Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

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pages: 62 words: 13,939

Self-Reliance and Other Essays by Ralph Waldo Emerson

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, joint-stock company, Mark Zuckerberg, Ralph Waldo Emerson

All sorts of things occur to help one that would never otherwise have occurred. A whole stream of events issues from the decision, raising in one’s favor all manner of unforeseen incidents, meetings and material assistance which no man could have dreamed would have come his way. Whatever you can do or dream you can, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it. Begin it now. Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe ● ● ● Man is timid and apologetic; he is no longer upright; he dares not say ‘I think,’ ‘I am,’ but quotes some saint or sage. He is ashamed before the blade of grass or the blowing rose. These roses under my window make no reference to former roses or to better ones; they are for what they are; they exist with God today. There is no time to them. There is simply the rose; it is perfect in every moment of its existence.


pages: 879 words: 233,093

The Empathic Civilization: The Race to Global Consciousness in a World in Crisis by Jeremy Rifkin

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, British Empire, carbon footprint, collaborative economy, death of newspapers, delayed gratification, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, feminist movement, global village, hydrogen economy, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, planetary scale, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, supply-chain management, surplus humans, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, working poor, World Values Survey

But how does one go about verifying something as seemingly amorphous as the evolution of empathic expression? Fortunately, we have a record that chronicles both the development of empathic expression and the evolution of human consciousness. The evidence is embedded deep in the conversations that make up the stories we’ve told about ourselves across history. It’s in the narratives we’ve left behind. FIRST THERE WAS THE WORD The great German philosopher and scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, who dedicated a lifetime to unlocking the mysteries of light and color, tells a story about what is the most important single thing in life. The golden king asks the snake, “What is more glorious than gold?” “Light,” answers the snake. The king responds by asking, “What is more refreshing than light?” The snake replies, “Conversation.”1 To our knowledge, we are unique among the animal species in that we are the only ones who tell stories.

The figures were wooden caricatures made to fit an ideal image of God’s faithful servants on Earth. In the mid-eighteenth century, however, the autobiographical genre exploded. In his book The Value of the Individual: Self and Circumstance in Autobiography, historian and Columbia University professor Karl J. Weintraub shows in the autobiographies of Giambattista Vico, Edward Gibbon, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe the line of progression in self-awareness and empathic expression that characterized the period leading up to the American and French revolutions and the opening of the modern age at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The Italian scholar Giambattista Vico, in his autobiography, which was published in 1728, shared with his readers his belief that human nature is not preordained by God or determined by fate but, rather, an ever-evolving process in which human beings create their own realities and pass the lessons learned on to the next generation, who build upon it to fashion their own lives and stories.

He wanted to achieve that ecstasy of unmediated, immediate, unobstructed communing with men, and above all with women, which he, at times, was privileged to have with nature. . . . At such times he felt himself to be whole, to be a harmonious part of a larger whole. At such moments he needed nothing, not even words. . . . A simple exclamation “Oh! Oh Nature! Oh Mother!” was the fully adequate expression of his overflowing heart.91 Fittingly, the great German philosopher and scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s autobiography From My Life: Poetry and Truth, released in 1808 and continually updated until 1831, stands alone at the beginning of modernity as the best attempt to reconcile the mechanistic cosmology and rationalism of the Enlightenment extolled by Descartes and Newton in the seventeenth century and the early Romantic reaction of Rousseau and his ilk in the eighteenth century. If one were to have to choose a single individual who most embodied a cosmopolitan view of the world and a universal empathic sensibility, Goethe would be an easy pick.


pages: 222 words: 74,587

Paper Machines: About Cards & Catalogs, 1548-1929 by Markus Krajewski, Peter Krapp

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business process, double entry bookkeeping, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gödel, Escher, Bach, index card, Index librorum prohibitorum, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jacques de Vaucanson, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge worker, means of production, new economy, paper trading, Turing machine

Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag. 188 References Gödel, Kurt. 1931. Über formal unentscheidbare Sätze der “Principia Mathematica” und verwandter Systeme I. Monatshefte für Mathematik und Physik 38:173– 198. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. 1801/1994. Tag- und Jahreshefte. In Autobiographische Schriften II. Vol. 10 of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Werke: Hamburger Ausgabe, 10, 429–528. Revised edition. Munich: C. H. Beck. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. 1831/1996. Faust: Der Tragödie Zweiter Teil. In fünf Akten. Vol. 3 of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Werke: Hamburger Ausgabe, 16, 46–364. Revised edition. Munich: C. H. Beck. Gosch, Josias Ludwig. 1789. Fragmente über den Ideenumlauf. Copenhagen: Proft. Graesel, Arnim. 1902. Handbuch der Bibliothekslehre: Zweite, voellig umgearbeitete Auflage der “Grundzüge der Bibliothekslehre, Neubearbeitung von Dr.


pages: 274 words: 66,721

Double Entry: How the Merchants of Venice Shaped the Modern World - and How Their Invention Could Make or Break the Planet by Jane Gleeson-White

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, British Empire, carbon footprint, corporate governance, credit crunch, double entry bookkeeping, full employment, Gordon Gekko, income inequality, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Islamic Golden Age, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, Naomi Klein, Ponzi scheme, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile

Allen & Unwin Sydney, Melbourne, Auckland, London 83 Alexander Street Crows Nest NSW 2065 Australia Phone: (61 2) 8425 0100 Fax: (61 2) 9906 2218 Email: info@allenandunwin.com Web: www.allenandunwin.com Cataloguing-in-Publication details are available from the National Library of Australia www.trove.nla.gov.au ISBN 978 1 74175 755 2 Index by Jo Rudd Text design by Peter Long Set in 11.5/16 pt Minion by Post Pre-press Group, Australia eBook production by Midland Typesetters, Australia Also by Jane Gleeson-White Classics Australian Classics For my father Michael Gleeson-White, who told me tales of art and finance And for Michael Hill, always What advantages does the merchant derive from Book-keeping by double-entry? It is amongst the finest inventions of the human mind. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1795 More than four hundred years ago, in the very first book published on the subject, bookkeeping was outlined in a form which still prevails around the entire world. A.C. Littleton, 1933 Historians often forget. Even the most mundane professions have their history, and those mundane professions increasingly run the capitalist world. Norman Davies, 1996 Preface: Bobby Kennedy and the wealth of nations and corporations 1 Accounting: our first communications technology 2 Merchants and mathematics 3 Luca Pacioli: from Sansepolcro to celebrity 4 Pacioli’s landmark bookkeeping treatise of 1494 5 Venetian double entry goes viral 6 Double entry morphs: the industrial revolution and the birth of a profession 7 Double entry and capitalism—chicken and egg?

p. 127 ‘Book-keeping by Double Entry . . .’ Yamey, Essays on the History of Accounting, op. cit., p. 141. p. 128 ‘very impartially . . .’ Daniel Defoe, Robinson Crusoe, Penguin, Ringwood, 1985, p. 83. p. 128 ‘tho’ the exactest book-keeping . . .’ Daniel Defoe, The Complete English Tradesman, 1725–27, www.online-literature.com/defoe/english-tradesman/20. p. 129 ‘At that time, you had no . . .’ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Wilhelm Meister’s Apprenticeship, Bell & Daldy, London, 1867, p. 27. Chapter 6 p. 134 The passions it inspired . . . Yamey, Essays on the History of Accounting, op. cit., p. 137. p. 134 ‘For every debit there must . . .’ Brown, op. cit., p. 160. p. 135 ‘the false prophet had . . .’ Yamey, Essays on the History of Accounting, op. cit., p. 321. p. 137 ‘the perpetual restless ambition . . .’


pages: 243 words: 74,452

Do Over: Rescue Monday, Reinvent Your Work, and Never Get Stuck by Jon Acuff

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Albert Einstein, fear of failure, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mark Zuckerberg, Skype, Steve Jobs, Tony Hsieh

Jenny laughed that night about my desire to go see the butcher and the produce guy at Publix. Beware the temptation to isolate or hide during your Do Over. We need other people. We need friends. We need advocates. We need relationships as a critical part of our Career Savings Account. Investment 2: Skills Everybody wants to be somebody: Nobody wants to grow. —JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE If your best friend was a horrible mechanic, you wouldn’t ask him to fix your car a second time. If your closest confidant was a terrible accountant, you wouldn’t ask him to do your taxes. If your lifelong buddy was terrifically irresponsible, you wouldn’t ask him to watch your dog while you were out of town. Would you still love him? Of course, you’ve got a strong relationship, but without better skills you’d never hire him again.

Bose was an amazing company to work for. I hadn’t hit a ceiling; that company was full of new opportunities to explore. In my frustration I stayed stuck because I didn’t grab the right hammer. I hope you will. Every skill can be a hammer. Start banging. Career Ceilings were meant to be broken. Investment 3: Character A talent is formed in stillness, a character in the world’s torrent. —JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE If relationships are who you know and skills are what you do, character is who you are. Since religion, science and philosophy have been trying to get to the bottom of that question for thousands of years I thought I would go ahead and figure it out for us all in this next section. You’re welcome. Or, instead, I could tell you how character impacts your work and why you need it in your Career Savings Account.


pages: 252 words: 73,131

The Inner Lives of Markets: How People Shape Them—And They Shape Us by Tim Sullivan

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Airbnb, airport security, Al Roth, Andrei Shleifer, attribution theory, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Brownian motion, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, conceptual framework, constrained optimization, continuous double auction, deferred acceptance, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, experimental subject, first-price auction, framing effect, frictionless, fundamental attribution error, George Akerlof, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, helicopter parent, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, late fees, linear programming, Lyft, market clearing, market design, market friction, medical residency, multi-sided market, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Occupy movement, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pez dispenser, pre–internet, price mechanism, price stability, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, proxy bid, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, school choice, school vouchers, sealed-bid auction, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Tacoma Narrows Bridge, technoutopianism, telemarketer, The Market for Lemons, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, two-sided market, uranium enrichment, Vickrey auction, winner-take-all economy

That is, the auction rules change the bids that come in, and one of the points of a second-price auction is that it makes for higher bidding. Besides, it was concerns about overpayment that led to the crisis in the posting system in the first place: if the auction system breaks down completely, it isn’t good for anyone.7 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Amateur Auction Theorist It turned out that stamp collectors weren’t even the first to beat economists to the Vickrey auction. They were already anticipated, at least in spirit, by the German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe forty years before the Penny Black appeared. Like many a temperamental and idealistic artist, Goethe had an uneasy relationship with money. He was on the one hand disdainful of the profit motive (he once wrote to a publisher, “I look odd to myself when I pronounce the word Profit”), while at the same time anxious that his worth be recognized.

Raw Data Is an Oxymoron by Lisa Gitelman

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collateralized debt obligation, computer age, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, index card, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, knowledge worker, Louis Daguerre, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, RFID, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, social graph, software studies, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, text mining, time value of money, trade route, Turing machine, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush

Ethische Methodenlehre, 1st Section, §50: “He is the midwife of his thoughts,” on the teacher-student relationship. 46. Luhmann, “Kommunikation mit Zettelkästen,” 57. 47. Walter Benjamin, Einbahnstraße, in Gesammelte Schriften, vol. 4 (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag, 1928/1981), 98–140, at 103. 48. Kleist, “Über die allmähliche Verfertigung der Gedanken beim Reden,” 323. 49. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, The Autobiography of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, vol. 2, trans. John Oxenford (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974), 311f. 50. Kittler, Die Nacht der Substanz, 16. For a more strictly computer-archeological reading, see also Kittler “Memories Are Made of You,” in Schrift, Medien, Kognition. Über die Exteriorität des Geistes, vol. 19 of Probleme der Semiotik, ed. Peter Koch and Sybille Krämer (Tübingen: Stauffenburg Verlag, 1997), 187–203, at 195–197. 51.


pages: 51 words: 14,616

The Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx; Friedrich Engels

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Anton Chekhov, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, joint-stock company, means of production, Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Upton Sinclair

Du Bois, 0-553-21336-9 THE COUNT OF MONTE CRISTO, Alexandre Dumas, 0-553-21350-4 THE THREE MUSKETEERS, Alexandre Dumas, 0-553-21337-7 MIDDLEMARCH, George Eliot, 0-553-21180-3 SILAS MARNER, George Eliot, 0-553-21229-X SELECTED ESSAYS, LECTURES, AND POEMS, Ralph Waldo Emerson, 0-553-21388-1 TEN PLAYS BY EURIPIDES, Euripides, 0-553-21363-6 APRIL MORNING, Howard Fast, 0-553-27322-1 MADAME BOVARY, Gustave Flaubert, 0-553-21341-5 HOWARDS END, E. M. Forster, 0-553-21208-7 A ROOM WITH A VIEW, E. M. Forster, 0-553-21323-7 THE DIARY OF A YOUNG GIRL, Anne Frank, 0-553-57712-3 ANNE FRANK'S TALES FROM THE SECRET ANNEX, Anne Frank, 0-553-58638-6 THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY AND OTHER WRITINGS, Benjamin Franklin, 0-553-21075-0 THE YELLOW WALLPAPER AND OTHER WRITINGS, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, 0-553-21375-X FAUST: FIRST PART, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 0-553-21348-2 THE WIND IN THE WILLOWS, Kenneth Grahame, 0-553-21368-7 THE COMPLETE FAIRY TALES OF THE BROTHERS GRIMM, The Brothers Grimm, 0-553-38216-0 ROOTS, Alex Haley, 0-440-17464-3 FAR FROM THE MADDING CROWD, Thomas Hardy, 0-553-21331-8 JUDE THE OBSCURE, Thomas Hardy, 0-553-21191-9 THE MAYOR OF CASTERBRIDGE, Thomas Hardy, 0-553-21024-6 THE RETURN OF THE NATIVE, Thomas Hardy, 0-553-21269-9 TESS OF THE D'URBERVILLES, Thomas Hardy, 0-553-21168-4 THE HOUSE OF THE SEVEN GABLES, Nathaniel Hawthorne, 0-553-21270-2 THE SCARLET LETTER, Nathaniel Hawthorne, 0-553-21009-2 THE FAIRY TALES OF HERMANN HESSE, Hermann Hesse, 0-553-37776-0 SIDDHARTHA, Hermann Hesse, 0-553-20884-5 THE ODYSSEY OF HOMER, Homer, 0-553-21399-7 THE HUNCHBACK OF NOTRE DAME, Victor Hugo, 0-553-21370-9 FOUR GREAT PLAYS, Henrik Ibsen, 0-553-21280-X THE PORTRAIT OF A LADY, Henry James, 0-553-21127-7 THE TURN OF THE SCREW AND OTHER SHORT FICTION, Henry James, 0-553-21059-9 A COUNTRY DOCTOR, Sarah Orne Jewett, 0-553-21498-5 DUBLINERS, James Joyce, 0-553-21380-6 A PORTRAIT OF THE ARTIST AS A YOUNG MAN, James Joyce, 0-553-21404-7 THE METAMORPHOSIS, Franz Kafka, 0-553-21369-5 THE STORY OF MY LIFE, Helen Keller, 0-553-21387-3 CAPTAINS COURAGEOUS, Rudyard Kipling, 0-553-21190-0 THE JUNGLE BOOKS, Rudyard Kipling, 0-553-21199-4 KIM, Rudyard Kipling, 0-553-21332-6 LADY CHATTERLEY'S LOVER, D.


pages: 473 words: 132,344

The Downfall of Money: Germany's Hyperinflation and the Destruction of the Middle Class by Frederick Taylor

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, falling living standards, fiat currency, full employment, German hyperinflation, housing crisis, Internet Archive, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, mittelstand, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, quantitative easing, rent control, risk/return, strikebreaker, trade route

The constitution-makers who met in early 1919 had been forced to evacuate themselves from Berlin to this attractive, modest-sized central German city (population at the end of the Second World War around 35,000), because the capital was still too violent and politically unstable for their safety to be guaranteed. They remained there until the situation in Berlin was somewhat restored. Weimar had become famous 120 years or so previously as the home of the great writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Germany’s Shakespeare - and more. In a long life, spanning the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Goethe had also gained renown as a statesman and scientist. A fitting environment for Germany’s new start, perhaps, despite the circumstances. From now on, though, to the wider world the first thing the name would bring to mind would no longer be the greatest achievements of the German enlightenment.

These, then, were the distinguished, patriotic and apparently reliable officials who unwittingly set Germany and its currency on the road to ruin. Both were lawyers by education and training rather than economists or financiers. Both were very much men of the pre-war era. Glasenapp, in particular, was a man of broad culture, with a deep interest in the works of Germany’s and perhaps Europe’s greatest polymath, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (for many years he served on the committee of the Weimar-based Goethe Society). In fact, Glasenapp did a bit of writing himself, reportedly setting his son’s translations of Indian poetry into polished German verse in his head while walking to work in the morning.1 Having played such a leading role in the growth of Germany’s indebtedness during the previous four or more years, the Reichsbank’s response to the armistice and the threat of a normalisation of the country’s economy was to demand austerity from the revolutionary government, while, paradoxically, at the same time the dubious underpinnings of the money supply, which implicitly encouraged the debauchment of the currency, remained in place.


pages: 624 words: 127,987

The Personal MBA: A World-Class Business Education in a Single Volume by Josh Kaufman

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Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Black Swan, business process, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, discounted cash flows, double entry bookkeeping, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Gödel, Escher, Bach, high net worth, hindsight bias, index card, inventory management, iterative process, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Lao Tzu, loose coupling, loss aversion, market bubble, Network effects, Parkinson's law, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, place-making, premature optimization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, side project, statistical model, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, subscription business, telemarketer, the scientific method, time value of money, Toyota Production System, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, Y Combinator, Yogi Berra

Each line has its own identity and appeals to a different type of potential customer, even though the clothes may be manufactured using the same processes and the revenues end up in the coffers of the same company. SHARE THIS CONCEPT: http://book.personalmba.com/economic-values/ Relative Importance Testing Things which matter most must never be at the mercy of things which matter least. —JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE, NINETEENTH-CENTURY DRAMATIST, POET, AND POLYMATH The tricky thing about trying to figure out what people want is that people want everything. Here’s proof: bring together a group of potential customers for a focus group. Ask each participant to rate the importance of each of the nine Economic Values for your offering on a scale of 0 to 10. What will the results look like? Regardless of your product or service, the results will be the same: your customers want products that provide exceptional results instantly, every time, with absolutely no effort.

Even the most Remarkable object of attention gets boring over time. Human attention requires novelty to sustain itself. Continue to offer something new, and people will pay attention to what you have to offer. SHARE THIS CONCEPT: http://book.personalmba.com/novelty/ 8 WORKING WITH YOURSELF To think is easy. To act is difficult. To act as one thinks is the most difficult. —JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE, POET, DRAMATIST, AND POLYMATH Your body and mind are the tools you use to get things done. Learning how to work effectively with yourself makes accomplishing what you set out to achieve easier and more enjoyable. In today’s busy business environment, it’s easy to get stressed about everything that needs to be done. Learning how to work effectively and efficiently can be the difference between a fulfilling career and a draining one.


pages: 381 words: 78,467

100 Plus: How the Coming Age of Longevity Will Change Everything, From Careers and Relationships to Family And by Sonia Arrison

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23andMe, 8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, attribution theory, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, Clayton Christensen, dark matter, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Frank Gehry, Googley, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, post scarcity, Ray Kurzweil, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Singularitarianism, smart grid, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Thomas Malthus, upwardly mobile, World Values Survey, X Prize

Faust, whose passion for youth lands him in hell for all eternity. There have been many iterations of the Faust theme by various writers, but the first version appeared in 1587 by an anonymous German author. The general story is that Dr. Faust makes a bargain with the devil: in exchange for wealth and power, Faust sells his soul to the devil. Although the story dates back to 1587, it wasn’t until Johann Wolfgang von Goethe took the legend up around 1770 that Dr. Faust joined the longevity literature. In Goethe’s version, Faust seeks youth in addition to money and power. According to historian Lucian Boia, “Here Faust swallows a witch’s potion designed to restore his youth and make him fall in love.”19 Goethe’s play was followed by a popular 1859 opera by Charles Gounod that shows the “miracle of rejuvenation” on stage, after which the newly young man falls in love.20 Risking eternity in hell for youth is a bad decision, but other stories warn that extended longevity could turn people into monsters, potentially creating hell on earth.


pages: 296 words: 78,227

The 80/20 Principle: The Secret to Achieving More With Less by Richard Koch

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Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, business process, delayed gratification, fear of failure, income inequality, inventory management, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, knowledge worker, profit maximization, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, wage slave

Before you start a revolution, realize that it will involve major risks and will lead you into uncharted territory. Those who want a time revolution need to link together their past, present, and future, as suggested above by Figure 35. Behind the issue of how we allocate time lurks the even more fundamental issue of what we want to get out of our lives. 11 YOU CAN ALWAYS GET WHAT YOU WANT Things that matter most Must never be at the mercy of things that matter least. JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE Work out what you want from life. In the 1980s phrase, aim to “have it all.” Everything you want should be yours: the type of work you want; the relationships you need; the social, mental, and aesthetic stimulation that will make you happy and fulfilled; the money you require for the lifestyle that is appropriate to you; and any requirement that you may (or may not) have for achievement or service to others.


pages: 267 words: 82,580

The Dark Net by Jamie Bartlett

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3D printing, 4chan, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Chrome, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, invention of writing, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Julian Assange, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, life extension, litecoin, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, moral hazard, Occupy movement, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Satoshi Nakamoto, Skype, slashdot, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, The Coming Technological Singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, WikiLeaks, Zimmermann PGP

Emaciated bodies began to appear unsurprising, and ordinary. And because thinspo, tricks and tips, suicide methods and diets are put forward by a seemingly caring community of people, it is easy to forget just how deadly the advice can be. It could be said that almost any action, no matter how misguided, can quickly become acceptable – even admirable – if you believe that others are doing it too. In 1774 the German novelist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe published his first novel, The Sorrows of Young Werther, in which his thoughtful young protagonist takes his life after failing in his endeavours to be with the woman he loved. The book sparked a spate of copycat suicides across Europe by young men who had found themselves in a similar predicament. This strange phenomenon became known as the ‘Werther Effect’. The month after the August 1962 suicide of Marilyn Monroe, 197 suicides, mostly of young blonde women, appeared to have used the star’s death as a model for their own.


pages: 778 words: 227,196

The Age of Wonder by Richard Holmes

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Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, British Empire, Copley Medal, Dava Sobel, double helix, Edmond Halley, Etonian, experimental subject, Fellow of the Royal Society, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Harrison: Longitude, music of the spheres, placebo effect, polynesian navigation, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Solar eclipse in 1919, Stephen Hawking, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, trade route, unbiased observer, University of East Anglia, éminence grise

Crowe, The Extraterrestrial Life Debate, 1750-1900, CUP, 1986 Andrew Cunningham and Nicholas Jardine, Romanticism and the Sciences, CUP, 1990 Erasmus Darwin, The Botanic Garden, A Philosophical Poem with Notes, 1791 Hermione de Almeida, Romantic Medicine and John Keats, OUP, 1991 Adrian Desmond, The Politics of Evolution: Morphology, Medicine and Reform in Radical London, Chicago UP, 1989 Patricia Fara, Pandora’s Breeches: Women, Science and Power in the Age of Enlightenment, Pimlico, 2004 Penelope Fitzgerald, The Blue Flower (a novel), HarperCollins, 1995 Tim Fulford (editor), Romanticism and Science, 1773-1833, a 5-vol anthology, Pickering, 2002 Tim Fulford and Peter Kitson (editors), Romanticism and Colonialism: Writing and Empire, 1780-1830, CUP, 1998 Tim Fulford, Debbie Lee and Peter Kitson, Literature, Science and Exploration in the Romantic Era, CUP, 2004 John Gascoigne, Joseph Banks and the English Enlightenment, CUP, 1994 James Gleick, Isaac Newton, Pantheon Books, 2003 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Scientific Studies (edited by Douglas Miller), Suhrkamp edition of Goethe’s Works, vol 12, New York, 1988 Jan Golinski, Science as Public Culture: Chemistry and Enlightenment in Britain 1760-1820, CUP, 1992 Richard Hamblyn, The Invention of Clouds, Picador, 2001 Peter Harman and Simon Mitron, Cambridge Scientific Minds, CUP, 2002 John Herschel, On the Study of Natural Philosophy, 1832 J.E.

., p21 11 Ibid. 12 Introduction to Humphry Davy on Geology: The 1805 Lectures, pxxix, British Library catalogue X421/22592 13 HD Archive Box 13 (f) pp41-50, Mss notebook dated 1795-97 14 HD Archive Box 13 (f) p61 15 The whole poem, no fewer than thirty-two stanzas, is given in JD Memoirs, pp23-7 16 HD Works 2, p6 17 Jan Golinski, Science as Public Culture: Chemistry and Enlightenment in Britain 1760-1820, CUP, 1992, pp133-42 18 Ibid., p109 19 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, ‘Maxims and Reflections’, from Goethe, Scientific Studies, edited by Douglas Miller, Suhrkamp edition of Goethe’s Works, vol 12, New York, 1988, p308 20 Reprinted in HD Works 9 21 See Madison Smartt Bell, Lavoisier in the Year One: The Birth of a New Science in the Age of Revolution, Atlas Books, Norton, 2005. See also J.-L. David’s famous romantic portrait, Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier et sa Femme (1788) 22 Preface to Traité Élémentaire, translated by Robert Kerr, 1790 23 Consolations, Dialogue V, in HD Works 9, pp361-2 24 JD Memoirs, p34 25 For the Watt family, see Jenny Uglow, The Lunar Men: The Friends who Made the Future, 1730-1810, Faber, 2002 26 Treneer, p24 27 From Beddoes notes made 1793, quoted in Golinski, p171 28 HD Mss Truro, Beddoes letter in Davies Giddy Mss DG 42/1 29 Ibid. 30 Dorothy A.


pages: 559 words: 174,054

The World of Caffeine: The Science and Culture of the World's Most Popular Drug by Bennett Alan Weinberg, Bonnie K. Bealer

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British Empire, clean water, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Haight Ashbury, Honoré de Balzac, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Lao Tzu, placebo effect, spice trade, trade route, traveling salesman

prologue The Discovery of Caffeine Although caffeine-bearing plants may have been used for their pharmacological effects from before recorded history, it was not until the flowering of interest in plant chemistry in Europe in the beginning of the nineteenth century that caffeine itself was first isolated and named. The discovery was made by Friedlieb Ferdinand Runge, a young physician, in 1819 as a result of an encounter with the seventy-year-old Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, baron of the German empire, one of the greatest poets the world had seen, and the preeminent intellectual and cultural hero of the Europe of his day. Runge was born in Billwärder, a small town near Hamburg, Germany, on February 8, 1794, a pastor’s son and the third of what was to become a family of seven children. As a boy, Runge demonstrated the scientific curiosity and sharp powers of observation that presaged his creative career in analytical chemistry.

Comparisons of health effects are particularly problematic between members of these groups and people who do not use caffeine with respect to any health-related variable.8 An example of material confusion results from the fact that people who drink little or no coffee tend to use less tobacco and alcohol than those who are heavy coffee drinkers. This kind of insidious confounder can easily engender false claims of a causal connection between coffee or caffeine and health problems.9 notes OVERVIEW 1. Henry Watts, ed., Dictionary of Chemistry, vol. I, p. 707. 2. John Evelyn, Works, note, p. 11. 3. Sir Richard Steele, Tatler, April 12, 1709. PROLOGUE 1. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Versuch die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erklären (Attempts to Illustrate the Metamorphosis of Plants). In this book Goethe takes his place as a pioneer in the theory of evolution. 2. As P.Walden, in his essay “Goethe and Chemistry,” states, “At Weimar the time had come for Goethe to reexamine his chemical knowledge and concepts, to transfer them into the realm of practice and reality, simultaneously, however, to give them a more solid theoretical foundation” (George Urdang, Goethe and Pharmacy, p. 15). 3.


pages: 669 words: 210,153

Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss

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Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, post scarcity, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

This means he’s able to memorize and recite: A) a 1,000-digit number within an hour, B) a shuffled pack of cards within a few of minutes, and C) 10 packs of shuffled cards within an hour. Perhaps more impressive, he can quickly train others to do the same. In 2010, he was interviewed by a journalist named Joshua Foer. Under Ed’s Yoda-like tutelage, in 2011, Joshua became the very next American Memory Champion. It took less than a year for Ed to transform a novice into world-class. The result was Foer’s book Moonwalking with Einstein. On the Magic of Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe “Goethe is really cool. . . . At the age of 25, he writes a novel, which is extraordinarily brilliant [The Sorrows of Young Werther], about the troubles of young Goethe. It’s this wonderful story of a young man who falls in love, and it doesn’t really work out so well. . . . Goethe wrote this book by locking himself in a hotel room for 3 months, imagining his five best friends on different chairs, and then discussing with his imaginary friends different possibilities of plot and so on and so forth.

Covey), The Denial of Death (Ernest Becker) Catmull, Ed: One Monster After Another (Mercer Mayer) Chin, Jimmy: Musashi: An Epic Novel of the Samurai Era (Eiji Yoshikawa and Charles Terry), A Guide to the I Ching (Carol K. Anthony), Missoula: Rape and the Justice System in a College Town (Jon Krakauer) Cho, Margaret: How to Be a Movie Star (William J. Mann) Cooke, Ed: The Age of Wonder (Richard Holmes), Touching the Rock (John M. Hull), In Praise of Idleness: And Other Essays (Bertrand Russell), The Sorrows of Young Werther; Theory of Colours; Maxims and Reflections (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe), The Joyous Cosmology (Alan Watts) Cummings, Whitney: Super Sad True Love Story (Gary Shteyngart), The Drama of the Gifted Child (Alice Miller), The Fantasy Bond (Robert W. Firestone), The Continuum Concept (Jean Liedloff) D’Agostino, Dominic: Personal Power (Tony Robbins), Tripping Over the Truth (Travis Christofferson), The Language of God (Francis Collins), The Screwtape Letters (C.S.


pages: 286 words: 90,530

Richard Dawkins: How a Scientist Changed the Way We Think by Alan Grafen; Mark Ridley

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Alfred Russel Wallace, Arthur Eddington, bioinformatics, cognitive bias, computer age, conceptual framework, Dava Sobel, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, Haight Ashbury, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, loose coupling, Murray Gell-Mann, Necker cube, phenotype, profit maximization, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Yogi Berra

In the biological realm, and everybody back then was quite explicit that analogy was being drawn with culture, progress meant that among organisms there is an order from simple to complex, from the least to the most, from (as was often said) the monad to the man. (Some put plants at the bottom, some put plants on a different scale.) Organic evolution came into being on the back of biological progress. The early evolutionists, Denis Diderot7 and then Jean Baptiste de Lamarck8 in France, Erasmus Darwin (1794-1796) in England, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in Germany,9 were all ardent progressionists in culture and biology, and saw their evolutionism as part and parcel of this general picture. The story of evolution and progress continued through the nineteenth century from beginning to end. The notorious pre-(Charles) Darwinian work, The Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation,10 published anonymously but later revealed to be the work of the Scottish publisher and author Robert Chambers, was explicit in its progressionism.


pages: 385 words: 111,807

A Pelican Introduction Economics: A User's Guide by Ha-Joon Chang

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, discovery of the americas, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global value chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, post-industrial society, precariat, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, structural adjustment programs, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, working-age population, World Values Survey

You are bound to have your favourite theory. There is nothing wrong with using one or two more than others – we all do. But please don’t be a man (or a woman) with a hammer – still less someone unaware that there are other tools available. To extend the analogy, use a Swiss army knife instead, with different tools for different tasks. ‘Everything factual is already a theory’: facts, even numbers, are in the end not objective Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the German writer (Faust) and scientist (Theory of Colours), once said that ‘everything factual is already a theory’.1 This is something to bear in mind when looking at economic ‘facts’. Many people would assume that numbers are straightforward and objective, but each of them is constructed on the basis of a theory. I might not go as far as Benjamin Disraeli, the former British prime minister, who quipped that ‘there are lies, damned lies, and statistics’, but numbers in economics are invariably the results of attempts to measure concepts whose definitions are often extremely contentious or at least debatable.2 This is not just an academic quibble.


pages: 355 words: 92,571

Capitalism: Money, Morals and Markets by John Plender

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Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computer age, Corn Laws, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, diversification, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, labour market flexibility, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, Menlo Park, moral hazard, moveable type in China, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit motive, quantitative easing, railway mania, regulatory arbitrage, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, time value of money, too big to fail, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck

There are thus too many potential claimants for too little income.200 If the democratic system ends up penalising the economically powerful youth, the young will impose an inflation tax on the elderly to secure what they believe to be their rightful share of the spoils of the capitalist system. CHAPTER TWELVE CAPITALISM, WARTS AND ALL Has there ever been a time when people really felt at ease with capitalism? That question was put to me by Richard Lambert, former director-general of the Confederation of British Industry and before that editor of the Financial Times, when I explained to him the theme of this book. An interesting light is cast on his question by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in his great two-part drama Faust, written at the start of the nineteenth century when the industrial revolution in Europe was in its earliest stages. Faust, Part Two, among many other rich themes, incorporates what amounts to a parable of the costs and benefits of capitalist economic development. It is extraordinarily prescient in relation to current concerns. In the story, Faust serves as the embodiment of modern man, seeking through science and technology to pursue the materialist goal of domination over nature and to build a rich, earthly paradise.


pages: 310 words: 91,151

Leaving Microsoft to Change the World: An Entrepreneur's Odyssey to Educate the World's Children by John Wood

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airport security, British Empire, call centre, clean water, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, fear of failure, glass ceiling, high net worth, income per capita, Jeff Bezos, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, microcredit, Own Your Own Home, random walk, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Ballmer

His wife is a well-trained nurse helping the rural poor, and their daughter, Thao, will benefit from having educated parents who believe that girls, as well as boys, should be in school. I try to imagine all the other students who are still in the early years of being helped by Room to Read. If Vu could make this much progress in eight years, what might become of the nearly 1 million other students now attending our schools and eagerly devouring books in our libraries? Johann Wolfgang von Goethe once wrote about Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony, “If all the musicians in the world played this piece simultaneously, the planet would go off its axis.” That’s how I feel about education for the children of the developing world. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I’VE ALWAYS BELIEVED THAT AN ENTREPRENEUR WILL ONLY SUCCEED IF he surrounds himself with talented and passionate people. I was fortunate enough to meet Dinesh Shrestha and Erin Keown Ganju during the critical early years of Room to Read, and they both deserve full credit for their roles in building out the organization.


pages: 432 words: 85,707

QI: The Third Book of General Ignorance (Qi: Book of General Ignorance) by John Lloyd, John Mitchinson

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Albert Einstein, British Empire, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, dark matter, double helix, epigenetics, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, music of the spheres, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route

You can even hear them doing this if you listen closely. The teeth on a limpet’s radula are the hardest known substance in biology. They are made of a type of iron called goethite, and limpets use them to cling to rocks with a vice-like grip and excavate them like a tiny JCB. Johann Georg Lenz (1748–1832) of the University of Jena discovered goethite in 1806. He named it after his friend, the writer and philosopher Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832). Goethe had become obsessed with mineralogy in his twenties, as a result of his plan to re-open a medieval silver mine in the Harz mountains. By the time he died, he had amassed 17,800 samples – the largest private collection of rocks and minerals in Europe. Blue whales, by the way, don’t have any teeth at all. STEPHEN George Washington had hippopotamus tusk teeth. LINDA SMITH He must have had quite an overbite.


pages: 361 words: 97,787

The Curse of Cash by Kenneth S Rogoff

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Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cashless society, central bank independence, cryptocurrency, debt deflation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, ethereum blockchain, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial intermediation, financial repression, forward guidance, frictionless, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, illegal immigration, inflation targeting, informal economy, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, large denomination, liquidity trap, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, moveable type in China, New Economic Geography, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, payday loans, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, RFID, savings glut, secular stagnation, seigniorage, The Great Moderation, the payments system, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, unconventional monetary instruments, underbanked, unorthodox policies, Y2K, yield curve

The evolution of modern money will also help us understand some important nuances about the role of government and technology that will prove useful in analyzing the scope for alternative currency systems in the future. The long legacy and storied history of paper money in our psyche and culture is a formidable artifice in itself, not to be taken lightly. For Westerners, the history begins with Marco Polo’s insightful account of paper currency in China, a revelation that stunned Europeans as some form of alchemy. This suspicion is echoed in Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s Faust, when the demon Mephistopheles tempts the emperor, who is in severe financial distress, to introduce paper money to increase spending and pay off state debt. The device works in the short run but ultimately leads to inflation and ruin. Goethe, writing early in the nineteenth century, was nothing if not prescient. Without paper money, there might have been no German hyperinflation, and perhaps no World War II.1 Failed paper money may be cursed, but successful paper money has long been a cornerstone of the world’s most successful economies.


pages: 502 words: 107,657

Predictive Analytics: The Power to Predict Who Will Click, Buy, Lie, or Die by Eric Siegel

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Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, backtesting, Black Swan, book scanning, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, call centre, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data is the new oil, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Google Glasses, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, personalized medicine, placebo effect, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steven Levy, text mining, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize, Yogi Berra

So, too, a data scientist posts her model on the bulletin board near the company ping-pong table. The hunter hands over the kill to the cook, and the data scientist cooks up her model, translates it to a standard computer language, and e-mails it to an engineer for integration. A well-fed tribe shows the love; a psyched executive issues a bonus. The tribe munches and the scientist crunches. To Act Is to Decide Knowing is not enough; we must act. —Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Potatoes or rice? What to do with my life? I can’t decide. —From the song “I Suck at Deciding” by Muffin1 (1996) Once you develop a model, don’t pat yourself on the back just yet. Predictions don’t help unless you do something about them. They’re just thoughts, just ideas. They may be astute, brilliant gems that glimmer like the most polished of crystal balls, but hanging them on the wall gains you nothing and displays nerd narcissism—they just hang there and look smart.


pages: 312 words: 86,770

Endless Forms Most Beautiful: The New Science of Evo Devo by Sean B. Carroll

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Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Brownian motion, dark matter, Drosophila, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the scientific method

There is, especially in the United States, another obstacle besides content and teaching methods to evolutionary literacy; I will address that next. But even without the active opposition, we can do better, and we have to do better. Evo Devo and the Evolution/Creation Struggle If you are convinced of a matter, you must take sides or you don’t deserve to succeed. —Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Propylaea (1798) In the short time between the first and second edition of The Origin of Species , Darwin inserted three more words into that famous closing paragraph, adding “by the Creator” to rewrite the phrase as “having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one…” Darwin later expressed his regret for doing so in a letter to botanist J.


pages: 389 words: 109,207

Fortune's Formula: The Untold Story of the Scientific Betting System That Beat the Casinos and Wall Street by William Poundstone

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, asset allocation, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black-Scholes formula, Brownian motion, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, correlation coefficient, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, high net worth, index fund, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, publish or perish, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, short selling, speech recognition, statistical arbitrage, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, traveling salesman, value at risk, zero-coupon bond

HV6710.P68 2005 795'.01'5192—dc22 2005005725 www.fsgbooks.com To Emily, Alyssa, and Weston It’s getting so a businessman can’t expect no return from a fixed fight. Now, if you can’t trust a fix, what can you trust? —Joel Coen and Ethan Coen, Miller’s Crossing Mathematicians are like a certain type of Frenchmen: when you talk to them they translate it into their own language, and then it soon turns into something completely different. —Johann Wolfgang von Goethe CONTENTS Prologue: The Wire Service PART ONE: ENTROPY Claude Shannon • Project X • Emmanuel Kimmel • Edward Thorp • Toy Room • Roulette • Gambler’s Ruin • Randomness, Disorder, Uncertainty • The Bandwagon • John Kelly, Jr. • Private Wire • Minus Sign PART TWO: BLACKJACK Pearl Necklace • Reno • Wheel of Fortune • More Trouble Than an $18 Whore • The Kelly Criterion, Under the Hood • Las Vegas • The First Sure Winner in History • Deuce-Dealing Dottie • Bicycle Built for Two PART THREE: ARBITRAGE Paul Samuelson • The Random Walk Cosa Nostra • This Is Not the Time to Buy Stocks • IPO • Bet Your Beliefs • Beat the Market • James Regan • Resorts International • Michael Milken • Robert C.

Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower by William Blum

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, collective bargaining, Columbine, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, union organizing

It should be noted that what is presented herein deals essentially with violations of civil liberties and human rights, and does not include the numerous forms of corporate abuse which are economic in nature or which adversely affect people's health. Many of the violations reflect foreign policy considerations given a domestic twist to bring the "threat" home to US citizens and win support for those policies. None are more hopelessly enslaved than those who falsely believe they are free. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe • In every state, the police or the National Guard and, at times, active-duty army troops, are conducting relentless helicopter drug-surveillance over people's homes and property, setting up roadblocks, interrogating, detaining, harassing and terrifying residents with displays of excessive power. • In hundreds of American cities, young people are being subjected to a nighttime curfew law; many have a daytime curfew as well • The CIA, FBI and other federal agencies are refusing to respond to subpoenas for documents issued by attorneys who need them for the defense of their clients in national security cases in state courts. • US residents are undergoing assorted harassments and penalties from the federal government for having traveled to, spent money in and/or shipped various goods to Cuba, Libya, Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Yugoslavia or other nations of that ilk.


pages: 394 words: 110,352

The Art of Community: Building the New Age of Participation by Jono Bacon

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barriers to entry, collaborative editing, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Jono Bacon, openstreetmap, Richard Stallman, Skype, social software, software as a service, telemarketer, web application

We have discussed the opportunities and pitfalls associated with measuring community, and this chapter should have provided you with a firm foundation in which to gather data that can help you optimize your community and make it more efficient, pleasurable, and productive. Now we are going to move on to discuss one of the most important elements of community, particularly in large and growing communities: governance. MEASURING COMMUNITY Download at Boykma.Com 209 Download at Boykma.Com CHAPTER EIGHT Governance “Which is the best government? That which teaches us to govern ourselves.” —Johann Wolfgang von Goethe M IKE B ASINGER IS A NICE GUY . Some would say a little too nice for his own good: he is one of those people who are impossible to dislike, no matter how much you try. Quiet, conscientious, considerate, and understated, Mike is the epitome of open source community. Few would imagine that he helps to govern the worldwide Ubuntu community at the highest level. At the same time, many of the people who know that wouldn’t realize that Mike has never worked for Canonical Ltd., Ubuntu’s commercial sponsor; he has always remained a volunteer.


pages: 618 words: 159,672

Fodor's Rome: With the Best City Walks and Scenic Day Trips by Fodor's Travel Publications Inc.

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call centre, Donald Trump, glass ceiling, haute couture, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Mason jar, Murano, Venice glass, urban planning, young professional

You may prefer to limit your shopping on Via Condotti to the window variety, but there’s one thing here that everybody can afford—a stand-up coffee at the bar at the Antico Caffè Greco, set just off the Piazza di Spagna and the Fontana della Barcaccia. With its tiny marble-top tables and velour settees, this 200-year-old institution has long been the haunt of artists and literati; it’s closed Sunday. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Byron, and Franz Liszt were habitués. Buffalo Bill stopped in when his road show hit Rome. The caffè is still a haven for writers and artists, along with plenty of Gucci-clad ladies. The tab picks up considerably if you decide to sit down to enjoy table service. | Via Condotti 86, Spagna | 00187 | 06/6791700 | www.anticocaffegreco.eu. Il Palazzetto. For the ultimate view from atop the Spanish Steps, you can climb up, taking the elevator from inside the Spagna Metro…or pay for the privilege at the glamorous wine bar Il Palazzetto, where an interior elevator takes you to the level of the top terrace. | Vicolo del Bottino 8, Spagna | 00187 | 06/699341000 | www.ilpalazzettoroma.com.


pages: 312 words: 114,586

How I Found Freedom in an Unfree World: A Handbook for Personal Liberty by Harry Browne

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full employment, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, War on Poverty

If that principle seems far removed from the problem that led you to this book, I hope to show you shortly that this is the foundation necessary to free yourself of any restriction. Until you discover and accept yourself fully, you won’t have the conviction or the courage to be free. 20 Harry Browne / How I Found Freedom in an Unfree World As soon as you trust yourself, you will know how to live. — Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Nature, to be commanded, must be obeyed. — Francis Bacon 3 The Intellectual and Emotional Traps To become free requires a well-conceived plan of action. It can’t be achieved by occasional spur-of-the-moment hunches. To be free, you must know what you’re doing and why. Otherwise, slight setbacks can cause you to discard your plans and give up. The two traps covered in this chapter affect the what and why of your actions.


pages: 466 words: 146,982

Venice: A New History by Thomas F. Madden

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big-box store, buy low sell high, centre right, colonial rule, Columbine, Costa Concordia, double entry bookkeeping, facts on the ground, financial innovation, indoor plumbing, invention of movable type, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Murano, Venice glass, spice trade, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning

The English divine Richard Pococke, who saw the spectacle in 1734, sent home a long description of the doge’s galley, the bucintoro, which was yet another new and more lavish model put into service only seven years earlier. It was, he believed, “the finest ship in the world. . . . The floor is wood laid in handsom figures, every thing else you see in side and out is finely carv’d and gilt all over in the most beautifull manner . . . at the helm is the Doges gilt throne the Nobles being rangd all down.” The German polymath, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, attended the Sensa in 1786, and wrote of the bucintoro: “The ship is itself an ornament; therefore one may not say that it is overloaded with ornaments, and only a mass of gilded carvings that are otherwise useless. In reality it is a monstrance, in order to show the people that their leaders are indeed wonderful.” The Sensa, a long-treasured civic ritual for Venetians, had become a giant spectacle for tourists.


pages: 436 words: 141,321

Reinventing Organizations: A Guide to Creating Organizations Inspired by the Next Stage of Human Consciousness by Frederic Laloux, Ken Wilber

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Albert Einstein, augmented reality, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, failed state, future of work, hiring and firing, index card, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Rogoff, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, the market place, the scientific method, Tony Hsieh

It’s a profoundly healing psychological as well as organizational experience. I feel more real, grounded, and incarnate. I feel inspired to focus and accomplish more than I ever have. I feel empowered to make decisions, and invited to get support around doing so. I feel totally lit up by the aim I am serving.134 Chapter 3.2 STARTING UP A TEAL ORGANIZATION Whatever you do or dream you can do—begin it. Boldness has genius and power and magic in it. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Perhaps as you read this book you are about to start a new business, nonprofit, school, hospital, or foundation, and you are wondering how to bake Teal yeast into the dough of the organization from the start. (If you run an existing organization and are wondering how to transform it along Teal lines, the next chapter addresses that question more specifically.) Starting a new organization can be exhilarating, but it’s also sheer hard work.


pages: 486 words: 148,485

Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error by Kathryn Schulz

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affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, car-free, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, cosmological constant, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, desegregation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, lake wobegon effect, Ronald Reagan, six sigma, stem cell, Steven Pinker, Tenerife airport disaster, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route

I said earlier that this is not a self-help book, since (for reasons both practical and philosophical) my primary goal isn’t to help us avoid error. But when it comes to the opposite task—not avoiding error—we can use all the help we can get. The aim of the rest of this book, then, is to get closer to error: close enough to examine other people’s real-life experiences of it, and, in the end, close enough to live with our own. 10. How Wrong? Once you have missed the first buttonhole you’ll never manage to button up. —JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE On the morning of October 22, 1844, a group of people gathered to await the end of the world. They met in homes, in churches, and in outdoor revival meetings, primarily in New York and New England but also throughout the United States and Canada, and as far away as England, Australia, and South America. Nobody knows how numerous they were. Some scholars put the number at 25,000 and some put it at over a million, while most believe it was in the hundreds of thousands.


pages: 797 words: 227,399

Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bill Joy: nanobots, blue-collar work, borderless world, clean water, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, cuban missile crisis, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Grace Hopper, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, private military company, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Yogi Berra

War just won’t be the same. [TWO] SMART BOMBS, NORMA JEANE, AND DEFECATING DUCKS: A SHORT HISTORY OF ROBOTICS The further backward you look, the further forward you can see. —SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL “Perhaps the most wonderful piece of mechanism ever made” is how the famous Scottish engineer Sir David Brewster would describe it some one hundred years after it was invented. By contrast, the great poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe called it “most deplorable ... like a skeleton [with] digestive problems.” The two men were talking about Vaucanson’s duck, the mechanical wonder of its age, or, as present-day scientists call it, “the Defecating Duck.” Jacques de Vaucanson was born in Grenoble, France, in 1709. At the age of twenty-six, he moved to Paris, then the center of culture and science during the Age of Enlightenment.


pages: 741 words: 179,454

Extreme Money: Masters of the Universe and the Cult of Risk by Satyajit Das

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Andy Kessler, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, Celtic Tiger, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discrete time, diversification, diversified portfolio, Doomsday Clock, Emanuel Derman, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, global reserve currency, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, high net worth, Hyman Minsky, index fund, interest rate swap, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, load shedding, locking in a profit, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, merger arbitrage, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, Nixon shock, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, savings glut, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Slavoj Žižek, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the market place, the medium is the message, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Nature of the Firm, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, value at risk, Yogi Berra, zero-coupon bond

The Mirrored Room The genius of money made possible the modern economy and the money culture. Georg Simmel, a German sociologist and contemporary of Freud, argued that money imitated the world around it: “There is no more striking symbol...of the world than that of money.”29 Money is the ultimate Faustian bargain—a pact with the devil in return for earthly power, wealth, or knowledge. In the second part of Faust, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe has Faust and Mephistopheles visit the Emperor who lacks the money to pay his retinue of soldiers and servants as well as his lenders. Mephistopheles comes to the aid of the Emperor, obtaining his permission to print paper money. Faust has the Emperor sign a note that anticipates modern money: “To whom it may concern, be by these presents known, this note is legal tender for one thousand crowns and is secured by the immense wealth safely stored underground in our Imperial States.”


pages: 924 words: 241,081

The Art of Community by Jono Bacon

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barriers to entry, collaborative editing, crowdsourcing, Debian, DevOps, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Jono Bacon, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, openstreetmap, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, software as a service, telemarketer, union organizing, VA Linux, web application

The chapter provides a good grounding for getting started, but always be open to your own context and how you meet the needs of that context. You will find your own approaches and techniques that will build on and in some cases replace the approaches here. This chapter is a start, not an end to this process. Chapter 10. Governance “Which is the best government? That which teaches us to govern ourselves.” —Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Mike Basinger is a nice guy. Some would say a little too nice for his own good: he is one of those people who are impossible to dislike, no matter how much you try. Quiet, conscientious, considerate, and understated, Mike is the epitome of the open source community. Few would imagine that he helps to govern the worldwide Ubuntu community at the highest level. At the same time, many of the people who know that don’t realize that Mike has never worked for Canonical Ltd., Ubuntu’s commercial sponsor; he has always remained a volunteer.


pages: 934 words: 232,651

Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1945-1956 by Anne Applebaum

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, language of flowers, means of production, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, price mechanism, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Slavoj Žižek, stakhanovite, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning

(One of them snorted that Lenin had celebrated his fiftieth birthday by “inviting a few friends to drop in for dinner.”)74 But the regimes planned celebrations with more universal themes as well. Parades, floats, spectacles, and speeches were also dedicated to older or more universal cultural figures, with an aim to winning over a wider public and appealing to national pride. When the German communist party realized that August 28, 1949, was not only the two hundredth anniversary of the birth of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, one of Germany’s most revered writers, but that Goethe had fortuitously been born in Weimar, an East German city, the party, the Culture Ministry, and even the Stasi launched an almost frantic effort to claim this aristocratic Enlightenment figure as a kind of proto-communist. Meticulously, they planned an elaborate festival designed to show the West that communists cared more about high culture than did capitalists, to show their own people that communists were true German patriots, and to involve as many different kinds of people in as many events as possible.


pages: 846 words: 232,630

Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life by Daniel C. Dennett

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Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anthropic principle, buy low sell high, cellular automata, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, Danny Hillis, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, finite state, Gödel, Escher, Bach, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Murray Gell-Mann, New Journalism, non-fiction novel, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, price mechanism, prisoner's dilemma, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Schrödinger's Cat, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Turing machine, Turing test

When ethnic pride turns to xenophobia, for instance, this mirrors the phenomenon of a tolerable bacillus that mutates into something deadly — if not necessarily to its original carrier, then to others. 12. Lewontin, Rose, and Kamin (1984, p. 283) claim that memes presuppose a "Cartesian" view of the mind, whereas in fact memes are a key (central but optional) ingredient in the best alternatives to Cartesian models (Dennett 1991a). CHAPTER THIRTEEN Losing Our Minds to Darwin 1. This bon mot appeared in the Tufts Daily, attributed to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, but I daresay it is a meme of more recent birth. 2. This is an elaboration of ideas I first presented in Dennett 1975.1 recently discovered that Konrad Lorenz (1973) described a similar cascade of cranes — in different terms, of course. 3. In fairness to Chomsky, all he says is that free will might be a mystery. "I am not urging this conclusion, but merely noting that it is not to be ruled out a priori" (Chomsky 1975, P-157).