them to the Net. The “things” in question run the gamut from autonomous connected devices like smartphones to the tiny radio-frequency identification (RFID) microchips and other sorts of sensors attached to everything from UPS trucks and cargo containers to pets, farm animals, cars, thermostats, and NFL helmets.

By 2007 there were already 10 million sensors of all sorts connected to the Internet, and some projections have that number rising to 100 trillion by 2030 if not before.4 These sensors are being used not only for economic purposes but for scientific ones (to track migratory animals, for example), and for security and military purposes (such as tracking human beings). According to Jeremy Rifkin, a leading economist of the digital world, the Internet of Things is even giving rise to a “Third Industrial Revolution,” precipitating huge changes in how human beings around the globe interact with one another, economically and otherwise.5 The Internet of Things is made possible by—and is also producing—big data. The term “big data” has no fixed definition, but rather three connected uses. First, it names the ever-expanding volume of data that surrounds us. You’ve heard some of the statistics. As long ago as 2009, there were already 260 million page views per month on Facebook; in 2012, there were 2.7 billion likes per day.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Smith, “Most ‘Hackable’ Vehicles Are Jeep, Escalade, Infiniti, and Prius,” Network World, Aug. 3, 2014. 36 In a nod: Ina Fried, “Tesla Hires Hacker Kristin Paget to, Well, Secure Some Things,” Re/code, Feb. 7, 2014. 37 “expected to reach”: Transparency Market Research, “Home Automation Market (Lighting, Safety and Security, Entertainment, HVAC, Energy Management)—Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Tends, and Forecast, 2013–2019,” Sept. 30, 2013. 38 Many such systems: Kashmir Hill, “When ‘Smart Homes’ Get Hacked: I Haunted a Complete Stranger’s House via the Internet,” Forbes, July 26, 2013. 39 A July 2014 study: Daniel Miessler, “HP Study Reveals 70 Percent of Internet of Things Devices Vulnerable to Attack,” HP, July 29, 2014. 40 Major toy makers: Arrayent, “Internet of Things Toys with Mattel,” http://​www.​arrayent.​com/​internet-​of-​things-​case-​studies/​connecting-​toys-​with-​mattet/​Disney Research, “CALIPSO: Internet of Things.” http://​www.​disneyresearch.​com/​project/​calipso-​internet-​of-​things/. 41 But toys too can be subverted: Heather Kelly, “ ‘Smart Homes’ Are Vulnerable, Say Hackers,” CNN, Aug. 2, 2013. 42 They allow hackers to turn off: Dan Goodin, “Welcome to the ‘Internet of Things,’ Where Even Lights Aren’t Hacker Safe,” Ars Technica, Aug. 13, 2013. 43 Additional systems: Jane Wakefield, “Experts Hack Smart LED Light Bulbs,” BBC News, July 8, 2014; Leo King, “Smart Home?

Indeed, one such firm, the smartthermostat company Nest Labs, was acquired in 2014 for an astounding $3.2 billion just 854 days after the launch of its first product. And while there is undoubtedly big money to be made in the IoT, its social implications may even outstrip its economic impact. Imagining the Internet of Things The Internet of Things is a way of saying that more of the world will become part of the network … We are assimilating more and more of the world into the computer. GORDON BELL, MICROSOFT RESEARCHER The promise of the Internet of Things sounds rosy. Because chips and sensors will be embedded in everyday objects, we will have much better information and convenience in our lives. So, for example, because your alarm clock is connected to the Internet, it will be able to access and read your calendar. It will know where and when your first appointment of the day is and be able to cross-reference that information against the latest traffic conditions.

Given our inability to secure today’s global information matrix, how might we ever protect a world in which every physical object, from pets to pacemakers to self-driving cars, is connected to the Net and hackable from anywhere on the planet? The obvious reality is that we cannot. The Internet of Things will become nothing more than the Internet of Things to be hacked, a cornucopia of malicious opportunity for those with the means and motivation to exploit our common technological insecurity. The IoT and its underlying insecure protocols will open a Pandora’s box of security vulnerabilities on an unprecedented scale, potentially creating systemic malfunctions whose reach will be simultaneously unpredictable, extraordinary, and terrifying. Houston, we have a problem, particularly with our threat surface area—that is to say, the sum of the different points or attack vectors through which an enemy can strike. The challenge with the Internet of Things is that our technological threat surface area is growing exponentially and simply stated we have no idea how to defend it effectively.


pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

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Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social software, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

Interview with Michelle Tinsley, June 25, 2015. 19. Ibid. 20. McKinsey Global Institute, “The Internet of Things: Mapping the Value Beyond the Hype,” June 2015. 21. Interview with Eric Jennings, July 10, 2015. 22. IBM Institute for Business Value, “The Economy of Things: Extracting New Value from the Internet of Things,” 2015. 23. Cadie Thompson, “Apple Has a Smart Home Problem: People Don’t Know They Want It Yet,” Business Insider, June 4, 2015; www.businessinsider.com/apple-homekit-adoption-2015-6. 24. McKinsey Global Institute, “The Internet of Things.” 25. Interview with Eric Jennings, July 10, 2015. 26. IBM, “Device Democracy,” 9. 27. Ibid., 13. 28. McKinsey Global Institute, “The Internet of Things.” MGI defined nine settings with value potential. 29. www.wikihow.com/Use-Uber. 30. http://consumerist.com/tag/uber/page/2/. 31.

Blockchain technology is critical. This Internet of Things (IoT) application depends on a Ledger of Things. With tens of thousands of smart poles collecting data through numerous sensors and communicating that data to another device, computer, or person, the system needs to continually track everything—including the ability to identify each unique pole—to ensure its reliability. “Nothing else works without identity,” said Jennings. “The blockchain for identity is the core for the Internet of Things. We create a unique path for each device. That path, that identity, is then stored in the bitcoin blockchain assigned to Filament. Just like a bitcoin, it can be sent to any address.”4 The blockchain (along with smart contracts) also ensures that the devices are paid for so they continue to work. The Internet of Things cannot function without blockchain payment networks, where bitcoin is the universal transactional language.

To overcome these obstacles, the Internet of Everything needs the Ledger of Everything—machines, people, animals, and plants. THE INTERNET OF THINGS NEEDS A LEDGER OF THINGS Welcome to the Internet of Everything enabled by the Ledger of Everything—distributed, reliable, and secure information sharing, sensing, and automating actions and transactions across the Internet, thanks to blockchain technology. Technologists and science fiction writers have long envisioned a world where a seamless global network of Internet-connected sensors could capture every event, action, and change on earth. With ubiquitous networks, continued advancements of processing capability, and an increasing array of cheap and tiny connected devices, that vision of an “Internet of Things” is edging closer to reality. Remember, Satoshi Nakamoto designed the bitcoin blockchain to ensure the integrity of each bitcoin transaction online and the bitcoin currency overall.


pages: 329 words: 95,309

Digital Bank: Strategies for Launching or Becoming a Digital Bank by Chris Skinner

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algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, bank run, Basel III, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, demand response, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Google Glasses, high net worth, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, margin call, mass affluent, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, quantitative easing, ransomware, reserve currency, RFID, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Stuxnet, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, web application, Y2K

This means that everything will be intelligently and wirelessly communicating with everything through what is now called the internet of things. The internet of things delivers a new wireless augmented world of digital reality where, in the very near future, fifty billion devices will be communicating with each other. The internet of things The internet of things is where internet communication – both wired and wireless – are placed into everyday objects from cars to refrigerators, keys to key rings, jewellery to watches and more. Anything that can have a chip placed inside in fact. We will all soon be wearing and watching and being monitored by chips in everything, and the vision of the internet of things is just that: ubiquitous connectivity with everything communicating and transacting non-stop. The key point about the internet of things is that it will be the next big wave of change.

We can see the opportunity this change offers today, thanks to Near Field Communication (NFC) and Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) will provide the internet of things with the ability to transact. When we talk about chips inside everything, so that they can wirelessly communicate, those chips in everything will be RFID chips today. RFID can only hold a small amount of intelligence right now, so it needs something to receive the RFID information and that is NFC. Hence, NFC will become the reader mechanism in phones and other devices for RFID in the internet of things. Today, you buy things by taking them to the teller; tomorrow, if you want to buy something, you just read the QR code or hold your phone over its RFID tag. In addition, in the near future, the internet of things will be driven by the mobile internet of things, where everything is geo-located and identified by the network.

Meanwhile, my favourite authentication is Nymi by Biomix, a watchstrap that uses your heartbeat as verification. The reason the latter is my favourite is that mobile is rapidly moving from devices to wearable, and so we will soon have mobile chips embedded in jewellery, watches, handbags, shoes and fashion times. Yes, it’s back to the internet of things, but it goes beyond the internet of things to the knowledge of everything. Intellisensing and locating customers and verifying and authenticating them through the internet of things will become the norm. It will be the case of knowing who is where doing what in real-time, and being able to check it is who you think it is without forcing an action – a token or PIN being activated – but by sensing it who you think it is through the network. We are very near to this today and getting nearer every day, so let’s stop worrying about fraud and risk with mobiles and start thinking far more about fraud and risk minimisation with mobiles.


pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

Notably, all of North Korea’s Internet: Jack Kim and Lesley Wroughton, “North Korea’s Internet Links Restored amid US Hacking Dispute,” Reuters, December 23, 2014, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/12/23/us-northkorea-cyberattack-idUSKBN0K107920141223. Cisco Systems chairman John Chambers: “Cisco Keynote Highlights from CES 2014,” YouTube, January 10, 2014, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TepUznT42ro. From 2015 to 2020, the number: “The Internet of Things Will Drive Wireless Connected Devices to 40.9 Billion in 2020,” ABI Research, August 20, 2014, https://www.abiresearch.com/press/the-internet-of-things-will-drive-wireless-connect. Chambers predicts that the Internet of Things: Don Clark, “Cisco CEO Chambers Still Biggest ‘Internet of Things’ Cheerleader,” Wall Street Journal, January 7, 2014, http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2014/01/07/cisco-ceo-john-chambers-Internet-of-everything-ces-2014/. For context, the GDP: “Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects,” International Monetary Fund: World Economic Outlook Database, October 2014, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2014/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?

McKinsey bases this estimate on potential savings of 2.5 to 5 percent in operating costs, the integration of the Internet of Things into the power grid, and its applications in public-sector services like waste, heating, and water systems that they believe could cut waste by 10 to 20 percent annually. There’s one huge catch: with the rapid growth of these technologies, we are also creating an almost unimaginable new set of vulnerabilities and openings for cybersecurity hacks. As the Internet of Things is rising, cybersecurity has not kept pace. “Security has often been an afterthought in the design of those systems,” says Chris Bronk, a computer and information systems professor at the University of Houston. The breach of confidentiality that occurred at Target was in many ways a precursor to what’s possible in a world that’s connected by an Internet of Things. In the Target hack, the tens of millions of credit card records were accessed because of a hack on Fazio Mechanical, a small company in Sharpsburg, Pennsylvania, that does heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration jobs.

As a result, the stage is now set for what has become known as the “Internet of Things,” where any object has the potential to transmit and receive data, from cars and farm equipment to watches and appliances, even clothing. The digitization of nearly everything is poised to be one of the most consequential economic developments of the next ten years. Cisco Systems chairman John Chambers has said, “We will look back one decade from today [2014] and you’ll look at the impact of the Internet of Everything, and I predict it will be five to ten times more impactful in one decade than the whole Internet to date has been.” From 2015 to 2020, the number of wireless connected devices is going to grow from an estimated 16 billion to 40 billion. Chambers predicts that the Internet of Things will grow to be a $19 trillion global market.


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The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

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1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

Fabbaloo, April 7, 2010, http://www.fabbaloo.com/blog/2010/4/7/the-3d-printer-virus-really.html. 20.  Cory Doctorow, “Metacrap: Putting the Torch to Seven Straw-men of the Meta-Utopia,” Well, August 26, 2011. 21.  Payam Barnaghi, Cory Henson, Kerry Taylor, and Wei Wang, “Semantics for the Internet of Things: Early Progress and Back to the Future,” International Journal on Semantic Web and Information System 8, no. 1 (2012): 1–21, http://knoesis.org/library/download/IJSWIS_SemIoT.pdf. 22.  Yann Moulier-Boutang, Cognitive Capitalism (London: Polity Press, 2012). 23.  Open Internet of Things Assembly, “Bill of Rights” http://postscapes.com/open-internet-of-things-assembly. (July 17, 2012). 24.  See, for example, Saul A. Kripke, Naming and Necessity (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980). I particularly care, in this instance, to underscore that citing this work is not the same as recommending this work. 25. 

As such, data centers may be moved closer to users, with relevant content sent from a central facility out to regional data centers only once, and further transmissions occurring over shorter regional links. As a result, every request from a user need not result in a transmission cross-country and through the Internet backbone; network activity may be more evenly balanced and confined to local areas.” 18.  Cisco proudly estimated the number of “things” connected to the Internet of Things as 50 billion by 2020. See Dave Evans, “The Internet of Things: How the Next Evolution of the Internet Is Changing Everything,” April 2011, https://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac79/docs/innov/IoT_IBSG_0411FINAL.pdf. To say nothing of the more or less charted waters of the Dark Net, accessible only through tools like the Tor browser. 19.  But as Jameson notes, it is the irregularity of opposing forces that breaks down the order of the nomos: “With the religious wars, but perhaps also the English dominance of the sea—now leads to the Westphalian system of nation-states, in which, for the first time, the new nomos of state equality and friend-foe emerges.

Just as most of the traffic on the Internet today is machine-to-machine, or at least machine generated, so too a semantic web of things21 would be correlated less by the cognitive dispositions or instrumental intentions of human Users, but those of “objects” and other instances within the larger meta-assemblage all querying and programming one another without human intervention or supervision. In the hype, it's easy to forget that the Internet of Things is also an Internet for Things (or for any addressable entity, however immaterial). Control of this multitude of chattering things would represent enormous power, and the danger of overcentralization paired with a monetized opacity of data flows is real. The capture of the “general intellect” by search and other mechanisms of “cognitive capitalism” is one lens through which to imagine a future in which tracing objective knowledge about the appearance and disappearance of material culture is a proprietary narrative.22 At the same time, Internet of Things scenarios that prioritize human Users sensing and interacting with their responsive habitats, as masters of the data that appear in their midst, divert discussions of the politics of ubiquitous computing toward an overly local frame of reference within a larger landscape of humans and nonhuman associations.


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Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, market design, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, winner-take-all economy, Zipcar

And Internet-centered companies like Google and Apple are designing interfaces and operating systems that will enable both technology experts and ordinary people to have easy access to the Internet of things and use it in countless ways we’re only beginning to imagine and explore. What’s more, the potential power of the Internet of things will only continue to grow as the varieties of devices available to us and their capabilities continue to expand. To mention just a few examples, consider the transformative power of such just-around-the-corner technologies as driverless cars, cheap and powerful electrical storage batteries for the home, and easy-to-use 3D printers for quickly replicating useful objects. As these and other new tools become widely available, they’ll also quickly be linked to the Internet of things, making even more powerful value-creating platforms possible. Applied to the Internet of things, platform economics will dramatically alter the business models associated with countless familiar goods and services.

Many are now being located not in computing devices such as laptops and cell phones but in ordinary machines and appliances—including everything from home thermostats and garage door openers to industrial security systems. With designers and engineers finding more and more ways to usefully link the machines, gadgets, and other devices people interact with daily, a vast new layer of data infrastructure is emerging that has been dubbed the Internet of things. This new universe of networks will have a profound impact on the power of tomorrow’s platforms. A wide range of companies is deeply engaged in the effort to build the Internet of things—and, if possible, to control both the new infrastructure and the ultra-valuable data it will provide. As we’ve mentioned, industrial firms like GE, Siemens, and Westinghouse are moving to create information links among the turbines, engines, motors, heating and cooling systems, and manufacturing plants they build and operate, hoping to enable tremendous new efficiencies and cost savings.

But when home lighting systems are connected to the Internet of things, the very purpose of the lightbulb is transformed. Lights can be programmed for intruder alerts; they can flash to warn parents when a toddler is wandering near the stairs or the stove; they can blink to remind grandma to take her medication. Lights with wireless connectivity can track the energy consumption of other appliances, enabling lightbulb vendors to offer energy management services to homeowners and utility companies. Suddenly, the lightbulb maker can afford to give away a $40 LED in exchange for a share of the ongoing revenues provided by networked services. Platform-based connections among household and personal devices have attracted much of the publicity surrounding the Internet of things. But the potential for transformation in the B2B world is, if anything, even greater.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

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1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

We’ll never know what tipped the balance—perhaps a new city bus fired up its GPS tracker for the first time, or some grad students at MIT plugged their coffee pot into Facebook. But at some point the Internet of people gave way to the Internet of Things.16 Today, there are at least two additional things connected to the Internet for every human being’s personal device. But by 2020 we will be hopelessly outnumbered—some 50 billion networked objects will prowl the reaches of cyberspace, with a few billion humans merely mingling among them.17 If you think banal chatter dominates the Web today, get ready for the cacophony of billions of sensors tweeting from our pockets, the walls, and city sidewalks, reporting on minutiae of every kind: vehicle locations, room temperatures, seismic tremors, and more. By 2016, the torrent of readings generated by this Internet of Things could exceed 6 petabytes a year on our mobile networks alone (one petabyte equaling one billion gigabytes).18 It will drown out the entire human web—the 10 billion photos currently archived on Facebook total a mere 1.5 petabytes.19 Software in the service of businesses, governments, and even citizens will tap this pool of observations to understand the world, react, and predict.

Instead of making funny videos to promote their invention, students would have spent their evenings holding smoking soldering irons, staring bleary-eyed into a tangle of wires. But Botanicalls is just one of thousands of projects that are exploiting a new approach to prototyping networked objects, allowing civic hackers, students, and artists around the world to invent their own visions of the Internet of Things. Botanicalls, like many objects on the Internet of Things, is powered by an unsung but utterly ubiquitous kind of computer called a microcontroller. Microcontrollers are the brains of the modern mechanical world, governing the operations of everything from elevators to the remote control on your TV. Like a personal computer, they contain a processor, memory, and input/output systems. But unlike PCs, microcontrollers are small, simple, and cheap.

Normally the combined outflow is processed by treatment plants before being released into the surrounding waterways, but during heavy rains the plants can’t keep up; to keep the deluge from backing up into city streets, a nasty mixture of runoff and raw sewage is discharged directly into the city’s rivers—some 27 billion gallons a year.40 But by hooking up an Arduino to a proximity sensor and a $15 cell phone he bought off eBay, Percifield’s gadget sits over the outflow pipe and transmits an alert across the Internet to a network of bathroom-based lightbulb overflow-warning indicators.41 The result is a guerrilla sensor net that encourages people to not flush toilets during overflow events, reducing the discharge of sewage. By changing people’s behavior, it could stanch the need for hundreds of millions of dollars of retrofits to the city’s sewage infrastructure. Projects like dontflush.me suggest a future where citizens decide what gets connected to the Internet of Things, and why. Instead of being merely a system for remote monitoring and management, as industry visionaries see it today, the Internet of Things could become a platform for local, citizen microcontrol of the physical world. And that’s what’s so disruptive about Arduino’s growing reach. Torrone suggests more prosaic applications for which Arduino is also the clear technology of choice. “Want to have a coffee pot tweet when the coffee is ready? Arduino. How about getting an alert on your phone when there’s physical mail in your mailbox?


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

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23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

It’s Called Post-PC Computing.” Radar (O’Reilly), October 24, 2011. http://radar.oreilly.com/2011/10/post-pc-revolution.html. 9 Gartner. “Gartner Says the Internet of Things Installed Base Will Grow to 26 Billion Units By 2020.” Gartner Press Release, December 12, 2013. http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2636073. 10 Omohundro, S. “Cryptocurrencies, Smart Contracts, and Artificial Intelligence.” Submitted to AI Matters (Association for Computing Machinery), October 22, 2014. http://steveomohundro.com/2014/10/22/cryptocurrencies-smart-contracts-and-artificial-intelligence/. 11 Dawson, R. “The New Layer of the Economy Enabled by M2M Payments in the Internet of Things.” Trends in the Living Networks, September 16, 2014. http://rossdawsonblog.com/weblog/archives/2014/09/new-layer-economy-enabled-m2m-payments-internet-things.html. 12 Petschow, K.

Mobile and social networking was the most recent paradigm. The current emerging paradigm for this decade could be the connected world of computing relying on blockchain cryptography. The connected world could usefully include blockchain technology as the economic overlay to what is increasingly becoming a seamlessly connected world of multidevice computing that includes wearable computing, Internet-of-Things (IoT) sensors, smartphones, tablets, laptops, quantified self-tracking devices (i.e., Fitbit), smart home, smart car, and smart city. The economy that the blockchain enables is not merely the movement of money, however; it is the transfer of information and the effective allocation of resources that money has enabled in the human- and corporate-scale economy. With revolutionary potential equal to that of the Internet, blockchain technology could be deployed and adopted much more quickly than the Internet was, given the network effects of current widespread global Internet and cellular connectivity.

The world is already being prepared for more pervasive Internet-based money: Apple Pay (Apple’s token-based ewallet mobile app) and its competitors could be a critical intermediary step in moving to a full-fledged cryptocurrency world in which the blockchain becomes the seamless economic layer of the Web. Figure P-1. Disruptive computing paradigms: Mainframe, PC, Internet, Social-Mobile, Blockchain8 M2M/IoT Bitcoin Payment Network to Enable the Machine Economy Blockchain is a revolutionary paradigm for the human world, the “Internet of Individuals,” and it could also be the enabling currency of the machine economy. Gartner estimates the Internet of Things will comprise 26 billion devices and a $1.9 trillion economy by 2020.9 A corresponding “Internet of Money” cryptocurrency is needed to manage the transactions between these devices,10 and micropayments between connected devices could develop into a new layer of the economy.11 Cisco estimates that M2M (machine-to-machine) connections are growing faster than any other category (84 percent), and that not only is global IP traffic forecast to grow threefold from 2012 to 2018, but the composition is shifting in favor of mobile, WiFi, and M2M traffic.12 Just as a money economy allows for better, faster, and more efficient allocation of resources on a human scale, a machine economy can provide a robust and decentralized system of handling these same issues on a machine scale.

The Economic Singularity: Artificial intelligence and the death of capitalism by Calum Chace

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lump of labour, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

Its full-blooded arrival coincides with the take-off of a series of other technologies. They are all driven at least in part by AI, and they will all impact the way our societies evolve. Because they will all unfold in different ways and at different speeds, it is impossible to predict exactly what the impact of these interlacing technologies will be, other than that it will be profound. The Internet of Things The Internet of Things (IoT) has been talked about for years – the term was coined by British entrepreneur Kevin Ashby back in 1999.[cxxxiii] Indeed it has been around for long enough to have acquired a selection of synonyms. GE calls it the Industrial Internet, Cisco calls it the Internet of Everything, and IBM calls it Smarter Planet. The German government calls it the Industry 4.0[cxxxiv], the other three being the introduction of steam, electricity, and digital technology.

The information revolution does the same, providing farmers with crops that are more resilient in the face of weather, pests and weeds, and allowing them to sow, cultivate and harvest their crops far more accurately with satellite navigation. Along with the uncertainty about the start date of the information revolution, there is disagreement about how distinct it is from the industrial revolution. The Internet of Things (IoT) is a phenomenon of the information revolution which we will look at in more detail in chapter 3.7. Klaus Schwab, founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum which hosts the annual meeting of the global elite in Davos, calls the IoT the fourth industrial revolution.[x] This seems to me to under-state the importance of the IoT, and also to separate it from all the other digital revolutions which comprise the information revolution, including, of course, artificial intelligence. 2.3 – The Automation story so far The mechanisation of agriculture The particular aspect of the industrial and information revolutions which concerns us in this book is automation.

There are also numerous smaller players, of which perhaps the most interesting is Viv (from the Latin for “life”), a system developed by the original creators of Siri.[cxli] They span Siri out of a DARPA-funded research project, taking the name from Sigrid, a Scandinavian word meaning both “victory” and “beauty”, and sold it to Steve Jobs in 2011. Artificial intelligences will govern most things in our environment, and something like Siri will be our intermediary, negotiating with and filtering out most of the Internet of Things. Although we may not notice it, this will be a blessed relief. Imagine having to negotiate a world where every AI-enabled device has direct access to you, with every chair and handrail pitching their virtues to you, and every shop screaming at you to buy something. This dystopia was captured in the famous shopping mall scene in the 2002 film “Minority Report”, and more laconically in Douglas Adam's peerless “Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy” series, where the Corporation that produces the eponymous guide has installed talking lifts, known as happy vertical people transporters.

The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences by Rob Kitchin

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business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, linked data, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs

Elwood, S. and Leszczynski, A. (2011) ‘Privacy reconsidered: new representations, data practices, and the geoweb’, Geoforum, 42: 6–15. European Commission (2012) Commission Proposes a Comprehensive Reform of the Data Protection Rules, 25 January, http://ec.europa.eu/justice/newsroom/data-protection/news/120125_en.htm (last accessed 6 August 2013). Farber, D. (2013) ‘Counting the Internet of things in real time’, CNet, 30 July, http://news.cnet.com/8301-11386_3-57596162-76/counting-the-internet-of-things-in-real-time/ (last accessed 18 September 2013). Farber, M., Cameron, M., Ellis, C. and Sullivan, J. (2011) Massive Data Analytics and the Cloud: A Revolution in Intelligence Analysis. Booz Allen Hamilton. http://www.boozallen.com/media/file/MassiveData.pdf (last accessed 16 July 2013). Federal Trade Commission (2012) Protecting Consumer Privacy in an Era of Rapid Change, http://www.ftc.gov/os/2012/03/120326privacyreport.pdf (last accessed 14 October 2013).

Rogers, S. (2013) ‘Twitter’s languages of New York mapped’, Guardian, 21 February, http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/interactive/2013/feb/21/twitter-languages-new-yorkmapped (last accessed 3 April 2013). Rooney, B. (2012) ‘Big data’s big problem: little talent’, Wall Street Journal: Tech Europe, 26 April, http://blogs.wsj.com/tech-europe/2012/04/26/big-datas-big-problem-little-talent/ (last accessed 12 November 2012). Rose, A. (2013) ‘The internet of things has arrived – and so have massive security issues’, Wired, 11 January, http://www.wired.com/opinion/2013/01/securing-the-internet-of-things/ (last accessed 7 August 2013). Rose, N. (1996) Inventing Our Selves: Psychology, Power and Personhood. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Rosenberg, D. (2013) ‘Data before the fact’, in L. Gitelman (ed.), ‘Raw Data’ is an Oxymoron. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 15–40. Rubenking, N.J. (2013) ‘Privacy is dead. The NSA killed it.

Rather than being scarce and limited in access, the production of data is increasingly becoming a deluge; a wide, deep torrent of timely, varied, resolute and relational data that are relatively low in cost and, outside of business, increasingly open and accessible. A data revolution is underway, one that is already reshaping how knowledge is produced, business conducted, and governance enacted. This revolution is founded on the latest wave of information and communication technologies (ICTs), such as the plethora of digital devices encountered in homes, workplaces and public spaces; mobile, distributed and cloud computing; social media; and the internet of things (internetworked sensors and devices). These new technical media and platforms are leading to ever more aspects of everyday life – work, consumption, travel, communication, leisure – and the worlds we inhabit to be captured as data and mediated through data-driven technologies. Moreover, they are materially and discursively reconfiguring the production, circulation and interpretation of data, producing what has been termed ‘big data’ – vast quantities of dynamic, varied digital data that are easily conjoined, shared and distributed across ICT networks, and analysed by a new generation of data analytics designed to cope with data abundance as opposed to data scarcity.


pages: 202 words: 59,883

Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel

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Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, Kickstarter, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, Zipcar

Soon the smartest operators of supermarkets, dry cleaners and other merchants will Uberize their services as well. Connecting All the Things We’ve talked about the Internet of Things. We believe that a part of it will be households of connected things. Anything in your home that has an on-off switch will be interconnected. All glass objects will be connected as well. Ubiquitous sensors will be a part of it as well, as, of course, will your front door. All of these things will communicate with you wherever you are, through some form of PCA. They will also connect to emergency services, utilities and the entire Internet of Things. Everywhere we looked we found companies that were building little pieces of the new contextual household. Belkin and Philips, for example, are working on getting their many home products to talk with each other and with all your other fixtures and devices.

Not just the mobile phones in our pockets, but different kinds of computers—our watches, our cameras, our cars, our refrigerators, our toothbrushes. Every aspect of our lives is somehow on the network, a wireless network, and in the cloud. This is the third wave of computing. Research firm IDC reports that there will be 3.5 billion networked products by 2015. Compare that to 1.7 billion networked PCs and it’s clear that the “Internet of Things” has arrived. With it, and with everything connected to the network, we enter an amazing new world of possibilities. The big change here is that technology is becoming intuitive. It is starting to understand where you are and where you are likely to be going, and it can help you on your way. Connected technologies make your customers happier and accordingly, your revenues bigger. In the connected world, customers are no longer just a number or account; they are unique human beings with a distinct set of needs.

This device also has access to all of humankind’s collected knowledge. Through the use of many different types of sensors, our mobile devices now emulate three of our five senses. Camera sensors give them eyes, and microphone sensors serve as ears; capacitive sensors enable them to feel our touch on their screens. They can’t yet detect fragrance—but our guess is that such a capability is coming soon. The so-called Internet of Things enables many common appliances, fixtures and devices to communicate with systems due to the availability of radical new low-cost and miniaturized sensors. Microsoft Kinect for Xbox, for example, has a 3D sensor that can see your heartbeat just by looking at your skin. When we talk about “the system knowing about you,” that knowledge depends on machine learning and database computation breakthroughs that couldn’t be imagined when Microsoft researcher Jim Gray turned on Microsoft’s first terabyte database back in December 1997.


pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Eaton Corporation builds sensors into certain high-pressure hoses that sense when the hose is about to fray, preventing potentially dangerous accidents and saving the high costs of downtime of the machines that have the hoses as a key component. Source: “The Internet of Things: The Opportunities and Challenges of Interconnectedness”, Roundtable on Digital Strategies Overview, Center for Digital Strategies at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth, 2014 Already last year, according to BMW 8% of cars worldwide, or 84 million, were connected to the internet in some way., That number will grow to 22%, or 290 million cars, by 2020. Source: http://www.politico.eu/article/google-vs-german-car-engineer-industry-american-competition/ Insurance companies like Aetna are thinking about how sensors in a carpet could help if you’ve had a stroke. They would detect any gait change and have a physical therapist visit. Source: “The Internet of Things: The Opportunities and Challenges of Interconnectedness”, Roundtable on Digital Strategies Overview, Center for Digital Strategies at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth, 2014 Shift 9: The Connected Home Tipping point: Over 50% of internet traffic delivered to homes for appliances and devices (not for entertainment or communication) By 2025: 70% of respondents expected this tipping point to have occurred In the 20th century, most of the energy going into a home was for direct personal consumption (lighting).

We have yet to grasp fully the speed and breadth of this new revolution. Consider the unlimited possibilities of having billions of people connected by mobile devices, giving rise to unprecedented processing power, storage capabilities and knowledge access. Or think about the staggering confluence of emerging technology breakthroughs, covering wide-ranging fields such as artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, the internet of things (IoT), autonomous vehicles, 3D printing, nanotechnology, biotechnology, materials science, energy storage and quantum computing, to name a few. Many of these innovations are in their infancy, but they are already reaching an inflection point in their development as they build on and amplify each other in a fusion of technologies across the physical, digital and biological worlds. We are witnessing profound shifts across all industries, marked by the emergence of new business models, the disruption1 of incumbents and the reshaping of production, consumption, transportation and delivery systems.

New innovations in thermoset plastics, for example, could make reusable materials that have been considered nearly impossible to recycle but are used in everything from mobile phones and circuit boards to aerospace industry parts. The recent discovery of new classes of recyclable thermosetting polymers called polyhexahydrotriazines (PHTs) is a major step towards the circular economy, which is regenerative by design and works by decoupling growth and resource needs.8 2.1.2 Digital One of the main bridges between the physical and digital applications enabled by the fourth industrial revolution is the internet of things (IoT) – sometimes called the “internet of all things”. In its simplest form, it can be described as a relationship between things (products, services, places, etc.) and people that is made possible by connected technologies and various platforms. Sensors and numerous other means of connecting things in the physical world to virtual networks are proliferating at an astounding pace. Smaller, cheaper and smarter sensors are being installed in homes, clothes and accessories, cities, transport and energy networks, as well as manufacturing processes.


pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

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23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

Google Glass is the first wearable device: Jenna Wortham (8 Mar 2013), “Meet Memoto, the lifelogging camera,” New York Times Blogs, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/03/08/meet-memoto-the-lifelogging-camera. Internet of Things: Ken Hess (10 Jan 2014), “The Internet of Things outlook for 2014: Everything connected and communicating,” ZDNet, http://www.zdnet.com/the-internet-of-things-outlook-for-2014-everything-connected-and-communicating-7000024930. smart cities: Georgina Stylianou (29 Apr 2013), “Idea to have sensors track everything in city,” Press (Christchurch), http://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/business/the-rebuild/8606956/Idea-to-have-sensors-track-everything-in-city. Victoria Turk (Jul 2013), “City sensors: the Internet of Things is taking over our cities,” Wired, http://www.wired.co.uk/magazine/archive/2013/07/everything-is-connected/city-sensors. smart toothbrushes: Sam Byford (5 Jan 2014), “Kolibree’s smart toothbrush claims to track and improve your dental hygiene,” Verge, http://www.theverge.com/2014/1/5/5277426/kolibree-smart-toothbrush.

Sandy Clark et al. (6–10 Dec 2010), “Familiarity breeds contempt: The honeymoon effect and the role of legacy code in zero-day vulnerabilities,” 26th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference, Austin, Texas, http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1920299. Andy Ozment and Stuart E. Schechter (11 May 2006), “Milk or wine: Does software security improve with age?” MIT Lincoln Laboratory, https://research.microsoft.com/pubs/79177/milkorwine.pdf. economics of software development: This is even worse with embedded devices and the Internet of Things. Bruce Schneier (6 Jan 2014), “The Internet of Things is wildly insecure—and often unpatchable,” Wired, http://www.wired.com/2014/01/theres-no-good-way-to-patch-the-internet-of-things-and-thats-a-huge-problem. how the NSA and GCHQ think: James Ball, Julian Borger, and Glenn Greenwald (5 Sep 2013), “Revealed: How US and UK spy agencies defeat internet privacy and security,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/05/nsa-gchq-encryption-codes-security. We know the NSA: These four points were made in this document.

Charles Stross (25 Jun 2014), “YAPC::NA 2014 keynote: Programming Perl in 2034,” Charlie’s Diary, http://www.antipope.org/charlie/blog-static/2014/06/yapcna-2014-keynote-programmin.html. smart pill bottles: Valentina Palladino (8 Jan 2014), “AdhereTech’s smart pill bottle knows when you take, and miss, your medication,” Verge, http://www.theverge.com/2014/1/8/5289022/adheretech-smart-pill-bottle. smart clothing: Econocom (19 Sep 2013), “When fashion meets the Internet of Things,” emedia, http://blog.econocom.com/en/blog/when-fashion-meets-the-internet-of-things. Michael Knigge (28 Aug 2014), “Tagging along: Is Adidas tracking soccer fans?” Deutsche Welle, http://www.dw.de/tagging-along-is-adidas-tracking-soccer-fans/a-1788463. because why not?: We’ve seen this trend before. Digital clocks first became popular in the 1970s. Initially they were largely stand-alone devices—alarm clocks and watches—but as their price declined, they became embedded into other things: first your microwave, then your coffeepot, oven, thermostat, VCR, and television.


pages: 310 words: 34,482

Makers at Work: Folks Reinventing the World One Object or Idea at a Time by Steven Osborn

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3D printing, A Pattern Language, additive manufacturing, air freight, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, c2.com, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mason jar, means of production, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, Oculus Rift, patent troll, popular electronics, Rodney Brooks, Shenzhen was a fishing village, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software as a service, special economic zone, speech recognition, subscription business, telerobotics, urban planning, web application, Y Combinator

One for CNCs and pick and place machines makes a lot of sense. Osborn: Let’s see. So another theme getting some attention is the “Internet of Things,” which some people see as being the next big evolution of the Internet—monitoring and controlling everyday things remotely over the Internet. In your words, can you describe what that is and the impact you see it having? Seidle: The Internet of Things? I’m an electrical engineer, and so everything looks like an electrical engineering problem. We’ve been building a lot of stuff for a large number of years. As the processors get cheaper, and the development boards get cheaper, it’s easier and easier to hook up Ethernet and push some data around. So to me, the Internet of Things is not as revolutionary as some folks are excited about. It’s good to be passionate, it’s good to be excited about stuff, but to me, it’s a natural progression of—you know, it’s just easier.

I knew they were developing FLORA and they brought me on as director of wearables to sort of spearhead projects that people would make with the FLORA, and to help work on it late in its development there. Osborn: There seems to be a lot of interest lately—I think it’s more buzzword—in the whole “Internet of Things.” I was wondering if you’ve seen some projects that are interesting or that incorporated some wireless technology or biosensing that is interesting? Stern: So my favorite biosensing Internet of Things project is the chair that tweets when you fart. Osborn: Of course. Stern: That’s by my friend Randy Sarafan, who works at Instructables and is also a member of the FAT. He put the methane sensor in the chair and the Arduino in the XBee and the other part of the XBee that connects to the computer and used the Twitter API, and all that kind of stuff.

If there’s going to be another reason to put a methane sensor in a chair, make that be the fun side effect. Osborn: Oh man, I don’t want to take that any further. Makers at Work Stern: You might have seen Internet of Things printers. We have one for Raspberry Pi and Arduino. Those are really fun, just little a receipt printer that prints out whatever you want—like the weather. It’s really fun when it’s just sitting on your desk and it finds a tweet about you and prints it out. So instead of having to check my tabs with all of my Twitter tools in it or whatever, it just sort of prints them all out. That can be fun. Osborn: So let’s see. There’s the Internet of Things. There’s 3D printing. You do a lot of work with wearable technologies. Is there any other vertical or category that you think is interesting or you’ve seen starting to take notice lately?


pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar

Two contemporary developments illustrate how the same three invariant forces, and thus the same economics, that led to the consumerization of digital may reshape our everyday physical objects: the Internet of Things and the emergence of additive manufacturing. The Internet of Things In the not-so-distant future, every “thing” will have the potential to be digitized and networked. In an iconic example (although perhaps not the most cost-effective), a milk carton nearing or getting close to its expiration date will communicate with your refrigerator, which will in turn communicate with your FreshDirect grocery list. Cartons of fresh milk will subsequently be delivered to your home, allowing you to focus your attention on more important things. This is the Internet of Things—a world where objects of all kinds from milk cartons to household appliances to items of clothing have a little bit of embedded digital intelligence, and are part of the network.

The refrigerator will register this information and add milk to the grocery list at an online delivery service.7 In other words, in the near future, a growing number of quotidian objects will be able to talk to each other over a network. This is not, to be clear, the stuff of science fiction. After all, the Internet of Things does not promise to help us have intelligent conversations with our refrigerators or milk cartons (at least not anytime soon). Elevators imbued with a little intelligence are unlikely, as the humorist Douglas Adams posited, to get bored with their mundane jobs of traveling up and down and take to sulking in building basements. Yet the Internet of Things—though not yet delivering articulate appliances or portending device depression—will inevitably expand crowd-based capitalism. As intelligence, even in the smallest increments, can be embedded more cheaply and readily in physical objects, the ability to track these objects will increase.

Put differently, a physical object will know where it is, how much it is being used, and will be able to arrange automated, digitally enabled transport for itself to its renter without human intervention.8 A physical object becomes, in a sense, like an intelligent iTunes movie file. As a consequence, the “rentability” of objects also expands. On-demand services of all kinds become more viable, more efficient, and more ubiquitous with the Internet of Things. 3-D Printing and Additive Manufacturing Until recently, if you wanted to get into the business of making and selling physical objects, you had to acquire the capabilities of manufacturing and find some way of distributing and selling objects (by connecting, for example, with a wholesaling or retailing network). We are now entering a world where you no longer need a factory or warehouse or distribution network to be engaged in the sale of physical objects.


pages: 302 words: 73,581

Platform Scale: How an Emerging Business Model Helps Startups Build Large Empires With Minimum Investment by Sangeet Paul Choudary

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3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, frictionless, game design, hive mind, Internet of things, invisible hand, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, Paul Graham, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, social software, software as a service, software is eating the world, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, TaskRabbit, the payments system, too big to fail, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Wave and Pay

The wearable produces data constantly, and the platform provides analytics back to the user based on the data. Additionally, the platform also pools data from many users to create network-level insights. Wearables benefit from implicit network effects. Platform Stack Figure 6d • Nest Thermostat And The Internet Of Things. The Nest thermostat uses a data platform to aggregate data from multiple thermostats. This aggregation of data enables analytics for thermostat users and powers services to the city’s utilities board. The Internet of Things will give rise to new business models in similar ways through the creation of data platforms. • Industrial Internet. GE’s focus on the industrial Internet is another example of a data platform. Machines embedded with sensors constantly stream activity data into a platform that helps each machine learn from other machines and provides network-wide intelligence.

Platform Scale explains the design of a family of emerging digital business models that enables today’s startups to achieve rapid scale: the platform business model. The many manifestations of the platform business model - social media, the peer economy, cryptocurrencies, APIs and developer ecosystems, the Internet of things, crowdsourcing models, and many others - are becoming increasingly relevant. Yet, most new platform ideas fail because the business design and growth strategies involved in building platforms are not well understood. Platform Scale is a builder’s manual for anyone building a platform business today. It lays out a structured approach to designing and growing a platform business model and addresses the key factors that lead to the success and failure of these businesses.

External developers plug in to the platform and create apps on top of it. Consumers moved to platform phones whose functionality could easily be extended using apps created by external developers. The disruption of Nokia and BlackBerry demonstrates that firms must leverage platforms for innovation. Today, banks, retailers, and businesses across diverse industries are following the Android playbook to use platforms for innovation. d. The intelligent Internet of Things Nest’s thermostats constantly create data, as do GE’s machines and Nike’s shoes. These products aren’t merely physical products anymore; they plug in to platforms. These objects feed data into central platforms, and every individual object connected to the platform learns from the community of other objects connected to the platform. As we move from pipes to platforms, the business model of consumer goods will also move from one centered on product sales to one centered on platform-enabled connected services, where products work as part of an ecosystem.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

They fear a world resembling that exhibition at the Venetian in which row after row of nameless, faceless data gatherers wearing all-seeing electronic glasses watch our every move. Big Brother seemed ubiquitous at the Venetian. Reporting about CES, the Guardian’s Dan Gillmor warned that networked televisions that “watch us” are “closing in on Orwell’s nightmarish Big Brother vision.”32 Even industry executives are fearful of the Internet of Things’s impact on privacy, with Martin Winterkorn, the CEO of Volkswagen, warning in March 2014 that the connected car of the future “must not become a data monster.”33 But there is one fundamental difference between the Internet of Things and Erich Mielke’s twentieth-century Big Brother surveillance state, one thing distinguishing today’s networked society from Orwell’s 1984. Mielke wanted to create crystal man against our will; in today’s world of Google Glass and Facebook updates, however, we are choosing to live in a crystal republic where our networked cars, cell phones, refrigerators, and televisions watch us.

And not just everyone, but everything. An Ericsson white paper predicts that, by 2020, there will be 50 billion intelligent devices on the network.4 Homes, cars, roads, offices, consumer products, clothing, health-care devices, electric grids, even those industrial cutting tools once manufactured in the Musto Steam Marble Mill company, will all be connected on what now is being called the Internet of Things. The number of active cellular machine-to-machine devices will grow 3 to 4 times between 2014 and 2019. “The physical world,” a McKinsey report confirms, “is becoming a type of information system.”5 The economics of this networked society are already staggering. Another McKinsey report studying thirteen of the most advanced industrial economies found that $8 trillion is already being spent through e-commerce.

Indeed, the networked fabric business is one of the newest new things in today’s digital economy. Every decade there’s a major revolution in Silicon Valley. In the mid-1990s, it was the original Web 1.0 revolution of free websites like Netscape, Yahoo, and Craigslist. In 2005, it was Tim O’Reilly’s Web 2.0 user-generated-content revolution of Google, Wikipedia, and YouTube. And today, in 2014, it’s the “Internet of Things” revolution of 3-D printing, wearable computing, driverless cars, and intelligent drones. To learn more about today’s revolution, I had returned to the scene of my original disenchantment with the Internet. I’d once again come to the O’Reilly Media offices in Sebastopol, the little town up in Sonoma County, California, some fifty miles north of San Francisco. But rather than spending another annoying weekend at FOO Camp, I had come to meet with Dale Dougherty, the guy who first came up with the “Web 2.0” term.


pages: 292 words: 85,151

Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Galaxy Zoo, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator

We are rapidly changing the filter through which we deal with the world from a physical, materially-based perspective to an information- and knowledge-based one. And this is just beginning. Ten years ago we had five hundred million Internet-connected devices. Today there are about eight billion. By 2020 there will be fifty billion and a decade later we’ll have a trillion Internet-connected devices as we literally information-enable every aspect of the world in the Internet of Things. The Internet is now the world’s nervous system, with our mobile devices serving as edge points and nodes on that network. Think about that for a second: we’ll be jumping from eight billion Internet-connected devices today to fifty billion by 2025, and to a trillion a mere decade later. We like to think that thirty or forty years into the Information Revolution we are well along in terms of its development.

Similar applications in healthcare, energy and financial services mean that we’re entering a world of Algorithms R Us. As far back as 2005, writer and publisher Tim O’Reilly stated that, “Data is the new Intel Inside.” And that was when there were just a half-billion Internet-connected devices in the world. As we noted in Chapter One, that number is set to grow to a trillion devices as we prepare to embrace the Internet of Things. In the face of that explosion, the need for algorithms has become mission critical. Consider for a moment that the last two years have seen nine times more data created than in the entire history of humanity. Then consider that the Computer Sciences Corporation believes that by 2020 we’ll have created a total 73.5 zettabytes of data—in Stephen Hawking’s phraseology, that’s seventy-three followed by twenty-one zeros.

Each subsequent phase of the Milkmaid’s production, including product design, name, tagline and even price, was crowdsourced as well [Crowd], resulting in a total of 2,530 contributions from the Quirky community for a single product. Although the Milkmaid was just a pilot [Experimentation], the project was deemed a huge success, and in 2013, GE and Quirky announced the next stage of their innovative new partnership: GE gave Quirky’s 900,000 community members open access to GE’s most promising patents and technologies. It also started a co-branded Internet of Things initiative called “Wink: Instantly Connected,” dedicated to building a line of smart home devices. GE, which invested $30 million in Quirky, chose to open up its patents in order to accelerate the creation of new, innovative products—something GE determined the crowd could accomplish more quickly than it could do on its own. That decision is clearly paying off. In addition to the four connected-home products currently available in Quirky’s online store, GE and Quirky expect to release more than 30 more such products over the next few years.


pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review

The superbrain that predicts the weather accurately will be in a completely different kingdom of mind from the intelligence woven into your clothes. The taxonomy of minds must reflect the different ways in which minds are engineered with these trade-offs. In the short list below I include only those kinds of minds that we might consider superior to us; I’ve omitted the thousands of species of mild machine smartness—like the brains in a calculator—that will cognify the bulk of the internet of things. Some possible new minds: A mind like a human mind, just faster in answering (the easiest AI mind to imagine). A very slow mind, composed primarily of vast storage and memory. A global supermind composed of millions of individual dumb minds in concert. A hive mind made of many very smart minds, but unaware it/they are a hive. A borg supermind composed of many smart minds that are very aware they form a unity.

Or I could ask it to determine the kind of rooms that tend to raise my heart rate. Was it the color, the temperature, the height of the ceilings? Although it seems like wizardry now, this will be considered a very mechanical request in a decade, not very different from asking Google to find something—which would have been magical 20 years ago. Still, the picture is not big enough. We—the internet of people—will track ourselves, much of our lives. But the internet of things is much bigger, and billions of things will track themselves too. In the coming decades nearly every object that is manufactured will contain a small sliver of silicon that is connected to the internet. One consequence of this wide connection is that it will become feasible to track how each thing is used with great precision. For example, every car manufactured since 2006 contains a tiny OBD chip mounted under the dashboard.

The computer manufacturer Cisco estimates that there will be 50 billion devices on the internet by 2020, in addition to tens of billions of screens. The electronics industry expects a billion wearable devices in five years, tracking our activities, feeding data into the stream. We can expect another 13 billion appliances, like the Nest thermostat, animating our smarthomes. There will be 3 billion devices built into connected cars. And 100 billion dumb RFID chips embedded into goods on the shelves of Walmart. This is the internet of things, the emerging dreamland of everything we manufacture that is the new platform for the improbable. It is built with data. Knowledge, which is related, but not identical, to information, is exploding at the same rate as information, doubling every two years. The number of scientific articles published each year has been accelerating even faster than this for decades. Over the last century the annual number of patent applications worldwide has risen in an exponential curve.


pages: 742 words: 137,937

The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional

., ‘Mobile phone text messaging for promoting adherence to antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection’, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3 (2012): <doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009756> (accessed 27 March 2015). 33 Caroline Jones et al., ‘ “Even if You Know Everything You Can Forget”: Health Worker Perceptions of Mobile Phone Text-Messaging to Improve Malaria Case-Management in Kenya’ PLoS ONE, 7: 6 (2012): <doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038636> (accessed 27 March 2015). 34 David Rose, Enchanted Objects: Design, Human Desire, and the Internet of Things (2014). It increases drug adherence by 23 percentage points (to 94%) compared with standard vials. See p. 130. 35 ‘Emory University Hospital Explores “Intensive Care Unit of the Future”’, IBM, 4 November 2013 <http://www-03.ibm.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/42362.wss> (accessed 6 March 2015). 36 Nick Bilton, ‘Disruptions: Medicine that Monitors You’, New York Times, 23 June 2013 <http://www.nytimes.com> (accessed 27 March 2015). 37 <http://www.patientslikeme.com> (accessed 27 March 2015). 38 Christina Farr and Alexei Oreskovic, ‘Exclusive: Facebook plots first steps into healthcare’, Reuters, 3 Oct. 2014 <http://www.reuters.com> (accessed 27 March 2015). 39 David Bray et al., ‘Sermo: A Community-Based, Knowledge Ecosystem’ (2008), <http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1016483> and <http://www.sermo.com> (accessed 27 March 2015). 40 <https://secure.quantiamd.com> (accessed 27 March 2015). 41 <https://www.doximity.com> (accessed 27 March 2015). 42 Daniel Gaitan, ‘Crowdsourcing the answers to medical mysteries’, Reuters, 1 Aug. 2014 <http://www.reuters.com> (accessed 27 March 2015). 43 <http://www.innocentive.com>. 44 <https://watsi.org>. 45 Jerome Groopman, ‘Print Thyself: How 3-D Printing is Revolutionizing Medicine’, New Yorker, 24 Nov. 2014. 46 e.g.

There will always be some people with no access to the Internet. But as computing becomes more portable and increasingly affordable in this way, this group will steadily diminish. Already in the United Kingdom and United States, for example, most people now have access to the Internet.75 This avalanche of hand-helds may seem pervasive in its own right. But when we speak of ‘increasingly pervasive devices’, we also include the phenomenon known as the ‘Internet of Things’.76 Alternatively referred to as ‘ubiquitous’ or ‘pervasive’ computing, the idea here is to embed processors, sensors, and Internet connectivity into physical objects.77 It is as if we have tiny connected computers planted inside everyday things: an alarm clock that can check train times online and let its owner sleep longer if there are delays; an umbrella that is able to check online weather forecasts and light up at the front door when rain is predicted; electronic books that can update one another; plant-pots that can monitor moisture in soil and refill as appropriate; refrigerators that can detect when the amount of some foodstuffs has fallen below a prescribed level and reorder accordingly; boilers, lights, and thermostats that can be switched on and adjusted remotely.

Miniaturized circuits can be introduced into flesh and blood, of humans and animals—measuring, monitoring, dispensing, capturing, and transmitting information to specialists, patients, or to other systems. Similar technologies are being used in the corporate world. For example, GE calls this the ‘industrial Internet’—embedding sensors in their machines and sending large bodies of data into the ‘cloud’, and so bringing together the Internet of Things and Big Data.83 This, then, is what we mean by ‘increasingly pervasive devices’. In the first instance, there is a surge in the number of tablets and hand-held machines, meaning that more people can be the beneficiaries of online practical expertise. Secondly, and as dramatically, very small processing and communicating components are being embedded in machinery, buildings, people, animals, clothes, and other everyday objects, and this has application in the work of various professionals (certainly for doctors, dentists, vets, opticians, and architects).


pages: 587 words: 117,894

Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman

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4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

Cyberspace reflects the characteristics and needs of its users, but as we’ve seen, these users also grow to reflect its characteristics and needs. The final trend that will likely have serious cybersecurity implications builds on both cheaper computation and a more mobile world. The future blurring of cyber and physical will come to fruition when digital systems are fully embedded in the real world, also known as the “Internet of Things.” Like so many aspects of cyberspace, the Internet of Things can best be illustrated with a cat. Steve Sande was a man living in Colorado who worried about Ruby, his feline companion, when he was away. His particular concern was that Ruby might get too hot in his home that lacked air conditioning. However, Steve was environmentally conscious (or cheap) and didn’t want to waste power on a fan when it wasn’t needed. So he linked his fan to an Internet-connected device called a WeMo and wrote a script that monitored an online weather website.

So he linked his fan to an Internet-connected device called a WeMo and wrote a script that monitored an online weather website. Whenever the website said the weather was over 85 degrees Fahrenheit, the WeMo switched the fan on. With no direct human instruction, the “things” in Steve’s house worked together via the Internet to keep Ruby the cat cool. More broadly, the Internet of Things is the concept that everything can be linked to a web-enabled device to collect or make use of data. So many physical objects in our lives, from cameras to cars, already have computer chips built in. What happens when they can all “talk” to each other? And then, what happens when literally anything from the wristband you wear to wall of your bathroom to fruit at the grocery store can have tiny cheap chips put on them, and also join the conversation?

In this vision, distributed sensors can detect street traffic, enabling your GPS to route your car home from work, while communicating to your home’s thermostat how far away you are, so that it can power back up the heat from its most efficient setting, determined off its link to the smart power grid; sensors can detect how crowded different restaurants are to make you a reservation, and your exercise bike at the gym will talk to your credit card to find out what you ordered at that restaurant, and decide how long you have to work out the next day to burn that cheesecake off. One of the main obstacles to this vision is interoperability. The Internet exploded because of shared, open standards that anyone could build on. Without the unruly but effective governance structures, however, the many other devices that may be linked into the Internet of Things still lack standardized, open inputs and outputs that share and interpret instructions and data in seamless, automated exchanges. Common formats are required to understand data, and some mechanism is needed to gather and interpret data in the first place, which can be an expensive proposition. And while turning Ruby’s fan on was a simple function of knowing the temperature, not everything is so easy.


pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

Together, these new service industries made it possible for even small firms to trade with multiple distant markets.70 Newer ships New technologies are playing the same role today—enabling a greater volume and variety of goods, services and people to circulate. In the sky, aerospace improvements have extended the range that aircraft can fly and lowered their operating and environmental costs. Now, no two cities on the globe are more than a day apart, and more of us can afford to fly between them. In the United States, the cost of flying has fallen by as much as 40 percent over the past 30 years.71 On land, the emerging “Internet of Things”—tagging everything from cars to Coke machines with little chips and computers that can link to data networks—means that more and more objects in the physical world are adopting digital properties. Orchestrated by computers and robots, such objects can start to move about in volumes, at speeds and with efficiency far beyond human capabilities. Today they number 15 billion; by 2020, there will be 50 billion such objects in the world.72 In Seoul, Korea, for example, the entire public transportation system—every bus, taxi, train and public bicycle—is now networked.73 The expectation is that travel times will quicken and road congestion will fall as every user and “device” on the network starts to make computer-aided traffic management choices.

Today they number 15 billion; by 2020, there will be 50 billion such objects in the world.72 In Seoul, Korea, for example, the entire public transportation system—every bus, taxi, train and public bicycle—is now networked.73 The expectation is that travel times will quicken and road congestion will fall as every user and “device” on the network starts to make computer-aided traffic management choices. The Internet of Things will transform the volume and variety of physical flows on land. We know this, because it has already helped to do so at sea. So far, that is where new technologies have done the most to enable new global flows. “Containerization” has digitized shipping by putting everything from cars to crayons into identical, traceable boxes. This revolution began in 1956 with the advent of the container ship, and by the early 1990s, all the world’s major ports had been converted to handle them.

These crimes injure us personally, through the theft and ransom of identities, login information, webcam videos or Snapchat photos. They also use us to injure others, by making us unwitting accomplices in spam, phishing and email attacks, or by using our computers as web servers for malware and child pornography. And as more smart devices, from appliances to automobiles to the locks on our house, connect to the “Internet of Things,” the range of injuries that cyber criminals can cause us will only widen. In July 2015, some 1.4 million Jeeps were recalled when researchers proved they could exploit a bug to hack, and crash, the vehicles remotely over the Internet.81 Cybercrime also steals intellectual property and other secrets from institutions. In 2014, roughly one-half of small businesses, two-thirds of medium-sized companies and four-fifths of large enterprises worldwide were specifically targeted by a cybercrime.82 Keith Alexander, the director of the US National Security Agency until 2014, described cyber espionage activity as the “greatest transfer of wealth in history.”83 In the US alone, where half of all cyber attacks originate and are committed, corporate losses from cyber espionage may range from $300 to $400 billion per year.84 These attacks also harm customers and clients, by exposing their personal data and making them more vulnerable to identity theft.


pages: 405 words: 117,219

In Our Own Image: Savior or Destroyer? The History and Future of Artificial Intelligence by George Zarkadakis

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3D printing, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, anthropic principle, Asperger Syndrome, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, British Empire, business process, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, continuous integration, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Snowden, epigenetics, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, millennium bug, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

And what about all the smart things with which we are all beginning to furnish our homes: intelligent thermostats, fridges that order food when it runs out, telemedicine devices that monitor our health? The evangelists of the ‘internet of things’ proclaim that our lives will be simpler and more productive when the things we use can take decisions on our behalf. This is happening already, but will explode in the next few years. According to Cisco CEO John Chambers there are some thirteen billion devices connected to the Internet today, a number predicted to grow to fifty billion by 2020, and 500 billion by 2030.30 The Internet of things will result in US$19 trillion in profits and cost savings in the private and public sector, and will be ten to fifteen times larger than the Internet today in terms of number of connections. Things that think, talk and do The ‘Internet of things’ is postmodernism reinventing panpsychism – the idea that all things share a mind, or a soul.

It begins with the formulation of logic by Aristotle, and goes on to show how his ideas were developed further in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, until they led to the birth of computer languages and Artificial Intelligence. I will explore how ancient automata evolved into mechanical calculating machines, to Babbage’s Analytical Engine, and all the way to modern supercomputers and the Internet of things; and speculate about futuristic alternative computer architectures that mimic the neural networks of the brain. I will ask how close computers are to achieving self-awareness, and what might happen once they do. This book aspires to incite a fresh look at Artificial Intelligence by bridging the ‘two cultures’ gap, and illustrating the interconnection between literary narratives, philosophy and technology in defining and addressing the two most important scientific questions of all time: whence our minds and can we recreate them?

Although computing machines began – as their name suggests – as contraptions that automated arithmetic operations, they quickly became applied to just about everything. What are the unique characteristics of computers that make them so flexible, adaptable and intrusive? How did the transformation from the physical to the digital come about? Where does it lead us? And, finally, in the age of big data, search engines, social media, mobile apps and the Internet of things, what role is there for Artificial Intelligence? ‘War is the father and king of all’ Daring to complement Heraclitus’ famous quote,2 I would add that ballistics and encryption were the mothers and queens of all computers. The world war of 1939–1945 was fought with aircraft that often had to be shot down from the ground or from a moving ship at sea, and with encoded signals that coordinated sophisticated military movements of naval, land and aerial forces.


pages: 368 words: 96,825

Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator

Chapter Three: Five to Change the World 1 Adrian Kingsley-Hughes, “Mobile gadgets driving massive growth in touch sensors,” ZDNet, June 18, 2013, http://www.zdnet.com/mobile-gadgets-driving-massive-growth-in-touch-sensors-7000016954/. 2 Peter Kelly-Detwiler, “Machine to Machine Connections—The Internet of Things—And Energy,” Forbes, August 6, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/peterdetwiler/2013/08/06/machine-to-machine-connections-the-internet-of-things-and-energy/. 3 See http://www.shotspotter.com. 4 Clive Thompson, “No Longer Vaporware: The Internet of Things Is Finally Talking,” Wired, December 6, 2012, http://www.wired.com/2012/12/20-12-st_thompson/. 5 Brad Templeton, “Cameras or Lasers?,” Templetons, http://www.templetons.com/brad/robocars/cameras-lasers.html. 6 See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passenger_vehicles_in_the_United_States. 7 Commercial satellite players include: PlanetLabs (already launched), Skybox (launched and acquired by Google), Urthecast (launched), and two still-confidential companies still under development (about which Peter Diamandis has firsthand knowledge). 8 Stanford University, “Need for a Trillion Sensors Roadmap,” Tsensorsummit.org, 2013, http://www.tsensorssummit.org/Resources/Why%20TSensors%20Roadmap.pdf. 9 Rickie Fleming, “The battle of the G networks,” NCDS.com blog, June 28, 2014, http://www.ncds.com/ncds-business-technology-blog/the-battle-of-the-g-networks. 10 AI with Dan Hesse, 2013–14. 11 Unless otherwise noted, all IoT information and Padma Warrior quotes come from an AI with Padma, 2013. 12 Cisco, “2013 IoE Value Index,” Cisco.com, 2013, http://internetofeverything.cisco.com/learn/2013-ioe-value-index-whitepaper. 13 NAVTEQ, “NAVTEQ Traffic Patterns,” Navmart.com, 2008, http://www.navmart.com/pdf/NAVmart_TrafficPatterns.pdf. 14 Juho Erkheikki, “Nokia to Buy Navteq for $8.1 Billion, Take on TomTom (Update 7),” Bloomberg, October 1, 2007, http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?

“In 2013,” says Padma Warrior,11 the chief technology and strategy officer of Cisco, “eighty new things were being connected to the Internet every second. That’s nearly 7 million per day, 2.5 billion per year. In 2014, the number reached almost 100 per second. By 2020, it’ll grow to more than 250 per second, or 7.8 billion per year. Add all of these numbers up and that’s more than 50 billion things connected to the Internet by 2020.” And it’s this explosion of connectivity that is building the Internet-of-Things (IoT). A recent study by Cisco estimated that between 2013 and 2020, this uber-network will generate $19 trillion in value (net profit).12 Think about this for a moment. The U.S. economy hovers around $15 trillion a year. Cisco is saying that over the ten-year period, this new net will have an economic impact greater than America’s GDP. Talk about the land of opportunity. Global Internet Device Installed Base Forecast A Trillion Sensor Future Source: http://www.businessinsider.com/decoding-smartphone-industry-jargon-2013-11 “E” refers to “Estimated”, as in estimated size of the market.

From a technological perspective, what makes JARVIS extraordinary is both its pervasiveness in Stark’s life and its ability to understand natural-language instructions, even when the banter is laden with irony or humor. More technically, JARVIS is a software shell that interfaces between Stark’s every desire and the rest of the world, able both to gather data from billions of sensors and to take action through any system or robotic device connected to the AI. In this way, the Internet of Things serves as JARVIS’s eyes, ears, arms, and legs. For sure, JARVIS has dethroned HAL, now holding the title for most recognizable AI in the world, but what makes his dominance more spectacular is that unlike the never-actualized HAL, key elements of JARVIS are starting to come into existence in laboratories and companies around the world. AI expert and Singularity University cofounder/chancellor Ray Kurzweil27 explains: “In the 1960s, when Arthur C.

Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, financial innovation, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

Unlike concept testing, which requires people explicitly to articulate to researchers what they need and want, immersion labs allow researchers to observe customers as they play with prototypes and infer what needs to be done to improve product design and the user experience. Make use of big data analytics Consumer and industrial products of all kinds are increasingly connected to the internet. Mobile phones and the Internet of Things (identifiers for different physical objects) allow researchers to collect large amounts of detailed data to predict customer needs and respond with tailored solutions. This approach, called predictive analytics, has particular power in industrial contexts. Philips Lighting, which produces commercial lighting systems for large installations, provides a good example of its capabilities. The company fits (with the customer’s permission) each light fixture with sensor switches and motion detectors that gather data, such as hours used and dimming levels, and sends it back to a central information system.

Empowerment approaches provide consumers with the technical tools that can measure, monitor and manage their behaviour over time. They take advantage of the increasing ubiquity of smartphones, sensors in devices, the internet and social media to create apps that enable real-time monitoring and visualisation of behaviour. All this in turn enables consumers to become more aware of the causes and consequences of their behaviour and compare it with that of others. The most significant development here is the “Internet of Things”, that is, the equipping of everyday objects – watches, fridges, cars – with tiny, interconnected identifying devices that allow continuous, unobtrusive measuring, monitoring and regulation of behaviour on the web. Most efforts to shape consumer behaviour use a combination of both approaches, and are becoming increasingly widespread in areas as diverse as energy, education, finance and health.

In other words, customers do not just want sophisticated GE products; they also want personalised services that can help them run their businesses better. Second, the competitive landscape is radically shifting. In the coming years, GE’s toughest competitors will not be other industrial powerhouses such as Siemens or Schneider Electric, but the so-called GAFAs (Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon). Indeed, as more physical devices – from giant power turbines to modest light bulbs – are connected to the Internet of Things, a torrent of big data will be unleashed on the world. If the GAFAs can gain access to the data generated by GE’s industrial products, they can glean insights from that data to offer value-adding services to GE’s customers. As the saying goes: “Whoever owns the customer’s data owns the customer.” More worryingly, GAFAs and other software firms are rapidly expanding into hardware; for example, Google and Apple are investing in connected consumer products and Amazon is getting into drones and robots.


pages: 219 words: 63,495

50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson

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23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional

The solution will probably be even more technology, which is not what many people will want to hear, especially anyone familiar with E.M. Forster’s novel The Machine Stops. Perhaps the best way to think about the Internet in the future is to see it as something that you no longer “do,” but as something that simply “is.” When this happens the Internet will seem to have vanished. “The Internet of Things is also triggering new questions on ownership and consumption … we grow into an access-based economy, where IOI makes a pay-what-you-use system possible on an individual level.” Alexander Bassi, Institute for Internet and Society The Internet of things is not quite the same as ubiquitous or pervasive computing, but like most things in the future it’s connected. In the past, information was scarce and tended to be tightly controlled by governments or large corporations. Moreover, the flow was generally in one direction (certainly with media, which was broadcast to relatively passive recipients), and feedback loops (either from bottom upward or from outside to in) were slow and ponderous.

ISBN 978-1-62365-195-4 Distributed in the United States and Canada by Random House Publisher Services c/o Random House, 1745 Broadway New York, NY 10019 www.quercus.com Contents Introduction POLITICS & POWER 01 Ubiquitous surveillance 02 Digital democracy 03 Cyber & drone warfare 04 Water wars 05 Wane of the West ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT 06 Resource depletion 07 Beyond fossil fuels 08 Precision agriculture 09 Population change 10 Geo-engineering THE URBAN LANDSCAPE 11 Megacities 12 Local energy networks 13 Smart cities 14 Next-generation transport 15 Extra-legal & feral slums TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE 16 An internet of things 17 Quantum & DNA computing 18 Nanotechnology 19 Gamification 20 Artificial Intelligence HEALTH & WELL-BEING 21 Personalized genomics 22 Regenerative medicine 23 Remote monitoring 24 User-generated medicine 25 Medical data mining SOCIAL & ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS 26 Living alone 27 Dematerialization 28 Income polarization 29 What (& where) is work? 30 The pursuit of happiness TOWARD A POSTHUMAN SOCIETY 31 Human beings version 2.0 32 Brain–machine interfaces 33 Avatar assistants 34 Uncanny Valley 35 Transhumanism SPACE: THE FINAL FRONTIER 36 Alt.Space & space tourism 37 Solar energy from space 38 Moon mining 39 Space elevators 40 Alien intelligence DOOMSDAY SCENARIOS 41 Cell phone radiation 42 Biohazards & plagues 43 Nuclear terrorism 44 Volcanoes & quakes 45 The sixth mass extinction UNANSWERED QUESTIONS 46 The Singularity 47 Me or we?

the condensed idea Slums the size of cities timeline 2012 Parents hire private security guards to escort teenagers in London 2014 25 percent more helipads in São Paulo than New York due to no-go areas 2022 CEO of General Electric visits outskirts of Nairobi to learn about recycling 2026 Indian rubbish pricing and distribution system copied in USA 2030 Soldiers outnumber police on some city streets 2070 After the collapse of the mines, Western Australia becomes a prison colony 16 An internet of things According to Cisco Systems, there will be 50 billion “things” connected to the Internet by 2020. That’s seven for every man, woman and child on the planet. So what are some of these “things” and what are the consequences of an Internet that’s increasingly made up of physical objects embedded with sensors? In the future your socks will have an IP address and your sock drawer will know how many pairs you’ve got and what color they are.


pages: 49 words: 12,968

Industrial Internet by Jon Bruner

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autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, computer vision, data acquisition, demand response, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, job automation, loose coupling, natural language processing, performance metric, Silicon Valley, slashdot, smart grid, smart meter, statistical model, web application

Something similar is coming to the interfaces between software and the big machines that power the world around us. With a network connection and an open interface that masks its underlying complexity, a machine becomes a Web service, ready to be coupled to software intelligence that can ingest broad context and optimize entire systems of machines. The industrial internet is this union of software and big machines — what you might think of as the enterprise Internet of Things, operating under the demanding requirements of systems that have lives and expensive equipment at stake. It promises to bring the key characteristics of the Web — modularity, abstraction, software above the level of a single device — to demanding physical settings, letting innovators break down big problems, solve them in small pieces, and then stitch together their solutions. The foundational technologies of the industrial internet are available now to anyone from big industrial firms to garage inventors.

The inherent scalability of software means that a single exploit can propagate fast; once discovered, an exploit can be used against lots of machines. Think of a car’s odometer: the move to digital mileage counts, stored in software, makes it more difficult to tamper with the readout, but it expands the prospective target of an exploit from just one car (for mechanical odometers) to every car that uses the same software. Tools like Shodan[9], a search engine for the Internet of Things, and Digital Bond’s Basecamp[10], a database of industrial control exploits, illustrate the scale of the industrial internet and its vulnerabilities. Shodan is a search engine for Internet-connected devices, including some industrial control systems and Internet switches. Here it reveals several computers that return a default password field in their HTTP responses. Industrial-control security is a fast-growing discipline with many parallels to the early PC security industry, but also some crucial advantages: connected infrastructure generally operates within tightly-defined networks, with consistent transmission and control patterns.


pages: 378 words: 110,518

Postcapitalism: A Guide to Our Future by Paul Mason

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Alfred Russel Wallace, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, capital controls, Claude Shannon: information theory, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, deglobalization, deindustrialization, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, financial repression, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, Internet of things, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, means of production, Metcalfe's law, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, post-industrial society, precariat, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Transnistria, union organizing, universal basic income, urban decay, urban planning, wages for housework, women in the workforce

Soon the information will be flowing from ‘smart’ electricity meters, public transport passes and computer-controlled cars. The aggregated data of our lives – which will soon include our driving speed, our weekly diet, our body mass and heart rate – could be a hugely powerful ‘social technology’ in itself. Once the Internet of Things is rolled out, we are at the real takeoff point of the information economy. From then on, the key principle is to create democratic social control over aggregated information, and to prevent its monopolization or misuse by states and corporations. The Internet of Things will complete a vast social ‘machine’. Its analytical power alone could optimize resources on a scale that significantly reduces the use of carbon, raw materials and labour. Making the energy grid, the road network and the tax system ‘intelligent’ are just the most obvious things on the task list.

In terms of data storage, 2002 was the year in which the volume of digital information in the world overtook the amount of analog information. Between 2006 and 2012 humanity’s annual information output grew tenfold.25 It’s hard to tell exactly where you are in a tech revolution but my hunch is the simultaneous arrival of tablets, streaming video and music and the takeoff of social media between 2009 and 2014 will be seen as the key moment of synergy. The rollout of billions of machine-to-machine connections, known as the ‘Internet of Things’, in the next ten years will then populate the global information network with more intelligent devices than there are people on earth. To live through all this was exhilarating enough. Even more exhilarating now is to watch a kid get their first smartphone and find it all – Bluetooth, GPS, 3G, wifi, streaming video, hi-res photography and heart-rate monitor – as if it had always been there.

Jeremy Rifkin, an influential management consultant, came closest to describing current reality in his 2014 book The Zero Marginal Cost Society.53 Rifkin argues that peer-production and capitalism are two different systems; currently they coexist and even gain energy from each other, but ultimately peer-production will reduce the capitalist sector of the economy to a few niches. Rifkin’s most radical insight was to understand the potential of the Internet of Things. The most enthusiastic consultancies – for example McKinsey – have valued the impact of this process as up to $6 trillion a year, mainly in healthcare and manufacturing. But the vast majority of that $6 trillion is in reduced cost and increased efficiency: that is, it contributes to reducing the marginal cost of physical goods and services in the same way as copy and paste reduces the cost of information goods.


pages: 347 words: 97,721

Only Humans Need Apply: Winners and Losers in the Age of Smart Machines by Thomas H. Davenport, Julia Kirby

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AI winter, Andy Kessler, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, carbon-based life, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, conceptual framework, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, follow your passion, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, game design, general-purpose programming language, Google Glasses, Hans Lippershey, haute cuisine, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, inventory management, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter Thiel, precariat, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, speech recognition, spinning jenny, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar

By now, heavy use of embedded analytics, or operational analytics, has given rise to what Tom has elsewhere called “Analytics 3.0,” a new era in which data drive the workings of organizations at dramatically greater speed and scale.5 Gartner, the IT market research firm, recognized “advanced, pervasive, and invisible analytics” as one of its “ten strategic technologies for 2015.”6 Bill Franks, the chief analytics officer of Teradata, is referring to the same transformation in his book on operational analytics called The Analytics Revolution. If you are already weary of the buzzwords “big data” and “the Internet of things,” this is why; both represent fire hoses of data that become extremely valuable when the computing power is in place to find patterns and make decisions to capitalize on them. Already today, the Internet connects more smart objects than people (and has thus become an Internet of things); by 2020, Cisco estimates, the number of devices connected to the Internet will rise to 50 billion.7 As they transmit data in near-real time, fast computers are able to make frequent decisions based on continuous analysis. Sensors in a jet engine, for example, collect and transmit data on heat, vibration, and other conditions, allowing a smart machine to schedule service as needed, or to advise a pilot to shut it down as soon as possible.

The most sophisticated underwriting systems generate literally millions of different pricing cells and do so easily, because it is only a matter of following logical rules and equations. Computer systems gain an even greater advantage as devices with sensors—cars, trucks, boilers, and other types of equipment—start reporting regularly on their own performance and usage. With such massive amounts of data to consider, humans are truly out of their league. Dealing with the “Internet of things” is something computers are capable of. Humans, not so much. Yet that doesn’t have to be the end of the story. Underwriters who can learn to focus on other strengths they bring to the job can survive this capture of its core, and even come out better for it—perhaps never regretting that forgone career as pro baseball player, ballerina, or astronaut. The Underwriter Who Steps Up One way to respond to a computer encroaching on your work is to see it as that extremely competent assistant that allows you to step up—which, in the realm of underwriting, might mean taking responsibility for “portfolio management.”

At the Baylor College of Medicine in Dallas, they used it to read through more than 70,000 scientific articles, looking for accounts of any protein that could modify p53, a protein that regulates cancer growth. Most scientists would struggle to identify one such protein in a year; Watson took only a few weeks to find six (although, to be fair, it took several years to prepare Watson to do this).6 Other organizations are using similar technologies to glean insights from natural-language content that exists in enormous volume. Or think about the “Internet of things”—the ability to place small sensors on objects in the physical world and have them communicate readings in real time. The rise of this technology has been governed by the rise of computers with the processing power to deal with the immense amounts of data produced; unaided humans could not conceivably monitor and control the vast sensor networks used to, for example, detect if a tsunami is brewing far offshore.


pages: 238 words: 73,824

Makers by Chris Anderson

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3D printing, Airbnb, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, business process, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, factory automation, Firefox, future of work, global supply chain, global village, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, South of Market, San Francisco, spinning jenny, Startup school, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize, Y Combinator

This construction—“atoms” versus “bits”—originated with the work of a number of thinkers from the MIT Media Lab, starting with its founder, Nicholas Negroponte, and today most prominently exemplified by Neal Gershenfeld and the MIT Center for Bits and Atoms. It is shorthand for the distinction between software and hardware, or information technology and Everything Else. Today the two are increasingly blurring as more everyday objects contain electronics and are connected to other objects, the so-called Internet of Things. That’s part of what we’ll be talking about here. But even more, we’ll look at how it’s changing manufacturing, otherwise known as the flippin’ Engine of the World Economy. The idea of a “factory” is, in a word, changing. Just as the Web democratized innovation in bits, a new class of “rapid prototyping” technologies, from 3-D printers to laser cutters, is democratizing innovation in atoms.

This is often called “physical computing” or “embedded computing,” and you see examples of it all around you. Practically every electronic device in your home works this way, from your thermostat to your alarm clocks, stereos, microwave oven, and portable music players. Your car has dozens of embedded computers. The difference is that they are all closed and proprietary, while Arduino is designed to be easy for anyone to use and modify. Much of the emerging “Internet of Things” movement is built on Arduino-based devices connected to the Web, from coffeemakers that tweet their status to pet feeders you can control from your phone, wherever you are. So, because I knew it best, I decided to base the sprinkler controller on Arduino. That meant it could tap into a huge community of people who are using Arduino for all sorts of other purposes, and who had already solved most of the problems of connecting it to the Internet and any sensor you can imagine.

Then they asked for Bluetooth 4.0, with its lower power consumption, rather than the original Bluetooth 2.0 (or Sony’s 3.0). So the team, emboldened by its flood of orders, went looking for the right 4.0 modules and were able to source them, giving the watch better battery life and making it more future-proof. Finally, other Kickstarter projects joined the parade and announced that they would be writing apps to run on Pebble, including Twine, an “Internet of Things” device that could let Pebble do things like tell you when someone’s knocking at your door. As of this writing, Pebble has not yet shipped its watches (they’re due in September 2012), and perhaps production glitches will mar or delay the launch. But even before that, it’s not hard to see in Pebble a superior model: a small team using crowdfunding to move more quickly in all ways—R&D, finance, and marketing—than a lumbering electronics giant.


pages: 588 words: 131,025

The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine Is in Your Hands by Eric Topol

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23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize

When patients with like conditions can connect with and learn from each other, without the constraints of time or place as they would have with a doctor’s visit, yet another critical dimension of democratized medicine is discernible. FIGURE 1.3: The rise in connected devices on the Internet of Things from 2003 to 2020, projected. Source: D. Evans, “The Internet of Things: How the Next Evolution of the Internet is Changing Everything,” Cisco Internet Business Solutions Group, April 2011, http://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac79/docs/innov/IoT_IBSG_0411FINAL.pdf. Courtesy of Cisco Systems, Inc. Unauthorized use not permitted. August 1, 2014. The marked connectivity is taken further when one considers the Internet of Things (IoT). That is the unbridled growth of not only people but also devices that are wirelessly connected via the Internet. The projections range from twenty-eight to fifty billion connected devices by 2020,28 and the implications are profound.

It is inextricably linked to the democratization of medicine. The prospect here would not be possible without exquisite tracking of individuals by themselves—recall the double entendre of the term “individualized medicine.”6 Picking up a signal long before there are any symptoms relies on one’s GIS, not an annual visit with the doctor. With the little wireless devices that we carry and the Internet of Things, we’re developing the capability of continuous, critical, real-time surveillance of our bodies. When that gets fully developed, as it ultimately will, The Economist’s predictions for the next thirty years in medicine don’t seem as far-fetched. FIGURE 13.1: Increase in life expectancy and projection for most diseases “cured.” Source: Adapted from “A Survey of the Future of Medicine,” The Economist, March 19, 1994, http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1–15236568.html.

The Framing of Physical Activity Biases Subsequent Snacking,” Marketing Letters, May 27, 2014, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2442383. 60a. E. Topol, The Creative Destruction of Medicine (New York, NY: Basic Books, 2012), 126–127. 60b. N. Gohring, “This Company Saved $300k on Insurance by Giving Employees Fitbits,” Cite World, July 7, 2014: http://www.citeworld.com/article/2450823/internet-of-things/appirio-fitbit-experiment.html. 60c. P. Olson, “Wearable Tech Is Plugging into Health Insurance,” Forbes, June 19, 2014, http://www.forbes.com/sites/parmyolson/2014/06/19/wearable-tech-health-insurance/. 61. S. Lohr, “Salesforce Takes Its Cloud Model to Health Care,” New York Times, June 26, 2014, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/06/26/salesforce-takes-its-cloud-model-to-health-care/. 62.


pages: 144 words: 43,356

Surviving AI: The Promise and Peril of Artificial Intelligence by Calum Chace

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3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, discovery of the americas, disintermediation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Flash crash, friendly AI, Google Glasses, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, life extension, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mutually assured destruction, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South Sea Bubble, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technological singularity, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Wall-E

Happy in the full possession of her vegetables, she drove home, humming along to Joni Mitchell. 2.2 – Converting information into knowledge – at different speeds The science fiction writer William Gibson is reported as saying that “The future is already here – it’s just not evenly distributed.” (13) Most of the things mentioned in the short story above are already available in prototype and early incarnations, and the rest is firmly under development – some of it as part of the so-called “internet of things”. It could take anywhere from five to fifteen years for you to have working versions of all of them. Some people will think the life described above is frightening, perhaps de-humanised. It is likely that more people will welcome the assistance, and of course generations to come will simply take it for granted. As Douglas Adams said, anything invented after you’re thirty-five is against the natural order of things, anything invented between when you’re fifteen and thirty-five is new and exciting, and anything that is in the world when you’re born is just a natural part of the way the world works. (14) Of course there is no guarantee that the future will work out this way – in fact the details are bound to be different.

As Douglas Adams said, anything invented after you’re thirty-five is against the natural order of things, anything invented between when you’re fifteen and thirty-five is new and exciting, and anything that is in the world when you’re born is just a natural part of the way the world works. (14) Of course there is no guarantee that the future will work out this way – in fact the details are bound to be different. For example we don’t yet know whether the myriad devices connecting up to the Internet of Things will communicate with us directly, or via personal digital assistants like Hermione. Will you be reminded to take your pill in the morning because its bottle starts glowing, or will Hermione alert you? No doubt the outcome will seem obvious in hindsight. It has been said that all industries are now part of the information industry – or heading that way. Much of the cost of developing a modern car – and much of the quality of its performance – lies in the software that controls it.

Creating an AGI is very hard. But serious consideration of exponential growth makes very hard problems seem more tractable. Buckminster Fuller estimated that at the start of the twentieth century the sum of human knowledge was doubling every century, and that by the end of the second world war that had reduced to twenty-five years. (40) Now it takes 13 months and in 2006 IBM estimated that when the internet of things becomes a reality the rate would be every 12 hours. (41) The football stadium thought experiment illustrates how progress at exponential rate can take you by surprise – even when you are looking for it. Many sensible people become suspicious when they hear the phrase exponential growth: they fear it used as a cover for wishful (or so-called “magical”) thinking. Others question how long Moore’s Law can continue.


pages: 602 words: 177,874

Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra

GE, thanks in large part to its accelerating ability to put sensors all over its industrial equipment, is becoming more of a software company, with a big base now in Silicon Valley. Forget about washing machines—think intelligent machines. GE’s ability to install sensors everywhere is helping to make possible the “industrial Internet,” also known as the “Internet of Things” (IoT), by enabling every “thing” to carry a sensor that broadcasts how it is feeling at any moment, thus allowing its performance to be immediately adjusted or predicted in response. This Internet of Things, Ruh explained, “is creating a nervous system that will allow humans to keep up with the pace of change, make the information load more usable,” and basically “make every thing intelligent.” General Electric itself gathers data from more than 150,000 GE medical devices, 36,000 GE jet engines, 21,500 GE locomotives, 23,000 GE wind turbines, 3,900 gas turbines, and 20,700 pieces of oil and gas equipment, all of which wirelessly report to GE how they are feeling every minute.

IBM ice sheets; shrinking of identity, proof of IEDs (improvised explosive devices) IEX illiteracy Ilulissat, Greenland Immelt, Jeff immigrants, immigration; diversity and; as entrepreneurs; into Europe; integration of; policy reform for imperialism, fading of inclusion, ethos of India; connectivity in Indian Institute of Technology Indonesia Industrial Revolution; Second inflection points; age of accelerations; year 2000; year 2007 information technology revolution infrastructure; in weak states innovation: in geopolitics; global flows and; in India; lag between consequences and; in Mexico; in post–post–Cold War geopolitics; as response to change; in social technologies; supernova and; see also education, innovation in; ethics, innovation in; politics, innovation in; software innovation; technological change; workforce, innovation in Institute for the Future integrated circuits; Moore’s law and Intel intelligent algorithms intelligent assistance; AT&T and; skill sets and intelligent assistants; education and; job seekers and; workforce and interdependence; in ecosystems; in financial flow; in geopolitics; healthy vs. unhealthy; of natural systems International Commission on Stratigraphy International Institute for Strategic Studies International Journal of Business, Humanities, and Technology International Organization for Migration International Rescue Committee Internet; cloud and, see supernova (cloud computing); digital divide and; GDP and; government policy on; mobile phones and; weak states and Internet of Things Internet of Things Foundry intuition, and detection of weak signals Invictus (film) Iorio, Luana iOS iPhones; AT&T’s gamble on Iran Iraq Iraq War Isbin, Sharon Islam Islamic State (ISIS); videos by Islamists Islamist terrorism isolation, as disease Israel Israeli-Palestinian War (1982) Istanbul Itasca Project Ixigo.com Jabr, Jumana Jacklin, Tony Jackson, Wes Jacobs, Irwin Jacobs, Jeff Jacobs, Lawrence Jacobs, Paul Japan Japanese Americans Jennings, Ken Jennings, Peter Jeopardy!

By expanding its business model from mailing DVDs to selling subscriptions for online streaming, Netflix has dramatically broadened its international reach to more than 190 countries. While media, music, books, and games represent the first wave of digital trade, 3-D printing could eventually expand digital commerce to many more product categories. And forget the fact that so many “friends” are connecting on Facebook. How about all the “things” getting to know one another? You want to see flows—wait until the “Internet of Things” gets to scale and machines start talking to machines everywhere and always! “Only 0.6 percent of things are connected today,” Plamen Nedeltchev, distinguished IT engineer at Cisco, wrote on Cisco.com in an essay entitled “It is inevitable. It is here. Are we ready?” on September 29, 2015. “There were 1,000 Internet-connected devices in 1984,” said the article, a million in 1992, and ten billion in 2008.


pages: 380 words: 104,841

The Human Age: The World Shaped by Us by Diane Ackerman

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Earth, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, Internet of things, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Masdar, megacity, microbiome, nuclear winter, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, skunkworks, Skype, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the High Line, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog

As they move through each room, lights turn on ahead of them and fade away behind, a thermostat adjusts itself, the song or TV show or movie they were enjoying greets them, favorite food and drink are proffered. The house’s nervous system is what’s known as the “Internet of Things.” In 1999, the technology pioneer Kevin Ashton coined the term for a cognitive web that unites a mob of physical and virtual digital devices—furnace, lights, water, computers, garage door, oven, etc.—with the physical world, much as cells in the body communicate to coordinate actions. As they cabal among themselves, synchronizing their energy use and activities, they can also share data with the neighborhood, city, and wired world. Combining animal, vegetable, mineral, and machine, his idea is playing out in the avant-garde new city of Songdo, South Korea, where the Internet of Things is nearly ubiquitous. Smart homes, shops, and office buildings stream data continuously to a cadre of computers that sense, scrutinize, and make decisions, monitoring and piloting the whole synchronous city, mainly without human help.

Toiling invisibly in the background, the council of computers can organize massive subway repairs, or send you a personal cell phone alert if your bus is running late. It’s a little odd thinking of computers taking meetings on the fly and gabbing together in an alien argot. But naming it the Internet of Things domesticates an idea that might otherwise frighten us. We know and enjoy the Internet, already older than many of its users, and familiar now as a pet. In an age where even orangutans Skype on iPads, what could be more humdrum than the all-purpose, nondescript word “things”? The Internet of Things reassures us that this isn’t a revolutionary idea—though, in truth, it is—just an everyday technology linked to something vague and harmless sounding. It doesn’t suggest brachiating from one reality to another; it just expands the idea of last century’s cozy new technology, and animates the idea of home.


pages: 413 words: 119,587

Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots by John Markoff

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Although few people encountered the hulking mainframe computers of the 1950s and 1960s, there was a prevailing sense that these machines exerted some sinister measure of control over their lives. Then in the 1970s personal computing arrived and the computer became something much friendlier—because people could touch these computers, they began to feel that they were now in control. Today, an “Internet of Things” is emerging and computers have once again started to “disappear,” this time blending into everyday objects that have as a result acquired seemingly magical powers—our smoke detectors speak and listen to us. Our phones, music players, and tablets have more computing power than the supercomputers of just a few decades ago. With the arrival of “ubiquitous computing,” we have entered a new age of smart machines.

Every footstep and every utterance is now tracked and collected, if not by Big Brother then by a growing array of commercial “Little Brothers.” The Internet has become an intimate technology that touches every facet of our culture. Today our smartphones, laptops, and desktop computers listen to us, supposedly at our command, and cameras gaze from their screens as well, perhaps benignly. The impending Internet of Things is now introducing unobtrusive, always-on, and supposedly helpful countertop robots, like the Amazon Echo and Cynthia Breazeal’s Jibo, to homes across the country. Will a world that is watched over by what sixties poet Richard Brautigan described as “machines of loving grace” be a free world? Free, that is, in the sense of “freedom of speech,” rather than “free beer.”1 The best way to answer questions about control in a world full of smart machines is by understanding the values of those who are actually building these systems.

The debate took place a decade and a half before Apple unveiled Siri, which successfully added an entirely artificial human element to human-computer interaction. Years later Shneiderman would acknowledge that there were some cases in which using speech and voice recognition might be appropriate. He did, however, remain a staunch critic of the basic idea of software agents, and pointed out that aircraft cockpit designers had for decades tried and failed to use speech recognition to control airplanes. When Siri was introduced in 2010, the “Internet of Things” was approaching the peak in the hype cycle. This had originally been Xerox PARC’s next big idea after personal computing. In the late 1980s PARC computer scientist Mark Weiser had predicted that as microprocessor cost, size, and power collapsed, it would be possible to discreetly integrate computer intelligence into everyday objects. He called this “UbiComp” or ubiquitous computing. Computing would disappear into the woodwork, he argued, just as electric motors, pulleys, and belts are now “invisible.”


pages: 433 words: 127,171

The Grid: The Fraying Wires Between Americans and Our Energy Future by Gretchen Bakke

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Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, demand response, dematerialisation, distributed generation, energy security, energy transition, full employment, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, laissez-faire capitalism, Menlo Park, Negawatt, new economy, post-oil, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, the built environment, too big to fail, washing machines reduced drudgery, Whole Earth Catalog

Whatever they thought about the SmartGridCity, what made them really angry was the utility’s unwillingness to integrate more wind power. Val, however, has different concerns. She wants her house to manage itself. She wants it to make electricity, store it, and use it without her having to do much more than punch into her smart phone, DISHES WASHED BY 5 P.M. and MAKE SURE THE CAR IS CHARGED BY 7. The coming “Internet of Things,” of which smart phones, smart appliances, smart meters, and electric cars are all integral parts (it is coming, by the way, it just hasn’t quite arrived yet), is in many ways the continuation of an emancipation project that began in the 1930s to free women from the drudgery of household work by electrifying common appliances. The laundry line became the electric clothes dryer, the washboard became the electric washing machine, the icebox became the refrigerator, the kettle on the stove for the weekly bath became the electric hot water heater, the mangle became the electric iron, and so on and so forth.

In short, we’d like our grid to whisper away, to be less devastating in its effects, and to work without deputizing us to the process. We’ll keep electricity, thank you. In fact, the further we proceed into the age of information the more electricity becomes the base for all that we do, from banking, to reading, to collaborative thinking. The future promises an even more thorough integration of electricity into our lives, more data (which is after all, just electricity), more “smart” things (coming to populate the Internet of Things), and the elimination of fuel from cars, necessary if we’d like to stop global warming before it exceeds the 2-degrees-Celsius disaster line. Most important, we’d like this means of “being electric” to come from nothing, to be transmitted by nothing, to cause no damage, and to work always and wherever. This abiding cultural attachment to electricity only makes the unwieldy ways in which we have to move in order to access it all the more salient.

If we are smart enough, it might also be a chance to capture the cutting edge of technological innovation and cultural imagination and concretize it in the grid itself. All the visions of ubiquitous technology, sentient cities, chips everywhere could well take their alpha form in the electric grid. It is, after all, as Nicola Tesla pointed out, not only a system for powering the world but also essential to the lines of communication that weave our economies, our labor, and our imaginations together. If we are going to bring the Internet of Things into our daily lives, then why not start with the biggest thing of all? The grid, tick-bright and aglow with promise. Afterword Contemplating Death in the Afternoon As I write this, the power is out. It’s below freezing outside, though it’s midafternoon on a sunny day in early spring. I have a couple of hours of battery power left in my computer. I was using it for most of the morning without having plugged it in, though there was an outlet less than a cord’s length away.

Big Data at Work: Dispelling the Myths, Uncovering the Opportunities by Thomas H. Davenport

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Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, cloud computing, data acquisition, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, intermodal, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, New Journalism, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, sorting algorithm, statistical model, Tesla Model S, text mining

I don’t know if all of these data forms will remain; the normal pattern is for the functions performed by these tools to be incorporated into broader applications. The data generated by them and the insights they reveal about their authors, however, are not going away. In general, however, sensor data is here to stay. The number of networked devices overtook the global population of humans in 2011. ­Analysts estimate that fifty billion sensors will be connected to the ­internet by 2025 (“the Internet of Things”), and each one can ­produce a passel of data. While early prognostications suggested that internet-connected sensors would primarily be used in consumer ­ devices, there has been only limited progress in that regard. Our ­refrigerators may not be connected to the internet anytime soon (if they were, they could, for example, automatically order fresh milk to be delivered when we run low), but our TVs, security systems, and thermostats are increasingly networked.

HunchWorks is also described as “a mechanism to make the membranes between silos of knowledge both inside and outside of the UN more permeable.” An important aspect of big data is that it is Chapter_01.indd 20 03/12/13 3:24 AM Why Big Data Is Important to You and Your Organization   21 often external to the organization using it. Whether one is addressing internet data, human genome data, social media data, the Internet of Things, or some other source, chances are good that it doesn’t come from your company’s internal transaction systems. The exceptions to this pattern—which I’ll describe in chapter 2—are most likely to be in the telecommunications and financial services industries, which are blessed with massive amounts of internally generated data to analyze. Even there, however, internal data can often be profitably supplemented with external data.

See also Apache Impala industrial products and services, 13, 16, 25–26, 65, 75, 185, 197 industrial products firms, 42t, 43, 47, 83 informatics, 66, 156 information technology impact of big data on, 55–56 See also architecture; technology; and specific processes and products 03/12/13 2:04 PM Index  223 Ingenix, 155–156 in-memory analytics, 114t, 116, 124, 199 innovation, focus on, 147 Insight Data Science Fellows Program, 104 insurance industry, 34, 42, 42t, 67, 77, 137, 142, 162, 202 integration, 126–128, 127f, 199–200 Intel, 47 Intel Hadoop, 115 intellectual property (IP), 161 Intermountain Healthcare, 156. See also Home Warner Center for Informatics Research International Institute for Analytics, 135 Internet of Things, 11, 21 internship programs, 103 Intuit, 141–142 iPod, 12 J.R. Simplot, 11 Java language, 89, 123 Jimenez, Joe, 66 job growth for data scientists, 111, 111f, 184–185 John Deere, 47 Johnson & Johnson, 54 Kaplan Inc., 16, 41, 66 Karu, Zoher, 143 Keeping Up with the Quants (Davenport and Kim), 93 Klamka, Jake, 104 Kyruus, 161, 162, 168 large companies action plan for Analytics 3.0 for ­managers in, 204 automating existing processes in, 190–193 big data objectives in, 178–180 big data’s value proposition in, 187 big data used in, 175–176 chief analytics officer role in, 202 company case studies in, 178, 181, 183, 186–187, 187–188, 192, 196, 198 data scientists and teams in, 201 historical context for analytics and big data in, 194–197 Index.indd 223 integrated and embedded models in, 199–200 hybrid technology models in, 200–201 integrating organizational structures and skills in, 182–185 managers’ views of big data in, 176–177 multiple data types in, 197–199 prescriptive analytics used in, 202–203 return on investment in, 188–189, 190f speed of technologies and methods in, 199 leadership, 139–143, 151 Library of Congress, 1 life-cycle management, 129 LinkedIn, 16, 65, 82, 83, 92, 104, 127, 146, 148, 153, 155, 157, 158–159, 160–161, 164, 165 People You May Know (PYMK) ­feature of, 23–24, 140–141, 148, 158 Lockheed Martin, 78 Louisiana State University, 102 machine learning, 4t, 29, 88, 96, 102, 110–111, 113, 114t, 118, 124, 183, 199 Macy’s, 63–64, 179, 183 Macys.com, 63, 182, 183 management big data technology perspective of, 15–18 big data usage and changes in, 27–28 leadership in big data initiatives and, 139–143, 151 new roles in, 141–143 managers action plans for, 30, 57, 84, 112, 134, 151–152, 173, 204 big data skills for, 106–110 in large companies, 176–177 retraining of, 112 visual analytics and, 109 manufacturing, 8t, 52–53, 56, 77, 193, 197 MapReduce framework, 29, 89, 114t, 116, 122, 123, 127f, 132, 148, 157, 199 marketing automated narrative for, 126 banking and, 44, 49, 55, 109 big data strategy and, 5, 8t, 66, 69, 71, 193 B2B firms and, 45–46 Caesars Entertainment and, 179 03/12/13 2:04 PM 224  Index marketing (continued) data-based products and services for, 75, 79, 92, 163, 171, 182 LinkedIn’s use of, 158–159 managerial roles for, 141–142 organizational structure and, 15, 18 retail and, 37–38, 63, 71, 183, 192 sources of data for, 50–51 targeting offers to, 27, 55, 63–64, 65, 67, 72, 79, 107, 108–109, 128, 142, 144, 179, 180, 197 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 102, 142, 202, 206 massively parallel processing (MPP), 189, 195, 208 Matters Corp, 69 Mayer, Marissa, 166 Mayo Clinic, 181 McAfee, Andy, 27, 206 McGraw-Hill, 143 McKinsey, 185 media and entertainment firms, 5, 42, 44, 48–49, 54, 179–180 medical record systems, 9, 43, 44–45, 72, 121–122, 156, 181 MetaScale, 192 Me-trics, 13 Microsoft, 14, 37, 163 Microsoft Hadoop, 115 Microsoft Windows Azure, 163.


pages: 25 words: 5,789

Data for the Public Good by Alex Howard

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23andMe, Atul Gawande, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Hernando de Soto, Internet of things, Network effects, openstreetmap, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social software, social web, web application

When combined, those factors mean that we now see earthquake tweets spread faster than the seismic waves themselves. Networked publics can now share the effects of disasters in real time, providing officials with unprecedented insight into what’s happening. Citizens act as sensors in the midst of the storm, creating an ad hoc system of networked accountability through data. The growth of an Internet of Things is an important evolution. What we saw during Hurricane Irene in 2011 was the increasing importance of an Internet of people, where citizens act as sensors during an emergency. Emergency management practitioners and first responders have woken up to the potential of using social data for enhanced situational awareness and resource allocation. An historic emergency social data summit in Washington in 2010 highlighted how relevant this area has become.


pages: 309 words: 114,984

The Digital Doctor: Hope, Hype, and Harm at the Dawn of Medicine’s Computer Age by Robert Wachter

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computer age, crowdsourcing, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Google Glasses, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, medical malpractice, medical residency, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, pets.com, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, Toyota Production System, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Yogi Berra

Halamka, “Rethinking Clinical Documentation,” Life as a Healthcare CIO blog, April 5, 2010, available at http://geekdoctor.blogspot.com/2010/04/rethinking-clinical-documentation.html; and, by the same author, “Brainstorming About the Future of Clinical Documentation,” December 18, 2012, available at http://geekdoctor.blogspot.com/2012/12/brainstorming-about-future-of-clinical.html. 260 Color-coded digital dashboards An impressive version of this is being developed by Peter Pronovost and colleagues at Johns Hopkins, in collaboration with Michael Gropper and other colleagues at UCSF, funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Interviews of Peter Pronovost and Mark Romig by the author, July 22, 2014, and S. Rice, “Ambitious Checklist App Comes as Hospitals Struggle with Basic Checklists,” Modern Healthcare, June 21, 2014. 262 There is no doubt, however, that the “Internet of Things” See S. Ferber, “How the Internet of Things Changes Everything,” HBR Blog Network, May 7, 2013, available at http://blogs.hbr.org/2013/05/how-the-internet-of-things-cha/. 265 Instead, most will be of outcomes Harvard’s Michael Porter has been promoting this argument, such as here: M. E. Porter, “What Is Value in Health Care?” New England Journal of Medicine 363:2477–2481 (2010). I have favored retaining some process measures for now, because the state of case-mix adjustment is not uniformly advanced.

Since none of this will alter the human condition—most people who are asked to cut down on salt or calories will fail to do so, whether they are commanded by their wife or their iPad—the algorithms will escalate their prompts in a customized way. They will ultimately “know” what behavioral prompts work for each patient (or, in that Amazonlike way, “for patients like you”). I’ll leave it to your imagination to decide whether, in the case of the recalcitrant patient, the computer system will ultimately be granted the authority to lock down the salt shaker or the refrigerator. There is no doubt, however, that the “Internet of Things” will give the system the wherewithal to do so, as well as the capacity to offer rewards, of a sort, for good works. For the patient with an acute medical issue, the capacity for home care will be greatly enhanced through new devices and telemedicine. The mom with a child who has an earache will, in fact, be able to look in the child’s ear and beam the image to a nursepractitioner or a physician, who will diagnose it and prescribe a treatment (at some point, a computer will be able to make simple diagnoses based on visual images).


pages: 379 words: 108,129

An Optimist's Tour of the Future by Mark Stevenson

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23andMe, Albert Einstein, Andy Kessler, augmented reality, bank run, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, clean water, computer age, decarbonisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, flex fuel, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hans Rosling, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Louis Pasteur, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, packet switching, peak oil, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, the scientific method, Wall-E, X Prize

It will be normal for devices, when activated, to discover what other devices are in the neighbourhood, so your mobile will discover that it has a high resolution display available in what was once called a television set. If you wish, your mobile will remember where you have been and will keep track of … objects such as your briefcase, car keys and glasses. ‘Where are my glasses?’ you will ask. ‘You were last within … reach of them while in the living room,’ your mobile or laptop will say. ‘There’s the “Internet of things” in addition to the Internet of people and ideas,’ says Vint. As computing technology continues to get smaller, almost every object has the potential to become a node on the Internet. It’s a world where if you’ve lost your keys you’ll Google them, where your fire alarm will call you to let you know it’s been activated, and your toothpaste orders more of itself as you reach the end of the tube.

Well, there are hostile actions going on every day all the time and they’re capable of rendering parts of the ’Net inoperable but I don’t think the machine would stop in and of itself.’ Technology’s story is our story. Burke’s ‘warm blanket of technology’ isn’t separate from us, we’re woven into the fabric of it and vice versa. And in the next chapter of the Internet’s story, intertwined with ‘the Internet of things’ is something called ‘augmented reality,’ a phrase that strikes the same fear into my heart as those thin yellow burger slices that are ‘cheese flavoured’ and not actual cheese. What’s wrong with real reality then? A man walks into a shop and picks up a packet of paper towels. As he does so, an image appears on the packet telling him how much bleach was used in its manufacture. He picks up another and compares.

While in California, I’d popped in to see Dan Reicher, Google’s head of environmental projects. Dan argued that concentrating on energy efficiency is the best thing we can do for the planet in the short term. ‘I apologise that this is not the exciting stuff and therefore may not make it into your book, but the low-hanging fruit is doing more with less; energy efficiency across the entire economy.’ Part of that solution will be the ‘Internet of things’ I talked about with Vint Cerf. ‘We’re starting to see smart appliances entering the market,’ Dan said. ‘The more they can talk to each other and your electricity supply about how much they’re consuming, the more they’ll be able to coordinate to use less electricity. Do I really care whether my dishwasher runs at six o’clock when it’s a hundred degrees out and the electricity system is browning out because everyone’s got their air-conditioning on, or whether it runs at three in the morning at half the cost with a lot less impact?


pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

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3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar

Packaged products are shipped off to five global warehouses and distribution centers, which in turn send those boxes on to 35,000 retail locations.26 As the company has grown, Quirky has been able to partner with both physical and online retailers to sell its products. A $69 million financing in November 2013, including $30 million from GE, allowed Quirky to spin off Wink, a wholly owned subsidiary.27 Wink provides a technology ecosystem (a platform) that makes it simple to bring together connected-home devices with smartphones, giving GE a way to participate in both the Internet of Things and crowd-sourced innovation. (Chapter 8 will delve into the ways in which large mainstream companies are adapting to the new organizational paradigm.) The first GE + Quirky–branded product was the Aros air conditioner, which lets you change the room temperature setting from a distance when you are away, and which automatically instructs your Aros to begin cooling the room to a predetermined temperature when your smartphone is within a certain proximity of home.

People who are watching their weight, improving their sleep and exercise regimens, and following doctor’s orders will contribute their personal data via sophisticated and user-friendly devices, as is already happening today. Some of that will be anonymized and become part of large population databases that will transform public health and the delivery of health care. Smart health, smart cities, and big data (together becoming the Internet of Things) are in fact all grounded in Peers Inc: repurposed data that is collected by all kinds of peers and organized and analyzed by various Incs, empowering individuals and cities to make better decisions, learn faster, evolve more quickly, and have a different relationship with our environment. We can see the transition happening today. Google is wholly a Peers Inc configuration. It is our searches, our clicks, and our links that inform the search engine, and millions of companies small and large that buy Google ads.

Their network bridged those without access to those who did, and connected them all together for local emergency updates. I’ve loved mesh networking for a very long time now, championing it not just for its potential for emergency services but also for its promise to provide very low-cost wireless connectivity to people around the globe. Mesh networks are a terrific solution for wireless in congested or remote places, helping connect up the Internet of Things. They also give us the possibility of individual real-time billing for road and electricity use, key to creating the right incentives to stop dirty energy consumption. A mesh works like this: Instead of your phone call being routed through a satellite or a cell tower and then back to your friend across town (or just across the street), it could go directly, perhaps hopping once over a friendly neighbor’s phone or server to get to its destination.


pages: 283 words: 85,824

The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

In 2010, rulings by the FCC based on a controversial proposal put forth by Verizon and Google established network neutrality on wired broadband but failed to extend the common carrier principle to wireless connections; in other words, network neutrality rules apply to the cable or DSL service you use at home but not to your cell phone. In 2013, Google showed further signs of weakening its resolve on the issue when it began to offer fiber broadband with advantageous terms of service that many observers found violate the spirit of Net neutrality.40 Given the steady shift to mobile computing, including smart phones and tablets, and the emerging Internet-of-things (the fact that more and more objects, from buildings to cars to clothing, will be networked in coming years), the FCC’s 2010 ruling was alarmingly insufficient even when it was made. Nevertheless, telecommunications companies went on offense, with Verizon successfully challenging the FCC’s authority to regulate Internet access in federal appeals court in early 2014. But even as the rules were struck down, the judges acknowledged concerns that broadband providers represent a real threat, describing the kind of discriminatory behavior they were declaring lawful: companies might restrict “end-user subscribers’ ability to access the New York Times website” in order to “spike traffic” to their own news sources or “degrade the quality of the connection to a search website like Bing if a competitor like Google paid for prioritized access.”

Google, for example, is already able to build a “three-dimensional profile” of each of us: first, “the knowledge person”—who we are based on search queries and click-stream data; second, “the social person”—who we are based on whom we communicate to and connect with through e-mail and other social tools; and third, “the embodied person”—namely, our whereabouts as revealed by the physical position of our computer or mobile device. With the Internet-of-things on the horizon, opportunities for data collection will increase as more everyday objects go online. Soon our ovens and automobiles may deliver personalized sales pitches. In theory, Pariser argues, algorithms could be fairer than fallible humans, introducing us to wider range of material than we may otherwise seek out, expanding our exposure to diversity by being less conscious of race, gender, and class or things like political orientation.

Particularly offensive to observers is the fact that Google reserves the right to ban servers on its networks, which could be interpreted to mean that customers are not allowed to use peer-to-peer software or attach “Freedom Boxes” that keep data private. Craig Aaron, “Google Reserves the Right to Be Evil,” Huffington Post, July 31, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/craig-aaron/google-reserves-the-right_b_3685306.html. 41. Marvin Ammori, “The Next Big Battle in Internet Policy,” Slate.com, October 2, 2012, http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2012/10/network_neutrality_the_fcc_and_the_internet_of_things_html. 2: FOR LOVE OR MONEY 1. Quotes from an interview with the author except for this one, which is from Justin Cox, “Documenting a Bin Laden Ex-Confidante: Q&A with Filmmaker Laura Poitras,” TheHill.com, July 13, 2010, http://thehill.com/capital-living/cover-stories/108553-documenting-a-bin-laden-ex-confidante-qaa-with-filmmaker-laura-poitras#ixzz2YfhpMdXu. 2. The other person Snowden contacted was the journalist Glenn Greenwald of the Guardian, with whom Poitras collaborated. 3.


pages: 161 words: 44,488

The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

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Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application

Smart contracts are safe. Even in the Ethereum implementation, smart contracts run as quasi-Turing complete programs. This means there is finality in their execution, and they do not risk looping infinitely. 9. Smart contract have a wide range of applications. Like HTML, the applications are limited by whoever writes them. Smart contracts are ideal for interacting with real-world assets, smart property, Internet of Things (IoT), and financial services instruments. They are not limited to money movements. They apply to almost anything that changes its state over time, and could have a value attached to it. Developers with smart contracts expertise will be in demand. Learning smart contracts allows one to get into blockchains, without the burden of getting directly under the hood of blockchains. Many smart contract languages are derivatives of C++, Java or Python, three of the most popular software languages, and that makes learning them a lot easier.

The trend for decentralized computing architectures requires a new mindset for planning and writing applications that is different than the traditional Web architectures. Finally, each time you download a software client that sits on your personal computer or smartphone and it “listens” to the network, you are potentially opening security risks, unless it is well implemented. We also need to be aware that Internet of Things devices also are subject to potential security breaches, because potential vulnerabilities are being pushed from the centers to the edges, wherever there is some computing resources at the edge. Luckily, some solutions are in the works, such as private blockchains, zero-knowledge proofs and ring signatures, but we will not enter this technical territory within the scope of this book. Another bright light is that we do not need to reinvent decentralized security, decentralized data and how to write decentralized applications because there are new platforms that provide these basic buildings blocks as part of their core offerings.


pages: 236 words: 77,098

I Live in the Future & Here's How It Works: Why Your World, Work, and Brain Are Being Creatively Disrupted by Nick Bilton

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3D printing, 4chan, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, barriers to entry, book scanning, Cass Sunstein, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, Internet of things, John Gruber, Marshall McLuhan, Nicholas Carr, recommendation engine, RFID, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand

That includes a person’s socks, so if one falls behind the washing machine, it will be able to notify him, or the other sock, of its new location. In Cerf’s vision—“the Internet of Things”—sensors eventually will be everywhere, embedded in our T-shirts and the medicine we take, and will be able to deliver real-time information and analysis to our persons. In a blog post I wrote about this topic for the Times, I explained that we’re already seeing the beginnings of this: “Doctors are using tiny cameras, about the size of a pill, to look at the digestive tract and send back information and pictures. Farming equipment can collect data from remote satellites and sensors in the ground, anticipate weather, and adapt the fertilizer to be used. And billboards in Asia can change displays based on the preferences of passers-by.” Understandably, the Internet of Things, as it is called, scares some people. Embedding the Internet into everything could make us reliant on technology that could crash at any moment.


pages: 282 words: 80,907

Who Gets What — and Why: The New Economics of Matchmaking and Market Design by Alvin E. Roth

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Build a better mousetrap, centralized clearinghouse, computer age, crowdsourcing, deferred acceptance, desegregation, experimental economics, first-price auction, Flash crash, High speed trading, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, law of one price, Lyft, market clearing, market design, medical residency, obamacare, proxy bid, road to serfdom, school choice, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, Silicon Valley, spectrum auction, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, two-sided market

Surprisingly, markets can be too slow, or congested, even on the Internet. Although the Net operates at the speed of computers, the people using it still need time to consider and act. That’s why, if you really want to operate at digital speeds, you need to take people out of the middle of the process. One way to do this is by moving their deliberations to an earlier time. (Hence the emerging Internet of Things, in which devices learn your preferences, talk with one another, and make decisions for you.) Markets that involve offers and responses require easy two-way communication. This is why the rise of mobile communications has been so important for the development of many Internet markets: smartphones shorten response times. Consider Airbnb, which makes a market between travelers looking for a nice, cheap place to stay and hosts who want to rent out their underused guest rooms and apartments.

See also markets and marketplaces FreeMarkets, 121–22 futures markets, 16–17, 82–89 Gale, David, 141–43, 158 game theory, 10–11 thought experiments in, 32–33 on trading cycles, 32–41 gaming the system, 10–11 banning markets and, 213–14 in Boston school choice, 126–30 in early transactions, 57–80 in New York City school system, 109–10, 153–55 in the Oklahoma Land Rush, 58–60 gastroenterology fellowships, 75–78 Google, 190–91 Android, 21–22 Great Recession (2008), 66 Green, Jerry, 3–4, 8 Green, Pamela, 3–4 Greiner, Ben, 118 gun ownership, 198 Hamlet (Shakespeare), 200 Hayek, Friedrich, 226–27 health care reimbursement, 206–7, 223–24 for kidney transplants, 51, 206–7, 208–10 health codes, 220–21 Hendren, Hardy, 138, 141 Hil, Garet, 45–46, 49 Hopwood, Shon, 97, 239 horsemeat, 195–97 Hoxby, Caroline, 126 human dignity, 207 IBM, 19 identity theft, 116 immune systems, 133–34 indentured servitude, 199–200 India, 201–2 industry standards, 22 information early transactions and missing, 60 importance of sharing all, 153–61 privacy and, 119–22 on qualifications and interest (See signals and signaling) reliable, 118–19 safety of sharing in Boston Public Schools, 122–28 in clearinghouses, 112 for kidney exchanges, 34, 36, 37, 47–49 market efficiency and, 119–21 for medical residencies, 137–43, 150–51 in New York City school system, 109–10, 112, 153–61 speed of, cotton market and, 89–90 in-kind exchanges, 202–5 Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, An (Smith), 206–7 insider trading, 48, 85 Institute for Innovation in Public School Choice, 165 interest charges, 200–201, 202, 205 Internet marketplaces, 7, 20–26 Airbnb, 99–103 congestion in, 99–106 dating sites, 72, 169, 175–77 eBay, 104–5, 116–21 payment systems in, 23–26 privacy and, 119–22 real estate, 224–25 reputation in, 115–16, 117–19 safety of, 105 signaling in, 169 targeted ads in, 189–92 thickness of, 105 trust in, 105 Uber, 103–4 Internet of Things, 101 iPhone, 21–22, 24 Iran, Islamic Republic of, 205–6 Iron Law of Marriage, 145 Islam, 200, 201, 205 iStopOver, 102 Japan college applications in, 171 exploding job offers in, 98–99 Jevons, William Stanley, 32 job markets. See labor markets Johns Hopkins, 45 Jolls, Christine, 91 Jones, Matt, 44 Journal of Mathematical Economics, 32–34 judicial clerkships, 69–70, 79, 90–98 judicial conferences, 79 jumping the gun, 59.


pages: 481 words: 125,946

What to Think About Machines That Think: Today's Leading Thinkers on the Age of Machine Intelligence by John Brockman

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3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, constrained optimization, corporate personhood, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, dark matter, discrete time, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, endowment effect, epigenetics, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, Flash crash, friendly AI, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, Internet of things, invention of writing, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, loose coupling, microbiome, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Thaler, Rory Sutherland, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, supervolcano, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

But once robots observe and interpret their environment as adeptly as we do, they will truly be perceived as intelligent beings, to which (or to whom) we can relate—at least in some respects—as we relate to other people. We’d have no more reason to disparage them as zombies than to regard other people in that way. Their greater processing speed may give robots an advantage over us. But will they remain docile rather than “going rogue”? And what if a hypercomputer developed a mind of its own? If it could infiltrate the Internet—and the “Internet of Things”—it could manipulate the rest of the world. It may have goals utterly orthogonal to human wishes—or even treat humans as an encumbrance. Or (to be more optimistic) humans may transcend biology by merging with computers, maybe subsuming their individuality into a common consciousness. In old-style spiritualist parlance, they would “go over to the other side.” The horizons of technological forecasting rarely extend even a few centuries into the future—and some predict transformational changes within a few decades.

Perhaps the global AI has the same characteristics: not an independent entity but a symbiosis with the human consciousnesses living within it. Following this logic, we might conclude that there’s a primitive global brain, consisting not just of all connected devices but also of the connected humans using those devices. The senses of that global brain are the cameras, microphones, keyboards, location sensors of every computer, smartphone, and “Internet of Things” device. The thoughts of that global brain are the collective output of millions of individual contributing cells. Danny Hillis is said to have remarked, “Global consciousness is that thing responsible for deciding that decaffeinated coffeepots should be orange.” The meme spread—not universally, to be sure, but sufficiently that the pattern propagates. News, ideas, and images now propagate across the global brain in seconds rather than years via search engines and social media.

Look around at the Science Museum Group’s collections of millions of things from difference engines to smartphones and you can see how people have always exploited new technical leaps, so that the rise of ever smarter machines doesn’t mean a world of us or them but an enhancement of human capabilities. Researchers are now looking at exoskeletons to help the infirm to walk, and implants to allow paralyzed people to control prosthetic limbs, and digital tattoos that can be stamped onto the body to harvest physiological data or interface with our surroundings—for instance, with the cloud or the Internet of Things. When it comes to thinking machines, some are even investigating how to enhance human brainpower with electronic plug-ins and other “smartware.” The U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has launched the Restoring Active Memory program to reverse damage caused by a brain injury with neuroprosthetics that sense memory deficits and restore normal function. They work in a quite different way from our brains at present, but thanks to efforts such as the Human Brain Project, the Virtual Physiological Human, and other big brain projects, along with research in neuromorphics, artificial intelligences could become more like our own as time goes by.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

.*1 We can now even insert updated imagery from Planet Labs’ two dozen shoe-box-size satellites into 3-D maps and fly through the natural or urban environment. All of this is coming to the palm of your hand. Google Maps is already by far the world’s most downloaded app; it represents the “ground truth” far better than Rand McNally. With the rise of the global sensor network dubbed the “Internet of Everything” (Internet of Things + Internet of People), our maps will perpetually update themselves, providing an animated view into our world as it really is—even the five thousand commercial aircraft in the sky and the more than ten thousand ships crossing the seas at any given moment.*2 These are the arteries and veins, capillaries and cells, of a planetary economy underpinned by an infrastructural network that can eventually become as efficient as the human body.

The alleged Chinese hack of the U.S. government’s Office of Personnel Management, in which data on up to four million federal employees was lifted from federal servers, shows that data is as susceptible to invasion as borders. The more connected the Internet becomes to the real world, the more lethal cyber attacks can be, such as electromagnetic pulses that manipulate or shut down critical infrastructure. The “Internet of Things” has thus also become the “Internet of Threats.” Hence today’s spy agencies seek to recruit IT staff, not just defense officials. Cyber alliances have formed such as the Digital Five of the U.K., South Korea, Estonia, Israel, and New Zealand—disparate but advanced countries agreeing to securely host each other’s servers. Palestine and Kurdistan act like virtual states through their Internet servers hosted in friendly territories, illustrating how the Internet enables even stateless communities to conduct elections and manage international diplomatic and economic relations.

MIT Press, 2000. Rickards, James. The Death of Money: The Coming Collapse of the International Monetary System. Penguin Books, 2014. Rieffel, Alexis. Restructuring Sovereign Debt: The Case for Ad Hoc Machinery. Brookings Institution, 2003. Riello, Giorgio. Cotton: The Fabric That Made the Modern World. Cambridge University Press, 2013. Rifkin, Jeremy. The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism. Palgrave Macmillan Trade, 2014. Rivoli, Pietra. The Travels of a T-Shirt in the Global Economy: An Economist Examines the Markets, Power, and Politics of World Trade. Wiley, 2005. Roberts, Paul. The Impulse Society: America in the Age of Gratification. Bloomsbury USA, 2014. Rodin, Judith. The Resilience Dividend: Being Strong in a World Where Things Go Wrong.


pages: 308 words: 84,713

The Glass Cage: Automation and Us by Nicholas Carr

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Airbnb, Andy Kessler, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, business process, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, cloud computing, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, High speed trading, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, natural language processing, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, software is eating the world, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

They’ve built a cloud-computing grid that allows vast amounts of information to be collected and processed at efficient centralized plants and then fed into applications running on smartphones and tablets or into the control circuits of machines.14 Manufacturers are spending billions of dollars to outfit factories with network-connected sensors, and technology giants like GE, IBM, and Cisco, hoping to spearhead the creation of an “internet of things,” are rushing to develop standards for sharing the resulting data. Computers are pretty much omnipresent now, and even the faintest of the world’s twitches and tremblings are being recorded as streams of binary digits. We may not be encalmed, but we are data saturated. The PARC researchers are starting to look like prophets. There’s a big difference between a set of tools and an infrastructure.

., 153–76 Human Condition, The (Arendt), 108, 227–28 humanism, 159–61, 164, 165 Human Use of Human Beings, The (Wiener), 37, 38 Huth, John Edward, 216–17 iBeacon, 136 IBM, 27, 118–20, 195 IBM Systems Journal, 194–95 identity, 205–6 IEX, 171 Illingworth, Leslie, 19, 33 imagination, 25, 121, 124, 142, 143, 215 inattentional blindness, 130 industrial planners, 37 Industrial Revolution, 21, 24, 28, 32, 36, 106, 159, 195 Infiniti, 8 information, 68–74, 76–80, 166 automation complacency and bias and, 68–72 health, 93–106, 113 information overload, 90–92 information underload, 90–91 information workers, 117–18 infrastructure, 195–99 Ingold, Tim, 132 integrated development environments (IDEs), 78 Intel, 203 intelligence, 137, 151 automation of, 118–20 human vs. artificial, 11, 118–20 interdependent networks, 155 internet, 12–13, 33n, 176, 188 internet of things, 195 Introduction to Mathematics, An, (Whitehead), 65 intuition, 105–6, 120 Inuit hunters, 125–27, 131, 217–20 invention, 161, 174, 214 iPads, 136, 153, 203 iPhones, 13, 136 Ironstone Group, 116 “Is Drawing Dead?” (symposium), 144 Jacquard loom, 36 Jainism, 185 Jefferson, Thomas, 160, 222 Jeopardy! (quiz show), 118–19, 121 Jobless Future, The (Aronowitz and DiFazio), 27–28 jobs, 14–17, 27–33, 85, 193 automation’s altering of, 67, 112–20 blue-collar, 28, 109 creating, 31, 32, 33 growth of, 28, 30, 32 loss of, 20, 21, 25, 27, 28, 30, 31, 40, 59, 115–18, 227 middle class, 27, 31, 32, 33n white-collar, 28, 30, 32, 40, 109 Jobs, Steve, 194 Jones, Michael, 132, 136–37, 151 Kasparov, Garry, 12 Katsuyama, Brad, 171 Kay, Rory, 58 Kelly, Kevin, 153, 225, 226 Kennedy, John, 27, 33 Kessler, Andy, 153 Keynes, John Maynard, 26–27, 66, 224, 227 Khosla, Vinod, 153–54 killing, robots and, 184, 185, 187–93 “Kitty Hawk” (Frost), 215 Klein, Gary, 123 Knight Capital Group, 156 know-how, 74, 76, 115, 122–23 knowledge, 74, 76, 77, 79, 80–81, 84, 85, 111, 121, 123, 131, 148, 153, 206, 214, 215 design, 144 explicit (declarative), 9, 10–11, 83 geographic, 128 medicine and, 100, 113, 123 tacit (procedural), 9–11, 83, 105, 113, 144 knowledge workers, 17, 148 Kool, Richard, 228–29 Korzybski, Alfred, 220 Kroft, Steve, 29 Krueger, Alan, 30–31 Krugman, Paul, 32–33 Kurzweil, Ray, 181, 200 labor, 227 abridging of, 23–25, 28–31, 37, 96 costs of, 18, 20, 31, 175 deskilling of, 106–12 division of, 106–7, 165 intellectualization of, 118 in “Mowing,” 211–14 strife, 37, 175 see also jobs; work Labor and Monopoly Capital (Braverman), 109–10 Labor Department, U.S., 66 labor unions, 25, 37, 59 Langewiesche, William, 50–51, 170 language, 82, 121, 150 Latour, Bruno, 204, 208 lawn mowers, robotic, 185 lawyers, law, 12, 116–17, 120, 123, 166 learning, 72–73, 77, 82, 84, 88–90, 175 animal studies and, 88–89 medical, 100–102 Lee, John, 163–64, 166, 169 LeFevre, Judith, 14, 15, 18 leisure, 16, 25, 27, 227 work vs., 14–16, 18 lethal autonomous robots (LARs), 188–93 Levasseur, Émile, 24–25 Leveson, Nancy, 155–56 Levesque, Hector, 121 Levinson, Stephen, 101 Levy, Frank, 9, 10 Lewandowsky, Stephan, 74 Lex Machina, 116–17 Licklider, J.


pages: 370 words: 102,823

Rethinking Capitalism: Economics and Policy for Sustainable and Inclusive Growth by Michael Jacobs, Mariana Mazzucato

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3D printing, balance sheet recession, banking crisis, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, business climate, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collaborative economy, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Detroit bankruptcy, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, facts on the ground, fiat currency, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, forward guidance, full employment, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, Internet of things, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, new economy, non-tariff barriers, paradox of thrift, price stability, private sector deleveraging, quantitative easing, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, the built environment, The Great Moderation, The Spirit Level, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, very high income

This could then lead to a very active rental sector for organising second-, third- and Nth-hand markets in each country and across the world, along with the growth of disassembly, remanufacturing, recycling, reusing and other materials-saving processes. Information for 3-D printing replacement parts and the provision of regular upgrades for the maintenance of products could become standard practice. This would create a business model in which repair and reuse would take the place of planned obsolescence. With the ‘internet of things’, chips can be put on each product to provide usage histories, enabling a thriving rental and maintenance industry to assign adequate prices. In the advanced world, such a business strategy would create great quantities of jobs for displaced assembly workers in maintenance, upgrading, warehousing, parts ‘printing’, distribution and installation, while design, redesign and many other creative industries and services would employ university graduates.

China Development Bank (CDB) circular economy citizenship goods climate change and capitalism and economics and politics Paris Accord policy Club of Rome Cold War collective goods Compaq compensation contracts competition Japanese law limits perfect competition protected firms and sectors consumerism consumers behaviour benefits choice debt demand protection welfare corporate sector accountability debt financialisation Fortune 500 companies Fortune 1000 companies governance new public management (NPM) organisational models resource allocation D DARPA debt consumer corporate household hysteria private public short-term sovereign debt-to-GDP ratios decarbonisation and structural change democracy and capitalism election campaigns post-democratic politics Department of Defense Department of Energy Department of health developing countries devolution discrimination anti-discrimination laws displacement of peoples Dosi, Giovanni Draghi, Mario E economic and monetary union (EMU) economic growth and inequality and innovation and technology environmental concerns green growth zero growth economic policy and capitalism consensus-building macroeconomic policy monetary expansion reshaping economic theory economic models model of the firm neoclassical orthodox post-Keynesian education access to and skills efficiency employment growth ‘non-standard’ work energy sector storage technologies environmental impacts environmental risk damage degradation sustainability technologies euro zone debt-to-GDP ratio economic policy fiscal policy GDP growth government lending investment macroeconomic conditions private investment productivity growth recession southern countries sovereign debt unemployment European Central Bank (ECB) role European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) European Investment Bank (EIB) proposed new European Fund for Investment European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) European Stability Mechanism European Union (EU) competition law debt-to-GDP ratio de-industrialisation GDP growth government lending Growth Compact investment-led recovery macroeconomic conditions monetary expansion policy framework private investment productivity growth Stability and Growth Pact unemployment executive pay F Federal Reserve financial crash of 1929 financial crash of 2008 financial markets borrowing discrimination efficient markets hypothesis mispricing short-termism systemic risks financial regulation Finland public innovation research and development universal basic income firms business models in perfect competition productive firm First World War fiscal austerity fiscal compact fiscal consolidation fiscal deficits fiscal policy fiscal tightening food insecurity Forstater, Matthew Fortune 500 companies Fortune 1000 firms fossil fuels fracking France average real wage index labour productivity growth private debt public deficit unemployment Freeman, Chris Friedman, Milton G G4S Gates, Bill Germany average real wage index GDP green technology investment state investment bank unemployment wages global financial system globalisation and welfare state asymmetric first golden age Godley, Wynne Goldman Sachs Goodfriend, Marvin Google governments and innovation deficits failures intervention by modernisation of risk-taking Graham, Benjamin Great Depression Greece austerity bailouts debt problems GDP investment activity public deficit unemployment green technology green direction for innovation greenhouse gas emissions Greenspan, Alan Grubb, Michael H Hatzius, Jan health and climate change older people Hirschman, Albert history Integration with theory home mortgage specialists household income housing purchases value I IBM income distribution industrial revolution inequality adverse effects and economic performance China ethnicity explanation for income international trend OECD countries opportunities redistributive policies reinforcement reversing rise taxation UK wealth inflation information and communications technologies (ICT) consumer demand green direction internet of things online education planned obsolescence innovation and climate change and companies and government and growth innovative enterprise path-dependence public sector institutions European financial role Intel interest rates and quantitative easing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) International Energy Agency (IEA) International Labour Organization (ILO) International Monetary Fund (IMF) Studies investment and theory of the firm crowding out decline in investment in innovation private private vs publicly owned firms public public–private investment partnerships investment-led growth Ireland debt problems investment activity Public deficit Israel public venture capital fund research and development Italy average real wage index debt problems GDP Income inequality unemployment J Japan average real wage index competitive advantage over US GDP wages Jobs, Steve Juncker, Jean-Claude K Kay Review Keynes, John Maynard KfW Knight, Frank Koo, Richard Krueger, Alan Krugman, Paul L labour markets insecurity of regulation structures United States labour productivity and wages declining growth public deficit unemployment Lehman Brothers Lerner, Abba liquidity crisis Lloyd George, David lobbying corporate M Maastricht Treaty Malthus, Thomas market economy theory markets behaviour failure uncertainty Marshall, Alfred Marx, Karl McCulley, Paul Merrill Lynch Mill, John Stuart Minsky, Hyman mission oriented investment monetary policy money and fiscal policy and macroeconomic policy bank money electronic transactions endogenous exogenous fiat money government bonds IOUs modern money theory quantity theory theories monopolies monopoly rents natural Moore, Gordon N NASA nanotechnology National Health Service (NHS) National Institutes of Health (NIH) national savings neoliberalism corporate Newman, Frank Newton, Isaac O Obama, Barack P patents patient capital patient finance see patient capital Penrose, Edith Piketty, Thomas PIMCO Pisano, Gary Polanyi, Karl Portugal austerity bailout debt problems GDP investment activity unemployment privatisation productivity marginal productivity theory productive firm unproductive firm – see also labour productivity public deficits public goods public organisations and change public policy and change evaluation role public service outsourcing public spending public–private investment partnerships Q quantitative easing quarterly capitalism R Reagan, Ronald recessions Reinhart, Carmen renewable energy policy rents and banks increase rent-seeking research and development (R&D) state organisations Ricardo, David risk-taking – mitigation of risk role of the state Rogoff, Kenneth Roosevelt, Franklin D.


pages: 137 words: 36,231

Information: A Very Short Introduction by Luciano Floridi

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, carbon footprint, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of writing, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, phenotype, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Turing machine

Yet the truth is that ICTs are as much changing our world as they are creating new realities. The threshold between here (analogue, carbon-based, off-line) and there (digital, silicon-based, online) is fast becoming blurred, but this is as much to the advantage of the latter as it is of the former. The digital is spilling over into the analogue and merging with it. This recent phenomenon is variously known as `Ubiquitous Computing', `Ambient Intelligence', `The Internet of Things', or `Web-augmented things'. The increasing informatization of artefacts and of whole (social) environments and life activities suggests that soon it will be difficult to understand what life was like in pre-informational times (to someone who was born in 2000, the world will always have been wireless, for example) and, in the near future, the very distinction between online and offline will disappear.


pages: 118 words: 35,663

Smart Machines: IBM's Watson and the Era of Cognitive Computing (Columbia Business School Publishing) by John E. Kelly Iii

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AI winter, call centre, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, demand response, discovery of DNA, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, global supply chain, Internet of things, John von Neumann, Mars Rover, natural language processing, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, planetary scale, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, smart grid, smart meter, speech recognition, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

Chapter 3 explores the doll that nests inside that one—the new approach that these computers will need for managing and analyzing data. Today, we are witnessing the emergence of a new force in society and business: big data. Organizations and individuals are faced with a torrent of data, everything from structured information such as transaction records to a wide variety of unstructured information—still images, video, audio, and sensor data. The biggest new source of data is the so-called Internet of things, data produced by sensors and harvested via the Internet. The sensors involved range from the RFID tags that retailers use to track merchandise to video cameras that capture the flow of traffic. Every day, as a group, human beings generate about 3 exabytes of computer data—a prodigious output that is expected to produce a data universe of 40 zettabytes of digital stuff by 2020.2 A zettabyte is a decidedly big number: a 1 followed by 21 zeros.


pages: 320 words: 87,853

The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information by Frank Pasquale

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, Atul Gawande, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, bonus culture, Brian Krebs, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, financial innovation, Flash crash, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, High speed trading, hiring and firing, housing crisis, informal economy, information retrieval, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, kremlinology, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, moral hazard, new economy, Nicholas Carr, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, precariat, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, risk-adjusted returns, search engine result page, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steven Levy, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, two-sided market, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks

One of the main purposes of this book is to raise enough questions about the results presented by leading Internet and fi nance firms so that they do not congeal into this kind of black box. 8. Jack Balkin, “The Constitution in the National Surveillance State,” Minnesota Law Review 93 (2008): 1–25. 9. George Packer, “Amazon and the Perils of Non-disclosure,” The New Yorker, February 12, 2014. 10. Arkady Zaslavsky, “Internet of Things and Ubiquitous Sensing” (Sept. 2013). Computing Now. Available at http://www.computer.org /portal /web /computingnow/archive/september2013. 11. April Dembosky, “Invasion of the Body Hackers,” Financial Times, June 10, 2011. 12. Tal Zarsky, “Transparent Predictions,” Illinois Law Review (2013): 1503–1570. 13. Bradley Keoun and Phil Kuntz, “Wall Street Aristocracy Got $1.2 Trillion in Secret Loans,” Bloomberg News, August 22, 2011, http://www.bloomberg .com /news/2011-08-21/wall-street-aristocracy-got-1-2-trillion-in-fed-s-secret -loans.html. 14.

Omer Tene and Jules Polonetsky, “A Theory of Creepy: Technology, Privacy and Shifting Social Norms,” Yale Journal of Law and Technology 16 (2014): 59–102. 104. Leon R. Kass, “The Wisdom of Repugnance,” The New Republic, June 1997; Martha C. Nussbaum, Upheavals of Thought: The Intelligence of Emotions (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001). 105. Bruce Schneier, “Will Giving the Internet Eyes and Ears Mean the End of Privacy?” The Guardian, May 16, 2013, http://www.guardian.co.uk /technology/2013/may/16/internet-of-things-privacy-google. 106. Danielle Keats Citron, “Technological Due Process,” Washington University Law Review 85 (2008): 1260–1263; Danielle Keats Citron, “Open Code Governance,” University of Chicago Legal Forum (2008): 363–368. 107. Peck, “They’re Watching You at Work.” 108. Lior Jacob Strahilevitz, “Less Regulation, More Reputation,” in The Reputation Society: How Online Opinions Are Reshaping the Offline World, ed.


pages: 457 words: 128,838

The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

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3D printing, Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zimmermann PGP

When paired with “smart property”—where deeds, titles, and other certifications of ownership are put in digital form to be acted upon by software—these contracts allow the automatic transfer of ownership of a physical asset such as a house or a car, or an intangible asset, such as a patent. Similarly, the software initiates the transfer when contractual obligations are met. With companies now busily putting bar codes, QR codes, microchips, and Bluetooth antennae on just about every gadget and piece of merchandise, the emerging “Internet of Things” should make it possible to transfer ownership in many kinds of physical property in this manner. One creative solution applies to cars purchased on credit. Right now, if an automobile owner misses his or her payments, it’s laborious and costly for the finance company to reclaim both the title to and physical possession of the car, involving lawyers, collection agencies, and, in worst cases, repo men.

This poses a real challenge for the cryptocurrency industry’s efforts to gain a foothold in payments. Even if cryptocurrencies seem tailor-made for the current age, with the sweeping decentralizing shifts discussed above, their prime competitors in the payments industry are coming up with alternatives that might just keep the general public from shifting to the crypto model. Indeed, in the era of the Internet of Things, technologies that leverage the old sovereign money system are finding various ways to impress customers with improvements to the payment experience. The smartphone, the preferred tool of mobile bitcoin exchange, is also being harnessed by a host of finance tech companies seeking to revolutionize how we make payments. PayPal, which was the first firm in the 1990s to figure out how to send money digitally before Web sites began accepting credit cards directly, is now aggressively repackaging itself as a mobile-payments firm with an app that supports payments at retail outlets via QR codes and other wireless technologies such as Bluetooth and near-field communication, or NFC.


pages: 1,025 words: 150,187

ZeroMQ by Pieter Hintjens

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anti-pattern, carbon footprint, cloud computing, Debian, distributed revision control, domain-specific language, factory automation, fault tolerance, fear of failure, finite state, Internet of things, iterative process, premature optimization, profit motive, pull request, revision control, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Skype, smart transportation, software patent, Steve Jobs, Valgrind, WebSocket

A Framework for Distributed Computing We’ve gone though a journey of understanding ØMQ in its many aspects. By now you may have started to build your own products using the techniques I’ve explained, as well as others you’ve figured out yourself. You will start to face questions about how to make these products work in the real world. But what is that “real world”? I’ll argue that it is becoming a world of ever-increasing numbers of moving pieces. Some people use the phrase “the Internet of Things,” suggesting that we’ll soon see a new category of devices that are more numerous, but also more stupid than our current smartphones, tablets, laptops, and servers. However, I don’t think the data points this way at all. Yes, there are more and more devices, but they’re not stupid at all. They’re smart and powerful, and getting more so all the time. The mechanism at work is something I call “cost gravity,” and it has the effect of reducing the cost of technology by half every 18–24 months.

writing messages to hard disk, Disconnected Reliability (Titanic Pattern)–Disconnected Reliability (Titanic Pattern) Harmony pattern, True Peer Connectivity (Harmony Pattern)–True Peer Connectivity (Harmony Pattern) heartbeating, The Asynchronous Client/Server Pattern, Prototyping the State Flow, Robust Reliable Queuing (Paranoid Pirate Pattern), Robust Reliable Queuing (Paranoid Pirate Pattern), Robust Reliable Queuing (Paranoid Pirate Pattern), Robust Reliable Queuing (Paranoid Pirate Pattern), Robust Reliable Queuing (Paranoid Pirate Pattern), Robust Reliable Queuing (Paranoid Pirate Pattern), Robust Reliable Queuing (Paranoid Pirate Pattern), Robust Reliable Queuing (Paranoid Pirate Pattern), Heartbeating–Heartbeating for Paranoid Pirate, Shrugging It Off–Shrugging It Off, One-Way Heartbeats, Ping-Pong Heartbeats–Heartbeating for Paranoid Pirate, Heartbeating for Paranoid Pirate–Heartbeating for Paranoid Pirate, Detecting Disappearances–Detecting Disappearances in Zyre project, Detecting Disappearances–Detecting Disappearances not using, Shrugging It Off–Shrugging It Off one-way heartbeats, One-Way Heartbeats in Paranoid Pirate pattern, Robust Reliable Queuing (Paranoid Pirate Pattern), Robust Reliable Queuing (Paranoid Pirate Pattern), Robust Reliable Queuing (Paranoid Pirate Pattern), Robust Reliable Queuing (Paranoid Pirate Pattern), Robust Reliable Queuing (Paranoid Pirate Pattern), Robust Reliable Queuing (Paranoid Pirate Pattern), Robust Reliable Queuing (Paranoid Pirate Pattern), Robust Reliable Queuing (Paranoid Pirate Pattern), Heartbeating for Paranoid Pirate–Heartbeating for Paranoid Pirate ping-pong heartbeats, Ping-Pong Heartbeats–Heartbeating for Paranoid Pirate Hello World example, Ask and Ye Shall Receive–Ask and Ye Shall Receive high-level API for ZeroMQ, A High-Level API for ØMQ–The CZMQ High-Level API high-level patterns, High-Level Messaging Patterns high-water mark (HWM), High-Water Marks–High-Water Marks Historian role, The Historian HTTP protocol, using ZeroMQ for, ØMQ Is Not a Neutral Carrier–ØMQ Is Not a Neutral Carrier HWM, High-Water Marks (see high-water mark) I I/O threads, I/O Threads IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority), Getting an Official Port Number idempotent services, Idempotent Services–Idempotent Services identity, Identities and Addresses–Identities and Addresses iMatix, ØMQ in a Hundred Words, Architecture of the ØMQ Community innovation, models for, The Tale of Two Bridges–Simplicity-Oriented Design inproc (inter-thread) transport, Unicast Transports, Unicast Transports, Multithreading with ØMQ, Signaling Between Threads (PAIR Sockets)–Signaling Between Threads (PAIR Sockets), High-Water Marks binding order requirement for, Unicast Transports high-water mark with, High-Water Marks Inter-Broker Routing example, Worked Example: Inter-Broker Routing–Putting It All Together, Worked Example: Inter-Broker Routing–Establishing the Details, Architecture of a Single Cluster–Scaling to Multiple Clusters, Scaling to Multiple Clusters–Federation Versus Peering, The Naming Ceremony–The Naming Ceremony, The Naming Ceremony, Prototyping the State Flow–Prototyping the State Flow, Prototyping the Local and Cloud Flows–Prototyping the Local and Cloud Flows, Prototyping the Local and Cloud Flows–Prototyping the Local and Cloud Flows, Putting It All Together–Putting It All Together, Putting It All Together brokers, interconnecting, Scaling to Multiple Clusters–Federation Versus Peering cloud flow for, Prototyping the Local and Cloud Flows–Prototyping the Local and Cloud Flows clusters of workers and clients for, Architecture of a Single Cluster–Scaling to Multiple Clusters final code for, Putting It All Together–Putting It All Together ipc transport for, The Naming Ceremony limitations of, Putting It All Together local flow for, Prototyping the Local and Cloud Flows–Prototyping the Local and Cloud Flows requirements for, Worked Example: Inter-Broker Routing–Establishing the Details sockets, naming, The Naming Ceremony–The Naming Ceremony state flow for, Prototyping the State Flow–Prototyping the State Flow inter-process transport, Unicast Transports (see ipc transport) inter-thread transport, Unicast Transports (see inproc transport) intermediation, Intermediaries and Proxies, The Dynamic Discovery Problem–The Dynamic Discovery Problem, Shared Queue (DEALER and ROUTER Sockets)–ØMQ’s Built-in Proxy Function, ØMQ’s Built-in Proxy Function–ØMQ’s Built-in Proxy Function for publish-subscribe pattern, The Dynamic Discovery Problem–The Dynamic Discovery Problem for request-reply pattern, Shared Queue (DEALER and ROUTER Sockets)–ØMQ’s Built-in Proxy Function zmq_proxy() function for, ØMQ’s Built-in Proxy Function–ØMQ’s Built-in Proxy Function Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), Getting an Official Port Number Internet of Things, A Framework for Distributed Computing interrupt signals, handling, Handling Interrupt Signals–Handling Interrupt Signals ipc (inter-process) transport, Plugging Sockets into the Topology, Unicast Transports, The Naming Ceremony binding to same endpoint twice, Plugging Sockets into the Topology for Inter-Broker Routing, The Naming Ceremony J Jakl, Michael (contributor), Michael Jakl’s Story JeroMQ implementation, Architecture of the ØMQ Community JSON, Serialization Languages L last value caching (LVC), Last Value Caching–Last Value Caching late (slow) joiners, Getting the Message Out, Divide and Conquer, Representing State as Key-Value Pairs, Getting an Out-of-Band Snapshot, Recovery and Late Joiners–Recovery and Late Joiners, More About UDP, The Zyre Tester with Clone pattern, Representing State as Key-Value Pairs, Getting an Out-of-Band Snapshot with FileMQ project, Recovery and Late Joiners–Recovery and Late Joiners with Harmony pattern, The Zyre Tester with pipeline pattern, Divide and Conquer with publish-subscribe pattern, Getting the Message Out TCP for, More About UDP Laughing Clown role, The Laughing Clown Laxy Pirate pattern, Client-Side Reliability (Lazy Pirate Pattern)–Client-Side Reliability (Lazy Pirate Pattern) Lazy Perfectionist role, The Lazy Perfectionist van Leeuwen, Tom (contributor), Tom van Leeuwen’s Story LGPL license, Architecture of the ØMQ Community, Licensing for examples in this book, Licensing for ZeroMQ, Architecture of the ØMQ Community Libero, State Machines–State Machines libzmq library, Upgrading from ØMQ v2.2 to ØMQ v3.2, Architecture of the ØMQ Community, Architecture of the ØMQ Community, Architecture of the ØMQ Community bindings for, Architecture of the ØMQ Community reimplementations of, Architecture of the ØMQ Community upgrading to version 3.2, Upgrading from ØMQ v2.2 to ØMQ v3.2 licensing, Architecture of the ØMQ Community, The Contract–The Contract, The Contract–The Contract, Care and Feeding, Care and Feeding, Licensing and Ownership, Why Use the GPLv3 for Public Specifications?


pages: 215 words: 55,212

The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky

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Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, Google Earth, Internet of things, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar

Well over a billion people regularly use the Internet, which a Harvard business professor estimates has a $1.4 trillion economic impact annually in the United States alone. The network increasingly connects our homes, cars, and other devices, and they are increasingly connected to each other. (IBM recently introduced a kit that enables developers to use wireless sensors to connect anything to the so-called Internet of things.) And our demands are growing. Cisco estimates traffic over the Internet will exceed 667 exabytes by 2013. That’s roughly 667 billion gigabytes and equates to a quintupling of traffic from 2009 to 2013. Cisco predicts that one trillion devices will be connected to the Internet by that time. This invisible network enables a level of service and ad hoc coordination that is brand-new. That’s how Spride Share helps riders share taxis, how OpenTable enables last-minute restaurant reservations, and how Groupon makes spontaneous, time-limited deals between groups of users and businesses.


pages: 229 words: 68,426

Everyware: The Dawning Age of Ubiquitous Computing by Adam Greenfield

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augmented reality, business process, defense in depth, demand response, demographic transition, facts on the ground, game design, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, James Dyson, knowledge worker, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pattern recognition, profit motive, recommendation engine, RFID, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, the scientific method

Part of what the everyware paradigm implies is that most of the functionality we now associate with these boxes on our desks, these slabs that warm our laps, will be dispersed into both the built environment and the wide variety of everyday objects we typically use there. Many such objects are already invested with processing power—most contemporary cameras, watches, and phones, to name the most obvious examples, contain microcontrollers. But we understand these things to be technical, and if they have so far rarely participated in the larger conversation of the "Internet of things," we wouldn't necessarily be surprised to see them do so. Nor are we concerned, for the moment, with the many embedded microprocessors we encounter elsewhere in our lives, generally without being aware of them. They pump the brakes in our cars, cycle the compressors in our refrigerators, or adjust the water temperature in our washing machines, yet never interact with the wider universe. They can't be queried or addressed by remote systems, let alone interact directly with a human user.


pages: 274 words: 75,846

The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

Shops with cameras facing the doors—and aisles—will be able to watch precisely where individual customers wander, what they pick up, and how this correlates with the data already collected about them by firms like Acxiom. And this powerful set of data—where you go and what you do, as indicated by where your face shows up in the bitstream—can be used to provide ever more custom-tailored experiences. It’s not just people that will be easier than ever to track. It’s also individual objects—what some researchers are calling the “Internet of things.” As sci-fi author William Gibson once said, “The future is already here—it’s just not very evenly distributed.” It shows up in some places before others. And one of the places this particular aspect of the future has shown up first, oddly enough, is the Coca-Cola Village Amusement Park, a holiday village, theme park, and marketing event that opens seasonally in Israel. Sponsored by Facebook and Coke, the teenagers attending the park in the summer of 2010 were given bracelets containing a tiny piece of circuitry that allowed them to Like real-world objects.


pages: 267 words: 82,580

The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett

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3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

One of the stated aims of Humanity+ is to think through the ethical, legal and social implications of dramatic technological change. But the sort of rapid technological advances we’re living through certainly raise several difficult questions. Scientists in Sweden are already connecting robotic limbs to the human nervous system of amputees. Panasonic will be releasing an exoskeleton suit shortly. Then there is nanotechnology, synthetic biology, the Internet of Things, algorithmic-controlled financial services, general artificial intelligence. Some of the problems this raises are existential: if Zoltan became a data file, saved on multiple servers all over the world, is he even still Zoltan? Is he still a human, deserving the same rights we accord to our species? But many of the problems are prosaic: how long should a jail sentence be if we lived to 500?


pages: 589 words: 69,193

Mastering Pandas by Femi Anthony

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Amazon Web Services, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Internet of things, natural language processing, p-value, random walk, side project, statistical model

The conversion from analog to digital media coupled with an increased capability to capture and store data, which in turn has been made possible with cheaper and more capable storage technology. There has been a proliferation of digital data input devices such as cameras and wearables, and the cost of huge data storage has fallen rapidly. Amazon Web Services is a prime example of the trend toward much cheaper storage. The Internetification of devices, or rather Internet of Things, is the phenomenon wherein common household devices, such as our refrigerators and cars, will be connected to the Internet. This phenomenon will only accelerate the above trend. Velocity of big data From a purely technological point of view, velocity refers to the throughput of big data, or how fast the data is coming in and is being processed. This has ramifications on how fast the recipient of the data needs to process it to keep up.


pages: 304 words: 82,395

Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think by Viktor Mayer-Schonberger, Kenneth Cukier

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23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Black Swan, book scanning, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, dark matter, double entry bookkeeping, Eratosthenes, Erik Brynjolfsson, game design, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, obamacare, optical character recognition, PageRank, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Post-materialism, post-materialism, random walk, recommendation engine, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

In most of these cases, we’re capturing information and putting it into data form that allows it to be reused. This can happen almost everywhere and to nearly everything. GreenGoose, a startup in San Francisco, sells tiny sensors that detect motion, which can be placed on objects to track how much they are used. Putting it on a pack of dental floss, a watering can, or a box of cat litter makes it possible to datafy dental hygiene and the care of plants and pets. The enthusiasm over the “internet of things”—embedding chips, sensors, and communications modules into everyday objects—is partly about networking but just as much about datafying all that surrounds us. Once the world has been datafied, the potential uses of the information are basically limited only by one’s ingenuity. Maury datafied seafarers’ previous journeys through painstaking manual tabulation, and thereby unlocked extraordinary insights and value.


pages: 239 words: 70,206

Data-Ism: The Revolution Transforming Decision Making, Consumer Behavior, and Almost Everything Else by Steve Lohr

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23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bioinformatics, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, computer age, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, David Brooks, East Village, Edward Snowden, Emanuel Derman, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, impulse control, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of writing, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, obamacare, pattern recognition, payday loans, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Design of Experiments, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

The concept has been around for years—digitizing machines with sensors, enabling them to communicate, and tapping the resulting vast flows for new discoveries and profit-making possibilities. The idea is part of a larger vision of putting sensors—down to “smart dust”—on all kinds of objects around the globe, gathering information, and communicating with powerful computer networks. It is popularly known as the Internet of Things. The ultimate goal, according to Larry Smarr, founding director of the California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology, is a “sensor-aware planetary computer.” GE’s more modest formulation is what it calls the “industrial Internet.” For the company, the industrial Internet is a marketing term attached to a major strategic initiative, backed by sizable investment. In May 2009, just before the Great Recession ended, the economy was still weak, but Jeffrey Immelt, GE’s chief executive, decided that it was time to seriously look for opportunities in the future.


pages: 252 words: 72,473

Weapons of Math Destruction: How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy by Cathy O'Neil

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, call centre, carried interest, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, Emanuel Derman, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Internet of things, late fees, medical bankruptcy, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price discrimination, quantitative hedge fund, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Sharpe ratio, statistical model, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working poor

Seventy-five years later, health care costs have metastasized and now consume $3 trillion per year. Nearly one dollar of every five we earn feeds the vast health care industry. Employers, which have long been nickel and diming workers to lower their costs, now have a new tactic to combat these growing costs. They call it “wellness.” It involves growing surveillance, including lots of data pouring in from the Internet of Things—the Fitbits, Apple Watches, and other sensors that relay updates on how our bodies are functioning. The idea, as we’ve seen so many times, springs from good intentions. In fact, it is encouraged by the government. The Affordable Care Act, or Obamacare, invites companies to engage workers in wellness programs, and even to “incentivize” health. By law, employers can now offer rewards and assess penalties reaching as high as 50 percent of the cost of coverage.


pages: 252 words: 73,131

The Inner Lives of Markets: How People Shape Them—And They Shape Us by Tim Sullivan

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Airbnb, airport security, Al Roth, Andrei Shleifer, attribution theory, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Brownian motion, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, continuous double auction, deferred acceptance, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, experimental subject, first-price auction, framing effect, frictionless, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, helicopter parent, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, late fees, linear programming, Lyft, market clearing, market design, market friction, medical residency, multi-sided market, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pez dispenser, pre–internet, price mechanism, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, proxy bid, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, school choice, school vouchers, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, technoutopianism, telemarketer, The Market for Lemons, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, two-sided market, uranium enrichment, Vickrey auction, winner-take-all economy

And they’re seemingly becoming more common with each passing day, mediating more and more of our experiences. And no wonder: it’s easier to set up a meeting place now that we no longer need to convene en masse at events like the Champagne fairs. We can just log on and meet in cyberspace instead. And so, we now find dates, book travel, buy groceries, send instant messages, and hail taxis—all via online platforms. More recently, the much-vaunted internet of things is bringing us yet another generation of platform business models, some amazing, some terrifying, and some, like internet-enabled cars, a bit of both. As cars move from being internal combustion engines with wheels to software platforms that are connected to the internet and to one another, we can imagine all sorts of potential for them, some of which will make our lives better (fewer accidents with autonomous cars and more apps that plug into them) and some of which will make us even more vulnerable (long-distance software hacks).


pages: 385 words: 103,561

Pinpoint: How GPS Is Changing Our World by Greg Milner

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Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, Edmond Halley, Eratosthenes, experimental subject, Flash crash, friendly fire, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, Kevin Kelly, land tenure, lone genius, Mars Rover, Mercator projection, place-making, polynesian navigation, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, smart grid, the map is not the territory

In 2011, when members of the GPS regulatory and scientific community mobilized against plans to authorize a private wireless network they feared would threaten the GPS signal, several cited the barely fathomable figure of $3 trillion as the market’s value. It has become difficult to untangle the worth of GPS from the worth of everything. In an increasingly cloud-based world, the global market for the so-called “Internet of things”—the ability for physical objects (including people) to exchange data over cloud-based networks—could reach $1.5 trillion by 2020. These systems often require location information, which will be provided by GPS—and time synchronization that will also likely be tied to GPS. Placing an economic value on GPS has become nearly as impossible as pegging the value of other utilities. How much money do electricity and telephones generate?


pages: 323 words: 90,868

The Wealth of Humans: Work, Power, and Status in the Twenty-First Century by Ryan Avent

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3D printing, Airbnb, American energy revolution, autonomous vehicles, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Lyft, manufacturing employment, means of production, new economy, performance metric, pets.com, price mechanism, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, very high income, working-age population

Johnson, 1798) Marx, Karl, and Engels, Friedrich, Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848) Milanovic, Branko, Global Inequality: A New Approach for the Age of Globalization (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2016) Mokyr, Joel, The Gifts of Athena: Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002) _____, The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990) Moretti, Enrico, The New Geography of Jobs (New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012) Murray, Charles, Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960–2010 (New York, NY: Crown Publishing Group, 2012) Pickett, Kate, and Wilkinson, Richard, The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger (London: Allen Lane, 2009) Piketty, Thomas, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2014) Putnam, Robert, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2001) Rifkin, Jeremy, The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014) Rodrik, Dani, The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011) Saadia, Manu, Trekonomics: The Economics of Star Trek (San Francisco, CA: Pipertext, 2016) Shirky, Clay, Cognitive Surplus: Creativity and Generosity in a Connected Age (London: Allen Lane, 2010) Smith, Adam, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (London: W.


pages: 349 words: 95,972

Messy: The Power of Disorder to Transform Our Lives by Tim Harford

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affirmative action, Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Basel III, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, crowdsourcing, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Erdős number, experimental subject, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Frank Gehry, game design, global supply chain, Googley, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, Inbox Zero, income inequality, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Merlin Mann, microbiome, out of africa, Paul Erdős, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Turing test, urban decay

Governments continue to be motivated by the idea that the better they comprehend the world, the better they will be able to control and exploit it. They have been joined by large corporations, which also see the value in quantifying and classifying our world. From high-resolution drone and satellite images, to geographically tagged photos and tweets, mobile phones that constantly ping their location to colossal databases, and the “Internet of things”—the idea that most of the objects around us will soon be capable of communicating their whereabouts and status—one way or another, we continue to wander through the world, size it up, and digitally hammer colored nails into it. The trouble is that when we start quantifying and measuring the world, we soon begin to change the world to fit the way we measure it. At first, the eighteenth-century scientific foresters limited themselves to trying to measure the forests, deploying integral calculus and experiments with woodpiles to estimate the volume of wood in a Normalbaum, or “standard tree.”


pages: 386 words: 91,913

The Elements of Power: Gadgets, Guns, and the Struggle for a Sustainable Future in the Rare Metal Age by David S. Abraham

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3D printing, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, Deng Xiaoping, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, glass ceiling, global supply chain, information retrieval, Internet of things, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, reshoring, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, Tesla Model S, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, Y2K

Moriguchi, “Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Consumption and Production: Priority Products and Materials,” A report of the Working Group on the Environmental Impacts of Products and Materials to the International Resource Panel, United Nations Environment Programme, 2010, http://www.greeningtheblue.org/sites/default/files/Assessing%20the%20environmental%20impacts%20of%20consumption%20and%20production.pdf; John Heggestuen, “One in Every 5 People in the World Own a Smartphone, One in Every 17 Own a Tablet,” Business Insider, December 15, 2013, www.businessinsider.com/smartphone-and-tablet-penetration-2013-10; Pew Research Center Internet American Life Project, “Device Ownership over Time,” November 13, 2013, www.pewinternet.org/data-trend/mobile/device-ownership/; Dave Evans, “The Internet of Things: How the Next Evolution of the Internet Is Changing Everything,” CISCO, April 2011, http://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac79/docs/innov/IoT_IBSG_0411FINAL.pdf. 15. Nicola Twilley, “What Do Chinese Dumplings Have to Do with Global Warming?” New York Times, July 26, 2014, www.nytimes.com/2014/07/27/magazine/what-do-chinese-dumplings-have-to-do-with-global-warming.html. 16. National Intelligence Council, “Global Trends 2030: Alternative Worlds,” December 1, 2012, accessed December 19, 2014, www.dni.gov/index.php/about/organization/global-trends-2030; Kohmei Halada, Masanori Shimada, and Kiyoshi Ijima, “Forecasting the Consumption of Metals up to 2050,” Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals 71, no. 10 (2007): 831–39. 17.


pages: 566 words: 163,322

The Rise and Fall of Nations: Forces of Change in the Post-Crisis World by Ruchir Sharma

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3D printing, Asian financial crisis, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business climate, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate governance, crony capitalism, currency peg, dark matter, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, moral hazard, New Economic Geography, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working-age population

Even with worker training and experience, these advances will do much less to raise productivity than previous innovations like electricity, the steam engine, the car, the computer, or air conditioning, which was a huge boost to human output per hour in a stuffy office setting. Optimists respond that productivity growth measurements aren’t capturing the cost and time savings produced by new technologies, ranging from artificial intelligence to increasingly powerful broadband connections and the nascent “Internet of things.” In the United States, for example, the cost of broadband Internet access has remained flat for many years, but broadband connections have grown much faster and gone mobile—a huge time savings that is not captured in the productivity growth data.9 If the optimists are right, productivity growth is considerably faster than current measurements show, and therefore so is economic growth. Whichever side is right, both would agree that it is easier to measure population growth, which has a more clear-cut impact on the economy.


pages: 527 words: 147,690

Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

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23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Given that practically everything we do now produces a digital record, this model would make all of human life part of one vast, automated dataveillance system. “Think of personal data as the digital record of ‘everything a person makes and does online and in the world,’” the WEF says. The pervasiveness of such a system will only increase with the continued development and adoption of the “Internet of things”—Internet-connected, sensor-rich devices, from clothing to appliances to security cameras to transportation infrastructure. No social or behavioral act would be immune from the long arms of neoliberal capitalism. Because everything would be tracked, everything you do would be part of some economic exchange, benefiting a powerful corporation far more than you. This isn’t emancipation through technology.


pages: 515 words: 132,295

Makers and Takers: The Rise of Finance and the Fall of American Business by Rana Foroohar

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3D printing, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, bank run, Basel III, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deskilling, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Emanuel Derman, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, gig economy, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, High speed trading, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, passive investing, pensions crisis, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vanguard fund

But while all this technology in Schenectady has reduced the number of machinists needed to make a battery, it has also fueled the creation of a GE global research center in San Ramon, California. The center now employs more than one thousand software engineers, data scientists, and user-experience designers who are well paid to develop the software for that kind of industrial Internet—otherwise known as the Internet of things. GE plans to hire thousands more such employees within the next half-decade. “We are probably the most competitive, on a global basis, that we’ve been in the past 30 years,” in terms of being able to make things again in the United States, says CEO Jeffrey Immelt. “Will US manufacturing go from 9 percent to 30 percent of all jobs? That’s unlikely. But could you see a steady increase in jobs over the next quarters and years?


pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

Maria Hattar, Cisco, quoted in “Cisco: Smart grid will eclipse size of Internet,” cnet News (May 18, 2009). 14. The Digital Environment Home Energy Management System (DEHEMS). See: http://www.dehems.eu/about. 15. David Miliband, U.K. Secretary of State for Environment, quoted in “Carbon emissions: Now it’s getting personal,” New York Times (June 20, 2007). 16. Richard MacManus, “IBM and the Internet of Things,” ReadWriteWeb (July 22, 2009). 17. “World electricity: The smart grid era,” Economist (June 5, 2009). 18. “SMART 2020: Enabling the low carbon economy in the information age,” The Climate Group (2008). 19. The argument in favor of radically decentralizing energy production is also subject to the specifics of geography. The southwestern United States, for example, has both sun and land in abundance, which makes desolate areas like the Mojave Desert ideal for large-scale solar power generation.