moral panic

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pages: 336 words: 90,749

How to Fix Copyright by William Patry

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, barriers to entry, big-box store, borderless world, business intelligence, citizen journalism, cloud computing, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, means of production, moral panic, new economy, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, web application, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

The United States has such a requirement for both domestic and foreign works.10 While there are things individual countries can and should do on their own, a comprehensive approach to formalities requires a revision to treaties, including the Berne Convention. This page intentionally left blank TEN The Moral Panic over Fair Use The term “moral panic” comes from sociology. It was made popular in the early 1970s in describing wildly exaggerated reactions to changing mores.1 Examples of moral panics include the Salem Witch trials, marijuana during the “Reefer Madness” period of the 1930s,2 the comic book Congressional hearings in the 1950s,3 McCarthyism, and the events that gave rise to the coining of the term: the Mods and Rockers battles, in the UK during the midto late-1960s. I use moral panic here to refer to the trumped-up creation of an alien threat. I do not exaggerate by using “alien”: in 2005, the then-Attorney General of Australia, Philip Ruddock, referred to fair use as alien to the Australian legal tradition,4 apparently unaware that the fair use factors were already contained in the Australian copyright act.5 The rhetorical device of turning fair use into a moral panic is made by those who oppose adapting copyright to the digital era. 212 HOW TO FIX COPYRIGHT Fair use thus serves as a classic moral panic: an effort by vested interests to preserve the status quo through creating a false enemy whom, we are told, must be vanquished for the alleged good of society as a whole.

We see this in a recent statement by an intergovernmental figure that “limitations and exceptions” are part of a “negative” agenda. We must recognize that the phrase “limitations and exceptions” is a moral panic, of which fair use is just one part. As with all moral panics, “limitations and exceptions” is a semantic device employed to preserve the status quo through creating a false enemy, in this case a threat to natural or property rights. Copyright is not and has never been a property right. Copyright laws are regulations created by governments to further broad societal goals.Those goals are pragmatic, not ideological, and as pragmatic, they accord certain privileges given to copyright owners, and certain privileges given to the public. There is no basis to regard any THE MORAL PANIC OVER FAIR USE 229 privilege as more important than another because they all work toward the common good.

Joseph Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy 83 (Harper & Brothers 3d ed. 1950, 2006 paperback) (1942). 28. Sam Ricketson, WIPO Study on Limitations and Exceptions of Copyright Related Rights in the Digital Environment at page 4, Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights, 9th Session, Geneva, June 23 to 27, 2003, SCCR/9/7 (April 5, 2003). Chapter 11 1. Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars (2009, Oxford University Press). My title for this book was Metaphors, Moral Panics, and Folk Devils in the Copyright Wars. 2. See references in Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars at 44–45. 3. Colin Turbayne, The Myth of Metaphor 3 (1962, University of South Carolina Press). 4. These are different points: hard copy works can be scanned or made available for sale in hard copy form online. 5. The Future of Copyright in a Digital Environment (Bernt Hugenholtz, editor, Kluwer, 1996). 6.


pages: 252 words: 13,581

Cape Town After Apartheid: Crime and Governance in the Divided City by Tony Roshan Samara

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conceptual framework, deglobalization, ghettoisation, global village, illegal immigration, late capitalism, moral panic, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, structural adjustment programs, unemployed young men, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, working poor

When the city deliberated on the need for a now established municipal police force, street children and vagrants who “make people fearful” were cited as primary reasons by security experts for the need for such a force.54 The emerging politics of urban renewal in the CBD and the menace of street children seemed to once again rest on the specter of a black menace in the heart of downtown. The resulting moral panic marked a crucial point in the wider social conflict over urban resources and the use of urban spaces that continued to scar the postapartheid city. Sociologist Jeremey Seekings, in his work on media representations of black youth during the negotiations, explicitly refers to white anxiety during that period as constituting a moral panic and notes that South African historians have often used the concept to describe urban and rural white anxieties about black masses. The concept of a moral panic employed by Seekings and others is informed by the work of criminologist Stanley Cohen. According to Cohen, a moral panic occurs when a condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interest; its nature is presented in a stylized and stereotypical fashion by the mass media; the moral barricades are manned by editors, bishops, politicians, and other right-thinking people.55 More recently in South Africa, researchers have begun to use the concept to refer to renewed anxiety by higher-income, still largely white urban and suburban residents in the face of high crime, the HIV/AIDS crisis, and a perceived general social disorder.56 The following story is illustrative: On Children in the Streets╇ ·â•‡ 73 May 10, 2002, the Independent on Saturday, a Durban-based paper, ran a story with the headline “AIDS’ Legacy—Orphan Gangs Roam Inner Cities.”

This process relied heavily on the image of the criminal street child, who, his “performance” in the public eye now complete, recedes into invisibility.71 In the following section we turn to this process and look more closely at how the governance of security developed alongside and through the moral panic around street children in the rarified urban space of the CCID. Neoliberal Governance and the Reproduction of the Fragmented City Behind the ideological and racial formations of moral panic lie the more mundane practices and policies that do the work of shaping urban space on a day-to-day basis. During and just after the moral panic years, seven different law enforcement bodies patrolled the CBD, and CCTV of Children in the Streets╇ ·â•‡ 81 the area was continuously monitored by armed rapid response units. According to the CCID administration, security in the CBD consisted of resources provided by a combination of the CCID, the Cape Town Partnership, the city council, the Municipal Police, and the SAPS.

The result would not only be continued underdevelopment in the majority of the city, but also the resurfacing of very recently buried, though not necessarily dead, mechanisms of ordering, securing, and utilizing urban space. This new crop of media representations of street children is, therefore, neither new nor independent of much deeper currents in South African society. As I have demonstrated elsewhere, since 2002 the moral panic around street children has subsided, and the reclamation of the city center is complete, as is reflected in the change of coverage between 2004 and 2005.70 The lasting impact of the moral panic has, however, been institutionalized in the form of “quality of life” municipal bylaws that proscribe behavior associated with the urban poor. Through the physical demarcation of valuable space, with the creation of the CCID, and the deployment of private security to police the uses of that space, “order” and “security” have been established in the city’s heart.


The Diet Myth: Why America's Obsessions With Weight Is Hazardous to Your Health by Paul Campos

cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, feminist movement, moral hazard, moral panic, profit maximization, Saturday Night Live, upwardly mobile

“Indeed, as UCLA sociologist Abigail Saguy suggested to me . . .” Saguy has undertaken a long-term research project to study the social construction of “obesity” as a health and/or political issue in contemporary America. See, for example, Saguy and Riley, “Fat Attack: Scientific and Political Debates over Obesity” (forthcoming). “ ‘Moral panic’ is a term coined by Stanley Cohen in the 1960s . . .” See Stanley Cohen, Folk Devils and Moral Panics (2002). “American history is rich with examples of moral panics.” On the drug war, see Michael Massing, The Fix (2000). On sexual abuse in schools and day care centers, see Dorothy Rabinowitz, No Crueler Tyrannies: Accusation, False Witness, and Other Terrors of Our Times (2003). On McCarthyism, see Albert Fried, ed., The Great American Red Scare (1996). For a superb sociological analysis of various exaggerated and irrational fears in contemporary America, see Barry Glassner, The Culture of Fear: Why Americans Are Afraid of the Wrong Things (1999).

We may drive environmentally insane SUVs that dump untold tons of hydrocarbons into the atmosphere; we may consume a vastly disproportionate share of the world’s diminishing natural resources; we may support a foreign policy that consists of throwing America’s military weight around without regard to objections from our allies— but at least we don’t eat that extra cookie when it’s offered to us. All of which is to say that the current panic over fat is in part a traditional search for societal scapegoats. Indeed, as UCLA sociologist Abigail Saguy suggested to me, our current hysteria about weight can be understood as a moral panic. “Moral panic” is a term coined by Stanley Cohen in the 1960s to describe a recurrent social pattern. First, a group or behavior is classified as dangerously deviant. The deviance is characterized as both a serious threat to societal welfare and as a symptom of deep social ills. The media whips up public concern on the subject by focusing rapidly increasing amounts of attention on it, often in an alarmist fashion that exaggerates the extent of—and the danger presented by—the behavior and those who engage in it.

Whether or not the action is successful, the panic eventually recedes as public attention moves on to other threats, real or imagined. American history is rich with examples of moral panics. From witchcraft trials in colonial Massachusetts, to nineteenth-century anxieties about immigrants, urban criminals, and freed slaves, to twentiethcentury panics over communists in the State Department, violence in our schools, satanic cultists in our day care centers, and the more or less perennial panic over the demonic triad of sex, drugs, and rock and roll, no period of American history has been immune to the widespread belief that the health and morals of the people in general, and of our youth in particular, have degenerated from what they were in the (largely mythical) past. It is no coincidence that our moral panic over weight is focused on what Greg Critser calls “the deadly fattening 236 Fat Politics of our youth.”


pages: 411 words: 95,852

Britain Etc by Mark Easton

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, British Empire, credit crunch, financial independence, garden city movement, global village, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, intangible asset, James Watt: steam engine, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass immigration, moral panic, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, social software

Indeed, in the febrile atmosphere that accompanies public outrage, the voice of calm can also end up being drowned in the duck pond by the angry mob. Policy shaped by panic almost always turns out to be a bad idea. Systems hurriedly assembled as a response to headlines can prove to be blunt and inefficient tools, unnecessary or counterproductive. Many institutions are hampered by the bureaucratic legacy of some long-forgotten scandal that demanded something be done. Britain’s Vetting and Barring Scheme is a child of just such a moral panic: a textbook case of how media storm and political expediency combine to demand reform that later appears disproportionate or simply daft. The saga began in the summer of 2002. That August, like every August, news desks were searching around for stories to fill their papers and bulletins. With Parliament on holiday and little else happening, an appalling child abduction story from Cambridgeshire dominated the front pages.

As I was told by hardened hacks on my local paper thirty years ago: ‘Never let the facts interfere with a good story.’ Prime Minister Gordon Brown had no option but to respond to the rising sense of alarm. It was politically inconceivable to deny there was a problem – that would leave his party exposed to the charge that they were callous and complacent. So a knife-crime ‘summit’ was held at Number Ten Downing Street. There was the promise of a ‘crackdown’ and ‘tough measures’. It was a classic sequence: moral panic, hurried political reaction, futile (probably counter-productive) response. On this occasion, part of the response was the unveiling of a new acronym – TKAP. The Tackling Knives Action Programme demanded that police resources in high-crime areas across England and Wales should be targeted at young men who carried blades. However, among some senior police officers there was puzzlement and anxiety.

Despite such incidents, it wasn’t until the early 1800s that youth came to be regarded as a distinctively threatening or subversive problem in Britain. With urbanisation and industrialisation, the job prospects for working-class boys had worsened: traditional craft apprenticeships disappeared while domestic service increasingly became the province of women. The end of the Napoleonic Wars saw demobilisation of thousands of soldiers, adding to the army of bored and troubled young men wandering city streets. Britain suffered its first moral panic about youth crime at around this time. In London in 1815, the Society for Investigating the Causes of the Alarming Increase of Juvenile Delinquency in the Metropolis was set up. The committee identified ‘the improper conduct of parents, the want of education, the want of suitable employment, the violation of the sabbath and habits of gambling in the public streets’ as explanations for the youth problem, ‘causes of crime’ that in revised form are still trotted out today.


pages: 465 words: 109,653

Free Ride by Robert Levine

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Anne Wojcicki, book scanning, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Firefox, future of journalism, Googley, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, Julian Assange, Justin.tv, Kevin Kelly, linear programming, Marc Andreessen, moral panic, offshore financial centre, pets.com, publish or perish, race to the bottom, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Wu says “it never occurred to me as necessary to disclose that Mr. Schmidt is one of [the foundation’s] many individual donors when speaking or writing.”79 But while there are many donors, Schmidt is the only chairman of the foundation’s board. Another writer with some influence on the debate over copyright is William Patry, a prolific scholar who now works for Google as a senior copyright lawyer. In Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars, Patry argues that the media business has deceptively framed copyright as a moral issue by using words like “piracy” and “theft.” (That may be true, but the use of the word “piracy” in this context predates the Statute of Anne, and “file sharing” isn’t exactly neutral language either.) It makes more sense to look at copyright as an economic issue, but Patry doesn’t seem to understand the businesses involved.

“How Copyright Threatens Democracy: A Conversation with Cory Doctorow” (New America Foundation office, June 28, 2010). I hired a local reporter to take notes on this event and checked Losey’s and Doctorow’s quotations against a video of the speech. 77. Ibid. 78. Tim Wu, “YouTube as Video Store,” Slate, January 29, 2010. Wu, “The Apple Two,” Slate, April 6, 2010. 79. Wu responded to questions via e-mail. 80. Patry, Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars, p. 15. 81. Ibid., p. 17. I took the sales numbers from Take-Two Interactive’s 2010 second-quarter results. If Patry’s mistake sounds reasonable, think for a moment about that number: ninety-five million. There aren’t even that many video game consoles that can play Grand Theft Auto IV. 82. U.S. Government Accountability Office, Intellectual Property Observations on Efforts to Quantify the Economic Effects of Counterfeit and Pirated Goods (GAO-10-423, Report to Congressional Committees, April 12, 2010).

Hollywood, High Tech, and the Future of Entertainment. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Business Books, 2007. Palmer, Shelly. Television Disrupted: The Transition from Network to Networked TV. 2nd ed. White Plains, N.Y.: York House Press, 2008. Passman, Donald S. All You Need to Know About the Music Business. 7th ed. New York: Free Press, 2009. The ultimate reference book by one of today’s smartest music lawyers. Patry, William. Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Poundstone, William. Priceless: The Myth of Fair Value (and How to Take Advantage of It). New York: Hill and Wang, 2010. A fascinating look at why things really cost what they do. Reback, Gary L. Free the Market! Why Only Government Can Keep the Marketplace Competitive. New York: Portfolio, 2009. Shapiro, Carl, and Hal R. Varian.


pages: 397 words: 102,910

The Idealist: Aaron Swartz and the Rise of Free Culture on the Internet by Justin Peters

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4chan, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Bayesian statistics, Brewster Kahle, buy low sell high, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, don't be evil, global village, Hacker Ethic, hypertext link, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, Lean Startup, moral panic, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, profit motive, RAND corporation, Republic of Letters, Richard Stallman, selection bias, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

“Every time a Napster enthusiast downloads a song, it takes money from the pockets of all these members of the creative community,” Ulrich said, remarking that the “touted new paradigm that the Internet gurus tell us we must adopt sounds to me like good old-fashioned trafficking in stolen goods.”59 Ulrich’s position was clear: file sharing victimized songwriters, musicians, and record companies and threatened the survival of the entire music industry. In Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars, the copyright scholar William Patry astutely noted that the mainstream culture industries operate on a mildly coercive “push marketing” model in which companies use advertising and promotions to create consumer demand for the products they want to sell, and the formats in which they want to sell them. Online file sharing repudiates “push marketing” by allowing consumers to unilaterally decide what they want to consume and how they want to do so.

8 Webster to William Leete Stone, December 21, 1837, in Webster, Letters, 511. 9 Ford, Notes, 1:16–31. 10 Kendall, Forgotten Founding Father, 50. 11 Ford, Notes, 1:38. 12 He eventually studied law on his own and in 1781 was admitted to the Connecticut bar. 13 Noah Webster, “Introduction to ‘Blue-Back Speller,’ in Autobiographies of Noah Webster, 75. 14 Webster to Joel Barlow, November 12, 1807, in Ford, Notes, 2:31. 15 Webster to John Canfield, January 6, 1783, in Ford, Notes, 1:58. 16 Micklethwait, Noah Webster and the American Dictionary, 4. 17 Scudder, Noah Webster, 152. 18 Tim Cassedy, “ ‘A Dictionary Which We Do Not Want’: Defining America Against Noah Webster, 1783–1810,” William and Mary Quarterly 71, no. 2 (April 2014): 229. 19 Noah Webster, “On the Education of Youth in America,” in Collection of Essays, 24. 20 Charvat, Profession of Authorship, 18–34. 21 Charvat, Literary Publishing, 42. 22 Wolcott to Noah Webster, September 19, 1807, in Ford, Notes, 2:27. 23 James N. Green, “The Rise of Book Publishing,” in Gross and Kelley, Extensive Republic, 78. 24 Letter from Joel Barlow to the Continental Congress, January 10, 1783, in Primary Sources on Copyright (1450–1900), eds. L. Bently and M. Kretschmer, https://www.copyrighthistory.org. 25 Patry, Moral Panics, 192. 26 Williams, “Significance of the Printed Word,” 43. 27 Noah Webster, “Origin of the Copy-Right Laws in the United States,” in Webster, Collection of Papers, 173. 28 Ibid., 174. 29 It is unclear how much credit, if any, Webster deserves for the Connecticut law; as David Micklethwait has demonstrated, Connecticut was already considering a statewide copyright law by the time the state legislature received Webster’s appeal. 30 Noah Webster, “Memoir,” in Autobiographies of Noah Webster, 143. 31 Noah Webster, “Diary,” in Autobiographies of Noah Webster, 222. 32 Smith, Colonial Days, 284. 33 Ford, Notes, 1:103. 34 Webster, “Diary,” in Autobiographies of Noah Webster, 219. 35 When George Washington married Martha Custis in 1759, Custis already had two children from a previous marriage.

Okerson, Ann Shumelda, and James J. O’Donnell, eds. Scholarly Journals at the Crossroads: A Subversive Proposal for Electronic Publishing. Washington, DC: Office of Scientific & Academic Publishing, Association of Research Libraries, 1995. Overhage, Carl F. J., and R. Joyce Harman, eds. INTREX: Report of a Planning Conference on Information Transfer Experiments. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965. Patry, William. Moral Panics and the Copyright Wars. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Peek, Robin P., and Gregory Newby, eds. Scholarly Publishing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996. Putnam, George Haven, ed. The Question of Copyright. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1891. ———. George Palmer Putnam: A Memoir. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1912. ———. Memories of a Publisher, 1865–1915. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1915.


pages: 266 words: 67,272

Fun Inc. by Tom Chatfield

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Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer age, credit crunch, game design, invention of writing, moral panic, publication bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, upwardly mobile

Equally, those in government and the media had little sense of what a game was like to play, rather than to watch from a distance, and those within the industry felt, rightly enough, that they were operating within a field more or less sealed off from mainstream discourse, where the only meaningful thing to do was to keep their heads down and go on making their products. All of this has provided both the ideal breeding ground for moral panic and for the widening of the divide between those who play and those who don’t. It’s a division that is still largely generational. When a medium as new and as rapidly evolving as video games first arrives, there is little ability for different generations to share or learn lessons from one another. On top of this, there’s the nature of gaming itself. Even television began as a family medium – something that could be shared.

Fanatic Life and Symbolic Death Among the Computer Bums’, Rolling Stone, 7 December 1972; <http://www.wheels.org/spacewar/stone/rolling_stone.html> Byron, Tanya, ‘Safe Children in a Digital World: The Report of the Byron Review’, June 2008; <http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/byron review/> Castronova, Edward, ‘Virtual Worlds: A First-Hand Account of Market and Society on the Cyberian Frontier’, The Gruter Institute Working Papers on Law, Economics, and Evolutionary Biology, 2001, Volume 2, Article 1; <http://www.bepress.com/giwp/default/vol2/issl/artl> Castronova, Edward and Fairfield, Joshua, ‘Dragon Kill Points: A Summary White Paper’, January 2007; <http://ssrn.com/abstract= 958945> Chatfield, Tom, ‘Rage Against the Machines’, Prospect magazine, June 2008; <http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/2008/06/ragea-gainstthemachines/> Chatfield, Tom, ‘Screen Test’, New Statesman, 30 April 2009; <http://www.newstatesman.com/ideas/2009/05/video-games-industry-art-film> Chatfield, Tom, ‘Videogames Now Outperform Hollywood Movies’, Observer, 27 September 2009; <http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/gamesblog/2009/sep /27/videogames-hollywood> Ellis, Hilary; Heppell, Stephen; Kirriemuir, John; Krotoski, Aleks; McFarlane, Angela, ‘Unlimited Learning: Computer and Video Games in the Learning Landscape’, September 2006; <http://www.elspa.com/assets/files/u/unlimitedlearningtheroleof-computerandvideogamesint_344.pdf> Ferguson, Christopher John, ‘The Good, The Bad and the Ugly: A Meta-analytic Review of Positive and Negative Effects of Violent Video Games’, Psychiatric Quarterly, December 2007, Volume 78, Number 4; <http://www.springerlink.com/content /66217176984x7477/fulltext.pdf> Ferguson, Christopher John, ‘The School Shooting/Violent Video Game Link: Causal Link or Moral Panic?’, Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, December 2008, Volume 5, Issue 1-2: <http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgibin/fulltext /121556773 /PDFSTART> Gentile, Douglas A, ‘Pathological Video Game Use among Youth 8 to 18: A National Study’, Psychological Science, 22 September 2008;<http://www.drdouglas.org/drdpdfs/Gentile_Pathological_VG_Use_in_press.pdf> Goldsmith, Jeffrey, ‘This Is Your Brain on Tetris’, Wired, May 1994; <http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/2.05/tetris.html> Jo Kim, Amy, ‘Putting the Fun in Functional: Applying Game Mechanics to Functional Software’, Google Tech Talks, January 2009; <http://www.youtube.com/watch?

(world’s first true computer game) 16–18, 37 speakers 51 Spider-Man 3 (film) 29 Spielberg, Steven 14, 137–8 sports 2, 91 Star Trek series 113 Star Wars (film series) 7, 17, 46 Star Wars Force Trainer 159 Star Wars Galaxies 7, 139–40 Starcraft 81 stem cell research 59 Sundance Film Festival (2008) 143, 144 surface texturing 116 team games 100 television 58, 85, 114, 227 Baer and 19 console-based service 218–19 family entertainment 20, 59 and interaction 79, 136 user expectations 136 and virtual reality 160 and younger children 64 ‘tetriminoes’ 40 Tetris 40–42, 50, 122 text adventures x thatgamecompany 120 Thompson, Mark 226–7 Tolkien, J R R 45 Toy Story (film) 117 training 153, 157 emergency medicine games 197–9 military 188, 189, 190, 193 see also education; learning transnational relations 107–8 TripAdvisor 211 Triumph Studios 119 Trubshaw, Roy 45 Tunnel 228 show 133–4 Turbine Hall, Tate Modern, London 132 Twitter 89, 208, 212 Ultima Online 7, 100, 148 universities 225 University of Southern California 121, 186 Up (film) 117 US Center for Terrorism and Intelligence Studies (CETIS) 176 US Congress 182 US Department of Education 68 US Marine Combat Development Command 188 US Marines: First Recon unit 192 US military 187–8, 191, 194, 195 US Secret Service 68 value 151–2, 179–80 video arcades 87, 88 video game designer, as a career 37–8 video games addiction to 71–8 and art 117–34 big-budget 214, 222 born in a technology institute 15–18 a business devoted to miracles 14–15 and children 58, 62, 63–5 compared with other games 5–6 complexity 9, 11, 39, 42, 50, 72, 73, 130, 171, 214 consumers 61–2 creation of 114–17 education 199–208 equality 103 and the family 89, 91 feedback 9 and films 137 first icons 20 games-based vs. real-life interactions 91–3 the hero’s journey 46–7 and human behaviour 165–79 leadership in 98, 99, 101 as learning engines 6–7 as mainstream media activity 89 market for 22–3 military games 187–97 miniature games 126–9 mix of freedom and constraint in 102–3 moral panic 59 and music 135–6 nostalgia industry 52 perceived as played by adolescent males 87–8 players/non-players 59 power of 57–8, 223 progress by gaining experience 6 questions raised by 59–60 raising awareness 181–7 rapidly evolving 59 reviews 75 rules 6, 11 safety 58 as a social outlet 78–81 start of their commercial life 20 suitability for the digital age 28 teenage players (US) 90 time spent playing 29 two-player 88 and violence 60–61 and virtual theft 60–61 ‘visceral’ thrills 9–10 Villiers, Justin 112–13, 114 violence in games a minority interest 37, 82–3 regulation of 62, 224 and violence in life 65–71, 223 virtual currency 145–9 virtual economies 167, 169 virtual environments 142, 154, 172, 175 virtual epidemic 174–6 ‘virtual life’ simulations 83 virtual reality 14, 138 goggles 141 and the Wii 160 virtual screens 14 virtual voting system 225 virtual worlds 33, 45–7, 59, 95, 103, 141, 146, 154, 155, 160, 166, 168, 170–73, 210, 211, 223, 225, 226, 233 war games 188 watches 28 Watts, Peter 133 Wells, H G 45 Wii Play 83 WILL Interactive Inc. 196 wireless control 14 women players 61 word processing 155, 157 work virtual work 139–45 work/play separation 2–3, 5, 145 World of Warcraft (WoW) xii, 30, 93–102, 105, 147, 149, 174, 175, 176, 217 Wortley, David 153–4, 156, 157, 160, 161 Wright, Evan: Generation Kill 191–2 writing, origin of 57, 111, 228 Xbox 360 games console 14, 215 XEODesign 49 Yahoo!


pages: 267 words: 82,580

The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett

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3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, moral panic, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

It also allows people to be honest and open and invisible when there are good reasons to. We dispense with that at our peril. Get rid of trolling and we might lose something else, too. The line between criminality, threats, offensiveness and satire is another very fine one. Trolls like Old Holborn do occasionally cast a satirical eye on society’s self-importance, expose the absurdity of modern life, moral panics or our histrionic twenty-four-hour news culture. One branch of trolls, called ‘RIP memorial trolls’, target people who post messages to online memorial pages of the recently deceased. According to Whitney Phillips, an academic who wrote her Ph.D. on trolls, they usually target what they call ‘grief tourists’: users who have no real-life connection to the victim and who could not possibly be in mourning.

Erotic story groups where people could read and write steamy prose became extremely popular on Usenet in the 1990s. The first erotic stories Usenet group, rec.arts.erotica, was created in May 1991, which was quickly followed by a number of spin-offs and subgroups catering for every predilection, including one titled alt.startrek.creative.erotica.moderated. Although statistics about how much pornography is on the net are usually marked by exaggeration and moral panic, there has certainly always been a lot of it about. One pornographic Bulletin Board System earnt 3.2 million dollars in 1993 by selling hard-core images and videos to thousands of subscribers. By 1997 there was somewhere between 28,000 and 72,000 porn sites online. Porn is now estimated to comprise between 4 and 30 per cent of all websites. In April 1996, an American university student named Jennifer Ringley registered a website named ‘JenniCam’.

USE OF WORDS SUCH AS: HACKING, PHREAKING (OR ANY WORDS WITH ‘PH’ REPLACING ‘F’) LACK OF INTEREST IN SELF AND APPEARANCE OR INDICATIONS OF LACK OF SLEEP (WHICH MIGHT INDICATE LATE NIGHT MODEM-PLAY) COMPUTER AND MODEM RUNNING LATE AT NIGHT (EVEN WHILE UNATTENDED) STORING OF COMPUTER FILES ENDING IN: PCX, GIF, TIF, DL, GL (THESE ARE VIDEO OR GRAPHIC IMAGE FILES AND PARENTS SHOULD KNOW WHAT THEY ILLUSTRATE) NAMES ON COMMUNICATIONS PROGRAMS WHICH SEEM SATANIC OR PORNOGRAPHIC, OBSESSION WITH FANTASY ADVENTURE GAMES (DUNGEONS AND DRAGONS, TRADE WARS, SEXCAPADE, ETC.). This misunderstanding and moral panic typically accompanies most new technologies. p.8 ‘Whether actual or perceived, anonymity . . .’ ‘The Online Disinhibition Effect’, CyberPsychology and Behaviour 7 (3). This article was published in 2004, but Suler had set out his thesis before then, in 2001: http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/1094931041291295 & http://users.rider.edu/~suler/vita.html. p.8 ‘It’s true that from . . .’


pages: 241 words: 90,538

Unequal Britain: Equalities in Britain Since 1945 by Pat Thane

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Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, equal pay for equal work, full employment, gender pay gap, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, old-boy network, pensions crisis, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, unpaid internship, women in the workforce

We must listen before everything that we in Britain hold dear crumbles completely.112 RECENT TENSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS Under the 2004 Housing and Planning Acts, the Labour government took action to solve the shortage of Gypsy and Traveller sites, requiring local authorities to identify the accommodation needs of Gypsies and Travellers in their communities and take steps through regional and local plans to provide for them, as for the rest of the community. There was now an 96 U N E Q UA L B R I TA I N opportunity to effect real change, with an effective and respected lobbying organization active (the TLRP), increasing levels of legal awareness among travelling communities, and strengthened human rights and race relations legislation in place. What followed, however, was a full-blown moral panic over ‘problem’ Gypsy and Traveller sites.113 In November 2004, the Select Committee on the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM) called for the reintroduction of the statutory duty on local authorities to provide sites, and expressed concern that the new regional planning system would take too long to deliver results: There must be a national response with a duty imposed on all local authorities based on assessment of need at regional level.

A study of the national press coverage found: ● a widespread failure to capitalise ‘Gypsies’ and ‘Travellers’ as proper nouns, in defiance of guidelines published by the National Union of Journalists and the CRE ● a tendency by the right-wing tabloids to question Gypsies’ and Travellers’ ethnic status, implying that they were not ‘real’ ethnic minorities and that to consider them as such was ‘political correctness gone mad’ ● the use of terms that were, at best, mildly offensive and, at worst, racist, ranging from ‘itinerants’ and ‘tinkers’ through to ‘gyppos’ and ‘pikies’ ● routine stereotyping of all Gypsies and Travellers as threatening, G Y P S I E S A N D T R AV E L L E R S ● ● ● ● 99 dirty and lazy, with the over-riding message that they were invading and destroying the countryside through the stealthy and deliberate development of ‘illegal’ and unwanted sites some use of the binary stereotype of the good/bad and real/fake Gypsies to excuse racist reporting routine stereotyping of the settled community as law-abiding, decent and hardworking, drawn together by the Express newspapers under the ‘Middle England’ label, to sharpen the contrast with Gypsies and Travellers many of the hallmarks of a moral panic, including the portrayal of the Gypsy ‘problem’ as national rather than local, ‘calls for action’ in some newspapers, predictions the problem would snowball, and linking with other social problems as evidence that Britain was ‘going to the dogs’ very few voices, including that of the CRE, challenging the stereotypes or criticising the abuse of Gypsies and Travellers.130 Ironically, all political parties claimed to agree that the solution to the tensions was to increase the number of authorized public and private Gypsy and Traveller sites and to clamp down on unauthorized ones.

This page intentionally left blank Index Page numbers in bold refer to figures and tables. 9/11, see September 11th, 2001 abortion 58, 105–6, 110, 114, 140, 202 activism and activist groups, see campaigning Age Concern 7, 10, 14, 17–19 AIDS 127, 150–5 anti-Semitism 1, 45, 53, 56–8 Ashley, April 142–3 assimilation 54, 56, 68, 75–6, 82, 86 Bangladeshi community 2, 21, 37, 39, 41–2, 44, 65, 189 BCODP (British Council of Organisations of Disabled People) 164, 170–2, 174 Begum, Shabina 54, 64 Beveridge, William 7, 9–12, 18 birth control 58, 116, 130, 139 birth rates 4, 9, 13, 23, 108, 116, 119 bisexuality 127–9, 132, 145, 151, 154–5, 161 Blasphemy Act 53, 60–1, 66 British Federation of Business and Professional Women (BFBPW) 109–10 British National Party (BNP) 30, 38, 54 British Social Attitudes Survey 43, 119 British Union of Fascists 56 Campaign for Homosexual Equality (CHE) 145–6, 148–9, 159 campaigning and definition of mental illness 178 and disabled people 166, 168–9, 172 and ethnic minorities 37, 45–6 Gypsies and Travellers 71, 81, 102 and homosexuality 157, 161 and older people 9, 17–18, 21 and overcoming inequalities 189–90 and poverty 14–15 and religious minorities 66 and trans people 3, 159 and women 2, 107, 113, 121, 123 CARD (Campaign Against Racial Discrimination) 29, 34–5, 44, 60 Caribbean community 32–4, 36–7, 39, 41–3, 179–80 Catholic community 53, 55–8, 61, 67–9, 81, 158 child care 108, 116 Child Poverty Action Group (CPAG) 14 children and mental disability 163, 175–7, 187 Chinese community 21, 41 Christian denominations, membership of 69 Church of England 53, 55, 66–7, 141 Church of England Moral Welfare Council (CEMWC) 135–6 Church of Scotland 69, 141 CJPOA (Criminal Justice and Public Order Act) 90–2, 126–7, 150, 157 Cowell, Roberta 125, 142–3 CRC (Community Relations Commission) 29, 36–7, 47 CRE (Commission for Racial Equality) establishment of 30, 37–8 and Gypsies and Travellers 94, 98 and religious discrimination 59 and women 115 Criminal Justice and Public Order Act, see CJPOA cross-dressing 129, 147–8 culture, changes since 1945 5 DDA (Disability Discrimination Act) 164–5, 171–3, 178 DED (Disability Equality Duty) 165, 173 depression 3, 163, 166, 173, 175 disability definition of 166, 171, 173 learning 165, 172, 179, 181–2, 186 mental 3, 166, 175, 179, 181–2, 185, 187 physical 3, 166 Disability Information and Advice Line (DIAL) 164, 169 disabled people activism of 169, 172 benefits for 168–9, 173, 183 historical perception of 165 inequalities since 1945 3 and pensions 11 public attitudes to 174, 181 registered 184–5 226 disabled people (continued) responsibility for 167–8 and retirement 16 services for 170, 172, 176–9, 182, 186–7 and education, see education, and disabled people and employment, see employment, and disabled people and poverty, see poverty, and disability Disablement Income Group (DIG) 14, 163, 168 discrimination against disabled people 169–70 against gay people 158 against Gypsies and Travellers 98 against trans people 127, 160–1 against women 113 age 1, 8, 15, 18–19, 21–2 indirect 30, 37, 60–1, 112 legislation against 35–7, 41, 46, 53, 65, 170–1, 174 racial 29, 35–6, 54 religious 54, 59–62, 64, 67 in Scotland 121–2 divorce 4, 23, 105, 116, 119, 123, 132, 135 DPI (Disabled Peoples International) 170, 174 DRC (Disability Rights Commission) 165, 172, 174, 181, 190 education changes since 1945 4 and disabled people 163, 165–6, 173, 187–8 and ethnic minorities 4, 37, 42–3, 118 of Gypsies and Travellers 81–2 and older people 22 and religious identity 57, 63 and women 109, 117–18 employment and Bangladeshi community 189 changes since 1945 4 and disabled people 171, 173 discrimination in 32–3, 36 INDEX and ethnic minorities 4, 37, 39, 42, 50 and older people 4, 8, 12–13, 16, 18, 20–1, 27 and women 4, 108, 111–13, 116–20, 122–3 equality age 8, 22 legal 2–3, 60, 68, 159–61 Equality and Human Rights Commission (EHRC) and age equality 8, 22 and disabled people 174 and sexual orientation 128 establishment of 45, 47 foundation of 30 ongoing role of 190 ethnic minorities before 1945 31–2 and British politics 46 in British politics 30, 32–4, 37, 40 census data on 49 deaths in police custody 30 Gypsies and Travellers as 71–2, 81, 94 and homosexuality 145 and income 51 inequalities since 1945 2, 37 language and 43–4 and media 44 and mental disability 179 older people in 14–16, 21, 42 organizations of 33–4, 40–1 takeup of benefits 189–90 and trade unions 38–9 and volunteering 18 women in 38, 40 and education, see education, and ethnic minorities and employment, see employment, and ethnic minorities and poverty, see poverty, and ethnic minorities European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 72, 90, 94, 126, 157 European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 94–5, 126–8, 149–50, 157, 160, 162 European Declaration on Human Rights 64 families, lone-parent 119 gay men and AIDS 151–3 inequalities since 1945 2 lifestyles of 134, 144–5 as politicians 127, 157 Gay News 53, 61, 66, 126, 145–7 gender identity 125, 128–9, 159, 162 gender roles 160–1 generational interdependence 21 GLC (Greater London Council) 30, 34, 40, 115 GLF (Gay Liberation Front) 126, 144–5, 147–8 Grant, Bernie 30, 40 Greater London Action for Racial Equality (GLARE) 40 Gypsies and Travellers and housing 76 and pensions 11, 20 and political action 76–7 and retirement 16 and welfare provision 75–6 benefits for 168 caravan sites 72–4, 77–8, 80, 82–97, 99–100 continuing inequality of 189, 191 evictions of 71, 78–82, 90–3 inequalities since 1945 2, 73–5, 100–1 legal protection of 94–5 number of caravans 103 occupations of 83 organizations for 92 problems with statistics for 101–2 public attitudes to 44, 47 welfare provision for 71 Gypsy and Traveller Law Reform Coalition (G&TLRC) 72–3, 93, 97 Gypsy Charter 71, 77–8, 83 Gypsy Council 71, 81, 84–5, 88 Gypsy Lore Society (GLS) 71, 74, 76 Haire, Norman 130, 132–3 Help the Aged 13, 17 Hindu community 58–9, 62, 64 HIV, see AIDS HLRS (Homosexual Law Reform Society) 125, 137, 140–1, 144, 148 INDEX homophobia 2, 140–2, 147, 150, 154, 158–9 homosexuality decriminalization of 126, 132, 139–40 depictions of 138–9 during World War II 131–2 legal status of 126, 128–9, 132, 135–6, 139–40, 146, 148–50, 153–4, 156–8 as mental illness 178 public attitudes to 133–4, 137–8, 147, 153–4, 158, 159, 162 and religion 66, 141–2 Human Rights Act (HRA) 54, 64, 66, 72, 94, 97, 157, 160 language 43–4, 128, 134, 166 Lawrence, Stephen 30, 41 learning difficulties, see disabilities, learning lesbians and gay liberation 145–6 inequalities since 1945 2 legal status of 125, 136, 140–1 organizations of 141 persecution of 130, 132 as politicians 127, 157 public perception of 130–1, 138 life expectancy 4, 9, 23, 24 Little Kinsey 125, 133–4 London bombings, July 2005 45, 64 illegitimacy 4, 108, 131, 135 immigrants after 1945 4, 32–3 from Commonwealth countries 48 and pensions 20 and religious discrimination 67 and religious diversity 56 restrictions on 34–6, 39, 45, 56 impairments 169, 171, 173, 175, 177 Indian community 21, 42 Indian Workers’ Association (IWA) 29, 32, 34–5 inequalities health 181 income 21 since 1945 1–2, 189 integration 46, 54, 56, 65, 68, 176, 179 Irish community 31, 33, 45–6, 55, 62, 179–80, 190 Irish Travellers 72, 74, 80–1, 84–5, 94, 102 Islamophobia 62 MCB (Muslim Council of Britain) 54, 62–3, 65 media and disability 182 and ethnic minorities 44–7 and Gypsies and Travellers 74, 88, 93, 96–9 and homosexuality 133, 142, 150–2, 162 and mental illness 163–4, 175 ongoing role of 190 and religious minorities 63–4, 68 and women 123 MENCAP 163, 166, 172, 175, 181 mental hospitals 163, 165, 175–8 mental illness 164, 166, 171, 175, 177, 180 middle classes 4, 108, 110 MIND (formerly National Association for Mental Health) 163, 172, 175–6 moral panics 96, 99 multiculturalism 38, 40, 60, 65, 68 multiple sclerosis 166, 168, 171 Muslim community and British politics 54 and domestic partnership 116 and employment 59 and equality legislation 60 and ethnic identity 59–60, 62 growth of 58 Jewish community 1, 29, 31–2, 45–6, 53, 55–9, 64, 146, 189–90 JRF (Joseph Rowntree Foundation) 170–3, 179 Kinsey, Alfred 125, 132–3 Labour Party 12, 34–5, 40, 106, 111, 114, 120–2, 139, 153 227 inequalities after 9/11 1, 43, 45, 47 integration of 65, 68 legal recognition of 63 organizations of 61–2, 64 portrayal of 65 National Federation of Old Age Pensioners Associations (NFOAPA) 9, 12–15 National Federation of Retirement Pensions Associations (NFRPA) 9–11 National Front (NF) 38, 145 National Insurance 7, 11, 75 National Pensioners’ Convention (NPC) 15–16 National Spinsters’ Pensions Association (NSPA) 7, 9 New (Age) Travellers 72, 84, 88–9, 102 NF (National Front) 38, 145 NHS (National Health Service) 12, 23, 33, 109, 159–60, 163, 173, 175, 181 Northern Ireland 61, 126, 141, 146, 148, 150 Notting Hill Carnival 30, 34 Old Age Pensions, see pensions, state Old Age Pensions Association (OAPA) 9, 17 older people activity of 28 before 1945 8–9 campaigning by 22 and health 12 historical changes in inequalities 1, 13, 23–4 militancy of 8 physical condition of 19–20 use of term 19 and education, see education, and older people and employment, see employment, and older people and poverty, see poverty, and older people Pension Credit 20, 190 pensions campaigning for 7, 9–11 and disabled people 11 228 pensions (continued) occupational 11, 21 private 8, 11, 16–17, 20 state 7–11, 14, 16–18, 20, 160 and trans people 160 and women 7, 9, 116 police, attitude to ethnic minorities 30, 39, 41, 45 ‘political correctness’ 43, 96–7 population ageing of 8, 13, 16, 22, 25–6 changes since 1945 4 poverty changes since 1945 4 and continuing inequality 191 and disability 167–8 and ethnic minorities 46 and immigrants 31, 41 and older people 7, 11, 14, 22–3, 26–7 and women 11, 116, 119 pregnancy 23, 116 Press for Change (PfC) 127, 129, 159, 161, 221 prostitution 125, 129, 135–7 race, concept of 60 racism 1, 34, 38, 43–4, 46–7, 62, 94, 96, 100, 144–5 institutional 39, 41 rape 110, 114 religious minorities 54–6, 59–60, 65, 67–8 size of 69–70 retirement 7, 10–11, 13, 16–18, 21, 23, 28 riots 29–30, 39–40, 54, 57 RRB (Race Relations Board) 29, 35–7 The Satanic Verses 54, 60–2, 66 schizophrenia 164, 178–9 SCOPE (formerly Spastics Society) 164, 172, 177 Scotland Gypsies and Travellers in 75 homosexuality in 141–2, 148–50 and women politicians 121 Scottish Homosexual Rights Group (SHRG), see SMG Scottish Union of Mental Patients (SUMP) 164, 176 INDEX SDA (Sex Discrimination Act) 105, 113, 115, 122, 169 September 11th, 2001 1, 43, 45, 47, 64, 68 sex education 125, 133–4, 153 Sex Education Society 130, 132 sex reassignment surgery (SRS) 142 sexuality and identity 129, 132 survey results on 156 Sharia law 54, 65–6 Sikh community 53, 58–9, 62–3, 66–7, 69 SMG (Scottish Minorities Group) 126, 145–6, 148–50 social class 4, 42 Somali community 65 stereotypes 19, 74, 86, 99–100, 123, 190 Tatchell, Peter 127, 152–4 Telephone Legal Advice Service for Travellers (TLAST) 92 Terence Higgins Trust (THT) 126–7, 151, 153 terrorism 30, 57, 65 Thatcher, Margaret 39, 106, 115, 121, 147, 152, 155 TLRP (Traveller Law Reform Project) 73, 93, 95–6 TLRU (Traveller Law Research Unit) 72, 92 trade unions 8, 11–12, 15, 30, 34, 38–9, 85, 106, 111–12, 115, 145–6 trans people and campaigning 161 and gay communities 145, 155 inequalities since 1945 2–3 legal status of 159–60 organizations of 147–8 public attitudes to 142–4, 162 use of term 129 transvestism, see cross-dressing travel, changes since 1945 5 TUC (Trades Union Congress) 8, 15, 38, 111–12 Turing, Alan 135 United States 15, 43, 64, 118, 130, 132, 147 violence, domestic 38, 114–15, 119, 122 volunteers 17–18 Wales 31, 38, 64, 73, 79, 94, 102, 121, 159 West Indian community 29, 32, 34, 36 West Indian Standing Committee (WISC) 34–5 White, Florence 9 Whitehouse, Mary 53, 61, 126, 146, 149 Wilde, Oscar 125, 129 WLM (Women’s Liberation Movement) 38, 105, 107, 110–11, 113, 115, 145 Wolfenden Committee 125, 136–9, 141–2, 147 women black 113–14 earnings of 118 equal pay for 105, 107–13, 118–19 in ethnic minorities 38, 40 and government institutions 120, 123 Gypsies and Travellers 84, 110 and health 21 historical inequality of 107 inequalities since 1945 2 lesbian and bisexual, see lesbians and marriage 75, 108, 110–11, 116–17, 122–3, 168–9 and mental illness 180 and motherhood 108, 116–17, 119 Muslim 60, 65 organizations for 109–12, 114–15 in Parliament 110, 114, 120–1 and pensions 7, 9, 116 as percentage of population 106 and religion 66 and retirement 16 and education, see education, and women and employment, see employment, and women and poverty, see poverty, and women


pages: 378 words: 94,468

Drugs 2.0: The Web Revolution That's Changing How the World Gets High by Mike Power

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air freight, Alexander Shulgin, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, fiat currency, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, frictionless, Haight Ashbury, John Bercow, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Leonard Kleinrock, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Network effects, nuclear paranoia, packet switching, pattern recognition, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, pre–internet, QR code, RAND corporation, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sexual politics, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, Zimmermann PGP

Mephedrone was the fulcrum, the tipping point that took a clandestine internet drug scene and dropped it, gurning and wide-eyed, right into the high streets of the UK – and then into the wider world. The swift and protocol-busting ban on the new drug in the UK did nothing to eliminate it here or in the EU or the US; it simply handed the market to grateful gangsters who added the drug to their repertoire, and prompted greater innovation in the chemical underground. Following the intense media attention that mephedrone attracted, and the ensuing moral panic, the new chemical craze of so-called ‘legal highs’ gained full-spectrum media dominance in a matter of weeks. Newspapers and legislators were shocked, but the situation was as predictable as it was inevitable – if you knew where to look and what you were looking for, and if you’d been looking for long enough. The online ‘research chemical’ scene is at the root of this story, and it is from here that mephedrone sprang.

How these substances achieve this in neurological terms is hotly debated, but the latest research suggests that when flooded with serotonin the mind dampens down brain activity, rather than increasing it, as had long been thought. (These descriptions deliberately and necessarily simplify the interaction between drugs and the brain, since each category of drugs actually acts on both systems at once, and each system is far too complicated for any non-scientist to describe – or read about.) As the social taboos and moral panics around psychedelics started to build, Dow found itself the uneasy holder of patents for powerful psychedelics such as DOM – a designer drug created by Shulgin and popularized following the outlawing of LSD. This potent drug flooded the streets of Haight-Ashbury in 1967 and is said to have caused many traumatic episodes as tablets containing guaranteed overdoses of the chemical circulated in their thousands.

Leaving aside the fact that no toxicology reports were available at the time of that report, and that no bath salts type drugs are anything remotely like LSD, the source for these allegations was flimsy at best – neither the doctor nor the policeman quoted in the early stories had first-hand knowledge of the case, reported Reuters’ Jack Shafer.13 It is complex enough untangling the facts in news stories that involve novel psychoactive substances without media hype confusing the picture so completely that it seems almost wilful. Each generation has its drugs moral panic, whether it comes in the guise of LSD users jumping from buildings in the 1960s, PCP-crazies in the 1980s, superhuman crackheads in the 1990s, or Meow-frenzied and entirely fictional schoolkids taunting their teachers with their bags of legal highs in the early twenty-first century. As Alasdair Forsyth, of Glasgow Caledonian University’s Institute for Society and Social Justice Research, told me, ‘There was a cartoon in Punch a few years back depicting two farmers looking at a huge scarecrow with the caption: “To have any effect I find I have to make it more scary every year”.’


pages: 322 words: 88,197

Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson

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Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Edward Thorp, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, lone genius, mass immigration, megacity, Minecraft, moral panic, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern

The surge in interest in Indian textiles was a tremendous boon for the East India Company, which went from importing a quarter of a million pieces in 1664 to 1.76 million twenty years later. (More than 80 percent of the company’s trade was devoted to calico at the height of the craze.) But the news was not as encouraging for England’s native sheep farmers and wool manufacturers, who suddenly saw their livelihoods threatened by an imported fabric. The craze for cotton was so severe that by the first decade of the next century it triggered a kind of moral panic among the rising commentariat, accompanied by a series of parliamentary interventions. Hundreds if not thousands of pamphlets and essays were published, many of them denouncing the “Calico Madams” whose scandalous taste for cotton was undermining the British economy. “The Wearing of printed Callicoes and Linnens, is an Evil with respect to the Body Politick,” one commenter announced. Defoe himself wrote multiple screeds on what he considered “a Disease in Trade . . . a Contagion, that if not stopp’d in the Beginning, will, like the Plague in Capital City, spread itself o’er the whole Nation.”

Le Bon Marché and its peers hinted, for the first time, that the service industry would soon become a cornerstone. — Women, of course, were at the epicenter of this new industry, as they had been during the dawn of the cotton revolution two centuries before. Increasingly, women were working in these new department stores, not just enjoying them as consumers. And just as cotton had unleashed a moral panic over the traitorous desires of the Calico Madam, Le Bon Marché triggered a similar crisis in Parisian society. In this case, it was not women buying luxury items that caused the outrage; it was the even more startling fact that women were stealing them. Shortly after the arrival of grands magasins like Le Bon Marché, the Parisian authorities and other interested parties began noticing a marked uptick in the number of women caught stealing items from the stores, apparently motivated by some kind of deranged pleasure in the act.

His “Proclamation for the Suppression of Coffee Houses” described the threat in decisive terms: Where it is most apparent that the multitude of coffee houses of late years . . . and the great resort of idle and disaffected persons to them have produced very evil and dangerous effects, as well for that many tradesmen and others do herein mis-spend much of their time which might and probably would be employed in and about their lawful calling and affairs, but also for that in such houses, divers false, malitious, and scandalous reports are devised and spread abroad to the defamation of His Majestie’s Government . . . His Majesty hath thought it fit and necessary that the said coffee houses be (for the future) put down and suppressed . . . You can hear beneath that formal syntax the guttural cry of moral panic that would echo for centuries every time new leisure spaces emerged to scandalize older generations: from the department stores of the nineteenth century, to the pool halls of the early twentieth, to the video-game arcades of the 1980s. Charles might have “thought it fit and necessary” to suppress the coffeehouses, but the citizens of London thought otherwise. After a violent outcry from both the proprietors and customers of the new establishments, Charles withdrew his proclamation only a week after proclaiming it.


pages: 186 words: 49,595

Revolution in the Age of Social Media: The Egyptian Popular Insurrection and the Internet by Linda Herrera

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citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, informal economy, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, minimum wage unemployment, Mohammed Bouazizi, moral panic, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, WikiLeaks

A twenty-five-year-old Egyptian university graduate illustrates this difference when he says, “I mainly associate the state with the horrible experience of having to go the police station to get my [national] ID.” To better understand how this wired generation started to coalesce into a counter-power requires going back to the era of technological opening. The high-tech revolution arrived in Egypt with a combination of excitement, moral panic, and desire. No one could predict how technology would change people and society, or how people would alter the technology. Liberalization Egyptian Style The Egyptian government, historically reluctant to allow the spread of technologies that would loosen its grip on its citizenry, nevertheless opened its doors to information and communication technologies (ICT) and the liberalization of the media.

Both Tunisia and Egypt had their own dictators, intolerable police states, and young male martyrs whose deaths roused people to action. The icon of Mohamed Bouazizi, however, did not appeal to some Egyptians, who found an ethical conflict in his act of suicide. When news spread that apparent copycat self-immolation suicides were taking place in Egypt—by an elderly man from Cairo, a desperately poor mother who committed the act in front of her children, and two unemployed men—a moral panic ensued. The two idioms of martyrdom and suicide were getting conflated in ways that proved troubling and complicated, and that brought ethics to the surface of the Khaled Said page. A member of the 6th of April Movement, twenty-six-year-old Asmaa Mahfouz, came forward to ease concerns about suicide/ martyrdom and to rally people to take to the streets on January 25. Her vlog (video blog), posted on the Khaled Said page, went viral on January 18, 2011.


pages: 717 words: 150,288

Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham

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airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, creative destruction, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, digital map, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, McMansion, megacity, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, Project for a New American Century, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight, white picket fence

., Under Fire 2 The Organization And Representation of Violence, Rotterdam: Witte de Witte, 64. 34 Jeremy Adam Smith, ‘Tearing Down the Towers’. 35 David Harvey, Justice Nature and the Geography of Difference, Oxford: Blackwell, 1996, 404. 36 Guy Baeten, ‘The Uses and Deprivations of the Neoliberal City’, in BAVO, ed, Urban Politics Now: Re Imagining Democracy in the Neoliberal City, Rotterdam: NAi Publishers, 2008; Rowland Atkinson and Gesa Helms, eds., Securing an Urban Renaissance, Bristol: Policy Press, 2007. 37 David Simon, ‘The Escalating Breakdown of Urban Society across the US’, Guardian, 6 September 2008. 38 Quoted in Paul Street, ‘Republicans, Cities, and Cruise Ships’, Znet, February 2004. 39 Ibid. 40 Steve Macek, Urban Nightmares: The Media, The Right and The Moral Panic Over the City, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2006, 37–70. 41 It is striking how Christian Fundamentalists regularly espouse the pseudo-science of Social Darwinism whilst rejecting out of hand the overwhelming accumulation of hard-scientific evidence supporting Darwinian theories of Evolution. See George Monbiot, ‘How these Gibbering Numbskulls Came to Dominate Washington’, Guardian, 28 October 2008. 42 Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structures in American Life, New York: Free Press, 526. 43 In Autumn 2002, US suburbanites around Washington DC’s Beltway, still reeling under the impacts of the 9/11 attacks, were subjected to a campaign of murderous sniping.

One report by Visionics, a leading manufacturer, promised that its face-recognition technologies would do no less than ‘Protect … Civilization from the Faces of Terror’.105 Seduced by such hyperbole, Interpol announced in October 2008 that it was seeking to develop an international face-recognition CCTV system to integrate screening across main borders.106 The dramatically intensified investment and research in face-recognition CCTV after 9/11 has exploited perfectly the notion of what Kelly Gates calls an ‘amorphous, racialized, and fetishized enemy Other that had penetrated both the national territory and the national imagination’.107 The race is on to develop systems appropriate to the ‘nation’s new “unidentifiable” Other’ – people of ‘Middle Eastern appearance’.108 The technophilic search for an extended, distributed system for tracking the biometrically scanned faces of suspect individuals thus parallels the idea, propagated through the moral panic flooding the national media, ‘that certain faces could be inherently “faces of terror” – that individuals embody terror or evil in their faces’. This, Gates argues, could ‘not help but invoke a paranoid discourse of racialized otherness’.109 The prospect of ‘smart’ CCTV continually searching for ‘abnormal’ or ‘threatening’ elements across entire cities and nations may ultimately prefigure the collapse of the age-old notion of urban anonymity.

Moreover, she admits that her daughter now ‘feels very threatened when she sees poor people. We were driving next to a truck with some day laborers … and we were parked beside them at a light. [My daughter] wanted to move because she was afraid those people were going to come and get her. They looked scary to her’.59 The widening anxieties surrounding urban life within the context of the War on Terror add to moral panics over crime, social unrest, and the need to fortress oneself and one’s family against all manner of incursions and risks. Enter the SUV, carefully designed and marketed to exploit and perpetuate fears of the Other, the ghetto, while at the same time providing reassurance and patriotic symbolism for ‘homeland’ suburbanites who find themselves experiencing a new kind of war, in which vague and unknowable threats might lurk everywhere and anywhere, threatening to strike at any time.


America Right or Wrong: An Anatomy of American Nationalism by Anatol Lieven

British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, income inequality, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, moral panic, new economy, Norman Mailer, oil shock, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, World Values Survey, Y2K

Although at their farther 117 AMERICA RIGHT OR WRONG fringes the forces of the American antithesis shade over into fascistic manias like that of the terrorist Timothy McVeigh and the various militia movements, the great majority are not opposed to the formal democratic aspects of the American Creed; on the contrary, they take enormous pride in them and regard them as the core of American grandeur. This national unanimity behind democracy has formed the essential component of what might be called America's self-correcting mechanism, the country's ability to undergo periods of popular hysteria, moral panic and nationalist extremism without allowing them to become a permanent feature of the national scene or to be institutionalized in dictatorship. At least until now. As later chapters discuss, a combination of the national security state created by the Cold War and a war against terrorism with no foreseeable end may create some worrying possibilities in the long term. For most of American history, however, tendencies toward authoritarianism have taken what might be called a communal form, and have been phrased and even thought of in terms of a defense of the American liberal democratic system— what Seymour Lipset has called episodes of "Creedal passion"—not a revolt against it.

The radical religious element in American nationalism is something new and deeply disquieting to non-Americans. To the old anti-American prejudices elsewhere in the West, it adds the suspicion that powerful sections of the United States are driven by motives which are both wholly culturally alien to the rest of the developed world and fundamentally irrational. It risks creating a degree of fundamental alienation from America among other Western elites which was never true in the past. Moral Panics Although the Southern and Northern churches divided bitterly over slavery (with abolition becoming a great crusade for parts of Northeastern Protestantism), after the Civil War the Southern churches were also closely associated with some of the Northern and so-called mainline Protestant churches of the United States in certain moral crusades. These movements frequently reflected a desire to preserve the cultural dominance of the old "core" Protestant populations in the small towns and countryside over the new Catholic and Jewish populations of the great cities, and hostility to "aliens" in general. 130 A N T I T H E S I S PART Ii: F U N D A M E N T A L I S T S A N D GREAT F E A R S The consequent anxieties often took the form of concern over sexual promiscuity, especially when linked to drugs, drunkenness and venereal disease; and in the South, the anxieties fed into perennial fears concerning Blacks.34 Since the 1970s, this tradition has been revived in the Christian Right's crusade against abortion.

., 5, 130 political correctness, 28, 47; and nationalist myth, 5960, 62-63 populist nationalism, 96, 104, 134 Porch, Douglas, 26 Powell, Colin, 44, 78, 152, 170, 177 Present Danger, The (Podhoretz), 158 Present Dangers (Kagan, Kristol), 164-65 Prestowitz, Clyde, 46 pride, national, 3, 19-20, 53 progressive internationalists, 79 Progressive Policy Institute (PPI), 77 Prohibition, 131-32, 133, 137 propaganda, 24, 78, 113, 155; anti-Israeli, 205; around race, 47, 62 Protestantism, 6, 21, 44, 5455, 97, 125, 139 Protestants, 101, 104, 140; evangelical/ fundamentalist, 5, 8-10, 99, 124, 126, 144; and moral panic, 130-33; nativism in, 9196; and religious nationalism, 33-34 Prudhomme, Sully, 38 Pursuit of the Millennium, The (Cohn), 147 Quinet, Edgar, 35 racism, 41-47; covert, 43, 46; and cultural conformity, 41-43, 44; transformation of, 43-47, 49 Rational Choice theory, 66, 68 Ravitch, Diane, 60 Reagan administration, 79, 129,141, 169, 178; and national myth, 57-58, 59, 63, 153 "Realism," 75, 170, 183; character of, 18, 159, 17071; criticism of, 76, 78, 79; dominance of, 82, 172 273 Red Cross, International Committee of (ICRC), 121, 122 "Redneck" culture, 116 Reed, John Shelton, 102,107, 116 Reed, Ralph, 43, 92, 119,141 religion: conservative, 8, 12325; statistics on, 140.


pages: 605 words: 110,673

Drugs Without the Hot Air by David Nutt

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British Empire, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, offshore financial centre, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), War on Poverty

Since hemp paper posed direct competition to wood pulp paper, he had an economic stake in limiting hemp production, and recognised that if controls were placed on cannabis because of its psychoactive effects, it would become more difficult to grow the plant for other purposes. Hearst’s media empire spread stories about violent attacks on white women by Mexican immigrants intoxicated with marijuana, creating a sense of moral panic and support for controls on the drug, and therefore on the plant as well. The three lives of cannabis now became dependent on the fate of its use as a recreational drug. Although ordinary Americans were familiar with hemp, many didn’t realise that it had anything to do with marijuana, just as many doctors didn’t realise it was the same plant as cannabis indica, which they considered a valuable medicine.

In Britain, cannabis continued to be available on prescription throughout the 1960s. However, this was the decade in which recreational use became common, with some people buying it on the black market, and others 22diverting prescriptions from their doctors. Although cannabis users and medical professionals had become more organised by this point, and were trying to get the drug decriminalised for all uses, some of the moral panic from the USA had been imported, and there was a lot of political pressure to control the drug still further. After the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, the British government decided 23not to renew the medical licence on cannabis, in part because of concerns about the drug being diverted from medical sources. This was an odd way to have dealt with the problem. Doctors have access to a wide range of other drugs with abuse potential, and we stop those supplies being diverted by having strict rules and regulations around what doctors can prescribe, and by disciplining them through the General Medical Council if they break those rules.


pages: 353 words: 97,352

The Importance of Being Seven by Alexander McCall Smith

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double entry bookkeeping, Malacca Straits, moral panic, working poor

In this way Daphnis and Chloë, or Romeo and Juliet, can only too quickly become Darby and Joan, Mr and Mrs Bennet, or any other famous domestic couple. As for the received view about the so-called empty nest syndrome, like many syndromes it barely exists. In most cases, parents do feel a slight pang on the leaving of home by their children, but this pang tends to occur before the offspring go, and it is largely a dread of the syndrome itself rather than concern over the actual departure. In this way it is similar to many of the moral panics that afflict an imaginative society from time to time: the fear of what might happen in the future is almost always worse than the future that eventually arrives. So when the child finally goes off to university, or takes a gap year, or moves out to live with coevals, the parents might find themselves feeling strange for a day or two, but often find themselves exhilarated by their new freedom.

It would have to be one of the galleries that are accepted as being the sort of place where coffee makers – or anything, for that matter – can be sold as art. I’m not in that line of apostolic succession, so to speak.’ Big Lou was thinking. ‘The Dutch tulip affair,’ she said. ‘I was reading a funny wee book about social hysteria – about how folk get things into their heads and go mad for a while. There was something about witchcraft.’ ‘Moral panic,’ prompted Matthew. ‘Yes. That sort of thing. Didn’t the Dutch go mad about tulips back in the – when was it – 1600s? Didn’t they pay terrific prices for tulip bulbs? And these bulbs got more and more expensive and people fought to have the rarest ones they could get hold of. Sheer stupidity.’ ‘Yes,’ said Matthew. ‘And then suddenly somebody said, “Hold on, it’s just tulip bulbs, and tulip bulbs aren’t really worth the price of a house.” ’ ‘And everything collapsed.


pages: 407 words: 103,501

The Digital Divide: Arguments for and Against Facebook, Google, Texting, and the Age of Social Netwo Rking by Mark Bauerlein

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Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, centre right, citizen journalism, collaborative editing, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, disintermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, peer-to-peer, pets.com, Results Only Work Environment, Saturday Night Live, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technology bubble, Ted Nelson, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, web application

“Reach out and touch someone.” But through the ’70s and ’80s, our isolation grew. Suburbs, sprawling ever farther, became exurbs. Families grew smaller or splintered apart, mothers left the home to work. The electronic hearth became the television in every room. Even in childhood, certainly in adolescence, we were each trapped inside our own cocoon. Soaring crime rates, and even more sharply escalating rates of moral panic, pulled children off the streets. The idea that you could go outside and run around the neighborhood with your friends, once unquestionable, has now become unthinkable. The child who grew up between the world wars as part of an extended family within a tight-knit urban community became the grandparent of a kid who sat alone in front of a big television, in a big house, on a big lot. We were lost in space.

See also Television; specific media outlets citizen customization of political traditional Media customization MediaMetrix MedievalMUSH Mednick, Sara Meehan, Martin Meetup.com “Mental Set and Shift” (Jersild) MetaFilter Metaphor overload Meyer, David Meyer, Paul Meyer, Timothy The Mickey Mouse Club (television series) Microsoft Microsoft Outlook Microsoft Research Labs Milgram, Stanley Miller, George Milton, John Mind historical views of hypertext simulation and social and networked video games and Mobile phones. See Cell phones Mockumentaries Modernism The Monkey Wrench Conspiracy (video game) Monsell, Stephen Moody, Teena Moore, Jim Moore’s Law Moral panics Morita, Akio Mormon Church Morris, William Mosaic Motorola Moulitsas Zúniga, Markos Movable type mp3.com MPD. See Multiple personality disorder Mrs. Dalloway (Wolff) MSN MTV MtvU MUDs. See Multiuser domains Multiple personality disorder (MPD) Multiplicity Multitasking Multiuser domains (MUDs) Mumford, Lewis Muppets Murdoch, Rupert Murray, Janet Murthy, N. R. Narayana Mutual of Omaha’s Wild Kingdom (television series) MySpace civic networks and identity setup on politician’s pages on self-portraits on spamming on MySpace Unraveled (Magid and Collier MySQL Napster Narcissism NASA NASA.gov NASDAQ National Book Foundation National Geographic National Institute on Drug Abuse National Institutes of Health Natural selection Nature (journal) Navteq Neanderthals Nelson, Ted Net Geners civic causes and collaboration and customization and education and entertainment and freedom and innovation and integrity and job customization by media customization by politics and purchase research by scrutiny and speed and NetMeeting Net roots Netscape Networked mind Networking Network News Protocol (NNTP) Neuroplasticity Neuroscience Newmark, Craig New Rules for the New Economy (Kelly) News Corporation Newsfeeds Newsweek The New Yorker New York Post The New York Times The New York Times Magazine NFL GameDay (video game) N-Fluence networks Nielsen Nietzsche, Friedrich Nike Nike+ iPod Sport Kit Nilekani, Nandan M. 9/11.


pages: 870 words: 259,362

Austerity Britain: 1945-51 by David Kynaston

Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, continuous integration, deindustrialization, deskilling, Etonian, full employment, garden city movement, hiring and firing, industrial cluster, invisible hand, job satisfaction, labour mobility, light touch regulation, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, occupational segregation, price mechanism, rent control, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, stakhanovite, strikebreaker, the market place, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery, wealth creators, women in the workforce, young professional

The figures are patchy, but it seems that an appreciably higher proportion than usual of these burglaries were committed by juveniles – a fact that subsequent police reports not implausibly attributed to the way in which ‘during the war years children have lacked fatherly control and restraint and in a large number of families mothers have obviously tended to allow too much freedom’.16What was indisputable was that a moral panic was brewing up nicely. Reassuringly, during the spring and disappointingly poor summer, the old sporting rituals reappeared, apparently unscathed: not only the Cup Final but the Boat Race (‘the Prime Minister was there, the swans were out, young men back from the services wore beards, folk picnicked on roofs, ate ice-cream, let off crackers,’ noted Hodson), the Grand National (Captain Petre, on leave from the Scots Guards, winning on Lovely Cottage, very much the housewives’ choice) and Wimbledon (the British players routed by the French, American and Australian ones).

Tellingly, he added, little of this hostility was political in nature but rather stemmed from ‘the belief that they misuse their power, are unscrupulous, avaricious or dishonest’. And Gorer, who could speak with some authority, declared his belief that such suspicions ‘would be much more widely voiced in most other societies’.9. It was, all in all, a graphically consensual picture that this aspect of his survey evoked. The Blue Lamp was equally topical in terms of the prevailing moral panic about youth into which it so deftly tapped. ‘Rarely a day passes now without some act of criminal violence being committed,’ noted Anthony Heap in March 1950: ‘Gangs of young teen-age thugs, emulating the American gangster “heroes” they see regularly on the screen, go around “coshing”, robbing, and beating-up people with impunity. And on the few occasions when some are caught, what sort of punishment do they get?

(Child Guidance Clinic, Chatham) Generally, though, the experts took a reasonably robust line – ‘It is a useful medium for the projection of phantasy,’ asserted the Royal Hospital for Sick Children in Edinburgh – and by almost two to one they voted for the programme’s continuation. Henceforth, though, each episode was lumbered with a gratuitous tailpiece, in which a voiceover solemnly mulled over the moral issues that had been raised – a device that perhaps hastened the programme’s end in 1951. Juvenile delinquency, although undoubtedly a real phenomenon, was almost certainly not as widespread as the moral panic imagined. One suggestive fact is that out of 1,315 working-class Glasgow boys who left school in January 1947, just over 12 per cent had been or would be convicted in the courts at least once between their eighth and eighteenth birthdays. Analysing the lives and outcomes of these boys over the three years after they left school, Thomas Ferguson (Professor of Public Health at Glasgow University) identified the main factors behind juvenile crime: low academic ability, employment problems, bad housing and criminal habits or tendencies in the family background.


pages: 404 words: 134,430

Why People Believe Weird Things: Pseudoscience, Superstition, and Other Confusions of Our Time by Michael Shermer

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Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anesthesia awareness, anthropic principle, butterfly effect, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, cosmological principle, discovery of DNA, false memory syndrome, Gary Taubes, invention of the wheel, Isaac Newton, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, moral panic, Murray Gell-Mann, out of africa, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

Although each chapter can be read independently, cumulatively they show the allure of psychic power and extrasensory perception, UFOs and alien abductions, ghosts and haunted houses. But more than this, the book deals with controversies not necessarily on the margins of society which may have pernicious social consequences: creation-science and biblical literalism, Holocaust denial and freedom of speech, race and IQ, political extremism and the radical right, modern witch crazes prompted by moral panics and mass hysterias, including the recovered memory movement, Satanic ritual abuse, and facilitated communication. Here the difference in thinking makes all the difference. But more than this—much more—the book is a celebration of the scientific spirit and of the joy inherent in exploring the world's great mysteries even when final answers are not forthcoming. The intellectual journey matters, not the destination.

Thousands of Satanic cults were believed to be operating in secrecy throughout America, sacrificing and mutilating animals, sexually abusing children, and practicing Satanic rituals. In The Satanism Scare, James Richardson, Joel Best, and David Bromley argue persuasively that public discourse about sexual abuse, Satanism, serial murders, or child pornography is a barometer of larger social fears and anxieties. The Satanic panic was an instance of moral panic, where "a condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests; its nature is presented in a stylized and stereotypical fashion by the mass media; the moral barricades are manned by editors, bishops, politicians and other right-thinking people; socially accredited experts pronounce their diagnoses and solutions; ways of coping are evolved or resorted to; the condition then disappears, submerges or deteriorates" (1991, p. 23).


pages: 543 words: 147,357

Them And Us: Politics, Greed And Inequality - Why We Need A Fair Society by Will Hutton

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Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cloud computing, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, debt deflation, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, discovery of the americas, discrete time, diversification, double helix, Edward Glaeser, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, inflation targeting, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Pasteur, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, money market fund, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Neil Kinnock, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price discrimination, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, railway mania, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, unpaid internship, value at risk, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, working poor, zero-sum game, éminence grise

Despite the attractions of utopias of left and right, this is the best approximation to an achievable utopia that we have. Democracy and the public realms are too precious to diminish the politicians who make them work on a day-to-day basis. But democracy, the idea of politics and the public realm are all under siege from a constituency that purports to be their hand-maiden and fundamental ally – the free media. The fourth estate has always been powerful, populist and given to creating moral panics. Back in the 1920s, Britain’s right-leaning press – led by the Daily Mail, which first published it – latched on to the forged Zinoviev letter to undermine Labour Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, who was pursuing a pro-Russian foreign policy at the time. The press’s dire warnings of imminent, Russian-sponsored revolution in Britain guaranteed Stanley Baldwin’s victory in the 1924 general election.

These deep trends collide with info-capitalism and the media’s capacity to generate politicised, slanted panics and storms. The Daily Mail’s success, deplored as it may be by so many, is due to the fact that it has its finger on the pulse of these fears. Politics is thus conducted in a highly adversarial environment in which right and left are both pitching to the conflicted middle in order to secure a simple majority. Moreover, this environment is regularly shaken by moral panics inflamed by the way in which information is presented. Nor is Britain alone. The same phenomenon of centralised politics is observable in every Anglo-Saxon country where a majoritarian voting system interacts with a newly powerful media. Politicians respond by trying to present a coherent, marketable view of their party, with the leader of necessity becoming the focus. Doubtless Tony Blair enjoyed the limelight and the control.


pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

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23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

(Dec 2012), “Al Qaeda versus Big Brother: Anxiety about government monitoring and support for domestic counterterrorism policies,” Political Behavior 34, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11109-011-9177-6. Keven G. Ruby (2012), Society, State, and Fear: Managing National Security at the Boundary between Complacency and Panic, University of Chicago Press, http://books.google.com/books? id=UPILnwEACAAJ. If strong enough, it trumps all: Dawn Rothe and Stephen L. Muzzatti (Nov 2004), “Enemies everywhere: Terrorism, moral panic, and U.S. civil society,” Critical Criminology 12, http://www.researchgate.net/publication/227209259_Enemies_Everywhere_Terrorism_Moral_Panic_and_US_Civil_Society/file/32bfe50d3c7fe0d03b.pdf. David Rothkopf (6 Aug 2013), “The real risks,” Foreign Policy, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2013/08/06/the_real_risks_war_on_terror. they believe they have to do: It’s CYA security. Bruce Schneier (22 Feb 2007), “Why smart cops do dumb things,” Wired, http://archive.wired.com/politics/security/commentary/securitymatters/2007/02/72774.


On the Move: Mobility in the Modern Western World by Timothy Cresswell

British Empire, desegregation, deskilling, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global village, illegal immigration, mass immigration, moral panic, Rosa Parks, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, urban planning

On the whole, however, movement appears to refer to an abstract and scientific conception, while mobility is thoroughly socialized and often threatening. Both terms emerged with modernity. We do not have to confine ourselves to dictionary definitions to see the fractured ways in which mobility has been understood. More generally, modernity has been marked by time-space compression and staggering developments in communication and transportation. At the same time, it has seen the rise of moral panics ranging from the refugee to the global RT52565_C001.indd 20 4/13/06 7:21:46 AM The Production of Mobilities • 21 terrorist. The celebrated technologies of mobility simultaneously open up the possibility of an increasingly transgressive world marked by people out of place at all scales. This is the tension that runs through the chapters in this book. Mobility is both center and margin—the lifeblood of modernity and the virus that threatens to hasten its downfall.

They left Spur on New Year’s Day in an old jalopy and reentered California on January 3, reaching Marysville on January 5. Duncan remained unemployed for ten days before getting relief from the Farm Security Administration. The movements of Edwards and Duncan were far from exceptional. Migration into California from Texas, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and other states to the east had been the subject of varying degrees of moral panic since the late 1920s. Migrants, known as Okies and Arkies, had moved to California in order to get promised work in the new agribusiness centers of the California valleys following the dust storms of the Great Plains. By the time Duncan entered California, migration had mostly switched to people looking for work in the defense industry. It was in the defense industry that Duncan was finally employed—in a chemical plant in Pittsburgh, California.


pages: 189 words: 57,632

Content: Selected Essays on Technology, Creativity, Copyright, and the Future of the Future by Cory Doctorow

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book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, en.wikipedia.org, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Law of Accelerating Returns, Metcalfe's law, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, optical character recognition, patent troll, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Sand Hill Road, Skype, slashdot, social software, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, Vernor Vinge

I use a network that has no incremental cost for communication, and a device that lets me install any software without permission from anyone else. Right-living is the highly mutated, commodity-hardware- based, public and free Internet. I'm QWERTY-Amish, in other words. I'm the kind of perennial early adopter who would gladly volunteer to beta test a neural interface, but I find myself in a moral panic when confronted with the 12-button keypad on a cellie, even though that interface is one that has been greedily adopted by billions of people worldwide, from strap-hanging Japanese schoolgirls to Kenyan electoral scrutineers to Filipino guerrillas in the bush. The idea of paying for every message makes my hackles tumesce and evokes a reflexive moral conviction that text-messaging is inherently undemocratic, at least compared to free-as-air email.


pages: 190 words: 53,970

Eastern standard tribe by Cory Doctorow

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airport security, call centre, forensic accounting, high net worth, moral panic, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, pirate software, Silicon Valley, the payments system

Once that happens, maybe I'll be able to formulate an hypothesis and try an experiment or two and maybe -- just maybe -- I'll get to the bottom of book-in-2004 and beat the competition to making it work, and maybe I'll go home with all (or most) of the marbles. It's a long shot, but I'm a pretty sharp guy, and I know as much about this stuff as anyone out there. More to the point, trying stuff and doing research yields a non-zero chance of success. The alternatives -- sitting pat, or worse, getting into a moral panic about "piracy" and accusing the readers who are blazing new trail of "the moral equivalent of shoplifting" -- have a zero percent chance of success. Most artists never "succeed" in the sense of attaining fame and modest fortune. A career in the arts is a risky long-shot kind of business. I'm doing what I can to sweeten my odds. So here we are, and here is novel number two, a book called Eastern Standard Tribe, which you can walk into shops all over the world and buy [ http://craphound.com/est/buy.php ] as a physical artifact -- a very nice physical artifact, designed by Chesley-award-winning art director Irene Gallo and her designer Shelley Eshkar, published by Tor Books, a huge, profit-making arm of an enormous, multinational publishing concern.


pages: 173 words: 14,313

Peers, Pirates, and Persuasion: Rhetoric in the Peer-To-Peer Debates by John Logie

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1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, book scanning, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hacker Ethic, Isaac Newton, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, peer-to-peer, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, publication bias, Richard Stallman, search inside the book, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog

Ross’s defense of the hacker as countercultural hero neatly explains why, by 1990, it would have been important for corporate interests to ensure that the term be repositioned as an indictment. And in December of that year, according to a front-page story in the Washington Post, a panel of “industry and academic experts” warned against the threat posed by hackers, describing them, in usage that now seems almost quaint, as “high-tech terrorists” (Suplee and Richards). While Ross would criticize such reporting as exemplifying a “moral panic” that threatened the “technology conscious youth culture” he valued, the term hacker would never recover its original meaning. The term’s associations with trespass and criminality would, during the 1990s, become wholly entrenched. By the end of the decade, no thinking person who was not simultaneously announcing himself as committed to transgressing the boundaries established by a combination of corporate practice and convention would use “hacker” as a self-description.


pages: 194 words: 59,488

Frommer's Memorable Walks in London by Richard Jones

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Alistair Cooke, British Empire, Isaac Newton, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Snow's cholera map, Maui Hawaii, medical malpractice, moral panic

About 1 block down, pause outside: 27. 14 Well Walk, the home of Marie Carmichael Stopes (1880–1958) during her first and unhappy marriage to Canadian botanist R. R. Gates. A champion of women’s rights, Stopes was also an early pioneer of birth control. Her book Married Love, written after the annulment of her marriage on the grounds of nonconsummation, became a bestseller. Its appearance helped ease the national moral panic resulting from the high incidence of venereal disease among British soldiers returning from World War I. By advocating sexual enjoyment within marriage, the book was intended to encourage young British men to settle into moral, disease-free, and sexually satisfying unions, while encouraging women to see sex as enjoyable rather than as a duty. Take the next right onto New End Square and head to: 28.


pages: 171 words: 54,334

Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

This was going to be the great revelatory breakthrough for humankind. And it was for a while but then it tapered off pretty badly. It was nowhere near as radical as what computers have done. So I just, you know, shifted my allegiance in a sense from a semi-failed technology to a highly successful technology.” Despite the war on drugs, despite the constantly reconstituting government drug advisory panels and moral panics over designer drugs with implausible names, these days drugs like acid, ecstasy, dope and speed are classified as “recreational”, with all the easy hedonism that nomenclature implies. So it’s important to remember that psychedelics were once invested with the hopes of a generation as a serious, mind-expanding, “technology”. In 1968, Brand had been one of over 150 test subjects detailed in the first-ever published research into the effects of LSD produced by the International Foundation for Advanced Study (IFAS), Myron Stolaroff’s Menlo Park-based research centre.


pages: 225 words: 55,458

Back to School: Why Everyone Deserves a Second Chance at Education by Mike Rose

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blue-collar work, centre right, creative destruction, delayed gratification, George Santayana, income inequality, moral panic, new economy, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the built environment, urban renewal, War on Poverty

And, of course, there is not only a status hierarchy among disciplines but among postsecondary institutions as well, from elite research universities to the central-city community college. Though colleges and universities have had some type of remedial or preparatory course or program in their curriculum since the mid-nineteenth century, they have always been a source of vexation—and, at times, something akin to moral panic. We are seeing attempts in about twenty states now to reduce or remove remedial courses from the college and university, typically directing students to community colleges. Conversely, the open-access community college for much of its history has provided remedial or preparatory work as part of its mission, though the demand has increased as more people are attempting postsecondary education, and as state legislators and university administrators push remediation down the status ladder to the least resourced of our institutions of higher learning. 127 BAC K TO S C HO OL The people who teach remedial courses at the university or college level are almost always graduate students or adjunct instructors, and adjuncts are widely used at the community college level as well.


pages: 223 words: 58,732

The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce

3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, call centre, carried interest, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, TaskRabbit, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

Her list did not extend to the guy in the pick-up truck or the blue-collar labourer. They had been forgotten. Failure to diagnose the reasons for Mrs Clinton’s defeat will only make Trump’s re-election more likely. In a searing piece for the New York Times after the election, Mark Lilla, a professor at Columbia University, called for an end to ‘identity liberalism’. The American left had ‘slipped into a kind of moral panic about racial, gender and sexual identity that has distorted liberalism’s message,’ he wrote.27 Moreover, if the Democratic standard-bearer insisted on namechecking different groups at her rallies she had better mention everybody, otherwise those left out would feel resentful. Lilla also took issue with the liberal post-mortem on Mrs Clinton’s defeat that laid the blame on a racially charged ‘whitelash’ against multicultural America – a verdict that was at odds with the revealed motivations of many Trump voters.


pages: 269 words: 77,042

Sex, Lies, and Pharmaceuticals: How Drug Companies Plan to Profit From Female Sexual Dysfunction by Ray Moynihan, Barbara Mintzes

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business intelligence, clean water, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Naomi Klein, New Journalism, placebo effect, profit motive, Ralph Nader

And with the popular Brazilian waxing exposing all, cosmetic surgeons are promoting a nip and tuck to tidy up the labia, while online companies offer a genital colorant that ‘restores the pink back to a woman’s genitals’.9 When they land, the seeds of the corporate-backed campaign to transform common sexual difficulties into medical conditions will fall on the fertile ground of considerable female insecurity. Yet backward-looking moral panic about a permissive society may not be a helpful response. Perhaps it would be better to confront the reality of women’s sexual dissatisfactions head on, tease out the cultural processes exacerbating their vulnerabilities, and identify the commercial forces seeking to exploit them. The dramatic story documented in Sex, Lies and Pharmaceuticals calls for a much greater scepticism towards simplistic claims that women’s sexual difficulties are somehow due to chemical deficits rather than a complicated set of causes, including the way we relate to each other, our cultures, and our individual and collective histories.


pages: 259 words: 73,193

The End of Absence: Reclaiming What We've Lost in a World of Constant Connection by Michael Harris

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4chan, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Burning Man, Carrington event, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Glasses, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, Loebner Prize, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, moral panic, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Republic of Letters, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test

Our impulse to take up tools is a good one and—to use a deeply suspect term—it’s a natural one. It’s such a natural impulse, in fact, that those who question whether all technological developments will lead to brighter, happier futures are dismissed as Luddites. Interrogate the dominance of a mounting technopoly with anything more aggressive than cocktail conversation and you will swiftly be accused of “moral panic”—which is one of those tidy terms that carries around its own moral imperative. One must not panic. Technologies themselves, though, are amoral. They aren’t good or evil, only dangerous and beloved. They are a danger we’ve been in love with for millennia, and rarely do we remember that, for example, the goal of human relations may extend beyond efficient transmissions. (If we annihilate ourselves in the coming years, it will not be for lack of communication technology, though it may be for lack of some finer advancement.)


pages: 212 words: 80,393

Getting By: Estates, Class and Culture in Austerity Britain by Lisa McKenzie

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British Empire, call centre, credit crunch, delayed gratification, falling living standards, financial exclusion, full employment, income inequality, low skilled workers, moral panic, New Urbanism, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, unpaid internship, urban renewal, working poor

Prostitution has been associated with the neighbourhood for many generations, as Nottingham’s red light district is on the edge of St Ann’s, and it was also the neighbourhood in which most of the city’s ‘poor’ and migrant populations have settled, adding further stigma through the fear and development of the ‘other’. Therefore, the neighbourhood’s reputation has always preceded it, and the words ‘St Ann’s’ today conjure up strong thoughts and feelings among Nottingham residents in a way that no other neighbourhood has the power to do. St Ann’s has recently been linked again, usually through the moral panic of media representation, as an area ridden with crime, drugs, gangs and guns, following the high profile murders of several teenagers on the estate: Brendan Lawrence aged 16 in February 2002, and the widely publicised murder of 14-year-old Danielle Beccan in October 2004. Both were victims of drive-by shootings. Like other inner-city neighbourhoods in the UK, there have been many incidents of stabbings and shootings linked to gang involvement between rival gang members from St Ann’s, known as Stannz, Stannzville or SV, and other neighbourhoods in the city.


pages: 219 words: 65,532

The Numbers Game: The Commonsense Guide to Understanding Numbers in the News, in Politics, and inLife by Michael Blastland; Andrew Dilnot

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Atul Gawande, business climate, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, happiness index / gross national happiness, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), moral panic, pension reform, pensions crisis, randomized controlled trial, school choice, very high income

Visiting Finland, Christopher Pollitt of Erasmus University in the Netherlands was surprised to discover that official records showed a category of prisons where no one ever escaped, year after year. Was this the most exceptional and effective standard of prison security? “How on earth do you manage to have zero escapes every year?” he asked a Finnish civil servant. “Simple,” said the official, “these are open prisons.” Britain experienced a moral panic in early 2006 at the rate at which inmates were found to be strolling out of open prisons as if for a weekend ramble. By comparison, this seemed a truly astonishing performance. What was the Finnish secret? “Open prisons? You never have anyone escape from an open prison?” “Oh not at all! But because they are open prisons, we don’t call it escape, we classify it as absent without leave.” It is Christopher Pollitt’s favorite international comparison, he says.


pages: 1,351 words: 404,177

Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America by Rick Perlstein

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affirmative action, Alistair Cooke, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, East Village, European colonialism, full employment, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, immigration reform, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, indoor plumbing, Kitchen Debate, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Own Your Own Home, Paul Samuelson, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, walking around money, War on Poverty, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog

He called “the one overriding issue of this campaign…the issue of simple morality.” In a season of moral panic, it made him the star. The leftists of the California Democratic Council, moralists in their own right, turned their back on Brown for his support of the administration on Vietnam. One of the president’s favorite congressmen, Jeffrey Cohelan, was almost knocked off in a primary challenge in the district straddling Oakland and Berkeley from New Leftist magazine editor Robert Scheer. Johnson’s poverty czar, Sargent Shriver, gave a speech to a conference of the Citizen’s Crusade Against Poverty and was jostled off the stage by radicals: “You’re lying!” they cried. “Stop listening to him!” Moral panics from the right, moral panics from the left; poor, dumpy Pat Brown pinioned helplessly in the middle. On primary day he couldn’t even get a majority, holding on to the nomination only because minor candidates diluted Yorty’s tally.

Other activists went to war on a textbook—Negro historian John Hope Franklin’s Land of the Free, which, their pamphlets insisted, “destroys pride in America’s past, develops a guilt complex, mocks American justice, indoctrinates toward Communism, is hostile to religious concepts, overemphasizes Negro participation in American history, projects negative thought models, criticizes business and free enterprise, plays politics, foments class hatred, slants and distorts facts,” and “promotes propaganda and poppycock.” The L.A. County Board of Supervisors voted “to uphold high moral standards” by censoring an exhibition by an artist named Ed Keinholz, who said he displayed his dioramas of consumer products and mannequins in sexual congress and babies without heads to comment on America’s “sick society.” In the Golden State, it was a season of moral panic; and as so often, California led a national trend. The head of the nation’s leading association of private schools released a statement worrying that “students have adopted ‘terrifying’ attitudes toward sex…for lack of a moral code.” But others looked upon the same developments and judged them symptoms of cultural health. A psychiatry professor, for instance, spoke that same March at the Arizona Medical Association in praise of the “beatniks” who were “urging the revision of some of our medieval customs,” especially sexual ones.


pages: 932 words: 307,785

State of Emergency: The Way We Were by Dominic Sandbrook

anti-communist, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, David Attenborough, Doomsday Book, edge city, estate planning, Etonian, falling living standards, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, feminist movement, financial thriller, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, German hyperinflation, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, North Sea oil, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, sexual politics, traveling salesman, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Winter of Discontent, young professional

White criminals were rarely identified as muggers; black ones almost always were. And at a time when the economy was sliding into chaos, the government appeared powerless in the face of the unions and traditional expectations seemed to be undermined by feminism, permissiveness and social mobility, the press coverage of mugging – often described as a ‘disease’ or a ‘virus’ – quickly began to assume the proportions of a full-blown moral panic. By the late autumn of 1972, mugging was the word on everybody’s lips. Long articles explored ‘the making of a mugger’ or asked ‘why they go out mugging’, while editorials called for more police patrols, tougher prison sentences and what the Sunday Mirror melodramatically called an all-out ‘war’ on muggers. A typically blunt Sun editorial entitled ‘Taming the Muggers’ gives a sense of the tone: What are the British people most concerned about now?

It was no coincidence that the death of Arthur Hills, supposedly Britain’s first mugging, came just a week after Idi Amin had announced the expulsion of the Ugandan Asians and at a time when the papers were full of angry letters about the predicted ‘flood’ of penniless immigrants. If poor Mr Hills had died a few months earlier, his murder might well have been ignored. Coming when it did, it became a symbol of wider anxieties about crime and immigration. But as the Birmingham theorists saw it, the ‘moral panic’ about mugging had even deeper roots, stretching back to the aftermath of the Moors murders in 1965, when the newspapers had first taken aim at the so-called ‘permissive society’. This panic was under way, they argued, even ‘before there [were] any actual “muggings” to react to’, reflecting white middle-class unease at a time of social and economic change. Far from being a reaction to a terrifying epidemic on Britain’s streets, they thought, the mugging furore had actually been ‘constructed’ by an unholy alliance of journalists, judges, politicians and policemen as a ‘mechanism for the construction of an authoritarian backlash, a conservative backlash: what we call the slow build-up towards a “soft” law-and-order society’.44 In many ways this kind of analysis now feels almost as dated as platform shoes, the Ford Granada and the music of Emerson, Lake and Palmer.

‘Trains, carrying rampaging young fans, would end their journeys with windows broken, upholstery smashed, lavatory fittings broken, the carriages running with beer and crunching underfoot with broken glass like gravel,’ wrote Arthur Hopcraft – a vision of Harold Macmillan’s Britain very different from the cosy caricatures becoming popular two decades later.31 On the left and in academic circles, a popular explanation was that football hooliganism was a moral panic fuelled by the press, who had ‘invented hooliganism as a “social problem” ’ by drawing attention to ‘relatively minor acts of rowdyism’. It is certainly true that from about 1967 onwards, the popular newspapers, fighting desperately for circulation in an increasingly competitive market, adopted a much more sensationalist attitude to football violence, with the Sun and Mirror leading the way in banner headlines and military metaphors.


pages: 287 words: 86,919

Protocol: how control exists after decentralization by Alexander R. Galloway

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Ada Lovelace, airport security, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, computer age, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, John Conway, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, linear programming, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, packet switching, phenotype, post-industrial society, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, semantic web, SETI@home, stem cell, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, the market place, theory of mind, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Review, working poor

Andrew Ross explains this transformation by citing, as do Sterling and others, the increase of computer viruses in the late eighties, especially “the viral attack engineered in November 1988 by Cornell University hacker Robert Morris on the national network system Internet. . . . While it caused little in the way of data damage. . . , the ramifications of the Internet virus have helped to generate a moral panic that has all but transformed everyday ‘computer culture.’” See Andrew Ross, Strange Weather: Culture, Science, and Technology in the Age of Limits (New York: Verso, 1991), p. 75. See also chapter 6 for more on computer viruses. 15. See “Beware: Hackers at Play,” Newsweek, September 5, 1983. 16. “A Threat from Malicious Software,” Time, November 4, 1985, p. 94. 17. Knight Lightning, “Shadows Of A Future Past,” Phrack, vol. 2, no. 21, file 3.


pages: 281 words: 95,852

The Googlization of Everything: by Siva Vaidhyanathan

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1960s counterculture, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cloud computing, computer age, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, data acquisition, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full text search, global village, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, libertarian paternalism, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, pirate software, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, single-payer health, Skype, social web, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, web application, zero-sum game

More important, the behavior of more than seventy million people who offered and received copyrighted files without payment did not undermine the foundations of copyright. The system continues to work. Songwriters still write. Producers still produce. Distributors still distribute. Lawyers still sue. Downloaders still download. We learned three essential truths from the downloading debate: a shared file is not a lost sale; there is a significant difference between a crisis and a moral panic; and culture is not a zero-sum game. See Siva Vaidhyanathan, The Anarchist in the Library: How the Clash between Freedom and Control Is 250 NOTES TO PAGES 166– 68 Hacking the Real World and Crashing the System (New York: Basic Books, 2004), 43–50. 26. MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster Ltd., 380 F.3d 1154, 1158 (9th Cir. 2004). 27. Brief for Media Studies Professors as Amici Curiae Supporting Respondents at 4, 10, MGM Studios, Inc. v.


pages: 471 words: 109,267

The Verdict: Did Labour Change Britain? by Polly Toynbee, David Walker

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banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, call centre, central bank independence, congestion charging, Corn Laws, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Etonian, failed state, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, market bubble, mass immigration, millennium bug, moral panic, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, Right to Buy, shareholder value, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, working-age population, Y2K

Out politicians, brave at first like Chris Smith and Ben Bradshaw, were later reassuringly banal, among them the Foreign Office minister Chris Bryant. Bryant represented the Rhondda, but how culturally distant he seemed from a former parliamentary neighbour, the MP for Caerphilly, Ron Davies. Twelve years on, the furtiveness of his 1998 career-destroying moment of madness on Clapham Common seemed utterly anachronistic. Section 28 was a discriminatory clause in a 1988 Act passed during a spasm of Tory moral panic that forbade councillors and schools to ‘promote’ homosexuality. Largely unused, it was a textbook case of the irrelevance of statute law in affecting deep movements in public attitudes – homosexuality was becoming normal, inside families, in popular culture, even fractiously in the pulpit. Still, the law remained an affront. Abolition of the Scottish counterpart to Section 28 was delayed by interventions from both a Catholic cardinal and an evangelical Protestant in the shape of the bus and coach magnate Brian Souter, now knighted by the Cameron government.


pages: 315 words: 93,522

How Music Got Free: The End of an Industry, the Turn of the Century, and the Patient Zero of Piracy by Stephen Witt

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4chan, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, cloud computing, collaborative economy, crowdsourcing, game design, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, inventory management, iterative process, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, job automation, late fees, mental accounting, moral panic, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, security theater, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, software patent, Steve Jobs, zero day

“Me So Horny” had been the single from As Nasty As They Wanna Be, the first (and to date only) musical work ever to be banned in the United States on the grounds of obscenity. Morris had signed 2 Live Crew in the midst of this controversy, and put out their next major label release, Banned in the U.S.A., led by their immortal single “Face Down Ass Up.” Controversy was temporary. Royalties were forever. Soon, Morris was sure, the Death Row critics would find something else to complain about, just as they had with 2 Live Crew. The moral panic would subside and he would be left to cultivate the label’s singular genius. As he had so many times before, Morris sought to hold on. Though he rarely sat for interviews, he often posed for photographs, and among them was a new favorite, which he kept in a frame on his desk: a black-and-white party shot of himself, dwarfed by Suge and Snoop, smiling alongside Pac, his eyes alight with joy. If Time Warner could take the heat on “Face Down Ass Up,” they could take the heat on “Gin and Juice.”


pages: 297 words: 89,206

Social Class in the 21st Century by Mike Savage

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call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clapham omnibus, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, deskilling, Downton Abbey, financial independence, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, income inequality, liberal capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, moral panic, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, old-boy network, precariat, psychological pricing, Sloane Ranger, The Spirit Level, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, very high income, winner-take-all economy, young professional

Even though the provenance of these figures is amplified through this vision now being paraded on our television screen courtesy of The Apprentice, Dragons’ Den and suchlike, it is a far from accurate picture of the social inequality which exists at the top of British society. It follows, therefore, that we need a more subtle approach than to simply critique the vicarious fortunes of bankers and financiers, who command huge bonuses and dividends, deploy tax breaks or earn windfalls from public-sector privatization or deregulation. The moral panic about bonuses, the culture of takeovers and corporate raiding, and the significance of the ‘non-domiciled’ rich, lured to London by the tax breaks that successive governments have made available, all plays into this populist sentiment. There is a danger that our attention is thus distracted, turned away from the ‘ordinarily wealthy’ who extend well beyond the top ‘1 per cent’. Of course, we don’t doubt for one moment that it is the ‘super-wealthy’ who have been the prime beneficiaries of economic change in recent decades, and who need extensive public scrutiny.


pages: 332 words: 89,668

Two Nations, Indivisible: A History of Inequality in America: A History of Inequality in America by Jamie Bronstein

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mandatory minimum, mass incarceration, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

“I hope you’re all aware we’re all Eisenhower Republicans,” he noted.56 Clinton’s impeachment and trial over his affair with intern Monica Lewinsky distracted Americans from the strong economic expansion of his administration, with an unemployment rate of only 4 percent and annual labor productivity growth of 2.7 percent per year.57 He also successfully eliminated the federal deficit and replaced it with a surplus by “raising the top marginal tax rate to 39.6 percent, along with increased gasoline taxes, an uncapping of the payroll tax for Medicare, and increased taxation of Social Security benefits.”58 INEQUALITY AND THE WAR ON DRUGS As this chapter has shown, neoconservative doctrines about spending and welfare triumphed in the 1980s and 1990s, and welfare recipients were stigmatized, which divided Americans along both class and racial lines. The War on Drugs created by the Nixon administration accelerated during the Reagan era, worsening both inequality and racial divisiveness. In the 1980s, the moral panic surrounding the War on Drugs focused on crack cocaine, a rock-like distillation made by combining dissolved powder cocaine and baking soda in water and then heating. Smoking crack delivered a fast and cheap high and so was more popular in inner-city areas (whereas powder cocaine was a status symbol for wealthy whites). Crack use began in earnest around 1985, reached a peak in 1989, and then tapered off slightly, leaving social disruption, widespread violence, and incarceration in its wake.59 But crack users were not the only victims of the drug wars; 80 percent of those arrested for drug offenses in the 1980s and 1990s were arrested for simple possession of marijuana, a drug that was subsequently considered harmless enough to be legalized for recreational use in some states.60 Successive Supreme Court decisions narrowed the Fourth Amendment right to be free from unreasonable searches, and the introduction of more discretion in policing meant that black people, particularly young black men, were much more likely than their white peers to be stopped and searched on a pretext and then arrested for drug possession.


words: 49,604

The Weightless World: Strategies for Managing the Digital Economy by Diane Coyle

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barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, clean water, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, Diane Coyle, Edward Glaeser, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, financial deregulation, full employment, George Santayana, global village, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McJob, microcredit, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, night-watchman state, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, pension reform, pensions crisis, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, two tier labour market, very high income, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, working-age population

The increase in inequality in some countries during the past couple of decades is well documented.7 Recent research suggests that deprivation is becoming ever more concentrated within the inner cities — and that the losers ‘may become dislocated from mainstream social norms and values’.8 This explains why it is particularly in the Western world’s three most unequal countries — the US, UK and France — that the moral panic about the welfare state and its underclass is most pronounced. The Thatcher experiment It is particularly interesting that the British still feel that the welfare state needs fundamental reform, for the country has already experimented with some controversial changes. Margaret Thatcher notoriously told a women’s magazine in an interview shortly after her third election victory in June 1987, ‘There is no such thing as society.


pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, peer-to-peer rental, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar

Our potential to collaborate and create value [is] also transformed. —Frederic Mazzella, OuiShare magazine interview, January 14, 2013 The Internet has existed as space for commercial exchange for over two decades. Now well into the new millennium, it is easy to forget that in the mid to late 1990s, the Internet was both a scene of frenzied excitement and a site of deep apprehension, fear, and moral panic. After all, although some Internet enthusiasts like Howard Rheingold were staking out the “virtual frontier” of the Internet, others were warning people that the Internet was a potential minefield of illicit affairs, pornography, and (of course) fraudulent activities. Over the past two decades, as both the utopian speculations and paranoid misconceptions about the Internet have receded, it has become an integral part of our everyday lives.


pages: 309 words: 86,909

The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger by Richard Wilkinson; Kate Pickett

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basic income, Berlin Wall, clean water, Diane Coyle, epigenetics, experimental economics, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, God and Mammon, impulse control, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land reform, Louis Pasteur, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, moral panic, offshore financial centre, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit maximization, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, statistical model, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Thus, in certain countries, in particular the United States and to a lesser extent the United Kingdom – public demand for tougher and longer sentences has been met by public policy and election campaigns which have been fought and won on the grounds of the punitiveness of penal policy. In other countries, such as Sweden and Finland, where the government provides greater ‘insulation against emotions generated by moral panic and long-term cycles of tolerance and intolerance’ (Tonry, 1999),270 citizens have been less likely to call for, and to support, harsher penal policies and the government has resisted the urge to implement such plans. *John Irwin writes that while imprisonment is generally believed to have four ‘official’ purposes – retribution for crimes committed, deterrence, incapacitation of dangerous criminals and the rehabilitation of criminals, in fact three other purposes have shaped America’s rates and conditions of imprisonment.


pages: 357 words: 94,852

No Is Not Enough: Resisting Trump’s Shock Politics and Winning the World We Need by Naomi Klein

Airbnb, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Brewster Kahle, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collective bargaining, Corrections Corporation of America, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy transition, financial deregulation, greed is good, high net worth, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, income inequality, Internet Archive, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, private military company, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban decay, women in the workforce, working poor

The lesson a great many liberal Democrats seem to have taken away from Hillary Clinton’s defeat is that her direct appeals to women and minorities on the campaign trail made white working-class men feel left out, driving them to Trump. Columbia University professor Mark Lilla expressed this most prominently in a postelection essay in the New York Times. He chided Clinton for “calling out explicitly to African-American, Latino, LGBT and women voters at every stop. This was a strategic mistake.” This focus on the traditionally marginalized groups, and the “moral panic about racial, gender and sexual identity…has distorted liberalism’s message and prevented it from becoming a unifying force capable of governing.” Unity, apparently, requires that all those noisy minorities (combined, an overwhelming majority, actually) need to pipe down about their individual grievances so Democrats can get back to “It’s the economy, stupid,” the mantra of Bill Clinton’s 1992 winning presidential campaign.


pages: 376 words: 121,254

Cocaine Nation: How the White Trade Took Over the World by Thomas Feiling

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anti-communist, barriers to entry, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, illegal immigration, informal economy, inventory management, land reform, Lao Tzu, mandatory minimum, moral panic, offshore financial centre, RAND corporation, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, trade route, upwardly mobile, yellow journalism

Len Bias has been called ‘the Archduke Ferdinand of the Total War on Drugs’.2 Although the coroner’s report concluded that there was no clear link between Bias’s drug use and his heart failure, this precious detail was lost on the press. In the month following his death, the news networks of the United States aired seventy-four evening news items about crack and cocaine, routinely confusing the two forms of the drug, and often stating that it was crack that had killed Len Bias. The crack scare that followed set the benchmark for every irrational, hysterical and moralizing panic the American media has cooked up since. The advertising industry and the main broadcasters even donated a billion dollars’ worth of ads and airtime to the anti-drugs movement, saying that ‘on this issue we’re ready to go over the top!’3 As the head of the DEA office in New York put it, ‘crack is the hottest combat-reporting story to come along since the end of the Vietnam War’.4 Police footage of their raids on alleged drug dealers’ homes appeared in a quarter of all drug stories over the following two years.


pages: 470 words: 144,455

Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World by Bruce Schneier

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Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, business process, butterfly effect, cashless society, Columbine, defense in depth, double entry bookkeeping, fault tolerance, game design, IFF: identification friend or foe, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, pez dispenser, pirate software, profit motive, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, slashdot, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, the payments system, Y2K, Yogi Berra

I am reminded that in the American West in the 1800s, horse thieving was often punished by hanging. This is because the society wanted to send a clear message that stealing horses was not to be tolerated. Various European governments sent a similar message in the 1970s when they started gunning terrorists down in the streets. The message was a very clear: “We’re not playing games anymore.” Some of the overreactions we’re seeing in hacker prosecution reflect this same sort of moral panic. This is also not meant as a call to extinguish legitimate researchers or hackers, full disclosure mailing lists, or the right to evaluate security products. In the United States, laws have been passed that prohibit reverse engineering of copy protection systems. The entertainment industry lobbied hard for these draconian laws, using them in an attempt to hide their incompetent security countermeasures.


pages: 542 words: 132,010

The Science of Fear: How the Culture of Fear Manipulates Your Brain by Daniel Gardner

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Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, Doomsday Clock, feminist movement, haute couture, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), mandatory minimum, medical residency, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, placebo effect, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, Tunguska event, uranium enrichment, Y2K, young professional

But at the same time, the disproportionate attention to cancer in the media can lead people to exaggerate the risk—making cancer all the more frightening. Back and forth it goes. The media reflect society’s fear, but in doing so, the media generate more fear, and that gets reflected back again. This process goes on all the time but sometimes—particularly when other cultural concerns are involved—it gathers force and produces the strange eruption sociologists call a moral panic. In 1998, Time magazine declared, “It’s high noon on the country’s streets and highways. This is road recklessness, auto anarchy, an epidemic of wanton carmanship.” Road rage. In 1994, the term scarcely existed and the issue was nowhere to be seen. In 1995, the phrase started to multiply in the media, and by 1996 the issue had become a serious public concern. Americans were increasingly rude, nasty, and violent behind the wheel; berserk drivers were injuring and killing in growing numbers; it was an “epidemic.”


pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

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3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

Its model of the world is that encapsulated in the motto of Chicago’s 1933 World’s Fair: “Science Finds–Industry Applies–Man Conforms.” As a result, too many people have been tricked into thinking that we can only change our norms, for there’s literally nothing we can do about the autonomous march of technology. Concerns and anxieties about various technologies are recast as reactive fears and phobias, as irrelevant moral panics that will quickly fade away once users develop the appropriate coping strategies and upgrade their norms. Such conflation of anxiety and technophobia has a long history. Historian Berhard Rieger has studied ambivalent reactions to new technologies in early twentieth-century Britain and found that such ambivalence was rarely an obstacle to innovation. Instead, he argues, “ambivalence should be understood as an integral element of British public debates, and one that supported a culture conducive to innovation.”


pages: 513 words: 141,963

Chasing the Scream: The First and Last Days of the War on Drugs by Johann Hari

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Airbnb, centre right, failed state, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, mass incarceration, McJob, moral panic, Naomi Klein, placebo effect, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, Steven Pinker, traveling salesman, War on Poverty

Walker, Drug Control in the Americas, 111. 66 Bonnie and Whitebread, Marijuana Conviction, 117. 67 McWilliams, Protectors, 61. 68 King, Drug Hang-Up, 82. 69 Walker, Drug Control in the Americas, 113. 70 Erlen and Spillane, Federal Drug Control, 73. 71 Sloman, Reefer Madness, 63. 72 Ibid., 61. 73 http://hightimes.com/lounge/ht_admin/8215, accessed April 1, 2013. 74 See Isaac Campos, Home Grown: Marijuana and the Origins of Mexico’s War on Drugs. 75 Erich Goode et al., Moral Panics: The Social Construction of Deviance, 196–202. 76 Extract from “Marijuana—The New Prohibition” by John Kaplan. See http://www.drugtext.org/Marijuana-The-New-Prohibition/iv-marijuana-and-aggression.html, accessed April 7, 2013. 77 Sloman, Reefer Madness, 62. 78 Ibid. 79 Steve Fox, Paul Armentano, and Mason Tvert, Marijuana Is Safer: So Why Are We Driving People to Drink? 51. 80 Anslinger, Murderers, 82, 86. 81 Anslinger, Protectors, 203–4. 82 Anslinger, Murderers, 83. 83 Anslinger, Protectors, 214–15. 84 Anslinger, Murderers, 87. 85 Carolyn Gallaher, On the Fault Line: Race, Class, and the American Patriot Movement, 140. 86 Valentine, Strength of the Wolf, 63. 87 Sloman, Reefer Madness, 207. 88 Valentine, Strength of the Wolf, 64. 89 David Patrick Keys and John F.


pages: 465 words: 134,575

Rise of the Warrior Cop: The Militarization of America's Police Forces by Radley Balko

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anti-communist, call centre, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, desegregation, edge city, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, moral panic, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan

The police issued more than 450 citations of $968 each to partygoers merely for attending an event where some attendees were breaking the state’s drug laws. Only three people were arrested on actual drug charges. With help from the ACLU, the city of Racine eventually dismissed the charges against all attendees who hadn’t yet pleaded guilty.17 The trendy new drug throwing the media and politicians into hysterics was Ecstasy. Raves were the new, weird, and different dance parties where teenagers were allegedly taking this crazy sex drug. Cue the moral panic, political grandstanding, and ensuing aggressive crackdown. Prior to the raid in Racine, Sen. Joe Biden of Delaware seemed particularly obsessed with rave parties. Politicians seemed to think that any party with techno music, pulsing lights, and neon inevitably degenerated into underage kids getting high on Ecstasy and engaging in mass orgies. In the summer of 2002, Biden was pushing his RAVE Act, an absurdly broad law that would have made venue and club owners liable for running a drug operation if they merely sold the “paraphernalia” common to parties where people took Ecstasy—accessories like bottled water and glow sticks.


pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

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1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

Policing and the Masculinist State’, Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography 8:1, 2001, p. 60. 30Ibid. 31Andrian Kreye, ‘Above the Neon Prairie: On Patrol with the LAPD’s Helicopter Squad’, andriankreye.com, 2009, available at andriankreye.com/LAPDE.html. 32‘EADS-Developed AUTOPOL Helps Police Helicopters to Spot People and Vehicles’, 1 May 2002 available at http://northamerica.airbus-group.com/. 33Herbert, ‘Hard Charger’. 34Kreye, ‘Above the Neon Prairie’. 35See Steve Macek, Urban Nightmares: The Media, the Right, and the Moral Panic over the City, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006. 36See Nicole Gelinas, ‘Baghdad on the Bayou’, City Journal, Spring 2007, pp. 42–53, available at city-journal.org. 37Ryan Bishop and John Phillips, Modernist Avant-Garde Aesthetics and Contemporary Military Technology: Technicities of Perception, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2010, chapter 2. 38Ibid., p. 25. 39See Henry Giroux, ‘Lockdown, USA: Lessons from the Boston Marathon Manhunt’, Truthout.Org, 6 May 2013, available at truth-out.org. 40Paul Peluso, ‘Thermal Imaging Plays Major Role in Bombing Manhunt’, SecurityInfoWatch.com, 23 April 2013. 41Gastón Gordillo, ‘Opaque Zones of Empire’, Space and Politics, 25 June 2013, available at spaceandpolitics.blogspot.co.uk. 42Cited in Paul Virilio, War and Cinema: The Logistics of Perception, London: Verso, 2009, p. 4. 43Jon Boone, ‘Taliban Retaliate after Prince Harry Compares Fighting to a Video Game’, Guardian, 22 January 2013. 44Bishop and Phillips, Modernist Avant-Garde Aesthetics, p. 52. 45This discussion, and the advert, draw from Bishop and Phillips, Modernist Avant-Garde Aesthetics, p. 52. 46Ibid. 47Kari Andén-Papadopoulos, ‘US Soldiers Imaging the Iraq War on YouTube’, Popular Communication 7:1, 2009, pp. 17–27. 48Chris Cole, Mary Dobbing and Amy Hailwood, Convenient Killing: Armed Drones and the ‘PlayStation’ Mentality, Fellowship of Reconciliation, 2010, available at dronewarsuk.files.wordpress.com. 49Cited in Andén-Papadopoulos, ‘US Soldiers Imaging the Iraq War’. 50Elisabeth Bumiller, ‘Video Shows US Killing of Reuters Employees’, New York Times, 5 April 2010.


pages: 548 words: 147,919

How Everything Became War and the Military Became Everything: Tales From the Pentagon by Rosa Brooks

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airport security, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, cognitive dissonance, continuation of politics by other means, drone strike, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Markoff, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, pattern recognition, Peace of Westphalia, personalized medicine, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Turing test, unemployed young men, Valery Gerasimov, Wall-E, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks

Other databases abound. 66. See Paige Scheckla, “Personal Security for Citizens and Non-Citizens in Post-9/11 US Immigration Policy,” University of Chicago International Human Rights Clinic, November 19, 2013, https://ihrclinic.uchicago.edu/blog/personal-security-citizens-and-non-citizens-post-911-us-immigration-policy-paige-scheckla-1l. See also Samantha Hauptman, The Criminalization of Immigration: The Post 9/11 Moral Panic, (El Paso, TX: LFB Scholarly Pub Llc, 2013). 67. Deepa Iyer and Jayesh M. Rathod, “9/11 and the Transformation of U.S. Immigration Law and Policy,” Human Rights Magazine 38 (Winter 2011), www.americanbar.org/publications/human_rights_magazine_home/human_rights_vol38_2011/human_rights_winter2011/9-11_transformation_of_us_immigration_law_policy.html. 68. See generally Laura K. Donohue, “Technological Leap, Statutory Gap, and Constitutional Abyss: Remote Biometric Identification Comes of Age,” 97 Minnesota Law Review, 407 (2012). 69.


pages: 467 words: 116,094

I Think You'll Find It's a Bit More Complicated Than That by Ben Goldacre

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call centre, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Desert Island Discs, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Firefox, Flynn Effect, jimmy wales, John Snow's cholera map, Loebner Prize, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, placebo effect, publication bias, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Simon Singh, statistical model, stem cell, the scientific method, Turing test, WikiLeaks

The progressive attitude to drug use institutionalised in this report established the framework of public policy for the next five decades, and following 1926 the ‘British System’ prosecuted dealers and dilettantes, but permitted medical prescription of heroin to addicts after ‘every effort’ had been made for the ‘cure of the addiction’, but when the drugs could not be fully withdrawn without ‘severe distress or even risk of life’ or ‘experience showed that a certain minimum dose of the drug was necessary for the patients to lead useful and relatively normal lives … capable of work’. This twin policy of ‘policing and prescribing’ effectively contained the heroin problem (which ran at below a hundred notified heroin addicts) for the next four decades. With the sixties came an atmosphere of moral panic at the scale of a well-publicised increase in drug use. Although the drugs in question were mostly cannabis and amphetamines, not heroin, attitudes to drug use and regulation were reappraised: amphetamines and LSD were brought under tight statutory control, and the government began to fear that with a rising demand for drugs, the licit opiate supply system might start supplying the illicit market.


pages: 468 words: 123,823

A People's History of Poverty in America by Stephen Pimpare

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affirmative action, British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, East Village, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, payday loans, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

For critiques of Herrnstein and Murray, see Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man (New York: Norton, 1996); and Orley Ashenfelter and Cecilia Rouse, “Schooling, Intelligence, and Income in America: Cracks in the Bell Curve,” November 1998, www.irs.princeton.edu/pubs/pdfs/407.pdf. Jacqueline Jones called The Bell Curve “hate literature with footnotes.” Jones cited in Steve Macek, Urban Nightmares: The Media, the Right, and the Moral Panic over the City (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006). 66 Robert Rector, “Welfare: Broadening the Reform,” in Issues 2000: The Candidate’s Briefing Book, ed. Stuart M. Butler and Kim R. Holmes (Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation, 2000). 67 James C. Cobb, “‘Somebody Done Nailed Us on the Cross’: Federal Farm and Welfare Policy and the Civil Rights Movement in the Mississippi Delta,” Journal of American History 77, no. 3 (December 1990): 912–36. 68 John K.


pages: 428 words: 136,945

The Happiness Effect: How Social Media Is Driving a Generation to Appear Perfect at Any Cost by Donna Freitas

4chan, fear of failure, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Skype, Snapchat

,” Wall Street Journal, Eastern Edition, August 25, 2010, D1–D2; Jan Hoffman, “States Struggle with Minors’ Sexting,” New York Times, March 27, 2011, Riva Richmond, “Sexting May Place Teens at Legal Risk,” New York Times, March 26, 2009, gadgetwise.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/03/26/sexting-may-place-teens-at-legal-risk/?_r=0; Maia Szalavitz, “Nearly 1 in 3 Teens Sext, Study Says. Is This Cause for Worry?,” Time, July 2, 2012, http://healthland.time.com/2012/07/02/nearly-1-in-3-teens-sext-study-says-is-this-cause-for-worry/; and Conor Friedersdorf, “The Moral Panic over Sexting,” Atlantic, September 2, 2015, http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2015/09/for-sexting-teens-the-authorities-are-the-biggest-threat/403318/. 6.For readers interested in a detailed treatment of the methodology for both the interview and the online survey process, participant selection, demographics of participation, and so forth, see the methodological appendix at the back of this book. 7.In a nationwide study conducted by the Pew Research Center, survey data gathered in September 2009 showed that 73 percent of online American teens used social networking websites, followed closely by young adults aged eighteen to twenty-nine at 72 percent.


pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells

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Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, borderless world, British Empire, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, computerized trading, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, Induced demand, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Leonard Kleinrock, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, popular capitalism, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

Yet most available research points to the opposite conclusion. After reviewing the literature, W. Russell Neuman concludes that “the accumulated findings from five decades of systematic social science research reveal that mass media audience, youthful or otherwise, is not helpless, and the media are not all-powerful. The evolving theory of modest and conditional media effects helps to put in perspective the historical cycle of moral panic over new media.”33 Furthermore, the barrage of advertising messages received through the media seems to have limited effect. According to Draper,34 although in the US the average person is exposed to 1,600 advertising messages per day, people respond (and not necessarily positively) to only about 12 of them. Indeed, McGuire,35 after reviewing accumulated evidence on the effects of media advertising, concluded that there is no substantial evidence of specific impacts by media advertising on actual behavior, an ironic conclusion for an industry that spent at that time US$50 billion a year.


pages: 773 words: 220,140

A Fraction of the Whole by Steve Toltz

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Berlin Wall, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, invisible hand, moral panic, nuclear winter, Own Your Own Home, Socratic dialogue

After six weeks he plopped me back in kindergarten, and just as it started looking like I might have a normal life after all, suddenly, in the second week of first grade, he walked right into the classroom and yanked me out once again, because he'd been overcome with the fear that he was leaving my impressionable brain "in the folds of Satan's underpants." This time he meant it, and from our wobbly kitchen table, while flicking cigarette ash into a pile of unwashed dishes, he taught me literature, philosophy, geography, history, and some nameless subject that involved going through the daily newspapers, barking at me about how the media do something he called "whipping up moral panics" and demanding that I tell him why people allowed themselves to be whipped into panicking, morally. Other times he gave classes from his bedroom, among hundreds of secondhand books, pictures of grave-looking dead poets, empty long necks of beer, newspaper clippings, old maps, black stiff banana peels, boxes of unsmoked cigars, and ashtrays full of smoked ones. This was a typical lesson: "OK, Jasper.


pages: 492 words: 70,082

Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, mass immigration, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

Dunn et al. (2007: 564) believe that ‘‘contemporary anti-Muslim sentiment in Australia is reproduced through a racialization that includes well rehearsed stereotypes of Islam, perceptions of threat and inferiority, as well as fantasies that . . . Australian Muslims . . . do not belong.’’ They identify undercurrents of Islamophobia and ‘‘national cultural selectivity in the politics of responding to asylum seekers’’ in negative media reporting, which they see as strongly linked to an antipathetic government. This has resulted in moral panic, misinformed opposition to mosque development, ever more restrictive asylum seeker policies, arson attacks, and racist violence. It has also led to discrimination against people who are not Muslim, such as Christian Arabs, given people’s ignorance of the diversity of the Islamic population. Mason (2006) believes that hate campaigns have transferred anti-Asian prejudice to anti- 163 Muslim sentiments, while Manne (2002) perceives Islamophobia to be the most serious threat to multiculturalism and religious and ethnic tolerance that Australia has witnessed for very many years.


pages: 1,013 words: 302,015

A Classless Society: Britain in the 1990s by Alwyn W. Turner

Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, British Empire, call centre, centre right, deindustrialization, demand response, Desert Island Discs, endogenous growth, Etonian, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, full employment, global village, greed is good, inflation targeting, means of production, millennium bug, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, period drama, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, South Sea Bubble, Stephen Hawking, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce

Inspector Morse was far and away the most popular detective show on television, with a domestic audience that touched twenty million. It was also one of Britain’s few really big television exports of the time; by 2007 ITV were to claim that a billion people worldwide (around a sixth of the global population) had seen at least one episode. The idea that such a mainstream show felt the need to address raves was an indication of how far up the public agenda they had moved, and how close the country was to one of its periodic moral panics. That scare duly arrived in 1995 with the death of an eighteen-year-old named Leah Betts from a combination of taking an ecstasy tablet and drinking vast quantities of water. The story became big largely because she was clearly not part of an underclass that could be easily dismissed: her stepmother was a nurse and her father a former police officer, who became a key campaigner for stronger action against drug use.


pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, long peace, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

And contrary to yet another scare that has recently been ginned up by the media, based on widely circulated YouTube videos of female teenagers pummeling one another, the nation’s girls have not gone wild. The rates of murder and robbery by girls are at their lowest level in forty years, and rates of weapon possession, fights, assaults, and violent injuries by and toward girls have been declining for a decade.198 With the popularity of YouTube, we can expect more of these video-driven moral panics (sadist grannies? bloodthirsty toddlers? killer gerbils?) in the years to come. It is premature to say that the kids are all right, but they are certainly far better off than they used to be. Indeed, in some ways the effort to protect children against violence has begun to overshoot its target and is veering into the realm of sacrament and taboo. FIGURE 7–22. Violence against youths in the United States, 1992–2003 Source: Data from DeVoe et al., 2004.