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From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner
1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War
But, says Kelly, “The minute I saw the [new] prototype I knew it was going to work.”10 For Kelly, Wired marked a logical extension of the work he had been doing at the Whole Earth Review and that others had been doing at Mondo 2000. Both of those publications had begun to merge lifestyle issues and technology, but always with the low-rent production values of underground periodicals. Finally, Kelly thought, here was a magazine that would get the attention that the Whole Earth Review and Mondo had both deserved. Kelly signed on as executive editor, and in June of 1992 he joined Rossetto, Metcalfe, and Wilkinson on the board of the newly formed Wired Ventures. New Technology, New Economy, New Right Even before they published their ﬁrst issue, then, Rossetto and Metcalfe had stitched Wired into the social fabric of the Whole Earth world. They had found their ﬁnancial strategist in the Global Business Network and a key editor in the Whole Earth Review; as the magazine ramped up, they would ﬁnd many writers and ideas for stories in their conference on the WELL.
Within a year of his arrival, Kelly had helped host the ﬁrst Hackers’ Conference, joined the WELL, and seen CoEvolution Quarterly merge with the Whole Earth Software Review to become the Whole Earth Review. Over the next half dozen years, as he edited the Review and as he wrote his compendious 1994 volume Out of Control: The Rise of Neo-Biological Civilization, Kelly would attempt to apprehend the technological and cultural shifts around him by deploying the entrepreneurial networking and editorial tactics that Brand had earlier developed at the Whole Earth Catalog. These tactics enabled Kelly not only to link new forms of computing and commerce to the Whole Earth community’s long-standing synthesis of cybernetic theory and countercultural politics, but also to transform both digital technologies and the New Economy into Darwinian variations on a New Communalist ideal. When CoEvolution Quarterly became the Whole Earth Review in 1984, Kelly inherited a growing network of potential writers and sources, one that increasingly spanned countercultural and technical communities.
“‘Keep Designing’: How the Information Economy Is Being Created and Shaped by the Hacker Ethic.” Whole Earth Review 46 (May 1985): 44 –55. ———, ed. The Last Whole Earth Catalog. Menlo Park, CA: Portola Institute, 1971. ———. “Local Dependency.” CoEvolution Quarterly 8 (Winter 1975): 5. ———. The Media Lab: Inventing the Future at MIT. New York: Viking, 1987. ———. “Money.” In Brand, Last Whole Earth Catalog, 438. ———. The Next Whole Earth Catalog: Access to Tools. Sausalito, CA: Point Foundation, 1980. ———. “The Sky Starts at Your Feet.” In Brand, Space Colonies, 5 –7. ———, ed. Space Colonies. Sausalito, CA: Whole Earth Catalog, 1977. ———. “Space Colonies: Summary.” CoEvolution Quarterly 9 (Spring 1976): 4. ———. “Spacewar: Fanatic Life and Symbolic Death among the Computer Bums.” Rolling Stone, December 7, 1972. ———. “Sticking Your Head in Cyberspace.” Whole Earth Review 63 (Summer 1989): 84 – 85. ———, ed.
Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History by Thomas Rid
1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Charles Lindbergh, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, connected car, domain-specific language, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, Extropian, full employment, game design, global village, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kubernetes, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, The Hackers Conference, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP
On the cover were Eric Hughes, Tim May, John Gilmore, holding up an American flag, their faces hidden behind white plastic masks, Gilmore even sporting an EFF T-shirt complete with the internet address of the then newly founded Electronic Frontier Foundation. The geeky rebels had their PGP fingerprints written on the foreheads of the masks.32 The same year, in the summer of 1993, Kelly published a long story about the crypto anarchists in the anniversary issue of the Whole Earth Review, guest-edited by its founder, Stewart Brand. Earlier that year, Mosaic 1.0 had been released, the world’s first browser that could display graphics and text on the same page. The software, distributed for free, brought the web to life with color and images. Traffic exploded. The Whole Earth Review pointed out that the blooming network made encryption ever more necessary. By November 1992, when Mondo first mentioned the list, it had about a hundred members, including journalists and even a few people with .mil addresses. Radical libertarians dominated the list, along with “some anarcho-capitalists and even a few socialists.”33 Many had a technical background from working with computers; some were political scientists, classical scholars, or lawyers.
., 1988). 66.Walker referred to Stanley Kandebo’s press article about the Agile Eye in his Autodesk memo, ibid. 67.Walker, Through the Looking Glass. 68.Rudy Rucker, Seek! (New York: Running Press, 1999), 91. 69.Stewart Brand and Kevin Kelly, “Cyberspace,” Whole Earth Review, no. 63 (Summer 1989): 84. 70.Ibid., 84–87. 71.Pascal G. Zachary, “Artificial Reality: A Kind of Electronic LSD?” Wall Street Journal, January 23, 1990, A1. 72.Jaron Lanier, interview by the author, April 27, 2014. 73.Timothy Leary, Chaos and Cyber Culture (Berkeley, CA: Ronin, 1994), 40–41. 74.“Timothy Leary: From LSD to Virtual Reality” (lecture, Sonoma State University, October 19, 1992), YouTube video, posted April 14, 2015, http://youtu.be/7IxZkeE1wQc. 75.Leary, Chaos and Cyber Culture, 41. 76.Ibid., 37. 77.Ibid., vii. 78.Quoted in Richard Kadrey, “Cyberthon 1.0,” Whole Earth Review 70 (Spring 1991): 57. 79.Quoted in Pollack, “For Artificial Reality, Wear a Computer.” 80.Timothy Leary, statement in John Forbes, “Cyberspace—The New Explorers,” Autodesk, , YouTube video, posted July 28, 2013, http://youtu.be/yYiX42rqbbs?
To him, a new form of planetary connection was emerging: “Through electronic circuitry and the building of a global information-system, we are essentially exteriorizing our nervous system, so that it is becoming a patina or skin around the planet,” he told High Frontiers. “And phenomena like group drug-taking and rock-and-roll concerts and this sort of thing,” he said, “these are simply cultural anticipations of this coming age of electronic-pooling-of-identity.”70 McKenna had been heavily influenced by Stewart Brand’s philosophy, the Whole Earth Catalog’s infatuation with Wiener and Ashby, and later even edited one issue of the Whole Earth Review. McKenna pointed out that this global condition of “informational oneness” had become possible through the “advent of more advanced cybernetic systems and more advanced psychedelic drugs.”71 To the Amazon-traveling ethnobotanist, the very technology that began its evolution in air defense research—and was then refined in the Cold War—didn’t clash with the wholesome peace and oneness of the psychedelic subculture at all.
Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks
But there is one thing that BoingBoing.net brings that has nothing to do with Whole Earth, and that is a strong sense of kitsch, that post-modern tonic used liberally by the children of baby boomers to get them through the day. The reference to the Whole Earth Catalog may have been unconscious, but by the time Cory was in his late teens, he was sold on the cyberpunk politics that Brand, Barlow and the rest of them were putting out through the Whole Earth’s new instantiation, the Whole Earth Review. “My friend, Karl Levesque, who I first met at Grindstone, was running an anarchist book store and he would send me magazines that had been returned for credit. And one day he sent me the Whole Earth Review issue called ‘Is the Body Obsolete?’, with William Gibson’s articles and Hans Moravec and all these other people making the connection between cyberculture and counterculture. I must have been 16. This was completely transformational literature for me. Totally changed the way I thought about things.”
Richard Stallman coded most of the first versions of GNU all by himself. Speaking to camera, and with only slightly more hair than he has today, Stewart Brand explains how he sees the hackers at Marin County: They are shy, sweet, incredibly brilliant, and I think more effective in pushing the culture around now in good ways than almost any group I can think of. Later, in a report in the Catalog spin-off the Whole Earth Review he would call them “the most interesting and effective body of intellectuals since the framers of the US constitution”. In this report there’s also a transcript of some of conversations that took place in Marin County away from the cameras. The talk about code freedom still clearly dominates. At one point Brand mediates proceedings with the following statement: On the one hand information wants to be expensive, because its so valuable.
“Space War: Fanatic Life and Symbolic Death Among the Computer Bums.” Rolling Stone, December 7. http://www.wheels.org/spacewar/stone/rolling_stone.html. ———. 1974. “History – Demise Party etc.” Whole Earth Catalog, October. http://wholeearth.com/issue/1180/article/321/history.-.demise.party.etc. ———. 1985. “Keep Designing: How the Information Economy is Being Created and Shaped by the Hacker Ethic.” Whole Earth Review, May. Brandeis, Louis. 1913. “What Publicity Can Do.” Harpers Weekly. Burns, John F. 2010. “WikiLeaks Founder on the Run, Trailed by Notoriety.” The New York Times, October 23. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/24/world/24assange.html. Bush, Vannevar. 1945. “As We May Think.” The Atlantic, July. http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1945/07/as-we-may-think/3881/. Clay, Jason. 2010.
The Misfit Economy: Lessons in Creativity From Pirates, Hackers, Gangsters and Other Informal Entrepreneurs by Alexa Clay, Kyra Maya Phillips
Airbnb, Alfred Russel Wallace, Berlin Wall, Burning Man, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, creative destruction, different worldview, disruptive innovation, double helix, fear of failure, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, megacity, Occupy movement, peer-to-peer rental, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, union organizing, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar
” The unschooling movement may be a niche, but alternative education is a growing marketplace. “Our education system was used to make industrial workers out of agricultural workers. It is no longer adequate,” Howard Rheingold told us. Rheingold, sixty-seven, is the former editor of Whole Earth Review. Founded in 1985, Whole Earth Review was a countercultural publication evolving out of Stewart Brand’s Whole Earth Catalog and rooted in “that old American tradition of self-reliance,” Rheingold shared, “building on that misfit streak started by Emerson.” In Rheingold’s perspective, Whole Earth Review was all about sharing tools and ideas to get people to take more control over their lives. “There was this hope that you didn’t have to depend on distant institutions—government, business, religious organizations—to shape your life.” Many came to realize that it was impossible to live completely outside of American society.
., 63 Song, Stephen, 99 South America, 127 Southwest Airlines, 84–85 space, 144–50 space flight, 148–49 space tourism, 31 Spain, recession in, 64–65 Spotify, 96, 97, 124 Sprigman, Christopher, 85 Stark, Kio, 22–23, 142 Steam, 215 steam engine technology, 88 steel industry, 88–89 Stein, Gertrude, 213 Stephens, Dale, 22–23, 139–42, 143 Stonyfield, 201 Stop Online Piracy Act, 113 streaming technology, 96 Structural Genomics Consortium, 101 Stuckert, Taylor, 67–70 Student (magazine), 31 Sullivan, Tim, 184 Swartz, Aaron, 113–14, 115 Sweden, 145, 156 Teach, Edward (“Blackbeard”), 121 TED, 201 telecom industry, 78 ten-thousand-year clock, 150–51 terrorists, 124 Texas, 58–59, 150 Texas Department of Criminal Justice, 59 Thai Flood Hacks, 34–35 Thailand, 34 Thessaloniki, Greece, 162 Thoreau, Henry, 185 3-D printing robots, 149 Tornabell, Robert, 65 Torvalds, Linus, 37 Toyota, 78, 85 trade: cost of, piracy and, 17 of counterfeit goods, 81 pirates’ disruption of, 121 Trade Secrets (Ben-Atar), 79 Trevithick, Richard, 89–90 Troyer, Marlin, 6, 8 Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin, 148 tuberculosis, 128 Tumblr, 34, 186 Twain, Mark, 80 Tweakers, 98 Twitter, 83 UAW Local, 40, 600 Ulysses (Joyce), 213 UnCollege, 22, 140 United Auto Worker, 40 United Kingdom, 66, 107, 163 United Nations, 17 United States: adoption industry in, 21 automobile consumption in, 41–42 camel farmers in, 3, 4, 6, 9, 74 camel milk industry in, 5–7, 8, 72, 74–75 community building in, 67–72 history of camels in, 72–73 hustling in, 67 industrial period copying of, 79 raw milk in, 6, 7 “Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall, The” (Poe), 147 unschooling movement, 139–42 Urban eXperiment (The UX), 19, 125–27, 214 Valve, 215, 217 Venturing Out, 62, 64 Verdin, Zach, 185–86 Vergne, Jean-Phillippe, 94 Vermeulen, Angelo, 144–47, 149, 216–17 Verne, Jules, 143, 148, 149 Vietnam, 165 Village Telco, 99 Villains of All Nations (Rediker), 121 violence, 129–36 as health issue, 130, 131, 133–34, 136 punishment as solution for, 129, 130 understanding and perception of, 130–31, 133–34 violence interruptors, 131–32, 135 Virgin (record store), 31 Virgin Records, 31, 64 Visa, 85 Walden Pond, 185 Wallace, Alfred Russel, 87 Wall Street Journal, 36 Wang Chuanfu, 79 Water Margin (Shuihu Zhuan), 77 Watson, James, 86 Watt, James, 89 Weiler, Lance, 32–34 Weinreich, Andrew, 103–5 Wells, H. G., 148 We-Think (Leadbeater), 89 What’s Mine Is Yours (Botsman and Rogers), 65 Where Good Ideas Come From (Johnson), 98 Whitby, England, 107 “white hat” hacking, 108–9 Whole Earth Catalog, 141 Whole Earth Review, 141–42 Whole Foods, 9 Wilkins, Maurice, 86 Wilmington, Ohio, 67–70 Wimdu, 83 Wired, 83, 84 Wisdom Hackers, 220 Woodroof, Ron, 8 Woolf, Arthur, 89–90 World Bank, 17 World Economic Forum, 163 World Health Organization (WHO), 129, 136 World Trade Organization (WTO), 95, 154–55 World War II, 145 WPP, 158 Wright, Helena, 21, 143 Yes Lab, 155 Yes Men, 153–55, 214 York, University of, 108 YouGov, 66 Youthstream Media Networks, 104 YouTube, 83, 152 ZICO, 184 Zimbabwe, 188 Zipcar, 65, 124 Zuckerberg, Mark, 104, 122–23 Simon & Schuster 1230 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10020 www.SimonandSchuster.com Copyright © 2015 by Alexa Clay and Kyra Maya Phillips All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or portions thereof in any form whatsoever.
Howard Rheingold by The Virtual Community Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier-Perseus Books (1993)
Apple II, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, commoditize, conceptual framework, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, experimental subject, George Gilder, global village, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, license plate recognition, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mitch Kapor, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Oldenburg, rent control, RFC: Request For Comment, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telepresence, The Great Good Place, The Hackers Conference, urban decay, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, young professional
The Whole Earth Catalogs and the magazines they spawned--Co-Evolution Quarterly and its successor, Whole Earth Review--seem to have outlived the counterculture itself, since the magazine and catalogs still exist after twenty-five years. One of Whole Earth's gurus, Buckminster Fuller, was fond of using the analogy of the tiprudder--the small rudder on very big ships that is used to control the larger, main rudder. The tiprudder people who steer the movements and disciplines that steer society--the editors and engineers, scientists and science-fiction writers, freelance programmers and permaculture evangelists, grassroots political activists and congressional aides--continued to need new tools and ideas, even though they were no longer a counterculture but part of the mainstream. These cultural experimenters continued to feed Co-Evolution Quarterly and then Whole Earth Review through decades when magazines died by the thousands.
Sitting in front of our computers with our hearts racing and tears in our eyes, in Tokyo and Sacramento and Austin, we read about Lillie's croup, her tracheostomy, the days and nights at Massachusetts General Hospital, and now the vigil over Lillie's breathing and the watchful attention to the mechanical apparatus that kept her alive. It went on for days. Weeks. Lillie recovered, and relieved our anxieties about her vocal capabilities after all that time with a hole in her throat by saying the most extraordinary things, duly reported online by Jay. Later, writing in Whole Earth Review, Jay described the experience: Before this time, my computer screen had never been a place to go for solace. Far from it. But there it was. Those nights sitting up late with my daughter, I'd go to my computer, dial up the WELL, and ramble. I wrote about what was happening that night or that year. I didn't know anyone I was "talking" to. I had never laid eyes on them. At 3:00 a.m. my "real" friends were asleep, so I turned to this foreign, invisible community for support.
The first Whole Earth Catalog was the first idealistic enterprise from the counterculture, besides music, that earned the cultural legitimation of financial success. The Whole Earth Catalog crew, riding on the catalog's success, launched a new magazine, The Whole Earth Software Review, and, after the WELL was started, received a record-breaking $1.4 million advance for the Whole Earth Software Catalog. It was time for the string of successes to take another turn: the WELL was the only one of the three projects to succeed. The Whole Earth Review is what survived in print; the WELL did more than survive. The inexpensive public online service was launched because two comrades from a previous cultural revolution noticed that the technology of computer conferencing had potential far beyond its origins in military, scientific, and government communications. Brand had been part of the faculty at an online institute devoted 26-04-2012 21:42 howard rheingold's | the virtual community 4 de 27 http://www.rheingold.com/vc/book/2.html to stretching the imaginations of business leaders--the Western Behavioral Sciences Institute (WBSI)--which introduced him to the effectiveness of computer conferencing.
Dawn of the New Everything: Encounters With Reality and Virtual Reality by Jaron Lanier
4chan, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, cosmological constant, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Firefox, game design, general-purpose programming language, gig economy, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, impulse control, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kuiper Belt, lifelogging, mandelbrot fractal, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, Murray Gell-Mann, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons
If you believe the copy of this e-book you are reading infringes on the author’s copyright, please notify the publisher at: us.macmillanusa.com/piracy. To everyone mentioned in this book and the many more I wish I’d been able to mention: thank you for giving me my life. Acknowledgments Some passages of the present work are adapted from my contributions to John Brockman’s edge.org or my anthologies of science writing. Other passages are adapted from my works originally published in the Whole Earth Review or the New York Times. My wife, Lena, not only supported and put up with me while I wrote this book, but I am astonished at the strength and brilliance she displayed during a period when she was battling cancer. Thank you! Thanks to Maureen Dowd for correspondence that inspired some passages. Thanks to Satya Nadella, Peter Lee, Harry Shum, and everyone else at Microsoft Research for their camaraderie and support.
“It sounds like we want old people to be put away in simulations so we don’t have to deal with them.” Hope he turns out to be wrong about that. Anyway, another definition: * * * Forty-fourth VR Definition: The term you might have used in the 1980s if you were partial to those weirdos at VPL Research. * * * Moniker on the Loose Long after the events chronicled in this book, the fall 1999 edition of the Whole Earth Review included my piece about the widespread use of the term “virtual reality” at that time to mean many things. Here are some lightly edited excerpts: Decades ago, I called a type of computer-user interface technology “virtual reality.” Two qualities, social and somatic, together created something quite different from a solitary virtual world. VR functioned as the interstices or connection between people; a role that had been previously taken only by the physical world.
They were researchers who would eventually become part of the HIT Lab of University of Washington, an early VR research department started by Tom Furness, a VR pioneer who had previously worked on military simulators. Introduction 1. This is the first of dozens of numbered definitions of VR dispersed in this book. 2. An example of my 1980s usage of the term “mixed reality” is found in “Virtual Reality: An Interview with Jaron Lanier” (Kevin Kelly, Adam Heilbrun, and Barbara Stacks, Whole Earth Review. Fall 1989, no. 64, p. 108). Chapter 2 1. I have no sympathy for the recent campaign to demote Pluto to prominent Kuiper Belt object instead of planet. Its weird orbit out there is an inspiration to every kid who doesn’t fit in. Are we not full-fledged planets? Will you only accept us if we conform? Let Pluto remain a planet, now and forever! If you planet demoters want to campaign to make folk categorizations of our world more rigorous, why don’t you insist that Europe isn’t a continent?
Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution by Howard Rheingold
A Pattern Language, augmented reality, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, business climate, citizen journalism, computer vision, conceptual framework, creative destruction, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, experimental economics, experimental subject, Extropian, Hacker Ethic, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Howard Rheingold, invention of the telephone, inventory management, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Metcalfe's law, Metcalfe’s law, more computing power than Apollo, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, pez dispenser, planetary scale, pre–internet, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, social intelligence, spectrum auction, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, transaction costs, ultimatum game, urban planning, web of trust, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game
We must recognize this if we are to understand and choose what we become as a result of what we have made.14 I was reminded of another VR researcher when I started rethinking pervasive computing: Warren Robinett, a soft-spoken fellow with a touch of a southern drawl who proposed that head-mounted displays could be used to extend human senses instead of immerse them in an artificial environment. Robinett had designed the software for NASA’s VR prototypes. One evening in 1991, when I was visiting the University of North Carolina VR lab in Chapel Hill, Robinett asked, “What if you could use VR to see things that are normally beyond human perception?” At that time I was editor of the Whole Earth Review, so I commissioned Robinett to write an article. While I was researching smart mobs, I was surprised to find Robinett’s article cited as one of the first descriptions of what is now known as “augmented reality.”15 Robinett proposed connecting the head-mounted display to a microscope, telescope, or a video camera equipped with gear that could make infrared, ultraviolet, or radio frequencies visible.
“The Trojan Room Coffee Machine,” <http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/coffee/coffee.html> (22 January 2002). 11. Weiser, “The Computer for the 21st Century.” 12. Howard Rheingold, Virtual Reality (New York: Summit, 1991). 13. Myron Krueger, Artificial Reality (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1983). 14. Myron Krueger, “Responsive Environments,” NCC Proceedings, 1977, 422433. 15. Warren Robinett, “Electronic Expansion of Human Perception,” Whole Earth Review, Fall 1991, 1621. 16. Alex Pentland, “The Dance of Bits and Atoms,” <http://www.white.media.mit.edu/people/sandy/profile.html> (2 February 2002). 17. Ivan E. Sutherland, “The Ultimate Display,” Proceedings of IFIPS Congress 2 May 1965, 506508. 18. Alex P. Pentland, “Smart Rooms,” Scientific American 274 (April 1996): 6876, <http://www.sciam.com/0496issue/0496pentland.html> (11 December 2001). 19.
Upendra Shardanand and Pattie Maes, “Social Information Filtering: Algorithms for Automating Word of Mouth,” Proceedings of ACM CHI’95 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Sytems, 1995, <http://www.acm.org/sigchi/ chi95/Electronic/documnts/papers/us_bdy.htm> (9 February 2002). 2. Cameron Barrett, “Online Community Technologies and Concepts,” Cam-world. com, December 2001, <http://www.camworld.com/essays/communities.html > (9 February 2002). 3. Howard Rheingold, The Virtual Community: Homesteading on the Electronic Frontier (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1993). 4. Howard Rheingold, “Virtual Communities,” Whole Earth Review 61 (Winter 1988): 14. 5. David Goldberg et al., “Using Collaborative Filtering to Weave an Information Tapestry,” Communications of the ACM 35 (December 1992): 6170. 6. Usenet FAQ Archive, <ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-hierarchy/> (9 February 2002). 7. Paul Resnick et al., “GroupLens: An Open Architecture for Collaborative Filtering of Netnews,” Proceedings of ACM 1994 Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1994, 175186, <http://www.si.umich.edu/~presnick/papers/ cscw94/> (9 February 2002). 8.
Surveillance Valley: The Rise of the Military-Digital Complex by Yasha Levine
23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bitcoin, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collaborative editing, colonial rule, computer age, computerized markets, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global village, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Howard Zinn, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Hackers Conference, uber lyft, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks
This group would spin this mythology through the 1980s and 1990s, helping obfuscate the military origins of computer and networking technologies by dressing them up in the language of 1960s acid-dropping counterculture. In this rebranded world, computers were the new communes: a digital frontier where the creation of a better world was still possible. In the parlance of today’s Silicon Valley, Brand “pivoted.” He transformed the Whole Earth Catalog into the Whole Earth Software Catalog and Whole Earth Review—magazines billed as “tools and ideas for the computer age.” He also launched the Good Business Network, a corporate consulting company that applied his counterculture public relations strategies to problems faced by clients such as Shell Oil, Morgan Stanley, Bechtel, and DARPA.31 He also organized an influential computer conference that brought together leading computer engineers and journalists.32 It was called, simply, “Hackers’ Conference” and was held in Marin County in 1984.
His face showed his age and he sported a shiny, bald pate, but he still had the fire in him. He wore a black-and-white plaid shirt under a sheepskin vest and waxed lyrical about the rebellious nature of those gathered there in Marin.34 “They are shy, sweet, incredibly brilliant and I think more effective in pushing the culture around in good ways than almost any group I can think of.” Off camera, he took to the pages of his Whole Earth Review to further expound on the rebel nature of computer programmers. “I think hackers—innovative, irreverent computer programmers—are the most interesting and effective body of intellectuals since the framers of the U.S. Constitution,” he wrote in an introduction to a photo spread of the 1984 Hackers’ Conference. “No other group that I know of has set out to liberate a technology and succeeded.… High tech is now something that mass consumers do, rather than just have done to them, and that’s a hot item in the world.”
Quoted in Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture, 128. 31. “Bio… Stewart Brand,” The Long Now Foundation, http://sb.longnow.org/SB_homepage/Bio.html. 32. Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture, 135. 33. Michael Schrage, “Hacking Away at the Future,” Washington Post, November 18, 1984. 34. Hackers: Wizards of the Electronic Age (Arlington, VA: PBS, 1985), short film. 35. Stewart Brand, “Keep Designing,” Whole Earth Review, May 1985. 36. “The advertisements appeared after a Harris poll, the I.R.S. had begun testing the use of computerized life-style information, such as the types of cars people own, to track down errant taxpayers, while an F.B.I. advisory committee had recommended that the bureau computer system include data on people who, though not charged with wrongdoing, associate with drug traffickers.”
Broad Band: The Untold Story of the Women Who Made the Internet by Claire L. Evans
"side hustle", 4chan, Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, British Empire, colonial rule, computer age, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Doomsday Book, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, East Village, Edward Charles Pickering, game design, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Haight Ashbury, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge worker, Leonard Kleinrock, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Network effects, old-boy network, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pets.com, rent control, RFC: Request For Comment, rolodex, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, telepresence, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Y2K
Those people were teenage boys. YOWOW There were places online for grown-ups. Out in Sausalito, the same Bay Area techno-idealism that had galvanized Community Memory and Resource One a decade previous gave birth to The WELL, a BBS for West Coast intellectuals. It was a joint venture between Larry Brilliant, an epidemiologist with a computer-conferencing company, and Stewart Brand, editor of the Whole Earth Review. Brand was known as a connector—the counterculture had been browsing the Whole Earth Catalog for solar ovens, composting toilets, and radical books for nearly a generation—and a scribe of disruptive technologies. “All software does is manage symbols,” he wrote in 1984. BBS had a reputation as a realm of nerdy fiefdoms, but The WELL was different. Fans of the Whole Earth publications signed up to chat with the writers, editors, and subjects of their favorite magazine, expecting a level of discourse that Brand and his cohort were happy to indulge.
For her master’s thesis, she combined the do-it-yourself ethos of punk with the emerging possibilities of desktop publishing, producing an electronic magazine, Cyber Rag, on floppy disk. With color-printed labels Krazy Glued onto each disk, Cyber Rag looked the part of a punk rock fanzine. Loaded onto a consumer Mac, Jaime’s stories came to life with images pilfered from the Village Voice, the Whole Earth Review, Mondo 2000, and Newsweek collaged together on-screen as though they’d been xeroxed by hand. Cyber Rag was programmed in Apple HyperCard, with graphics drawn in MacPaint. Along with her animations, she added edgy interactive games (in one, you chase Manuel Noriega around Panama), hacker how-tos, and catty musings about hippies, sneaking into computer trade shows, and cyberspace. Before the first graphical Web browsers brought hypertext to the masses, Jaime was publishing disks she thought would replace print magazines.
., 60 Web: use of word, 153 see also World Wide Web Web sites and pages, 131, 135, 153, 154, 184, 186 life spans of, 170 for women, see women’s Web see also World Wide Web WELL, The, 132–35, 140, 149, 153, 179–80, 205–6, 209 Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Duke of, 16 Wescoff, Marlyn, 39, 43, 48, 49 Westheimer, Ellen, 114 WHOIS, 119–20 Whole Earth Catalog, 100, 132 Whole Earth Review, 132, 183 Wilcox, Patricia (Pat Crowther), 84–94, 110 William the Conqueror, 155 Wired, 138, 194, 206 women, 4–5 computers as viewed by, 229 men posing as, 143–44, 179 and software vs. hardware, 51–52 women, working, 23–24 black, 24 wage discrimination and, 23, 77, 78 women.com, 205, 214–21 Women in Telecommunications (WIT), 141–42, 144, 205 Women’s Internet History Project, 143 Women’space, 239 women’s Web, 131, 216, 221, 223, 233 advertising and, 214–16, 218, 219, 221 iVillage, 214, 216–21 women.com, 205, 214–21 Women’s WIRE, 205–15 Women’s WIRE, 205–15 Woods, Don, 90 Word, 188–95, 201–3, 205, 214, 215 Works Progress Administration, 25 World War I, 24 World War II, 24, 25, 28–29, 31, 32, 34–37, 40, 45, 47, 50, 51, 53–55 atomic bomb in, 36 Pearl Harbor attack, 27–29, 32 World Wide Web, 102, 131, 152, 154, 159, 165, 168–72, 177, 203, 204, 222 browsers for, see browsers commercialization of, 204–5, 217, 241; see also advertising conferences on, 170, 173 early true believers and, 187–88, 196, 197, 202 hypertext and, 168–70, 201 links on, 168–70, 201 Microcosm viewer for, 172–73 number of women on, 214 search engines for, 115, 154 Semantic Web and, 174 see also Internet; Web sites and pages Xerox, 161 Xerox PARC, 162–66, 210 Y2K, 71, 194 Yankelovich, Nicole, 162 Zapata Corporation, 194, 201 Zeroes + Ones (Plant), 238 About the Author CLAIRE L.
Thinking in Systems: A Primer by Meadows. Donella, Diana Wright
affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, clean water, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, game design, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, peak oil, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Stanford prison experiment, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Whole Earth Review
QA402.M425 2008 003--dc22 2008035211 Chelsea Green Publishing Company Post Office Box 428 White River Junction, VT 05001 (802) 295-6300 www.chelseagreen.com Part of this work has been adapted from an article originally published under the title “Whole Earth Models and Systems” in Coevolution Quarterly (Summer 1982). An early version of Chapter 6 appeared as “Places to Intervene in a System” in Whole Earth Review (Winter 1997) and later as an expanded paper published by the Sustainability Institute. Chapter 7, “Living in a World of Systems,” was originally published as “Dancing with Systems” in Whole Earth Review (Winter 2001). FOR DANA (1941–2001) and for all those who would learn from her Contents A Note from the Author A Note from the Editor Introduction: The Systems Lens Part One: System Structure and Behavior ONE. The Basics TWO. A Brief Visit to the Systems Zoo Part Two: Systems and Us THREE.
The Transparent Society: Will Technology Force Us to Choose Between Privacy and Freedom? by David Brin
affirmative action, airport security, Ayatollah Khomeini, clean water, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, data acquisition, death of newspapers, Extropian, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, informal economy, information asymmetry, Iridium satellite, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mutually assured destruction, offshore financial centre, open economy, packet switching, pattern recognition, pirate software, placebo effect, plutocrats, Plutocrats, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Robert Bork, Saturday Night Live, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, telepresence, trade route, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP
Many stories would never have been revealed without undercover journalism, a tradition that goes back more than a century; during the 1880s, Nellie Bly, a courageous reporter for New York World, got herself committed to a mental institution in order to expose the horrors of New York Cityʼs lunatic asylums. Ever since then, investigative journalists have been nosing around for hints and clues leading to the next ripening scandal, or the next sensational story. It is certainly tenable that advertisers and politically connected publishers wield undue influence over various periodicals, from time to time. For this reason some cutting-edge publications, notably Consumer Reports and Whole Earth Review, refuse advertising in order to safeguard their vaunted reputation for credibility. Nevertheless, such meddling can be counterproductive. In a competitive environment, the chief effect will be to drive the best reporters away to other journals, where freedom of inquiry is the common culture. In other words, suggests Kalb, if some stories fail to reach general awareness, it may be because the public did not find them compelling in the first place.
But this is just another example of trying to solve problems by reducing information flow. After all, a flamer isnʼt really different from the motorist who cut you off last week, nearly causing an accident, flipping an obscene gesture and laughing at your frustration, safe behind a mask of anonymity. Driven by rancorous behavior he witnessed in the Netʼs early days, Stewart Brand, cofounder of the Whole Earth Catalog and Whole Earth Review magazine, realized there would be no peace as long as nastiness could find shelter behind false identities. Brand lobbied successfully to have anonymity strictly forbidden on the pioneering Internet service the Well. True, there are disadvantages to this rule, and I do feel there should remain places where anonymous postings are possible, especially for whistle-blowers reporting crimes. But anonymity just doesnʼt foster the kind of mature behavior you want among your neighbors.
In this illustration from popular culture we see how the two conflicting attitudes described in chapter 5 remain at war to this day. 123 For more on the concept of memes see Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene. A more recent and detailed treatment provided by Aaron Lynch in Thought Contagion (New York: Basic Books, 1996). 124 ... a solid moral grounding and some common sense ... Quote by Howard Rheingold, Whole Earth Review, Winter 1994, 95. 125 ... flip side of living in tribes is living in the world ... in the kosmos ... Private communication to the author by Stefan Jones, Oracle Corporation computer scientist. 125 ... some wise elite should hold sway over what others see ... Another idea liked by both intolerant rightists and intolerant leftists is the notion that humanity is meant to live in “tribes,” and that attempts to mix or melt cultural and ethnic boundaries are both futile and unfair.
Cool Tools in the Kitchen by Kevin Kelly, Steven Leckart
KEVIN KELLY, Publisher Kevin founded Cool Tools and edited all reviews through 2006. He writes the occasional review, oversees the design and editorial direction of the website, and is working on a print book version of Cool Tools. A Senior Maverick at Wired Magazine, Kevin co-founded Wired in 1993, and served as its Executive Editor from its inception until 1999. From 1984-1990, he was the publisher/editor of the Whole Earth Review. He co-founded the ongoing Hackers Conference, and was involved with the launch of the WELL, a pioneering online service started in 1985. He is the author of New Rules for the New Economy, Out of Control and, most recently, What Technology Wants. Contents * * * Preface * * * This is a curated collection of the best cool tools for the Kitchen. It is not intended as a shopping list or checklist.
Heart of the Machine: Our Future in a World of Artificial Emotional Intelligence by Richard Yonck
3D printing, AI winter, artificial general intelligence, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Berlin Wall, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, friendly AI, ghettoisation, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of writing, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Loebner Prize, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, neurotypical, Oculus Rift, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Skype, social intelligence, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing test, twin studies, undersea cable, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, working-age population, zero day
No matter how well we emulate the basic thought processes, even down to the most foundational level, so long as it is not based on biological neurons connected to sensory and somatic inputs like our own, there will remain fundamental differences in the system’s processing. There are many reasons for this, which will be explored further in the next chapter. It’s worth discussing one more aspect of machine intelligence that has been explored extensively in fiction, but which originates in an essay from the late twentieth century. In 1993, mathematician and science fiction author Vernor Vinge wrote an article for the Whole Earth Review proposing that continuing exponential growth in computing power would ultimately result in recursively self-improving computers rapidly giving rise to a superintelligence. He called this event the “Singularity” because of its supposed similarity to a physical singularity—or black hole.8 Proponents of the concept maintain that as with a physical singularity, conditions would be so severely different beyond its horizon that it’s impossible to predict what the world would be like afterward.
See unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) uncanny valley definition of, 96–98 and out of place emotions, 102–104 psychological response, eliminating, 107 reasons for, 98–102 and xenophobic behavior, 105 Unilever, 69–70 universal language of reasoning, 36 University of California, San Diego, 114–115 University of Denver, 112 University of Duisburg-Essen, 89 University of Tel Aviv, 166 unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), 130 Urban Dictionary, 197 US Patent and Trademark Office, 76 US Patriot Act, 145 Usenet, 210 user interfaces, 52–53 V vasopressin, 186, 196 Velveteen Rabbit, 199 ventromedial profrontal cortex (vmPFC), 34, 248 Vibease, 188 Victor of Aveyron, 257 video compression system, 43 Vinge, Vernor, 239 visual expression detection, 120–121 VocalIQ, 75 voice recognition, 5 volition, 250–251 volitional control and communication of brain states, 128 von Economo neurons (VENs), 20 W Wall Street Journal, 120, 144–145 Wallach, Wendell, 223 Watson, IBM (DeepQA/IBM Cognitive), 233 Watson, Jill, 120–121 We (Zamyatin), 229 web scrapers, 141 “What is an Emotion?” (James), 17–18 Who Framed Roger Rabbit, 95–96 Whole Earth Review, 239 Wiesner, Jerome, 52 Woolf, Virginia, 223 World Economic Forum (2016), 88 World Tournament of Emo-Poker, 63 X X Lab, Google, 197–198 xenophobia, 105, 170, 234 Y Yale study (2012), 115 Yale University’s Center for Bioethics, 223 Yangyang, 87 Yudkowsky, Eliezer, 262 Z Zamyatin, Yevgeny, 229 Zemeckis, Robert, 95–96 Zeno, 113–114
The Hacker Crackdown by Bruce Sterling
Apple II, back-to-the-land, game design, ghettoisation, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, index card, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, Mitch Kapor, pirate software, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Silicon Valley, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Hackers Conference, the scientific method, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review
Out came the Whole Earth Software Catalog of 1984, arousing headscratching doubts among the tie-dyed faithful, and rabid enthusiasm among the nascent "cyberpunk" milieu, present company included. Point Foundation started its yearly Hackers Conference, and began to take an extensive interest in the strange new possibilities of digital counterculture. CoEvolution Quarterlyfolded its teepee, replaced by Whole Earth Software Review and eventually by Whole Earth Review (the magazine's present incarnation, currently under the editorship of virtual-reality maven Howard Rheingold). 1985 saw the birth of the "WELL"—the "Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link." The Well was Point Foundation's bulletin board system. As boards went, the Well was an anomaly from the beginning, and remained one. It was local to San Francisco. It was huge, with multiple phonelines and enormous files of commentary.
Furthermore, proclaimed the manifesto, the foundation would "fund, conduct, and support legal efforts to demonstrate that the Secret Service has exercised prior restraint on publications, limited free speech, conducted improper seizure of equipment and data, used undue force, and generally conducted itself in a fashion which is arbitrary, oppressive, and unconstitutional." "Crime and Puzzlement" was distributed far and wide through computer networking channels, and also printed in the Whole Earth Review. The sudden declaration of a coherent, politicized counter-strike from the ranks of hackerdom electrified the community. Steve Wozniak (perhaps a bit stung by the NuPrometheus scandal) swiftly offered to match any funds Kapor offered the Foundation. John Gilmore, one of the pioneers of Sun Microsystems, immediately offered his own extensive financial and personal support. Gilmore, an ardent libertarian, was to prove an eloquent advocate of electronic privacy issues, especially freedom from governmental and corporate computer-assisted surveillance of private citizens.
Valley of Genius: The Uncensored History of Silicon Valley (As Told by the Hackers, Founders, and Freaks Who Made It Boom) by Adam Fisher
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bob Noyce, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Byte Shop, cognitive dissonance, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Elon Musk, frictionless, glass ceiling, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, informal economy, information retrieval, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeff Rulifson, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, life extension, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, nuclear winter, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pez dispenser, popular electronics, random walk, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, The Hackers Conference, the new new thing, Tim Cook: Apple, tulip mania, V2 rocket, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y Combinator
Jaron Lanier: There’d be like this incredible pressure: “You have to open it up and give everybody demos!” Well, how many people? “Oh, there’s only going to be two thousand.” All right, we’ll give ten people demos. And they are like, “No. We have to have at least…” It was just constant pressure and arguments. I mostly remember being beleaguered by that scene. Howard Rheingold: Cyberthon happened because the Whole Earth Review wanted to have an event around virtual reality. There was no money, and we wanted to have all this stuff happening that would take two or three days. And Kevin, who is a genius at this stuff, said, “Well, why don’t you just have it around the clock for twenty-four hours?” Kevin Kelly: We ran it from noon Saturday to noon Sunday. We sold tickets on The Well; we announced it in the magazine.
Hello, I’m Macintosh Steve Jobs’s “shithead” quote can be found in Walter Isaacson’s Steve Jobs. Jef Raskin’s “king of France” quote is from Michael Moritz’s The Return to the Little Kingdom. The quotes from Mike Murray, Joanna Hoffman, and Andy Cunningham are from a panel discussion held at the Computer History Museum in 2004: “The Macintosh Marketing Story: Fact and Fiction, 20 Years Later.” Burrell Smith’s quote is from the May 1985 Whole Earth Review. Lee Clow’s quotes are from a video interview by Ann-Christine Diaz, published in 2012 by Advertising Age: “The Art of the Super Bowl Ad: Lee Clow on How Apple’s ‘1984’ Almost Didn’t Happen—The Real Story on Why the Spot Only Aired Once.” Ridley Scott’s quotes are from an Apple promotional video that was distributed to Apple dealers in 1984. John Sculley’s remark was made in 2011 at a celebration of the thirtieth anniversary of the IBM PC in Boca Raton and reported by the South Florida Business Journal.
John Sculley’s remark was made in 2011 at a celebration of the thirtieth anniversary of the IBM PC in Boca Raton and reported by the South Florida Business Journal. What Information Wants Ted Nelson’s quote is in Michael Schrage’s November 1984 Washington Post story on the first Hackers Conference. Bill Atkinson’s quotes are from an August 2012 Berkeley Cybersalon event on the creation and legacy of Hypercard. Doug Carlson’s, Robert Woodhead’s, and Steve Wozniak’s quotes from the Hackers Conference are as reported in the May 1985 Whole Earth Review. The Whole Earth ’Lectronic Link Ram Dass’s quotes are from two Seva Foundation videos: “Ram Dass Talks About Neem Karoli Baba, Larry Brilliant, Service, and the Birth of Seva Foundation” and “An Evening with Ram Dass: Seva Foundation Benefit 1985.” Reality Check Mitch Altman’s quotes here and elsewhere are from the Hackertrips video blog post on YouTube: “An Interview with Mitch Altman.”
Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield
3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, post-work, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, social intelligence, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, undersea cable, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce
It may be the long-awaited breakthrough in wearables: both the enabler and the visible symbol of a lifestyle in which performance is continuously monitored and plumbed for its insights into further improvements. Nobody has embraced this conception of instrumented living more fervently than a loose global network of enthusiasts called the Quantified Self, whose slogan is “self-knowledge through numbers.”2 Founded by Wired editor Gary Wolf and Whole Earth Review veteran Kevin Kelly in 2007, the Quantified Self currently boasts a hundred or so local chapters, and an online forum where members discuss and rate the devices mobilized in their self-measurement efforts. (It can be difficult to disentangle this broader movement from a California company of the same name also founded by Wolf and Kelly, which mounts conferences dedicated to proselytizing for the practice of self-measurement.)
See Google Siemens, 52–4, 56 Silk Road exchange, 131 Silver, David, 265 Simone, Nina, 261 Sipilä, Juha, 204 Sirer, Emin Gün, 178 Siri virtual assistant, 39 Situationism, 64, 190 Slock.it, 156, 170, 175–6 slow jam (music genre), 221 Slum– and Shackdwellers International, 169 smart city, 33, 48, 52, 52, 55, 59 smart contracts, 115, 147, 150, 153–7, 163, 166, 168, 170, 172, 306 smart home, 33, 36, 38, 46, 48 smartphone, 3, 8–33, 38, 49, 64, 67, 72, 77, 133, 137, 273, 285–6, 313 as “network organ,” 27–9 as platform for augmented reality, 67, 72 as platform for financial transactions, 133, 137 environmental implications of, 18–19 incompleteness at time of purchase, 17 teardown of, 14–16 ubiquity of, 313 smart property, 149–53 Smith, Zachary, 103, 105 Snæfellsjökull glacier, 83 Snaptrends, 227–8, 231, 254 Sobibor, 61 social credit, 285, 311 social dividend, 204 social media, 26, 192, 227–8, 276, 286 Sociometric Solutions, 197 Solanas, Valerie, 191 South Sea Company, the, 165 Soylent nutrient slurry, 35 SpatialKey, 227 Spielberg, Steven, 227 Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, 311 Srnicek, Nick, 88, 90–1, 111, 190, 203, 205, 303 Stacks, 275, 277, 280–1, 283–6, 292–5, 299, 313–14 Stanford Dogs Dataset, 219 Stanford University, 283 startups, 13, 118, 137, 145–6, 280–2, 286 Stavrides, Stavros, 173 Sterling, Bruce, 275 Stolpersteine, 72, 74 Stratasys, 103–4, 108 Summers, Larry, 201 Super Sad True Love Story (Shteyngart), 246 Superstudio, 191 supervised learning, 216 SWaCH wastepickers’ collective, 98–9 Swedish death metal (music genre), 221 SweepTheStreets, 170 Szabo, Nick, 150, 303, 306 Target (retail chain), 196 Taylor, Frederick, 35 Taylor, Simon, 160 technolibertarians, 140, 150, 283 Tencent, 285 Tešanovic, Jasmina, 62 Tesla, 166, 193, 222–5, 243, 254, 264, 270, 285 Autopilot feature, 222–5, 243, 254, 256, 270 Model S, 222–4 Model X, 222 operating system 7.0, 222 tetrapods, 301–7 Theatro, 196–7 Theory of Self–Reproducing Automata (Neumann), 86 “Theses on Feuerbach” (Marx), 305 Thiel, Peter, 148 Thingiverse, 103, 105 Tide laundry detergent, 46–47 Topography of Terror, Berlin museum, 70 touchscreen, 15–16, 38, 43, 194 travel-to-crime, 231 Tual, Stephan, 170 Twitter, 51, 137, 268 Uber, 4, 40, 41, 193, 245, 270, 276, 285, 293 driverless cars, 193, 270 Ultimaker 3D printer, 88, 101, 104, 295 United States Constitution, 230, 235 universal basic income, UBI, 203–5, 288, 292, 294 universal constructor, 86 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 91 University College London, 85 unnecessariat, 181, 206, 297 unsupervised deep learning, 220 Urban Dynamics (Forrester), 56 Utrecht, 204 value network, 264 van Rijn, Rembrandt Harmenszoon, 262 Vélib, 2 Velvet Underground, the, 228 Venezuelan bolívar, 122 Venmo, 41 Verlan, 311 Virginia Company, the, 165 virtual assistants, 38, 41–2, 286 virtual reality, 65, 82–3, 275, 296 Visa, 120, 136, 159 Vitality, 36 Vkontakte, 241 von Furstenberg, Diane, 84 von Neumann, John, 86 “wake word,” interface command, 41 Washington State, 192 Waterloo University, 148 Watt, James, 104 Wendy’s, 197 Wernick, Miles, 233 Westegren, Tim, 220 Western Union, 120 WhatsApp, 281 Whole Earth Review (magazine), 34 WiFi, 11, 17, 25, 46, 66 Wiggins, Shayla, 63–5 WikiLeaks, 120, 137 Williams, Alex, 190, 203 Williams, Raymond, 315 Wilson, Cody, 108, 111 Winograd Schema, 270 The Wire (TV series), 54 Wired (magazine), 34 Wolf, Gary, 34 World Bank, 133 World Economic Forum, 194 Yahoo, 219 yamato–damashii, 267 Yaskawa Motoman MH24 industrial robot, 266 yuan (currency), 135 Zamfir, Vlad, 177 Zen Buddhism, 34, 284 ZeroBlock application, 131 The Zero Marginal Cost Society (Rifkin), 88, 205
Artificial You: AI and the Future of Your Mind by Susan Schneider
artificial general intelligence, brain emulation, Elon Musk, Extropian, hive mind, life extension, megastructure, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, silicon-based life, Stephen Hawking, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons
“Integrated Information Theory: From Consciousness to Its Physical Substrate.” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 17: 450–461. Turner, E. n.d. “Improbable Life: An Unappealing but Plausible Scenario for Life’s Origin on Earth,” video of lecture given at Harvard University, https://youtube/Bt6n6Tu1beg. UNESCO/COMEST. 2005. “The Precautionary Principle,” http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001395/139578e.pdf. Vinge, V. 1993. “The Coming Technological Singularity.” Whole Earth Review, Winter. Wiley, Keith. 2014. “Response to Susan Schneider’s ‘The Philosophy of “Her,’ ” H+ Magazine, March 26, http://hplusmagazine.com/2014/03/26/response-to-susan-schneiders-the-philosophy-of-her/. Zimmer, Carl. 2010. “Sizing Up Consciousness By Its Bits,” New York Times, September 20. INDEX Page numbers in italics indicate illustrations. Aaronson, Scott, 64 ACT test, 50–57, 60, 65, 67 Active SETI, 105–9 afterlife of the brain, 8, 145 AGI (artificial general intelligence), 9, 43 AI (artificial intelligence), 1–15, 148–50 alien/extraterrestrial, 5, 98–119 (See also alien/extraterrestrial AI) consciousness issues, 2–6 (See also consciousness) development of, 9–10 implications, importance of thinking through, 2–3, 10 Jetsons fallacy and, 12–13 merging humans with AI, 6–8, 72–81 (See also merging humans with AI) mind design, concept of, 1 postbiological, 99 singularity, approach of, 11–12 software, mind viewed as, 7–8, 120–47 (See also software, mind viewed as) transhumanism, 13–15 (See also transhumanism) uncertainties and unknowns regarding, 15 AI consciousness, problem of, 3–6, 16–32, 148–49 alien intelligences, postbiological, 5 alien/extraterrestrial AI, 110–11 biological naturalism, arguments against, 18–22, 34, 158n4 capability of machines for consciousness, 17–18 Chinese Room thought experiment and, 19–22, 20, 34, 148 control problem, 4–5 ethical treatment of conscious/potentially conscious AIs, 39, 67–69, 149 isomorph thought experiment and, 26–31, 57, 158nn13–14, 159nn10–11 “problem of other minds” and, 158n3 slavery and, 4, 39 techno-optimism, arguments for, 18, 23–26, 31, 34 value placed on humans by, 5 “Wait and See Approach” to, 33–34, 45 AI slavery, 4, 39 Alcor, 121, 145 alien/extraterrestrial AI, 5, 98–119 BISAs (biologically inspired superintelligent aliens), 113–19 consciousness, 110–11 control problem and, 104–5 postbiological cosmos approach, 99–104 SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence), 101, 105–9, 106 software theory, 119 superintelligent AI minds, encountering, 109–19 Alzheimer’s disease, 44, 58 Amazon, 131 Arrival (film), 107 artificial general intelligence (AGI), 9, 43 artificial intelligence.
The Transhumanist Reader by Max More, Natasha Vita-More
23andMe, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cellular automata, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, combinatorial explosion, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, data acquisition, discovery of DNA, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, experimental subject, Extropian, fault tolerance, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, friendly AI, game design, germ theory of disease, hypertext link, impulse control, index fund, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, lifelogging, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Pepto Bismol, phenotype, positional goods, prediction markets, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, RFID, Ronald Reagan, scientific worldview, silicon-based life, Singularitarianism, social intelligence, stem cell, stochastic process, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, the built environment, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce, zero-sum game
Hibbert “Diverse goods arbitration system and method for allocation resources in a distributed computer system” (Sun Microsystems, 1997); and with Norman Hardy, Linda L. Vetter “System and method for generating unique secure values for digitally signing documents” (2000). Vernor Vinge, PhD, is former Professor of Mathematics, University of California San Diego. He authored A Fire Upon the Deep (Tor, 1993, 2011); “The Coming Technological Singularity: How to Survive in the Post-Human Era” (Whole Earth Review, 1993); and True Names … and Other Dangers (Baen Book, 1987). Natasha Vita-More, PhD, is Professor of Design University of Advancing Technology, co-founder, Institute for Transhumanism, chairman of Humanity+, and co-editor of The Transhumanist Reader. She authored “Epoch of Plasticity” (Metaverse Creativity 1, 2010); and “Aesthetics of the Radically Enhanced Human” (Technoetic Arts: A Journal of Speculative Research 8, 2003).
Various (2002) “The Transhumanist Declaration.” http://humanityplus.org/philosophy/transhumanist-declaration/. Various (2003) “The Transhumanist FAQ: v 2.1.” World Transhumanist Association. http://humanityplus.org/philosophy/transhumanist-faq/. Verdoux, Philippe (2009) “Transhumanism, Progress and the Future.” Journal of Evolution and Technology 20/2 (December), pp. 49–69. Vinge, Vernor (1993) “The Coming Technological Singularity.” Whole Earth Review (Winter). Vita-More, Natasha (1983) “Transhuman Manifesto.” http://www.transhumanist.biz/transhumanmanifesto.htm. Vita-More, Natasha (1992) “Transhumanist Arts Statement.” Revised 2002. http://www.transhumanist.biz/transhumanistartsmanifesto.htm. Further Reading Bell, T. W. and Murashige, K.H. (1999) “Who Owns Your Genes?” EXTRO-4: Biotech Futures Conference, Berkeley, CA. Moravec, Hans (1999) Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind.
More, Max (2009) “Singularity and Surge Scenarios.” http://strategicphilosophy.blogspot.com/2009/06/how-fast-will-future-arrive-how-will.html (accessed October 30, 2011). Sandberg, Anders and Bostrom, Nick (2008) Whole Brain Emulation: A Roadmap. Technical Report #2008-3. Future of Humanity Institute, Oxford University. Vinge, Vernor (1993) “The Coming Technological Singularity: How to Survive in the Post-Human Era.” Whole Earth Review (Winter). Walter, Henrik (2001) The Neurophilosophy of Free Will. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Wegner, Daniel (2002) The Illusion of Conscious Will. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Yudkowsky, E. (2008) “Artificial Intelligence as a Positive and Negative Factor in Global Risk.” In Nick Bostrom and Milan Cirkovic, eds., Global Catastrophic Risks. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Further Reading Drexler, Eric (1992) Nanosystems.
One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness
active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War
according to Strange and Brown, Stanton’s treatise on religion, The Women’s Bible, ignited intense protests from the church and apparently proved so controversial that “many of [her] strongest supporters, including the national american Women Suffrage association condemned it as heretical” “The Bicycle, Women’s rights, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton,” 620. roberta J. park also comments on Stanton’s controversial, anti-religious perspective in “‘all the Freedom of the Boy’: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, nineteenth-Century architect of Women’s rights,” International Journal of the History of Sport 18, no. 1 (2001): 22. Strange and Brown, “The Bicycle, Women’s rights, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton,” 621. For example, see Jacquie phelan, “liberation noted from an Old Crank,” Whole Earth Review, no. 86 (1995), 56–57; Ethan Clark and Shelley lynn Jackson, The Chainbreaker Bike Book (Bloomington, in: Microcosm publishing, 2008); Greta Snider, Mudflap (San Francisco; self-published zine); Gear Up! Dames on Frames, nos. 1–3 (Minneapolis: self-published zine). While recent feminist support for bicycling has fortunately transcended Stanton and anthony’s racist thinking, there are virtually no feminist cyclists (women or men) who offer a critique of their views on race, much less a substan tive reflection on how white privilege afforded first-wave feminists the opportunity to enjoy public mobility through the bicycle.
“Women and the Wheel: The Bicycle’s impact on Women.” in Cycle History 7: Proceedings of the 7th International Cycle History Conference, Buffalo, NY, USA, 4–6 September 1996, edited by rob van der plas, 112–133. San Francisco: van der plas publications, 1997. phelan, Jacquie. “Golden Testicle award.” Women’s Mountain Bike and Tea Society (WOMBATS), October 26, 1994. available at www.wombats.org/jacquie5.html. ———. “liberation noted from an Old Crank.” Whole Earth Review, no. 86 (1995): 56–57. philpott, Julia. “Women and nonmotorized Transport: Connection in africa between Transportation and Economic Development.” Transportation Research Record, no. 1441 (1994): 39–43. “a photo-Tricycle.” Scientific American 53, no. 12 (1885): 178. pinder, David. “Commentary-Writing Cities against the Grain.” 25, no. 8 (2004): 792–795. ———.”in Defence of Utopian Urbanism: imagining Cities after the ‘End of Utopia.’”
Masters of Deception: The Gang That Ruled Cyberspace by Michelle Slatalla, Joshua Quittner
Didn't some kid just fork out fifty dollars for this program? Shouldn't he be able to copy it as many times as he wants? It's his, after all. What if his sister accidentally on purpose stuck his disk in the microwave? How's he going to play? This was a widespread concern among teenage boys all over the country. It was perhaps their first conscious political stand. Even if they didn't know it, they were following a basic truth identified by Whole Earth Review founder Stewart Brand: Information wants to be free. To liberate it, these kids became "warez" dudes, amateur software pirates who put their collective ingenuity together. They traded tips for breaking lame copy protections. They even wrote little lockpicking programs, like Kwik Copy, that could copy a disk protected by measly Error 23. It was a macho thing to do. Computer macho. Naturally, the companies abandoned Error 23.
Protocol: how control exists after decentralization by Alexander R. Galloway
Ada Lovelace, airport security, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, computer age, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, discovery of DNA, Donald Davies, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, John Conway, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, linear programming, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, phenotype, post-industrial society, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, semantic web, SETI@home, stem cell, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telerobotics, the market place, theory of mind, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Review, working poor
Steven Levy, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution (New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday, 1984), p. ix. 10. This dictum is attributed to Stewart Brand, who wrote that “[o]n the one hand information wants to be expensive, because it’s so valuable. The right information in the right place just changes your life. On the other hand, information wants to be free, because the cost of getting it out is getting lower and lower all the time. So you have these two ﬁghting against each other.” See Whole Earth Review, May 1985, p. 49. 11. Many hackers believe that commercial software products are less carefully crafted and therefore more prone to exploits. Perhaps the most infamous example of such an exploit, one which critiques software’s growing commercialization, is the “BackOriﬁce” software application created by the hacker group Cult of the Dead Cow. A satire of Microsoft’s “Back Ofﬁce” software suite, BackOriﬁce acts as a Trojan Horse to allow remote access to personal computers running certain versions of Microsoft’s Windows operating system. 12.
Toast by Stross, Charles
anthropic principle, Buckminster Fuller, cosmological principle, dark matter, double helix, Ernest Rutherford, Extropian, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, glass ceiling, gravity well, Khyber Pass, Mars Rover, Mikhail Gorbachev, NP-complete, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, performance metric, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, slashdot, speech recognition, strong AI, traveling salesman, Turing test, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Review, Y2K
Part of the problem facing any contemporary hard SF writer is the fogbank of accelerating change that has boiled up out of nowhere to swallow our proximate future. Computer scientist and author Vernor Vinge coined the term “singularity” to describe this; a singularity, in mathematics, is the point towards which an exponential curve tends. At the singularity, the rate of change of technology becomes infinite; we can’t predict what lies beyond it. In a frightening essay on the taxonomy of artificial intelligence, published in Whole Earth Review in 1994, Vinge pointed out that if it is possible to create an artificial intelligence (specifically a conscious software construct) equivalent to a human mind, then it is possible to create one that is faster than a human mind—just run it on a faster computer. Such a weakly superhuman AI can design ever-faster hardware for itself, amplifying its own capabilities. Or it could carry out research into better, higher orders of artificial sentience, possibly transforming itself into a strongly superhuman AI: an entity with thought processes as comprehensible to us as ours are to a dog or cat.
Inside the Robot Kingdom: Japan, Mechatronics and the Coming Robotopia by Frederik L. Schodt
carbon-based life, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, factory automation, game design, guest worker program, industrial robot, Jacques de Vaucanson, Norbert Wiener, post-industrial society, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, V2 rocket, Whole Earth Review, women in the workforce
—HIGH TECHNOLOGY BUSINESS * * * * * * * * * * * * "[A] sharp, singular book." —LOS ANGELES TIMES BOOK REVIEW * * * * * * * * * * * * " Western industrialists will learn more about competing with Japan from this book than from all the how-to books that have proliferated since Japan Inc. became a popular ogre." —Joseph F. Engelberger (Father of the industrial robot) * * * * * * * * * * * * "The robots are coming, and they are Japanese." —WHOLE EARTH REVIEW * * * * * * * * * * * * "One of the best Sci-Tech books of 1988" ‘LIBRARY JOURNAL Contents On the New 2010 Digital Version Preface PART ONE Introducing the Robot Kingdom and the Robot 1 The Robot Kingdom 2 What Is a Robot? PART TWO Before Industrial Robots: A State of Mind 3 The First Japanese Robot 4 Robots of the Imagination 5 The Toy Robot Kingdom PART THREE After Industrial Robots: Building the Kingdom 6 Japan Manufactures the Industrial Robot 7 An Empire of Yellow Robots 8 The Man—Machine Interface 9 Robots and the Wealth of Nations PART FOUR Beyond Industrial Robots 10 Religion and Robots 11 Six Legs, Four Legs, Two Legs, or None?
The Knowledge Illusion by Steven Sloman
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Air France Flight 447, attribution theory, bitcoin, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, combinatorial explosion, computer age, crowdsourcing, Dmitri Mendeleev, Elon Musk, Ethereum, Flynn Effect, Hernando de Soto, hindsight bias, hive mind, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, libertarian paternalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, prediction markets, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Rodney Brooks, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Vernor Vinge, web application, Whole Earth Review, Y Combinator
few people today read Alice in Wonderland: A fact bemoaned by Anthony Lane in “Go Ask Alice,” The New Yorker, June 8 and 15, 2015. SEVEN. THINKING WITH TECHNOLOGY commuting a little less: www.governing.com/topics/transportation-infrastructure/how-america-stopped-commuting.html. attendance at movie theaters: www.slashfilm.com/box-office-attendance-hits-lowest-level-five-years. Vernor Vinge: V. Vinge (1993). “The Coming Technological Singularity.” Whole Earth Review, Winter. Ray Kurzweil: R. Kurzweil (2005). The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. New York: Penguin Books. Nick Bostrom: N. Bostrom (2014). Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Ian Tattersall: As told to Dan Falk in the online magazine eon: http://eon.co/magazine/science/was-human-evolution-inevitable-or-a-matter-of-luck.
The Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update by Donella H. Meadows, Jørgen Randers, Dennis L. Meadows
agricultural Revolution, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, demographic transition, financial independence, game design, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), longitudinal study, means of production, new economy, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review
David Tilman, "The Greening of the Green Revolution," Nature 396 (November 19, 1998): 211; see also L. E. Drinkwater, P Wagoner, and M. Sarrantonio, "Legume-Based Cropping Systems Have Reduced Carbon and Nitrogen Losses," Nature 396 (November 19, 1998): 262. 25. FoodReview No. 24-1. (Washington, DC : Food and Rural Economics Division, US Department of Agriculture, July 2001) 26. See D. H. Meadows, "Poor Monsanto," in Whole Earth Review, Summer 1999, 104. 27. Sandra Postel, Gretchen C. Daily, and Paul R. Ehrlich, "Human Appropriation of Renewable Fresh Water," Science 271 (February 9 1996):785-788. This publication is the source for all the numbers that go into figure 3-5. 28. The total capacity of human-made reservoirs is about 5,500 cubic kilometers, but only a bit more than half of that is actually available as sustainable flow. 29.
The new village green: living light, living local, living large by Stephen Morris
back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, cleantech, collective bargaining, Columbine, Community Supported Agriculture, computer age, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, distributed generation, energy security, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Firefox, index card, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McMansion, Menlo Park, Negawatt, off grid, peak oil, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review
Information wants to be free because it has become so cheap to distribute, copy, and recombine — too cheap to meter. It wants to be expensive because it can be immeasurably valuable to the recipient. That tension will not go away. It leads to endless wrenching debate about price, copyright,‘intellectual property,’ the moral rightness of casual distribution, because each round of new devices makes the tension worse, not better.” Spoken at the first Hackers’ Conference, and printed in the May 1985 Whole Earth Review. It later turned up in his book, The Media Lab: Inventing the Future at MIT, published in 1987 “ All historians understand that they must never, ever talk about the future. Their discipline requires that they deal in facts, and the future doesn’t have any yet. A solid theory of history might be able to embrace the future, but all such theories have been discredited.Thus historians do not offer, and are seldom invited, to take part in shaping public policy.
The Caryatids by Bruce Sterling
carbon footprint, clean water, failed state, impulse control, negative equity, new economy, nuclear winter, semantic web, sexual politics, social software, starchitect, stem cell, supervolcano, urban renewal, Whole Earth Review
That’s what I do. ABOUT THE AUTHOR BRUCE STERLING is the author of ten novels, three of which were selected as New York Times Notable Books of the Year. The Difference Engine, co-written with William Gibson, was a national bestseller. He has also published four short-story collections and three nonfiction books. He has written for many magazines, including Newsweek, Fortune, Time, Whole Earth Review, and Wired, where he was a longtime contributing editor. He has won two Hugo Awards and was a finalist for the 2007 Nebula for Best Novella. He lives in Austin, Texas, with frequent side jaunts to Turin, Italy; Los Angeles; Belgrade; and Amsterdam. The Caryatids is a work of fiction. Names, characters, places, and incidents are the products of the author’s imagination or are used fictitiously.
The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game
Lanier popularized the term “virtual reality,” but he was not the only person working on immersive simulations at that time in the late 1980s. Several universities, a few startups, as well as the U.S. military had comparable prototypes, some with slightly different approaches for creating the phenomenon. I felt I had seen the future during my plunge into his microcosmos and wanted as many of my friends and fellow pundits as possible to experience what I had. With the help of the magazine I was then editing (Whole Earth Review), we organized the first public demo of every VR rig that existed in the fall of 1990. For 24 hours, from Saturday noon to Sunday noon, anyone who bought a ticket could stand in line to try out as many of the two dozen or so VR prototypes as they could. In the wee hours of the night I saw the psychedelic champion Tim Leary compare VR to LSD. The overwhelming impression spun by the buggy gear was total plausibility.
Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand
agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, lateral thinking, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, William Langewiesche, working-age population, Y2K
Everyone in the forty-nine houseboats on the dock passed each other on foot daily, trundling to and from the parking lot on shore. Everyone knew each other’s faces and voices and cats. It was a community, Calthorpe decided, because it was walkable. Building on that insight, Calthorpe became one of the founders of New Urbanism, along with Andrés Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and others. In 1985 he introduced the concept of walkability in “Cities Redefined,” an article in the Whole Earth Review. Since then, New Urbanism has become the dominant force in city planning, promoting high density, mixed use, walkability, mass transit, eclectic design, and regionalism. It drew one of its major ideas from a squatter community. There are a lot more ideas where that one came from. For instance, shopping areas could be more like the lanes in squatter cities, with a dense interplay of retail and services—one-chair barbershops and three-seat bars interspersed with the clothes racks and fruit tables.
The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler
A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism
The other architects involved were Doug Kelbaugh, chairman of the Uni versity of Washington School of Architecture; Robert Small, also of the University of Washington; Harrison Fraker, University of Minnesota; Mark Mack and Daniel Solomon, University of California, Berkeley; Don Prowler, University of Pennsylvania; and David Sellers, in private practice in Ver mont (formerly Yale University). The idea was formally developed at a charrette, or design workshop, held at the University of Washington in the Spring of 1988. The documents were subsequently published under the title, The Pedestrian Pocket Book, edited by Mr. Kelbaugh. Solomon, "Fixing Suburbia," Peter Calthorpe, et aI. , The Pedestrian Pocket Book, p. 29. Peter Calthorpe, "The Post-Suburban Metropolis," Whole Earth Review, Winter 1991. Hiss, The Experience of Place, p. 214. 2 8 0 _ Bibliography Alexander, Christopher. The Timeless Way of Building. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. Alexander, Christopher; Ishikawa, Sara; Silverstein, Murry; et al. A Pattern Language. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. Arendt, Randall G.; Brabec, Elizabeth A. ; Dodson, Harry L. ; Yaro, Robert D. Dealing with Change in the Connecticut River Valley : A Design Man ual for Conservation and Development.
The Way We Eat: Why Our Food Choices Matter by Peter Singer, Jim Mason
agricultural Revolution, air freight, clean water, collective bargaining, dumpster diving, food miles, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, means of production, rent control, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review
Ball, "Agricultural Influences on Carbon Emissions and Sequestration: A Review of Evidence and the Emerging Trading Options," Centre for Environment and Society Occasional Paper 2001-03, University of Essex, 2001. 33 Andy Jones, Eating Oil, Sustain & Elm Farm Research Centre, London, 2001, Case Study 2. www.sustainweb.org/chain-fm-eat.asp. 34 Alison Smith, et al, The Validity of Food Miles as an Indicator of Sustainable Development, ED50254, Issue 7, July 200S, p. 74. 35 Email from Carlo Petrini to Brian Halweil, cited in Brian Halweil, Eat Here, p. 161. CHAPTER 11 1 Diana Friedman, "The Del Cabo project; a Mexican collective exports organic produce to the U.S.A.," Whole Earth Review, Spring 1989. www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1S10/is_n62/ ai_7422469; Don Lotter, "The Del Cabo Cooperative of Southern Baja keeps 300 farm families busy growing organic crops for export," New Farm, July 20, 2004, www.newfarm.org/ international/pan-am _don/j uly04/. 2 United Nations Human Development Report, 2005, p. 24. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/ global/2005/pdf/HDR05_chapter_1.pdf 3 United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2000 (Oxford University Press, New York, 2000), p. 30; Human Development Report 2001 (Oxford University Press, New York, 2001), pp. 9-12, p. 22; and World Bank, World Development Report 2000/2001, Overview, p. 3, www.worldbank.org/poverty/wdrpoverty/report/overview.pdf, for the other figures.
The Story of Stuff: The Impact of Overconsumption on the Planet, Our Communities, and Our Health-And How We Can Make It Better by Annie Leonard
air freight, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, dematerialisation, employer provided health coverage, energy security, European colonialism, Firefox, Food sovereignty, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, global supply chain, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, liberation theology, McMansion, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ralph Nader, renewable energy credits, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, supply-chain management, the built environment, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Wall-E, Whole Earth Review, Zipcar
James Gustave Speth, The Bridge at the Edge of the World: Capitalism, the Environment, and Crossing from Crisis to Sustainability (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008), pp. 7–9. 19. Interview with Michael Cohen, July 2009. 20. James Pethokoukis, “McCain or Obama: Who’s Pro-Growth?” US News & World Report, June 2, 2008 (usnews.com/blogs/capital-commerce/2008/06/02/mccain-or-obama-whos-pro-growth.html). 21. Donella Meadows, The Global Citizen (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1991), p. 4. 22. Donella Meadows, “Places to Intervene in a System,” Whole Earth Review, Winter 1997 (wholeearth.com/issue/2091/article/27/ places.to.intervene.in.a.system). 23. Ibid. 24. Interview with Jeffrey Morris, May 2009. A Word About Words 1. Thomas Princen, Michael Maniates, and Ken Conca, Confronting Consumption (Boston: MIT Press, 2002), pp. 45–50. 2. James Gustave Speth, The Bridge at the Edge of the World: Capitalism, the Environment, and Crossing from Crisis to Sustainability (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008), pp. 170. 3.
The Facebook Effect by David Kirkpatrick
Andy Kessler, Burning Man, delayed gratification, demand response, don't be evil, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, Howard Rheingold, Jeff Bezos, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Network effects, Peter Thiel, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social software, social web, Startup school, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Whole Earth Review, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator
Social Networking and the Internet Page 66 In a 1968 essay by J. C. R. Licklider: J. C. R. Licklider and Robert Taylor, “The Computer as a Communication Device,” Science and Technology (April 1968), http://www.kurzweilai.net/meme/frame.html?main=/articles/art0353.html (accessed December 11, 2009). 67 “A virtual community is a group of people”: Howard Rheingold, “Virtual Communities—Exchanging Ideas Through Computer Bulletin Boards,” Whole Earth Review (Winter 1987), http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1510/is_n57/ai_6203867/ (accessed November 15, 2009). 67 Two Internet sociologists, danah boyd and Nicole Ellison: danah boyd and Nicole Ellison, “Social Network Sites: Definition, History, And Scholarship,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13 (2007), http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.html (accessed November 15, 2009). 69 Nonetheless, by 1999 sixdegrees had reached: Details about sixdegrees from interview and email followup with Andrew Weinreich, 2009. 74 But, according to Stealing MySpace: Julia Angwin, Stealing MySpace: The Battle to Control the Most Popular Website in America (New York: Random House, 2009), 52. 76 In 2003, Angwin notes, the percentage of Americans: Ibid. 77 Buyukkokten himself once bragged: Luke O’Brien, “Poking Facebook,” 02138 Magazine (November 2007), www.02138mag.com/magazine/article/1724.html (accessed November 28, 2009). 80 Previously they’d won a gold medal: Ibid. 83 The civil lawsuit filed on behalf of the three alleges: ConnectU, Inc. v.
The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence by Ray Kurzweil
Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cellular automata, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, Danny Hillis, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Everything should be made as simple as possible, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, fudge factor, George Gilder, Gödel, Escher, Bach, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, information retrieval, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jacquard loom, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, optical character recognition, ought to be enough for anybody, pattern recognition, phenotype, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Robert Metcalfe, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, stochastic process, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, the medium is the message, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Whole Earth Review, Y2K
., Vaina, Lucia and Jaakko Hintikka, eds. Cognitive Constraints on Communication. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reidel, 1985. Van Heijenoort, Jean, ed. From Frege to Gödel. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1967. Varela, Francisco J., Evan Thompson, and Eleanor Rosch. The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1991. Vigne, V “Technological Singularity” Whole Earth Review, Winter 1993. von Neumann, John. The Computer and the Brain. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1958. Waddington, C. H. The Strategy of the Genes. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1957. Waldrop, M. Mitchell. Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992. _________. Man-Made Minds: The Promise of Artificial Intelligence. New York: Walker and Company, 1987.
Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100 by Michio Kaku
agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, blue-collar work, British Empire, Brownian motion, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, DARPA: Urban Challenge, delayed gratification, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, friendly AI, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hydrogen economy, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of movable type, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, John von Neumann, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, mass immigration, megacity, Mitch Kapor, Murray Gell-Mann, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, social intelligence, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Turing machine, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Walter Mischel, Whole Earth Review, X Prize
., “Passage of an Iron Rod Through the Head,” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 11, May 1999, pp. 281–83, www.neuro.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/11/2/281. 12 “It is not impossible to build a human brain”: Jonathan Fildes, “Artificial Brain ‘10 Years Away,’ ” BBC News, July 22, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8164060.stm. 13 “It’s not a question of years”: Jason Palmer, “Simulated Brain Closer to Thought,” BBC News, April 22, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/sci/tech/8012496.stm. 14 “This is a Hubble Telescope of the mind … it’s inevitable”: Douglas Fox, “IBM Reveals the Biggest Artificial Brain of All Time,” Popular Mechanics, December 18, 2009, www.popularmechanics.com/technology/engineering/extreme-machines/4337190. 15 “After we solve this”: Sally Adee, “Reverse Engineering the Brain,” IEEE Spectrum, June 2008, http://spectrum.ieee.org/biomedical/ethics/reverse-engineering-the-brain/0. 16 “Within thirty years”: Vernor Vinge, “What Is the Singularity?” paper presented at the VISION-21 Symposium sponsored by NASA Lewis Research Center and the Ohio Aerospace Institute, March 30–31, 1993. A slightly changed version appeared in Whole Earth Review, Winter 1993, http://mindstalk.net/vinge/vinge-sing.html. 17 “I’d be very surprised if anything remotely like this happened”: Tom Abate, “Smarter Than Thou? Stanford Conference Ponders a Brave New World with Machines More Powerful Than Their Creators,” San Francisco Chronicle, May 12, 2006, http://articles.sfgate.com/2006–05–12/business/17293318_1_ray-kurzweil-machines-artificial-intelligence. 18 “If you could blow the brain up”: Kurzweil, p. 376. 19 Philosopher David Chalmers has even catalogued: http://consc.net/mindpapers.com. 20 “life may seem pointless if we are fated”: Sheffield, p. 38. 21 “One conversation centered”: Kurzweil, p. 10. 22 “It’s not going to be an invasion”: Abate, San Francisco Chronicle, May 12, 2006. 23 “intelligent design for the IQ 140 people”: Brian O’Keefe, “The Smartest (or the Nuttiest) Futurist on Earth,” Fortune, May 2, 2007, http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2007/05/14/100008848/. 24 “It’s as if you took a lot of good food”: Greg Ross, “An Interview with Douglas R.
Diet for a New America by John Robbins
Albert Einstein, carbon footprint, clean water, Flynn Effect, haute cuisine, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, placebo effect, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Review
In addition to citations in notes 59 and 60, see J. Brody, “Farmers Exposed to a Pollutant Face Medical Study…,” New York Times, August 12, 1976, C-20; “PBB Michigan Contamination Continues,” Guardian, May 4, 1977, 2; Associated Press, “Michigan Study Indicates 97% Have Traces of PBB,” Washington Post, December 31, 1981. 62. Ibid. 63. Cited in Regenstein, America the Poisoned, 341. 64. Longgood, The Darkening Land, 132–34. 65. Whole Earth Review 48, Fall 1985, p. 51. 66. National Cancer Institute, Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results: Incidence and Mortality Data, 1973–1977, monograph 57, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Health, June 1981), 4. 67. Regenstein, America the Poisoned, 74. 68. Thomas Whiteside, The Pendulum and the Toxic Cloud (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1979), 134. 69.
The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin
"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar
Mary Beth Griggs, “3-D Printers Spit Out Fancy Food, Green Cars, and Replacement Bones,” Discover Magazine, March 26, 2012, http://discovermagazine.com/2012/mar/31-3-d-printers -spit-out-fancy-food-and-green-cars#.UnvIBPmkoSU (accessed November 7, 2013). 30. “Manitoba’s Kor Ecologic Debuts Hybrid Urbee,” Canadian Manufacturing, November 2, 2012, http://www.canadianmanufacturing.com/designengineering/news/manitobas-kor-ecologic -debuts-hybrid-urbee-11992 (accessed November 1, 2013). 31. Stewart Brand and Matt Herron, “Keep Designing—How the Information Economy Is Being Created and Shaped by the Hacker Ethic,” Whole Earth Review (May, 1985): 44. 32. Deborah Desrochers-Jacques, “Green Energy Use Jumps in Germany,” Der Spiegel, August 30, 2011, http://www.spiegel.de/international/crossing-the-20-percent-mark-green-energy-use -jumps-in-germany-a-783314.html (accessed August 7, 2013); Berlin and Niebull, “Germany’s Energy Transformation: Eneriewende,” Economist, July 28, 2012, http://www.economist.com /node/21559667 (accessed October 1, 2013). 33.
Scale: The Universal Laws of Growth, Innovation, Sustainability, and the Pace of Life in Organisms, Cities, Economies, and Companies by Geoffrey West
Alfred Russel Wallace, Anton Chekhov, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black Swan, British Empire, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, clean water, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Ernest Rutherford, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Gehry, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, Guggenheim Bilbao, housing crisis, Index librorum prohibitorum, invention of agriculture, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, laissez-faire capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Marchetti’s constant, Masdar, megacity, Murano, Venice glass, Murray Gell-Mann, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Von Neumann architecture, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, working poor
Arthur, The Nature of Technology: What It Is and How It Evolves (New York: Free Press, 2009); H. Youn, et al., “Invention as a Combinatorial Process: Evidence from U.S. Patents,” Journal of the Royal Society Interface 12 (2015): 20150272. 5. R. Kurzweil, The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology (New York: Viking, 2005). 6. V. Vinge, “The Coming Technological Singularity: How to Survive in the Post-Human Era,” Whole Earth Review (1993). 7. This is quoted by the great mathematician Stanislaw Ulam in a eulogy to von Neumann following his death in 1957: “Tribute to John von Neumann,” Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 5(3), part 2 (1958): 64. 8. C. McCarthy, The Road (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006). AFTERWORD 1. Two popular nontechnical books that present a broad overview of the enormously exciting quest for the fundamental constituents of matter and a grand unified theory for understanding their interactions, including its extension to the evolution of the cosmos and the origin of space-time itself, are S.
The Beginning of Infinity: Explanations That Transform the World by David Deutsch
agricultural Revolution, Albert Michelson, anthropic principle, artificial general intelligence, Bonfire of the Vanities, conceptual framework, cosmological principle, dark matter, David Attenborough, discovery of DNA, Douglas Hofstadter, Eratosthenes, Ernest Rutherford, first-past-the-post, Georg Cantor, global pandemic, Gödel, Escher, Bach, illegal immigration, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Johannes Kepler, John Conway, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kenneth Arrow, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, pattern recognition, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Richard Feynman, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Stephen Hawking, supervolcano, technological singularity, Thales of Miletus, The Coming Technological Singularity, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Review, William of Occam, zero-sum game
., Science and Ultimate Reality (Cambridge University Press, 2003) David Deutsch, ‘Quantum Theory of Probability and Decisions’, Proceedings of the Royal Society A455 (1999) David Deutsch, ‘The Structure of the Multiverse’, Proceedings of the Royal Society A458 (2002) Richard Feynman, The Character of Physical Law (BBC Publications, 1965) Richard Feynman, The Meaning of It All (Allen Lane, 1998) Ernest Gellner, Words and Things (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1979) William Godwin, Enquiry Concerning Political Justice (1793) Douglas Hofstadter, Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid (Basic Books, 1979) Douglas Hofstadter, I am a Strange Loop (Basic Books, 2007) Bryan Magee, Popper (Fontana, 1973) Pericles, ‘Funeral Oration’ Plato, Euthyphro Karl Popper, In Search of a Better World (Routledge, 1995) Karl Popper, The World of Parmenides (Routledge, 1998) Roy Porter, Enlightenment: Britain and the Creation of the Modern World (Allen Lane, 2000) Martin Rees, Just Six Numbers (Basic Books, 2001) Alan Turing, ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence’, Mind, 59, 236 (October 1950) Jenny Uglow, The Lunar Men (Faber, 2002) Vernor Vinge, ‘The Coming Technological Singularity’, Whole Earth Review, winter 1993 *The term was coined by the philosopher Norwood Russell Hanson. *This terminology differs slightly from that of Dawkins. Anything that is copied, for whatever reason, he calls a replicator. What I call a replicator he calls an ‘active replicator’. *These are not the ‘parallel universes’ of the quantum multiverse, which I shall describe in Chapter 11. Those universes all obey the same laws of physics and are in constant slight interaction with each other.
The Innovators: How a Group of Inventors, Hackers, Geniuses and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution by Walter Isaacson
1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Apple II, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, beat the dealer, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Byte Shop, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Debian, desegregation, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, HyperCard, hypertext link, index card, Internet Archive, Jacquard loom, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Leonard Kleinrock, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Macrae, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Terrell, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Rubik’s Cube, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, wikimedia commons, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
Beau Cronin of O’Reilly Media has proposed a drinking game: “take a shot every time you find a news article or blog post that describes a new AI system as working or thinking ‘like the brain’ ” (http://radar.oreilly.com/2014/05/it-works-like-the-brain-so.html), and he maintains a pinboard of stories making such claims (https://pinboard.in/u:beaucronin/t:like-the-brain/#). 18. Author’s interview with Tim Berners-Lee. 19. Vernor Vinge, “The Coming Technological Singularity,” Whole Earth Review, Winter 1993. See also Ray Kurzweil, “Accelerating Intelligence,” http://www.kurzweilai.net/. 20. J. C. R. Licklider, “Man-Computer Symbiosis,” IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, Mar. 1960. 21. Kelly and Hamm, Smart Machines, 7. 22. Kasparov, “The Chess Master and the Computer.” 23. Kelly and Hamm, Smart Machines, 2. 24. “Why Cognitive Systems?” IBM Research website, http://www.research.ibm.com/cognitive-computing/why-cognitive-systems.shtml. 25.
The Simple Living Guide by Janet Luhrs
air freight, Albert Einstein, car-free, cognitive dissonance, Community Supported Agriculture, compound rate of return, financial independence, follow your passion, Golden Gate Park, job satisfaction, late fees, money market fund, music of the spheres, passive income, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, telemarketer, the rule of 72, urban decay, urban renewal, Whole Earth Review
The Seattle branch is 1-206-587-5641 or 1-800-317-2918. Real Goods Institute offers year-round classes in Strawbale Construction, Sustainable Building and Eco Design, Solar Electric Systems, Country Property and Homestead Development, Home Retrofitting for Energy Efficiency, Do-It-Yourself Hydro Systems, and Developing Your Own Water Systems, from Financing to Finishing Your New House. Call Real Goods at 1-800-762-7325. Whole Earth Review offers abundant information on housing, 1-415-332-1716. Green, Solar, and Off-the-Grid Housing Books Green Shift by John Farmer (Oxford, England: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996) Written by a British architect, the book discusses historical and current attempts at balancing human housing needs with environmental concerns. It covers the various architectural movements in the past and why the “green shift” is now a common concern among many architects and builders.