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Gray Day: My Undercover Mission to Expose America's First Cyber Spy by Eric O'Neill
active measures, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, computer age, cryptocurrency, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full text search, index card, Internet of things, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, ransomware, rent control, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Skype, thinkpad, web application, white picket fence, WikiLeaks, young professional
On December 18, 1996, after I’d spent a few months on the investigation, we arrested Earl Pitts at the FBI Academy, where he worked at what was then called the Behavioral Science Unit—the unit tasked with applying behavioral and social sciences to investigative techniques, including profiling serial killers, countering violent extremism, and understanding psychopathology. In June 1997, after pleading guilty to conspiracy to commit espionage, Earl Pitts was sentenced to twenty-seven years in prison. I had long since left Donner’s squad to finally attend the FBI Academy at Quantico, so I wasn’t around for Pitts’s lengthy debrief, when he mentioned that another FBI agent made him suspicious. Pitts suspected that agent might also be a spy. At the time, the FBI dismissed Pitts’s concerns and chose not to follow up with the agent he’d named: an obscure computer expert named Robert Hanssen. CHAPTER 3 LAY DOWN YOUR SWORD Gene’s blue Crown Victoria prowled away toward Pennsylvania Avenue and FBI headquarters.
He was also weeks away from a drop that might end in his arrest or, if we missed it, a last payout before he took his retirement and we lost our chance. So much hinged on what I learned in 9930. But while the agents in the secret squad room had piles of evidence, I had nothing. No information, no leads, no case. Target: Robert Hanssen Russian mole Gray Suit, potentially Ramon Garcia, B Shared nuclear secrets Compromised overseas assets Worst spy in American history CHAPTER 18 MAKING A SPY In January 1976, Robert Hanssen joined the FBI. His credentials as a certified public accountant with a master’s degree in business administration complemented four years spent on the Chicago police force to make him a good fit for the agency’s Financial Crimes Division, and he was assigned to Gary, Indiana, right out of the FBI Academy. But even as Hanssen investigated white-collar criminals in the Midwest, he was dreaming of bigger things.
Gene didn’t bother with niceties. “Have you ever heard of Robert Hanssen?” I hadn’t. “Should I have?” I asked. “No,” Gene smiled. “That’s good.” I nodded. “That’s why we chose you.” I stayed silent, trying to parse the insult from the compliment. The only certainty was that I’d been left in the dark—again. For months now, I hadn’t been able to pursue any of my normal, high-priority targets for the FBI. I’d been slapped on the wrist, shuffled into the minor league. Not because I’d messed up a lead or bungled a case, but because I’d married Juliana—a German national. No one had told me that FBI operatives with high security clearance are required to fill out a permission form before proposing to the love of their life. The FBI had instituted the policy after a few agents married into the mob. Meet the perfect girl, marry her, and then learn that her father is an FBI organized-crime target.
This Machine Kills Secrets: Julian Assange, the Cypherpunks, and Their Fight to Empower Whistleblowers by Andy Greenberg
Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Burning Man, Chelsea Manning, computerized markets, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, domain-specific language, drone strike, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, hive mind, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, Mahatma Gandhi, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Mohammed Bouazizi, nuclear winter, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Richard Stallman, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, social graph, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, undersea cable, Vernor Vinge, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, X Prize, Zimmermann PGP
And finally comes the leak itself, the moment when the insider walks out of the building with the physical material in hand, pushes it out by e-mail, or spills it onto the Web. Even after the initial leak, Mudge argues, the “tells” might continue. He points to the case of Robert Hanssen, a former FBI agent currently serving a life sentence in a Colorado supermax prison for giving intelligence information to the Soviets over two decades. In 2002, he confessed to selling the USSR $1.4 million in secrets, from signals intelligence methods to the fact that the FBI had dug an eavesdropping tunnel under the Soviet embassy in Washington, D.C. Every few days, Hanssen would stop his normal activities and make a single query to a server across the network, a pattern he repeated for almost ten years. That server, Mudge says, held the counterintelligence database.
Looking back, would he still have drawn him out in online conversations that stretched over days as Manning confessed every detail of his leaks, and then turned those incriminating logs over to the authorities? Lamo has responded by closing his eyes and allowing his head to bob and sink slowly for several seconds. I consider reaching over to tap him on the shoulder. Before I do, he suddenly looks up and answers me. “The man is the equivalent of a spy. He’s our next Aldrich Ames or Robert Hanssen,” Lamo says, naming two convicted double agents who sold information to the USSR over several decades. Lamo’s speech is a robotic slur, a result of the cocktail of psychoactive prescription drugs he takes daily. But his hazel eyes have opened wide and he’s now staring at me with surprising lucidity. “The only difference is that instead of giving information to the Soviets, he’s giving it to an antisecrecy organization.
If a Paranoia Meter has found its way into DARPA’s budget, reconceived in a form that better suits the agency’s standards, Mudge isn’t telling. For now, the results of his work, like the information it’s meant to protect, have become another sealed file in the Pentagon’s vault of secrets. The individuals tasked with rooting out leaks—from Adrian Lamo to Aaron Barr—tend to compare their targets to Robert Hanssen and Aldrich Ames, spies who sold uncountable secrets to foreign empires for millions of dollars. In fact, the archetypal leaker is often more like one NSA analyst named Thomas Drake: a conscientious whistleblower repaid only with crushing legal retribution. Drake, a thin and severe-looking man with a wisp of brown hair, has the hard stare of someone who has dealt in serious affairs and seen them go very badly.
1983: Reagan, Andropov, and a World on the Brink by Taylor Downing
active measures, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear paranoia, nuclear winter, RAND corporation, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Stanislav Petrov, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, Yom Kippur War
Secondly, they now realised they could trust the evidence Ames was selling to them.5 On the evening of the disastrous failed handover in Moscow, in a restaurant in the smart suburb of Washington DC known as Georgetown, Ames handed to his KGB minder a bag containing probably ‘the largest batch of sensitive documents and critical information ever turned over to the KGB in a single meeting’.6 It included information about at least ten Soviets who were passing top-level intelligence to the CIA, the FBI or other Western agencies, among them Gordievsky and Tolkachev. The KGB now had proof of their activities. Tolkachev was kept in prison and interrogated for a little over a year. The KGB wanted to know exactly how his betrayal had come about and every detail of how he had supplied the Americans with aviation intelligence. He was finally executed for treason in September 1986. In October 1985, Robert Hanssen, an FBI agent of some twelve years’ standing, an analyst on Soviet affairs based in New York, also made contact by letter with the KGB officer in Washington who was running Aldrich Ames, Viktor Cherkashin. Like Ames, Hanssen offered to sell information to the Russians, and this included naming names of KGB agents who were supplying intelligence to the US and other Western powers.
Despite the end of the Cold War, the spying of Aldrich Ames and Robert Hanssen carried on for some years with both men selling secrets to the Russian Federation. Ames was finally tracked down by an internal CIA inquiry and was arrested in February 1994. He initially declared he was innocent but later admitted his guilt and was given a life sentence without remission. His wife Rosario was given a five-year sentence for tax evasion. At the time of writing he is still being held in a high-security penitentiary in Indiana. Hanssen carried on passing information to the SVR, the Russian organisation newly formed out of the KGB, until 2001. As the net slowly closed around him, he planned one final drop in a Virginia park. On this occasion he was followed and spotted by FBI officers who moved in and arrested him. ‘What took you so long?’
Thompson, Robert Smith, The Missiles of October: The Declassified Story of John F. Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1992. Volkogonov, Dmitri, The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire: Political Leaders from Lenin to Gorbachev. London: HarperCollins, 1998. Voslensky, Michael (tr. E. Mosbacher), Nomenklatura. London: The Bodley Head, 1990. Wise, David, Spy: The Inside Story of How the FBI’s Robert Hanssen Betrayed America. New York: Random House, 2002. Zubok, Vladislav, A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in the Cold War from Stalin to Gorbachev. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009. Key Sources NSA The National Security Archive is a non-governmental research and archive organisation located at George Washington University, Washington DC. The NSA publishes vast numbers of documents in series of Workbooks, many of which are available online.
Dark Mirror: Edward Snowden and the Surveillance State by Barton Gellman
4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, active measures, Anton Chekhov, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Debian, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, financial independence, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Hangouts, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, job automation, Julian Assange, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, planetary scale, private military company, ransomware, Robert Gordon, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, standardized shipping container, Steven Levy, telepresence, undersea cable, web of trust, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zimmermann PGP
“I’d have to go to these people”: Shawn Turner, interview with author, May 30, 2019. “Snowden claims that he’s won”: James Clapper, testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, January 29, 2014, transcribed at http://wapo.st/2b26smO and archived at https://archive.is/QxYVN. The relevant video excerpt is https://youtu.be/CowlDnng2Zc. Snowden’s “agents”: The NSA inspector general compared Snowden and his journalistic “agents” unfavorably to notorious FBI traitor Robert Hanssen, saying “Hanssen’s theft was in a sense finite whereas Snowden is open-ended, as his agents decide daily which documents to disclose.” George Ellard, panel remarks, “A New Paradigm of Leaking,” Symposium on Leakers, Whistleblowers and Traitors, February 25, 2014, transcript available at Journal of National Security Law & Policy 8, no. 1 (2015). Ellard used identical language at a February 24, 2014, conference at Georgetown University Law Center, as I sat less than ten feet away.
“I wouldn’t distinguish myself categorically from them,” I replied. “Well, then, maybe you are, too. This is the whole business about one man’s whistleblower is another man’s spy.” In a similar vein came remarks by the NSA inspector general, George Ellard. Twice in February 2014, both times as I sat within his sight, Ellard referred to journalists on the story as Snowden’s “agents.” We had done more damage, he said at a Georgetown University conference, than the notorious FBI traitor Robert Hanssen, who helped Soviet security services hunt down and kill U.S. intelligence assets. Tight-lipped and curt, he walked away when someone introduced us after the panel. When we finally spoke nearly two years later, he said, “I must confess I read your work with keen interest.” Did Clapper agree with Alexander’s idea? “I understand what Keith was saying,” Clapper told me in late 2018, after retiring as director of national intelligence, publishing a book, and coming under sustained rhetorical assault from President Trump.
“the rise of political doxing”: Bruce Schneier, “The Rise of Political Doxing,” Vice, October 28, 2015, www.vice.com/en_us/article/z43bm8/the-rise-of-political-doxing. She was a crisis manager: Vanee Vines portrayed herself this way in her LinkedIn profile, www.linkedin.com/in/vaneevines/. to the worst traitor: I wrote about George Ellard’s comment, comparing Snowden and his “agent” journalists to FBI traitor Robert Hanssen, in chapter 7. “It sounds like I won’t”: Snowden chat with author, November 22, 2013. require extraordinary evidence: The aphorism was popularized by astronomer Carl Sagan in his 1980 television show Cosmos. It is a staple in the worlds of science, intelligence, and journalism. “Gang of Eight”: The Gang of Eight referred to the chairs and ranking members of the two intelligence committees and the top two Democrats and Republicans of each chamber in Congress.
Near and Distant Neighbors: A New History of Soviet Intelligence by Jonathan Haslam
active measures, Albert Einstein, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bolshevik threat, Bretton Woods, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, falling living standards, John von Neumann, lateral thinking, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Valery Gerasimov, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, éminence grise
In fact, the American effort collapsed under the weight of the greed at the heart of its own intelligence establishment. Robert Hanssen at the FBI was responsible for counterintelligence against Soviet operations. From 1979 to 2001, Hanssen gave Moscow the names of those Russians he knew to have been recruited by the American services within the United States. “Perhaps for some in Russia, the 1960s and the beginning of the 1980s were the years of social stagnation,” the former KGB rezident Solomatin recalled with smug satisfaction. “But as the John Walker affair shows, this was not true for the Soviet intelligence service.”49 After William Casey took over CIA under Reagan, the Americans combined a diplomatic offensive against the Soviet Union with a frontal assault on its entire intelligence network. A number of agents were recruited: Gennadii Varenik (“Fitness”), Valerii Martynov (“Gentile”), Sergei Motorin (“Gauze”), Vladimir Piguzov (“Jogger”), Gennady Smetanin (“Million”), Boris Yuzhin (“Twine”), Vyacheslav Baranov (“Tony”), and Sergei Bokhan (“Blizzard”).50 CIA veteran Paul Redmond has estimated that “we had well into the double digits of good penetrations of the Soviet government, most of them being run out of Moscow.”51 The British already had an unusually well-informed asset, Oleg Gordievsky, in place as deputy rezident in London.
One underlying vulnerability of the Soviet system was loss of faith, a loss initially delayed at home through timely populism, but immediately damaging abroad. In the end it meant that recruitment of agents could be based almost exclusively upon material incentives. It also meant that as time went on and stagnation took hold at home, Soviet citizens and operatives increasingly fell victim to hostile recruitment. The Americans, too, had succumbed to disillusion as a consequence of the failed war in Vietnam, and the Russians took every opportunity to undermine their U.S. counterparts from within: hence the betrayal of CIA by Aldrich Ames and the FBI by Robert Hanssen. Of course none of this availed Moscow, except in the short term, as the Soviet Union’s ultimate collapse was due to forces far larger than secret intelligence could muster or block.
Every operative, on leaving the premises, had to indicate with a pin on the map his precise location, so that Androsov could tell at a glance where everyone was. Colonel Viktor Cherkashin, head of foreign counterintelligence at the rezidentura, was never consulted on this, and on returning from leave in March 1984 expressed his horror. All it needed was an American agent in their midst, and the FBI could watch for all operatives meeting their contacts to roll up whatever activities were in progress. When Cherkashin tested his hunch by creating a fictitious new operative, only to find the FBI on the ground awaiting him, Androsov refused to acknowledge the implications of this discovery—that there was, indeed, an FBI agent in their midst—since reporting it would jeopardise his own continuation in post and Kryuchkov’s standing, too. Even when Cherkashin identified Valerii Martynov as the culprit, nothing was done until eventually Martynov was named by others.48 U.S. human intelligence operations in the Soviet Union, always a point of vulnerability, collapsed under the successful Soviet counterintelligence drive accelerated by Andropov—at least that is what Major General Rem Krasil’nikov, head of the first (American) department of the KGB’s Second Main Directorate (1979–1992), claims.
Kingpin: How One Hacker Took Over the Billion-Dollar Cybercrime Underground by Kevin Poulsen
Apple II, Brian Krebs, Burning Man, corporate governance, dumpster diving, Exxon Valdez, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, index card, Kickstarter, McMansion, Mercator projection, offshore financial centre, packet switching, pirate software, Ponzi scheme, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, traffic fines, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zipcar
Almost overnight Mularski went from managing furniture stores to working on some of the FBI’s most important, and highly classified, investigations. When, in 1999, a listening device was found in an office on the top floor of the State Department’s headquarters, he was part of the team that identified a Russian diplomat monitoring the transmitter from outside. In 2001, he helped bring down Robert Hanssen, a fellow counterespionage agent who’d been secretly spying for the KGB and its successor agency for twenty years. It was heady work, but the secrecy chafed Mularski: He held a top-secret clearance and couldn’t talk about his job with outsiders—even his wife. So when headquarters announced openings for two experienced agents to kick-start an ambitious cybercrime initiative in Pittsburgh, he saw a chance to go home and step out of the shadows at the same time.
Hidden cameras and microphones recorded everything in the office, and FBI-installed spyware captured every keystroke typed on the computers. In the parking lot outside, around twenty FBI agents were standing by to help with the arrest. The agent playing CEO Patterson tried to draw Gorshkov out some more. “What about credit cards? Credit card numbers? Anything like that?” “When we’re here, we’ll never say that we got access to credit card numbers,” the hacker replied. The FBI agent and Gorshkov laughed conspiratorially. “I understand. I hear ya, I hear ya,” said Patterson. When the two-hour meeting concluded, Patterson ushered the men into a car, ostensibly to take them to the temporary housing arranged for their visit. After a short drive, the car stopped. Agents threw open the doors and arrested the Russians. Back at the office, an FBI agent realized the keystroke logger installed on the bureau computers at Invita presented him with a rare opportunity.
Max foraged through the hard drive, and his suspicions were confirmed: The disk was packed with FBI reports. Chris was shaken by the discovery of an FBI cybercrime agent in his own backyard, but Max was intrigued—the agent’s hard drive offered potentially useful insight into the bureau’s methods. They talked about what to do next. Some of the files indicated the agent had an informant who was providing information on Script, the CarderPlanet leader who sold Chris his first dumps. Should they warn Script that there was an informant in his circle? They decided to do nothing; if he were ever busted, Max figured, he might be able to play this as a trump card. If it got out that he’d accidentally hacked an FBI agent, it could embarrass the bureau, maybe even cost them some convictions. He returned to his work hacking the carders.
Hiding in Plain Sight: The Invention of Donald Trump and the Erosion of America by Sarah Kendzior
"side hustle", 4chan, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, borderless world, Chelsea Manning, Columbine, corporate raider, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, Julian Assange, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QAnon, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, white flight, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game
This is not to say that the Daily News was a paragon of journalistic integrity, but that the news still followed the old Mark Twain adage: “Get your facts straight first, and then you can distort them as much as you please.” We were not yet in a factual free-for-all: readers had the time to notice if we made mistakes, and we had the time to fix them. I did some reporting for the print side. My first article, in what now seems like ludicrous foreshadowing, was about Robert Hanssen—the FBI agent who was arrested in 2001 after spying for Russia for twenty-two years—writing pornographic stories on the internet, but my primary role was to keep the website operational. My small team was the least important part of the paper, until, one day, we weren’t. * * * I was out of town when the towers fell. I had left New York on September 8, 2001, with my boyfriend to drive to rural Wisconsin to stay at his friend’s cabin in the woods.
(Mueller investigated this branch of Chabad in 2017 but never revealed his findings.)31 Sater told the Los Angeles Times that he freelanced as an informant to the US government during the 2000s and spent the decade “building Trump Towers by day and hunting Bin Laden by night”32—an interesting claim given the rumored connection between al-Qaeda and the Russian mafia operation run by Sater family associate Mogilevich.33 Former KGB officer Aleksandr Litvinenko, who was murdered by Kremlin agents in 2006, claimed in 2005 that Mogilevich has had a good relationship with Russian president Vladimir Putin since 1994 or 1993 and that Mogilevich is in contact with al-Qaeda and sells them weapons. Given that Sater had worked as an FBI informant during the crucial years of 1998 to 2001, that the FBI had named Mogilevich their top priority in 2011, and that Sater had worked with the Trump family in a project that appears to have involved significant money-laundering, it is disconcerting at best that the FBI did not raise any concerns when Trump ran for office and won the nomination. Ascending to that level of candidacy not only gave Trump access to classified intelligence, but allowed his campaign team—by that time led by Manafort—access as well.
In 2019, a newly unsealed court document cites an Epstein accountant claiming that Robert Maxwell was the true source of Epstein’s fortune, but does not elaborate on how or when this happened.39 The full story of Mogilevich, the Maxwell family, and how they became connected to fellow sex trafficker Epstein remains a mystery—at least, to the public, due to the refusal of law enforcement officials to discuss it in detail. We know that Robert Maxwell was at the least an acquaintance of Trump in the late 1980s, part of the same corrupt circle of elites.40 They even bought their respective disastrous yachts from the same arms dealer, Adnan Khashoggi. After Epstein was arrested in July 2019, FBI agents raided his home and found that he had multiple passports, including an Austrian passport that listed his residence as Saudi Arabia.41 Later that month, reporter Vicky Ward revealed that when she had interviewed Alex Acosta shortly after Trump was elected, he told her, “I was told Epstein ‘belonged to intelligence’ and to leave it alone.”42 Acosta did not specify to which country’s intelligence Epstein belonged.
Duped: Double Lives, False Identities, and the Con Man I Almost Married by Abby Ellin
Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Burning Man, business intelligence, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, Donald Trump, double helix, dumpster diving, East Village, feminist movement, forensic accounting, fudge factor, hiring and firing, Internet Archive, longitudinal study, Lyft, mandatory minimum, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pink-collar, Ponzi scheme, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, telemarketer, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions
When writer Jonathan Van Meter discovered that Anthony Weiner had lied to him in an interview for the New York Times Magazine, he was so distraught that he stayed in bed for two days.35 But not only scoop-hungry journalists are susceptible to deception. MI6 was bamboozled by Philby and the Cambridge Five, a ring of British spies who were really working for the KGB during World War II and beyond. (They were recruited while they were students at the University of Cambridge, which is where the name came from.) The FBI was deceived by Robert Hanssen, an FBI agent who was also in cahoots with the Russians, as was the CIA by Aldrich Ames, who was selling secrets to the KGB for millions of dollars in cash. The Agency was not happy. As former CIA agent Jack Devine told me, “We do that to others, not internally.”36 ANOTHER VERY INTELLIGENT person who was nonetheless swindled is Stephen Greenspan, an emeritus professor of educational psychology at the University of Connecticut. Two days before he held an early copy of his book, the aptly titled Annals of Gullibility: Why We Get Duped and How to Avoid It, he discovered that Bernie Madoff had made off with a large chunk of his nest egg.
“He told himself the story that his family would be better off without him, and that while his children did think he was dead, they were adults living their own lives, so it’s not as if he abandoned them as babies.”17 At a secret trial held at MI5 headquarters in Mayfair, London, in November 1952, eleven years before the truth finally came out, Kim Philby convinced his interrogator that he wasn’t a Soviet agent partly by stuttering whenever he was asked a question. Such skills bought him time to come up with another lie. He added that he was basically immune to detection, because he was born to the “governing class” and knew many people of great influence. “They’d never try to beat me up or knock me around, because if they had been proved wrong afterwards, I could have made a tremendous scandal,” he said.18 PHILBY WAS A natural deceiver. So is Bob Hamer.19 Hamer spent twenty-six years with the FBI, many of them as an undercover agent, successfully persuading bad people into believing he was one of them. He was a Sanctioned Duper. Hamer, who is now retired, thinks he was born with the ability to lie.
.), 202 false self, 69 families, 28 double lives and, 108, 122–123, 126–130, 175–176 lies and, 177–178 multiple, 65–66, 150 secrecy in, 35–36, 44–45 FBI, 40, 72, 151, 152 fugitives, 91–95, 102 undercover agents, 100–101 fear, cowardice and, 62 Feldman, Robert, 60 Fels, Anna, 123 Festinger, Leon, 147–148 The Final Nail (publication), 54 Fisher, Helen, 145–146 Fitness, Julie, 42 Five Factor model, 213–215 Folly of Fools (Trivers), 106–107 Fragments (Wilkomirski), 68 Franz, Volker, 205 fraud, 28, 29–30, 156 affinity, 151–152 with career credentials, 41 children as victims of identity, 172 gender, 134, 150 sexual assault by, 131–135 social media and, 41 Freeman, Rhonda, 125–126 Freshman, Audrey, 124 fugitives, FBI, 91–95, 102 “Fugitives Have More Fun: Confessions of a Wanted Eco-Terrorist” (speech), 55 Furnham, Adrian, 109 Gacy, John Wayne, 149–150 Galinsky, Adam, 205 galvanic skin response (GSR), 157, 201 gamesmanship, with psychopathy, 75 Gaslight (film), 33 gaslighting, 23, 25, 119, 129 gender, 176 fraud, 134, 150 honesty and, 172–175, 177–178 See also men; women Gere, Richard, 4 Get the Truth (Houston), 189 Gladwell, Malcolm, 31 Glass, Stephen, 150 Goldberg, Carrie, 135 Goodall, Jane, 83 Grafman, Jordan, 67, 151, 173–174, 216 Greeks, ancient, 86 Greene, Graham, 49, 152 Greenspan, Stephen, 151 Greenwood, Elizabeth, 99, 100 GSR.
Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It by Richard A. Clarke, Robert Knake
barriers to entry, complexity theory, data acquisition, Just-in-time delivery, MITM: man-in-the-middle, nuclear winter, packet switching, RAND corporation, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, trade route, undersea cable, Y2K, zero day
The equivalent of ten copies of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, all 32 volumes and 44 million words, ten times over. If a Cold War spy wanted to move that much information out of a secret, classified facility, he would have needed a small moving van and a forklift. He also would have risked getting caught or killed. Robert Hanssen, the FBI employee who spied for the Soviets, and then the Russians, starting in the 1980s, never revealed anywhere near that much material in over two decades. He secreted documents out of FBI headquarters, wrapped them in plastic bags, and left them in dead drops in parks near his home in Virginia. In all, Hanssen’s betrayal amounted to no more than a few hundred pages of documents. Hanssen now spends twenty-three hours a day in solitary confinement in his cell at the supermax prison in Colorado Springs.
That suggests we need to increase our efforts to combat cyber crime. Today both the FBI and the Secret Service investigate cyber crime, with help from Customs (now called Immigration and Customs Enforcement, or ICE) and the Federal Trade Commission. Yet companies and citizens across the country complain that their reports of cyber crime go unanswered. The Justice Department’s ninety independent prosecutors scattered around the nation often ignore cyber crime because individual cyber thefts usually fall below the $100,000 minimum necessary for a federal case to be authorized. The U.S. attorneys are also often computer illiterate and do not want to investigate a crime where the culprit is in some other city or, worse yet, another country. The President could assign the FBI and Secret Service agents who cover cyber crime to the proposed Cyber Defense Administration, along with attorneys to prepare cases for the Justice Department.
In the hypothetical exercise, both the U.S. and China opened previously installed trapdoors in the other country’s networks and then set off logic bombs that had been implanted earlier in, among other places, the electric power grids. Beyond the exercise, there is good reason to believe that someone actually has already implanted logic bombs in the U.S. power grid control networks. Several people who should know implied or confirmed that the U.S. has also already engaged in the same kind of preparation of the battlefield. Imagine if the FBI announced that it had arrested dozens of Chinese government agents running around the country strapping C4 explosive charges to those big, ugly high-tension transmission line towers and to some of those unmanned step-down electric substation transformers that dot the landscape. The nation would be in an outrage. Certain Congressmen would demand that we declare war, or at least slap punitive tariffs on Chinese imports. Somebody would insist that we start calling Chinese food “liberty snacks.”
The Billion Dollar Spy: A True Story of Cold War Espionage and Betrayal by David E. Hoffman
back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, en.wikipedia.org, IFF: identification friend or foe, Mikhail Gorbachev, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier
The Senate Select Committee on Intelligence said Ames admitted compromising over a hundred U.S. intelligence operations of the CIA, FBI, military, and allied governments. The committee said “his betrayal stands as the most egregious in American history.” Still more damage was caused by Robert Hanssen, an FBI specialist on counterintelligence, who offered his services to the KGB in October 1985. Hanssen and Ames remained Soviet agents for years to come. On Ames, see Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, “Assessment of the Aldrich H. Ames Espionage Case and Its Implications for U.S. Intelligence,” 53; also statement by the director of Central Intelligence, John Deutch, Dec. 7, 1995; and Grimes and Vertefeuille, Circle of Treason. For details on Hanssen, see “Statement of Facts,” United States of America v. Robert Philip Hanssen, July 3, 2001, Criminal Case No. 01-188-A, U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, Alexandria Division. 18.
Then the FBI agents said Howard should take a polygraph examination at some later point, suggesting that if he were innocent, the lie detector would clear him and the FBI could look for the “true” suspect. Howard adamantly refused, saying he had been “screwed” by the polygraph in the past, reiterated that he was innocent, and again demanded time to consult a lawyer. The FBI then switched gears and said Howard would have to take a polygraph before seeing his lawyer. At that, Howard grew irate and said the FBI could do whatever it had to, including search his house. The FBI agents asked if he would sign a consent to be searched. Howard refused. The FBI agents said if he reconsidered, they would be around the next morning, and they gave him a phone number to call.9 The next day, a Friday, late in the day, Howard called the FBI agents in the hotel room, saying he had talked with a lawyer and suggested that, despite his fear of the polygraph test, he might agree to go through with it, to get the FBI “off his back” and to prove his innocence.
He paid for the $1,053 ticket on his TWA credit card. He then flew on to Helsinki.15 While Howard was jetting off, the FBI knocked on his front door in Santa Fe. It was 3:05 p.m. on Sunday. The special agents had just received word from Texas of an interview the FBI conducted there with Howard’s friend Bosch. The FBI agents felt that Bosch had corroborated the accusation that Howard gave information to the Soviets.16 The FBI special agents asked Mary where Howard was. Mary said he was out jogging and would return in half an hour.17 He never did. On Monday, a federal warrant was issued for the arrest of Edward Lee Howard on charges of espionage.18 But he had eluded the FBI, and they would never catch up. In Helsinki, Howard contacted the Soviets on Monday and crossed the border on Tuesday, smuggled in the trunk of a car.
The Hacker and the State: Cyber Attacks and the New Normal of Geopolitics by Ben Buchanan
active measures, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, family office, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, kremlinology, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nate Silver, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, risk tolerance, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, zero day
Hansen, “Soviet Deception in the Cuban Missile Crisis,” CIA: Studies in Intelligence 46, no. 1 (2002): 49–58. For more on how news of the missiles’ presence was dismissed by agency senior leaders, see Sean D. Naylor, “Operation Cobra: The Untold Story of How a CIA Officer Trained a Network of Agents Who Found the Soviet Missiles in Cuba,” Yahoo News, January 23, 2019. 12. Gus W. Weiss, “The Farewell Dossier: Duping the Soviets,” CIA: Studies in Intelligence 39, no. 5 (1996). Deception certainly cut the other way, too. It was not until after the Cold War ended that the United States realized that two members of its intelligence community, Robert Hanssen and Aldrich Ames, had independently sold reams of classified information to the Soviets, including information on which Soviet officers were American spies. 13. One person who did get this distinction right early on is Thomas Rid.
But these precautionary steps did not entirely cloak the hackers from the US counterintelligence apparatus. At some point in 2015, the American government became aware of the intrusion at the DNC and alerted the committee’s network administrators. In September 2015, an agent from the FBI called the main phone line at the DNC with the news. The person who answered transferred him to the IT help desk, where his call was eventually addressed. Afterward, an internal DNC memo passed along the news: “The F.B.I. thinks the D.N.C. has at least one compromised computer on its network and the F.B.I. wanted to know if the D.N.C. is aware, and if so, what the D.N.C. is doing about it.” The FBI agent had also specifically linked the intrusion to “the Dukes,” a common name in the cybersecurity community for the well-known group of hackers. A quick internet search at that point would have turned up significant private-sector reporting that identified the group as Russian and likely from the FSB.
Using the limited cybersecurity tools available to the committee, he found nothing. As a result, and in part due to the fact that the FBI agent had not provided proof of his identity, he did not return subsequent follow-up phone calls from the bureau. Despite the ongoing silence from the DNC, the FBI did not call any high-ranking officials there, nor did it show up in person to press the case at the offices, which were located just a mile away from the FBI field office. The bureau chose not to send follow-up emails, likely due to the strong possibility that the Russians were capable of accessing the DNC’s mail servers. The investigation stalled. The hackers remained in place. In November, the FBI called again. This time, agents issued a more strident warning. The infected computers at the DNC, the bureau told the committee, contained malicious code that was sending information back to hackers in Russia.
The Profiteers by Sally Denton
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, clean water, corporate governance, crony capitalism, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, G4S, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Joan Didion, Kitchen Debate, laissez-faire capitalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, nuclear winter, profit motive, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban planning, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, William Langewiesche
“should have been shot”: Weinberger, quoted in Blitzer, Territory of Lies, 238. “contradicted what the US government”: Phelan, “True Motives Behind Sentencing of Jonathan Pollard.” “Year of the Spy”: The CIA dubbed 1985 the Year of the Spy because fourteen Americans were arrested and/or convicted of spying for the Soviet Union and its allies, as well as for Israel, China, and Ghana. Included were John Walker, Edward Lee Howard, Aldrich Ames, and Robert Hanssen. “busted the most secret” . . . “Neither Pollard nor the government”: Loftus and Aarons, Secret War, 402. Loftus and Aarons contend that by fixing the beginning date for Iran-Contra in 1985 rather than in 1984, as Pollard contended, the Reagan administration attempted to scapegoat Israel. “In its rush to conclude the Iran-Contra inquiry in just three months, Congress ignored several leads to the 1984 French connection and started its investigation with the Israeli involvement in 1985.
Government: A Polity of Amorality,” Arutz Sheva, November 28, 2014. “together with U.S.”: Wesley Phelan, “The True Motives Behind the Sentencing of Jonathan Pollard” (interview with Angelo Codevilla), Washington Weekly, January 11, 1999. “were of a number”: Crovitz, “Even Pollard Deserves.” Lohbeck would contend that he never purchased any classified documents from Pollard, but rather was used by Pollard as a “red herring to throw [FBI agents] off the trail of the Israeli agent” who had bought the documents. Pollard identified Lohbeck as “a recognized liaison to the [Afghan] mujahideen” who had access to classified documents. Also see Erwin Knoll, “Journalistic Jihad: Holes in the Coverage of a Holy War,” Progressive, May 1990, 17–22. “Jay laughed”: Lohbeck, 133. “Wiping away beaded perspiration” . . . “You must leave!” . . . “get out”: Shaw, Miscarriage of Justice, 37–38.
CHAPTER THIRTY-THREE: A CONVENIENT SPY “egged on the hapless endeavor” . . . “triangular relationship”: Gusterson, “Assault on Los Alamos.” “plowing much”: Gusterson, “Assault on Los Alamos.” “the Margaret Mead of the weapons labs”: Ibid. “China Stole”: James Risen and Jeff Gerth, “China Stole Nuclear Secrets for Bombs, US Aides Say,” New York Times, March 6, 1999. “hoping for a glimpse” . . . “Convoys of FBI” . . . “FBI agents descended”: Gusterson, “Assault on Los Alamos.” “Reporters and congressmen”: Stober and Hoffman, Convenient Spy, 209. “I am truly sorry” . . . “As a member”: James Parker, quoted in Wen Ho Lee, My Country Versus Me: The First-Hand Account by the Los Alamos Scientist Who Was Falsely Accused of Being a Spy (New York: Hachette, 2002), 2. “convenient spy”: Stober and Hoffman, Convenient Spy, book title.
The Secret World: A History of Intelligence by Christopher Andrew
active measures, Admiral Zheng, airport security, anti-communist, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, Fellow of the Royal Society, Francisco Pizarro, Google Earth, invention of movable type, invention of the telegraph, Julian Assange, Khyber Pass, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, RAND corporation, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, the market place, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, éminence grise
On one occasion the investigators sent a bogus SVR officer to his front door to warn him that, because of the FBI’s evidence against him, it was essential for him to escape: ‘Meet us tomorrow night at the [Washington] Vienna Metro. A person will approach you. We have a passport for you, and we’ll get you out of the country.’ Kelley slammed the door and reported the incident to the FBI. He was eventually vindicated as the result of a file exfiltrated from SVR archives in 2000 in an operation which cost the FBI seven million dollars. The file contained tape of the US agent speaking to his Russian case officer. FBI and CIA investigators expected to hear the voice of Brian Kelley. Instead, they heard Robert Hanssen. When arrested on 18 February 2001, Hanssen asked the FBI agents: ‘What took you so long?’53‡ In July he was sentenced to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole.
.), The Illustrated Oxford History of the First World War, rev. edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014) — and Ernest R. May, ‘An Identity of Opinion: Historians and July 1914’, Journal of Modern History, vol. 79 (2007), no. 2 Wills, Garry, Bomb Power: The Modern Presidency and the National Security State (New York: Penguin, 2010) Wilson, Frances, ‘The Lost Art of Table Talk’, Literary Review, February 2014 Wise, David, Spy: The Inside Story of How the FBI’s Robert Hanssen Betrayed America (New York: Random House, 2003) Witte, S., The Memoirs of Count Witte (New York: Doubleday, 1921) Wolf, Markus (with Anne McElvoy), Man without a Face: The Autobiography of Communism’s Greatest Spymaster (London: Jonathan Cape, 1997) Wood, Michael, Conquistadors (London: BBC Books, 2000) Woodham-Smith, Cecil, The Reason Why: Story of the Fatal Charge of the Light Brigade (London: Constable, 1953) Woods, Kevin, James Lacey and Williamson Murray, ‘Saddam’s Delusions: The View from the Inside’, Foreign Affairs, vol. 85 (2006), no. 3 Woodward, David, The American Army and the First World War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014) Worcester, Edward Somerset, Marquess of, Three letters intercepted by Sir Tho: Fairfax in Cornwal.
That is the big difference between us.’92 Important clues to Al Qaeda’s preparations for aircraft hijacking in the United States were also missed because of poor communication not merely between the FBI and the CIA but also between FBI headquarters and its field offices. In July 2001 an agent in the FBI Phoenix field office sent a memo to both headquarters and the international terrorism squad in the New York field office, warning of the ‘possibility of a coordinated effort by Usama Bin Ladin’ to train terrorists at US aviation schools. There were, he reported, an ‘inordinate number of individuals of investigative interest’ attending these schools in Arizona. FBI HQ ignored a proposal in the memo from Phoenix for it to establish liaison with aviation schools and seek authority to obtain visa information on their foreign applicants. Managers of the FBI Bin Laden and Radical Fundamentalist units did not even see his memo until after 9/11; the New York field office read it but took no action.
The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and Its Dangerous Legacy by David Hoffman
active measures, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, failed state, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, standardized shipping container, Stanislav Petrov, Thomas L Friedman, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, zero-sum game
Casey, the CIA director, took huge delight in the Yurchenko defection. "Casey was like a child with a new toy with Yurchenko," Gates said. "Not only was he eager to hear, virtually on a daily basis, about the debriefings: he also could not help bragging about this great CIA coup. He met with Yurchenko, had dinner with him, couldn't get enough of him."26 On October 1, 1985, Robert Hanssen, an FBI analyst on Soviet intelligence, dropped a letter into a mailbox in Prince George's County, outside of Washington. Hanssen was based in the New York office but was working that day in the capital. The letter was addressed to the home of a KGB operative, Viktor Degtyar, who lived in Alexandria, Virginia. The letter arrived October 4. Inside an outer envelope was a second envelope that Hanssen marked "DO NOT OPEN. TAKE THIS ENVELOPE UNOPENED TO VICTOR I.
For a decade, Walker had run a navy spy ring for the Soviets, feeding them top-secret communications documents stolen from American warships. Walker's partners in espionage included Jerry Whitworth, who had served on the U.S.S. Enterprise and leaked classified communications from the Pacific Ocean exercises in 1983. Walker did not realize it on this night, but the FBI, after months of investigation, was closing in on him and watching his every move in the woods. When Walker drove away, an FBI agent picked up the 7-Up can, intended as a signal to the Soviets that Walker had left them something and wanted to pick up money. Then the FBI found the brown paper bag, and in the bottom of it was an inch-thick package, wrapped in a white plastic garbage sack. The corners were neatly folded over and taped. Inside were 129 secret documents stolen from the U.S.S. Nimitz and a letter, "Dear Friend," outlining the activities of others in his spy ring, including Whitworth, using coded letters of the alphabet to disguise their identities.
., he was awakened by an apologetic clerk at the front desk of the hotel, saying someone had accidentally smashed into his van in the parking lot. Could he come down with his insurance forms? It was a ruse. At the elevator, Walker was arrested by the FBI. Soon, U.S. intelligence and military officials began to unravel the incredible story of how Walker had given away some of the deepest secrets of the Cold War. On May 28, in Moscow, Gordievsky took some pep pills the British had given him in London to fight fatigue. At the office, he was summoned to meet agents from KGB counterintelligence who wanted to talk about possible penetration of the KGB in London. Gordievsky was driven several miles from headquarters to a small bungalow, where he met the agents. They had lunch, and a servant poured them all a brandy. Gordievsky took his and passed out. He had been drugged. When he awoke, Gordievsky realized what had happened.
GCHQ by Richard Aldrich
belly landing, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, cuban missile crisis, friendly fire, illegal immigration, index card, lateral thinking, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, New Journalism, packet switching, private military company, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, social intelligence, South China Sea, undersea cable, University of East Anglia, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP
Edward Lee Howard, a CIA officer, was also revealed to be working for the Russians. To cap it all, in November 1985 it was discovered that Jonathan Pollard, a Mossad spy inside the Pentagon, had been handing over very sensitive material to the Israelis. The Americans had not yet uncovered the two best covert sources employed by the Soviets, namely a CIA officer called Aldrich Ames and an FBI officer, Robert Hanssen.22 These frightening cases of KGB espionage had a direct impact on the British, since they made Bill Odom all the keener to see the polygraph deployed by GCHQ at Cheltenham.23 Alongside KGB espionage, the other big issue of the time was relations between the Western sigint allies. In 1985 the United States cut off the intelligence flow to New Zealand, one of the ‘second party’ members of UKUSA.
They contained worrying news: For one year, a large amount of very valuable documentary material concerning the work of the Americans on deciphering Soviet cyphers, intercepting and analysing open-radio correspondence of Soviet Institutions was received…On the basis of Weisband material, our state security organs carried out a number of defensive measures, resulting in the reduced efficiency of the American deciphering service. This has led to a considerable current reduction in the amount of deciphering and analysis by the Americans.29 In May 1950 Weisband was named by another agent who had been revealed by Venona and interrogated by the FBI. Although Weisband was questioned, there was insufficient evidence to charge him. There was also a fear that a court case would advertise the work of signals intelligence to other countries, which might then take steps to upgrade their communications. He was never prosecuted for espionage.30 Yet Weisband caused immense damage to Western code-breaking. On Friday, 29 October 1948 the Soviets implemented a massive change in all their communications security procedures.
., Most Secret War (Hamish Hamilton, 1978) —Reflections on Intelligence (Heinemann, 1989) Kalugin, O. and Montaigne, F., The First Directorate: My First 32 Years in Intelligence and Espionage Against the West – The Ultimate Memoirs of a Master Spy (NY: St Martin’s Press, 1994) King, C.H., The Cecil King Diaries, 1965–1970 (Jonathan Cape, 1972) Kot, S., Conversations with the Kremlin and Dispatches from Russia (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1963) Lamphere, R.J. and Shachtman, T., The FBI-KGB War: A Special Agent’s Story (W.H. Allen, 1986) Lawson, N., The View From No.11: Memoirs of a Tory Radical (Heinemann, 1992) Lederer, W., The Last Cruise: The Sinking of the Submarine USS Cochino (William Sloane, 1950) Leutze, J. (ed.), The London Observer: The Journal of General Raymond E. Lee, 1940–1941 (Hutchinson, 1972) McGehee, R.W., Deadly Deceits: My 25 Years in the CIA (NY: Sheridan Square, 1983) McManners, H., Falklands Commando (William Kimber, 1984) —Forgotten Voices of the Falklands: The Real Story of the Falklands War (Ebury, 2008) Machon, A., Spies, Lies and Whistleblowers: MI5, MI6 and the Shayler Affair (Lewes: The Book Guild, 2005) Major, J., The Autobiography (HarperCollins, 1999) Mathams, R.H., Sub-Rosa; Memoirs of an Australian Intelligence Analyst (Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 1982) Mendez, A. and J., Spy Dust: Two Masters of Disguise Reveal the Tools and Operations that Helped Win the Cold War (NY: Atria Books, 2002) Mills, D., My Life as a Coder (Special), D/MX 919781, 1952–54 (Branston, Lincs: privately published, 2005) Modin, Y., My Five Cambridge Friends (Headline, 1994) Nott, J., Here Today Gone Tomorrow: Recollections of an Errant Politician (Politico’s, 2002) Owen, D., Time to Declare (Michael Joseph, 1991) Patten, C., Not Quite the Diplomat: Home Truths About World Affairs (Allen Lane, 2005) Pavlov, V., Memoirs of a Spymaster: My Fifty Years in the KGB (NY: Carroll and Graf, 1994) Philby, K., My Silent War (MacGibbon and Key, 1968) Prime, R., Time of Trial: The Personal Story Behind the Cheltenham Spy Scandal (Hodder and Stoughton, 1984) Prior, J., A Balance of Power (Hamish Hamilton, 1986) Putney, D.
The Best of 2600: A Hacker Odyssey by Emmanuel Goldstein
affirmative action, Apple II, call centre, don't be evil, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, information retrieval, John Markoff, late fees, license plate recognition, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, optical character recognition, packet switching, pirate software, place-making, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RFID, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, undersea cable, Y2K
History has proven through the nuclear arms race, the Nixon administration, and other similar craziness that things that are possible are not necessarily a good idea. Surveillance societies have appeared in the not so recent past, and they were frightening indeed. Stalin’s Russia. Ceausescu’s Romania. Hoenecker’s East Germany. Perhaps the United States can avoid the mistakes made by the surveillance societies of the twentieth century. And perhaps J. Edgar Hoover’s FBI is also completely honest, professional, and incorruptible— just like Robert Hanssen. Vonage Broadband Security Risk (Spring, 2004) By Kevin T. Blakley As a 15-year security professional and Vonage phone-service user over the past six months, I have uncovered some serious security problems with its use and solutions to possible security risks for both business and home users. This broadband phone service, which saves the end user hundreds or even thousands of dollars a year on local toll and long distance charges, can pose certain vulnerabilities to your network.
The term “pirate” rather than “phreak” is used here because the vast majority of illegitimate CMT users (Cellular Mobile Telephone) are only interested in stealing airtime, while phone phreaks are mainly interested in learning more about the telephone network through its manipulation. The six-month FBI investigation used “cooperative sources” who named fraudulent installers; then FBI agents posing as customers and installers used standard entrapment techniques to gather evidence against those allegedly involved. The FBI’s press release statement that “recent technological advances in computerized telephone switching equipment and billing systems were instrumental in....(their investigation)” is deliberately misleading. New York cellular carrier NYNEX merely supplied the FBI with its billing data to document the use of bogus and stolen ESN’s & MIN’s (Electronic Serial Numbers and Mobile Identification Numbers) discovered in the investigation.
I called lvanhoe, who told me that Steve was visited that morning by three FBI and two Bell Security agents. Ten other people were also caught. The FBI woke all the boys up at 6:00 a.m. so they wouldn’t have a chance to warn friends. As soon as school was over, the Phreak called lvanhoe and told him all this. He waited an hour until it was 4:00 in Utah and called the Software Pirate, who called me. The news spread among phreaks and pirates so that anyone involved knew about it by dinnertime on the East Coast. Late that night, the White Knight set up what we thought was the last conference call. Ivanhoe, David, Demon Diode, and the Cracker all expected they would be caught. We called the Cracker and asked him to talk. “Why not?” he said dryly. “I’m just sitting here waiting for the FBI. I have nothing better to do.” They got him the next morning.
The Defence of the Realm by Christopher Andrew
active measures, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Clive Stafford Smith, collective bargaining, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Desert Island Discs, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, G4S, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, large denomination, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, post-work, Red Clydeside, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, strikebreaker, Torches of Freedom, traveling salesman, union organizing, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, Winter of Discontent
Their doubts dissolved when it was realized that Prime had been run not by case officers of the First Chief Directorate, which was responsible for most espionage operations, but by the Third Directorate, which was out of its depth with an agent of Prime’s importance.36 In the wake of Prime’s arrest, a Security Service brief for the Security Commission, which was also passed on to the Prime Minister, reviewed the forty-three cases since 1952 of British Soviet Bloc agents who had been convicted, had confessed or had defected. The brief concluded that sixteen had primarily mercenary motives, fourteen (including Prime)37 were ideological and ten had been recruited through ‘emotional blackmail’. Three Soviet agents (who, interestingly, included George Blake) were regarded as having ‘other’ motives. A majority of the most important cases, however, were ideological.38 The Service’s categorization of motives was arguably less satisfactory than the FBI MICE acronym (money, ideology, compromise, ego); ego, omitted in the Security Service analysis, has frequently been an important subsidiary motive in cases ranging from the Cambridge Five to the Americans Aldrich Ames and Robert Hanssen. In sixteen of the forty-three cases the main initial lead to detection had come from Service sources, eleven from defectors, eight from liaison and eight from other sources.39 By far the most serious counter-espionage case for the Security Service in the final decade of the Cold War began on Easter Sunday 1983 when Michael Bettaney, a heavy-drinking, disaffected officer in K4 (the department responsible for the investigation and analysis of Soviet London residencies), pushed through the letter-box in Holland Park of Arkadi Guk, the KGB resident, an envelope containing the case put by the Security Service for expelling three Soviet intelligence officers in the previous month, together with details of how all three had been detected.
On the morning of 12 July 1989 he looked out of his office window, saw two men tampering with his car and rushed downstairs to confront them. The men turned out to be FBI agents examining the car.64 A possibly over-dramatized account of what happened next was relayed to Head Office by SLO Washington. The FBI officer supervising the agents was reported to have been told by his field office: ‘Either you arrest the two FBI agents interfering with the car or you arrest Johnson.’ Having decided, without much difficulty, on the second option, the FBI officer was said to have informed Johnson, ‘Only in America do you interrupt two men breaking into your car and find that you are the one who is arrested!’65 Following the conviction of Johnson, Quigley, Reid and Hoy a year later, the FBI thanked the Service for its assistance in a prolonged investigation whose ‘successful prosecution in the US was dependent on an outstanding international cooperative effort’.66 ‘This success’, it believed, ‘has significantly damaged PIRA’s capability to produce new types of remote controlled bombs, and has completely disrupted a programme to develop anti-aircraft rockets.’67 The series of operational successes achieved by MI5 and the security forces against PIRA in the late 1980s did not, however, bring them within sight of victory.
In the course of the year it broke contact with him.134 By maintaining an HOW on letters to the Hamburg box number used by Draper to correspond with his case officer, the Security Service discovered that a Scottish hairdresser, Mrs Jessie Jordan, was being used by the Abwehr to forward correspondence to some of its foreign agents. In January 1938 an HOW on Jordan’s address led to the discovery of a letter from an Abwehr agent in the United States, codenamed CROWN, which contained details of a bizarre plot to chloroform and kidnap an American army colonel who had in his possession classified documents on US coastal defences. CROWN was identified as Guenther Rumrich, a twenty-sevenyear-old US army deserter, who was convicted with several of his accomplices in an Abwehr spy-ring at a highly publicized trial.135 As a result of US inter-agency confusion, others who had been indicted succeeded in escaping. J. Edgar Hoover, the FBI Director, and the prosecuting attorney blamed each other. The judge, to Hoover’s fury, blamed the FBI. Leon G. Turrou, the FBI special agent in charge of Rumrich’s interrogation, was so poorly briefed that he confused the Abwehr with the Gestapo.136 Though the Security Service was far better informed than the FBI, there were large gaps in its understanding of the organization of pre-war German intelligence.137 Possibly the largest was its lack of awareness of the Etappe Dienst naval network, eventually discovered as a result of German records captured in 1945.