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The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things by Daniel Kellmereit, Daniel Obodovski
3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, connected car, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Freestyle chess, Google X / Alphabet X, Internet of things, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, Paul Graham, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, software as a service, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator, yield management
The third area would be security; the idea that someone can hack into their car would scare most people away. Sanjay Sarma used Airbnb.com as an example of how things that were almost unthinkable before can become big business and how what used to be a niche market went mainstream. Considering that a connected car, a CloudCar, can always be tracked with GPS, it’s unlikely that it’s going to be hijacked, or at least it can be quickly recovered if it is. There’s probably a big enough market of people who would not mind renting out their car for some time to others.18 Finally, the issue of security applies to all connected cars and homes and needs to be addressed. But the concept of CloudCar goes much further. If I publish the APIs to my car, other services can subscribe to it with my permission. For example, a dealership or a service shop could subscribe to a stream of data coming off my car sensors in real time.
Without any physical user intervention we would have very accurate maps of traffic, as an example. Cars can also communicate with one another and suggest the optimal speed to the driver to get to his or her destination sooner. Today, a rapidly growing industry using connected cars is Usage-Based Insurance, or UBI. Led by Progressive, the concept enables insurance companies to manage risk by better understanding driver behavior. Safe driving behavior gets rewarded with lower insurance premiums, which leads to more safe drivers on the roads. OnStar by GM was one of the first successful connected car applications. Not only does it provide remote assistance, it also has a digital crash signature, based on wide-ranging vehicle sensor data, which notifies emergency services and hospitals of a car crash and potential injuries.24 Just as with other industries, data generated by car sensors will have value that goes beyond the use cases of remote diagnostics, road assistance, navigation, UBI, or inter-car communication.
But if I was going to invest in Machine-to-Machine, I would probably be investing somewhere in the analytics space. Glenn Lurie sees the largest potential in the connected home and the connected car: I do believe we’ll see breakthroughs in automotive; I do believe we’ll see breakthroughs in health care. I do believe we’ll see some breakthroughs in tracking. Today we already track people, pallets, or pets with very low-cost devices. There are numerous opportunities with the capabilities of new devices that people have and what they are doing with them. I see two opportunities that will be massive as a whole: We have not yet seen a quality, scalable platform that will be what creates the digital home. The second one is the automobile. We have not truly seen what a fully connected car is and can do. People are spending a good chunk of their life in their car and their home; those two places to me have the greatest opportunity as they get connected, get smart, and start interacting with you in different ways.
The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen
3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator
One part of the show was dedicated to smart televisions—devices much more intelligent than most TV shows themselves. Indeed, South Korean electronics giant LG’s connected televisions are so intelligent that they are already logging our viewing habits in order to serve us up targeted ads.26 Another part of CES was dedicated to the connected car—automobiles that are so all-seeing they know our speed, our location, and whether or not we are wearing our seat belt. According to the consultancy Booz, the market for connected cars is about to explode, with demand expected to quadruple between 2015 and 2020 and generate revenues of $113 billion by 2020.27 But even today’s connected car is a data machine, with the onboard cameras from Mercedes-Benz’s new S-Class saloon already generating 300 gigabytes of data per hour about the car’s location and speed and the driver’s habits.28 And then there’s Google’s driverless car, an artificially intelligent, networked car that is driven by software called Google Chauffeur.
They fear a world resembling that exhibition at the Venetian in which row after row of nameless, faceless data gatherers wearing all-seeing electronic glasses watch our every move. Big Brother seemed ubiquitous at the Venetian. Reporting about CES, the Guardian’s Dan Gillmor warned that networked televisions that “watch us” are “closing in on Orwell’s nightmarish Big Brother vision.”32 Even industry executives are fearful of the Internet of Things’s impact on privacy, with Martin Winterkorn, the CEO of Volkswagen, warning in March 2014 that the connected car of the future “must not become a data monster.”33 But there is one fundamental difference between the Internet of Things and Erich Mielke’s twentieth-century Big Brother surveillance state, one thing distinguishing today’s networked society from Orwell’s 1984. Mielke wanted to create crystal man against our will; in today’s world of Google Glass and Facebook updates, however, we are choosing to live in a crystal republic where our networked cars, cell phones, refrigerators, and televisions watch us.
The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross
23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional
For context, the GDP: “Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects,” International Monetary Fund: World Economic Outlook Database, October 2014, http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2014/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=41&pr.y=10&sy=2014&ey=2014&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=001%2C998&s=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP&grp=1&a=1. The first is the number of: Keith Naughton, “The Race to Market the Connected Car,” Automotive News, January 10, 2014, http://www.autonews.com/article/20140110/OEM06/301109910/the-race-to-market-the-connected-car. According to a Juniper research report: “Smart Home Revenues to Reach $71 Billion by 2018, Juniper Research Finds,” Juniper Research, February 11, 2014, http://www.juniperresearch.com/viewpressrelease.php?pr=429. A McKinsey report projects: James Manyika and Michael Chui, “All Things Online,” McKinsey Global Institute, McKinsey & Company, September 23, 2013, http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/mgi/in_the_news/all_things_online.
From 2015 to 2020, the number of wireless connected devices is going to grow from an estimated 16 billion to 40 billion. Chambers predicts that the Internet of Things will grow to be a $19 trillion global market. For context, the GDP of the entire world is currently just a little more than $100 trillion. The growth of the Internet of Things is motivated by four main drivers. The first is the number of Internet-connected cars on the road, expected to grow from 23 million in 2015 to 152 million in 2020. The second driver is the advent of wearable technology, which doubled in use between 2013 and 2014. The third driver is the addition of smart controls in our homes, from thermostats to security systems to just about everything else. According to a Juniper research report, revenues generated from smart home services are expected to reach a global market value of $71 billion by 2018.
As he was explaining this to me, I was imagining what could happen if a system controlling home care robots were hacked. Could it be a way to hurt people? In July 2015, hackers managed to remotely infiltrate and shut down a Jeep Cherokee while it was speeding along the highway. What if, 20 years from now when some variant of the Google car has taken over the highways, someone were to hack the entire network of Google cars? Imagine a highway’s worth of connected cars all going haywire at the same time—the potential for a pileup bigger than anything we’ve ever seen. Soon all the networked “things” in our lives could potentially be used as hacking platforms. It’s hard to imagine your refrigerator being hacked, but the reality is that it has already happened. In January 2014, security provider Proofpoint uncovered a phishing attack that targeted consumer devices including home routers, televisions, and, yes, refrigerators.
3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game
The decreasing mass of steel in an automobile has already given way to lightweight silicon. An automobile today is really a computer on wheels. Smart silicon enhances a car’s engine performance, braking, safety—and all the more true for electric cars. This rolling computer is about to be connected and become an internet car. It will sport wireless connection for driverless navigation, for maintenance and safety, and for the latest, greatest HD 3-D video entertainment. The connected car will also become the new office. If you are not driving in your private space, you will either work or play in it. I predict that by 2025 the bandwidth to a high-end driverless car will exceed the bandwidth into your home. As cars become more digital, they will tend to be swapped and shared and used in the same social way we swap digital media. The more we embed intelligence and smarts into the objects in our households and offices, the more we’ll treat these articles as social property.
The computer manufacturer Cisco estimates that there will be 50 billion devices on the internet by 2020, in addition to tens of billions of screens. The electronics industry expects a billion wearable devices in five years, tracking our activities, feeding data into the stream. We can expect another 13 billion appliances, like the Nest thermostat, animating our smarthomes. There will be 3 billion devices built into connected cars. And 100 billion dumb RFID chips embedded into goods on the shelves of Walmart. This is the internet of things, the emerging dreamland of everything we manufacture that is the new platform for the improbable. It is built with data. Knowledge, which is related, but not identical, to information, is exploding at the same rate as information, doubling every two years. The number of scientific articles published each year has been accelerating even faster than this for decades.
“how to make people click ads”: Ashlee Vance, “This Tech Bubble Is Different,” Bloomberg Business, April 14, 2014. 4 billion screens lit today: Calculation based on the following: Charles Arthur, “Future Tablet Market Will Outstrip PCs—and Reach 900m People, Forrester Says,” Guardian, August 7, 2013; Michael O’Grady, “Forrester Research World Tablet Adoption Forecast, 2013 to 2018 (Global), Q4 2014 Update,” Forrester, December 19, 2014; and “Smartphones to Drive Double-Digit Growth of Smart Connected Devices in 2014 and Beyond, According to IDC,” IDC, June 17, 2014. 50 billion devices on the internet by 2020: “Connections Counter,” Cisco, 2013. another 13 billion appliances: “Gartner Says 4.9 Billion Connected ‘Things’ Will Be in Use in 2015,” Gartner, November 11, 2014. built into connected cars: Ibid. 6 billion times per year: “$4.11: A NARUC Telecommunications Staff Subcommittee Report on Directory Assistance,” National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, 2003, 68. two lookups per week in the 1990s: Peter Krasilovsky, “Usage Study: 22% Quit Yellow Pages for Net,” Local Onliner, October 11, 2005. 1 billion library visits per year: Adrienne Chute, Elaine Kroe, Patricia Garner, et al., “Public Libraries in the United States: Fiscal Year 1999,” NCES 200230, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S.
Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low skilled workers, millennium bug, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, web application, WebRTC, WebSocket, Y2K
In addition, the fog does not work in a centralized cloud location, but is distributed around the network edge, reducing latency and bandwidth requirements as data is not aggregated over a single cloud channel but distributed to many edge nodes. Similarly, the fog avoids slow response times and delays by distributing workloads across several edge node servers rather than a few centralized cloud servers. Some examples of fog computing in an IIoT context are: • The fog network is ideally suited to the IIoT connected vehicles use-case, as connected cars have a variety of wireless connection methods such as car-2-car, car-2-access point, which can use Wi-Fi, 3g/4G communications but require low latency response. Along with SDN, network concepts fog can address outstanding issues with vehicular networks such as long latency, irregular connections, and 51 52 Chapter 3 |TheTechnical and Business Innovators of the Industrial Internet high packet loss by supplementing vehicle-vehicle communications with vehicle-infrastructure communication and ultimately unified control. • Fog computing addresses many of the severe problems cloud computing has with network latency and congestion over the Internet; however, it cannot completely replace cloud computing which will always have a place due to its ability to store Big Data and perform analytics on massive quantities of data.
However, it is not just in industrial processes where M2M are commonplace, as they are ubiquitous throughout many business processes and indeed in any process where networked smart devices have a role in the process chain. The networking of these digital things will also provide a huge spinoff for telecom companies and Internet service providers who will have to provide the traffic transportation between devices. Indeed, telecom companies are predicting huge increases in the number of SIMS and data modems integrated into all sorts of remote devices, such as vending machines, connected cars, trucks for fleet management, smart meters, and even remote health monitoring equipment, by 2020. Automation is the way forward and, as we have just seen, it relies heavily on effective M2M in the process chain. M2M should play a large part in the business convergence and digital transformation process, as it not only improves productivity through overall equipment effectiveness but also allows for new and innovative business models.
Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel
Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, Zipcar
When connected to the car, these devices could refuse to allow the car to start until a diabetic eats an apple or an imbiber sobers up. All the auto people we spoke with were focused initially on using contextual technology to improve safety and security. From a pragmatic perspective, carmakers understand that people will adopt new technology fastest when it ensures protection for the people and property they hold dear. Automotive Clouds The connected car may travel many routes in the near-term future. Each requires that the car gather and store lots of data, most of which will be aggregated automatically, without the driver’s knowledge or permission. Carmakers are forming data storage alliances with cloud storage organizations such as Rackspace and Microsoft Azure. Lexus plans to build a global ring of data centers. In short, automakers are planning to permanently store data in the cloud, and they will be storing a lot more data than you may think.
What Would Google Do? by Jeff Jarvis
23andMe, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, clean water, commoditize, connected car, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, don't be evil, fear of failure, Firefox, future of journalism, Google Earth, Googley, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Mark Zuckerberg, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, PageRank, peer-to-peer lending, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, social software, social web, spectrum auction, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, web of trust, Y Combinator, Zipcar
Home-delivery services Fresh Direct and Peapod in the U.S. and Tesco in the U.K. could order and deliver what we need and give us coupons for related products. Epicurious.com could suggest recipes based on what’s in the fridge. Refrigerators become platforms for these companies to serve us. We have connected home-security systems with sensors and cameras. We have connected home-entertainment systems that can pipe web radio stations, iTunes music and movies, and YouTube videos to any device in the home. We will have connected cars with links to traffic information and feeds of entertainment. We have cameras connected to GPS satellites and to our computers. We have mobile phones that are becoming computers. Any device that produces information, that can be personalized or adjusted, or that communicates with or entertains us will be connected to the internet and to Google. Google will listen to and speak through these gadgets—if we give it permission—and deliver related information.
Rush Hour by Iain Gately
Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Beeching cuts, blue-collar work, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, car-free, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clapham omnibus, cognitive dissonance, congestion charging, connected car, corporate raider, DARPA: Urban Challenge, Dean Kamen, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, don't be evil, Elon Musk, extreme commuting, Google bus, Henri Poincaré, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, Marchetti’s constant, postnationalism / post nation state, Ralph Waldo Emerson, remote working, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, telepresence, Tesla Model S, urban planning, éminence grise
In the opinion of Chunka Mui, an innovations strategist writing for Forbes magazine, ‘the issue is when, not if – and when is sooner than you think’. Nissan has promised the world affordable autonomous cars by 2020. Google will have a hundred of its Google-bugs on Californian test tracks, and possibly roads in 2014; the University of Michigan is building a 32-acre model village to test self-driving ‘connected cars’; Volvo, in conjunction with the city of Gothenburg, has announced a pilot scheme scheduled to commence in 2017, in which a fleet of a hundred of its driverless cars will be set loose on an initial thirty miles of public roads described as ‘typical commuter arteries’. Meanwhile the British city of Milton Keynes has plans to introduce a fleet of self-directed ‘pods’ in 2015, which will run along a dedicated track from its centre to its railway station.
Platform Revolution: How Networked Markets Are Transforming the Economy--And How to Make Them Work for You by Sangeet Paul Choudary, Marshall W. van Alstyne, Geoffrey G. Parker
3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrei Shleifer, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, buy low sell high, chief data officer, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, data is the new oil, digital map, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, Haber-Bosch Process, High speed trading, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, market design, Metcalfe’s law, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pre–internet, price mechanism, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, Snapchat, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game, Zipcar
The analytics derived from this data will help banks target small businesses with financial products for the first time in a highly relevant manner. Likewise, some banks are offering digital services to assist consumers with real estate searches in the hope of gathering data that could indicate lending opportunities. Insurance is another space that is set to be rapidly transformed in the age of data platforms. Connected cars are now gathering real-time data about driving behavior, and insurance companies are leveraging such data to offer customized premium pricing based on user-specific driving habits. The growing popularity of wearable devices for tracking health and wellness indicators will create opportunities for health insurance companies to offer similarly customized insurance packages. Still another potential source of future growth is the hundreds of millions of “unbanked” people, both in the developing world and in less affluent neighborhoods in the U.S. and other developed countries, who currently have no access to tools that can help them pay their bills, borrow money, save, and make investments.
Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Computer Numeric Control, connected car, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, financial exclusion, financial innovation, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar
Instead, companies need to build horizontal ecosystems that integrate their brands with those of other firms – including their rivals – to provide customers with the rich choice and highly personalised experiences that they expect. This new consumer-centric approach has been dubbed “MEcosystems”.6 And although it threatens traditional bricks-and-mortar organisations such as GM and Bank of America, it is a boon for the GAFAs. Indeed, while GM is assembling a vertical partner ecosystem to build connected cars that run like “iPhones on wheels”, Apple and Google are investing in a horizontal ecosystem to provide customers with seamless experiences across multiple devices, whether they are at home, at work, or driving between the two. Similarly, while Bank of America is busy beefing up its mobile banking capabilities, Google is attempting to become a virtual bank by filling its Google Wallet with plastic debit cards.
CTOs at Work by Scott Donaldson, Stanley Siegel, Gary Donaldson
Amazon Web Services, bioinformatics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, centre right, cloud computing, computer vision, connected car, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, distributed generation, domain-specific language, glass ceiling, pattern recognition, Pluto: dwarf planet, QR code, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ruby on Rails, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software patent, thinkpad, web application, zero day, zero-sum game
Donaldson: Could you speak a little bit about how social networking-type technologies are disruptive? Garrison: Well, think about it. What if I didn't have to wait until 4:00? If you go to NPR.org right now, you can't stream “All Things Considered.” And there's a reason for that because we can't cut out the local stations. S. Donaldson: Right. Garrison: What about Pandora? What about NPR on Pandora? What about connected cars? So when you are in Iowa, maybe you want to listen to WAMU, and not your local IOWA station. What does that mean to their economy and to their fundraising? If you do a little research on that; it is the disruptor in my view. G. Donaldson: It's a game changer. Garrison: It's a game changer. And so what it means, in order to stay relevant, the local stations, once again in my view, have to focus on local content so that they stay relevant.
23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize
Unauthorized use not permitted. August 1, 2014. The marked connectivity is taken further when one considers the Internet of Things (IoT). That is the unbridled growth of not only people but also devices that are wirelessly connected via the Internet. The projections range from twenty-eight to fifty billion connected devices by 2020,28 and the implications are profound. This doesn’t just refer to Nest thermometers or connected cars—the bulk of the growth is actually expected to come from sensors, particularly wearable ones that track medical data. As shown in Figure 1.3, the average person is projected to have between six and seven connected devices by 2020. This represents a quadrupling of connected devices in the span of a decade with only 10 percent of growth of the population during that time. The impressive growth of our connectivity—between both people and machines—represents a formidable technologic force that makes medicine’s democratization more likely and more powerful.
Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend
1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar
In Tel Aviv there’s an app that sends alerts whenever Hamas rockets are inbound from the Gaza Strip. An alumnus of the MIT Media Lab living in the Iraqi capital of Baghdad has reportedly designed an app that lists recent kidnappings and the going rate for ransom. And Apple’s Siri, which hails from Silicon Valley, might be the most suburban technology ever created: its voice recognition is perfect for connected cars but completely useless on noisy city sidewalks. Shirky’s students built situated software because, for the first time, they could. “Making form-fit software for a small group of users has typically been the province of banks and research labs,” Shirky explained. “The kinds of scarcities the Web School was meant to address—the expense of adequate hardware, the rarity of programming talent, and the sparse distribution of potential users—are no longer the constraints they once were.”11 Today, the infrastructure that’s needed to build and distribute a smartphone app is already in place, and either free or rentable; it costs almost nothing to turn a novel idea about how to interact with the city into a piece of software that meets the needs of a handful of people in close proximity.
Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History by Thomas Rid
1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, connected car, domain-specific language, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, Extropian, full employment, game design, global village, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, V2 rocket, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP
Decades after Wiener and his acolytes dreamt of autonomous machines and decades after NASA flirted with putting cyborgs into outer space, microprocessing and networking technology have radically transformed lives, work, play—even human bodies. Often the cybernetic origin remains invisible: the new discipline’s founding challenge—guiding antiaircraft fire—has long been overcome. Computer-controlled pacemakers and insulin pumps are taken for granted, brakes and engines of internet-connected cars are run by software, and flying airliners have become ever more automated. Social media form a connection with communities, sometimes even independent from geographical location. Cryptography is widely used, often without users noticing it. Robots don’t just toil in factories. Computers are an integral element of intelligence collection and even military operations, with battle-ready drones circling the skies over the world’s most contested war zones, assassinating tiny humans below when remotely commandeered to do so.
The Future of Technology by Tom Standage
air freight, barriers to entry, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Clayton Christensen, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, creative destruction, disintermediation, distributed generation, double helix, experimental economics, full employment, hydrogen economy, industrial robot, informal economy, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, job satisfaction, labour market flexibility, Marc Andreessen, market design, Menlo Park, millennium bug, moral hazard, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, railway mania, rent-seeking, RFID, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart grid, software as a service, spectrum auction, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Ballmer, technology bubble, telemarketer, transcontinental railway, Y2K
A small portion of these wares eventually do end up being used by ordinary humans. Currently, the ces technophiles are excited about two trends in particular. The first is that every single electronic device will soon be connected to the internet. This includes the obvious, such as mobile phones and tv sets, and the less obvious, such as shirts and nappies that carry tiny radio-frequency identification (rfid) tags. Microsoft talks about its “connected-car” project, which conjures up images of drivers rebooting on the motorway. But the direction is clear. In future, most people in rich countries will be “always on”, and will connect to the internet through something other than a pc. The other, and related, big idea concerns what some vendors call “the digital home” and others the “e-home”. This year’s ces was full of mock homes in which the toaster, the refrigerator and the oven talk wirelessly to the computer, where toilet seats warm up at appropriate times and the front door can be unlocked remotely through the internet by the owner on his business trip abroad.
The Marches: A Borderland Journey Between England and Scotland by Rory Stewart
She had grown up in Livingston new town, forty miles south in central Scotland, where her father had been one of the very first occupants. She described Livingston vividly. When Susan’s family first arrived in the 1960s, the grass banks by the underpasses were still largely bare, the trees no more than tiny saplings. Residents had to cross unpaved roads, hopping between loose flagstones. But the rapid Swedish construction method was pushing up a steady 1,000 houses a year, encircled by a ring road. Underpasses connected car-parking space to Scotland’s largest indoor mall. Livingston was dominated by Japanese electronics companies. It had grown from a hamlet into one of the ten largest towns in Scotland, and the centre of Scotland’s silicon glen, pumping out about a third of the PCs in Europe and most of Europe’s ATMs. The corporation’s motto was ‘Creating a future where there was only a past’. Susan had felt the absence of this past.
23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day
School Faces FBI Probe,” ABC News, Feb. 22, 2010. 3 In one city alone: Loretta Chao, “Cisco Poised to Help China Keep an Eye on Its Citizens,” Wall Street Journal, July 5, 2011. 4 “as small as six inches”: John Biggs, “DARPA Builds a 1.8-Gigapixel Camera,” TechCrunch, Jan. 28, 2013. 5 As a result, cameras can perform: “Fighting Terrorism in New York City,” 60 Minutes, Sept. 26, 2011. 6 One young woman: “Miss Teen USA: Screamed upon Learning She Was ‘Sextortion’ Victim,” CNN, Sept. 28, 2013. 7 Abrahams carried out his attack: Aaron Katersky, “Miss Teen USA 1 of ‘Half-Million’ ‘Blackshades’ Hack Victims,” ABC News, May 19, 2014. 8 “All of a sudden”: Amy Wagner, “Hacker Hijacks Baby Monitor,” Fox News, April 22, 2014. 9 “Wake up … you”: “Parents Left Terrified After Man Hacked Their Baby Monitor and Yelled Abuse at Them and Their 2-Year-Old Daughter,” Mail Online, Aug. 13, 2013. 10 Nearly 70 percent: Kim Zetter, “Popular Surveillance Cameras Open to Hackers, Researcher Says,” Wired, May 15, 2012. 11 As a consequence: Kelly Jackson Higgins, “Millions of Networked Devices in Harm’s Way,” Dark Reading, Jan. 29, 2013. 12 Without the consent: Katie Notopoulos, “Somebody’s Watching: How a Simple Exploit Lets Strangers Tap into Private Security Cameras,” Verge, Feb. 3, 2012. 13 Why not hack: Jim Finkle, “US Security Expert Says Surveillance Cameras Can Be Hacked,” Reuters, June 18, 2013. 14 That’s exactly what a team: Mark Buttler, “Crown Casino Hi-Tech Scam Nets $32 Million,” Herald Sun (Melbourne), March 14, 2013. 15 Confident of his bets: Kim Zetter, “Crooks Spy on Casino Card Games with Hacked Security Cameras, Win $33M,” Wired, March 15, 2013. 16 A car rolling off: Robert N. Charette, “This Car Runs on Code,” IEEE Spectrum, Feb. 1, 2009. 17 All these embedded electronics: Ibid.; Chris Bryant, “Manufacturers Respond to Car-Hacking Risk,” Financial Times, March 22, 2013. 18 While event-data-recording black boxes: Craig Timberg, “Web-Connected Cars Bring Privacy Concerns,” Washington Post, March 5, 2013. 19 “[We know] everyone”: “GPS Users Beware, Big Auto Is Watching: Report,” CNBC.com, Jan. 9, 2014. 20 GM’s OnStar: John R. Quain, “Changes to OnStar’s Privacy Terms Rile Some Users,” Wheels (blog), New York Times, Sept. 22, 2011. 21 Oh, and that convenient: Declan McCullagh and Anne Broache, “FBI Taps Cell Phone Mic as Eavesdropping Tool,” CNET, Dec. 1, 2006; Bruno Waterfield and Matthew Day, “EU Has Secret Plan for Police to ‘Remote Stop’ Cars,” Telegraph, Jan. 29, 2014. 22 In just the first six months: Jeff Bennett, “GM Adds 8.45 Million Vehicles to North America Recall,” Wall Street Journal, June 30, 2014; Christopher Jensen, “An Increase in Recalls Goes Beyond Just G.M.,” New York Times, May 29, 2014. 23 When the deeply complex: James R.
The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton
1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator
Some doctors prescribe health care Apps in addition to medications as part of a therapeutic regime, and the race to design low-cost clinical tools (a “tricorder”) redefines the administration of medical equipment.43 Cars are already App platforms, but the real innovation in specific Apps for transportation hardware is still to come. Driverless cars (or cars that are simply more autonomous along a generic spectrum) would change what passengers are expected to do and not do while hurtling through the City layer and on what events they are expected to focus their attention. Apps that connect cars to work or play, some using windows as screens, will, for better or worse, further virtualize the experience of automotive drift. Some cars might be bound to an Android or iOS platform lock-in, or new manufacturer-specific operating systems might support neither or both, but cars already contain multiple software and hardware systems, and by extending these to control how cars navigate streets and how passengers interact with the world and one another, it's not difficult to see how the redefinition of “a car” as a high-velocity computing platform, enveloping the user inside, initiates new genres of in-motion Apps.