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WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency by Micah L. Sifry
1960s counterculture, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, Internet Archive, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, Network effects, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Skype, social web, Stewart Brand, web application, WikiLeaks
SIFRY Notes Chapter 1 1 David Leigh, “Guardian gagged from reporting Parliament,” The Guardian, October 12, 2009, www.guardian.co.uk/media/2009/oct/12/guardiangagged-from-reporting-parliament. 2 Guido Fawkes blog, “Guardian Gagged From Reporting Parliament,” October 12, 2009, http://order-order.com/2009/10/12/guardian-gaggedfrom-reporting-parliament. 3 Minton report secret injunction gagging The Guardian on Traﬁgura, September 11, 2009, http://mirror.wikileaks.info/wiki/Minton_report_ secret_injunction_gagging_The_Guardian_on_Traﬁgura,_11_Sep_2009. 4 See http://techpresident.com/blog-entry/wikileak-julian-assange-dontbe-martyr for the video of Assange’s remarks. 5 Noam Cohen and Brian Stelter, “Iraq Video Brings Notice to a Web Site,” The New York Times, April 6, 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/04/07/ world/07wikileaks.html, and http://twitter.com/#!/wikileaks/status/753 0875613. 6 Kevin Charles Redmon, “WikiLeaks Proves Its Worth as a Backstop,” The Atlantic, April 6, 2010, www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive /2010/04/ wikileaks-provides-its-worth-as-a-backstop/38517. 7 “Exclusive – Julian Assange Extended Interview,” The Colbert Report, April 12, 2010, www.colbertnation.com/the-colbert-report-videos /260785/ april-12-2010/exclusive-julian-assange-extended-interview. 8 Raﬃ Khatchadourian, “No Secrets: Julian Assange’s Mission for Total Transparency,” The New Yorker, June 7, 2010, www.newyorker.com/ reporting/2010/06/07/100607fa_fact_khatchadourian. 9 Ibid. 10 @wikileaks, April 7, 2010, http://twitter.com/#!
Chapter 8 1 Philip Shenon, “Civil War at WikiLeaks,” The Daily Beast, September 3, 2010, www.thedailybeast.com/blogs-and-stories/2010-09-03/wikileaksorganizers-demand-julian-assange-step-aside. 2 Marina Jimenez, “Q&A: Birgitta Jonsdottir on WikiLeaks and Twitter,” The Globe and Mail, January 12, 2011, www.theglobeandmail.com/ news/opinions/qa-birgitta-jonsdottir-on-wikileaks-and-twitter/ article1866270. 3 Mark Hosenball, “Is WikiLeaks Too Full of Itself?” Newsweek, August 26, 2010, www.newsweek.com/blogs/declassiﬁed/2010/08/26/is-wikileakstoo-full-of-itself.print.html. 4 Kevin Poulsen and Kim Zetter, “Unpublished Iraq War Logs Trigger Internal WikiLeaks Revolt,” Wired.com, September 27, 2010, www. wired.com/threatlevel/2010/09/wikileaks-revolt. 5 Steven Aftergood, “Wikileaks Fails ‘Due Diligence’ Review,” Secrecy News, June 28, 2010, www.fas.org/blog/secrecy/2010/06/wikileaks_review.html. 6 Sarah Ellison, “The Man Who Spilled the Secrets,” Vanity Fair, February 2011, www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2011/02/the-guardian-201102. 7 Alan Rusbridger, “WikiLeaks: The Guardian’s role in the biggest leak in the history of the world,” The Guardian, January 28, 2011, www.guardian. co.uk/media/2011/jan/28/wikileaks-julian-assange-alan-rusbridger and Marcel Rosenbach and Holger Stark, “An Inside Look at Diﬃcult Negotiations with Julian Assange,” Spiegel Online, January 28, 2011, www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,742163,00.html. 8 “Chinese cyber-dissidents launch WikiLeaks, a site for whistleblowers,” Agence France-Presse, January 11, 2007, www.theage.com.au/news/ Technology/Chinese-cyberdissidents-launch-WikiLeaks-a-site-forwhistl eblowers/2007/01/11/1168105082315.html. 9 Julian Assange, “State and Terrorist Conspiracies,” November 10, 2006, and “Conspiracy as Governance,” December 3, 2006. 10 http://twitter.com/#!
Jeﬀ Jarvis, “WikiLeaks, Power shifts from secrecy to transparency,” Buzzmachine.com, December 4, 2010, www.buzzmachine.com/2010/ 12/04/wikileaks-power-shifts-from-secrecy-to-transparency. Carne Ross, “WikiLeaks whistle blows time on the old game,” The New Statesman, December 6, 2010, www.newstatesman.com/society/2010/12/ wikileaks-governments-cables. Interview with Julian Assange, Paris Match, January 10, 2011, translated by Mark K. Jensen, http://wlcentral.org/node/876. Paul Kane, “House Staﬀers Livid Over Website,” The Washington Post, April 9, 2008, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/08/ AR2008040803034.html. Clay Shirky, “Half-formed thought on WikiLeaks and global action,” Shirky.com, December 31, 2010, www.shirky.com/weblog/2010/12/halfformed-thought-on-wikileaks-global-action. WIKILEAKS AND THE AGE OF TRANSPARENCY 45 Cory Doctorow, “We Need a Serious Critique of Net Activism,” The Guardian, January 25, 2011, www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2011/ jan/25/net-activism-delusion.
The End of Secrecy: The Rise and Fall of WikiLeaks by The "Guardian", David Leigh, Luke Harding
4chan, banking crisis, centre right, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Climategate, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, Downton Abbey, eurozone crisis, friendly fire, global village, Hacker Ethic, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Mohammed Bouazizi, offshore financial centre, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks
First published in Great Britain in 2011 by Guardian Books Kings Place 90 York Way London N1 9GU www.guardianbooks.co.uk A CIP catalogue for this book is available from the British Library ISBN: 978-0-85265-239-8 CONTENTS Cast of characters Introduction Chapter 1: The Hunt Chapter 2: Bradley Manning Chapter 3: Julian Assange Chapter 4: The rise of WikiLeaks Chapter 5: The Apache video Chapter 6: The Lamo dialogues Chapter 7: The deal Chapter 8: In the bunker Chapter 9: The Afghanistan war logs Chapter 10: The Iraq war logs Chapter 11: The cables Chapter 12: The world’s most famous man Chapter 13: Uneasy partners Chapter 14: Before the deluge Chapter 15: Publication day Chapter 16: The biggest leak in history Chapter 17: The ballad of Wandsworth jail Chapter 18: The future of WikiLeaks Appendix: US Embassy Cables Acknowledgements CAST OF CHARACTERS WikiLeaks MELBOURNE, NAIROBI, REYKJAVIK, BERLIN, LONDON, NORFOLK, STOCKHOLM Julian Assange – WikiLeaks founder/editor Sarah Harrison – aide to WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange Kristinn Hrafnsson – Icelandic journalist and WikiLeaks supporter James Ball – WikiLeaks data expert Vaughan Smith – former Grenadier Guards captain, founder of the Frontline Club and Assange’s host at Ellingham Hall Jacob Appelbaum – WikiLeaks’ representative in the US Daniel Ellsberg – Vietnam war whistleblower, WikiLeaks supporter Daniel Domscheit-Berg – German programmer and WikiLeaks technical architect (aka Daniel Schmitt) Mikael Viborg – owner of WikiLeaks’ Swedish internet service provider PRQ Ben Laurie – British encryption expert, adviser to Assange on encryption Mwalimu Mati – head of anti-corruption group Mars Group Kenya, source of first major WikiLeaks report Rudolf Elmer – former head of the Cayman Islands branch of the Julius Baer bank, source of second major WikiLeaks report Smári McCarthy – Iceland-based WikiLeaks enthusiast, programmer, Modern Media Initiative (MMI) campaigner Birgitta Jónsdóttir – Icelandic MP and WikiLeaks supporter Rop Gonggrijp – Dutch hacker-businessman, friend of Assange and MMI campaigner Herbert Snorrason – Icelandic MMI campaigner Israel Shamir – WikiLeaks associate Donald Böstrom – Swedish journalist and WikiLeaks’ Stockholm connection The Guardian LONDON Alan Rusbridger – editor-in-chief Nick Davies – investigative reporter David Leigh – investigations editor Ian Katz – deputy editor (news) Ian Traynor – Europe correspondent Harold Frayman – systems editor Declan Walsh – Pakistan/Afghanistan correspondent Alastair Dant – data visualiser Simon Rogers – data editor Jonathan Steele – former Iraq correspondent James Meek – former Iraq correspondent Rob Evans – investigative journalist Luke Harding – Moscow correspondent Robert Booth – reporter Stuart Millar – news editor, guardian.co.uk Janine Gibson – editor, guardian.co.uk Jonathan Casson – head of production Gill Phillips – in-house head of legal Jan Thompson – managing editor New York Times NEW YORK, LONDON Max Frankel – former executive editor Bill Keller – editor Eric Schmitt – war correspondent John F Burns – London correspondent Ian Fisher – deputy foreign editor Der Spiegel HAMBURG, LONDON Georg Mascolo – editor-in-chief Holger Stark – head of German desk Marcel Rosenbach – journalist John Goetz – journalist El País MADRID, LONDON Javier Moreno – editor-in-chief Vicente Jiménez – deputy editor Other Media Raffi Khatchadourian – New Yorker staffer and author of a major profile of Assange Saeed Chmagh and Namir Noor-Eldeen – Reuters news agency employees accidentally killed by US army pilots in 2007 David Schlesinger – Reuters’ editor-in-chief Kevin Poulsen – former hacker, senior editor at Wired Gavin MacFadyen – City University professor and journalist, London host to Assange Stephen Grey – freelance reporter Iain Overton – former TV journalist, head of Bureau of Investigative Journalism Heather Brooke – London-based American journalist and freedom of information activist Bradley Manning Bradley Manning – 23-year-old US army private and alleged WikiLeaks source Rick McCombs – former principal at Crescent high school, Crescent, Oklahoma Brian, Susan, Casey Manning – parents and sister Tom Dyer – school friend Kord Campbell – former manager at Zoto software company Jeff Paterson – steering committee member of the Bradley Manning support network Adrian Lamo – hacker and online confidant Timothy Webster – former US army counter-intelligence special agent Tyler Watkins – former boyfriend David House – former hacker and supporter David Coombs – lawyer Julian Assange Christine Hawkins – mother John Shipton – father Brett Assange – stepfather Keith Hamilton – former partner of Christine Daniel Assange – Julian’s son Paul Galbally – Assange’s lawyer during his 1996 hacking trial Stockholm allegations / extradition “Sonja Braun” – plaintiff; member of Brotherhood movement “Katrin Weiss” – plaintiff; museum worker Claes Borgström – lawyer for both women, former Swedish equal opportunities ombudsman and prominent Social Democrat politician Marianne Ny – Swedish chief prosecutor and sex crimes specialist Mark Stephens – Assange lawyer Geoffrey Robertson, QC – Assange lawyer Jennifer Robinson – lawyer in Mark Stephens’ office Gemma Lindfield – lawyer acting for the Swedish authorities Howard Riddle – district judge, Westminster magistrates court Mr Justice Ouseley – high court judge, London Government Hillary Clinton – US Secretary of State Louis B Susman – US ambassador in London PJ Crowley – US assistant secretary of state for public affairs Harold Koh – US state department’s legal adviser Robert Gates – US defence secretary Sir Sherard Cowper-Coles – former UK government special representative to Afghanistan and former ambassador to Kabul INTRODUCTION Alan Rusbridger Back in the days when almost no one had heard about WikiLeaks, regular emails started arriving in my inbox from someone called Julian Assange.
What happened in Stockholm may have been complex and equivocal, but some questionable sexual encounters had certainly occurred, and there was no evidence to support the claims of dirty tricks and honeytraps. The journalists were acutely aware that to ignore the fresh controversy that had erupted around their new collaborator could only increase the risk that it might taint the WikiLeaks enterprise as a whole. CHAPTER 13 Uneasy partners Editor’s office, the Guardian, Kings Place, London 1 November 2010 “I’m a combative person” JULIAN ASSANGE, TED CONFERENCE, OXFORD, 2010 The three partner papers decided it was time for a meeting with Julian Assange. Everything was threatening to get rather messy. The embattled WikiLeaks founder now wanted the Americans frozen out of the much-delayed deal to publish the diplomatic cables jointly – a punishment, so it was said, for a recent profile of him, by the New York Times veteran London correspondent John F Burns.
If a CIA agent or some other observer were hidden in the woodland along with the pheasants, they could have been forgiven for a moment of puzzlement. Close up, however, it was obvious that this strange figure was Julian Assange, his platinum hair concealed by a wig. At more than 6ft tall, he was never going to be a very convincing female. “You can’t imagine how ridiculous it was,” WikiLeaks’ James Ball later said. “He’d stayed dressed up as an old woman for more than two hours.” Assange was swapping genders in a pantomime attempt to evade possible pursuers. With him were also his young aide, Sarah Harrison, and his deputy, the Icelandic journalist Kristinn Hrafnsson. On that evening, this small team was the nucleus of WikiLeaks, the whistleblower website Assange had launched four years earlier. In a breathtakingly short time, WikiLeaks had soared out of its previous niche as an obscure radical website to become a widely known online news platform.
Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks
It hasn’t got anything to do with GSM, or mobile phones, and it won’t make headlines for a little while yet. But when it does, it will make them all over the world. Julian Assange and Daniel Schmitt take to the stage. They’re here as spokespeople for WikiLeaks, the whistle-blowing website that has published over one million leaked documents since its founding in 2007. In that short time, WikiLeaks has been behind more scoops than the Washington Post has notched up in 30 years. In the UK in 2009, it was at the centre of two major news stories. The first was about the use of libel law to gag reporting about a company who had dumped toxic waste illegally off the coast of Cote d’Ivoire leaving thousands of locals sick and at least a dozen dead. The scandal led to serious initiatives to reform libel laws in the UK. The second, when WikiLeaks published over 1,000 emails sent over a period of ten years between scientists at the Climatic Research Institute in Norwich, UK, pretty much derailed international talks on climate change the following month in Copenhagen.
* * * “Ask yourself, why aren’t there more journalists in the West being killed?” Julian Assange is a pale man, white skin, white hair. Etiolated, pale like a plant that’s been kept in an airing cupboard. His gentle Australian accent that sings up and down just adds to this impression of pallor, and he has the soft, untouched hands and well-manicured, but slightly too-long (for a boy) fingernails I associate with acid dealers, accountants and hackers. It turns out that, as I suspected, he’s the latter. In 1992, aged 24, Julian was convicted of more than 20 counts of computer crimes in an Australian court. In 1999 he registered the domain leaks.org, but it has only been recently that the idea of WikiLeaks has really taken off, thanks to what he terms, “a particular intersection of economic forces and understanding”. Julian Assange talks this way quite a lot.
Very quickly, the story of the Afghan War Logs became the story of Julian Assange. The same American TV channels brought out the same military talking heads, most of whom told the news anchors that the material released by WikiLeaks was “nothing new”. And of course to anyone, like them, with security clearance – the Washington Post recently reported that a whopping 854,000 people hold top secret clearance in the US – it was nothing new. But to the people who didn’t have such clearance, very often the ones sending their sons and daughters to war in Afghanistan, the picture painted by the Afghan War Logs may well not have matched their ideas about the conflict. Just a day or so after the release of the Afghan War Logs, the US State Department accused WikiLeaks of publishing the names of key Afghan informants in a few of the 75,000 reports on their website, exposing them to reprisals from the Taliban.
4chan, Asperger Syndrome, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Firefox, hive mind, Julian Assange, Minecraft, Occupy movement, pirate software, side project, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day
Every week or so, she would meet on IRC with q and pass over the collected info via encrypted e-mail, then await further instructions. If she asked what Julian Assange thought of what she was doing, q would say he approved of what was going on. It turned out that q was good at lying. Almost a year after Kayla started volunteering for WikiLeaks, other hackers who had been working with q found out he was a rogue operator who had recruited them without Assange’s knowledge. In late 2011, Assange asked q to leave the organization. Kayla was not the only volunteer looking for information for what she thought was WikiLeaks. The rogue operator had also gotten other hackers to work with him on false pretenses. And in addition, one source claims, q stole $60,000 from the WikiLeaks t-shirt shop and transferred the money into his personal account. WikiLeaks never found out what q was doing with the vulnerabilities that Kayla and other hackers found, though it is possible he sold them to others in the criminal underworld.
He had no idea that, even though the anticopyright battle was dying, Operation Payback was about to explode with support for a little organization called WikiLeaks. Jake, now as Topiary, explored the AnonOps chat rooms while a former, widely-revered hacker from Australia named Julian Assange was getting ready to drop a bombshell on the American government. Earlier in 2010, a U.S. army private named Bradley Manning had allegedly reached out to Assange and given his whistleblower site, WikiLeaks, 250,000 internal messages, known as cables, that had been sent between American embassies. These diplomatic cables revealed American political maneuverings and confidential diplomatic reports. In exposing the documents, Assange would hugely embarrass American foreign policy makers. The WikiLeaks founder had struck deals with five major newspapers, including the New York Times and the U.K.’s Guardian, and on November 28, 2010, they started publishing the cables.
Topiary was immediately skeptical and believed the contact was trolling him. When he finally spoke to a WikiLeaks staff member known as q, who was in the channel under the nickname Dancing_Balls, he asked for someone to post something from the WikiLeaks Twitter account. Assange, who allegedly had sole access, did so, putting out something about eBay, then deleting the post. Topiary did the same from the LulzSec Twitter feed. But he needed more proof, since the WikiLeaks feed could have been hacked. q said he could do that. Within five minutes, he pasted a link to YouTube into the IRC chat, and he said to look at it quickly. Topiary opened it and saw video footage of a laptop screen and the same IRC chat they were having, with the text moving up in real time. The camera then panned up to show a snowy-haired Julian Assange sitting directly opposite and staring into a white laptop, chin resting thoughtfully in his hand.
affirmative action, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, Firefox, Google Earth, Jacob Appelbaum, job-hopping, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, kremlinology, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, national security letter, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, Steve Jobs, web application, WikiLeaks
One was Henry Dunckley, a 19th-century Baptist social critic who used the nom de plume in the Manchester Examiner. The other was Clement Walker, a 17th-century Somerset parliamentarian during the English civil war who was eventually locked up and died in the Tower of London. Significantly, verax is also an antonym of mendax. Mendax means ‘deceiving’ and was the handle used by Julian Assange of WikiLeaks when he was a young Australian hacker. WikiLeaks, with their electronic mass-leaking of US army files from Afghanistan, and of State Department diplomatic cables from all over the world, had recently plunged the US administration into uproar. Perhaps Snowden’s allusion was deliberate. Outwardly, his life continued as before. Read with hindsight, his girlfriend’s blog entries seem poignant. On 1 March, Mills writes that she will be an ‘international woman of mystery’ and that her Friday show later the same evening has a ‘007’ theme.
He has reported from Delhi, Berlin and Moscow and covered wars in Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya and Syria. Between 2007 and 2011 he was the Guardian’s Moscow bureau chief; the Kremlin expelled him from the country in the first case of its kind since the cold war. He is the author of three previous non-fiction books. They are The Liar: The Fall of Jonathan Aitken, nominated for the Orwell Prize; and WikiLeaks: Inside Julian Assange’s War on Secrecy, both written with David Leigh. Mafia State: How One Reporter Became an Enemy of the Brutal New Russia appeared in 2011. His books have been translated into 13 languages. Luke lives in Hertfordshire with his wife, the freelance journalist Phoebe Taplin, and their two children. FIRST VINTAGE BOOKS EDITION, FEBRUARY 2014 Copyright © 2014 by The Guardian All rights reserved.
SENATOR FRANK CHURCH The origins of the dragnet surveillance of the world’s internet users can be clearly pinpointed. It started on 9/11, the day of the terrorist atrocities that so frightened and enraged the US. Over the ensuing decade, both in America and Britain, there came a new political willingness to invade individual privacy. At the same time, mushrooming technical developments started to make mass eavesdropping much more feasible. The intricate web of the internet secretly became what Julian Assange of WikiLeaks was to call, with only some exaggeration, ‘the greatest spying machine the world has ever seen’. But before the appearance of Edward Snowden, very little of the truth about that had reached the surface. The NSA – the biggest and most secretive of the US intelligence agencies – failed on 9/11 to give advance warning of al-Qaida’s surprise attack against the Twin Towers in New York. Michael Hayden, an obscure air force general, was running the agency at the time.
Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Story of Anonymous by Gabriella Coleman
1960s counterculture, 4chan, Amazon Web Services, Bay Area Rapid Transit, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Debian, East Village, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, hive mind, impulse control, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mohammed Bouazizi, Network effects, Occupy movement, pirate software, Richard Stallman, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks, zero day
As the editors noted at the time, “The Guardian is also forbidden from telling its readers why the paper is prevented—for the first time in memory—from reporting parliament. Legal obstacles, which cannot be identified, involve proceedings, which cannot be mentioned, on behalf of a client who must remain secret.”1 And so, by April 2010, WikiLeaks had dramatically switched public relations strategies. When they released video footage of a Baghdad air strike, which they called “Collateral Murder,” WikiLeaks left nothing to chance—packaging the already shocking material in a way that delivered an extra punch. They edited the video for maximum effect and added simple but powerful editorial commentary at the beginning. Julian Assange, the Australian hacker who founded WikiLeaks, was then known in the media as an “international man of mystery.” Now he broke with his previous disavowal of the spotlight. To coincide with the publication of the video, he hosted a press conference in Washington, DC, and followed it with a high-profile media tour.
But now, as the revelations kept coming, members of the public discovered their jaws dropping lower and lower by the day, as if they were strapped into some orthodontic-transparency device, hand-cranked by Julian Assange himself. Sarah Palin suggested Assange be hunted down “with the same urgency we pursue al-Qaeda and Taliban leaders.”3 Senator Joe Lieberman declared it “an outrageous, reckless, and despicable action that will undermine the ability of our government and our partners to keep our people safe and to work together to defend our vital interests.”4 Lieberman’s staff reached out to Amazon—not only the world’s largest book retailer but also its largest web host—and asked it to ban WikiLeaks from its servers. It acquiesced. The financial firms that process credit card transactions worldwide followed suit, cutting the umbilical cord between donors and WikiLeaks. Although WikiLeaks was not listed on the foreign intelligence watch list—nor had it been found guilty of anything by any court of law—these companies, without any legal obligation to do what the government asked of them, went ahead anyways.
Sean-Paul Correll, “ ‘Tis the Season of DDoS – WikiLeaks Edition,” PandaLabs Blog, last accessed June 3, 2014, available at http://pandalabs.pandasecurity.com/tis-the-season-of-ddos-wikileaks-editio. 11. Sean-Paul Correll, “Operation:Payback Broadens to ‘Operation Avenge Assange,’ ” PandaLabs Blog, last accessed June 3, 2014, available at http://pandalabs.pandasecurity.com/operationpayback- broadens-to-operation-avenge-assange. 12. Nick Davies, “10 Days in Sweden: The Full Allegations Against Julian Assange,” theguardian.com, Dec. 17, 2010. 13. Michel De Certeau, The Practice of Everyday Life, trans. Steven Rendall (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011), xix. 14. Jon Snow, Twitter post, Dec. 9, 2010, 5:22 am, https://twitter.com/jonsnowC4/status/12814239458656256. 15. Zeynep Tufekci, “WikiLeaks Exposes Internet’s Dissent Tax, Not Nerd Supremacy,” theatlantic.com, Dec. 22, 2010. 16 Online interview with the author. 17.
Underground by Suelette Dreyfus
airport security, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Loma Prieta earthquake, packet switching, pirate software, profit motive, publish or perish, RFC: Request For Comment, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, urban decay, WikiLeaks, zero day
This goes back to the earliest definition of a hacker, which doesn’t imply any illegal activity, but, rather, simply reflects someone who can find clever technical solutions to hard problems. It is this kernel of unusual creativity, not their illegal activities, that makes the hackers in Underground so interesting. This kernel carried through to WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks revealed the creative application of technology, in the form of secure, anonymous online publishing, to the hard problem of getting governments and corporations to tell the truth. The founder of WikiLeaks, Julian Assange, and I worked on Underground for almost three years. He brought exceptional technical understanding and a detailed knowledge of the computer underground while I brought years of experience as a professional journalist and technology writer. CNN.com’s news blog declared Julian to be ‘the most intriguing person of the year’ at the end of 2010 based on the results of its online poll.
Nicholas Jackson, ‘WikiLeaks Volunteer Detained by U.S. Agents for Second Time,’ The Atlantic, 12 January, 2011. See: http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2011/01/wikileaks-volunteer-detained-by-usagents-for-second-time/69458/ 3. Josh Gordon, ‘PM has betrayed me: Assange’, The Sunday Age, 5 December, 2010, p 1. 4. James C. Thomson, Jr, ‘How could Vietnam Happen? – An autopsy’, The Atlantic, April, 1968. See: http://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/issues/68apr/vietnam.htm. Thomson describes how dissenters are silenced via a warm and welcoming embrace inside the US Government during debates about the Vietnam War. The similarities with the Afghan and Iraq wars are striking. 5. Julian Assange, ‘Serious nuclear accident may lay behind Iranian nuke chief’s mystery resignation.’ WikiLeaks, 16 July, 2009.
Her articles have appeared in magazines and newspapers such as The Independent (London), The Age, The Sydney Morning Herald and The Australian. She began work on Underground while completing her PhD. She is a Research Fellow at the University of Melbourne, where she runs several major research projects in information systems. Julian Assange is an internet activist, journalist and publisher. Born and raised in Australia, Julian is the founder, spokesperson, and editor in chief of WikiLeaks, a whistleblower website that started in 2006. In 2010, WikiLeaks began to publish hundreds of thousands of classified details about American involvement in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, which created a media storm. At the end of 2010, the site published a series of classified US diplomatic cables, now known as Cablegate. ‘An astonishing book.’
affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Snowden, energy security, energy transition, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, experimental subject, F. W. de Klerk, facts on the ground, failed state, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, high net worth, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, éminence grise
CHAPTER 3: WAR AND TERRORISM 1Thomas Friedman, “A Manifesto for the Fast World,” New York Times Magazine, March 28, 1999. 2“Business and WikiLeaks: Be Afraid,” Economist, December 9, 2010. 3Andy Greenberg, “WikiLeaks’ Julian Assange Wants To Spill Your Corporate Secrets,” Forbes, November 29, 2010. 4https://wikileaks.org/wiki/Minton_report:_Trafigura_toxic_ dumping_along_the_Ivory_Coast_broke_EU_regulations,_14_Sep_2006. 5David Leigh, “Trafigura Hoped to Make a Fortune. Instead They Caused a Tragedy,” Guardian, September 16, 2009. 6“A Gag Too Far,” Index on Censorship, October 14, 2009. 7Mark Sweney, “Bank Drops Lawsuit against Wikileaks,” Guardian, March 6, 2008; “Wikileaks Given Data on Swiss Bank Accounts,” BBC News, January 17, 2011; “WikiLeaks to Target Wealthy Individuals,” Daily Telegraph, January 17, 2011. 8Yochai Benkler, “A Free Irresponsible Press: Wikileaks and the Battle over the Soul of the Networked Fourth Estate,” Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 46 (2011); Lisa Lynch, “‘We’re Going to Crack the World Open’: Wikileaks and the Future of Investigative Reporting,” Journalism Practice 4: 3 (2010)—Special Issue: The Future of Journalism. 9John Vidal, “WikiLeaks: US Targets EU over GM Crops,” Guardian, January 3, 2011. 10See Mariana Mazzucato, The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs Private Sector Myths (London/New York/Delhi: Anthem Press, 2013), Kindle loc. 2302–2320; and Leo Panitch and Sam Gindin, The Making of Global Capitalism: The Political Economy of the American Empire (London/New York: Verso, 2013), p. 288. 11https://wikileaks.org/tpp-ip2/pressrelease. 12Peter Gowan, The Global Gamble: Washington’s Faustian Bid for World Dominance (London/New York: Verso, 1999). 13Quoted in Leo Panitch and Sam Gindin, “Global Capitalism and the American Empire,” Socialist Register 40 (2004). 14Figure cited in Andrew G.
“Worse than a military attack,” the Republican congressman Peter King expostulated in November 2010, urging that WikiLeaks be categorized as a “terrorist organization.”23 Vice President Joe Biden accused Julian Assange of being a “high-tech terrorist.” Hunt him down like bin Laden, exhorted Sarah Palin.24 “Yes, WikiLeaks is a terrorist organization,” said Fox News.25 The basis of this overblown charge was that WikiLeaks was waging a “cyber-war” on the United States that placed “vital interests” at risk—particularly the flows of information necessary to track down and capture “terrorists”—thus putting American lives in danger. When WikiLeaks invited the US government to name a single cable whose publication put anyone at significant risk of harm, the State Department’s legal advisor wrote back formally declining to name a specific danger, but nonetheless ordered WikiLeaks to shut down its websites, cease publication, and destroy all the information it held.26 This charge of “terrorism” was not merely lazy or overexcited: there was real power behind it.
Finer, “Iraqi Sunnis Battle to Defend Shiites,” Washington Post, August 14, 2005. 19Department of Defense, “Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq,” June 2007, Report to Congress, at defense.gov; Fred Kaplan, “Western Targets: The Iraqi Insurgency Is Still Primarily an Anti-Occupation Effort,” Slate, February 9, 2006. 20International Council on Security and Development, “Eight Years after 9/11 Taliban Now Has a Permanent Presence in 80% of Afghanistan,” press release, September 10, 2009, available at uruknet.info; Antonio Giustozzi, Koran, Kalashnikov, and Laptop: The Neo-Taliban Insurgency in Afghanistan (New York: Columbia University Press, 2007), pp. 108–9. 21“Leverage Xenophobia,” Washington Post, April 10, 2006. 22General Sir Richard Dannatt, “Address to the International Institute for Strategic Studies,” September 21, 2007, at mod.uk. 23“King: WikiLeaks Release ‘Worse than Military Attack,’” CBS New York, November 28, 2010, at newyork.cbslocal.com. 24Chris McGreal, “Is WikiLeaks Hi-Tech Terrorism or Hype? Washington can’t decide,” Guardian, February 5, 2011. 25K. T. McFarland, “Yes, WikiLeaks Is a Terrorist Organization and the Time to Act Is NOW,” Fox News, November 30, 2011, at foxnews.com. 26David Leigh and Luke Harding, WikiLeaks: Inside Julian Assange’s War on Secrecy (London: Guardian, 2011). 27This phrase is from a chat with Assange, discovered by US authorities. Kim Zetter, “Jolt in WikiLeaks Case: Feds Found Manning-Assange Chat Logs on Laptop,” Wired, December 19, 2011. 28Ed Pilkington, “Bradley Manning Treated More Harshly than a Terrorist, Lawyer Argues,” Guardian, July 12, 2012; Ed Pilkington, “Bradley Manning’s Treatment Was Cruel and Inhuman, UN Torture Chief Rules,” Guardian, March 12, 2012. 29See Richard Jackson, Marie Breen Smyth, and Jeroen Gunning, eds, Critical Terrorism Studies: A New Research Agenda (Oxford: Routledge, 2009); and Marie Breen-Smyth, ed., The Ashgate Research Companion to Political Violence (Farnham: Ashgate, 2012). 30Steve Inskeep, “State Department Defends America’s Image Abroad,” National Public Radio, March 27, 2006. 31George W.
The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen
3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
Wall Street bankers hired: Nick Bilton, “Erasing the Digital Past,” New York Times, April 1, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/03/fashion/03reputation.html?pagewanted=all. Assange shared his two basic arguments on this subject: Julian Assange in discussion with the authors, June 2011. lightning rod, as Assange called himself: Atika Shubert, “WikiLeaks Editor Julian Assange Dismisses Reports of Internal Strife,” CNN, October 22, 2010, http://articles.cnn.com/2010-10-22/us/wikileaks.interview_1_julian-assange-wikileaks-afghan-war-diary?_s=PM:US. “Sources speak with their feet”: Julian Assange in discussion with the authors, June 2011. WikiLeaks lost its principal website URL: James Cowie, “WikiLeaks: Moving Target,” Renesys (blog), December 7, 2010, http://www.renesys.com/blog/2010/12/wikileaks-moving-target.shtml. “mirror” sites: Ravi Somaiya, “Pro-Wikileaks Activists Abandon Amazon Cyber Attack,” BBC, December 9, 2010, http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-11957367.
These groups will continue to demand attention from the governments and institutions they attack, and their threats may come to be taken more seriously than one might expect judging from today’s activities, which mostly seem like stunts. The story of WikiLeaks, the secrets-publishing website we discussed earlier, and its sympathetic hacker allies is an illustrative example. The arrest of WikiLeaks’ cofounder Julian Assange in December 2010 sparked flurries of outrage around the world, particularly among the many activists, hackers and computer experts who believed his indictment on sexual-assault charges was politically motivated. Shortly thereafter, a series of cyber attacks crippled, among others, the websites for Amazon, which had revoked WikiLeaks’ use of its servers, and MasterCard and PayPal, which had both stopped processing donations for WikiLeaks. This campaign, officially titled Operation Avenge Assange, was coordinated by Anonymous, a loosely knit collective of hackers and activists already responsible for a string of prominent DDoS attacks against the Church of Scientology and other targets.
Brokers and buyers in this exchange would face risks similar to what black marketeers do today, including undercover agents and dishonest dealings (perhaps made all the more likely due to the anonymous nature of these virtual-world transactions). Some people will cheer for the end of control that connectivity and data-rich environments engender. They are the people who believe that information wants to be free,2 and that greater transparency in all things will bring about a more just, safe and free world. For a time, WikiLeaks’ cofounder Julian Assange was the world’s most visible ambassador for this cause, but supporters of WikiLeaks and the values it champions come in all stripes, including right-wing libertarians, far-left liberals and apolitical technology enthusiasts. While they don’t always agree on tactics, to them, data permanence is a fail-safe for society. Despite some of the known negative consequences of this movement (threats to individual security, ruined reputations and diplomatic chaos), some free-information activists believe the absence of a delete button ultimately strengthens humanity’s progress toward greater equality, productivity and self-determination.
3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, pirate software, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar
v=swHkpHMVt3A 28. Julian Assange, “The Non Linear Effects of Leaks on Unjust Systems of Governance,” WikiLeaks 31 Dec. 2006. Archived from the original on 2 Oct. 2007. 29. http://www.smh.com.au/technology/technology-news/the-secret-life-of-wikileaks-founder-julian-assange-20100521-w1um.html 30. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/dec/01/us-embassy-cables-executed-mike-huckabee 31. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/wikileaks/8171269/Sarah-Palin-hunt-WikiLeaks-founder-like-al-Qaeda-and-Taliban-leaders.html 32. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/dec/19/assange-high-tech-terrorist-biden 33. http://www.democracynow.org/2010/12/31/pentagon_whistleblower_daniel_ellsberg_julian_assange 34. Micah L. Sifry and Andrew Rasiej, WikiLeaks and the Age of Transparency (Berkeley: Counterpoint, 2011), 14. 35. http://gov20.govfresh.com/samantha-power-transparency-has-gone-global/ 36. http://wikileaks.ch/cable/2008/06/08TUNIS679.html 37. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,2044723,00.html; http://www.cnn.com/2011/12/17/world/meast/arab-spring-one-year-later/index.html 38.
Soghoian has suggested that Flame exposes the average citizen to a significant level of security risk on their personal computer by undermining automatic security updates, not to mention the growing consumer privacy concerns.27 As the preceding discussion suggests, the term “nonstate actor” has its limitations; it’s conceivable that every technically literate person with a laptop and an Internet connection might be able to influence global geopolitics as a nonstate actor. In fact, it’s already happening. Consider Bradley Manning and Julian Assange; together they changed diplomacy and, arguably, the governments of several countries—without any exceptional technical knowledge or expertise. Bradley Manning is a computer programmer, but not a technical genius. He was a low-ranking U.S. Army soldier, a private first class, who made use of a fundamental attribute of digital files: They are easily copied and, once copied, easily shared. Manning allegedly had access to the files through the U.S. military’s online data-management tools and copied them to share online on WikiLeaks. Julian Assange, a computer programmer and activist, had been working with a team to build WikiLeaks into a known repository for whistleblowers and a trusted source for journalists.
These two core values of Wikipedia—that anyone can edit it and that everything is transparent—are part of the attraction of the “wiki” in WikiLeaks. While WikiLeaks actually started as a wiki, it is no longer one. But WikiLeaks is a place that wants to bring radical transparency to the world’s largest institutions and prove that anyone—even a lowly private in the U.S. Army—can be powerful beyond imagination. What is the role of secrecy in democracy and diplomacy, and what does it mean in a digital age where secrecy and privacy have nearly disappeared? It’s an important question, because whatever WikiLeaks’s future, Internet-fueled leaks are certain to rise again. Assange sees WikiLeaks as a new force in the world, one that works to bring accountability to large institutions like the U.S. government. In a series of blog posts explaining the purpose of WikiLeaks, he writes, “the more secretive or unjust an organization is, the more leaks induce fear and paranoia in its leadership and planning coterie. … Since unjust systems, by their nature, induce opponents, and in many places barely have the upper hand, mass leaking leaves them exquisitely vulnerable to those who seek to replace them with more open forms of governance.”28 To Assange WikiLeaks is something between the accountability journalism of newspapers and the transparency activism of the open-source movement.
AltaVista, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Graeber, Debian, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, Julian Assange, market bubble, market design, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, prediction markets, price discrimination, randomized controlled trial, RFID, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, security theater, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, Steven Levy, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Zimmermann PGP
At his military court proceedings, Bradley Manning, the U.S. Army private who leaked documents to WikiLeaks, described how he connected with WikiLeaks using Tor and Jabber for encrypted chats. “The anonymity provided by TOR and the Jabber client and the WLO’s [WikiLeaks Organization’s] policy allowed me to feel I could just be myself, free of the concerns of social labeling and perceptions that are often placed upon me in real life,” Manning said in his statement to the court. Of course, encryption ultimately didn’t save Manning. He was betrayed by a friend—a hacker named Adrian Lamo, who turned Manning in to the FBI. Government investigators later found traces of Manning’s correspondence on his computer; Julian Assange was on Manning’s “buddy list” in Jabber. And so, even this ungainly setup that is designed to conceal can reveal too much.
Short, simple passwords, such as dictionary words, have very low entropy because they can easily be guessed. Longer passwords that contain many types of symbols, letters, and numbers often have larger entropy because it takes more guesses to figure them out. Julian Assange knew this when he created the following password to the WikiLeaks cables database: AcollectionOfDiplomaticHistorySince_1966_ToThe_PresentDay#. It is fifty-eight characters long, with very few symbols, and easy to remember. Of course, the reason we know his password is that the Guardian newspaper published it in a book about WikiLeaks. So, obviously, it wasn’t a secure password in other respects. Entropy is frustratingly difficult to estimate. A long password can have low entropy if it is comprised of simple words and easy grammar. I started to become obsessed with measuring the entropy of the passwords I had created.
” * * * In some ways, the Cypherpunk movement is coming back to life. Julian Assange, a longtime Cypherpunk, transformed the relationship between journalists and their sources with his 2006 launch of the WikiLeaks encrypted drop box that promised complete anonymity to people who wanted to leak information. Other Cypherpunks focused on building “liberation technology” to help liberate people from oppressive regimes. Moxie Marlinspike in San Francisco built encryption apps—RedPhone and TextSecure—for Android phones. Nathan Freitas and the Guardian Project in New York built apps to bring encrypted calls and Tor to cell phones. The U.S. government funded some projects, such as Tor, in the name of Internet freedom, while at the same time the Justice Department was investigating Tor developer Jacob Appelbaum for his involvement in WikiLeaks. And Phil Zimmermann, the founder of Pretty Good Privacy, went the capitalist route.
Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman
4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day
… (12:26:09 PM) bradass87: lets just say *someone* i know intimately well, has been penetrating US classified networks, mining data like the ones described … and been transferring that data from the classified networks over the “air gap” onto a commercial network computer … sorting the data, compressing it, encrypting it, and uploading it to a crazy white haired aussie who can’t seem to stay in one country very long =L … (12:31:43 PM) bradass87: crazy white haired dude = Julian Assange (12:33:05 PM) bradass87: in other words … ive made a huge mess. This exchange on AOL Instant Messenger launched one of the biggest incidents in cyber history. WikiLeaks not only changed the way the world thinks about diplomatic secrets, but also became a focal point for understanding how radically cyberspace has changed our relationship with data and access. In 2006, the website WikiLeaks was launched with the goal of “exposing corruption and abuse around the world.” With an agenda that scholars call “radical transparency,” the concept was to reform powerful actors’ behavior by exposing documented evidence of their wrongdoing online. Led by the now-iconic “crazy white haired dude,” Australian Julian Assange, it used the Wikipedia model of an “open-source, democratic intelligence agency,” where activists from around the world could upload information and share it through a central but communally archived repository.
Companies like PayPal, Bank of America, MasterCard, and Visa were targeted because they stopped processing payments to the whistle-blowing website WikiLeaks, following its controversial publication of US diplomatic cables. The Zimbabwe government’s websites were targeted after its president’s wife sued a newspaper for US$15 million for publishing a WikiLeaks cable that linked her to the blood diamond trade. The Tunisian government was targeted for censoring the WikiLeaks documents as well as news about uprisings in the country (in a poignant twist, a noted local blogger, Slim Amamou, who had supported Anonymous in the effort, was arrested by the old regime and then became a minister in the new regime that the effort helped put into power). The British government was threatened with similar attacks if it extradited WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange. As Anonymous went after bigger and more powerful targets, the group garnered more and more attention.
without traditional due process Ewan MacAskill, “Julian Assange Like a High-Tech Terrorist, Says Joe Biden,” Guardian, December 19, 2010, http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/dec/19/assange-high-tech-terrorist-biden. “enemy combatant” Shane D’Aprile, “Gingrich: Leaks Show Obama Administration ‘Shallow,’ ‘Amateurish,’” Blog Briefing Room (blog), The Hill, December 5, 2010, http://thehill.com/blogs/blog-briefing-room/news/132037-gingrich-blames-obama-on-wikileaks-labels-assange-a-terrorist. traditional channels Ewen MacAskill, “WikiLeaks Website Pulled by Amazon after US Political Pressure,” Guardian, December 1, 2010, http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2010/dec/01/wikileaks-website-cables-servers-amazon. registered in Australia Hal Berghel, “WikiLeaks and the Matter of Private Manning,” Computer 45, no. 3 (March 2012): pp. 70–73.
The Narcissist You Know by Joseph Burgo
Albert Einstein, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, financial independence, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Paul Graham, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, traveling salesman, WikiLeaks
Joseph Burgo, The Hero as Narcissist: How Lance Armstrong and Greg Mortenson Conned a Willing Public (Chapel Hill: New Rise Press, 2013). 10. http://www.lrb.co.uk/v36/n05/andrew-ohagan/ghosting. 11. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2010/06/07/100607fa_fact_khatchadourian?currentPage=all. 12. O’Hagan, Ghosting. 13. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/julian-assange-i-am-ndash-like-all-hackers-ndash-a-little-bit-autistic-2358654.html. 14. Daniel Domscheit-Berg, Inside WikiLeaks: My Time with Julian Assange at the World’s Most Dangerous Website (New York: Crown, 2011). 15. O’Hagan, Ghosting. 16. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/30/magazine/30Wikileaks-t.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. 7. “I HAVE SO MUCH TO TELL YOU”: THE KNOW-IT-ALL NARCISSIST 1. Martha Stout, The Sociopath Next Door: The Ruthless versus the Rest of Us (New York: Broadway Books, 2005), 60. 2. Ibid., 92. 3. http://www.vanityfair.com/style/scandal/2014/01/bikram-choudhury-yoga-sexual-harassment. 4.
Although their charitable foundations, LiveStrong and the Central Asia Institute, did much good, a closer look at the psychology of these men reveals the features of Extreme Narcissism and points toward core shame.9 Julian Assange, founder of WikiLeaks and tireless crusader against the secrecy of entrenched power, for a time appeared to be another hero in our feckless world. Standing up for truth, transparency, and the rights of the individual to access secret government information, Assange at first seemed to be a selfless advocate for the little man. He turned out to be a Grandiose Narcissist more interested in public acclaim and enjoying his “rock star” status than in pursuing the truth. Ghostwriter Andrew O’Hagan spent many months collaborating with Julian Assange on an autobiography and in the process came to know him well. “His pursuit of governments and corporations was a ghostly reverse of his own fears for himself,” O’Hagan writes.
He feels superior in understanding to those in Washington who are responsible for the computer system he has hijacked. He enjoys the experience of thumbing his nose at authority and taking charge himself. With the founding of WikiLeaks, Assange found an even larger stage upon which to express his grandiose sense of self. He surely felt a passionate devotion to his cause—uncovering the government lies that preserve its power over the individual—but as the enterprise gained notoriety and he became a cult hero to millions, he increasingly saw himself as a sort of celebrity guru, often insisting that one person or another was in love with him, or wanted to be him. In his account of their years together at WikiLeaks, Daniel Domscheit-Berg paints a portrait of Assange as a man obsessed with his image, unwilling to share credit with collaborators, hostile to those who didn’t accord him due respect, and contemptuous of even those who supported him.14 He treated his collaborators as if they were his subjects.
Twilight of the Elites: America After Meritocracy by Chris Hayes
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, carried interest, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, dark matter, David Brooks, David Graeber, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, fixed income, full employment, George Akerlof, hiring and firing, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, peak oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rolodex, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, We are the 99%, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce
The old gatekeepers have been discredited but not discarded. Their challengers are capable of subverting consensus and authority but not reconstituting it. And into the breach comes Julian Assange bearing a single, simple radical promise: total information can provide our salvation. If Julian Assange did not exist, we would have to invent him. With his white hair and lip that curls into something between a smirk and a snarl, his playful but vaguely sinister affect, Assange seems almost too cinematic to be real, as if our collective skepticism and distrust managed to conjure him into being. Founded in 2006 as a secure means by which international whistle-blowers and hackers could anonymously publish secret documents, WikiLeaks’ ethos was grounded in Assange’s worldview, one distrustful, to the point of near paranoia, of any source of authority. “He had come to understand the defining human struggle not as left versus right, but as individual versus institution,” the New Yorker wrote in a 2010 profile.
Once the Northern white establishment was won over and began to use its considerable power to document the violence, hatred, and cruelty of the Jim Crow establishment’s reaction to Civil Rights protesters, public opinion began to turn. The concentration of the media at that moment, in other words, provided activists with an Archimedean point of leverage: They could focus their energies on a relative handful of press outlets and through these outlets broadcast their message to almost every last member of the voting public. In some ways, the story told in The Race Beat bears out Julian Assange’s simple vision: The truth of the nature of segregation was exposed and the truth won. Roberts and Klibanoff quote Swedish economist Gunnar Myrdal, who prophetically observed in his 1944 book that “there is no doubt that a great majority of white people in America would be prepared to give the Negro a substantially better deal if they knew the facts.” But key to this “truth” getting out was the concentrated authority that the establishment press at the time, particularly the New York Times, possessed.
., p. 6. 48 “We’re marching over the cliff”: See interview with Noam Chomsky in “Peak Oil and a Changing Climate,” Videonation, www.youtube.com/watch?v=UUmwy0VTnqM&feature=player_embedded, accessed February 22, 2012. 49 “State and Terrorist Conspiracies”: Available at http://cryptome.org/0002/ja-conspiracies.pdf, accessed January 19, 2012. 50 “Institutions are very important”: “Frost Over the World: Julian Assange Interview,” Aljazeera, http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/frostovertheworld/2010/12/201012228384924314.html, accessed January 19, 2012. CHAPTER 5. WINNERS 1 “We are the 1%”: See “Board of Trade Has a Message for Occupy Chicago,” Chicagoist, http://chicagoist.com/2011/10/05/board_of_trade_has_a_message_for_oc.php, accessed January 22, 2012. 2 “I should sooner live in a society governed by the first two thousand names in the Boston telephone directory”: See William F.
The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett
3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP
Phil Zimmermann is currently working on a project called Darkmail, an automatically end-to-end encrypted email service. Today there are hundreds of people like Amir and Miguel working on ingenious ways of keeping online secrets or preventing censorship, often in their own time, and frequently crowdfunded by users sympathetic to the cause. One is Smári McCarthy. Smári is unashamedly geeky: a computer whizz and founding member of the radical Icelandic Pirate Party. He used to work with Julian Assange in the early days of WikiLeaks. Smári isn’t really a cypherpunk – he resists any association with Ayn Rand’s philosophy – but he does believe that privacy online is a fundamental right, and worries about state surveillance of the net. He also believes that crypto is a key part of a political project. He wants you to encrypt all your emails with PGP, even (or especially) those you send to friends and family members.
It certainly has in these groups. Chapter 3 Into Galt’s Gulch p.74 ‘Millions of dollars’ worth of Bitcoin . . .’ http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/apr/26/bitcoins-gain-currency-in-berlin (accessed 9 January 2014). p.76 ‘One day in late 1992 . . .’ Manne, R., ‘The Cypherpunk Revolutionary: Julian Assange’ in Making Trouble: Essays Against the New Australian Complacency, Black Inc, p.204. This story is also brilliantly told in Greenberg, A., This Machine Kills Secrets: Julian Assange, the Cypherpunks, and their Fight to Empower Whistleblowers. I draw on Greenberg’s account throughout. p.76 ‘The all believed that the great political issue . . .’ Levy, S., ‘Crypto-rebels’, http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/1.02/crypto.rebels.html?pg= 8&topic=, 1993 (accessed 23 February 2014); www.themonthly.com.au/issue/2011/march/1324265093/robert-manne/cypherpunk-revolutionary (accessed 23 February 2014).
., The English Defence League, Faith Matters, http://faith-matters.org/images/stories/fm-reports/english-defense-league-report.pdf. Simon, J., Lone Wolf Terrorism: Understanding the Growing Threat. Chapter 3 Into Galt’s Gulch Greenberg, A., This Machine Kills Secrets: Julian Assange, the Cypherpunks, and their Fight to Empower Whistleblowers. An invaluable guide to cypherpunk technology and ideology, and the significance of the cypherpunk philosophy to whistleblowers. Levy, S., ‘Crypto-rebels’ in Wired and Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government Saving Privacy in a Digital Age. ‘Crypto-rebels’ was the first mainstream account of the cypherpunks; while Crypto remains the best account of the movement overall. Manne, R., ‘The Cypherpunk Revolutionary: Julian Assange’, in Making Trouble: Essays Against the New Australian Complacency May, T., Cyphernomicom, Tim May’s book-length essay, providing an excellent insight into the cypherpunk philosophy.
In the Flow by Boris Groys
Thus for Kojève the only way to remain a philosopher after the end of history was to enter universal service in the form of the European Commission. Kojève understood the path of universal service and administration as a secure one. WikiLeaks and Assange himself have proved that the path of universal service can also involve taking a substantial risk. They became dissidents of universal service, and so invented a new form of risk. Or rather, they thematized this risk and made it explicit by committing themselves to universal service and administration as a form of conspiracy from the very beginning. It is a true historical innovation. And it is to be expected that this innovation will have interesting consequences. ___________________________ 1‘In Conversation with Julian Assange Part I’, WikiLeaks.org, 23 May 2011. 2Ibid. This eBook is licensed to Edward Betts, firstname.lastname@example.org on 04/01/2016 CHAPTER 12 Art on the Internet In recent decades the Internet has become the primary place for the production and distribution of writing, including literature; artistic practices; and, more generally, cultural archives.
The universal presents itself through the Internet as an impersonal sign flow. The subjectivities of the ‘content providers’ unavoidably drown in this flow. In this sense, the new universality – the universality of Internet clerks – creates a universal image after all. But this image is not a universal idea, project or commitment, but rather a universal event – the fact that the sign flow took this and not that form at a particular moment in time. Julian Assange described eloquently this new, postmodern, posthistorical universalist vision in a recent interview with Hans-Ulrich Obrist: There’s a universe of information, and we can imagine a sort of Platonic ideal in which we have an infinite horizon of information. It’s similar to the concept of the Tower of Babel. Imagine a field before us composed of all the information that exists in the world – inside government computers, people’s letters, things that have already been published, the stream of information coming out of televisions, this total knowledge of all the world, both accessible and inaccessible to the public.
This eBook is licensed to Edward Betts, email@example.com on 04/01/2016 CHAPTER 11 WikiLeaks: The Revolt of the Clerks, or Universality as Conspiracy In our epoch we have become accustomed to protests and revolts in the name of particular identities and interests. The revolts in the name of universal projects, such as liberalism or communism, seem to belong to the past. But the activities of WikiLeaks serve no specific identities or interests. They, rather, have a general, universal goal: to guarantee the free flow of information. Thus, the phenomenon of WikiLeaks signals a reintroduction of universalism into politics. This fact alone makes the emergence of WikiLeaks highly significant. We know from history that only universalist projects can lead to real political change. But WikiLeaks signals not only a return of universalism but also the deep transformation that the notion of universalism has undergone during recent decades.
23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day
One called MARINA: James Ball (30 Sep 2013), “NSA stores metadata of millions of web users for up to a year, secret files show,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/30/nsa-americans-metadata-year-documents. Another NSA database, MYSTIC: Ryan Devereaux, Glenn Greenwald, and Laura Poitras (19 May 2014), “Data pirates of the Caribbean: The NSA is recording every cell phone call in the Bahamas,” Intercept, https://firstlook.org/theintercept/article/2014/05/19/data-pirates-caribbean-nsa-recording-every-cell-phone-call-bahamas. Julian Assange (23 May 2014), “WikiLeaks statement on the mass recording of Afghan telephone calls by the NSA,” WikiLeaks, https://wikileaks.org/WikiLeaks-statement-on-the-mass.html. The NSA stores telephone metadata: David Kravets (17 Jan 2014), “Obama revamps NSA phone metadata spying program,” Wired, http://www.wired.com/2014/01/obama-nsa. If you use encryption: I do not know whether this includes all encrypted SSL sessions. My guess is that the NSA is able to decrypt a lot of SSL in real time.
Antony Loewenstein (10 Jul 2014), “The ultimate goal of the NSA is total population control,” Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/jul/11/the-ultimate-goal-ofthe-nsa-is-total-population-control. we know it is doing so: Ryan Devereaux, Glenn Greenwald, and Laura Poitras (19 May 2014), “Data pirates of the Caribbean: The NSA is recording every cell phone call in the Bahamas,” Intercept, https://firstlook.org/theintercept/article/2014/05/19/data-pirates-caribbean-nsa-recording-every-cell-phone-call-bahamas. Julian Assange (23 May 2014), “WikiLeaks statement on the mass recording of Afghan telephone calls by the NSA,” WikiLeaks, https://wikileaks.org/WikiLeaks-statement-on-the-mass.html. The agency’s 2013 budget: Barton Gellman and Greg Miller (29 Aug 2013), “‘Black budget’ summary details U.S. spy network’s successes, failures and objectives,” Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/national-security/black-budget-summary-details-us-spy-networks-successes-failures-and-objectives/2013/08/29/7e57bb78-10ab-11e3-8cdd-bcdc09410972_story.html.
E-mails you send to someone in private can easily be forwarded to others. Kids do this to each other all the time: forwarding private chats, photos, and messages, or showing each other private postings on social networking sites. One of the reasons apps that delete messages and photos after a few seconds are so popular among teenagers is that they help prevent this sort of thing. Old web pages have a way of sticking around. In 2010, WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange’s old OKCupid dating profile was dug up for public discussion. Even worse are people who use the Internet to shame and harass. Revenge porn—for the most part, ex-boyfriends posting compromising photographs of former girlfriends—is an extreme example. Mug shot extortion sites turn this sort of thing into a business. Mug shots are public record, but they’re not readily available. Owners of mug shot sites acquire the photos in bulk and publish them online, where everybody can find them, then charge individuals to remove their photos from the sites.
The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton
1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator
(The next five sentences then repeat the oldest and most conventional calls for general well-being through measured oversight.) By comparison Assange's When Google Met Wikileaks is a fascinating, self-contradictory, hyperactive tangle of ideas, accusations, and bizarre rationalizations. Within critical Google discourse it is in a league of its own, for both better or worse. Julian Assange, When Google Met Wikileaks (New York: OR Books, 2014). 64. See Julian Assange, “The Banality of ‘Don't Be Evil,’” New York Times, June 1, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/02/opinion/sunday/the-banality-of-googles-dont-be-evil.html It was later republished in Assange, When WikiLeaks Met Google. 65. As recently occurred in Turkey, when the AK Party tried to shut down Twitter, and the government also tried to shut off access to Google DNS as well.
See, for example, Jaron Lanier, Who Owns the Future? (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013). 64. See Danielle Citron, “Bright Ideas: Anita Allen's Unpopular Privacy,” Concurring Opinions, January 13, 2012, http://www.concurringopinions.com/archives/2012/01/bright-ideas-anita-allens-unpopular-privacy.html. 65. Jacob Applebaum, Andy Mueller-Maguhn, Jeremie Zimmermann, and Julian Assange, “Episode 8, Part 1,” WikiLeaks World Tomorrow, April 2012, https://worldtomorrow.wikileaks.org/episode-8.html.If you look at it from a market perspective, I'm convinced that there is a market in privacy that has been mostly left unexplored, so maybe there will be an economic drive for companies to develop tools that will give users the in-dividual ability to control their data and communication. Maybe this is one way that we can solve that problem.
See, for example, Nikolai von Kreitor, “The Concept of Grossraum in Carl Schmitt's Jurisprudence: The Historical Necessity of a New Russian Grossraum,” August 7, 1970, http://www.amerika.org/globalism/the-concept-of-grossraum-in-carl-schmitts-jurisprudence-nikolai-von-kreitor/. This is the language of today's Russian Eurasianists, France's Nouvelle Droite, Japanese imperial revisionists, as well, it must be said, of some voices on the European Left. 34. For a melodramatic but not uninformed account, see Julian Assange, When WikiLeaks Met Google (N.p.: OR Books, 2014). 35. See, for example, the European Schengen Cloud, or Brazil's proposed “independent Internet”: http://www.itworld.com/article/2705173/networking-hardware/bric-nations-plan-their-own–independent-internet.html. 36. Chris C. Demchak and Peter J. Dombrowski, “Rise of a Cybered Westphalian Age: The Coming Age,” Strategic Studies Quarterly 5, no. 1 (2011): 31–62. 37.
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional
Deep investigations into questions about what had caused the blowout, the devastation of the local ecosystem and economy, the health risks associated with fuel and dispersants, and the work needed to be done monitoring the four thousand oil platforms and twenty-seven thousand old oil wells, many of them leaking, were well beyond the scope of any individual. Even Julian Assange had been unable to act independently, joining up with major news organizations like the New York Times and the Guardian to release the thousands of cables. WikiLeaks had been organized initially around the premise that the public would sift through and interpret raw data, collaboratively writing necessary analysis, making sense of the issues and evidence without professional censors and meddling middlemen. That turned out to be “not at all true,” Assange lamented. “Media are the only channels that have the motivation and resources required to have a real impact.” It wasn’t that the WikiLeaks mastermind had lost faith in people to think for themselves; rather, he recognized that they lacked the time the task required and the power to legitimize and publicize the results.
Sottek, “Google Joins the Lobbying Elite with Record Spending on Lawmakers in 2012,” The Verge, April 23, 2012, http://www.theverge.com/2012/4/23/2968686/google-joins-lobbying-elite. For “Copyright, Patent & Trademark” reports, see http://www.opensecrets.org/lobby/issuesum.php?id=CPT&year=2011. 15. Glenn Greenwald, “Surveillance State Democracy,” Salon, May 6, 2012, http://www.salon.com/2012/05/06/surveillance_state_democracy/singleton/. Also note a similar comment by Julian Assange, who said Google joining the SOPA fight “scared the hell out of me,” because the company was beginning to see itself as a “ ‘political player’ with enormous power over Congress.” Quoted in Julian Assange, Cypher-punks: Freedom and the Future of the Internet (New York: OR Books, 2012), 83. 16. David Segal, “CISPA Is the New SOPA: Help Kill It This Week,” Huffington Post, April 16, 2012. Segal also discusses this issue at length in the book he coedited with David Moon and Patrick Ruffini, Hacking Politics: How Geeks, Progressives, the Tea Party, Gamers, Anarchists and Suits Teamed Up to Defeat SOPA and Save the Internet (New York: OR Books, 2013). 17.
.… But once you factor in money spent on schooling, the earnings I’ve received outside of aggregation-oriented writing positions is still in the bloodiest shade of red imaginable. It’s unlikely the numbers will ever even out.”43 4 UNEQUAL UPTAKE Not long after WikiLeaks released its enormous cache of classified diplomatic cables, making the private observations of jaded attachés public for all to see, I spent a Saturday afternoon at a quickly assembled conference trying to make sense of the implications. The conversation hinged on the tangled theme of media, technology, and politics. Does WikiLeaks represent a new kind of transnational investigative journalism? Has the Web made us all reporters? Is transparency an unambiguous good? Should all information be free, to everyone, everywhere? The United States government had been caught off its guard and the audience was electrified by the possibilities of networked people power.
Epic Win for Anonymous: How 4chan's Army Conquered the Web by Cole Stryker
4chan, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, crowdsourcing, Firefox, future of journalism, hive mind, informal economy, Internet Archive, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mason jar, pre–internet, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, wage slave, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
No, it’s not like that. It’s simply that US intelligence is able to bring to bear legal and political pressure on them. And it’s costly for them to hand out records one by one, so they have automated the process. Everyone should understand that when they add their friends to Facebook, they are doing free work for United States intelligence agencies in building this database for them. So declared WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange in May 2011 during an interview with Russian news site RT. A spokesman for Facebook responded to CNET: We don’t respond to pressure, we respond to compulsory legal process . . . There has never been a time we have been pressured to turn over data [and] we fight every time we believe the legal process is insufficient. The legal standards for compelling a company to turn over data are determined by the laws of the country, and we respect that standard.
Anonymouse thinks that the press is asking the wrong questions, claiming that they tend to focus on the illegal hacks rather than the illegal acts that the hackers are able to expose. He says that most of the media coverage belies a “sick” acceptance of HBGary’s activities, using government power to spy on its citizens. He draws parallels to the freedom-fighting actions of Anonymous and those of Bradley Manning and Julian Assange, who have also experienced a fair amount of negative press. How about prosecuting the soldiers named in one of the Afghan war diaries as having shot a bunch of unarmed teenagers? The number one response I’ve noticed when I argue about this is “Well this is the real world, corruption happens, deal with it.” I’m left gaping. Sure it happens. Murder and rape happen too, does that mean we should just say “Oh sure we’ll just leave the murderers alone, it happens.
His impotent threats, like so many of those Anonymous has targeted, were sheepishly removed a short time later after his site was brought down again. Then Anonymous went after the RIAA because it sought legal action against file sharing site Limewire. In December 2010, Amazon, Paypal, Bank of America, PostFinance, MasterCard, and Visa decided to stop processing donations for the global news leak network WikiLeaks, which had recently caused global controversy by posting sensitive internal documents. These payment-processing sites had bowed to political pressure, refusing to work with WikiLeaks. In retaliation, Anonymous launched DDoS attacks against several of these companies, successfully bringing down the websites for MasterCard and Visa. A 16-year-old boy from the Netherlands was arrested in relation to the attack, and the FBI is probably still investigating. HBGary Federal Hack In February 2011, Aaron Barr, the chief executive of the security firm HBGary Federal, announced that he’d infiltrated Anonymous and would reveal his findings in an upcoming conference.
Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom by Rebecca MacKinnon
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, digital Maoism, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Firefox, future of journalism, illegal immigration, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, online collectivism, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks
But without clear transparency and accountability about how, when, and under what specific circumstances personal information is being collected and used, citizens have good reason to worry about the growth of the state’s “panoptic” power. WIKILEAKS AND THE FATE OF CONTROVERSIAL SPEECH WikiLeaks and several news organizations that the whistle-blowing organization had chosen as partners published the first batch of classified US diplomatic cables, leaked by disgruntled US Army Private Bradley Manning, in November 2010. Vice President Joseph Biden declared WikiLeaks’ leader, Julian Assange, to be a “digital terrorist.” Senator Joe Lieberman declared that “WikiLeaks’ illegal, outrageous, and reckless acts have compromised our national security and put lives at risk around the world.” Meanwhile, the WikiLeaks “Cablegate” website, dedicated to showcasing the leaked diplomatic cables, came under distributed denial of service attacks of unknown origin.
Regardless of whether one views the intentions and consequences of WikiLeaks’ release of diplomatic cables favorably, the US government’s response to WikiLeaks highlights a troubling murkiness, opacity, and lack of public accountability in the power relationships between government and Internet-related companies. In a speech in February 2011, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton sought to distance the State Department—and the US government more generally—from individual politicians and media commentators who called for Julian Assange’s head without any apparent interest in due process. She also made the point that the US government did not pressure private companies such as Amazon and PayPal to sever their ties with WikiLeaks. But through subsequent reporting in newspapers and research by civil liberties lawyers, it has also become clear that the companies were influenced by government statements and opinions.
These included a letter by State Department legal adviser Harold Koh, in which he wrote that the “violation of the law is ongoing” as long as WikiLeaks continues to publish the leaked diplomatic cables. As Harvard legal scholar Yochai Benkler pointed out in a group e-mail discussion with colleagues about WikiLeaks and the State Department’s actions (which I am quoting with his permission), Koh’s assertion was patently “false, as a matter of constitutional law.” The Justice Department has not managed to bring a viable case to a court of law against WikiLeaks or any other entity involved with publishing the cables. Benkler argued the government had no case unless it could prove that somebody involved with WikiLeaks directly conspired with Manning. What Benkler and many other constitutional scholars find insidious about the US government’s approach to WikiLeaks is that since the government has no genuine case against the publishers, its assertion of WikiLeaks’ illegality—no matter how groundless—“leaves room for various extralegal avenues that can be denied as not under your control to do the suppression work.”
The 99.998271% by Simon Wood
This dangerous creature will not go down easily. It has all the money and owns most of the media and a large number of politicians. How long will it take before a way is found to limit the internet as well? As soon as it can be shown to be a credible threat to the status quo, how can we be sure it will not be taken out? Anyone who stands up to the empire is swatted down, as can be seen in the hysterical reaction to Wikileaks and Julian Assange, who could be extradited to the US where he can be held in indefinite detention. The Occupy Wall Street movement, at first ignored completely by the establishment media, is now feeling the full force of the propaganda mill, with protestors smeared as ‘hippies’ and ‘pot smokers’ with ‘no direction in their lives’ and so on. 41 The author of this book is not a professional journalist, so I hereby request that professional journalists in the media point out to me the part of the course in journalism they studied at college which says that journalists are supposed to criticize, insult, judge and demean the subjects of the stories they cover.
When Haiti passed a law in 2009 to raise the minimum wage from 24 to 61 cents an hour, US corporations like Levi Strauss and Hanes were furious. These corporations pay workers in Haiti, the poorest country in the western hemisphere, which is still struggling to recover from a devastating earthquake, extremely low wages to sew clothes in their sweatshops. A Wikileaks cable showed that the corporations lobbied the US State Department, who then had the US ambassador put pressure on Haiti’s president. The result? A new minimum wage of 31 cents an hour. This may never have been revealed had it not been released in a Wikileaks cable, demonstrating that the US government acts in secrecy. The justification for secrecy is usually national security interest, but it would be hard for anyone to place this in such a category. The American people were not to be informed of how their elected officials were interfering in a desperately poor country in their name.
Considering the current states of both countries, the question must be asked: are we insane? Unless this madness is stopped, tragedies like the following will continue to occur: on 15th March 2006, during a house raid in Iraq by US forces, a family and their children were handcuffed and then summarily executed with shots to the head. Philip Alston, the Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial, Summary, or Arbitrary Executions, wrote the following in a letter (exposed by Wikileaks) to the then Secretary of State, Condoleeza Rice: “It would appear that when the MNF [Multinational Forces] approached the house,” Alston wrote, “shots were fired from it and a confrontation ensued” before the “troops entered the house, handcuffed all residents and executed all of them.” Mr. Faiz Hratt Khalaf, (aged 28), his wife Sumay’ya Abdul Razzaq Khuther (aged 24), their three children Hawra’a (aged 5) Aisha ( aged 3) and Husam (5 months old), Faiz’s mother Ms.
Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens
4chan, airport security, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, union organizing, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law
There are several strategies, as far as I can see. The most obvious and widely used is to attack any website that acts as a broker for leaks. WikiLeaks drew a massive amount of fire and fury for declaring its mission to be a broker for leaks, in 2006, leading to its founder Julian Assange infamously holed up in the Ecuadorian embassy in London, with Hollywood painting him in 2013 as a glory-seeking egomaniac. Threaten the powers that be, and you will pay. While it can be tricky to arrest and disappear a public figure, it is trivial to launch a "distributed denial of service attack," or DDoS, on any troublesome website. One simply tells hundreds of thousands of slave PCs to request the main page of the website, say wikileaks.org, at the same time. The simultaneous volume of demand overwhelms the server so that real users can't access it.
Chelsea née Bradley Manning and Edward Snowden are the two main figures here, heroes in a real sense. Other whistle blowers of note are Annie Machon, Gareth Williams, Russel Tice, Jeffrey Sterling, Stephen Jin-Woo Kim, Jesselyn Radack, Thomas Drake, Daniel Ellsberg, and William Binney. We then have the independent media who are willing to report these documents, at personal risk. There is Julian Assange, building wikileaks.org around Manning's leaks, and Glenn Greenwald and Laura Poitras, reporting in the Guardian on Edward Snowden's leaks. Again, heroic figures who have changed the course of history. We see academics like Dr Daniele Ganser, who know their history and are immune to this particular Narrative because they have seen so many like it. They look at events over the last twenty years and they see continuation of old patterns.
Big sites need hosting, and that costs money. WikiLeaks was the target of this in 2010, with US credit card processors cutting off all donations to the site. Despite not getting money from US contributors, WikiLeaks survived and got good press from being the victim of clearly abusive conduct by the US government and financial industry. So attacking a site will often just make it stronger. The very fact that authorities target a leaks site promotes its accuracy and importance. It is also technically hard to sustain. In 2011, Bank of America hired three firms to attack Wikileaks. One of the firms, HBGary Federal, was hacked by Anonymous, and the plan was discovered. Emails and documents uncovered in the hack outline several proposed attacks on WikiLeaks: Feed the fuel between the feuding groups.
Pax Technica: How the Internet of Things May Set Us Free or Lock Us Up by Philip N. Howard
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, Brian Krebs, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Julian Assange, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, national security letter, Network effects, obamacare, Occupy movement, packet switching, pension reform, prediction markets, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, spectrum auction, statistical model, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day
Its operations are not always successful, sometimes doing damage more than raising awareness. When overwhelmed, governments have begun to address Anonymous as an equal in negotiation. The government of the Philippines has tried to engage with the group by making concessions and involving it in national cyberstrategy.18 Internet pundits have added to the chaos of international politics. Julian Assange’s online WikiLeaks project exposed diplomatic correspondence and upset many delicately balanced relationships among states and between power brokers. Both Assange and Edward Snowden decided that democracies were the least likely to provide them with just treatment as whistle blowers. The Russians gave Assange an online talk show and have sheltered Snowden. Moreover, many kinds of authoritarian regimes like Russia now employ their own social media gurus to engage with the public.
Srđa Popović, the Serb who in 2000 mobilized the resistance to end Slobodan Milošević’s rule, went on in 2003 to train protesters for Georgia’s “Rose Revolution,” Ukraine’s 2005 “Orange Revolution,” and the Maldives’ revolution in 2007, before training activists in Egypt’s April 6 Movement in 2008. Popović’s book Nonviolent Struggle: 50 Crucial Points has been downloaded thousands of times.19 For the presidents of countries and companies, people like Aaron Swartz, Chelsea Manning, and Julian Assange are threats to national security and the corporate bottom line. But in many networks they are heroes. Every few years, hacktivists and whistle blowers turn national security and diplomacy upside down by putting large amounts of previously secret content online. Conservative security analysts and industry pundits often react hostilely to people who play with information technologies and exploit consumer electronics beyond designers’ intent.
Moises Naim, “Mafia States: Organized Crime Takes Office,” Foreign Affairs 91 (May 2012): 112. 26. Ibid. 27. Symantec, Norton Report 2013: Cost per Cybercrime Victim Up 50 Percent (Mountain View, CA: Symantec, October 2013), accessed September 30, 2014, http://www.symantec.com/about/news/release/article.jsp?prid=20131001_01. 28. Luke Harding, “WikiLeaks Cables: Russian Government ‘Using Mafia for Its Dirty Work,’” Guardian, December 1, 2010, accessed September 30, 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2010/dec/01/wikileaks-cable-spain-russian-mafia. 29. Homi Kharas and Andrew Rogerson, Horizon 2025: Creative Destruction in the Aid Industry (London: Overseas Development Institute, July 2012), accessed September 30, 2014, http://www.aidmonitor.org.np/reports/horizon%202012.pdf. 30. “Where Life Is Cheap and Talk Is Loose,” Economist, March 17, 2011, accessed September 30, 2014, http://www.economist.com/node/18396240. 31.
Power Systems: Conversations on Global Democratic Uprisings and the New Challenges to U.S. Empire by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Chelsea Manning, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate personhood, David Brooks, discovery of DNA, double helix, failed state, Howard Zinn, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, inflation targeting, Julian Assange, land reform, Martin Wolf, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, single-payer health, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Tobin tax, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks
After the uprising had already started, one French cabinet minister, Michèle Alliot-Marie, actually went to Tunisia for a vacation.17 This is a country that’s been under the thumb of France for a long time and is surely penetrated by French intelligence. But how much these leaks influenced the protests is an open question. I doubt that Tunisians cared very much about French and U.S. hypocrisy, which is all that WikiLeaks revealed—nothing that they didn’t know themselves. Talk about the connection between Daniel Ellsberg and Bradley Manning. Dan is an old friend. I was involved with him in helping release the Pentagon Papers, which I thought was a quite proper thing to do. I testified at his trial. In the case of Bradley Manning, he’s charged with having released material to Julian Assange, who distributed it on WikiLeaks.18 He’s been in prison now since May 2010, a large part of that in solitary confinement—which is torture. He’s been treated in rotten ways and been bitterly attacked. Here’s someone who is charged with doing something which, in my opinion, is not a crime but a service to the country.
In response to the question, “Name two countries that you think pose the biggest threat to you,” Israel received 88 percent, the United States 77 percent, and Iran 9 percent among those aged thirty-six and over and 11 percent among those thirty-six and under. 2010 Arab Public Opinion Survey. 16. Ian Black, “WikiLeaks Cables: Tunisia Blocks Site Reporting ‘Hatred’ of First Lady,” Guardian (London), 7 December 2010. Ian Black, “Profile: Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali,” Guardian (London), 14 January 2011. See also Amy Davidson, “Tunisia and WikiLeaks,” New Yorker, Close Read blog, 14 January 2011. 17. Steven Erlanger, “French Foreign Minister Urged to Resign,” New York Times, 3 February 2011. 18. Charlie Savage, “Soldier Faces 22 New WikiLeaks Charges,” New York Times, 2 March 2011. 19. Scott Shane, “Court Martial Recommended in WikiLeaks Case,” New York Times, 12 January 2012. 20. Stephanie Condon, “Obama Says Bradley Manning ‘Broke the Law,’” CBSNews.com, 22 April 2011. 21.
How does the United States square its trumpeting of the free flow of information and democratic rights of expression with its response to WikiLeaks? The profession of dedication to rights is always tinged with a fundamental hypocrisy: rights if we want them, not if we don’t. The clearest example of this is support for democracy. It’s pretty well established over many decades that the United States supports democracy only if it accords with strategic and economic objectives. Otherwise it opposes it. The United States is by no means alone on that, of course. The same is true of terror, aggression, torture, human rights, freedom of speech, whatever it might be. So the line that the enormous trove of information that was disseminated through WikiLeaks was somehow compromising U.S. security doesn’t wash. It compromised the security that governments are usually concerned about: their security from inspection by their own populations.
citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, Google Earth, informal economy, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, minimum wage unemployment, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, WikiLeaks
Technology companies had become deeply enmeshed in American power. Tunisia’s cyberwars escalated to even greater heights when Anonymous, the decentralized internet group that promotes online freedom, launched Operation Tunisia. During the Tunisian uprising, WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange released a series of incriminating cables detailing embezzlement and nepotism by the Ben Ali oligarchy, information that further fueled the revolt. When the government tried to block access to the cables, Operation Tunisia used the Twitter hashtag #OpTunisia to inform Tunisians about backdoor ways to access the WikiLeaks cables and protect themselves online. Anonymous also managed to hack and take down high-profile Tunisian governmental websites, including those of the stock exchange, the government Internet Agency, the Office of the President and Prime Minister, the Ministry of Industry, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
In all likelihood, a Mubarak-regime electronic militia organized the assault on Abbas’s account. Abbas contacted YouTube directly to reinstate the videos, but to no avail. He then reached out to the US Embassy in Cairo and requested that they contact Google, which owns YouTube, on his behalf. The details of Abbas’s request to the embassy appear in an embassy cable dated December 2007, which was made public by WikiLeaks. It reads: Prominent Egyptian blogger, human rights activist and winner of the 2007 Knight-Ridder International Journalism Award, Wael Abbas, contacted us November 17 to report that YouTube removed from his website two videos exposing police abuses—one of a Sinai bedouin allegedly shot by police and thrown in a garbage dump during the past week’s violence … and the other of a woman being tortured in a police station.
In September 2013, Abbas was one of thirty-five activists, including the founders of the 6th of April Facebook page, named in a complaint to the Egyptian public prosecutor. He was called in for questioning on suspicion of treason and working with a foreign government. The names of the activists were taken from a confidential US embassy memo from 2007 entitled “Outreach to Egyptian Democracy and Human Rights Activists,” made public by WikiLeaks in August 2011. This memo details meetings with Egyptian activists from the blogosphere, civil society, and the opposition press. At the time of writing, the fate of those activists remains unclear. What is certain is that activists often risk their own security, credibility, and public standing when they are on record as working with the US government. Their contact with the US government can range from very superficial encounters, like attending a reception or receiving training from a third party funded by USAID, to more suspect activities like participating in closed-door briefings with US officials.
Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, experimental subject, framing effect, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, impulse control, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, laissez-faire capitalism, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, Phillip Zimbardo, profit maximization, profit motive, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, unbiased observer, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks
The government brought twelve felony counts against Ellsberg (ultimately dismissed), and President Nixon ordered illegal wiretaps and a break-in at the office of Ellsberg’s psychiatrist in an effort to find information to discredit Ellsberg.31 A more recent case is that of Wikileaks, which published thousands of government documents in 2010, most of which concerned the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, including videos showing U.S. troops killing civilians. The uniform reaction from American politicians on both the left and the right was one of outrage at both Wikileaks and its sources. Vice President Biden called Wikileaks founder Julian Assange a terrorist and promised that the Justice Department would be looking for ways to prosecute him. Former Arkansas governor and sometime presidential candidate Mike Huckabee called Wikileaks’ source a traitor and called for his execution. As of this writing (mid-2012), Wikileaks’ source for the Iraq documents, U.S. military intelligence analyst Bradley Manning, is being prosecuted by the military under numerous charges, including ‘aiding the enemy’, a capital offence (though the government will not seek the death penalty).32 These cases show that not everyone is easily intimidated.
Accessed February 7, 2012. MacIntyre, Alasdair. 1986. ‘The Intelligibility of Action’. Pp. 63–80 in Rationality, Relativism and the Human Sciences, ed. J. Margolis, M. Krausz, and R. M. Burian. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Mackie, John L. 1977. Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong. New York: Penguin. Maley, William. 2009. The Afghanistan Wars, second edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Mandel, Nina. 2010. ‘Biden: Wikileaks’ Julian Assange Closer to a “High-Tech Terrorist” Than Pentagon Papers’, New York Daily News, December 19, http: //articles.nydailynews.com/2010–12–19/news/27084869_1_vice-president-joe-biden-world-leaders-accuser. Accessed March 10, 2011. Mao Tse-tung. 1972. Quotations from Chairman Mao Tsetung. Peking: Foreign Languages Press. Marshall, S. L. A. 1978. Men against Fire: The Problem of Battle Command in Future War.
‘Deaths by Mass Unpleasantness: Estimated Totals for the Entire Twentieth Century’, http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat8.htm. Accessed February 13, 2012. Wikileaks. 2010. Collateral Murder (video), www.collateralmurder.com/. Accessed March 10, 2011. Williams, Juan. 1987. Eyes on the Prize. New York: Viking Penguin. Wilson, Edward O. 2000. Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, 25th anniversary ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wilson, James Q. 1990. ‘Against the Legalization of Drugs’, Commentary 89: 21–8. Wing, Nick. 2010. ‘Mike Huckabee: WikiLeaks Source Should Be Executed’, Huffington Post, November 30, www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/11/30/mike-huckabee-wikileaks-execution_n_789964.html. Accessed March 10, 2011. Wingo, Ajume. 2003. Veil Politics in Liberal Democratic States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bitcoin: The Future of Money? by Dominic Frisby
3D printing, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, computer age, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, friendly fire, game design, Isaac Newton, Julian Assange, litecoin, M-Pesa, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, too big to fail, transaction costs, Turing complete, War on Poverty, web application, WikiLeaks
It’s difficult to overstate how big a threat to the existing world order WikiLeaks was perceived to be in late 2010. There has been revelation after revelation – the Bradley Manning leaks, the video of US soldiers shooting at Reuters cameramen, the ‘friendly fire’ and civilian casualties, then the leak of another 400,000 documents relating to the Iraq war. WikiLeaks had caught the imagination of those opposed to the US and other governments. Many wanted to help. PayPal was the main means by which WikiLeaks was able to receive funds for its activities and, in 2010, its donors gave around one million dollars. But on December 4th 2010, under pressure from the US government, PayPal froze the WikiLeaks account. Domain name providers and other payment systems followed suit and refused to handle WikiLeaks’ business. Julian Assange, the WikiLeaks boss, was involved in expensive litigation at the same time.
Julian Assange, the WikiLeaks boss, was involved in expensive litigation at the same time. WikiLeaks was starved of funds. And, unbeknownst to most, the organization was crumbling from within due to a falling-out between Daniel Domscheit-Berg, WikiLeaks’ number two, and Assange. One poster at BitcoinTalk thought that Bitcoin would be a means to help WikiLeaks. Others jumped at the idea. ‘Bring it on,’ said one. ‘Let’s encourage WikiLeaks to use Bitcoins and I’m willing to face any risk or fallout from that fact.’ Then wiser heads stepped in and a long discussion ensued.38 Early developers such as Jeff Garzik, Bruce Wagner and others felt that the last thing they should do was bring the attention of authorities to Bitcoin this early in its evolution. ‘It could permanently marginalize Bitcoin, keeping it out of the mainstream for good.
I make this appeal to WikiLeaks not to try to use Bitcoin. Bitcoin is a small beta community in its infancy. You would not stand to get more than pocket change, and the heat you would bring would likely destroy us at this stage.’ Five days later PC World magazine published an article – Could the WikiLeaksScandal Lead to New Virtual Currency?39It was the most prominent site yet to mention Bitcoin and suggested it may be the answer to WikiLeaks’ funding problems. A sudden flood of traffic overwhelmed Bitcoin’s website and it went down. When it came back up again, Satoshi wrote, ‘It would have been nice to get this attention in any other context. WikiLeaks has kicked the hornet’s nest, and the swarm is headed towards us.’ Then Bitcoin was mentioned on Slashdot again, alongside WikiLeaks and the outspoken libertarian US congressman, Ron Paul.
Ayatollah Khomeini, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Clive Stafford Smith, collateralized debt obligation, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Brooks, deskilling, financial deregulation, full employment, high net worth, income inequality, Julian Assange, nuremberg principles, Ponzi scheme, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks
Instead, the administration did something else entirely: it launched an all-out war on WikiLeaks itself. Numerous reports quickly surfaced that the Obama DOJ was actively attempting to indict WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, an Australian citizen, under the Espionage Act of 1917—which, if successful, would be the first time in U.S. history that a nongovernment employee was convicted of espionage for publishing classified material. Meanwhile, a very sophisticated cyberattack temporarily drove WikiLeaks offline. Overt pressure from American government officials resulted in Australia threatening to revoke Assange’s passport. Joe Lieberman, chairman of the Senate Homeland Security Committee, publicly warned companies not to associate with WikiLeaks in any way, after which the assets of WikiLeaks were frozen and the organization’s accounts with MasterCard, Visa, PayPal, and Bank of America were terminated, impeding the group’s ability to raise funds.
Perhaps nothing better illustrates the reprehensible double standard than the Obama administration’s actions against the whistle-blowing site WikiLeaks. Throughout 2010, WikiLeaks published thousands of documents relating to U.S. wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, which revealed shocking abuses and outright criminality on the part of the American occupiers. The files showed American soldiers firing on unarmed civilians and journalists, covering up multiple killings of civilians, and adopting a formal policy of turning a blind eye to systematic human rights abuses perpetrated by Iraqi forces right under the Americans’ noses. Needless to say, none of these revelations resulted in any criminal investigations from the Obama administration. In December, WikiLeaks released another trove of information: numerous diplomatic cables that had been sent from U.S. embassies around the world.
Moreover, Spanish authorities “advised the Americans that they would suspend their investigation if at any point the United States were to undertake an investigation of its own into these matters.” In an interview with CNN Español, Obama immediately spoke up against the Spanish efforts: “I’m a strong believer that it’s important to look forward and not backwards, and to remind ourselves that we do have very real security threats out there.” And numerous diplomatic cables released by WikiLeaks show that in April 2009, Obama’s State Department warned Spanish authorities that any efforts to hold Bush torturers accountable would, as one cable put it, “not be understood or accepted in the US and would have an enormous impact on the bilateral relationship.” Those threats eventually resulted in the Spanish government blocking its own courts from proceeding with investigations. As David Corn of Mother Jones reported: During an April 14, 2009, White House briefing, I asked press secretary Robert Gibbs if the Obama administration would cooperate with any request from the Spaniards for information and documents related to the Bush Six.
Because We Say So by Noam Chomsky
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Chelsea Manning, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, Edward Snowden, Julian Assange, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Slavoj Žižek, Stanislav Petrov, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks
The primary reason is acknowledged by U.S. military and intelligence and their Israeli counterparts: Iran might deter the resort to force by the United States and Israel. Furthermore, Iran must be punished for its “successful defiance,” which was Washington’s charge against Cuba half a century ago, and still the driving force for the U.S. assault against Cuba that continues despite international condemnation. Other events featured on the front pages might also benefit from a different perspective. Suppose that Julian Assange had leaked Russian documents revealing important information that Moscow wanted to conceal from the public, and that circumstances were otherwise identical. Sweden would not hesitate to pursue its sole announced concern, accepting the offer to interrogate Assange in London. It would declare that if Assange returned to Sweden (as he has agreed to do), he would not be extradited to Russia, where chances of a fair trial would be slight.
Joining the Vietnamese appeal against Dow are the government of India, the Indian Olympic Association, and the survivors of the horrendous 1984 Bhopal gas leak, one of history’s worst industrial disasters, which killed thousands and injured more than half a million. Union Carbide, the corporation responsible for the disaster, was taken over by Dow, for whom the matter is of no slight concern. In February, Wikileaks revealed that Dow hired the U.S. private investigative agency Stratfor to monitor activists seeking compensation for the victims and prosecution of those responsible. Another major crime with very serious persisting effects is the Marine assault on the Iraqi city of Fallujah in November 2004. Women and children were permitted to escape if they could. After several weeks of bombing, the attack opened with a carefully planned war crime: invasion of the Fallujah General Hospital, where patients and staff were ordered to the floor, their hands tied.
Washington has made clear that any country that refuses to extradite Snowden will face harsh punishment. The United States will “chase him to the ends of the earth,” Senator Lindsey Graham warned. But U.S. government spokespersons assured the world that Snowden will be granted the full protection of American law—referring to those same laws that have kept U.S. Army soldier Bradley Manning (who released a vast archive of U.S. military and diplomatic documents to WikiLeaks) in prison for three years, much of it in solitary confinement under humiliating conditions. Long gone is the archaic notion of a speedy trial before a jury of peers. On July 30 a military judge found Manning guilty of charges that could lead to a maximum sentence of 136 years. Like Snowden, Manning committed the crime of revealing to Americans—and others—what their government is doing. That is a severe breach of “security” in the operative meaning of the term, familiar to anyone who has pored over declassified documents.
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, Atul Gawande, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, bonus culture, Brian Krebs, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, financial innovation, Flash crash, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, High speed trading, hiring and firing, housing crisis, informal economy, information retrieval, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, kremlinology, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Mark Zuckerberg, mobile money, moral hazard, new economy, Nicholas Carr, offshore financial centre, PageRank, pattern recognition, precariat, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, risk-adjusted returns, search engine result page, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, statistical arbitrage, statistical model, Steven Levy, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, two-sided market, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, WikiLeaks
This is not a “bug” in our surveillance system, but a “feature.”192 Note that the very definition of fusion centers includes their willingness to receive information from private parties. The Snowden leaks make the shared infrastructure of state and private data collection incontrovertible. Never again can data deregulationists claim that corporate data collection is entirely distinct and far less threatening than government surveillance. They are irreversibly intertwined. Enduring Opacity Despite the leaks of Snowden (and Chelsea Manning and Julian Assange), the national surveillance apparatus is still opaque on many levels.193 It enjoys both real and legal secrecy, hidden as it is in secure networks and protected by the heavy hand of the law. There’s plenty of complexity, too, should secrecy fail. Intelligence agencies commission private defense contractors like SAIC, Northrop Grumman, Booz Allen, and Palantir to devise specialized software to monitor their data sources—which include social networks.194 Their algorithms are complex enough by themselves, but the contractors are also bound to protect company trade secrets.
We may learn a great deal about the target of the hack, but innocent people’s secrets can be exposed as well. A fully transparent society would be a nightmare of privacy invasion, voyeurism, and intellectual property theft. Sometimes the route to orderly and productive investigation is to entrust the job to a small group of experts. For example, courts often need to have a deep knowledge about events leading up to a legal dispute. Even leading leakers seem to agree: both Julian Assange and Edward Snowden fi ltered their revelations though trusted news sources. I call this general trend “qualified transparency”—limiting revelations in order to respect all the interests involved in a given piece of information. As time goes on, the negative impact of disclosure fades. Statutes of limitation run; power moves to other hands; technology that was once state-of-the-art becomes irrelevant.
Twitter also pointed to a similar situation in 2010, when people had been complaining that #wikileaks did not appear prominently enough in Trending Topics. At that time, the company explained: Twitter Trends are automatically generated by an algorithm that . . . captures the hottest emerging topics, not just what’s most popu lar. Put another way, Twitter favors novelty over popularity. . . . THE HIDDEN LOGICS OF SEARCH 77 Topics break into the Trends list when the volume of Tweets about that topic at a given moment dramatically increases. . . . Sometimes, popular terms don’t make the Trends list because the velocity of conversation isn’t increasing quickly enough, relative to the baseline level of conversation happening on an average day; this is what happened with #wikileaks this week.109 The #wikileaks and #occupy controversies died down quickly after Twitter offered these explanations.
Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by Dariusz Jemielniak
Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, citation needed, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Debian, deskilling, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, moral hazard, online collectivism, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons
However, he was laid off because of lack of funds in 2002, after which he apparently lost faith in the project (in his farewell message he skeptically wrote that “Wikipedia still might succeed brilliantly”; Berstein, 2011). Since then he has been very critical of it. In 2007 he launched his own online encyclopedia website, Citizendium. Clearly, both being let go from Wikipedia and having his cofounder status questioned left Sanger resentful. Nonetheless, as late as December 2010, when criticizing WikiLeaks and addressing Julian Assange, he mentioned his former affiliation rather than his later projects: “Speaking as Wikipedia’s co-founder, I consider you enemies of the U.S.—not just the government, but the people” (Crovitz, 2010). Identifying himself as Wikipedia’s cofounder might have created the impression that he was speaking for the Wikipedia community or the Wikimedia Foundation, but his view was far from unanimously shared by Wikipedians.
Retrieved from http://www.aetherometry.com/ Electronic_Publications/Politics_of_Science/Antiwikipedia/awp_index.html Coser, L. A. (1957). Social conflict and the theory of social change. The British Journal of Sociology, 8(3), 197–207. Courpasson, D. (2000). Managerial strategies of domination: Power in soft bureaucracies. Organization Studies, 21(1), 141–161. Crombie, A. (1985). The nature and types of search conferences. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 4(1), 3–33. Crovitz, L. G. (2010, December 6). Julian Assange, information anarchist. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://topics.wsj.com/article/SB100014240527487039890045 75653113548361870.html Crowston, K., & Howison, J. (2006). Hierarchy and centralization in free and open source software team communications. Knowledge, Technology and Policy, 18(4), 65–85. Crowston, K., Heckman, R., Annabi, H., & Masango, C. (2005). A structurational perspective on leadership in free/libre open source software teams.
([[User_talk:Jimbo_Wales/Archive_122]]) At the time of this writing, discussion of the changes is still under way, yet it is quite clear that Wales recognized that his resignation from operational influence has further legitimized his strategic authority. 1 7 4 L e a d e r s h i p T r a n s f o r m e d Modes of Leadership in Open Collaboration While the founder’s exit has been shown to be a natural stage in organizational development, in this case the limitation of Wales’s involvement was both consciously planned and a contingent process of management models and philosophies open-community leadership, both to some extent present in the free/ libre and open-source-software (F/LOSS) environment. E. G. Coleman (2011) points out that digital-generation communities may be governed by principles as diverse as those of WikiLeaks (with one charismatic leader making all decisions and monopolizing the limelight) to those of Anonymous (an antileader and anticelebrity group). Even though rarely falling on the extremes of that continuum, large open-collaboration projects tend to rely on two kinds of models: a democratic community-decision-making process (elections, representation) and “benevolent dictatorship” (Raymond, 1998, 1999/2004).
additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey
Kenyan lawyer Ory Okolloh and a blogger called “M” launched a watchdog site in 2006 on Kenya’s corrupt political scene. 34 Iranian-American Kelly Golnoush Niknejad started TehranBureau.com to gather and spread news directly from fellow Iranians during the popular uprising after the 2009 presidential elections, with foreign journalists banned from the country. 35 Sami Ben Gharbia, a blogger and civil society activist, helped incite anti-regime demonstrations in Tunisia by using his group blog to spread devastating tales of corruption contained in the US diplomatic cables released through WikiLeaks. These new actors are enriching the scope of political discourse around the world. They operate outside the channels and beyond the control of traditional political organizations, both government- and party-related. They are ubiquitous and, when facing repression, they can also be highly elusive. But technology is simply the tool. The bigger picture is a cascading diffusion of power that has put individuals in an unprecedented position not only to bypass political institutions developed over decades but also to influence, persuade, or constrain “real” politicians more directly and more effectively than any classical political theorist could have imagined. HEDGE FUNDS AND HACKTIVISTS Left in a room together, John Paulson and Julian Assange might soon be at each other’s throats.
And the dawn of the twenty-first century, with the Soviet Union consigned to the history books, found just one player paramount: the sole superpower, the hegemon, the United States. For the first time in history, many argued, the struggle for power among nations had produced one single, clear, and maybe even final winner. Consider the evidence from WikiLeaks, which released a trove of more than 250,000 US diplomatic cables that, as the organization’s leader Julian Assange luridly put it, “show the extent of U.S. spying on its allies and the UN; turning a blind eye to corruption and human rights abuse in ‘client states’; backroom deals with supposedly neutral countries; lobbying for U.S. corporations; and the measures U.S. diplomats take to advance those who have access to them.”3 The reaction of experienced analysts such as Jessica Mathews, the president of the Carnegie Endowment in Washington, is that this is not a surprise: “This is precisely what hegemony has always been.
In geopolitics, small players—whether “minor” countries or nonstate entities—have acquired new opportunities to veto, interfere in, redirect, and generally stymie the concerted efforts of “big powers” and multilateral organizations such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF). To name just a few instances: Poland’s vetoing of the EU’s low-carbon policy, the attempts by Turkey and Brazil to derail the big powers’ negotiations with Iran over its nuclear program, Wikileaks’ disclosure of US diplomatic secrets, the Gates Foundation’s contesting of the World Health Organization leadership in the fight against malaria, and spoilers of various stripes and sizes in global negotiations on trade, climate change, and numerous other issues. These newly and increasingly relevant “small players” are vastly different from one another, as are the fields they compete in. But they have in common the fact that they no longer require size, scope, history, or entrenched tradition to make their mark.
@War: The Rise of the Military-Internet Complex by Shane Harris
Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Brian Krebs, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, computer age, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, failed state, Firefox, Julian Assange, mutually assured destruction, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks, zero day
Hunton & Williams asked the trio, which operated under the name Team Themis, if they could do the same job for supporters of WikiLeaks, and also if they could locate where the organization was storing classified information it got from its anonymous sources. “Apparently, if they can show that WikiLeaks is hosting data in certain countries, it will make prosecution easier,” a member of the trio wrote in an e-mail to his colleagues. Justice Department officials were looking for information they could use to indict WikiLeaks’ founder, Julian Assange, who had posted classified military intelligence reports and State Department cables. Now the feds wanted to outsource part of their investigation, by putting Bank of America in touch with Team Themis, which drew its name from the mythological Greek Titan who represented “divine law,” as opposed to the law of men. Team Themis included Palantir Technologies, a Silicon Valley startup that had been making fast friends with such national security heavyweights as Richard Perle, former chairman of the Defense Policy Board and an influential Republican operative, as well as George Tenet, former director of the CIA, who had gone to work for Herb Allen, a Palantir investor and head of the enigmatic investment bank Allen & Company, which hosts the annual Sun Valley Conference, bringing together celebrity journalists, athletes, and business leaders.
Themis planned to set up an analysis cell that would feed the law firm information about “adversarial entities and networks of interest,” according to a proposal the team created. The CEO of HBGary, Aaron Barr, said the team should collect information about WikiLeaks’ “global following and volunteer staff,” along with the group’s donors, in order to intimidate them. “Need to get people to understand that if they support the organization we will come after them,” Barr wrote in an e-mail. He suggested submitting fake documents to WikiLeaks in hopes that the site would publish them and then be discredited. Barr also urged targeting “people like Glenn Greenwald,” the blogger and vocal WikiLeaks supporter, and he said he wanted to launch “cyberattacks” on a server WikiLeaks was using in Sweden, in order to “get data” about WikiLeaks’ anonymous sources and expose them. Team Themis never had the chance to launch its espionage and propaganda campaign.
The Los Angeles Police Department is another Palantir customer, as is the New York Police Department, which runs an intelligence and counterterrorism unit that many experts believe is more sophisticated than the FBI’s or the CIA’s. Though Team Themis failed, the US government has turned to other private cyber sleuths to go after WikiLeaks and help with other investigations. Tiversa, a Pittsburgh-based company, grabbed headlines in 2011 when it accused WikiLeaks of using peer-to-peer file-sharing systems, like those used to swap music downloads, to obtain classified US military documents. WikiLeaks, which claims only to publish documents that it receives from whistleblowers, called the allegations “completely false.” Tiversa gave its findings to government investigators, who had been trying to build a case against Assange. Tiversa’s board of advisers includes prominent security experts and former US officials, such as General Wesley Clark, former Supreme Allied Commander of NATO forces in Europe and onetime Democratic presidential candidate, and Howard Schmidt, who was Barack Obama’s cyber security adviser in the White House.
The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen
3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator
Mielke amassed personal data with the same relentlessness that Google’s Street View car collected the emails, photos, and passwords of online German citizens between 2008 and 2010—a privacy breach that Johannes Caspar, the German regulator in charge of the investigation into Google’s behavior, described as “one of the biggest data-protection rules violations known.”8 But, as a violator of our online data, Google faces stiff competition from its rival Facebook. TechCrunch’s Natasha Lomas suggests that Facebook’s “creepy data-grabbing ways,” such as the 2013 harvesting of the personal contact information of 6 million of its users, or that secret 2012 study to control the emotions of 689,000 of its users,9 make it the “Borg of the digital world.”10 WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, who knows a thing or two about spying himself, even accuses Facebook of being the “greatest spying machine the world has ever seen.”11 So is Facebook really the greatest spying machine in world history—greater than either the Stasi, the CIA, or Google? Citing Google’s Street View car privacy violations, the German privacy regulator Johannes Caspar might doubt Assange’s assertion, as probably would privacy watchdogs in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy who collectively told Google in the summer of 2013 that the company would face legal sanctions unless it changed its 2012 policy of unifying personal data collected from all its different services.12 Others would also award this dubious honor to Google.
Certainly online eyes remain much less valuable than offline ones, with average advertising rates of the printed edition of a major newspaper being around ten times its online cost.36 The same is true of the value of offline versus online readers, with the Newspaper Association of America estimating that the average print reader is worth around $539 versus the $26 value of the online reader.37 And free certainly isn’t working as an economic model for online newspapers. Take, for example, the world’s third most frequently visited news website, the London Guardian. In spite of breaking the News of the World phone hacking scandal and the Edward Snowden and WikiLeaks stories, the Guardian has reported operating losses of more than £100 million since 2010, with a stunning £50 million lost just between 2012 and 2013.38 No wonder the Guardian is experimenting with a robot-generated print edition called #Open001, which replaces editors with algorithms to select relevant stories for publication.39 But robots can’t write the kind of high-quality journalism that distinguishes the Guardian from most of its rivals.
Animal: The Autobiography of a Female Body by Sara Pascoe
You may be economically dependent on him, with no chance of escape. No door to close to keep yourself safe from future attacks. What keeps surprising me is how relaxed some people seem about men using women’s bodies. Like there’s something ‘natural’ or understandable about it. I’ll give you an example. In 2010, a warrant was issued by Swedish police for the arrest of Julian Assange. The case gained a lot of publicity because of Assange’s pre-existing notoriety as the co-founder of the WikiLeaks website. He was accused of rape by one woman and of molestation by another. In both cases the alleged assault took place AFTER consensual sex. In the first account, a woman who willingly had sex with Assange one night, at her apartment, awoke the next morning to find that he was having penetrative intercourse with her against her will.
We all know that knives are scary, so if I tell you I was mugged by someone holding a machete, you can understand my terror. But if I tell you I was mugged by someone with no weapon but I still gave him all my money and was scared for my life … then maybe you fail to sympathise. I was stupid or weak, I did something wrong. You might walk away muttering, ‘Wasn’t really a mugging at all, I dunno why she’s so upset about it.’ Which was how George Galloway reacted to the claims against Julian Assange. In a podcast the politician went on record to say: ‘Even taken at its worst, if the allegations made by these two women were true, one hundred per cent true, and even if a camera in the room captured them, they don’t constitute rape. At least not rape as anyone with any sense can possibly recognise it. And somebody has to say this.’ It is clear that Galloway really believes this. He is not trying to be incendiary or hurtful or offensive, he feels he is bringing common sense and objectivity to the matter.
In 2005 the Swedish penal code was extended and clarified so that ‘this also applies if a person engages with another person in sexual intercourse or in a sexual act by improperly exploiting that person, due to unconsciousness, sleep, serious fear, intoxication or other drug influence, illness, physical injury or mental disturbance, or otherwise in view of the circumstances, is in a particularly vulnerable situation’. George Galloway may not recognise the allegations against Julian Assange as rape but the Swedish legal system most certainly does. ‘Sleep’, it says. In between ‘unconsciousness’ and ‘serious fear’, recognised as a state in which someone cannot properly give their consent. Oh but that’s in liberal old Sweden,† maybe the confusion has arisen because our British legal system has a different definition and putting your erect penis in sleeping folk is okay here … let me check … okay, so looking at statutory law, since 1956 rape is ‘unlawful sexual intercourse with a woman who at the time of the intercourse does not consent to it’, when either the rapist ‘knows that she does not consent to the intercourse or he is reckless as to whether she consents to it’.
airport security, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global rebalancing, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Julian Assange, labour mobility, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nixon shock, nuclear winter, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War
.* Recent attacks are among the most effective ever seen in the corporate world, but that’s a record made to be broken. Finally comes the threat posed by info-anarchists and technically sophisticated criminals. In 2010, WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange barely missed becoming Time magazine’s Person of the Year after the release of thousands of politically sensitive documents badly embarrassed Washington and other governments around the world.5 In 2011, efforts by several governments to shut him and WikiLeaks down made him the world’s first cybermartyr. In response, an army of info-anarchists operating under the name Anonymous launched cyberattacks on those governments and denial-of-service attacks on financial services companies PayPal and MasterCard after they severed ties with WikiLeaks. Other companies have become targets of online criminals. Sony has suffered raids on personal information involving tens of millions of customers.
climate change and, 94 as debtor nation, 65, 158, 187 decline of, 63–66 defense program of, 12, 71, 76, 186, 191 entitlement programs in, 12–13, 65, 190 federal debt of, 3, 12, 34, 38, 51, 60, 62, 81, 172, 186, 189 fiscal stimulus in, 11 in G2 with China, 155–84 growing divergence with Chinese economic policies, 62–63, 77 intellectual property laws and, 84 Internet protocol in, 89 leadership role of, 3, 5, 14–15, 24, 25, 40–41, 111, 129, 154, 195 loss of manufacturing jobs in, 64 military commitments of, 187 nuclear program of, 59 oil exported by, 47–48 outsourcing by, 126–27 Pakistan’s relationship with, 115 pollution caused by, 158 poor infrastructure of, 186, 189 possibility of Chinese war with, 170–74 reduced role of, 194, 195 smart grids in, 73 taxes in, 190 trade by, 116–17, 120, 143, 153, 154, 158, 163 unemployment in, 77 in withdrawal from Iraq, 32 in world currency and debt crises, 38 United States and the World Economy, The (Bergsten), 157–58 urbanization, 52, 99, 104–5, 118 Uzbekistan, 135 Varyag, 23 vegetable oil, 100 Venezuela, 25, 48, 138, 168, 177, 182 state capitalism in, 78 Vietnam, 23, 70, 114, 121, 129, 140–41, 194 multinationals in, 80 rice exported by, 102 water security in, 105 Vietnam War, 49 Voice of America, 92 WAPI, 86 war on terror, 11 wars, 123 prevention of, 68 Warsaw Pact, 53 Washington, George, 7 Washington Consensus, 42, 46, 174 water, 68 security of, 3, 5, 97, 104–7, 129–30, 140, 147 Wells, H. G., 86–87 Wen Jiabao, 8, 12, 21, 143 Western Europe, 46–47 oil imported by, 47 West Germany, 45, 46, 47, 53, 82, 165 Wi-Fi, 86 WikiLeaks, 75 World Bank, 4, 28, 29–30, 99, 104, 118, 134, 135 American and European influence in, 42, 43–44 creation of, 39, 43 in world currency and debt crises, 38 World Brain (Wells), 86–87 World Trade Organization, 60 Doha Round, 103 World War I, 3, 11, 40, 141, 167, 170 World War II, 11, 38–40, 56–57, 151, 170, 187 Xinhua, 8, 62, 70 Yanukovych, Viktor, 138 Yeltsin, Boris, 54 Yemen, 14, 67, 114 chaos in, 112, 175, 183 yen, 83 Yom Kippur War, 48–49 yuan: China accused of manipulation of, 79–80, 154, 161–62 as international currency, 83 Yugoslavia, 32 Zambia, 119, 120 Zimbabwe, 7–8, 130, 131–32 Zoellick, Robert, 157 ALSO BY IAN BREMMER The End of the Free Market: Who Wins the War Between States and Corporations?
The Way of the Gun: A Bloody Journey Into the World of Firearms by Iain Overton
air freight, airport security, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, clean water, Columbine, David Attenborough, Etonian, Ferguson, Missouri, gender pay gap, gun show loophole, illegal immigration, interchangeable parts, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, More Guns, Less Crime, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, Y2K, Yom Kippur War
It was a late springtime London, 2010, when I received a phone call from someone I had never spoken to before, and they asked me if I would like to meet a man I had never met. I was told this could be of real interest to me, and on hearing his name I thought the same. Julian Assange – the Australian provocateur, a Scarlet Pimpernel for our digital age – wanted to talk. Julian was at London’s choice venue for hard-bitten hacks and war correspondents, the Frontline Club in Paddington. Heading there, I found him holed up in one of their rooms, being interviewed by CNN. Nervous and a little self-conscious, he was unused to the media spotlight and here he was being asked about a set of documents his whistleblowing organisation, Wikileaks, had just released: a cache of military reports that exposed the truth about America’s war in Afghanistan. Julian had some of the most controversial secret documents ever to find their way to the light of day.
And in so thinking, the gun took me down a path that led away from those impacted by guns, towards those who wield them. III. Power 5. THE KILLERS The world of mass shooters and assassins – Finland recalled – a bloody day in a teaching college – the American mass shooter examined – Norway – travelling into the wilds – the scene of the worst mass shooting in history – an Oslo drink with a killer’s expert – a meeting with Julian Assange in London – the ugly offerings of the dark web There are many types of people who kill other people with guns. There are those who do so for the explicit control of power. They are, by and large, criminals, gang members, terrorists, policemen or military personnel. When they pull a trigger and a life is ended, people in one of these groups do so out of obedience to a specific ideology or dogma.
Caught in the green-blue glow of a screen, I was told to download certain applications, and his terse words guided me through a portal I had never known existed. I felt ashamed at my technological illiteracy. He told me about TOR, a system that allows its users to search the internet without their computer’s address being revealed. One that lets you look at websites untraced, because TOR wraps your servers’ information around other servers’ information, hiding you behind peeled layers of anonymity, like an onion. Clearly, the head of Wikileaks needed the anonymity that TOR offers, just like investigative journalists do. But some others do not. Others use TOR not out of need, but desire. For many things lurk deep in the hearts of men, and if you give them a tool to hide their identities they will use it. Within minutes I had access to sites that sold things like $20 syringes full of HIV positive blood, a vendetta’s stabbing tool. Where you could buy a soldier’s skull from Verdun for $5,000.
Top Secret America: The Rise of the New American Security State by Dana Priest, William M. Arkin
airport security, business intelligence, dark matter, friendly fire, Google Earth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Julian Assange, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, WikiLeaks
In August 2007, eighteen FBI agents, some with their guns drawn, burst into his home with only his wife and children present, to raid his files during an investigation into his alleged role in helping the New York Times develop its seminal warrantless surveillance story in 2004. The government dropped his case nearly four years later, in April 2011, after Tamm’s career had been ruined and he faced financial peril. The Justice Department is also mulling an indictment on espionage charges against WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange for publishing tens of thousands of pages of classified U.S. diplomatic cables and war-related field reports, some of them allegedly provided by a young army private first class, who is also under arrest. Regardless of Assange’s publicly stated bias against U.S. policies and the allegations against his personal behavior, this unprecedented trove of material has allowed reporters around the world to write some of the most insightful and revealing stories of our time.
The number of secrets has become so enormous that the people in charge of keeping them can’t possibly succeed. That is one lesson from the WikiLeaks disclosures. The leaked State Department cables were allegedly first available to a disgruntled army private with a history of instability because the government wasn’t giving even a basic level of protection to those documents, and because his colleagues allowed him to bring a rewritable CD-ROM with Lady Gaga’s music into work, not realizing it could act as the black bag into which a quarter of a million sensitive diplomatic cables could be dumped and carted away. In the government-wide security and counterintelligence investigation that has followed the WikiLeaks disclosures, government experts have learned that most federal agencies have little understanding of how to protect their sensitive information, according to people involved in the review.
At any one time, he could find as many as 15,000 listings for very specialized positions that required a top secret clearance. Between 2006 and 2010 he cataloged 182,000 such job announcements in his files. As he did so, Arkin started to count government organizations and private companies working at the “secret” level of classification. Something is classified secret5 if its unauthorized disclosure would cause “serious damage” to national security. For instance, many of the State Department cables published by WikiLeaks are classified secret because they provide candid assessments of foreign leaders and agreements. Routine field reports from military units are also classified secret on the theory that they might provide useful tidbits to an enemy. He was quickly overwhelmed by the volume. There were simply too many organizations and companies to track. Had he been looking prior to September 11, he would have expected to see evidence of a significant number of such programs, but the post-9/11 quantity was mind-boggling.
Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War
Many Americans will think of the publication of the Pentagon Papers by the New York Times and Washington Post in the early 1970s: leaked copies of internal US government reports showing just how unsuccessfully and mendaciously the United States was prosecuting the Vietnam War. More recently, we think of the publication by the Guardian and other leading newspapers and magazines—including Der Spiegel, Le Monde and The Hindu—of carefully redacted versions of secret US State Department communications leaked by Private Bradley (subsequently Chelsea) Manning via Julian Assange’s WikiLeaks, and then a selection of the NSA and GCHQ documents passed to them by Snowden. When he first met the journalists involved, in a hotel in Hong Kong, Snowden specifically explained that he wanted experienced news media to decide what it would be in the public interest to publish.56 One can always argue about this or that specific editorial decision, but in general, these newspapers exercised an important controlling function in the public interest; one which government, parliament and the courts had failed to perform.
But maybe the combined secret power of the state and companies, P2, is sometimes such that you need these extraordinary measures to combat it? It was not just hacktivists who covered their faces with the stylised Guy Fawkes mask of Anonymous, inspired by the film ‘V for Vendetta’, when they joined real-life protests at what they saw as the abuse of anonymous state and corporate power revealed by Julian Assange and Edward Snowden.144 After all, police or secret services would photograph you as you marched, and enter your digital image ineradicably into a searchable database. Perhaps it takes anonymous to restrain the power of anonymous? 8 SECRECY ‘We must be empowered to challenge all limits to freedom of information justified on such grounds as national security’. S: You can’t say that. C: Why not?
The US supports such technologies to promote the spread of good things (democracy, human rights, free speech) and opposes them to prevent the spread of bad ones (terrorism, cybercrime, child pornography, infringements of intellectual property). But who decides what is good or bad? The United States. A State Department spokesperson, asked to explain the apparent inconsistency between her criticism of the Indian government for blocking sites the Indian government considered dangerous and Washington’s own stance on Wikileaks, said: ‘WikiLeaks didn’t have to do with freedom of the internet. It had to do with . . . the compromise of US Government classified information’.87 While governments must naturally assert perfect consistency, there is a tension here, as America’s left hand points in a different direction to and sometimes wrestles with its right. In a reference to Hillary Clinton, this has been called the Clinton Paradox.88 With these reservations, it is nonetheless fair to say that the United States remains at once the most powerful and the most consistently pro–free speech state in the early-twenty-first-century world.
Ayatollah Khomeini, Brian Krebs, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Earth, information retrieval, Julian Assange, Loma Prieta earthquake, Maui Hawaii, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, smart grid, smart meter, South China Sea, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day
The article quoted a US source speculating that “malicious software” could be used to commandeer or crash controls at an enrichment plant.11 But there was another reason to suspect that Natanz was Stuxnet’s target. On July 16, 2009, three weeks after the 2009 version of Stuxnet was released, WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange posted a cryptic note to his website about a possible accident at Natanz. An anonymous source claiming to be associated with Iran’s nuclear program had told Assange that a “serious” nuclear accident had recently occurred at the plant.12 WikiLeaks usually published only documents on its site, not tips from anonymous sources, but Assange broke protocol, he said, because he had reason to believe the source was credible. He linked to a BBC story published that day, which announced the resignation of Gholam Reza Aghazadeh, the head of Iran’s Atomic Energy Organization, who had relinquished his position twenty days earlier for unknown reasons.13 The time frame seemed to align with when the 2009 version of Stuxnet was released.
The Age of Deception: Nuclear Diplomacy in Treacherous Times (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2011), 141–47. 26 Karl Vick, “Iran’s President Calls Holocaust ‘Myth’ in Latest Assault on Jews,” Washington Post, Foreign Service, December 15, 2005. 27 “06Kuwait71, Kuwait’s Country Wide Radiation Monitoring System,” US State Department cable from the US embassy in Kuwait to the State Department in Washington, DC, January 2006. Published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2006/01/06KUWAIT71.html. 28 The assessment comes from Ariel (Eli) Levite, deputy director general of the Israel Atomic Energy Commission, in a September 2005 US State Department cable from the Tel Aviv embassy, published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2005/09/05TELAVIV5705.html. 29 “06TelAviv293, Iran: Congressman Ackerman’s January 5 Meeting at,” US State Department cable from the US embassy in Tel Aviv, January 2006. Published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2006/01/06TELAVIV293.html. See this page in this book for an explanation of the problems. 30 Privately, Israel and Russia both told the United States they believed Iran could actually master its enrichment difficulties within six months.
See this page in this book for an explanation of the problems. 30 Privately, Israel and Russia both told the United States they believed Iran could actually master its enrichment difficulties within six months. See “06Cairo601, Iran; Centrifuge Briefing to Egyptian MFA,” US State Department cable, February 2006, published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2006/02/06CAIRO601.html. 31 “06TelAviv688, Iran-IAEA: Israeli Atomic Energy Commission,” US State Department cable, February 2006, published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2006/02/06TELAVIV688.html. 32 Ibid. 33 “Iran Defiant on Nuclear Deadline,” BBC News, August 1, 2006, available at news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/5236010.stm. 34 “07Berlins1450, Treasury Under Secretary Levey Discusses Next,” US State Department cable from the embassy in Berlin, July 2007, published by WikiLeaks at wikileaks.org/cable/2007/07/07BERLIN1450.html. The cable mentions that at least thirty Iranian front companies had been established for procurement.
4chan, Airbnb, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, capital controls, Colonization of Mars, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, life extension, litecoin, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Startup school, stealth mode startup, the payments system, transaction costs, tulip mania, WikiLeaks
A FEW MONTHS earlier the big concern plaguing the Bitcoin forum was how to attract new users, but now the problem was how to deal with the influx of new users, their potentially malicious behavior, and their competing interests. These problems became particularly pronounced after Bitcoin’s next big jump into the spotlight. In November, WikiLeaks, the organization founded by a regular participant in the old Cypherpunk movement, Julian Assange, released a vast trove of confidential American diplomatic documents that revealed previously secret operations around the world. The large credit card companies and PayPal came under immediate political pressure to cut off donations to WikiLeaks, which they did in early December, in what became known as the WikiLeaks blockade. This move pointed to the potentially troubling nexus between the financial industry and the government. If politicians didn’t like the ideas of a particular group, government officials could ask banks and credit card networks to deny the unpopular group access to the financial system, often without requiring any judicial approval.
The financial industry seemed to provide politicians with an extralegal way to crack down on dissent. The WikiLeaks blockade went to the core of some of the concerns that had motivated the original Cypherpunks. Bitcoin, in turn, seemed to have the potential to counteract the problem. Each person on the network controlled his or her coins with his or her private key. There was no central organization that could freeze a person’s Bitcoin address or stop coins from being sent from a particular address. A few days after the WikiLeaks blockade began, PCWorld wrote a widely circulated story that noted the obvious utility of Bitcoin in the situation: “Nobody can stop the Bitcoin system or censor it, short of turning off the entire Internet. If WikiLeaks had requested Bitcoins then they would have received their donations without a second thought.”
It wasn’t clear if Bitcoin could actually be used in this particular instance, but whatever the practical possibilities, the blockade was helping elevate the debate around Bitcoin beyond the rather narrow issues of privacy and government money-printing that had been dominant in the early days. Here was a broader philosophical issue that could attract a wider audience, and the forums were full of new members who had been drawn in by the attention. One new user, a young man in England named Amir Taaki, proposed making Bitcoin donations to WikiLeaks. Amir argued this could raise Bitcoin’s profile at the same time that it could help WikiLeaks raise money. This kicked off a vigorous debate on the forum. A number of programmers worried that the Bitcoin network was not ready for all the traffic—and government scrutiny—that might come if it started to be used for controversial donations. “It is extraordinarily unwise to make Bitcoin such a highly visible target, at such an early stage in this project.
Free Ride by Robert Levine
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Anne Wojcicki, book scanning, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Firefox, future of journalism, Googley, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, linear programming, offshore financial centre, pets.com, publish or perish, race to the bottom, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks
In 1996, when most newspapers were still figuring out how to put stories online, Rusbridger, who had been named top editor the previous year, started the Guardian Online as a separate division. During the dot-com bust, as other newspapers cut online staff, he kept investing in digital journalism. More recently, he delivered some of the smartest coverage of the U.S. diplomatic cables from WikiLeaks, dealing with Julian Assange to get the information and asking readers what was worth searching for in the trove of documents. Although more news outlets have started charging for content, Rusbridger believes Internet “paywalls” could hurt journalism itself. “That might be the right direction in business terms, while simultaneously reducing access and influence in editorial terms,” Rusbridger said in a January 2010 speech at the London College of Communication.
The demand for U.S. movies isn’t likely to change soon; countries with homegrown film businesses rarely produce effects-driven popcorn fare like Wolverine. But exporting them relies on international recognition of copyright, which the Internet is eroding. Movies also shape the world’s idea of what the United States stands for, as a cable written by an American diplomat in Saudi Arabia released on WikiLeaks showed. “It’s still all about the War of Ideas here, and the American programming on [the television channels] MBC and Rotana is winning over ordinary Saudis in a way that [the U.S.-funded satellite channel] ‘Al Hurra’ and other U.S. propaganda never could,” read the May 2009 message.25 Titled “David Letterman: Agent of Influence,” it mentioned Friends and Desperate Housewives as being particularly popular.
A 2005 MPAA-funded LEK study, “The Cost of Movie Piracy,” showed that studios lost $6.1 billion to piracy, but the MPAA has retracted the parts of that study related to illegal downloading among college students. 21. This ratio was used in the March 2010 Terra Consultants study, “Building a Digital Economy: The Importance of Saving Jobs in the EU’s Creative Industries.” 22. According to Nash Information Services. 23. According to BigChampagne. 24. This ratio was also used in the Terra Consultants study. 25. Robert Booth, “WikiLeaks Cable: Jihad? Sorry, I Don’t Want to Miss Desperate Housewives,” Guardian, December 7, 2010. 26. Ricardo H. Cavazos Cepeda, Douglas C. Lippoldt, and Jonathan Senft, “Policy Complements to the Strengthening of IPRs in Developing Countries” (OECD Trade Policy Working Paper No. 104, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, September 14, 2010). 27. David Lieberman, “Disney Chief Offers a Ray of Encouragement to UltraViolet Movie Coalition,” USA Today, November 11, 2010. 28.
Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks
My former agent, Mary Cunnane, was instrumental in formulating some of the ideas in this book. Thanks to my Australian publisher, Melbourne University Press, for continuing to back my vision. Louise Adler, Elisa Berg, Sally Heath, Paul Smitz, and Penelope White have all contributed hugely to the vision in your hands. I continue to be inspired by a range of journalists and groups whose work informs my own: Julian Assange and WikiLeaks, Pratap Chatterjee, Glenn Greenwald, Amy Goodman, the late and great Michael Hastings, Naomi Klein, Dahr Jamail, Chelsea Manning, George Monbiot, Greg Palast, John Pilger, Jeremy Scahill, Edward Snowden, and Matt Taibbi. Alison Martin is a truly unique woman who constantly challenges, provokes, and loves me. Her intelligence, insights, and warmth run through this book. Our life journey together is one of the best damn things to ever happen to me.
New York Times, May 28, 2014. 46Saskia Sassen, “European Economy’s Invisible Transformation: Expulsions and Predatory Capitalism,” London School of Economics and Political Science, July 3, 2014, at blogs.lse.ac.uk. 47Harriet Alexander, “Greece’s Great Fire Sale,” Telegraph, April 20, 2013. 48“Privatization of Athens Water Utility Ruled Unconstitutional,” Press Project, May 28, 2014, at thepressproject.net. 49Niki Kitsantonis, “Greece Wars with Courts over Ways to Slash Budget,” New York Times, June 12, 2014. 50Daniel Trilling, “Shock Therapy and the Gold Mine,” New Statesman, June 18, 2013. 51“Europe’s Failed Course,” New York Times, February 17, 2012. 52Joanna Kakissis, “36 hours in Athens,” New York Times, October 19, 2014. 53Yiannis Baboulias, “Our Big Fat Greek Privatisation Scandals,” Al Jazeera English, June 10, 2014. 54Helen Smith, “Greece Begins 50 Billion Euro Privatisation Drive,” Guardian, August 1, 2010. 55Slavoj Žižek, “Save Us from the Saviours,” London Review of Books, May 28, 2012. 56Alexander, “Greece’s Fire Sale.” 57Ibid. 58Katie Allen, “Austerity in Greece Caused More than 500 Male Suicides, Say Researchers,” Guardian, April 21, 2014. 59Mark Lowen, “Greek’s Million Unpaid Workers,” BBC News, December 5, 2013. 60“Sisa: Cocaine of the Poor,” Vice News, May 22, 2013, at vice.com. 61Liz Alderman, “Societal Ills Spike in Crisis-Stricken Greece,” New York Times, May 22, 2013. 3Haiti 1Mark Schuller and Pablo Morales, eds, Tectonic Shifts (Sterling, VA: Stylus, 2012). 2Ibid., p. 2. 3Ansel Herz and Kim Ives, “Wikileaks Haiti: The Post-Quake ‘Gold Rush’ for Reconstruction Contracts,” Nation, June 15, 2011. 4Deepa Panchang, Beverly Bell, and Tory Field, “Disaster Capitalism: Profiting from Crisis in Post-Earthquake Haiti,” Truthout, February 16, 2011, at truth-out.org. 5Herz and Ives, “Wikileaks Haiti.” 6The AshBritt company was accused of questionable practices in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, the CEPR revealing that a “2006 congressional report examining federal contract waste and abuse noted AshBritt used multiple layers of subcontractors, each of whom got paid while passing on the actual work.”
Market speculators pressurize fragile nations such as Greece, whose citizens are forced to survive with fewer public services.9 British citizens living on the margins face eviction or spiraling rent increases because global fund managers, such as Westbrook—based in the United States—purchase homes as assets to be milked for profit.10 The International Monetary Fund (IMF) traverses the world with the backing of Western elites, strong-arming nations into privatizing their resources and opening up their markets to multinationals. Resistance to this bitter medicine is only one reason that large swathes of Latin America have become more independent since the 2000s. The mass privatization that results—a central plank of US foreign policy—guarantees corruption in autocracies. Wikileaks’ State Department cables offer countless examples of this, including in Egypt under former president Hosni Mubarak.11 The World Bank is equally complicit and equally unaccountable. In 2015 it admitted that it had no idea how many people had been forced off their lands around the world due to its resettlement policies. The story barely made the news and no heads rolled. One Californian town, Maywood, took the privatization memo a bit too seriously.
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov
3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks
It’s groups and networks—which are distributed and often span borders—that hold power; hierarchies and states, confined as they are to fixed territories and programs of action, are outfoxed at every turn. This notion of the almost God-given superiority of networks informs Shirky’s interpretation of WikiLeaks, the one transnational network to rule them all. Thus, in a later speech, Shirky argues that “there was no way the State Department could go to WikiLeaks and have a conversation that hinged on or even involved anything called the national interest. Julian [Assange] is not a U.S. citizen, he is an Australian citizen. He was not operating on U.S. soil, he was in Iceland. The Pentagon Papers conversation took place entirely within the national matrix, and the WikiLeaks conversation took place outside of it.” Groups win; nation-states lose. Networks good; hierarchies bad. Global good; local bad. The problem here is that Clay Shirky believes that global affairs now work according to the demands of “the Internet,” while, in reality, the story is much more complicated.
The problem here is that Clay Shirky believes that global affairs now work according to the demands of “the Internet,” while, in reality, the story is much more complicated. A conversation about the national interest between the transglobal network that is (was?) WikiLeaks and the US government actually did take place. In fact, according to at least some credible reports, WikiLeaks did offer the State Department the opportunity to review the diplomatic cables and highlight what should be redacted—an opportunity that the ugly and messy hierarchy of the State Department reportedly declined (Mark Stephens, one of Assange’s numerous ex-lawyers, once claimed that two cables were actually removed at their request). Assange himself often complains that the US government thwarted his highly mobile, distributed, and transnational network, not least because Washington can target—not directly but through rhetoric—the very intermediaries, from credit card companies to technology providers, that enable such networks.
But this, of course, is true only if one assumes that platforms like PayPal operate in an absolute power vacuum, completely immune to pressures that countries, institutions, and hierarchies might exert on those engaged in the transactions as well as on PayPal itself. PayPal may have obviated the theoretical need for banks—but its investors still need a bank to cash their checks from PayPal, so no technoescape actually takes place. Consider the role that PayPal has played in the WikiLeaks saga: yes, it was initially a great tool to raise money for Assange’s cause, but the moment WikiLeaks took on the US government, PayPal ran away from Assange (freezing WikiLeaks’s account) in much the same way that Peter Thiel wants to run from reality. Likewise, as of July 2012, PayPal had revised how it deals with file-sharing sites, requiring any sites that want to use PayPal to solicit membership fees from users to ensure that they host no illegal files.
23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day
The number and reach of these highly profitable transnational organized cyber-crime rings have grown, and the security intelligence firm CrowdStrike was actively tracking more than fifty such major organizations globally. Besides transnational organized crime syndicates, hacktivists—politically motivated cyber attackers—represent one of the most influential and powerful groups in cyberspace. Anonymous, LulzSec, AntiSec, WikiLeaks, and the Syrian Electronic Army fall into this group and launch their attacks in retaliation for perceived injustices. Personalities such as Julian Assange, Chelsea (Bradley) Manning, and Edward Snowden have become household names for challenging some of the world’s most powerful institutions and for releasing data that others would most certainly have preferred remain hidden. While Assange, Manning, and Snowden have been propelled onto the covers of newspapers around the world, other hacktivist groups prefer that their individual members remain discreetly hidden in subordination to the organization itself and its broader agenda.
One such notable example is Anonymous, a self-described leaderless organization whose members have become recognizable in public for wearing Guy Fawkes masks. The group’s motto, “We are Anonymous. We are legion. We do not forgive. We do not forget. Expect us,” manifests its organizational ethos: “The corrupt fear us. The honest support us. The heroic join us.” When MasterCard, Visa, and PayPal all agreed to stop funneling donations to Julian Assange’s WikiLeaks organization, Anonymous responded by launching a series of effective cyber attacks against the financial firms. Anonymous is strongly against what it perceives to be rigid antipiracy laws, and it took credit for an earlier attack against the Sony PlayStation Network in response to Sony’s support of U.S. antipiracy legislation known as the Stop Online Piracy Act. Anonymous views itself as hacking for good and has taken on a wide variety of social causes, including its support of activists throughout the Middle East during the Arab Spring.
Eventually, your personal details will fall into the hands of criminal cartels, competitors, and even foreign governments. While big data may be the new oil, our personal data are more like weapons-grade plutonium—dangerous, long lasting, and once they are leaked, there’s no getting them back. Even the federal government is realizing it too can fall victim to this problem. Just look at the 2010 WikiLeaks debacle and the hundreds of thousands of classified diplomatic cables Private Chelsea (Bradley) Manning was able to steal while working as an army intelligence analyst in Iraq. Of course just a few years later, the world would meet Edward Snowden, who used his skills and access as an NSA system administrator to steal millions of highly classified files from America and its allies and share them with journalists for publication online.
Liars and Outliers: How Security Holds Society Together by Bruce Schneier
airport security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Brian Krebs, Broken windows theory, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, corporate governance, crack epidemic, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, desegregation, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Hofstadter, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, George Akerlof, hydraulic fracturing, impulse control, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, iterative process, Jean Tirole, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Julian Assange, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Nate Silver, Network effects, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, patent troll, phenotype, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, security theater, shareholder value, slashdot, statistical model, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, technological singularity, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, too big to fail, traffic fines, transaction costs, ultimatum game, UNCLOS, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Y2K
They are a different sort of actor. On the other hand, Microsoft probably has better systems in place to prevent infiltration by rogue programmers. WikiLeaks is another stateless organization. WikiLeaks sits somewhere between a loose organization of activists and the personal mission of a single individual named Julian Assange. It exposes information that governments and powerful corporations would rather keep secret. In this way it is very much like an organization of journalists. But because it is not a commercial enterprise, and because it is not moored within a country, it's much more difficult to corral. And this scares countries like the United States. Compare WikiLeaks to a traditional newspaper. That newspaper is in a societal dilemma with all the other newspapers in that country. Societal Dilemma: Newspapers publishing government secrets.
In mid-2004, the New York Times learned about the NSA's illegal wiretapping of American citizens without a warrant, but delayed publishing the information for over a year—until well after the presidential election. Presumably there are things the New York Times has learned about and decided not to publish, period. WikiLeaks changes that dynamic. It's not an American company. It's not even a for-profit company. It's not a company at all. And it's not really located in any legal jurisdiction. It simply isn't subject to the same pressures that the New York Times is. This means the government can't rely on the partial cooperation of WikiLeaks in the same way it can rely on that of traditional newspapers.5 In a blog post about the topic, Clay Shirky referred to the Supreme Court ruling in the Pentagon Papers case that said it's illegal to leak secrets but not illegal to publish leaks: The legal bargain from 1971 simply does not and cannot produce the outcome it used to.
Reputational: Society ostracizes those who turn against their own people. Institutional: Laws against war crimes. Security: None. In 2005, Captain Ian Fishback exposed the U.S.'s use of torture in Iraq because of his religious convictions. Similarly, Bradley Manning had to deal with two competing societal dilemmas in 2010 when he allegedly became a whistle-blower and sent 250,000 secret State Department cables to the anti-secrecy group WikiLeaks, which made them public.5 Like the Libyan pilots, he chose to defect from the government and cooperate with what he perceived as the country as a whole. His subsequent treatment by the U.S. government—which incarcerated him, stripped him of due process, and tortured him—is in part a societal pressure by the government to prevent copycat defections. In previous eras, the king might have put his head on a pike for all to see.
CIOs at Work by Ed Yourdon
8-hour work day, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, distributed generation, Flash crash, Googley, Grace Hopper, Infrastructure as a Service, Innovator's Dilemma, inventory management, Julian Assange, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Nicholas Carr, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Zipcar
Yourdon: Is he the one that provided it to the WikiLeaks guy, to [Julian] Assange? Or is that someone else? Strassmann: No, Ames provided to the Russians. Yourdon: Yeah. I thought he was the more traditional one. Who is the guy who gave all of the Wiki stuff? Strassmann: Oh, you know, a low-level sergeant. Yourdon: But the same problem? Strassmann: Same problem, exfiltration. And by the way, the stuff that is being reported is defective. The stuff that is reported that he downloaded, he cut a CD, and sent out by mail for WikiLeaks. Yourdon: Really? Strassmann: So now you are dealing with a problem. I have several trays in there [pointing to his desktop computer] with CDs. Now, are you going to permit people to burn their own CDs? And, you know, today on a DVD, you can put a big database. Right now, WikiLeaks has a list of all the people who had accounts in the Cayman Islands.
., 87 attributes, 108 capital market community, 91 cash/actual trading business, 88 channel marketing departments, 92 cloud computing, 97 CNBC, 89 collaborative technology, 95 collective intelligence, 95 communication skills, 102, 106 conference organizations, 99 consumer marketplace, 94 data center, 90 decision making, 105, 108 economy standpoint, 100 e-mail, 100 Fidelity Investments, 105 financial services, 92 IEEE, 101 innovative impression, 94 Internet, 98 iPad, 97 iPod device, 91 labor laws, 110 listening skills, 106 logical progression, 104 Mac, 96 mainframe, 104 management and leadership, 104, 105 market data system, 89 micro-second response time, 89 mobile applications, 94 multidisciplinary approach, 103 multimedia, 97 multi-national projects, 110 multiprocessing options, 99 network operating system, 103 NYSE Euronext, 87 open outside system, 88 parallel programming models, 99 personal satisfaction, 109 PR function, 106 proclaimed workaholic, 109 real estate business, 88 regulatory and security standpoint, 96 Rolodex, 94 Rubin, Howard, 99 server department, 97 software development, 89 sophisticated technology, 101 technology business, 88 technology integration, 91 trading engines, 90 typewriter ribbon, 94 virtualization, 98 Windows 7, 96 younger generation video games, 93 visual interfaces, 93 Rumsfeld, Donald, 222 S San Diego Fire Department, 224 Santa Clara University, 36 SAS programs, 131 Scott, Tony, 10, 33, 236 Android, 43 Apple Computer, 35 architectural flaw, 44 BASIC and Pascal, 35 Bristol-Myers Squibb, 33 Bunch, Rick (role model), 34 business groups, 42 COO, 39 Corporate Vice President, 33 Corvus disk drive, 36 CSC, 35 Defense department, 45 dogfooding, 37, 38 games and arcades, 35 General Motors, 33 IBM's role, 37 information systems management, 36 integrity factor, 40 Internet, 44 iPhone, 43 IT lifecycle management process, 37 leadership capability, 40 leisure studies, 34 macro-architectural threats, 44 Marriott's Great America, 35 math models, 36 Microsoft Corporation, 33, 36, 38, 41, 44, 46 Microsoft's operational enterprise risk management, 33 parks and recreation, 34 Petri dish, 44 playground leader, 42 product groups, 42 quality and business excellence team, 33 Santa Clara University, 36 Senior Vice President, 33 smartphone, 43 social computing, 38 Sun Microsystems, 36 theme park industry, 35 University of Illinois, 34 University of San Francisco, 36 value-added business, 33 Walt Disney Company, 33 Senior Leadership Technology and Product Marketing, 71 Shakespeare, 30 Shirky, Clay, 220 Sierra Ventures, 191 Silicon Valley companies, 68 Silicon Valley software factories, 323 Skype, 118 Smart Grid Advisory Committee, 177 Smartphones, 20, 27, 43, 54, 217, 238 Social care computer electronic record system, 279 Social computing, 38, 320 Social networking, 51, 53, 56, 58 Society trails technology, 21 SPSS programs, 131 Sridhara, Mittu, 71 Amazon, 76 American Airlines, 72 back-end computation and presentation, 80 banking, 77 B2B and B2C, 85 business/product departments, 82 business work context, 74 buzzword, 77 career aspiration, 73 career spans, 73 coders, 72 cognitive surplus, 79 competitive differentiation, 74 computing power, 78 contribution and energy, 85 convergence, 75 CPU cycles, 78 cross-channel digital business, 71 cultural and geographic implementation, 72 customer experience, 84, 85 customer profile, 76 data visualization, 79, 80 DDoS protection, 81 economies of scale, 77 elements of technology, 72 encryption, 82 end customer, 83 entertainment, 75 ERP system, 72 Facebook, 84 finance and accounting, 73 foster innovation and open culture, 81 friends/mentors/role models, 74 FSA, 76 gambling acts, 81 games, 79 gaming machines, 80 GDS, 72 global organization, 71 Google, 75, 84, 85 Group CIO, Ladbrokes PLC, 71 industry-standard technologies, 77 integrity and competence, 83 IT, 74, 82 KickOff app, 71 land-based casinos, 79 live streaming, 78 London Business School, 73 mobile computing, 78 multimedia, 84 new generation, 84 on-the-job training, 73 open-source computing, 79 opportunity, 80, 83 PCA-compliant, 81 personalization, 76 real-time systems, 74 re-evaluation, 81 reliability and availability, 77 security threats, 80 smart mobile device, 75 technology-intense customer, 85 top-line revenue, 74 trader apps, 82 true context, 73 underpinning business process, 76 virtualization, 78 Visa/MasterCard transactions, 78 Web 3.0 business, 76 web-emerging web channel, 76 Wikipedia, 79, 85 Word documents and e-mail, 82 work-life balance, 84 young body with high miles, 72 Zuckerberg, Mark, 73 Stead, Jerry, 214 Storefront engineering, 212 Strassmann, Paul, 228, 309 agile development, 340 Amazon EC2, 314 America information processors, 322 Annapolis, 340 AT&T, 332 backstabbing culture, 339 BlackBerry, 317 block houses, 319 CFO/CEO position, 337 CIM program, 309 Citibank, 337 Citicorp, 313, 339 cloud computing, 310, 311, 313 coding infrastructure, 341 communication infrastructure, 341 corporate information management, 329 Corporate Information Officer, 309 counterintelligence, 320 cyber-operations, 338 Dell server, 314 Department of Defense, 329, 332 Director of Defense Information, 309 employee-owned technology, 316 enterprise architecture, 316 exfiltration, 313 financial organizations, 320 firewalls and antiviruses, 312 General Foods, 309, 326–328 General Motors, 321, 329, 332 George Mason School of Information Technology, 309 Google apps, 314 government-supported activities, 326 Harvard Business School, 331 HR-related issues, 331 IBM manpower, 311 infiltration, 313 Internet, 316, 322 interoperability, 315, 317, 341 Kraft Foods Inc, 309 MacArthur's intelligence officer, 327 Machiavellian view, 327 mash-up, 316 military service, 331 NASA, 309, 333, 334 police department, economics, 312 powerpoint slides, 324 Radio Shack, 319 senior executive position, 334 service-oriented architecture, 316 Silicon Valley software factories, 323 social computing, 320 Strassmann's concentration camp, 318 structured methodologies, 342 U.S. Navy, 318 Virginia Tech, 323 virtualization, 310, 311 VMware, 311 Web 2.0, 325 WikiLeaks, 320 Windows machine, 317 Xerox Corporation, 309, 326, 330, 338 Xerox video center, 318 Sun Microsystems, 36 Supply-demand organization, 157 T Tech Mahindra, 253, 255 Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC), 19 Telephony, 17 Temares, Lewis, 113 adaptability, 128 American Marketing Society, 113 Apple device, 116 ARPANET and Internet, 117 BBA, 126 camera, 124 CIO responsibilities and duties, 127 classroom information, 119 client and terminal, 124 College of Engineering, University of Miami, 113 combination of degrees, 125 communication and business skills, 126 computer conference, 116 customer service, 130 cyber security, 121 day-to-day administration, 128 digital device, 125 document management, 129 electronic hospital record, 115 encyclopedia and Wikipedia, 115 entrepreneurial characteristics, 114 ERP, 123 Facebook, 116, 121 faculty members, 121 financial industry, 123 Fortune 500 commercial land, 114 Google, 117 GPS technology, 117 grocery store, 130 Hewlett-Packard piece, 129 higher education, 114, 122 high-performance computing, 119 IBM data center, 124 independent entrepreneurs, 114 Information Technology (IT), 113, 118 Jones, Sam, 131 leading-edge technology, 119 mainframe computers, 118 marketing, 122 matchmaker.com, 131 matchmakerexecs.com, 131 MBA, 126 MIT and Berkeley, 120 mobile technology, 115 New-Age, technology-savvy kids, 115 online degree, 121 passion, 128 personal computer, 117 philanthropism, 123 presentation skills, 128 project management, 126 rainmaker.com, 131 retail industry, 123 revenue producer, 123 RIM device, 116, 121, 124 Skype, 118 social media, 115, 116 SPSS and SAS programs, 131 telecommunications, 120 telemedicine, 118 TRS-80s, 129 Twitter, 116 up-to-date technology, 119 video entertainment, 116 voice/data integration, 117 Web 2.0 industry, 132 wireless computers, 115 yellow notepaper, 115 YouTube, 120 Texas, 226 The Associates First Capital Corporation, 47 Toyota, 102 Tracy, Michael, 212 Transmission and distribution companies, 47 Turner, Kevin, 39 Twitter, 244 Ellyn, Lynne, 185 Temares, Lewis, 116 U University computing center, 28 University of Chicago, 104 University of Florida, 139 University of Illinois, 34 University of San Francisco, 36 Utilities Telecom Council, 177 V Verizon Communications, 231, 232 Videoconferencing, 12 Virtual corporations, 241 Virtualization, 310, 311 Visicalc, 24 Vivendi Universal, 134 VMware, 311 Vodafone AirTouch, 231 voice capability, 259 Voice-response unit (VRU), 203 W Wakeman, Dan, 151 advanced placement program, 168 back-end systems, 154, 155 business maxims, 159 business peers, 160, 161 cloud computing, 168 collaborative environment, 160 Computer Choice, 170, 171 consumerization, 166, 170 credibility, 160 decision making, 152 defect-free code, 164 demand-supply model, 157 digital nation, 169 disaster recovery, 154 education business, 160 ElastomerSolutions.com, 151 ETS, 151 mission, 162, 163 packaging and selling information, 163 EXP program, 159 Facebook, 169 fair value and reliable assessments, 159 for-profit business, 152 Gartner CIO Academy, 157 Gen-Xer stuff, 169 Google, 170, 172 Heller, Martha, 171 intellectual property, 171 iPad, 169 IT core competency, 172 engine, 163 industry, 156 skills, 154 ITIL version 3, 158 judgment, 162 leadership and personal integrity, 161 McGenesis, Steve, 155 mentor, 155, 156 metrics and quantitative benchmarking, 166 on-demand services, 168 operational excellence, 163 operations and maintenance, 166 Salesforce, 154 scorecard, 164, 165 security budget, 167 security organization, 167 services and packaging, 171 Six Sigma, 164 smart phones, 170 standardization, 164 Taylor, John, 154–156 virtualization and cloud computing, 167, 168 Wallington, Pat, 175 Wall Street, 23 Wall Street Journal, 168 Walmart, 6, 50 Walt Disney Company, 33 WAN, 259 Web 2.0, 244, 325 Web 3.0 business, 76 Web 2.0 companies, 227 Web infrastructure, 215 Wichita, 226 WikiLeaks, 320 Wikipedia, 79, 85, 115, 185, 220, 291, 292, 303 Williams Companies, 232, 233 WillTell, 233 Wilson, Carl, 225, 228, 229 Wilson, Joe, 338 Wireless network, 59 World Wide Web, 266 X Xerox Corporation, 175, 326, 330, 338 Xerox video center, 318 Y Y2K, 222 YouTube, 20, 65
Navy, 318 Virginia Tech, 323 virtualization, 310, 311 VMware, 311 Web 2.0, 325 WikiLeaks, 320 Windows machine, 317 Xerox Corporation, 309, 326, 330, 338 Xerox video center, 318 Sun Microsystems, 36 Supply-demand organization, 157 T Tech Mahindra, 253, 255 Tech Model Railroad Club (TMRC), 19 Telephony, 17 Temares, Lewis, 113 adaptability, 128 American Marketing Society, 113 Apple device, 116 ARPANET and Internet, 117 BBA, 126 camera, 124 CIO responsibilities and duties, 127 classroom information, 119 client and terminal, 124 College of Engineering, University of Miami, 113 combination of degrees, 125 communication and business skills, 126 computer conference, 116 customer service, 130 cyber security, 121 day-to-day administration, 128 digital device, 125 document management, 129 electronic hospital record, 115 encyclopedia and Wikipedia, 115 entrepreneurial characteristics, 114 ERP, 123 Facebook, 116, 121 faculty members, 121 financial industry, 123 Fortune 500 commercial land, 114 Google, 117 GPS technology, 117 grocery store, 130 Hewlett-Packard piece, 129 higher education, 114, 122 high-performance computing, 119 IBM data center, 124 independent entrepreneurs, 114 Information Technology (IT), 113, 118 Jones, Sam, 131 leading-edge technology, 119 mainframe computers, 118 marketing, 122 matchmaker.com, 131 matchmakerexecs.com, 131 MBA, 126 MIT and Berkeley, 120 mobile technology, 115 New-Age, technology-savvy kids, 115 online degree, 121 passion, 128 personal computer, 117 philanthropism, 123 presentation skills, 128 project management, 126 rainmaker.com, 131 retail industry, 123 revenue producer, 123 RIM device, 116, 121, 124 Skype, 118 social media, 115, 116 SPSS and SAS programs, 131 telecommunications, 120 telemedicine, 118 TRS-80s, 129 Twitter, 116 up-to-date technology, 119 video entertainment, 116 voice/data integration, 117 Web 2.0 industry, 132 wireless computers, 115 yellow notepaper, 115 YouTube, 120 Texas, 226 The Associates First Capital Corporation, 47 Toyota, 102 Tracy, Michael, 212 Transmission and distribution companies, 47 Turner, Kevin, 39 Twitter, 244 Ellyn, Lynne, 185 Temares, Lewis, 116 U University computing center, 28 University of Chicago, 104 University of Florida, 139 University of Illinois, 34 University of San Francisco, 36 Utilities Telecom Council, 177 V Verizon Communications, 231, 232 Videoconferencing, 12 Virtual corporations, 241 Virtualization, 310, 311 Visicalc, 24 Vivendi Universal, 134 VMware, 311 Vodafone AirTouch, 231 voice capability, 259 Voice-response unit (VRU), 203 W Wakeman, Dan, 151 advanced placement program, 168 back-end systems, 154, 155 business maxims, 159 business peers, 160, 161 cloud computing, 168 collaborative environment, 160 Computer Choice, 170, 171 consumerization, 166, 170 credibility, 160 decision making, 152 defect-free code, 164 demand-supply model, 157 digital nation, 169 disaster recovery, 154 education business, 160 ElastomerSolutions.com, 151 ETS, 151 mission, 162, 163 packaging and selling information, 163 EXP program, 159 Facebook, 169 fair value and reliable assessments, 159 for-profit business, 152 Gartner CIO Academy, 157 Gen-Xer stuff, 169 Google, 170, 172 Heller, Martha, 171 intellectual property, 171 iPad, 169 IT core competency, 172 engine, 163 industry, 156 skills, 154 ITIL version 3, 158 judgment, 162 leadership and personal integrity, 161 McGenesis, Steve, 155 mentor, 155, 156 metrics and quantitative benchmarking, 166 on-demand services, 168 operational excellence, 163 operations and maintenance, 166 Salesforce, 154 scorecard, 164, 165 security budget, 167 security organization, 167 services and packaging, 171 Six Sigma, 164 smart phones, 170 standardization, 164 Taylor, John, 154–156 virtualization and cloud computing, 167, 168 Wallington, Pat, 175 Wall Street, 23 Wall Street Journal, 168 Walmart, 6, 50 Walt Disney Company, 33 WAN, 259 Web 2.0, 244, 325 Web 3.0 business, 76 Web 2.0 companies, 227 Web infrastructure, 215 Wichita, 226 WikiLeaks, 320 Wikipedia, 79, 85, 115, 185, 220, 291, 292, 303 Williams Companies, 232, 233 WillTell, 233 Wilson, Carl, 225, 228, 229 Wilson, Joe, 338 Wireless network, 59 World Wide Web, 266 X Xerox Corporation, 175, 326, 330, 338 Xerox video center, 318 Y Y2K, 222 YouTube, 20, 65
Why We Can't Afford the Rich by Andrew Sayer
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, banking crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, decarbonisation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demand response, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, high net worth, income inequality, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, job automation, Julian Assange, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, mortgage debt, neoliberal agenda, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, patent troll, payday loans, Plutocrats, plutocrats, predatory finance, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor, Yom Kippur War
Significantly, Wikileaks has been the main source of information about them. While the European Commission has held just 8 meetings with civil society groups about the TTIP, it has had 119 with corporations and their lobbyists. These trade pacts seek to augment the intellectual property of companies, prolonging patents beyond 20 years, enabling them to extract more rent for longer from ‘their’ products. Internet service providers will be required to filter and block content – thereby giving companies control over users’ use of ‘their’ products, stopping sharing or reverse engineering and adaptation. Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the internet, may have said ‘this is for everyone’, but some major companies want to privatise and control it for their own interests. Julian Assange of Wikileaks comments: If instituted, the TPP’s intellectual property regime would trample over individual rights and free expression, as well as ride roughshod over the intellectual and creative commons.
idcatart=134&lang=1. 116 White, A. (2012) ‘PwC fined record £1.4m over JP Morgan audit’, Telegraph, 5 January, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/supportservices/8995981/PwC-fined-record-1.4m-over-JP-Morgan-audit.html. 117 Thanks to John Christensen for this information. 118 https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/hm-revenue-customs/groups/hmrc-board. 119 http://www.ushistory.org/us/24d.asp. 120 Bowman, A., Ertürk, I., Froud, J., Johal, S., Moran, M., Law, J., Leaver, A. and Williams, K. (2012) ‘Scapegoats aren’t enough: a Leveson for the banks?’, CRESC Discussion Paper, p 8. 121 Canada, US, Mexico, Peru, Chile, New Zealand, Australia, Brunei, Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam and Japan. 122 Wikileaks (2013) ‘Secret Trans-Pacific Partnership agreement (TPP)’, https://wikileaks.org/tpp/pressrelease.html. 123 Wikileaks (2013). 124 Monbiot, G. (2013) ‘The lies behind this transatlantic trade deal’, Guardian, 2 December, http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/02/transatlantic-free-trade-deal-regulation-by-lawyers-eu-us. 125 Corporate Europe Observatory (2013) ‘A transatlantic corporate bill of rights’, 3 June, http://corporateeurope.org/trade/2013/06/transatlantic-corporate-bill-rights. 126 McDonagh, T. (2013) ‘Unfair, unsustainable and under the radar’, San Francisco: Democracy Center, http://democracyctr.org/new-report-unfair-unsustainable-and-under-the-radar/.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, Zipcar
Others are concerned that social media sites like Twitter might be tempted to manipulate rankings, one of the more popular features used to engage their members. For example, Twitter hosts a feature called Twitter Trends, which identifies hot topics and issues of current interest that are “trending.” Questions have been raised about whether the algorithms companies use to spot and rank trends might be programmed to reflect the biases of the management that oversees them, consciously or otherwise. Julian Assange’s supporters suspected that Twitter deliberately finagled the trending during the WikiLeaks scandal.36 Industry watchers are beginning to ask, how we can maintain “algorithm neutrality”? Tarleton Gillespie, a professor of communications at Cornell University, says that algorithm manipulation is not entirely out of the question, especially when the algorithms are created by commercial players who might see a pecuniary or ideological rationale for tampering with the data.
Tim Wu, “In the Grip of the New Monopolists,” Wall Street Journal, November 13, 2010, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704635704575604993311538482.html. 34. Ibid. 35. Lam Thuy Vo, “Another Ridiculous Number from the Patent Wars,” NPR Planet Money, April 27, 2012, http://www.npr.org/blogs/money/2012/04/27/151357127/another-ridiculous-number -from-the-patent-wars. 36. Angus Johnston, “Still More Questions about Why Wikileaks Hasn’t Trended on Twitter,” Student Activism, December 5, 2010, http://studentactivism.net/2010/12/05/wikileaks-twitter-3/. 37. Tarleton Gillespie, “Can an Algorithm Be Wrong? Twitter Trends, the Specter of Censorship, and Our Faith in the Algorithms around Us,” Social Media Collective, October 19, 2011, http://socialmediacollective.org/2011/10/19/can-an-algorithm-be-wrong/. 38. Ibid. 39. Zeynep Tufekci, “Google Buzz: The Corporatization of Social Commons,” Technosociology, February 17, 2010, http://technosociology.org/?
., 61 technological employment/unemployment, 7, 122, 266–269 telegraph(s), impact of, 22, 46, 50, 51, 71, 194 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), 206–210 textile industry, 31, 39–40, 124–125, 212 thermodynamic efficiencies, 10–15, 70–73, 78, 91, 143–144, 186 the third Industrial Revolution. see Collaborative Commons The Third Industrial Revolution (Rifkin), 11 3D printing, 89–108 and automobiles, 98–99 and bioprinting body parts/organs, 246–247 and construction of buildings, 96–97 and customization, 91 democratizing the replicator, 93–99 differs from conventional manufacturing, 90–92 efficiency and productivity of, 90 and feedstock, 48, 89, 95–98, 101–102 and furniture, 96 and lunar buildings, 97 and a makers infrastructure, 99–104 marketing of, 91 and micro infofacturing, 89–92 and a neo-Gandhian world, 104–108 and the Solar-Sinter, 95–96 and Xerox, 95 ThredUP, 236, 258 Thrun, Sebastian, 114–115 Time, 253 time bank(s), 261 The Times of London, 44 Tie Society, 236 TIR Consulting Group, 15, 191 Torvalds, Linus, 175 Toyota, 54, 99, 230 “The Tragedy of the Commons” (Hardin), 155–158 transborder park(s), 183 Treaty to Share the Genetic Commons, 167–168 TrustCloud, 258 Twitter becoming an online monopoly, 204–205 and algorithm manipulation, 203 changes the concept of privacy, 76 as communication, 151, 234, 248, 302 exploiting the Commons for commercial ends, 199–200, 310 and freedom, 226 as a podium for activism, 189 referenced in news and entertainment reporting, 201–202 revenue and market share, 201 and the WikiLeaks scandal, 203 as tracking tool, 245 Two Treatises of Government (Locke), 60 Udacity, 115 unemployment and blue-collar workers,123–124 due to technological advancement, 7, 121–128 and repercussions of job loss, 132 and white-collar workers, 126 United Nations, 21, 213 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 274 Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), 285 Internet Governance Forum (IGF), 196 United States Centers for Disease Control, 245 Department of Defense, 96, 125, 142, 294–295 Department of Energy, 87, 295 Energy Information Administration (EIA), 87 Federal Trade Commission, 202, 291 Gross Domestic Product (GDP), 122, 219 income disparity in the, 277–278 Justice Department, 129 National Academy of Sciences, 293–294 National Center for Atmospheric Research, 288 Patents and Trademark Office (PTO), 165–166 postal service, 45–46, 113, 125–126, 163–164 transmission grid, vulnerability of, 293–296 Treasury, 259, 291 upcycling, 91, 236 UPS, uses Big Data, 11–12 urbanization, caused by printing/rail industry, 53 Urbee, 98–99 utilitarian value, Hume and Bentham’s theory of, 62–63 Utopia (More), 31 Vail, Theodore Newton, 49–50 vehicle(s). see automobile(s) Verizon, 51, 54, 148, 198 Vernadsky, Vladimir, 183 vertical integration/vertically integrated companies and centralized management of production and distribution, 46–47 and removal of costly middle men, 23, 46, 232 see also Collaborative Commons Vietor, Richard H.
The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey
3D printing, Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zimmermann PGP
* * * Among the close-knit cryptography community invited to review Nakamoto’s work were members of the Cypherpunk movement, a loose association of tech-minded activists who had first gained notoriety in the 1990s with their efforts to use cryptographic privacy tools to force radical political and cultural change. This effort bore some fruit: transparency crusader Julian Assange and his activist publishing organization, WikiLeaks, grew out of this movement. To the Cypherpunks, the idea of an anonymous digital cash system was nothing new. It had been one of their first big ideas, but no one had yet turned it into something viable. Several had attempted to build digital cash systems, one had even got tantalizingly close, but ultimately no system had reached any kind of critical mass, and the cause had fizzled out.
One product they developed was the Cypherpunk version of an anonymous message remailer, which hid the identity of a person sending an e-mail and prevented the recipient from replying to it, all in the name of stopping governments or corporations from snooping on people’s daily communications. Other products had more subversive objectives—for example, May’s audacious BlackNet project, a precursor to WikiLeaks, which solicited secret information with the promise of encryption and payments in untraceable digital money. A few products were downright scary. Jim Bell, who like May was formerly employed by Intel, proposed an anonymous market for assassinations. The idea was that people could anonymously contribute to a bounty that they would pay to have a particular influential person killed, the assumption being that the market would put a greater price on the heads of those most egregiously abusing a position of authority.
Gox and trust industries Turing Festival 20Mission Twitter Uber U-Haul Ulbricht, Ross Ultimate Frisbee unbanked people Unenumerated Unfair Trade, The (Casey) UnionPay Union Square Partners United Kingdom Utah utilities value: of bitcoins of coins of cryptocurrencies of dollar of gold intrinsic of money van der Laan, Wladimir Vaurum venture capitalists (VCs) Ver, Roger Verisign Verizon Vessenes, Peter VHS Virgin Group VirtEx Visa Vodafone Volabit Volcker, Paul Voltaire Voorhees, Erik voting Wall Street Wall Street Journal Walmart Washington State wealth bitcoin and Wealth of Nations, The (Smith) Web Designs WeChat Wedbush Securities Weill, Sanford Wei Dai Weimar Republic welfare state Wells Fargo Western Union Whelan, Jason Whelan, John WikiLeaks Wikipedia Willard, Rik William III, King Williams, Mark T. Wilson, Cody Wilson, Fred Winklevoss, Cameron and Tyler Wise, Josh Women’s Annex Wood, Gavin work World Bank Wright, Frank Lloyd Wuille, Pieter Xapo XIPH Foundation Xpert Financial XRP Y2K threat Yahoo Yang, Jerry Yap Y Combinator Yellen, Janet Yermack, David YouTube YTCracker Yunus, Muhammad ZeroBlock Zhang, Ng Zimbabwe Zimmerman, Phil Zobro, Jonathan Zoosk Zuckerberg, Mark Zug Also by Michael J.
ZeroZeroZero by Roberto Saviano
Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, call centre, credit crunch, double entry bookkeeping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, Julian Assange, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, open borders, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Steve Jobs, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks
Another cable, which predates their meeting, talks of potential ties between Firtaš and Mogilevic, suggested by their shared investment in certain offshore companies and the fact that they have the same lawyer. These ties had already been noted in a previous intermediary gas company, Eural Trans Gas. But that same lawyer sues the Guardian for publishing documents circulated by WikiLeaks’s Julian Assange in an article by Luke Harding titled “WikiLeaks Cables Link Russian Mafia Boss to EU Gas Supplies.” In the correction that the London paper was forced to print on December 9, 2010, “to clear up any subsequent mistranslation or misunderstanding of their meeting,” Firtaš denies having any connection to Mogilevic other than a simple acquaintance. The gas affair affects the vital interests of an entire continent. RosUkrEnergo’s profits just from 2005 to 2006 came to almost $1.6 billion, little less than half of which ended up in the pockets of Firtaš and whoever else shared in his earnings.
Don Semën was in prison for nearly all of the most dramatic phase of the Russian-Ukrainian gas war. But what has he got to do with it? In 2006 Julija Timošenko had already told the BBC: “We have no doubt that Mogilevic is the person behind the entire RosUkrEnergo operation.” Hers is one of the loudest among the many accusing voices that fell on deaf ears for years, until a document surfaced and caught the notice of public opinion in the West. It’s one of the secret files published by WikiLeaks: a cable from Kiev dated December 10, 2008, from the American ambassador William Taylor. It refers to a meeting with Dmitro Firtaš, the Ukrainian oligarch behind RosUkrEnergo, in which he warned Taylor that Timošenko planned to eliminate his company both for personal interests and internal political conflicts, for which she was willing to make concessions to Putin, thus strengthening his influence in Europe.
., 245–46, 254 Trevi, Gloria, 101 Treviño Morales, José, 252–53 Treviño Morales, Miguel Ángel (El Z40), 98, 103, 252 Treviño Morales, Omar (El Z42), 98–99 Trimboli, Rocco, 230 Trinidad Cerón, Luis Alberto (El Guicho), 61 tripulantes (ship’s crew), 291–92, 297, 299, 300 Troika restaurant, 274 tropane alkaloids, 113–14 Trujillo, Carlos (Griselda Blanco’s first husband), 359–60 Truxillo coca, 114 Turatello, Francis (Angel Face), 212 Turin, 298, 331 Turkey, 215, 232 Twenty-first Motorized Cavalry Regiment, Mexican, 60 Ufa (sniffer dog), 345 U Holubů restaurant, 275 Ukraine, 260, 276, 277, 279, 285–87 UniCredit Bank, 193 Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca (Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity), 83 Union Frigo Transport Logistic, 196–97 United Nations, 74, 207–9, 250 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 207–9, 250 United Sacred Crown, 296–97 United States: access routes to, 20–23, 39–40, 42, 49, 57, 59 cocaine market of, 34, 38–39, 51–53, 59, 73–77, 127, 289 Colombian relations with, 127, 131, 148–49, 154–66, 189 drug enforcement in, 19–34, 64–65, 97, 148–66, 168, 294–95 extraditions to, 41, 59, 131, 148–51, 162–66, 282, 285, 366 illegal immigration to, 102, 289 Italian relations with, 168, 178, 185–86 Mexican border of, 20–22, 39–40, 44, 53, 57, 60, 61, 69–70, 102, 289–90, 328 Mexican relations with, 28, 31, 41, 58, 158, 366 Russian mafia in, 262, 268, 273–74, 276, 279, 289, 294 war on terror of, 155–57, 187, 242, 254–55 Uralmaševskaja crime group, 269–70 Uribe, Álvaro, 155, 157, 166 Uribe Escobar, Mario, 166 Vado Ligure, Italy, 291, 329 Valdez Villarreal, Edgar (Barbie), 42–43 Valencia, Armando (Maradona), 158 Valencia, Erick (El 85), 67 Vallanzasca, Renato, 212 Valtur vacation resorts, 227 Van Kleef, Leon, 234–36 Varela, Wílber (Soap), 135 Vásquez Romero, Luis Roberto, 353, 354–55 Vega, Baruch, 149–51, 158–59, 162 Vendemini, Valter, 199 Venezuela, 164, 179–80, 202, 233, 238, 291 Ventrans, 180, 196 Ventrici, Francesco (El Gordo; Fatty), 175–76, 177, 180, 182–84, 190, 192, 195–200 Ventura Moussong, Juan Carlos, 365 Veracruz, Mexico, 67–68 Vibonesi group, 193 Vibo Valentia, Italy, 172, 175–76, 183, 191, 204–5, 254 Vida loca, La, 348–56 Vieira, João Bernardo, 316 Villarreal Barragán, Sergio (El Grande), 50 VM Trans, 196–97 Volkov, Aleksandr, 273–74 Vološin, Vladimir, 273–74 Volpiano, Italy, 344 Voltan, Mattia, 297–98, 299 Vory v zakone organization, 264–65, 271, 273, 285 Voz de Durango, La, 368 Voz de Michoacán, La, 64 Voz y Solución, 64 Wachovia Bank, 243–46, 249–50, 253 Wall Street, 247, 254, 273–74 Waridel, Paul Eduard (The Turk), 232–34 “white petrol,” 38, 57 WikiLeaks, 286–87 wiretapping, 181, 202, 228–30, 237, 298, 362 witness protection programs, 157–60, 164, 362 Woods, Martin, 243–46, 249–50, 252, 253 Woods, Ray, 332 Woods M5 Associates, 249 World Drug Report (2012), 207–9 yachts, 296–300 YBM Magnex International, 251, 276–77, 286 YouTube videos, 43, 67, 94 Yugoslavia, 219, 257 Yuma, Ariz., 290 Zacazonapan, Mexico, 68 Zambada García, Ismael (El Mayo), 30, 41, 55–56, 66, 363, 365 Zapata, Emiliano, 62 Zola, Émile, 348 Looking for more?
MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams
accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar
Its annual Freedom in the World report is a respected global benchmark assessment of the state of political rights in 192 countries and 14 related and disputed territories. 4. “Undermining Democracy: 21st Century Authoritarians,” Freedom House (June 2009). 5. James Gwartney and Robert Lawson, “Ten Consequences of Economic Freedom,” National Center for Policy Analysis (July 30, 2004). 6. We do know, however, that WikiLeaks was founded by an Australian (Julian Assange) who lives in East Africa. 7. Evgeny Morozov, “Think Again: The Internet,” Foreign Policy (May/June 2010). 8. Experts suggest that the differences between Mir Hossein Mousavi and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad are far less significant than what unites them. In the aftermath of their failed attempts to overturn the election results, many pro-democracy activists started to question whether Mousavi truly embraces their ideals.
Not a great deal is known about its founders, except that WikiLeaks describes the group as comprising Chinese dissidents, hackers, computer programmers, lawyers, and journalists.6 To protect their sources (and their own identities), they spread assets, encrypt everything, and move telecommunications and people around the world to activate protective laws in different national jurisdictions. But who watches WikiLeaks? Can it be fully trusted? The jury is out, but so far its track record is good. And when you put WikiLeaks together with the events in Iran and other places you can begin to see why dictators everywhere are wondering when this new citizen power is going to come knocking on their door. Indeed, the Pentagon may wonder whether WikiLeaks can be held to account when sensitive information leaks to the public.
And they are always innovating—using the latest Internet-based technologies to amplify their impact. Take WikiLeaks, a self-proclaimed “intelligence service of the people” with a mission to abolish official secrecy. The whistle-blowing site made headlines when in April 2010 an anonymous tipster posted a video the Pentagon claimed to have lost of U.S. helicopter crews enthusiastically killing Iraqis on a Baghdad street in 2007. That event, in itself, might not have made headlines, except among the dead were two reporters with the Reuters news agency. The explosive leak, which sent shock waves around the world and had the Pentagon in a conniption, is merely the tip of the iceberg. In just a few short years, WikiLeaks has released more than a million confidential documents from highly classified military secrets to text messages of those killed in the 9/11 attacks.
23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize
That’s next up. Chapter 12 Secure vs. Cure “I do not want to live in a world where everything I do and say is recorded.” —EDWARD SNOWDEN1 “Today’s Web-enabled gadgets should come with a digital Miranda warning: Anything you say or do online, from a status update to a selfie, can and will be used as evidence against you on the Internet.” —NICK BILTON, New York Times2 In a world of Julian Assange’s Wikileaks and Edward Snowden’s exposé of the National Security Agency, we are progressing toward zero tolerance of governmental non-transparency.1,3 At the same time, massive Internet security breaches are occurring or being discovered, from retailers like Target to the Heartbleed bug. Just as everything is getting digitized, making it eminently portable and accessible, we’re betwixt and between.
Vallee, David, 65 van de Werf, Ysbrand, 53 Variants of unknown significance (VUS), genomic, 85–86, 205 Veatch, Robert, 18, 29–30 Verghese, Abraham, 279 Veterans Affairs, Department of, 129, 136 Virtual Doctor Project, 270–271 Virtual health assistants (VHAs), 164–165 Virtual office visits, 165–172 Voice recognition software, 131 Voigt, John, 56–57 VSee, 270–271 Walgreens, 68, 106–107, 162–163, 224, 292 Walker, Jan, 131 Wall Street Journal, 22, 69 Warner, David, 127 Waste in health care expenditures, 142–147 Wearable book, 54 White coat lecture, 175–176 Whole genome sequencing, 86 Wikileaks, 219 Wikilife Foundation, 200 Wilsey, Grace, 9–10, 10(fig.) Wireshark network analysis tool, 221 Wisdom of the body, 280 The Wisdom of the Body (Cannon), 280–281 Wojcicki, Anne, 63, 69–72 Wolfram, Stephen, 82, 221 Wolpert, Ann, 210 World Bank, 257 World Health Organization (WHO), 257, 270 Worstall, Tim, 151 Xpert, 266 X-rays, 113 Zero: The Biography of a Dangerous Idea (Seife), 71–72
Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
The intersection of demographic and technological flows creates new opportunities for Facebook groups and other cloud communities to emerge more rapidly, globally, and in greater number, generating flash mobs of allegiance that force us to evolve our political concepts beyond states. Social networks provide the tools for people to shape their welfare by motivating members, financing activities, and sparking political action. The WikiLeaks founder, Julian Assange, argues that the Internet enables connected groups to anneal into empowered collectives that can act on their principles. The taxonomy of influential actors is thus expanding to include terrorist networks, hacker units, and religious fundamentalist groups who define themselves by what they do rather than where they are. Global connectivity gradually undermines national roots and augments or replaces them with a range of transnational bonds and identities.
Structural change happens every few decades; systems change only every few centuries. Structural change makes the world complicated; systems change makes it complex. International relations among states are complicated, while today’s global network civilization is complex. Financial feedback loops destabilize markets, and corporations can be more influential than countries, while ISIS, Occupy Wall Street, and WikiLeaks are all quantum in nature: everywhere and nowhere, constantly metastasizing, capable of sudden phase shifts. If planet Earth had a Facebook account, its status should read “It’s Complex.” Connectivity is the main cause of this complexity. Globalization is almost always written about in terms of how it operates within the existing order rather than how it creates a new one. Yet connectivity is the change emerging from within the system that ultimately changes the system itself.