Thomas L Friedman

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pages: 1,123 words: 328,357

Post Wall: Rebuilding the World After 1989 by Kristina Spohr

American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, central bank independence, colonial exploitation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, G4S, Kickstarter, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, open economy, price stability, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, software patent, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas L Friedman, Transnistria, uranium enrichment, zero-coupon bond

David Holley ‘British Leader Visits Beijing, Easing Sanctions’ LAT 3.9.1991; idem ‘Britain and China Clash Over Rights’ LAT 4.9.1991 Back to text 122. Thomas L. Friedman ‘US Calls North Korea Atom Plan a Global Concern’ NYT 14.11.1991. See also Elaine Sciolino with Eric Schmitt ‘Algerian Reactor Came From China’ NYT 15.11.1991. See also David R. Schweisberg ‘China vows to join Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty’ UPI 10.8.1991. Back to text 123. Baker The Politics pp. 588, 590 Back to text 124. Ibid. p. 590 Back to text 125. Ibid.; Thomas L. Friedman ‘Baker Asks China to Free Prisoners’ NYT 16.11.1991 p. 3 Back to text 126. Baker The Politics pp. 591–2; Thomas L. Friedman ‘Baker Fails to Win Any Commitments in Talks in Beijing’ NYT 17.11.1991. On China’s desire to resume its status as a contracting party to GATT and to continue retaining MFN with the US, see GHWBPL Memcon of Scowcroft–Zhu Qizhen talks 25.6.1991 West Wing pp. 1–3 Back to text 127.

See also Letter from Gorbachev to Bush 6.11.1990 and Letter from Bush to Gorbachev 20.10.1990, both printed in TLSS docs 114 and 113 pp. 764–7 and pp. 762–3 Back to text 123. Diary Entry 17.10.1990, printed in Bush & Scowcroft A World Transformed pp. 383 and see also pp. 384–5. Baker The Politics pp. 303–4. Cf. Thatcher The Downing Street Years pp. 823–4, 826 Back to text 124. Baker The Politics p. 304 Back to text 125. Thomas L. Friedman ‘Bush and Baker Explicit in Threat to Use Force’ NYT 30.10.1990; Baker’s Address before the Los Angeles World Affairs Council Dispatch [Why America Is in the Gulf] vol.1 no.10 5.11.1990 US DoS Back to text 126. Thomas L. Friedman ‘Baker Seen as a Balance to Bush on Crisis in Gulf’ NYT 3.11.1990; Baker The Politics p. 303 Back to text 127. Baker The Politics pp. 303–5 Back to text 128. See Gordon ‘Bush Sends New Units to Gulf to Provide “Offensive Option”’ Back to text 129. Baker The Politics pp. 305–6.

Sun ‘Chinese Foreign Minister Will Visit Middle East; Beijing Using Gulf Crisis to End Isolation’ WP 4.11.1990; Michael Pillsbury China Debates the Future Security Environment National Defense UP 2000 pp. xxxv–xxxvi Back to text 134. Baker The Politics p. 309; Suettinger Beyond Tiananmen p. 113; David Hoffman ‘China Signals Assent to UN Vote on Force’ WP 7.11.1990; Thomas L. Friedman ‘Baker Gets Help From China on Gulf’ NYT 7.11.1990 Back to text 135. GHWBPL NSC, Richard Haass Files – Working Files Iraq November 1990 (OA/ID CF01584) Baker’s Memorandum for the President: My Day in Moscow 8.11.1990 pp. 1–7 esp. pp. 3–5 MTF. Cf. Baker The Politics pp. 309–13; Thomas L. Friedman ‘Moscow Refuses to Rule Out Force’ NYT 11.11.1990 Back to text 136. GHWBPL NSC Richard Haass Files – Working Files Iraq November 1990 (OA/ID CF01584) Baker’s Memorandum for the president: London Meetings – top secret 10.11.1990 pp. 1–2 MTF Back to text 137.


pages: 415 words: 103,231

Gusher of Lies: The Dangerous Delusions of Energy Independence by Robert Bryce

addicted to oil, Berlin Wall, Charles Lindbergh, Colonization of Mars, decarbonisation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, financial independence, flex fuel, hydrogen economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, low earth orbit, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, price stability, Project for a New American Century, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize, Yom Kippur War

Available: http://www.eia.doe .gov/oiaf/archive/aeo06/excel/figure64_data.xls. 28. EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2007, 7. Available: www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ aeo/index.html. 29. Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat, 8. 30. Yale Global Online, “‘Wake Up and Face the Flat Earth’—Thomas L. Friedman,” April 18, 2005. Available: http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=5581. 31. Thomas L. Friedman, “The Energy Wall,” New York Times, December 1, 2006, 31. 32. Thomas L. Friedman, “Let’s Roll,” New York Times, January 2, 2002, 15. 33. Thomas L. Friedman, “A Failure to Imagine,” New York Times, May 19, 2002, 15. 34. Thomas L. Friedman, “Dancing Alone,” New York Times, May 13, 2004, 25. 35. Thomas L. Friedman, “Too Much Pork and Too Little Sugar,” New York Times, August 5, 2005. 362 Notes to Chapters 18 and 19 36. Petrobras production figures.

Exxon Mobil came in at number 25. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/ globalmostadmired/top50/index.html. 6. NASCAR Nation is the title of a book. 7. Karlyn Bowman, “The Federal Government: Losing Public Support,” Roll Call, October 5, 2006. 8. Stan Greenberg, Amy Gershkoff, and James Carville, “Re Meltdown II,” Democracy Corps, October 19, 2006. Available: http://www.democracycorps.com/ reports/analyses/Democracy_Corps_October_19_2006_Memo.pdf. 9. Thomas L. Friedman, “The Energy Mandate,” New York Times, October 13, 2006, 27. 10. Greenberg et al., op. cit. 11. Some estimates rank Venezuela and/or Canada ahead of Iraq, but those estimates are counting unconventional oil. In the case of Venezuela, that estimate is counting that country’s deposits of extra-heavy crude. In Canada, the higher estimates include tar sands. 12. John Roberts, “Oil and the Iraq War of 2003,” International Research Center for Energy and Economic Development, 2003, 2. 13.

Available: http:// globalwarming.house.gov/list/press/global_warming/pr_070410.shtml. 91. Fred Singer, “Old Security Myths,” Washington Times, November 28, 2003. Available: http://www.sepp.org/Archive/NewSEPP/WashTimes-Security%20Myths %20Singer.html. 92. Marc Labonte and Gail Makinen, “Energy Independence: Would It Free the United States from Oil Price Shocks?” Congressional Research Service, updated January 11, 2002. 93. Thomas L. Friedman, “The Geo-Green Alternative,” New York Times, January 30, 2005. 94. Institute for the Analysis of Global Security, “Fueling Terror,” undated. Available: http://www.iags.org/fuelingterror.html. 95. Alan Reynolds, “Alternative-Fuel Nonsense,” National Review Online, May 27, 2005. Available: http://www.nationalreview.com/nrof_comment/reynolds 200505270855.asp. 334 Notes to Chapter 3 96. Data from the CIA World Fact Book.


pages: 801 words: 229,742

The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy by John J. Mearsheimer, Stephen M. Walt

affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, David Brooks, energy security, facts on the ground, failed state, invisible hand, oil shock, Project for a New American Century, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

The first principle, Goldberg notes, was that “Israelis were the only ones entitled to decide Israeli policy” and the second was that “American Jews should stand publicly united with Israel and air disputes only in private.”45 By the 1970s, writes Edward Tivnan, “Total support of Israel had become a requirement of leadership in local Jewish communities throughout America.”46 The norm against public criticism of Israeli policy remains for the most part intact.47 In October 1996, for example, the president of ZOA, Morton Klein, sent a letter to ADL head Abraham Foxman protesting an invitation to New York Times columnist Thomas L. Friedman to speak at an ADL dinner, charging that Friedman “regularly defames Israel and its Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu.” Klein then circulated the letter to an array of officials at the Conference of Presidents, leading Foxman to denounce him as a “thought policeman.” The dispute intensified when David Bar-Illan, Netanyahu’s director of communications, weighed in and declared that Friedman should not be given a platform by “any organization that purports to be Zionist.”

Writing in 1992, Jonathan Woocher of the Jewish Education Service of North America made precisely this point: “We have seen the emergence of a whole new industry in America, of organizations monitoring and purporting to fight anti-Semitism everywhere in the world … The success of the Simon Wiesenthal Center has been particularly striking. It has become a major direct mail fundraising enterprise by outflanking even the ADL in the hunt for anti-Semitic threats to Jewish security. It is (sadly) not uncommon today to see organizations jockeying for position in a context to determine who among them is ‘toughest’ in fighting anti-Semitism that is waged in the Jewish press and barrages of direct mail appeals.”64 Or as Thomas L. Friedman of the New York Times remarked three years later, “Ever since Mr. Rabin and Mr. Arafat shook hands they have received only the most tepid support from mainstream American Jewish groups, like the Conference of Presidents, and outright hostility from the orthodox and fringe Jewish groupings. It is as if these organizations can only thrive if they have an enemy, someone to fight.”65 It bears repeating that a number of groups in the American Jewish community are critical of certain Israeli policies, and especially its continued presence in the Occupied Territories.

Conversely, Alterman identified only five pundits who consistently criticize Israeli behavior or endorse pro-Arab positions.2 Although some readers subsequently challenged Alterman’s coding of a handful of cases and a few of those he listed are now deceased, the disparity remains overwhelming and the challenges did not undermine his core claim.3 Consider the columnists who have covered the Middle East for the New York Times and the Washington Post in recent years. William Safire and the late A. M. Rosenthal were passionate defenders of Israel (and in Safire’s case, especially favorable toward Ariel Sharon); today, David Brooks consistently defends Israel’s position. Thomas L. Friedman is more moderate; he has been critical of some of Israel’s policies (and occasionally the lobby itself), but he almost never takes the Palestinians’ side or advocates that the United States distance itself from Israel. Nicholas D. Kristof is frequently critical of various aspects of American foreign policy and wrote one controversial column in March 2007 decrying the lack of serious public discussion of U.S. relations with Israel.


Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians (Updated Edition) (South End Press Classics Series) by Noam Chomsky

active measures, American ideology, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, centre right, colonial rule, David Brooks, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, the market place, Thomas L Friedman

Shipler, “Israeli Issue: Sharon.” New York Times, Sept. 27, 1982. Thomas L. Friedman, New York Times, Sept. 27, 1982. Colin Campbell. New York Times, Sept. 20, 1982. See ch. 4, 7.2. Bernard Nossiter, New York Times, Sept. 18, 1982. Thomas L. Friedman, New York Times, Aug. 2, 1982. David Lamb, Los Angeles Times, Sept. 16, 1982. David Lamb and J. Michael Kennedy, Los Angeles Times, Sept. 18; Classics in Politics: The Fateful Triangle Noam Chomsky Aftermath 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 731 Newsweek, Sept. 27, 1982. Colin Campbell, New York Times, Sept. 18, 1982. Robert Fisk, London Times, August 13, 1982. Ibid. Robert Fisk, London Times, Aug. 14, 17, 1982; Colin Campbell, New York Times, Sept. 27, 1982. Thomas L. Friedman, New York Times, Sept. 26, 1982, a detailed record of the week’s events, expanding on his earlier September 20, 21 account; reprinted in The Beirut Massacre (Claremont Research and Publications, New York.

See also Robert Fisk, London Times, Sept. 20; Manchester Guardian weekly, Sept. 26; and numerous other sources providing direct and credible evidence of the participation of these forces. New York Times, Sept. 23, 1982. Thomas L. Friedman, New York Times, Sept. 19, 20, 26; Carey, Christian Science Monitor, Sept. 20; Newsweek, Oct. 4. 1982. David Lamb, Los Angeles Times, Sept. 21, 1982. Loren Jenkins, “Witnesses Describe Militiamen Passing Through Israeli Lines,” Washington Post, Sept. 20, 1982. William E. Farrell, New York Times, Sept. 24; Yuval Elizur, Boston Globe, Sept. 21; David K. Shipler, New York Times, Sept. 20, 1982. Thomas L. Friedman, New York Times, Sept. 27, 1982; interview with Gen. Drori. David Bernstein, Jerusalem Post, Sept. 21, 1982. Gidon Kutz, Davar, Nov. 5, 1982; Annie Kriegel, Israel: est-il coupable? (Laffont, Paris, 1982).

.,” Jerusalem Post, Feb. 4, 1983. Steven R. Weisman, “Reagan Accuses Israelis of Delay On Withdrawal,” New York Times, Feb. 8, 1983. Official translation of Amin Gemayel’s address to the UN Security Council, Monday Morning. Oct. 25-31, 1982. Editorial, Christian Science Monitor, Feb. 7, 1983. Thomas L. Friedman, New York Times, May 10, 1983. For the text of the agreement, see New York Times, May 17, 1983. Parts remain secret. David K. Shipler, New York Times, May 11; Bernard Gwertzman, with David K. Shipler and Thomas L. Friedman, New York Times, May 10, 1983. The agreement was opposed by the Progressive Socialist Party of Walid Jumblatt and by Amal, along with pro-Syrian groupings. Economist, May 21, 1983. Jumblatt’s party is “the dominant group in the Druze community,” and Amal, headed by Nabih Beri. is “the mainstream organization of the Shiite community,” the largest religious group in Lebanon.


pages: 498 words: 145,708

Consumed: How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole by Benjamin R. Barber

addicted to oil, AltaVista, American ideology, Berlin Wall, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, business cycle, Celebration, Florida, collective bargaining, creative destruction, David Brooks, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, G4S, game design, George Gilder, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, McJob, microcredit, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, presumed consent, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, spice trade, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, X Prize

That our current capitalist dilemma is not, as Daniel Bell portrayed it several years ago, that the passing of the Protestant ethic has left capitalism “with no moral or transcendental ethic,”6 but that it has acquired a new and different ethic which has both secular and religious overtones and which legitimates the tendencies that consumer capitalism today requires in order to survive—tendencies, as Thomas L. Friedman has described them, “to extol consumption over hard work, investment, and long-term thinking.”7 That if capitalism’s productivist rise was attended and fortified by a Protestant ethic, there is today also another ethic to be uncovered—by no means Protestant—attending and fortifying capitalism’s incipient decline into hyperconsumerism. Though greed and puerility are natural features of human psychology, they have been given a prominence in modern materialist man reflecting the artificial ambitions of an infantilist ethos trying to ensure capitalism’s survival.

He preferred the de facto to high principles: “Many of the most successful standards, however,” he observes, “are ‘de facto’: ones the market discovers…. But because de facto standards are supported by the marketplace rather than by law, they are chosen for the right reasons and to get replaced when something truly better shows up.”79 In his boosterist paean to new technologies called The World Is Flat, Thomas L. Friedman rightly extols the pioneering work of Marc Andreessen in developing the Mosaic web browser, which set an industry standard and turned the internet into a usable technology.80 What he fails to notice is that it was not Andreessen the pioneer but Gates the rational consolidator who fashions the consumer monopoly and makes the fortune off of pioneers who came first. Let others test the market: then jump when the results are in.

The more efficiently we can summon products from anywhere on the globe, the more stress we put on our own communities.”26 Wal-Mart (perfecting the strategy of earlier catalog and big-box retail giants like Sears, Roebuck and Company and Montgomery Ward) sets the consumer in us against the citizen in us, pitting our private interest in obtaining cheap goods against our public interest in having a just and community-sustaining capitalist economy that produces secure high-paying jobs and preserves local communities with robust retail sectors—sectors that are often at the heart of a local community’s civic life.27 Thus do the ethos of infantilism and the ideology of privatization privilege the consumer in us over the citizen is us. Thomas L. Friedman grasps what he calls this “multiple identity disorder,” but, favoring market solutions, implicitly rejects the notion that civic identity with its public concerns trumps consumer identity with its private concerns. Hence all he can do is scratch his head over the “multiple identities—consumer, employee, citizen, taxpayer, shareholder”—that are called up by the dilemmas of WalMart economics, without being able to prioritize them politically or recognize that the very meaning of political sovereignty is to establish the priority of public over private.


pages: 313 words: 92,907

Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are Thekeys to Sustainability by David Owen

A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, zero-sum game

Indeed, there are many affluent or formerly affluent Americans who, in the past couple of years, have felt a sense of personal relief in their suddenly reduced ability to indulge in truly reckless consumer spending. But cutting back on fossil fuels isn’t like cutting back on restaurant meals or trips to Paris; it’s more like cutting back on oxygen or water. Dramatically upending the economic basis of entire societies doesn’t usually turn out well for those societies. Unsettling ramifications extend in every direction. The New York Times columnist Thomas L. Friedman has written about what he calls “The First Law of Petro-Politics,” which states: “As the price of oil goes up, the pace of freedom goes down. As the price of oil goes down, the pace of freedom goes up.”29 There’s that to brood about, too. In 1987, the World Commission on Environment and Development, which had been established four years earlier by the United Nations, published an influential book, called Our Common Future, which summarized numerous international hear ings on issues related to sustainability.

Modern HVAC systems have made most of us lazy about temperature control, and therefore about energy use: when we feel uncomfortable, we adjust the thermostat rather than identifying the source of the problem and looking for a low-tech remedy. Installing high-tech windows, like installing rooftop photovoltaic panels, should be considered “the dessert part,” in the sense that Steven J. Strong meant, and should be contemplated only once all the simpler and far more cost-effective steps have been taken. Thomas L. Friedman, in his recent book Hot, Flat, and Crowded, conveys this same basic idea in a memorable chapter title: “If It Isn’t Boring, It Isn’t Green”—seven words that should be adopted as a mantra by all environmentalists, as a reminder of the dangers and temptations of LEED brain.31 ON THE AFTERNOON OF AUGUST 14 , 2003, I WAS WORKING in my office, on the third floor of my house, when the lights blinked and my computer’s backup battery kicked in briefly.

Hahn’s essay “Ethanol’s Bottom Line” appeared in The Wall Street Journal, November 24, 2007. 27 For a concise introduction to the extreme difficulty of economically powering cars with hydrogen, see Matthew L. Wald, “Questions About a Hydrogen Economy,” Scientific American, May 2004. 28 Romm quoted in Robert S. Boyd, “Hydrogen Cars May Be a Long Time Coming,” McClatchy Newspapers, May 15, 2007. Joseph J. Romm, The Hype about Hydrogen: Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climate (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2005). 29 Thomas L. Friedman, “The Democratic Recession,” The New York Times, May 7, 2008. 30 World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 45. 31 Russell Gold, “As Prices Surge, Oil Giants Turn Sludge into Gold,” The Wall Street Journal, March 27, 2006. 32 The survey was conducted online, and the sample was small—just 501 respondents—and the project was partly sponsored by Archer Daniels Midland, which is not only involved in the manufacture of bioplastics but also bears a major responsibility for the economic distortions built into the U.S. corn market and for the absurd federal subsidies for the production of ethanol, but the results are consistent with my own informal sampling.


pages: 441 words: 136,954

That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum

addicted to oil, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks

.; high-speed train from New York to; public school system; snowy winters in; terrorist attack on, see September 11, 2001; transit system in Washington, George Washington magazine Washington Post Washington Wizards basketball team Watergate scandal Waterloo, Battle of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Waxman-Markey cap-and-trade bill Weekly Standard Weingarten, Randi Welles, Orson Wellington, Duke of West Alabama Chamber of Commerce Whalen, Bill Whig Party Whitney, Meredith Whole New Mind, A (Pink) Wichita (Kansas) Wiki WikiLeaks Wikipedia Wilde, Oscar Williams, Tennessee Williams College Wilmington (Delaware) Wilson, Woodrow wind power Winklevoss, Cameron and Tyler Wired magazine Wisconsin Wisconsin, University of World Bank World Economic Forum (Tianjin, China; 2010) World Is Flat, The (Friedman) World Series World Trade Center, terrorist attack on, see September 11, 2001 World War I World War II; African American aviators in; economy during; scientific research during; veterans of World Wide Web WTOP radio station X Xi’an (China) Xu, Kevin Young Y Yale–New Haven Teachers Institute Yale University; Law School; School of Forestry and Environmental Studies Ye, Lynnelle Lin Yemen Yeung, Angela Yu-Yun Ying, Lori YouTube Z Zellweger, Renée Zhang Huamei Zhao, Alice Wei Zhou, Linda Zimbabwe Zuckerberg, Mark Zynga A NOTE ABOUT THE AUTHORS Thomas L. Friedman is a three-time recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for his work with The New York Times and is the author of five bestselling books, including The World Is Flat (2005). Michael Mandelbaum, the Christian A. Herter Professor and Director of American Foreign Policy at The Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, is the author or co-author of twelve books, including The Ideas That Conquered the World: Peace, Democracy, and Free Markets in the Twenty-first Century (2002). Copyright © 2011 by Thomas L. Friedman and Michael Mandelbaum All rights reserved Farrar, Straus and Giroux 18 West 18th Street, New York 10011 Designed by Jonathan D.

There is no going back to the 1950s, and there are many reasons to be glad that that is so, but the kind of seriousness the country was capable of then is just as necessary now. We now live and work in the nation’s capital, where we have seen firsthand the government’s failure to come to terms with the major challenges the country faces. But although this book’s perspective on the present is gloomy, its hopes and expectations for the future are high. We know that America can meet its challenges. After all, that’s the America where we grew up. Thomas L. Friedman Michael Mandelbaum Bethesda, Maryland, June 2011 PART I THE DIAGNOSIS ONE If You See Something, Say Something This is a book about America that begins in China. In September 2010, Tom attended the World Economic Forum’s summer conference in Tianjin, China. Five years earlier, getting to Tianjin had involved a three-and-a-half-hour car ride from Beijing to a polluted, crowded Chinese version of Detroit, but things had changed.

We need to reconnect with the values and ideals that made the American dream so compelling for so many generations of Americans, as well as for so many millions of people across the globe. That is all part of our past. That used to be us. And because that used to be us, it can be again. That is why, today, the history books we need to read are our own and the country we need to rediscover is America. ALSO BY THOMAS L. FRIEDMAN From Beirut to Jerusalem (1989) The Lexus and the Olive Tree (1999) Longitudes and Attitudes (2002) The World Is Flat (2005) Hot, Flat, and Crowded (2008) ALSO BY MICHAEL MANDELBAUM The Nuclear Question (1979) The Nuclear Revolution (1981) The Nuclear Future (1983) Reagan and Gorbachev (co-author, 1987) The Fate of Nations (1988) The Global Rivals (co-author, 1988) The Dawn of Peace in Europe (1996) The Ideas That Conquered the World (2002) The Meaning of Sports (2004) The Case for Goliath (2006) Democracy’s Good Name (2007) The Frugal Superpower (2010) Acknowledgments We have benefited enormously from the many people who took time to share their thoughts with us about America’s future.


pages: 454 words: 139,350

Jihad vs. McWorld: Terrorism's Challenge to Democracy by Benjamin Barber

airport security, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, computer age, Corn Laws, Corrections Corporation of America, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, global village, invisible hand, Joan Didion, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, Live Aid, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, Norbert Wiener, North Sea oil, pirate software, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, undersea cable, young professional, zero-sum game

On its fiftieth birthday, the World Bank (aka, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) is vowing to do better on environmentalism at least. In its 1994 statement “Embracing the Future,” it claims to be as interested in human development programs and the environment as in pure economic development and markets. See Thomas L. Friedman, “World Bank at 50, Vows to Do Better,” The New York Times, July 24, 1994, p. A 4. 16. Kuttner, End of Laissez-Faire, p.24. 17. Thomas L. Friedman, “When Money Talks,” The New York Times, July 24, 1994, p. E 3. 18. Advertisement for “The Czech Republic,” The New York Times, January 7, 1994, p. 6. 19. Holmes, “Drawing Board.” 20. Walter B. Wriston, Twilight of Sovereignty (New York: Scribner’s, 1992), p. 12. 21. Friedman, “When Money Talks.” 22. It may be worthwhile citing in full Jeffrey Sachs’s prescription for economic reform in Poland (which appeared as the “Balcerowicz Plan” in honor of Leszek Balcerowicz, Poland’s Deputy Prime Minister for the economy in the government Sachs advised).

Andrews, the Clinton administration wants only to avoid doing anything “to spook investors with heavy-handed regulatory brow-beating,” hoping rather to reduce “the regulatory barriers that have prevented competition.” Edmund L. Andrews, “New Tack on Technology,” The New York Times, January 12, 1994, p. A 1. At the end of the 1994 congressional session, a Communications Bill that would have imposed some controls on the information superhighway expired quietly. 5. Rohatyn cited by Thomas L. Friedman, “When Money Talks, Governments Listen,” The New York Times, July 24, 1994, p. E 3. 6. Steiner writes that the new Eastern European democratic revolutions of recent years were not “inebriate with some abstract passion for freedom, for social justice.” Consumer culture, “video cassettes, porno cassettes, American-style cosmetics and fast foods, not editions of Mill, Tocqueville or Solzhenitsyn, were the prizes snatched from every West[ern] shelf by the liberated.”

with the clear response “radical democracy.” Michnik is “entirely” in agreement. But what this seems to mean is not that democracy survives, but that its idealistic possibilities (associated with socialism as a noble theory) have in practice vanished along with socialism. Michnik, “‘More Humility, Fewer Illusions’—A Talk Between Adam Michnik and Juergen Habermas,” The New York Review of Books, March 24, 1994, p. 24. 7. Thomas L. Friedman, “A Peace Deal Today Really Is a Bargain,” The New York Times, September 11, 1994, Section 4, p. 1. 8. Quoted by Vance Packard in his early classic on consumption, The Waste Makers (New York: David McKay, 1960), and cited again by Alan Durning in his excellent study for the Worldwatch Institute called How Much Is Enough: The Consumer Society and the Future of Earth (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1992), pp. 21–22. 9.


pages: 254 words: 68,133

The Age of Illusions: How America Squandered Its Cold War Victory by Andrew J. Bacevich

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, clean water, Columbian Exchange, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, gig economy, global village, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Occupy movement, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, price stability, Project for a New American Century, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, school choice, Silicon Valley, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, WikiLeaks

Binding this consensus together and lending it some appearance of plausibility was technopoly—a worship of technology, the deification of technique, and the conviction that problems in any sphere of human existence will ultimately yield to a technological solution.2 Superpower, Super-Stories “I am a big believer in the idea of the super-story, the notion that we all carry around with us a big lens, a big framework, through which we look at the world, order events, and decide what is important and what is not.” So wrote New York Times columnist Thomas L. Friedman in the prologue to a 2002 compendium of his columns.3 Friedman had made a career, and a good one at that, out of flogging one super-story after another. That he enjoyed success in doing so stemmed in part from his talents as a troubadour of power, but also from the fact that the years following the end of the Cold War were particularly accommodating to big lens/big framework theories purporting to divine the future.

“Today electronics and automation make mandatory,” he wrote, “that everybody adjust to the vast global environment as if it were his little home town.” Marshall McLuhan and Quentin Fiore, War and Peace in the Global Village (New York, 1968), 12. 6. William Graham Sumner, The Forgotten Man and Other Essays (New Haven, Connecticut, 1879 [rpt. 1919]), 215. 7. On the former, see Alfred W. Crosby Jr., The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (Westport, Connecticut, 1972). 8. Thomas L. Friedman, “A Manifesto for a Fast World,” New York Times Magazine (March 28, 1999). 9. Alan Tooze, “Beyond the Crash,” Guardian (July 29, 2018). 10. Benjamin R. Barber, “Jihad vs. McWorld,” Atlantic (March 1992). 11. Between 1988 and 2001, annual U.S. military spending in constant dollars decreased from $587 billion to $418 billion. https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/Milex-constant-2015-USD.pdf, accessed August 26, 2017. 12.

“Money Raised as of December 31,” Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/politics/2016-election/campaign-finance/, accessed September 11, 2018; Alan Yuhas, “Trump Campaign Doubles Spending but Staff Is a Tenth the Size of Clinton’s,” Guardian (August 21, 2016); John Hudson, “Inside Hillary Clinton’s Massive Foreign-Policy Brain Trust,” Foreign Policy (February 10, 2016); “Read Hillary Clinton’s ‘Basket of Deplorables’ Remarks About Donald Trump Supporters,” Time (September 10, 2016). 50. Tom Engelhardt, “Has the American Age of Decline Begun?,” TomDispatch (April 26, 2016). 8. ATTENDING TO RABBIT’S QUESTION 1. Thomas L. Friedman, “Homeless in America,” New York Times (November 8, 2016). 2. Maureen Dowd, “Absorbing the Impossible,” New York Times (November 9, 2016). 3. Gail Collins, “Ten-Step Program for Adjusting to President-Elect Trump,” New York Times (November 9, 2016). 4. Frank Bruni, “Trump’s Shocking Success,” New York Times (November 9, 2016). 5. Roger Cohen, “President Donald Trump,” New York Times (November 9, 2016). 6.


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Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business cycle, business process, call centre, centre right, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Irwin Jacobs: Qualcomm, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, Live Aid, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

World Trade Center World Trade Organization worldview; see also Machine, the World War I World War II World Wide Web; search engines and World Wildlife Fund “wound collectors” Wujec, Tom X (Google research lab) Xerox PARC research center Y2K Yahoo Yassin, Israa Yaun, David Years of Living Dangerously (TV show) Yelp Yemen Yeni Medya (New Media Inc.) Yeo, George Yildiz, Sadik YouTube; advertising/ISIS video controversy and Zambrano, Patricio Zedillo, Ernesto Zelle, Charlie Zika virus ALSO BY THOMAS L. FRIEDMAN From Beirut to Jerusalem (1989) The Lexus and the Olive Tree (1999) Longitudes and Attitudes (2002) The World Is Flat (2005) Hot, Flat, and Crowded (2008) That Used to Be Us (with Michael Mandelbaum, 2011) A Note About the Author Thomas L. Friedman is a three-time recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for his work with The New York Times and is the author of six bestselling books, including The World Is Flat. You can sign up for email updates here. Thank you for buying this Farrar, Straus and Giroux ebook.

Mother Nature PART III: INNOVATING 7. Just Too Damned Fast 8. Turning AI into IA 9. Control vs. Kaos 10. Mother Nature as Political Mentor 11. Is God in Cyberspace? 12. Always Looking for Minnesota 13. You Can Go Home Again (and You Should!) PART IV: ANCHORING 14. From Minnesota to the World and Back Acknowledgments Index Also by Thomas L. Friedman A Note About the Author Copyright Farrar, Straus and Giroux 18 West 18th Street, New York 10011 Copyright © 2016 by Thomas L. Friedman All rights reserved First edition, 2016 Grateful acknowledgement is made for permission to reprint the following material: Excerpts from “They’re in the Room Where It Happens” from The New York Times, December 29, 2015 © 2015 The New York Times. All rights reserved. Used by permission and protected by the copyright laws of the United States.

All I know is that since becoming a reporter in 1978, I have spent a lot of my career covering the difference between peoples, societies, leaders, and cultures focused on learning from “the other”—to catch up after falling behind—and those who feel humiliated by “the other,” by their contact with strangers, and lash out rather than engage in the hard work of adaptation. This theme has so permeated my reporting that I have been tempted at times to change my business card to read: “Thomas L. Friedman, New York Times Global Humiliation Correspondent.” There is a simple but well-known golf story that carries a deep truth about how cultural dispositions shape attitudes toward adaptation. In the September 2012 issue of Golf Digest, Mark Long and Nick Seitz wrote a story called “Caddie Chatter,” in which Long related the following story told by Tom Watson’s longtime caddie Bruce Edwards. Edwards had caddied for Watson for many years, then briefly for Greg Norman, and then went back to Watson.


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Plenitude: The New Economics of True Wealth by Juliet B. Schor

Asian financial crisis, big-box store, business climate, business cycle, carbon footprint, cleantech, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Gini coefficient, global village, IKEA effect, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, life extension, McMansion, new economy, peak oil, pink-collar, post-industrial society, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, smart grid, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, Zipcar

It’s a world of win-wins or even triple wins, with the environment and the corporation and the consumer (or worker) gaining. A classic example is creating an energy-efficient workplace that uses natural light and heat, which not only slashes energy costs and emissions, but also improves labor productivity, lowers manufacturing outlays, and makes employees happier. The initial investment more than pays for itself. Under these conditions, going green raises income and well-being. Some, such as the journalist Thomas L. Friedman, are looking to clean tech to invigorate the U.S. economy by propelling the next round of growth. There’s no debate about the need to produce differently. And nearly everyone agrees we need to price carbon. But will this be enough? Not surprisingly, most of the political action on climate has so far been directed at technology. It’s what the market does well, and it poses no political threat to business-as-usual.

We don’t know because the methodologies for the macro-level studies are not yet good enough to yield firm conclusions. The backfire case, of more than 100 percent rebound, is unlikely. But the effects are considerable. One study from the United Kingdom found a 26 percent rebound; other methods yield higher numbers. Some analysts believe energy is particularly potent in boosting profits and economic growth. This is precisely the argument that some of the most ardent green energy technologists such as Thomas L. Friedman are using to promote vigorous action to combat climate change. The U.S. experience over the last few decades is an object lesson in the perils of rebounds. Since 1975, the country has made substantial progress in improving energy efficiency. Energy expended per dollar of GDP has been cut in half. But rather than falling, energy demand has increased, by roughly 40 percent. Moreover, demand is rising fastest in those sectors that have had the biggest efficiency gains—transport and residential energy use.

Per capita incomes, corrected for purchasing power parity, are from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2008). 63 Privatization . . . threatens equitable solutions: Barlow (2002). 63 the number of people living in water-stressed areas may increase dramatically: Bates et al. (2008), figure 3.3 and p. 45. 63 The water footprint shows how much: Water footprints are from Hoekstra and Chapagain (2007). 64 2,000 liters of water to produce one T-shirt: Global averages for products and water footprint data are from Hoekstra and Chapagain (2007), table 2 (p. 41) and table 3 (p. 42) respectively. 65 Now we’ve got twin crises: Thomas L. Friedman connected the two crises in a New York Times column entitled “Mother Nature’s Dow,” on March 28, 2009. CHAPTER 3 68 most rejected the need for vigorous collective action on climate: Geoffrey Heal, another leading environmental economist, makes this point in his review of the economics of climate change. See Heal (2009). 69 an interdisciplinary group called the Society for Ecological Economics: It is now a worldwide group.


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Globish: How the English Language Became the World's Language by Robert McCrum

Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, invention of movable type, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, knowledge economy, Livingstone, I presume, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Norman Mailer, Parag Khanna, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile

See also Nury Vittachi, Mr Wong Goes West (Crows Nest, NSW, 2008). 7 ‘a kind of global-hegemonic post-clerical Latin’: Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities (London, 1983), p. 207. 8 Microsoft at their Bangalore headquarters: Evan Osnos, ‘Letter from China’, New Yorker, 28 April 2008. 8 ‘gives all its members a chance to speak’: Abley, The Prodigal Tongue, p. 2. 9 debates surrounding Magna Carta: I thank Philippe Sands for this important insight into the law lords’ deliberations. 10 Bollywood English: Dominic Rushe, Sunday Times Magazine, 15 June 2008. 11 ‘I was recently waiting’: Ben MacIntyre, The Last Word: Tales from the Tip of the Mother Tongue (London, 2009), p. 239. 12 ‘the worldwide dialect of the third millennium’: Robert McCrum, ‘The Globish Revolution’, Observer, Review, 3 December 2006. 12 the linguistic default position: see Thomas L. Friedman, The World is Flat: The Globalised World in the Twenty-First Century (London, 2005). 12 Alan Rusbridger recently codified: the full list is as follows: There is no such thing as Abroad. Most of our readers are ‘foreign’. They expect us to inform them about their own countries. Their decisions will affect us. No economy is an island. ‘They’ will want to come here. It matters in London what they teach in Lahore.

Chapter 13: ‘The World At Your Fingertips’ 226 ‘the process whereby American girls turn into American women’: Christopher Hampton, Savages (London, 1974), scene 16, p. 75. 226 In 1959 Alistair Cooke complained: Alistair Cooke, America Observed (New York, 1988), p. 120. 227 Many legislators were alarmed: Jean-Benoît Nadeau and Julie Barlow, The Story of French (Toronto, 2007), p. 409. 228 ‘Les angleglottes’, declared the petitioners: Tony Judt, Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 (London, 2007), p. 761. 228 ‘a miserable time in Brussels’: author interview with MEP Charles Tannock. 228 ‘British interpreters are now so rare in Brussels’: The Times, 15 February 2009. 229 a complex adolescent mixture: Judt, Postwar, p. 758. 230 farcical interludes, like the Parsley Crisis: Fareed Zakaria, The Post-American World (London, 2008), p. 215. 231 ‘Our souls and our blood are sacrifices’: ibid., p. 216. 232 The Berlin Wall began to crumble: Judt, Postwar, p. 614. 232 ‘If I celebrate the fall of the Wall’: quoted in Thomas L. Friedman, The World is Flat: The Globalized World in the Twenty-First Century (London, 2005), p. 53. 232 In the next two decades: Zakaria, The Post-American World, p. 20. 234 ‘the Internet boom triggered’: Michael Lewis, The New New Thing (New York,1999), p. 2 235 called it ‘an abstract’: quoted in Friedman, op. cit., p. 60 235 Two weeks after Netscape: see Michael Lewis, The New New Thing (New York, 1999). 235 the next Californian Gold Rush: see John Naughton, A Brief History of the Future: The Origins of the Internet (London, 1999). 235 ‘a whole new global platform for collaboration’: Friedman, The World is Flat, p. 91. 237 Anglophile Latin Americans: Allen Guttmann, Sports: The First Five Millennia (Amherst, Mass., 2004). 237 the Superbowl and the World Cup: Franklin Foer, How Soccer Explains the World (London, 2004). 237 The international dimension is comparatively new: David Goldblatt, The Ball is Round, (London, 2006), p. 681. 238 a dreadful anthem: David Goldblatt, The Ball is Round: A Global History of Football (London, 2006), p. 840. 239 ‘You like muffin?’

John Darwin, After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire since 1405 (London, 2007). Peter de Bolla, The Fourth of July and the Founding of America (London, 2007). J. L. Dillard, Black English (New York, 1973). J. H. Elliott, Empires of the Atlantic World (New Haven, 2006). Stuart Berg Flexner, I Hear America Talking (New York, 1976). Graham Fraser, Sorry, I Don’t Speak French: Confronting the Canadian Crisis that Won’t Go Away (Toronto, 2006). Thomas L. Friedman, The World is Flat: The Globalised World in the Twenty–First Century (London, 2005). Peter Fryer, Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain (London, 1984). Paul Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory (Oxford, 1975). John Lewis Gaddis, The Cold War (London, 2005). Rob Gifford, China Road (London, 2007). Peter Gilliver, Jeremy Marshall, Edmund Weiner, Tolkien and the Oxford English Dictionary (Oxford, 2006).


What We Say Goes: Conversations on U.S. Power in a Changing World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

banking crisis, British Empire, Doomsday Clock, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, informal economy, liberation theology, mass immigration, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus

See Noam Chomsky, “In Memory of Tanya Reinhart,” 18 March 2007, online at http://www.chomsky.info/articles/20070318.htm. 23 Uri Avnery, “What a Wonderful Israeli Plan,” Palestine Chronicle, 9 June 2006, online at http://www.palestinechronicle.com/story-06090613735.htm . 24 Siddharth Varadarajan, “A Defeat for Israel, but Also for Justice,” Hindu (India), 14 August 2006, online at http://www.thehindu.com/2006/08/14/stories/2006081404201100.htm. 25 Alan Dershowitz, “Lebanon Is Not a Victim,” Huffington Post, 7 August 2006, online at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/alandershowitz/lebanon-is-not-a-victim_b_26715.html. 26 See, for example, Eugene Robinson, “It’s Disproportionate … ,” Washington Post, 25 July 2006. 27 Kennan quoted in Walter LaFeber, Inevitable Revolutions: The United States in Central America, rev. ed. (New York: W. W. Norton, 1983), pp. 109, 112. 28 Borzou Daragahi, “Iraqis Find Rare Unity in Condemning Israel,” Los Angeles Times, 24 July 2006. 29 Edward Wong and Michael Slackman, “Iraqi Denounces Israel’s Actions,” New York Times, 20 July 2006. 30 Edward Epstein, “Iraqi Leader Addresses Congress, His Country,” San Francisco Chronicle, 27 July 2006. 31 See, for example, Thomas L. Friedman, “Time for Plan B,” New York Times, 4 August 2006. 32 David E. Sanger, “An Old Presidential Predicament: China Proves Tough to Influence,” New York Times, 21 April 2006; Joseph Kahn, “In Hu’s Visit to the U.S., Small Gaffes May Overshadow Small Gains,” New York Times, 22 April 2006. 33 Agence France-Presse, “Hu Ends US Tour Marked by Lack of Accords and Embarrassment,” 22 April 2006. 34 William Kristol, “It’s Our War: Bush Should Go to Jerusalem—and the U.S.

9 Ewen MacAskill, “US Seen as a Bigger Threat to Peace than Iran, Worldwide Poll Suggests,” Guardian (London), 15 June 2006. 10 Andy Webb-Vidal, “Jubilation in the Barrios as Chavez Returns in Triumph,” Financial Times (London), 15 April 2002. 11 Guy Dinmore and Isabel Gorst, “Bush to Seal Strategic Link with Kazakh Leader,” Financial Times (London), 29 September 2006. 12 For more discussion, see Chomsky, Failed States, p. 137. See polling by Latinobarómetro, December 2006. Danna Harman, “A Castro Ally with Oil Cash Vexes the US,” Christian Science Monitor, 20 May 2005. 13 Richard Lapper and Hal Weitzman, “Chavez Casts a Long Anti-American Shadow Over Regional Capitals,” Financial Times (London), 3 May 2006. 14 Ibid. 15 Thomas L. Friedman, “Fill ’Er Up with Dictators,” New York Times, 27 September 2006. 16 Adam Thomson, “US Warns Nicaraguans Not to Back Sandinista,” Financial Times (London), 15 September 2006. 17 For details, see The State of Working America, issued biannually by the Economic Policy Institute and published by Cornell University Press. 18 Randeep Ramesh, “A Tale of Two Indias,” Guardian (London). 19 P.


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The Sovereign Individual: How to Survive and Thrive During the Collapse of the Welfare State by James Dale Davidson, Rees Mogg

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, compound rate of return, creative destruction, Danny Hillis, debt deflation, ending welfare as we know it, epigenetics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, Kevin Kelly, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Macrae, offshore financial centre, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, phenotype, price mechanism, profit maximization, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Sam Peltzman, school vouchers, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, spice trade, statistical model, telepresence, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Turing machine, union organizing, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto

Lane's formulation of an old dilemma. 79 As the price paid for protection becomes subject "to the principle of substitution," this will lay bare the arithmetic of compulsion, intensifying conflict between the new cosmopolitan elite of the Information Age and "the information poor," the remainder of the population who are largely monoglot and do not excel in problem-solving or possess some globally marketable skill. These "losers" or "left-behinds," as Thomas L. Friedman describes them, will no doubt continue to identify their well-being with the political life of existing nation-states. 80 MOST POLITICAL AGENDAS WILL BE REACTIONARY Most of those who harbor an ardent political agenda, whether nationalist, environmentalist, or socialist, will rally to defend the wobbling nation-state as the twentyfirst century opens. Over time, it will become ever more obvious that survival of the nation-state and the nationalist sensibility are preconditions for preserving a realm for political compulsion.

A 10 percent, let alone a tenfold, bottom-line difference will frequently motivate profitmaximizing individuals to alter their lifestyles and production techniques, as well as their place of abode. The history of Western civilization is a record of restless change in which people and prosperity have repeatedly migrated to new areas of opportunity under the spur of meandering megapolitical conditions. A thousandfold difference in bottomline returns would match the most potent stimulus that has ever put rational people in motion. Or put another way, most people, particularly those Thomas L. Friedman calls the "losers and left-behinds," if given a chance, would gladly leave any nation-state for $50 million, not to mention the still greater costs that nation-states impose in tax extracted from the top 1 percent of taxpayers. The rise of Sovereign Individuals shopping for jurisdictions is therefore one of the surest forecasts one can make. THE COMMERCIALIZATION OF SOVEREIGNTY Seen in cost-benefit terms, citizenship was already a dreadful bargain as the twentieth century drew to a close.

That is Pat Buchanan in America, the Communists in Russia and now the Islamic Welfare Party here in Turkey. So what is happening in Turkey is much more complicated than just a fundamentalist takeover. It is what happens when widening globalization spins off more and more losers, when widening democratization gives them all a vote, while religious parties effectively exploit this coincidence to take power"87 THOMAS L. FRIEDMAN Who will the losers be in the Information Age? In general terms, the tax consumers will be losers. It is usually they who could not increase their wealth by moving to another jurisdiction. Much of their income is lodged in the rules of a national political jurisdiction rather than conveyed by market valuations. Therefore, eliminating or sharply reducing the taxes that are negatively compounding against their net worths may not appear to make them much better off-the price of lower taxation is a diminished stream of transfer payments.


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From Beirut to Jerusalem by Thomas L. Friedman

Ayatollah Khomeini, back-to-the-land, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, post-work, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Thomas L Friedman, Unsafe at Any Speed

Marine Corps Oral History Collection. Interview conducted November 2, 1983. The Torah commands that a sabbatical year be observed every seven years in Israel, during which time all agriculture should be suspended and the land be allowed to lie fallow. Haggai Segal, Dear Brothers: The West Bank Jewish Underground (Beit-Shamai Publications, Inc., 1988). Copyright © 1989 by Thomas L. Friedman Epilogue copyright © 1990 by Thomas L. Friedman ALL RIGHTS RESERVED FIRST ANCHOR BOOKS EDITION: AUGUST 1990 AN ANCHOR BOOK PUBLISHED BY DOUBLEDAY a division of Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc. 666 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10103 ANCHOR BOOKS, DOUBLEDAY, and the portrayal of an anchor are trademarks of Doubleday, a division of Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc. From Beirut to Jerusalem was originally published in hardcover by Farrar, Straus & Giroux in 1989.

It would never have been written, though, without the encouragement and loving support of my wife, Ann, who accompanied me from the beginning of this journey to its end. Lord knows, what she put up with could also fill a book. Without her friendship and strength (and editing) I never would have made it. My daughters, Orly and Natalie, had to get by with an absent father for too long as this book was in progress. I only hope when they grow old enough to read it, they will appreciate why. Thomas L. Friedman Washington, D. C. March 1989 Index The index that appeared in the print version of this title does not match the pages of your eBook. Please use the search function on your eReading device to search for terms of interest. For your reference, the terms that appear in the print index are listed below. Abbas, Muhammad Abbas, Nadim Abd al-Jalil, Ghanim Abdullah (student) Abdullah ibn Hussein Abraham Abrams, Cal Abu Dhabi Abu Fadi Abu Hajem Abu Iyad Abu Jihad Abu-Jumaa, Majdi Abu-Jumaa, Subhi Abu Laila Abu Musa Abu Nader, Fuad Abu Nidal Abu Salman, Hana Abu Sharif, Bassam Abu Sisi, Hatem Achille Lauro Aden A.D.T.

Strosman, Uri Summerland Hotel Sunday Times (London) Suro, Roberto Surviving the Siege of Beirut (Mikdadi) Switzerland Syria Today (Hureau) Tabbara, Nabil Tadmur Prison Taibe Tannir, Hassan Tannous, Ibrahim Taqtouq, Awad Tawil, Amal Tehiya Party Tel Aviv Tel Aviv University Tehran Temko, Ned This Way for the Gas, Ladies and Gentlemen (Borowski) Tikrit Tikriti, Saddam Hussein al- Time Times Herald (Dallas) Tira Treblinka death camp Tripoli Trudeau, Garry Tsabag, Gabrielle Rabin Tsimhe, Shimon Tueni, Ghassan Tufayli, Subhi al- Tulkarm Twain, Mark 20 Years of Civil Administration Two Fingers from Sidon Tyre United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees (UNRWA) UPI Television News Valéry, Paul van Buren, Paul Van Huss, Ernest Vanity Fair Virginia Vogue Voice of America Voice of Israel Voice of Peace Wadi Ara Wahidi, Zuhni Yusef al- Waite, Terry Waiting for Godot (Beckett) Waldman, Eliezer Wall, Harry Walters, Barbara Washington Post, The Washington Star, The Wayne, John Wazir, Khalil al- (Abu Jihad) Wazzan, Shafik al- Wehr, Hans Weiman-Kelman, Levi Weinberg, Rose Weinberger, Caspar Weizman, Ezer Weizmann, Chaim West Bank West Bank Data Base Project Whitney, Craig Wittgenstein, Ludwig Wright, Robin Yaacoby, Itzik Ya’acov Gilad Ya’ari, Ehud Yacoub, Nabil Yacoub, Vicky Yad Vashem Yaron, Amos Yarze Yediot Achronot Yehoshua, A. B. Yisrael, Lieutenant Colonel Yom Hazikaron Yosef, Ovadia Yunis (bartender) Zamir, David Zamir, Yitzhak Zaroubi, Elizabeth Zenian, David Zucchino, Adrien Zucchino, David About the Author Thomas L. Friedman was born in Minneapolis in 1953. He graduated from Brandeis University to study on a Marshall Scholarship at St. Antony’s College, Oxford, earning his M.Phil. in Modern Middle East Studies in 1978. From 1979 until 1981, Friedman was United Press International’s Beirut correspondent. In 1982, he became the New York Times Beirut bureau chief, winning a Pulitzer Prize in 1983 for his coverage of the Israeli invasion of Lebanon.


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World Without Mind: The Existential Threat of Big Tech by Franklin Foer

artificial general intelligence, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, Colonization of Mars, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, global village, Google Glasses, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, income inequality, intangible asset, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, PageRank, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, supply-chain management, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, yellow journalism

“Katie Graham’s gonna get her tit caught in a big fat wringer”: Katharine Graham, Personal History (Alfred A. Knopf, 1997), 465. “hated for the Post or its writers to look as though they were”: David Halberstam, The Powers That Be (Knopf, 1975), 188. “Even well-meaning gatekeepers slow innovation”: Jeff Bezos, Letter to Amazon shareholders, 2011. “I see the elimination of gatekeepers everywhere”: Thomas L. Friedman, “Do You Want the Good News First?,” New York Times, May 19, 2012. “The most radical and transformative of inventions are often those that empower”: Bezos, Letter, 2011. “Take a look at the Kindle bestseller list, and compare it”: Bezos, Letter to shareholders, 2011. “Our touchstone will be readers”: Jeff Bezos, “Jeff Bezos on Post Purchase,” Washington Post, August 5, 2013. Amazon, on the other hand, considers the profession to be filled with “antediluvian losers”: George Packer, “Cheap Words,” New Yorker, February 17, 2014.

“If communism vs. capitalism was the struggle of the twentieth century”: Taylor, 23. some of the organizations that Lessig created to advance his arguments received checks from Google: Robert Levine, Free Ride (Doubleday, 2011), 84. “Amateurs are sometimes separated from professionals by skill”: Clay Shirky, Cognitive Surplus (Penguin, 2010), 82. “No one can succeed by themselves. . . . The only way you can achieve something”: Thomas L. Friedman, “Collaborate vs. Collaborate,” New York Times, January 12, 2013. “God alone creates”: Thomas Aquinas, Basic Writings of St. Thomas Aquinas, vol. 1, ed. Anton C. Pegis (Random House, 1945), 312. Once a writer sold a manuscript, he surrendered control over it: Mark Rose, Authors and Owners (Harvard University Press, 1993), 18. “I am ‘sort of’ haunted by the conviction”: Percy Lubbock, ed., The Letters of Henry James: Volume 1 (Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1920), 424.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

op=1. 9 Anisse Gross, “A New Private Club in San Francisco, and an Old Diversity Challenge,” New Yorker, October 9, 2013. 10 Timothy Egan, “Dystopia by the Bay,” New York Times, December 5, 2013. 11 David Runciman, “Politics or Technology—Which Will Save the World?,” Guardian, May 23, 2014. 12 John Lanchester, “The Snowden Files: Why the British Public Should Be Worried About GCHQ,” Guardian, October 3, 2013. 13 Thomas L. Friedman, “A Theory of Everything (Sort Of),” New York Times, August 13, 2011. 14 Saul Klein, “Memo to boards: the internet is staying,” Financial Times, August 5, 2014. 15 Mark Lilla, “The Truth About Our Libertarian Age,” New Republic, June 17, 2014. 16 Craig Smith, “By the Numbers: 30 Amazing Reddit Statistics,” expandedramblings.com, February 26, 2014. 17 Alexis Ohanian, Without Their Permission: How the 21st Century Will Be Made, Not Managed (New York: Grand Central, 2013). 18 Alexis C.

,” Verge, July 7, 2014. 110 Sarah Eckel, “You Want Me to Give You Money for What?,” BBC Capital, May 1, 2014. 111 Ryan Lawler, “Airbnb Tops 10 Million Guest Stays Since Launch, Now Has 550,000 Properties Listed Worldwide,” TechCrunch, December 19, 2013. 112 Sydney Ember, “Airbnb’s Huge Valuation,” New York Times, April 21, 2014. See also Carolyn Said, “Airbnb’s Swank Digs Reflect Growth, but Controversy Grows,” SFGate, January 27, 2014. 113 Thomas L. Friedman, “And Now for a Bit of Good News . . .” New York Times, July 19, 2014. 114 Will Oremus, “Silicon Valley Uber Alles,” Slate, June 6, 2014. 115 See Dan Amira, “Uber Will Ferry Hampton-Goers Via Helicopter This July 3rd,” New York, July 2013, nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2013/07/uber-helicopter-uberchopper-hamptons-july-3rd.html. 116 Jessica Guynn, “San Francisco Split by Silicon Valley’s Wealth,” Los Angeles Times, August 14, 2013. 117 Paul Sloan, “Marc Andreessen: Predictions for 2012 (and Beyond),” CNET, December 19, 2011, news.cnet.com/8301-1023_3-57345138-93/marc-andreessen-predictions-for-2012-and-beyond. 118 Mark Scott, “Traffic Snarls in Europe as Taxi Drivers Protest Against Uber,” New York Times, June 11, 2014. 119 Kevin Roose, “Uber Might Be More Valuable than Facebook Someday.


Propaganda and the Public Mind by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, deindustrialization, European colonialism, experimental subject, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, interchangeable parts, liberation theology, Martin Wolf, one-state solution, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, Thomas L Friedman, Tobin tax, Washington Consensus

See Noam Chomsky, “US Iraq Policy: Motives and Consequences,” in Iraq Under Siege: The Deadly Impact of Sanctions and War, ed. Anthony Arnove (Cambridge: South End Press; London: Pluto Press, 2000), pp. 47-56. 2. David Prost, interview with General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, “Sizing Up Iraq,” USA Today, March 27, 1991, p. 11A. See also Russell Watson et al., “The Gulf: After the War,” Newsweek, April 8, 1991, pp. 18ff. 3. Thomas L. Friedman, “A Rising Sense That Iraq’s Hussein Must Go,” New York Times, July 7, 1991, p. 4:1. 4. Associated Press, “US General Criticizes Policy on Destabilizing Hussein,” Boston Globe, January 29, 1999, p. A17, and Philip Shenon, “U.S. General Warns of Dangers of Trying to Topple Iraqi,” New York Times, January 29, 1999, p. A3. 5. Noam Chomsky, Pirates and Emperors: International Terrorism in the Real World, expanded edition (Montreal: Black Rose Books, 1991) pp. 113-49. 6.

Andrew Simms, “Unctad Offers Way Forward for Talks on World Trade,” Guardian Weekly (Manchester), February 23, 2000, p. 12. 2. Susan Strange, Mad Money: When Markets Outgrow Governments (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998), p. 127. 3. See the articles on-line at http:/ /www.twnside.org.sg/unctad.htm and http://www.twnside.org.sg/title/ focusIS.htm. 4. Martin Wolf, “The Curse of Global Inequality,” Financial Times, January 26, 2000, p. 23. 5. Thomas L. Friedman, “Senseless in Seattle,” New York Times, December 1, 1999, p. A23. 6. Doug Henwood, “Miscellany,” Left Business Observer 91 (August 31, 1999), p. 8. See also http:/ /www.panix.com /-dhenwood /Gini_supplement.html and http://www.panix.com/-dhenwood/Wealth_distrib.html. 7. Patricia Adams, Odious Debts: Loose Lending. Corruptions, and the Third World’s Environmental Legacy (Toronto: Earthscan, 1991).


pages: 302 words: 84,881

The Digital Party: Political Organisation and Online Democracy by Paolo Gerbaudo

Airbnb, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, call centre, centre right, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, gig economy, industrial robot, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shock, post-industrial society, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, software studies, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas L Friedman, universal basic income, Vilfredo Pareto, WikiLeaks

According to Mair and his colleague Richard Katz, political parties were prey to a ‘de-alignment’, whereby ‘long-term societal changes have at least partially undermined the political and cognitive basis of party identification in advanced industrial democracies’.19 To this sociology of extreme complexity, fragmentation and class dis-identification added the perception that in a globalised world the party would lose power for a rather obvious reason: because the nation-state, its traditional target of conquest and space of operation, was losing power in favour of global and unelected governance institutions. On the left, autonomist Marxist philosophers Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt described (and welcomed) the shift from nation-states to a global empire,20 while on the neoliberal front New York Times columnist Thomas L. Friedman waxed lyrical about the inevitable victory of globalisation over nations.21 With the nation-state losing power, the political party seemed to be condemned to growing irrelevance. This condition seemed to favour other types of collective organisations operating transnationally and focusing on single issues, such as social movements and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). As argued by Katz and Mair, ‘the fragmentation of policy interests and interest articulation may make it more difficult for parties to represent a theoretical median voter’, and ‘the proliferation of citizen interest groups and other political intermediaries has provided alternatives to the traditional representational role of parties’.22 In question was thus the very primacy of the party as the dominant type of political organisation, something that was explicitly proposed in the late 1990s by veteran political scientist Philippe C.

Mair, Ruling the void, pp.3–8. 18. Manuel Castells, The rise of the network society, Vol. 12 (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2011). 19. Richard S. Katz and Peter Mair, ‘Changing models of party organization and party democracy: the emergence of the cartel party’, Party Politics 1, no.1 (1995): 5–28, p.23. 20. Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001). 21. Thomas L. Friedman, The world is flat: a brief history of the twenty-first century (New York: Macmillan, 2005). 22. Richard S. Katz and Peter Mair, eds, How parties organize: change and adaptation in party organizations in Western democracies (London; Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994), p.3. 23. P.C. Schmitter, ‘Intermediaries in the consolidation of neo-democracies: the role of parties, associations and movements.’


America Right or Wrong: An Anatomy of American Nationalism by Anatol Lieven

American ideology, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, income inequality, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, moral panic, new economy, Norman Mailer, oil shock, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, World Values Survey, Y2K

See Max Boot, "George W Bush: The 'W' Stands for Woodrow," Wall Street Journal, July 1, 2002; David Ignatius, "Wilsonian Course for War," Washington Post, August 30,2002; William Safire, "Post-Oslo Mideast,"'New York Times, June 27,2002; "Bush the Crusader," Christian Science Monitor editorial, August 30, 2002; for postwar justifications along these lines, see George Melloan, "Protecting Human Rights Is a Valid 236 N O T E S TO P A G E S 72-77 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. Foreign Policy Goal," Wall Street Journal, June 10,2003; Jim Hoagland, "Clarity: The Best Weapon," Washington Post, June 1, 2003; Thomas L. Friedman, "Because We Could," Washington Post, June 4, 2003. Truman quoted in Hunt, Ideology and American Foreign Policy, pp. 157,163. See Bernard Fall, The Two Vietnams (New York: Praeger, 1964). Fulbright, The Arrogance of Power, pp. 81,111-119, 154. For a fuller exposition of the lessons of the Cold War for contemporary policy, see Anatol Lieven, Fighting Terrorism: Lessons from the Cold War, Policy Brief no. 7, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, October 2001.

Senator Trent Lott, "New World, New Friends," official press statement, March 21, 2003, at lott.senate.gov; Helle Dale, "The World according to Chirac," Washington Times, June 4, 2003; "Thanks, but No Thanks, France," Washington Times editorial, March 19, 2003; Paul Johnson, "Au Revoir, Petite France," Wall Street Journal, March 18,2003; Holman Jenkins, "A War for France's Oil," Wall Street Journal, March 19, 2003. 83. Cf. the extraordinarily bitter and mendacious attack on France by Frum and Perle in An End to Evil, pp. 238-253; and "David Frum's Diary," National Review Online, February 19 and March 11, 2003. For French reporting of these charges, see for example Denis Lacorne, "Les dessous de lafrancophobie" Le Nouvel Observateur (Paris), February 27- March 5, 2003. 84. Thomas L. Friedman, "Our War with France," New York Times, September 18, 2003; Justin Vaisse, "Bringing Out the Animal in Us," Financial Times, March 15,2003. For a rare acknowledgment of the rationality of French objections to the Iraq War and their roots in the disastrous French experience in Algeria, see Paul Starobin, "The French Were Right," National Journal, November 7, 2003. 85. Stanley Hoffmann, "France, the United States and Iraq," The Nation, February 16, 2004. 86.

Croly, Promise of American Life, p. 75; for a kind of distillation of the Israeli lobby's presentation of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict—with no mention either of the expulsions of 1948 or of any Israeli atrocity—see Phyllis Chesler, "A Brief History of Arab Attacks Against Israel, 1908-1970s," in her New Anti-Semitism, pp. 44-52. Cf. Michael Lind, "The Israel Lobby," Prospect magazine (London), April 2002. Arnaud de Bochgrave, "Democracy in the Middle East," Washington Times, March 5, 2004. Cf. Thomas L. Friedman, "An Intriguing Signal from the Saudi Crown Prince," New York Times, February 17, 2002; editorial, "A Peace Impulse Worth Pursuing," New York Times, February 21,2002; editorial, "Support for the Saudi Initiative," New York Times, February 28, 2002. Cf. "Israel and the Occupied Territories: Country Report on Human Rights Practices— 2003," released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S.


pages: 495 words: 154,046

The Rights of the People by David K. Shipler

affirmative action, airport security, computer age, facts on the ground, fudge factor, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, mandatory minimum, Mikhail Gorbachev, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, RFID, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, working poor, zero-sum game

We have grown so numb to the indignities of airport searches that we shamelessly whip off our belts and jackets and shoes, allow strangers to pat our bodies and paw through our toiletries, flash picture IDs at the least provocation, and even parade through a growing number of scanners that render us naked on-screen. Protests by angry travelers have fizzled; helplessness prevails. “I’m thinking of starting my own airline, which would be called: Naked Air,” the columnist Thomas L. Friedman wrote in December 2001. “Its motto would be: ‘Everybody flies naked and nobody worries.’ Or ‘Naked Air—where the only thing you wear is a seat belt.’ ”3 As a real-life alternative, more than 260,000 travelers eagerly acquiesced to government background checks, fingerprinting, and iris scans (and paid about $200 a year) just to get into express lanes and save a few minutes at airport security with the Clear card from Verified Identity Pass—before the company suddenly went out of business.4 Where the Fourth Amendment still applies—as in personal searches—authorities extract preemptive consent in exchange for entry, not only at airports and courthouses but even on Maine State ferries, which have been adorned with signs reading, “Boarding This Vessel Is Deemed Valid Consent to Screening or Inspection” and “All Persons and Vehicles Aboard This Vessel Are Subject to Electronic Monitoring/Surveillance.”

While we stay alert by imagining the worst scenarios of terrorism, we might also imagine the sacrifice of our liberties on the altar of security. We face both threats—the risk of being attacked and “the risk of being less free,” in Hamilton’s words. The first step toward preventing either tragedy is vigilance. EPILOGUE The High Court of History We are the people of July 4th—not September 11th. —Thomas L. Friedman IN SEARCH OF a shocking metaphor, critics of American policies after 9/11 reached for a Soviet analogy. Harold Pinter, the Nobel Prize—winning playwright, lamented the millions of Americans “imprisoned in the vast gulag of prisons which extends across the U.S.” The University of California Press in 2004 published American Gulag, a book on immigration prisons by Mark Dow. Amnesty International disregarded the cautionary advice of a former Soviet political prisoner, Pavel Litvinov, and in June 2005 called the American prison at Guantánamo Bay “the gulag of our times.”

Obama, 07-0109 (N.D. Cal. March 31, 2010). 95. George W. Bush, speech at the Alfalfa Club, Jan. 2006, quoted by Michael Gawenda, The Age, Jan. 31, 2006. CHAPTER 7: THE RIGHT TO BE LET ALONE 1. Olmstead v. United States, 277 U.S. 438 (1928). 2. Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967). From Harlan’s concurring opinion. Stewart framed the concept more generally in his majority opinion. 3. Thomas L. Friedman, “Naked Air,” New York Times, Dec. 26, 2001, p. A29. 4. Jonathan Starkey, “Quick Airport Screening Service Shuts Down,” Washington Post, June 24, 2009. Several other companies made bids to buy the customer lists and revive the program. 5. Katie Hafner, “Internet Users Thinking Twice Before a Search,” New York Times, Jan. 25, 2006, p. A1. 6. City of Ontario v. Quon, 08-1332 (2010). 7. Griswold v.


pages: 347 words: 86,274

The Power of Glamour: Longing and the Art of Visual Persuasion by Virginia Postrel

Charles Lindbergh, cloud computing, factory automation, Frank Gehry, indoor plumbing, job automation, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, New Urbanism, placebo effect, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, urban renewal, washing machines reduced drudgery, young professional

When the hotel opened in 2010, the site headline read, “Glamous Reborn on the Bund,” a significant failure of grace. 9. Daniel Brook, “Head of the Dragon: The Rise of the New Shanghai,” Design Observer, February 18, 2013, http://places.designobserver.com/feature/the-rise-of-new-shanghai/37674/. 10. China boosters often cite the skyline, “supersize buildings sprouting in Shanghai,” as evidence of its prosperity and success. Thomas L. Friedman, “China: Scapegoat or Sputnik,” New York Times, November 10, 2006, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/10/opinion/10friedman.html. (See also Thomas L. Friedman, “A Biblical Seven Years,” New York Times, August 27, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/27/opinion/27friedman.html.) But as Daniel Brook and many others have noted, the glamorous Pudong skyline is not what it seems. Writes journalist Richard McGregor, the former China bureau chief for the Financial Times, “The image this view conveyed—that Shanghai had returned to its entrepreneurial heyday—was far from reality.


We Need New Stories: Challenging the Toxic Myths Behind Our Age of Discontent by Nesrine Malik

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, continuation of politics by other means, currency peg, Donald Trump, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, invisible hand, mass immigration, moral panic, Nate Silver, obamacare, old-boy network, payday loans, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas L Friedman, transatlantic slave trade

page=with%3Aimg-5\ [accessed on 25 July 2019] 207 ‘found a number of instances of coverage’: ‘From The Editors: The Times and Iraq’ (New York Times, 26 May 2004), https://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/26/world/from-the-editors-the-times-and-iraq.html [accessed on 25 July 2019] 208 ‘did not pay enough attention to voices’: Gary Younge, ‘Washington Post apologises for underplaying WMD scepticism’ (Guardian, 13 August 2004), https://www.theguardian.com/world/2004/aug/13/pressandpublishing.usa [accessed on 25 July 2019] 208 ‘We feel regret, but no shame’: The Editors, ‘Were We Wrong?’ (The New Republic, 28 June 2004), https://newrepublic.com/article/67651/were-we-wrong [accessed on 25 July 2019] 208 ‘It is now obvious’: Thomas Friedman, ‘Time for Plan B’ (New York Times, 4 August 2006), https://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/04/opinion/04friedman.html [accessed on 25 July 2019] 208 ‘Off the Island’: Thomas L. Friedman, ‘Vote France Off the Island’ (New York Times, 9 February 2003), https://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/09/opinion/vote-france-off-the-island.html [accessed on 25 July 2019] 208 ‘I was Wrong on Iraq’: Fareed Zakaria, ‘Iraq war was a terrible mistake’ (CNN, 26 October 2015), https://edition.cnn.com/2015/10/26/opinions/zakaria-iraq-war-lessons/index.html [accessed on 25 July 2019] 209 ‘Ten years after the war began’: David Aaronovitch, ‘Now we know why it was right to invade Iraq’ (The Times, 21 February 2013), https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/now-we-know-why-it-was-right-to-invade-iraq-b9tsvq7l2xz [accessed on 25 July 2019] 209 ‘ten years on, the case for invading Iraq is still valid’: Nick Cohen, ‘Ten years on, the case for invading Iraq is still valid’ (Observer, 3 March 2013), https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/mar/03/10-years-right-invaded-iraq [accessed on 25 July 2019] 209 ‘“Arab Spring” from “the top down”’: Thomas L.

Friedman, ‘Vote France Off the Island’ (New York Times, 9 February 2003), https://www.nytimes.com/2003/02/09/opinion/vote-france-off-the-island.html [accessed on 25 July 2019] 208 ‘I was Wrong on Iraq’: Fareed Zakaria, ‘Iraq war was a terrible mistake’ (CNN, 26 October 2015), https://edition.cnn.com/2015/10/26/opinions/zakaria-iraq-war-lessons/index.html [accessed on 25 July 2019] 209 ‘Ten years after the war began’: David Aaronovitch, ‘Now we know why it was right to invade Iraq’ (The Times, 21 February 2013), https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/now-we-know-why-it-was-right-to-invade-iraq-b9tsvq7l2xz [accessed on 25 July 2019] 209 ‘ten years on, the case for invading Iraq is still valid’: Nick Cohen, ‘Ten years on, the case for invading Iraq is still valid’ (Observer, 3 March 2013), https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/mar/03/10-years-right-invaded-iraq [accessed on 25 July 2019] 209 ‘“Arab Spring” from “the top down”’: Thomas L. Friedman, ‘Saudi Arabia’s Arab Spring, at Last’ (New York Times, 23 November 2017), https://www.nytimes.com/2017/11/23/opinion/saudi-prince-mbs-arab-spring.html [accessed on 25 July 2019] 211 ‘The political class imparted as much to the media class’: Gary Younge, ‘We were told Corbyn was “unelectable”. Then came the surge’ (Guardian, 6 June 2017), https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/jun/06/jeremy-corbyn-unelectable-political-climate [accessed on 25 July 2019] 211 ‘… one of the most exclusive middle-class professions’: Patrick Wintour, ‘Student fees for those who live at home should be axed – report’ (Guardian, 19 July 2009), https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2009/jul/19/fees-home-students-axed [accessed on 25 July 2019] 211 ‘2016 research by the American Society of News Editors’: ASNE, ‘Table 0 – Employees By Minority Group’, https://www.asne.org/content.asp?


pages: 296 words: 98,018

Winners Take All: The Elite Charade of Changing the World by Anand Giridharadas

"side hustle", activist lawyer, affirmative action, Airbnb, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, David Heinemeier Hansson, deindustrialization, disintermediation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, friendly fire, global pandemic, high net worth, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Hyperloop, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit maximization, risk tolerance, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Upton Sinclair, Vilfredo Pareto, working poor, zero-sum game

Thought leaders tend, Drezner says, to “know one big thing and believe that their important idea will change the world”; they are not skeptics but “true believers”; they are optimists, telling uplifting stories; they reason inductively from their own experiences more than deductively from authority. They go easy on the powerful. Susan Sontag, William F. Buckley Jr., and Gore Vidal were public intellectuals; Thomas L. Friedman, Niall Ferguson, and Parag Khanna are thought leaders. Public intellectuals argue with each other in the pages of books and magazines; thought leaders give TED talks that leave little space for criticism or rebuttal, and emphasize hopeful solutions over systemic change. Public intellectuals pose a genuine threat to winners; thought leaders promote the winners’ values, talking up “disruption, self-empowerment, and entrepreneurial ability.”

Each gig is certainly its own, but many of them grow out of a commercial world that does harbor a consistent set of values and preferences for the depoliticized, the actionable, the perpetrator-free. It is not easy to build a career catering to these institutions while being as sure as Gladwell is that the cumulative effect of this catering, and of wanting to succeed rather than fail, does not affect you. “It’s got to be about what I write. Don’t criticize me for who I talk to,” the New York Times columnist Thomas L. Friedman once said, similarly insisting on his incorruptibility. Yet even if one were to take Friedman and Gladwell at their word about the effect of money on them as individuals, it is hard to accept the conclusion that the plutocratic funding of ideas has no effect on the marketplace of ideas as a whole. The money can liberate the top thought leaders from the institutions and colleagues that might otherwise provide some kind of intellectual check on them, while sometimes turning their ideas into advertisements rather than self-contained work.


pages: 356 words: 103,944

The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy by Dani Rodrik

affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, George Akerlof, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, night-watchman state, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, savings glut, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, tulip mania, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey

See Andrew K. Rose, “Why Has Trade Grown Faster Than Income?” Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, International Finance Discussion Papers no. 390, November 1990. 7 Ruggie, “International Regimes,” p. 393. 8 Peter A. Hall and David W. Soskice, eds., Varieties of Capitalism: The Institutional Foundations of Capitalism (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001). 9 Thomas L. Friedman’s The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1999), captures the ethos of this era extremely well. 10 Susan Esserman and Robert Howse, “The WTO on Trial,” Foreign Affairs, vol. 82, no. 1 (January–February 2003), pp. 130–31. 11 The story of the U.S.-Europe dispute over trade in hormone-treated beef is told in Charan Devereux, Robert Z. Lawrence, and Michael D.

With enough fiscal austerity, price deflation, and belt-tightening, the Argentine economy would have been able to service external debts and maintain financial market confidence. The question is whether this is a sensible way to run an economy. Is it reasonable, or even desirable, to expect that the political system will deliver these drastic measures when needed (that is, when times are already tough) just to satisfy foreign creditors? 4 Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York: Anchor Books, 2000), pp. 104–06. 5 In a famous decision issued in 1905 (Lochner v. New York), the U.S. Supreme Court struck down a New York State law restricting the maximum hours of work for bakery employees. The New York statute was “an illegal interference,” the justices wrote, “with the right of individuals, both employers and employees, to make contracts regarding labor upon such terms as they may think best.”


pages: 387 words: 110,820

Cheap: The High Cost of Discount Culture by Ellen Ruppel Shell

barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, business cycle, cognitive dissonance, computer age, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, deskilling, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, fear of failure, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global village, Howard Zinn, income inequality, interchangeable parts, inventory management, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge economy, loss aversion, market design, means of production, mental accounting, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Pearl River Delta, Ponzi scheme, price anchoring, price discrimination, race to the bottom, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, traveling salesman, ultimatum game, Victor Gruen, washing machines reduced drudgery, working poor, yield management, zero-sum game

It is estimated that only 15 percent of the world’s PhD’s in 2010 will be conferred on Americans, down from 50 percent in 1975. Nearly one-third of those in graduate programs in science and engineering in the United States are foreign students, many of whom return to their home countries, set up businesses, and surpass their American rivals. Other foreign-born graduates stay here, competing for jobs. This, in turn, has made science and engineering less attractive to American students. New York Times columnist Thomas L. Friedman wrote in his best-selling The World Is Flat, “The Indians and Chinese are not racing us to the bottom. They are racing us to the top—and that is a good thing.” Well, yes and no. It is a very good thing that globalization has to some degree redistributed the spoils of innovation and that India and China are supporting educational and technological advance and building human capital. It is a very good thing that millions of people in the developing world are being lifted out of poverty, some into positions of responsibility and influence.

.”: Lawrence Summers, “The Global Middle Cries Out for Reassurance,” Financial Times, October 29, 2006. 211 “But the economy overall benefits”: Mankiw responding to a questioner on “Ask the White House,” an online interactive forum available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/ask/20040122.html. 211 “displace old ones as they always have”: Jonathan Weisman, “Bush Report Offers Positive Outlook on Jobs,” Washington Post, February 10, 2004, E01. 211 down from 50 percent in 1975: These statistics—and some of the thoughts reflected by them—once again come thanks to Harvard Economist Richard B. Freeman, who was kind enough to speak with me at length on the topic of international labor markets. 211 surpass their American rivals: “Foreign Science and Engineering Graduate Students Returning to U.S. Colleges,” National Science Foundation press release, January 28, 2008. 211 “and that is a good thing”: Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2005), 233. 212 “there is no strong labor response”: Richard B. Freeman, “Labor Market Imbalances: Shortages or Surpluses or Fish Stories,” delivered to the Boston Federal Reserve Economic Conference, “Global Imbalances—As Giants Evolve,” in Chatham, Massachusetts, June 14-16, 2006. 212 working conditions for the rest of us: Interview with Richard B.


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Free Market Missionaries: The Corporate Manipulation of Community Values by Sharon Beder

anti-communist, battle of ideas, business climate, corporate governance, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, income inequality, invisible hand, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, old-boy network, popular capitalism, Powell Memorandum, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, risk/return, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, shareholder value, spread of share-ownership, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Torches of Freedom, trade liberalization, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, young professional

BCA submission to Ibid., p2. Alan Deans, ‘Share Day’s Pay’, The Bulletin, 2000, p55. BHP submission to ‘Employee Share Ownership in Australian Enterprises’, p4. Ibid., pp134–5. Aaron Bernstein, ‘Why ESOP Deals Have Slowed to a Crawl’, Business Week, 18 March 1996. Nadler, ‘The Rise of Worker Capitalism’, p4; Melloan, ‘Assessing the Pitfalls of People’s Capitalism’, pA15; Editorial, ‘Worker Capitalists’, pA26; Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999, p52. Nadler, ‘Special (K)’; Margaret M. Blair and Douglas I. Kruse, ‘Worker Capitalists?’ The Brookings Review, Fall, 1999. John M. Templeton, ‘Plans Play Role in “People’s Capitalism”’, Pensions & Investment Age, vol 11, no 22, 1983. Editorial, ‘Worker Capitalists’, pA26; Jeffrey Garten, ‘A New Year; a New Agenda’, The Economist, 4 January, 2003; John Hood, ‘Investor Politics’, NR Book Service, www.nrbookservice.com/popPrintasp?

Some even visit schools, armed with videos and comic books aimed at an ever-younger audience.’62 Anne and Gerard Henderson from the Australian think tank the Sydney Institute claim that it was the shares in Telstra that their daughter bought, rather than parental guidance or her general education, that changed their daughter from someone who would have ‘gone with the flow against globalization’ to someone who is ‘interested in what happens in Wall Street because that affects her now’.63 NOTES 1 Richard Nadler, ‘Stocks Populi’, National Review, 9 March 1998. 2 Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999, pp47–50. 3 Quoted in Thomas Frank, One Market under God: Extreme Capitalism Market 4 5 6 7 8 9 Populism, and the End of Economic Democracy, New York, Doubleday, 2000, p91 and Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree, p58. Free market proponents quoted in Frank, One Market under God, p93; Donald E. Schwartz, ‘Shareholder Democracy: A Reality or Chimera?’


The Case for Israel by Alan Dershowitz

affirmative action, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, different worldview, facts on the ground, Jeffrey Epstein, Nelson Mandela, one-state solution, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, Yom Kippur War

Israeli Security Forces, “Blackmailing Young Women into Suicide Terrorism,” Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs Report, February 12, 2002, www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/ go.asp?MFAH0n2a0. 31. Itmar Marcus, Bulletin e-mail for Palestinian Media Watch, December 2, 2002. 32. James Bennet, “The Mideast Turmoil: Killer of 3; How 2 Took the Path of Suicide Bombers,” New York Times, May 30, 2003. 33. Statements made by Slaim Haga, a senior Hamas operative, and Ahmed Moughrabi, a Tanzim operative, May, 27, 2002. 34. Thomas L. Friedman, “The Core of Muslim Rage,” New York Times, March 6, 2002, quoted in Why Terrorism Works, pp. 89–90. 35. Atlanta Journal Constitution, www.ajc.com/ news/content/news/0603/10iraqdead. html, last visited June 11, 2003. CHAPTER 19 Does Israel Torture Palestinians? 1. “Uninteresting Terrorism and Insignificant Oppression,” All Things New, www. scmcanada.org/atn/atn95/atn952_p19. html. 2. Leon v.

Estimates vary as to the number of Palestinians killed during “Black September,” with some estimates as high as 4,000 (One Day in September, Sony Pictures, www.sonypictures.com/classics/oneday 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 257 /html/blacksept, last visited April 10, 2003), while others cite the figure of 3,000 (“Some Key Dates in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict,” www.umich.edu/~iinet/cmenas /studyunits/israeli-palestinian_conflict/studentkeydates.html, last visited April 10, 2003). Thomas L. Friedman, “Reeling but Ready,” New York Times, April 28, 2002. See poll conducted by the Palestinian Center for Policy and Research at Berzeit University, referred to in Jewish Week, April 18, 2003, p. 28. Beirut al Nassa, July 15, 1957. Chomsky, lecture, Harvard University, November 25, 2002. Michael Walzer, “The Four Wars of Israel/Palestine,” Dissent, Fall 2002. James Bennet, “U.S. Statements Guide the Talks on the Mideast,” New York Times, June 2, 2003.


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Trees on Mars: Our Obsession With the Future by Hal Niedzviecki

"Robert Solow", Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, big-box store, business intelligence, Colonization of Mars, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Zinn, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ponzi scheme, precariat, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, Thomas L Friedman, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, working poor

Arlene Dohm and Lynn Shniper, “Occupational Employment Projections to 2016,” Monthly Labor Review, November 1, 2007, http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2007/11/art5full.pdf. 37. Brian Vastag, “U.S. Pushes for More Scientists, but the Jobs Aren’t There,” The Washington Post, July 7, 2012, sec. National, http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/us-pushes-for-more-scientists-but-the-jobs-arent-there/2012/07/07/gJQAZJpQUW_story_2.html. 38. Thomas L. Friedman, “How to Get a Job at Google,” The New York Times, February 22, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/23/opinion/sunday/friedman-how-to-get-a-job-at-google.html. 39. Thomas L. Friedman, “How to Get a Job,” The New York Times, May 28, 2013, sec. Opinion, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/29/opinion/friedman-how-to-get-a-job.html. 40. Ibid. 41. Dan Schawbel, “Dale Stephens: Ditch College And Create Your Own Educational Experience,” Forbes, March 5, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/danschawbel/2013/03/05/dale-stephens-ditch-college-and-create-your-own-educational-ex-perience/. 42.


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When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Rise of the Middle Kingdom by Martin Jacques

Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bob Geldof, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, credit crunch, Dava Sobel, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, land tenure, lateral thinking, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, New Urbanism, one-China policy, open economy, Pearl River Delta, pension reform, price stability, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, spinning jenny, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Westphalian system, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

There is no precedent for the extent of the militarization of the US economy both during the Cold War and subsequently; Eric Hobsbawm, Globalisation, Democracy, and Terrorism (London: Little, Brown, 2007), p. 160. 29 . For an interesting discussion of the economic cost to the United States of its military expenditure, see Chalmers Johnson, ‘Why the US Has Really Gone Broke’, Le Monde diplomatique, February 2008. 30 . Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999), pp. 309-22; Gerald Segal, ‘Globalisation Has Always Primarily Been a Process of Westernisation’, South China Morning Post, 17 November 1998. 31 . For a discussion on the fundamental importance of cultural difference in the era of globalization, see Stuart Hall, ‘A Different Light’, Lecture to Prince Claus Fund Conference, Rotterdam, 12 December 2001. 32 .

Zhou and Leydesdorff, ‘The Emergence of China as a Leading Nation in Science’, p. 84. 106 . Wilsdon and Keeley, China, pp. 30-31; Geoff Dyer, ‘How China is Rising Through the Innovation Ranks’, Financial Times, 5 January 2007; Shenkar, The Chinese Century, p. 74; Gittings, The Changing Face of China, p. 263. 107 . Suntech Power Holdings, for example, has grown big and successful as China’s leading maker of silicon photovoltaic solar cells; Thomas L. Friedman, ‘China’s Sunshine Boys’, International Herald Tribune, 7 December 2006. Also ‘China Climbs Technology Value Chain’, South China Morning Post, 30 March 2007; Victor Keegan, ‘Virtual China looks for Real Benefits’, Guardian, 1 November 2007; ‘High-tech-Hopefuls: A Special Report on Technology in India and China’, The Economist, 10 November 2007. 108 . ‘Chinese Patents in “Sharp Rise”’, posted on www.bloc.co.uk/news. 109 .

Countries that are close competitors of China - like India, Indonesia and the Philippines - will probably still benefit, but they will find the prices of their major exports falling; while less developed countries which are not endowed with natural resources will find China’s continued growth having a relatively neutral economic effect at best. See World Bank, China Engaged: Integration with the Global Economy (Washington, DC: 1997), pp. 29-35. 167 . Kynge, China Shakes the World, pp. 118-20. 168 . Thomas L. Friedman, ‘Democrates and China’, International Herald Tribune , 11- 12 November 2006; ‘G7 Calls for Stronger Chinese Yuan’, posted on www.bbc.co.uk/news. 7 A CIVILIZATION-STATE 1 . James Mann, The China Fantasy: How Our Leaders Explain Away Chinese Repression (New York: Viking, 2007), pp. 1-7. 2 . James Kynge, China Shakes the World: The Rise of a Hungry Nation (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2006), p. 203; and Julia Lovell, The Great Wall: China against the World 1000 BC-AD 2000 (London: Atlantic Books, 2006), pp. 30 and 27. 3 .


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Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science (Fully Revised and Updated) by Charles Wheelan

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, financial innovation, fixed income, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, invisible hand, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, Malacca Straits, market bubble, microcredit, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, open economy, presumed consent, price discrimination, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the rule of 72, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Yogi Berra, young professional, zero-sum game

Fernald, “Roads to Prosperity? Assessing the Link Between Public Capital and Productivity,” American Economics Review, vol. 89, no. 3 (June 1999), pp. 619–38. 10. Jerry L. Jordan, “How to Keep Growing ‘New Economies,’” Economic Commentary, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, August 15, 2000. 11. Barry Bearak, “In India, the Wheels of Justice Hardly Move,” New York Times, June 1, 2000. 12. Thomas L. Friedman, “I Love D.C.,” New York Times, November 7, 2000, p. A29. 13. Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999). 14. Giacomo Balbinotto Neto, Ana Katarina Campelo, and Everton Nunes da Silva, “The Impact of Presumed Consent Law on Organ Donation: An Empirical Analysis from Quantile Regression for Longitudinal Data,” Berkeley Program in Law & Economics, Paper 050107–2 (2007).

CHAPTER 13. DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS 1. “No Title,” The Economist, March 31, 2001. 2. World Development Report 2008, World Bank (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000). 3. William Easterly, The Elusive Quest for Growth (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2001), p. 285. 4. World Development Report 2002: Building Institutions for Markets, World Bank, Oxford University Press, p. 3. 5. Thomas L. Friedman, “I Love D.C.,” New York Times, November 7, 2000, p. A29. 6. Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, and James Robinson, The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation, NBER Working Paper No. W7771 (National Bureau of Economic Research, June 2000). 7. Daniel Kaufmann, Aart Kraay, and Pablo Zoido-Lobatón, Governance Matters (Washington, D.C.: World Bank, October 1999). 8.


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Machine, Platform, Crowd: Harnessing Our Digital Future by Andrew McAfee, Erik Brynjolfsson

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Airbnb, airline deregulation, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, backtesting, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, British Empire, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chris Urmson, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, complexity theory, computer age, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dean Kamen, discovery of DNA, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, double helix, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, family office, fiat currency, financial innovation, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, law of one price, longitudinal study, Lyft, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mitch Kapor, moral hazard, multi-sided market, Myron Scholes, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precision agriculture, prediction markets, pre–internet, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ray Kurzweil, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Davenport, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, transportation-network company, traveling salesman, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, yield management, zero day

The History and Future of Workplace Automation,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 29, no. 3 (2015): 3–30, http://pubs.aeaweb.org/doi/pdfplus/10.1257/jep.29.3.3. 101 “Do you think when my grandfather”: Brian Scott, “55 Years of Agricultural Evolution,” Farmer’s Life (blog), November 9, 2015, http://thefarmerslife.com/55-years-of-agricultural-evolution-in-john-deere-combines. 102 Kiva was bought by Amazon in 2012: John Letzing, “Amazon Adds That Robotic Touch,” Wall Street Journal, March 20, 2012, http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304724404577291903244796214. 103 When Gill Pratt was a program manager at DARPA: John Dzieza, “Behind the Scenes at the Final DARPA Robotics Challenge,” Verge, June 12, 2015, http://www.theverge.com/2015/6/12/8768871/darpa-robotics-challenge-2015-winners. 104 250 million tons: PlasticsEurope, “Plastics—the Facts 2014/2015: An Analysis of European Plastics Production, Demand and Waste Data,” 2015, http://www.plasticseurope.org/documents/document/20150227150049-final_plastics_the_facts_2014_2015_260215.pdf. 105 About thirty years ago: PlasticsEurope, “Automotive: The World Moves with Plastics,” 2013, http://www.plasticseurope.org/cust/documentrequest.aspx?DocID=58353. 105 For one thing, complexity would be free: Thomas L. Friedman, “When Complexity Is Free,” New York Times, September 14, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/15/opinion/sunday/friedman-when-complexity-is-free.html. 106 20%–35% faster: Guillaume Vansteenkiste, “Training: Laser Melting and Conformal Cooling,” PEP Centre Technique de la Plasturgie, accessed January 30, 2017, http://www.alplastics.net/Portals/0/Files/Summer%20school%20presentations/ALPlastics_Conformal_Cooling.pdf. 106 with greater quality: Eos, “[Tooling],” accessed January 30, 2017, https://www.eos.info/tooling. 106 3D-printed tumor model: Yu Zhao et al., “Three-Dimensional Printing of Hela Cells for Cervical Tumor Model in vitro,” Biofabrication 6, no. 3 (April 11, 2014), http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1758-5082/6/3/035001. 107 “I think additive manufacturing”: Carl Bass, interview by the authors, summer 2015.

Schwartz, “The Economics (and Nostalgia) of Dead Malls,” New York Times, January 3, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/04/business/the-economics-and-nostalgia-of-dead-malls.html. 134 When General Growth Properties: Ilaina Jones and Emily Chasan, “General Growth Files Historic Real Estate Bankruptcy,” Reuters, April 16, 2009, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-generalgrowth-bankruptcy-idUSLG52607220090416. 134 $77 billion: Federal Communications Commission, “FCC Releases Statistics of the Long Distance Telecommunications Industry Report,” May 14, 2003, table 2, p. 9, year 2000 (interstate plus long distance combined), https://transition.fcc.gov/Bureaus/Common_Carrier/Reports/FCC-State_Link/IAD/ldrpt103.pdf. 134 $16 billion: Sarah Kahn, Wired Telecommunications Carriers in the US, IBISWorld Industry Report 51711c, December 2013, http://trace.lib.utk.edu/assets/Kuney/Fairpoint%20Communications/Research/Other/IBIS_51711C_Wired_Telecommunications_Carriers_in_the_US_industry_report.pdf. 135 By 2015, 44% of American adults: Business Wire, “GfK MRI: 44% of US Adults Live in Households with Cell Phones but No Landlines,” April 02, 2015, http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20150402005790/en#.VR2B1JOPoyS. 135 $20 billion in 2000: Greg Johnson, “Ad Revenue Slides for Radio, Magazines,” Los Angeles Times, August 9, 2001, http://articles.latimes.com/2001/aug/09/business/fi-32280. 135 $14 billion in 2010: BIA/Kelsey, “BIA/Kelsey Reports Radio Industry Revenues Rose 5.4% to $14.1 Billion in 2010, Driven by Political Season and More Activity by National Advertisers,” PR Newswire, April 4, 2011, http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/biakelsey-reports-radio-industry-revenues-rose-54-to-141-billion-in-2010-driven-by-political-season-and-more-activity-by-national-advertisers-119180284.html. 135 Clear Channel: Waldman, “Information Needs of Communities.” 135 “what happens when someone does something clever”: Thomas L. Friedman, Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist’s Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2016), Kindle ed., loc. 414. 136 cost $0.02: Statistic Brain Research Institute, “Average Cost of Hard Drive Storage,” accessed January 31, 2017, http://www.statisticbrain.com/average-cost-of-hard-drive-storage. 136 $11 in 2000: Matthew Komorowski, “A History of Storage Cost,” last modified 2014, Mkomo.com. http://www.mkomo.com/cost-per-gigabyte. 137 “the death of distance”: Francis Cairncross, The Death of Distance: How the Communications Revolution Will Change Our Lives (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1997). 138 computer programmer Craig Newmark: Craig Newmark, LinkedIn profile, accessed February 1, 2017, https://www.linkedin.com/in/craignewmark. 138 to let people list local events in the San Francisco area: Craigconnects, “Meet Craig,” accessed February 1, 2017, http://craigconnects.org/about. 138 700 local sites in seventy countries by 2014: Craigslist, “[About > Factsheet],” accessed February 1, 2017, https://www.craigslist.org/about/factsheet. 138 estimated profits of $25 million: Henry Blodget, “Craigslist Valuation: $80 Million in 2008 Revenue, Worth $5 Billion,” Business Insider, April 3, 2008, http://www.businessinsider.com/2008/4/craigslist-valuation-80-million-in-2008-revenue-worth-5-billion. 138 charging fees for only a few categories of ads: Craigslist, “[About > Help > Posting Fees],” accessed February 1, 2017, https://www.craigslist.org/about/help/posting_fees. 139 over $5 billion between 2000 and 2007: Robert Seamans and Feng Zhu, “Responses to Entry in Multi-sided Markets: The Impact of Craigslist on Local Newspapers,” January 11, 2013, http://www.gc.cuny.edu/CUNY_GC/media/CUNY-Graduate-Center/PDF/Programs/Economics/Course%20Schedules/Seminar%20Sp.2013/seamans_zhu_craigslist%281%29.pdf. 139 $22 billion of US marketers’ budgets: “More than Two-Thirds of US Digital Display Ad Spending Is Programmatic,” eMarketer, April 5, 2016, https://www.emarketer.com/Article/More-Than-Two-Thirds-of-US-Digital-Display-Ad-Spending-Programmatic/1013789#sthash.OQclVXY5.dpuf. 139 over 8,000 servers that, at peak times, can process 45 billion ad buys per day: “Microsoft and AppNexus: Publishing at Its Best (Selling),” AppNexus Impressionist (blog), November 3, 2015, http://blog.appnexus.com/2015/microsoft-and-appnexus-publishing-at-its-best-selling. 139 Belgian: Matthew Lasar, “Google v.


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The Job: The Future of Work in the Modern Era by Ellen Ruppel Shell

3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, big-box store, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer vision, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, follow your passion, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, game design, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial robot, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, Tim Cook: Apple, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, urban renewal, white picket fence, working poor, Y Combinator, young professional, zero-sum game

Many journalists and policy makers have echoed these complaints. See Rahm Emanuel, “Chicago’s Plan to Match Education with Jobs,” Wall Street Journal, December 18, 2011, https://www.wsj.com/​articles/​SB1000142­40529702­03893404­57710077­2663276902; Thomas A. Hemphill and Mark J. Perry, “U.S. Manufacturing and the Skills Crisis,” Wall Street Journal, February 26, 2012, https://www.wsj.com/​articles/​SB100014­2405297­02048804­0457723­08706715­88412; Thomas L. Friedman, “If You’ve Got the Skills, She’s Got the Job,” op-ed, New York Times, November 17, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/​2012/​11/​18/​opinion/​sunday/​Friedman-You-Got-the-Skills.html. tests were routine at more than 80 percent of all US companies According to a survey conducted at the time by the American Management Association. See Lydia De Pillis, “Companies Dry Test a Lot Less Than They Used to Because It Doesn’t Work,” Washington Post, March 10, 2015.

For example, see: David Card and John DiNardo, “Skill Biased Technological Change and Rising Wage Inequality: Some Problems and Puzzles,” Journal of Labor Economics 20, no. 4 (October 2002), http://dx.doi.org/​doi:10.3386/​w8769. a good head for numbers and strong customer service skills See, for example, J. W. Carpenter, “Bank Teller: Career Path and Qualifications,” Investopedia, last modified December 16, 2015, http://www.investopedia.com/​articles/​professionals/​121615/​bank-teller-career-path-qualifi­cations.asp. new, higher-skilled jobs that pay better See, for example, Thomas L. Friedman, Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist’s Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2016). Friedman, a columnist for the New York Times, has used the example of cash machines repeatedly to make the point that automation can create jobs. But while it is true that in the 1990s ATMs led to an increase in the number of bank branches, and therefore opportunities for people to work in those new branches, additional new technologies have since led to a radical decline in both bank branches and their associated jobs.


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Imperial Ambitions: Conversations on the Post-9/11 World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

British Empire, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, liberation theology, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, Westphalian system

(South End Press, 2002); and Zinn, You Can’t Be Neutral on a Moving Train, updated ed. (Beacon, 2002). 12. Ralph Atkins et al., Financial Times, 22 November 2004. 13. For details, see Roger Morris, New York Times, 14 March 2003; and Said K. Aburish, Saddam Hussein (Bloomsbury, 2000). 14. Reginald Dale, Financial Times, 1 March 1982. See also Reginald Dale, Financial Times, 28 November 1984. 15. Thomas L. Friedman, New York Times, 14 May 2003. 16. See Anthony Arnove, ed., Iraq Under Siege, updated ed. (South End Press, 2002); and John Mueller and Karl Mueller, Foreign Affairs 78, no. 3 (May-June 1999). 17. Les Roberts et al., The Lancet 364, no. 9448 (20 November 2004). See also the comment on the report by Richard Horton, The Lancet 364, no. 9448. 18. H. Bruce Franklin, War Stars (Oxford University Press, 1988). 19.


Making Globalization Work by Joseph E. Stiglitz

affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, business process, capital controls, central bank independence, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), inventory management, invisible hand, John Markoff, Jones Act, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, microcredit, moral hazard, new economy, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, oil rush, open borders, open economy, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, reserve currency, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, statistical model, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

Every bribe requires both a briber and a bribee—and too often the briber comes from a developed country. Corruption would occur even if there were not safe havens to which the money can go, and in which the corrupt can sustain their lifestyle after their wrongdoing has been discovered; but secret bank accounts make it easier. MAKING GLOBALIZATION WORK—FOR MORE PEOPLE In his 2005 book, The World Is Flat, Thomas L. Friedman says that globalization and technology have flattened the world, creating a level playing field in which developed and less developed countries can compete on equal terms.32 He is right that there have been dramatic changes in the global economy, in the global landscape; in some directions, the world is much flatter than it has ever been, with those in various parts of the world being more connected than they have ever been, but the world is not flat.33 Countries that want to participate in the new world of high-tech globalization need new technologies, computers, and other equipment in order to connect with the rest of the world.

Stiglitz, “Peer Monitoring and Credit Markets,” World Bank Economic Review, vol. 4, no. 3 (September 1990), pp. 351–66. 31.See, for instance, Deepa Narayan, The Contribution of People’s Participation: Evidence from 121 Rural Water Supply Projects (Washington, DC: World Bank, 1995), which found that local participation in rural water supply projects increased significantly the number of water systems in good condition, the portion of target populations reached, and overall economic and environmental benefits. For more current information, see the World Bank’s participation Web site at www.worldbank.org/participation. 32.Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005). 33.Friedman himself is aware that the world is not flat, devoting a chapter to “The Un-Flat World.” Chapter Three 1.Of course, most of that reflected the size of the U.S. economy. After its enlargement in 2004, the EU has a population in excess of 450 million; the size of its economy is comparable to NAFTA. 2.OECD, OECD Economic Surveys, “OECD Economic Surveys Mexico: Migration: The Economic Context and Implications,” vol. 2003, suppl. no. 1 (Paris: OECD, 2003), pp. 152–212. 3.Early on in the Clinton administration, the Council of Economic Advisers (of which I was a member at the time) was asked its view on NAFTA.


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Trend Following: How Great Traders Make Millions in Up or Down Markets by Michael W. Covel

Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, backtesting, beat the dealer, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, buy and hold, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, Clayton Christensen, commodity trading advisor, computerized trading, correlation coefficient, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Thorp, Elliott wave, Emanuel Derman, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, Everything should be made as simple as possible, fiat currency, fixed income, game design, hindsight bias, housing crisis, index fund, Isaac Newton, John Meriwether, John Nash: game theory, linear programming, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, market microstructure, mental accounting, money market fund, Myron Scholes, Nash equilibrium, new economy, Nick Leeson, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, South Sea Bubble, Stephen Hawking, survivorship bias, systematic trading, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, value at risk, Vanguard fund, William of Occam, zero-sum game

Hollywood, CA, 1984. 9. Larry Harris, Trading and Exchanges: Market Microstructure for Practitioners. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. 10. Going Once, Going Twice. Discover (August 2002), 23. 11. Jim Little, Sol Waksman, A Perspective on Risk. Barclay Managed Futures Report. 12. Craig Pauley, How to Become a CTA. Based on Chicago Mercantile Exchange Seminars, 1992–1994. June 1994. 13. Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and The Olive Tree. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1999. 14. Gibbons Burke, Managing Your Money. Active Trader (July 2000). 15. Craig Pauley, How to Become a CTA. Based on Chicago Mercantile Exchange Seminars, 1992–1994. June 1994. 16. Ed Seykota and Dave Druz, Determining Optimal Risk. Technical Analysis of Stocks and Commodities Magazine, Vol. 11, No. 3, March 1993. 122–124.

Sharon Schwartzman, Computers Keep Funds in Mint Condition: A Major Money Manager Combines the Scientific Approach with Human Ingenuity, Wall Street Computer Review, Vol. 8, No. 6 (March 1991), 13. 35. Sharon Schwartzman, Computers Keep Funds in Mint Condition: A Major Money Manager Combines the Scientific Approach with Human Ingenuity. Wall Street Computer Review, Vol. 8, No. 6 (March 1991), 13. 36. Thomas L Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1999. 421 Endnotes 37. Barclay Trading Group, Ltd., Barclay Managed Futures Report, Vol. 4, No. 1 (First quarter 1993), 3. 38. Barclay Trading Group, Ltd., Barclay Managed Futures Report, Vol. 4, No. 1 (First quarter 1993), 10. 39. Presentation in Geneva, Switzerland on September 15, 1998. 40. Trading System Review. Futures Industry Association Conference Seminar on November 2, 1994. 41.


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Bibi: The Turbulent Life and Times of Benjamin Netanyahu by Anshel Pfeffer

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, centre right, different worldview, Donald Trump, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, full employment, high net worth, illegal immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pre–internet, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stuxnet, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

Ben Kaspit and Ilan Kfir, Netanyahu—The Road to Power (in Hebrew) (Tel Aviv: Alpha, 1997). 5. Thomas L. Friedman, “Baker, in a Middle East Blueprint, Asks Israel to Reach Out to Arabs,” New York Times, May 23, 1989. 6. Aaron David Miller, The Much Too Promised Land (New York: Bantam, 2008), 40. 7. “Robert Gates: The Man Who Would Ban Netanyahu from the White House,” Haaretz, January 14, 2014. 8. “When You’re Serious, Call Us,” Newsweek, June 24, 1990. 9. Benjamin Netanyahu, A Durable Peace: Israel and Its Place Among the Nations (New York: Warner Books, 2009), loc. 2398, Kindle; first English edition published as A Place Among the Nations: Israel and the World (New York: Bantam, 1993). 10. Linda Scherzer, “Gas Mask, Time Warp,” Times of Israel, January 14, 2014. Chapter 16: A Crime Unprecedented in the History of Democracy 1. Thomas L. Friedman, “Uneasy Debate for Jews in U.S. on Loans Issue,” New York Times, March 2, 1992. 2.


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The Content Trap: A Strategist's Guide to Digital Change by Bharat Anand

Airbnb, Benjamin Mako Hill, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, information asymmetry, Internet of things, inventory management, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Just-in-time delivery, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Minecraft, multi-sided market, Network effects, post-work, price discrimination, publish or perish, QR code, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, selection bias, self-driving car, shareholder value, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, two-sided market, ubercab, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

for content partnerships “EdX Announces New Membership Structure; Expands edx.org ,” edx , last modified March 6, 2014, accessed March 10, 2016, https://www.edx.org/​press/​edx-announces-new-membership-structure . made its courses free Tamar Lewin, “Harvard and M.I.T. Team Up to Offer Free Online Courses,” New York Times , May 2, 2012. “the year of the MOOC” Laura Pappano, “The Year of the MOOC,” New York Times , November 2, 2012. “MOOC revolution is here” Thomas L. Friedman, “The Professors’ Big Stage,” New York Times , March 5, 2013. diving for a decade Srikant Datar, David Garvin, and Patrick Cullen, Rethinking the MBA: Business Education at a Crossroads (Boston: Harvard Business Review Press, 2010). had written of a “flat world” Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2005). inverted classroom Maureen J. Lage, Glenn J. Platt, and Michael Treglia, “Inverting the Classroom: A Gateway to Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment,” Journal of Economic Education 31, no. 1 (Winter 2000): 30–43.


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The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, carried interest, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, telepresence, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

, World Economic Forum, 7 November 2014, <https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2014/11/2015-year-geostrategic-competition/>. 72 Global Risks 2015, World Economic Forum, <https://reports.weforum.org/global-risks-2015/part-2-risks-in-focus/2-2-global-risks-arising-from-the-accelerated-interplay-between-geopolitics-and-economics/>. 73 Global Risks 2017, World Economic Forum, <http://reports.weforum.org/global-risks-2017/part-2-social-and-political-challenges/2-1-western-democracy-in-crisis/>. 74 Ibid. 75 Lawrence Summers, ‘America needs to make a new case for trade’, Financial Times, 27 April 2008, <http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/c35d3d62-14ba-11dd-a741-0000779fd2ac.html?ft_site=falcon&desktop=true#axzz4YDkDxH19>. 76 Lawrence Summers, ‘Voters deserve responsible nationalism not reflex globalism’, Financial Times, 9 July 2016, <https://www.ft.com/content/15598db8-4456-11e6-9b66-0712b3873ae1>. 77 Dani Rodrik, The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy (W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 2011). 78 Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, New York, 2000). Part Two: Reaction 1 Samuel Huntington describes mid-1970s Europe onwards as the ‘third wave’, but my starting date is different. 2 Peter Pomerantsev, Nothing Is True and Everything Is Possible: The Surreal Heart of the New Russia (Basic Books, New York, 2014 (ebook)). 3 Alexander Cooley, ‘Countering Democratic Norms’, in Larry Diamond, Marc F.


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The Lights in the Tunnel by Martin Ford

"Robert Solow", Albert Einstein, Bill Joy: nanobots, Black-Scholes formula, business cycle, call centre, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, creative destruction, credit crunch, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, full employment, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Mitch Kapor, moral hazard, pattern recognition, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, Ray Kurzweil, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, Thomas L Friedman, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, War on Poverty

Web: http://www.automationworld.com/webonly-320 34 Alan Greenspan, The Age of Turbulence, New York, The Penguin Press, 2007, p.397. 35 ABC News 20/20 Special, “Last Days on Earth”, 2006 36 Kurtzweil predicts the Technological Singularity by 2045: Fortune Magazine, May 14, 2007, Web: http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2007/05/14/100008848/ 37 “Vernor Vinge on the Singularity,” Web: http://mindstalk.net/vinge/vinge-sing.html Chapter 3: Danger 38 Robert J. Shapiro, Futurecast: how superpowers, populations, and globalization will change the way you live and work, New York, St. Martin’s Press, 2008. 39 Thomas L. Friedman, The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty First Century, New York, Farrar, Strause and Giroux, 2005, 2006. 40 China’s high saving rate the result of government policy, see: Eamonn Fingleton, In the Jaws of the Dragon: America’s Fate in the Coming Era of Chinese Hegemony, New York, St. Martin’s Press, 2008. 41 Pietra Rivoli, The Travels of a T-Shirt in the Global Economy: An Economist Examines the Markets, Power and Politics of World Trade, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2005, p 40. 42 Ibid. p 142. 43 Jeff Rubin and Benjamin Tal, “Will Soaring Transport Costs Reverse Globalization?


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Why Liberalism Failed by Patrick J. Deneen

David Brooks, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, mortgage debt, Nicholas Carr, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, Steven Levy, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Wilson Carey McWilliams, “Democracy and the Citizen: Community, Dignity, and the Crisis of Contemporary Politics in America,” in Redeeming Democracy in America, ed. Patrick J. Deneen and Susan J. McWilliams (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2011), 27. INTRODUCTION 1. Adrian Vermuele, Law’s Abnegation: From Law’s Empire to the Administrative State (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2016). 2. Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York: Anchor, 2000), 7. 3. From a response essay to David Brooks “Organization Kid,” by a member of Notre Dame class of 2018, in my course Political Philosophy and Education, August 29, 2016. Paper in author’s possession. 4. Wendell Berry, “Agriculture from the Roots Up,” in The Way of Ignorance and Other Essays (Emeryville, CA: Shoemaker and Hoard, 2005), 107–8. 5.


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The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Parag Khanna, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

Choe Sang-Hun, “South Korea, Where Boys Were Kings, Revalues Its Girls,” New York Times, October 23, 2007. 47. Robert W. Crandall and Kenneth Flamm, “Overview,” in Crandall and Flamm, eds., Changing the Rules, 114–29; Tony A. Freyer, Antitrust and Global Capitalism (New York, 2006), 6–7. 48. Dick K. Nanto, “The 1997–98 Asian Financial Crisis,” CRS Report for Congress, February 6, 1998 (www.fas.org/man/crs/crs-asia2), 5. 49. “The Time 100,” New York (2000). 50. Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century (New York, 2005), 128–39; Nelson Lichtenstein, “Why Working at Wal-Mart Is Different,” Connecticut Law Review, 39 (2007): 1649–84; “How Wal-Mart Fights Unions,” Minnesota Law Review, 92 (2008): 1462–1501. 51. Kenneth Pomeranz and Steven Topik, The World That Trade Created: Society, Culture, and the World Ecoomy, 1400 to the Present (Armonk, NY, 2006), 260. 52.

Paul Krugman, “A Catastrophe Foretold,” New York Times, October 28, 2007. Four people—Doris Dungey, Nouriel Roubini, Brooksley Born, and John Bogle—clearly saw what was wrong with the prevailing financial incentives. See Bogle, “The Case of Corporate America Today,” Daedalus, 136 (Summer, 2007). 15. Alexei Barrionuevo, “Demand for a Say on the Way Out of Crisis,” New York Times, November 10, 2008. 16. Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century (New York, 2005); Jeffrey A. Frieden, Global Capitalism: Its Fall and Rise in the Twentieth Century (New York, 2006 [paperback ed., 2007]), 293ff; Robert W. Crandall and Kenneth Ramm, eds., Changing the Rules: Technological Change, International Competition, and Regulation in Communications (Washington, 1989), 10. 17. New York Times, November 17, 2008. 18.


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The Red and the Blue: The 1990s and the Birth of Political Tribalism by Steve Kornacki

affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, computer age, David Brooks, Donald Trump, employer provided health coverage, ending welfare as we know it, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, immigration reform, mass immigration, Ralph Nader, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

doi=10.1.1.489.957&rep=rep1&type=pdf. “Homosexuality”: Kim I. Mills, “Opponents of Pentagon’s Anti-Gay Policy Point to Harbingers of Change,” Associated Press, August 24, 1992. It was a basic: Melissa Healy, “Clinton Aides Urge Quick End to Military Ban on Gays,” Los Angeles Times, January 8, 1993. Clinton’s victory: Andrea Stone, “Gays Hoping to End ‘Years of Darkness,’” USA Today, November 5, 1992. “My position”: Thomas L. Friedman, “The Transition: The President-Elect; Clinton to Open Military’s Ranks to Homosexuals,” New York Times, November 12, 1992. In Oregon: Brad Cain, “Anti-Gay Measure Rejected; Packwood Holds Lead in Senate,” Associated Press, November 4, 1992. “I defy you”: Laurence Jolidon, “Caution Urged on Gays in Military,” USA Today, November 16, 1992. A marine general: John H. Cushman, Jr., “The Transition: Gay Rights; Top Military Officers Object to Lifting Homosexual Ban,” New York Times, November 14, 1992.

Operator In an Ozark Real-Estate Venture,” New York Times, March 8, 1992. Whitewater, he said: Gwen Ifill, “The 1992 Campaign: Personal Finances; Clinton Defends Real-Estate Deal,” New York Times, March 9, 1992. Dee Dee Myers: Ann Devroy and Al Kamen, “Longtime Travel Staff Given Walking Papers,” Washington Post, May 20, 1993. And she accused: Terrence Hunt, “White House Drops Arkansas Travel Agency,” Associated Press, May 21, 1993. The report: Thomas L. Friedman, “White House Rebukes 4 In Travel Office Shake-Up,” New York Times, July 3, 1993. “Put aside”: Anthony Lewis, “Abroad at Home; The Clinton Mystery,” New York Times, May 28, 1993. There was “possibly real sleaze”: David Lauter, “Clinton Relative Had Proposed She Head Travel Office Firings,” Los Angeles Times, May 22, 1993. the Journal complained: Editorial Board, “Who is Webster Hubbell?”


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Dreams and Shadows: The Future of the Middle East by Robin Wright

Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, central bank independence, colonial rule, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, old-boy network, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment

Gambill, “The Syrian Muslim Brotherhood, Mideast Mirror, vol. 1, no. 2, Apr.–May 2006. 18.The Muslim Brotherhood was also banned during Syria’s union with Egypt between 1958 and 1961, but allowed to run after the United Arab Republic crumbled. 19.Patrick Seale, Asad, pp. 316–338. 20.Ibid. 21.The Massacres of Hama: Law Enforcement Requires Accountability, Syrian Human Rights Committee, Feb. 1, 2005. 22.Thomas L. Friedman, From Beirut to Jerusalem (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1989), p. 80. 23.The Massacres of Hama; and interviews with human rights groups in Damascus, Apr. 2006. 24.“Mid-Range Wars and Atrocities of the Twentieth Century,” http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat4.htm. 25.Ibrahim Hamidi, “Islamist Streams on the March in Syria,” Al Hayat, Jan. 4, 2006. 26.Anthony Shadid, “Inside and Outside Syria, a Debate to Decide the Future,” The Washington Post, Nov. 9, 2005. 27.Deborah Amos, “Exiled Opposition Leader for Democracy in Syria,” National Public Radio, Dec. 1, 2005. 28.Ibrahim Hamidi, “Islamist Streams on the March in Syria.” 29.Charles Glass, “Is Syria Next?”

Gambill, “The Kurdish Reawakening in Syria,” Middle East Intelligence Bulletin, vol. 6, no. 4, April 2004. 33.Christine Spolar, “Fearful Iraqis Seek Haven in Syria,” The Chicago Tribune, May 22, 2006. 34.Dr. Nimrod Raphaeli, “The Syrian Economy under Bashar al Assad,” Middle East Media Research Institute, no. 259, Jan. 13, 2006. 35.Matthew Levitt, “Syria and the War on Terrorism: Challenges for U.S. Policy (Part II),” PolicyWatch No. 596, The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Jan. 24, 2002. 36.Thomas L. Friedman, From Beirut to Jerusalem, p. 80. 37.Albert Aji, “Prominent Syrian Human Rights Lawyer Among 6 Detained in Large Roundup,” Associated Press, May 17, 2006; and Mohammed Bazzi, “Syria Cracks Down on Dissidents,” Newsday, May 19, 2006. CHAPTER SEVEN: IRAN: THE REVOLUTIONARIES 1.Hamid Algar, Islam and Revolution: Writings and Declarations of Imam Khomeini (Berkeley, CA: Mizan Press, 1981) , pp. 169–173. 2.Ironically, the loan was largely to buy American arms. 3.Hamid Algar, Islam and Revolution, pp. 181–88. 4.Muqtedar Khan, “Two Theories of Ijtihad,” Common Ground News Service, Mar. 22, 2006. 5.Other faiths are deliberately excluded, notably the Baha’i, and often persecuted.


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The Secret War Between Downloading and Uploading: Tales of the Computer as Culture Machine by Peter Lunenfeld

Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, anti-globalists, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business cycle, butterfly effect, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

A downloadable movie of a Lorenz strange attractor is available at <http://hypertextbook.com/chaos/movies/lorenz.mov>. 28 . Here I am caging the title of the third book of Neal Stephenson’s Baroque Cycle. Stephenson was of course caging Isaac Newton. Neal Stephenson, The System of the World (New York: William Morrow, 2004). 29 . In The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005), neoliberal journalist Thomas L. Friedman looks at these same conditions and sees within them the seeds of what he calls Globalism 3.0. 30. Schwartz, The Art of the Long View, 12, 49. 31 . My thanks to design researcher and Parsons professor Lisa Grocott for pushing me to emphasize the “designerly” aspect of bespoke futures. 32 . MaSAI unintentionally references the Masai tribe of West African warriors, a bit of synchronicity that reflects Brian Eno’s famous call for more Africa in computing: “What’s pissing me off is that it uses so little of my body.


pages: 265 words: 69,310

What's Yours Is Mine: Against the Sharing Economy by Tom Slee

4chan, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, blockchain, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, David Brooks, don't be evil, gig economy, Hacker Ethic, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, principal–agent problem, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South of Market, San Francisco, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ultimatum game, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Working Paper, November 2014. http://andreyfradkin.com/assets/Fradkin_JMP_Sep2014.pdf. French, Jason, Sam Schechner, and Matthias Verbergt. “How Airbnb Is Taking Over Paris.” WSJ. Accessed July 7, 2015. http://graphics.wsj.com/how-airbnb-is-taking-over-paris. Friedman, Thomas L. “And Now for a Bit of Good News . . .” The New York Times, July 19, 2014. http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/20/opinion/sunday/thomas-l-friedman-and-now-for-a-bit-of-good-news.html. Friedman, Uri. “Airbnb CEO: Cities Are Becoming Villages.” The Atlantic, June 29, 2014. http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2014/06/airbnb-ceo-cities-are-becoming-villages/373676/. “From the People, for the People.” The Economist, May 9, 2015. http://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21650289-will-financial-democracy-work-downturn-people-people.


pages: 243 words: 66,908

Thinking in Systems: A Primer by Meadows. Donella, Diana Wright

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, clean water, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, game design, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, peak oil, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Stanford prison experiment, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Whole Earth Review

Erik Ipsen, “Britain on the Skids: A Malaise at the Top,” International Herald Tribune, December 15, 1992, p. 1. 8. Clyde Haberman, “Israeli Soldier Kidnapped by Islamic Extremists,” International Herald Tribune, December 14, 1992, p. 1. 9. Sylvia Nasar, “Clinton Tax Plan Meets Math,” International Herald Tribune, December 14, 1992, p. 15. 10. See Jonathan Kozol, Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s Schools (New York: Crown Publishers, 1991). 11. Quoted in Thomas L. Friedman, “Bill Clinton Live: Not Just a Talk Show,” International Herald Tribune, December 16, 1992, p. 6. 12. Keith B. Richburg, “Addiction, Somali-Style, Worries Marines,” International Herald Tribune, December 15, 1992, p. 2. 13. Calvin and Hobbes comic strip, International Herald Tribune, December 18, 1992, p. 22. 14. Wouter Tims, “Food, Agriculture, and Systems Analysis,” Options, International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis Laxenburg, Austria no. 2 (1984), 16. 15.


pages: 270 words: 71,659

The Right Side of History by Ben Shapiro

Bernie Sanders, Donald Trump, Filter Bubble, illegal immigration, income inequality, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, means of production, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, white picket fence, women in the workforce

Jonah Goldberg, Liberal Fascism: The Secret History of the American Left, from Mussolini to the Politics of Change (New York: Crown Forum, 2009), 102–3. 56. Ben Shapiro, “NYT Op-Ed: ‘For All Its Flaws, the Communist Revolution Taught Chinese Women to Dream Big,” DailyWire.com, September 26, 2017, https://www.dailywire.com/news/21547/nyt-op-ed-all-its-flaws-communist-revolution-ben-shapiro. 57. Thomas L. Friedman, “Our One-Party Democracy,” New York Times, September 8, 2009, https://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/09/opinion/09friedman.html. 58. David Filipov, “For Russians, Stalin Is the ‘Most Outstanding’ Figure in World History, Followed by Putin,” WashingtonPost.com, June 26, 2017, https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2017/06/26/for-russians-stalin-is-the-most-outstanding-figure-in-world-history-putin-is-next/?


pages: 777 words: 186,993

Imagining India by Nandan Nilekani

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Airbus A320, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, distributed generation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, knowledge economy, land reform, light touch regulation, LNG terminal, load shedding, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, pension reform, Potemkin village, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, smart grid, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

. • Penguin Books Ltd, 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England Penguin Ireland, 25 St Stephen’s Green, Dublin 2, Ireland (a division of Penguin Books Ltd) • Penguin Group (Australia), 250 Camberwell Road, Camberwell, Victoria 3124, Australia (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) • Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd, 11 Community Centre, Panchsheel Park, New Delhi - 110 017, India • Penguin Group (NZ), 67 Apollo Drive, Rosedale, North Shore 0632, New Zealand (a division of Pearson New Zealand Ltd) • Penguin Books (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, 24 Sturdee Avenue, Rosebank, Johannesburg 2196, South Africa Penguin Books Ltd, Registered Offices: 80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL, England Simultaneously published by the Penguin Press, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc. Copyright © Nandan Nilekani, 2008 Foreword copyright © Thomas L. Friedman, 2009 All rights reserved. Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise), without the prior written permission of both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book. .S.A.

Or will that India always remain just off in the distance? Nandan is optimistic but not naïve. He would tell you it all depends: It all depends on India having a government as aspiring as its people, politicians as optimistic as its youth, bureaucrats as innovative as its entrepreneurs, and state, local, and national leaders as impatient, creative, and energetic as their kids—and, in my view, as Nandan Nilekani. Thomas L. Friedman Washington, D.C. November 2008 NOTES FROM AN ACCIDENTAL ENTREPRENEUR IF YOU CAN have such good roads in the Infosys campus, why are the roads outside so terrible?” demanded my visitor. I had just ended my pitch to him about why India was emerging as the world’s next growth engine and how the country was rapidly catching up with the developed world. But my guest, who had flown in from New York, was openly skeptical, having spent two hours on Bangalore’s chaotic, unforgiving Hosur highway to get to my office.


How to Hide an Empire: A History of the Greater United States by Daniel Immerwahr

Albert Einstein, book scanning, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, citizen journalism, City Beautiful movement, clean water, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, European colonialism, friendly fire, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Howard Zinn, immigration reform, land reform, Mercator projection, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transcontinental railway, urban planning, wikimedia commons

It is much closer to the one Herbert Hoover imagined, held together not by empires, but by the market. It’s a world where the great coordinating process isn’t colonial rule, which operates within borders, but globalization, which crosses them. The replacement of colonialism with globalization, it should be said, hasn’t exactly leveled the playing field. A previously bumpy world may have become “flat,” as the pundit Thomas L. Friedman has put it. But who flattened it? For the most part, it was the U.S. military, seeking to project power around the planet. Given that, it shouldn’t come as a surprise to learn that globalization, at least at first, favored the United States. U.S. planes filled the skies, U.S. broadcasts flooded the airwaves, U.S.-made synthetic goods replaced colonial ones, and U.S. standards held it all together.

Foell, “Traffic Signs Baffling the World Over,” Los Angeles Times, June 4, 1970. 91 percent of the world’s population: Thanks to the intrepid Callie Leone for help in producing this figure. “domination without”: George Marion, Bases and Empire: A Chart of American Expansion (New York, 1948), chap. 12. great coordinating process: A point developed cogently in Neil Smith, American Empire: Roosevelt’s Geographer and the Prelude to Globalization (Berkeley, CA, 2003). “flat”: Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (New York, 2005). 19. LANGUAGE IS A VIRUS “broken English”: William Bradford, History of Plymouth Plantation, 1606–1646, ed. William T. Davis (1651; New York, 1908), 135. On Squanto, I’ve relied on Neil Salisbury, “Squanto: Last of the Patuxets,” in Struggle and Survival in Colonial America, ed. David G. Sweet and Gary B.


pages: 260 words: 76,223

Ctrl Alt Delete: Reboot Your Business. Reboot Your Life. Your Future Depends on It. by Mitch Joel

3D printing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, call centre, clockwatching, cloud computing, Firefox, future of work, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, place-making, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, white picket fence, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

These people are punching the clock and trying to make ends meet. They’re less concerned about where they’re going and much more concerned about not being let go from their jobs tomorrow. Beyond that, there are many people who are unemployed and would welcome the kind of misery that those clock-watchers are enduring. If you look at the global job market, things are not pretty. That was the crux of Thomas L. Friedman’s column on July 12, 2011, in the New York Times titled “The Start-Up of You.” His premise? The job market is not going to get any better, because the jobs of yesterday are gone and the companies with big valuations (he names Facebook, Twitter, etc.) aren’t looking for the types of workers that companies used to hire decades ago. Instead, these new companies are looking for smart engineers, but beyond that, it’s all about “people who not only have the critical thinking skills to do the value-adding jobs that technology can’t, but also people who can invent, adapt, and reinvent their jobs every day, in a market that changes faster than ever.”


pages: 325 words: 73,035

Who's Your City?: How the Creative Economy Is Making Where to Live the Most Important Decision of Your Life by Richard Florida

active measures, assortative mating, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, borderless world, BRICs, business climate, Celebration, Florida, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic transition, edge city, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, extreme commuting, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, industrial cluster, invention of the telegraph, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, place-making, post-work, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, World Values Survey, young professional

Chapter 2 1 Thomas Friedman, The World Is Flat, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2005. 2 The original article is Frances Cairncross, “The Death of Distance,” The Economist, September 30, 1995. She later published an influential book by the same title, The Death of Distance, Harvard Business School Press, 2001. Also, “Conquest of Location,” The Economist, October 7, 1999. 3 Edward E. Leamer, “A Flat World, A Level Playing Field, a Small World After All or None of the Above? Review of Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat,” Journal of Economic Literature 45, 1, 2007, pp. 83-126. 4 Urbanization data are from “World Population Prospects: The 2006 Revision Population Database,” Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations 2007, esa.un.org/unpp. 5 “Q&A with Michael Porter,” Business Week, August 21, 2006, www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/06_34/b3998460.htm. 6 Richard Florida, “The World is Spiky,” Atlantic Monthly, October 2005. 7 Gulden used the light that is visible from space at night as a basis for estimating economic activity.


pages: 265 words: 74,941

The Great Reset: How the Post-Crash Economy Will Change the Way We Live and Work by Richard Florida

banking crisis, big-box store, blue-collar work, business cycle, car-free, carbon footprint, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, creative destruction, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, falling living standards, financial innovation, Ford paid five dollars a day, high net worth, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, McMansion, Menlo Park, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, starchitect, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, total factor productivity, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

Friedman himself writes that the inspiration for his best-selling book The World Is Flat came from a conversation with the CEO of a high-tech company in Bangalore, India, an agglomeration of more than 6 million people at the center of India’s software industry and a key part of the Bangalore-Mumbai megaregion. Thomas Friedman, The World Is Flat (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005). See also Edward Leamer, “A Flat World, A Level Playing Field, a Small World after All, or None of the Above? Review of Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat,” Journal of Economic Literature 43, no. 1 (2007): 83–126; Richard Florida, “The World Is Spiky,” Atlantic, October 2006, retrieved from www.theatlantic.com/images/issues/200510/world-is-spiky.pdf. 4. Adam Hochberg, “In Ariz., Luring Suburbanites to Greener, Urban Life,” Morning Edition, National Public Radio, October 23, 2009, retrieved from www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?


pages: 209 words: 80,086

The Global Auction: The Broken Promises of Education, Jobs, and Incomes by Phillip Brown, Hugh Lauder, David Ashton

active measures, affirmative action, barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, glass ceiling, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market design, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Paul Samuelson, pensions crisis, post-industrial society, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shared worldview, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, zero-sum game

See Ravi Batra, The Pooring of America: Competition and the Myth of Free Trade (New York: Collier Macmillan, 1993). 178 Notes to Pages 105–111 22. Thomas Friedman, The World Is Flat (New York: Penguin, 2005), 230. 23. Scott, The China Trade Toll, 4. Chapter Eight 1. Joseph A. Schumpter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1943), 82. 2. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto (New York: Penguin, 1967), 83. 3. Thomas L. Friedman, “The New Untouchables,” New York Times, October 21, 2009. 4. See Charlie Porter, “Blood on Catwalk as Cutbacks Bite,” The Observer, January 4, 2009. 5. Pat House, interview on BizDaily, BBC World Service, December 30, 2008. 6. James Moore, “Outsourcing Mania Makes Serco a Buy,” The Independent, December 16, 2009. 7. Lawrence Summers, “America Needs to Make a New Case for Trade,” Financial Times, April 28, 2008. 8.


pages: 637 words: 199,158

The Tragedy of Great Power Politics by John J. Mearsheimer

active measures, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, continuation of politics by other means, deindustrialization, discrete time, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, long peace, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, oil shock, Pareto efficiency, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Yom Kippur War

See Andrew Moravcsik, “Taking Preferences Seriously: A Liberal Theory of International Politics,” International Organization 51, No. 4 (Autumn 1997), pp. 513–53. 22. See Michael Howard, War and the Liberal Conscience (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1978). 23. See inter alia Norman Angell, The Great Illusion: A Study of the Relation of Military Power in Nations to Their Economic and Social Advantage, 3d rev. and enl. ed. (New York: G. P. Putnam’s, 1912); Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999); Edward D. Mansfield, Power, Trade, and War (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994); Susan M. McMillan, “Interdependence and Conflict,” Mershon International Studies Review 41, Suppl. 1 (May 1997), pp. 33–58; and Richard Rosecrance, The Rise of the Trading State: Commerce and Conquest in the Modern World (New York: Basic Books, 1986). 24.

And therefore, we and our allies cannot and will not shirk our responsibilities. The state of Kuwait must be restored, or no nation will be safe, and the promising future we anticipate will indeed be jeopardized.” George Bush, “The Need for an Offensive Military Option,” in Micah L. Sifry and Christopher Cerf, eds., The Gulf War Reader: History, Documents, Opinions (New York: Times Books, 1991), p. 229. Also see Thomas L. Friedman, “Washington’s ‘Vital Interests,’” in ibid., pp. 205–6. There is also the possibility that states will bandwagon (in Schweller’s sense of the term) with successful aggressors and cause more war. 64. See Matthew Evangelista, Innovation and the Arms Race: How the United States and the Soviet Union Develop New Military Technologies (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1988); Williamson Murray and Allan R.


pages: 362 words: 83,464

The New Class Conflict by Joel Kotkin

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bob Noyce, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Graeber, deindustrialization, don't be evil, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, energy security, falling living standards, future of work, Gini coefficient, Google bus, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, McJob, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Buchheit, payday loans, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

Hayward, “Bureaucracy In America Now Goes All The Way Down,” Forbes, January 20, 2014, http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevenhayward/2014/01/20/bureaucracy-in-america-now-goes-all-the-way-down; Jaime Fuller, “Everything You Need to Know about the Long Fight between Cliven Bundy and the Federal Government,” The Fix (blog), Washington Post, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-fix/wp/2014/04/15/everything-you-need-to-know-about-the-long-fight-between-cliven-bundy-and-the-federal-government. 35. Peter Orszag, “Too Much of a Good Thing,” New Republic, September 14, 2011, http://www.newrepublic.com/article/politics/magazine/94940/peter-orszag-democracy; Thomas L. Friedman, “Our One-Party Democracy,” New York Times, September 8, 2009. 36. Arnold Toynbee, The Study of History (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1957), p. 376. 37. Norman Birnbaum, The Crisis of Industrial Society (New York: Oxford UP, 1969), p. 13; Hays, The Response to Industrialism, p. 25; Pew Research Religion & Public Life Project, “‘Nones’ on the Rise: One-in-Five Adults Have No Religious Affiliation,” October 9, 2012, http://www.pewforum.org/files/2012/10/NonesOnTheRise-full.pdf. 38.


pages: 288 words: 85,073

Factfulness: Ten Reasons We're Wrong About the World – and Why Things Are Better Than You Think by Hans Rosling, Ola Rosling, Anna Rosling Rönnlund

animal electricity, clean water, colonial rule, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, global pandemic, Hans Rosling, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), jimmy wales, linked data, lone genius, microcredit, purchasing power parity, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steven Pinker, Thomas L Friedman, Walter Mischel

The data comparing energy sources is from Smil, Energy Transitions: Global and National Perspectives (2016). Smil describes the slow transition away from fossil fuels and also debunks myths about food production, innovation, population, and mega-risks. See gapm.io/tene. Future consumers. For an interactive visualization of the graphs on page 138, see gapm.io/incm. Two great books on this are The Post-American World by Fareed Zakaria (2008) and The World Is Flat by Thomas L. Friedman (2005). CO2 per capita. The data on CO2 per capita for China, the United States, Germany, and India comes from CDIAC. See gapm.io/tco2. Chapter Six: The Generalization Instinct Graph: Difference within Africa. For an interactive version of the graph on page 159, see gapm.io/edafr. Contraception. The data comes from UNFPA[1] and UN-Pop[9]. See gapm.io/twmc. Everything is made from chemicals.


pages: 207 words: 86,639

The New Economics: A Bigger Picture by David Boyle, Andrew Simms

Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, congestion charging, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, delayed gratification, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, financial deregulation, financial exclusion, financial innovation, full employment, garden city movement, happiness index / gross national happiness, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, land reform, light touch regulation, loss aversion, mega-rich, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, neoliberal agenda, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, peak oil, pensions crisis, profit motive, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, working-age population

Galbraith (1976) Money: Whence it Came, Where it Went, Penguin Books, London Tom Greco (2001) Money, Chelsea Green, White River Junction Keith Hart (2000) The Memory Bank, Profile, London Doreen Massey (2007) World City, Polity Press, London Peter North (2007) Money and Liberation, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis Ann Pettifor (ed) (2003) Real World Economic Outlook, Palgrave Macmillan, London James Robertson and Joseph Huber (2000) Creating New Money, New Economics Foundation, London Joseph Stiglitz (2007) Making Globalisation Work, Penguin Books, London Notes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Joseph Stiglitz and Linda Bilmes (2008) The Three Trillion Dollar War, Norton, New York. Ann Pettifor (2006) The Coming First World Debt Crisis, Palgrave Macmillan, London. Thomas L. Friedman (1999) The Lexus and the Olive Tree, HarperCollins, London. George Soros, Byron Wien and Krisztina Koenen (1995) Soros on Soros, Wiley, New York. James Tobin (1978) ‘A proposal for international monetary reform’, Eastern Economic Journal, Vol 4, July–October. Paul Krugman (1995) Peddling Prosperity¸ Norton, New York. Jeff Gates (2000) Democracy at Risk: Rescuing Main Street from Wall Street, Perseus, New York.


pages: 297 words: 89,820

The Perfect Thing: How the iPod Shuffles Commerce, Culture, and Coolness by Steven Levy

Apple II, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, en.wikipedia.org, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Kevin Kelly, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, social web, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technology bubble, Thomas L Friedman

Another helpful source on academic podcasts was Brock Read, "Seriously, iPods Are Educational," The Chronicle of Higher Education, March 18, 2005. 245 Georgia College and State University: Greg Bluestein, "Rural college pushed iPod use for lectures," AP, March 11, 2006; and college site, http:// ipod.gcsu.edu/index.html. 246 National Semiconductor: Press release, "National Semiconductor Equips All Employees with 30-Gigabyte Video Apple iPods to Cap Off Most Successful Year in Company's History," June 12,2006. 246 www.toodou.com: Thomas L. Friedman, "Chinese Finding Their Voice," The New York Times, October 21,2005. 247 Even the Vatican: "The Gospel According to iPod," Agence France Presse, October 27,2005. 247 podcast from outer space: "Steve Robinson: First Podcaster from Outer Space" is available at www.nasa.gov/returntoflight/crew/robinson_ podcast.html. Notes Acknowledgments First, I'd like to thank all my iPods, especially my latest one.


pages: 374 words: 89,725

A More Beautiful Question: The Power of Inquiry to Spark Breakthrough Ideas by Warren Berger

Airbnb, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, clean water, disruptive innovation, fear of failure, Google X / Alphabet X, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, new economy, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Thomas L Friedman, Toyota Production System, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator, Zipcar

The Netflix story has appeared in various interviews with Hastings, including Matthew Honan, “Unlikely Places Where Wired Pioneers Had Their Eureka Moments,” Wired, March 24, 2008. 21 to Pixar (Can animation be cuddly?) . . . Anthony Lane, “The Fun Factory,” New Yorker, May 16, 2011. 22 New York Times recently characterized . . . Shaila Dewan, “To Stay Relevant in a Career, Workers Train Nonstop,” New York Times, September 21, 2012. 23 Thomas Friedman has written extensively . . . For example, see Thomas L. Friedman, “It’s a 401(k) World,” New York Times, April 30, 2013. 24 Joichi Ito, the director of the . . . From my interview with Ito, April 2013. 25 “Right now, knowledge is a commodity” . . . From my interview with Tony Wagner, January 2013. 26 “the value of explicit information is dropping” . . . Tony Wagner, Creating Innovators: The Making of Young People Who Will Change the World (New York: Scribner, 2012).


pages: 369 words: 94,588

The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey

accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce

When the architect on the South Korean urban jury said only mental conceptions matter, he was making a very common move doubtless impelled by an understandable desire for simplification. But such simplifications are both unwarranted and dangerously misleading. We are, in fact, surrounded with dangerously oversimplistic monocausal explanations. In his bestselling 2005 book The World is Flat, the journalist Thomas L. Friedman shamelessly espouses a version of technological determinism (which he mistakenly attributes to Marx). Jared Diamond’s Guns, Germs and Steel (1997) argues that the relation to nature is what counts, thus transforming human evolution into a tale of environmental determinism. Africa is poor for environmental reasons, not, he says, because of racial inferiorities or (what he does not say) because of centuries of imperialist plundering, beginning with the slave trade.


Hothouse Kids: The Dilemma of the Gifted Child by Alissa Quart

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, cognitive dissonance, deliberate practice, Flynn Effect, haute couture, helicopter parent, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, War on Poverty

It was said so often that John, without ever thinking about it, had come to believe it himself.” 181sidewalk preacher: Flannery O’Connor, Wise Blood: A Novel (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1962). 181“great fear that haunts evangelical parents”: Randall Balmer, Mine Eyes Have Seen the Glory: A Journey into the Evangelical Subculture in America (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2000). 10. THE PRODIGY HUNTERS: MATH WHIZ KIDS BECOME WALL STREET RECRUITS 191Budunov’s statement echoes the claims of pundits: See Thomas L. Friedman, “Still Eating Our Lunch,” New York Times, September 16, 2005. 191Singaporean eighth-grade students score first in the world in math: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Highlights from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study: TIMSS: 2003 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2003). 191According to a 2002 study: Erling E. Boe, Henry May, and Robert F.


pages: 344 words: 93,858

The Post-American World: Release 2.0 by Fareed Zakaria

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, new economy, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Washington Consensus, working-age population, young professional, zero-sum game

Ambrose, The Good Fight, in Atlantic Monthly, June 2001, p. 103. 9. Naazneen Barma et al., “The World without the West,” National Interest, no. 90 (July/Aug. 2007): 23–30. 10. See a survey from the Economist on “The New Titans” in the Sept. 14, 2006, issue. 11. Jim O’Neill and Anna Stupnytska, The Long-term Outlook for the BRICs and N-11 Post Crisis (Goldman Sachs, Global Eonomics Paper no. 192, Dec. 4, 2009). 12. Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2006), 226. Andy Grove’s statement is quoted in Clyde Prestowitz, Three Billion New Capitalists: The Great Shift of Wealth and Power to the East (New York: Basic Books, 2005), 8. 13. Gabor Steingart, The War for Wealth: Why Globalization Is Bleeding the West of Its Prosperity (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008). 3.


pages: 351 words: 93,982

Leading From the Emerging Future: From Ego-System to Eco-System Economies by Otto Scharmer, Katrin Kaufer

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fractional reserve banking, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, market bubble, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, peak oil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, working poor, Zipcar

Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett, The Spirit Level: Why Equality Is Better for Everyone (New York: Penguin, 2009), 7. 4. Joseph Stiglitz, The Price of Inequality: How Today’s Divided Society Endangers Our Future (New York: W. W. Norton, 2012), 8. 5. Ibid., 17. 6. Arnold J. Toynbee, A Study of History, abridgement of vols. I–VI by D. C. Somervell (Oxford: Oxford University Press, [1946] 1987). 7. We owe this idea to Johan Galtung. 8. Thomas L. Friedman, “The Virtual Middle Class Rises,” New York Times, February 2, 2013, www.nytimes.com/2013/02/03/opinion/sunday/friedman-the-virtual-middle-class-rises.html?ref=thomaslfriedman (accessed March 3, 2013). 9. Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time (Boston: Beacon Press, [1944] 2010). 10. Paul. J. Crutzen et al., “N2O Release from Agro-Biofuel Production Negates Global Warming Reduction by Replacing Fossil Fuels,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 8 (2008): 389–95. 11.


pages: 322 words: 87,181

Straight Talk on Trade: Ideas for a Sane World Economy by Dani Rodrik

3D printing, airline deregulation, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, continuous integration, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, endogenous growth, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, full employment, future of work, George Akerlof, global value chain, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, Kenneth Rogoff, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market clearing, market fundamentalism, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Pareto efficiency, postindustrial economy, price stability, pushing on a string, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Sam Peltzman, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steven Pinker, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, éminence grise

Journal of International Economics, vol. 70(2), 2006: 384–405. 27. Charles Duhigg and Keith Bradsher, “How the U.S. Lost Out on iPhone Work,” New York Times, January 21, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/22/business/apple-america-and-a-squeezed-middle-class.html?pagewanted=all. 28. Edward Leamer, “A Flat World, a Level Playing Field, a Small World After All, or None of the Above? A Review of Thomas L. Friedman’s The World is Flat,” Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 45(1), 2007: 83–126. 29. Kevin Morgan, “The Exaggerated Death of Geography: Learning, Proximity, and Territorial Innovation Systems,” Journal of Economic Geography, vol. 4, 2004: 3–21. 30. Josiah Ober, “Wealthy Hellas,” Presidential Address, Transactions of the American Philological Association, vol. 140, 2010: 241–286. 31. Elie Kedourie, Nationalism, 47. 32.


Hiding in Plain Sight: The Invention of Donald Trump and the Erosion of America by Sarah Kendzior

"side hustle", 4chan, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, borderless world, Chelsea Manning, Columbine, corporate raider, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, Julian Assange, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, new economy, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, QAnon, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, unpaid internship, white flight, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game

Mark Hertsgaard, “Donald Trump’s Favorite Drug Trafficker and Other Unsung Scandals of the Presidency From Hell,” The Nation, March 13, 2018, https://www.thenation.com/article/donald-trumps-favorite-drug-trafficker-and-other-unsung-scandals-of-the-presidency-from-hell/. 59.   George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty-Four (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1949), 222. 3. The 1990s: Elite Exploits of the New World Order   1.   Thomas L. Friedman, “Foreign Affairs Big Mac I,” New York Times, December 8, 1996, https://www.nytimes.com/1996/12/08/opinion/foreign-affairs-big-mac-i.html.   2.   Peter Schwartz and Peter Leyden, “The Long Boom,” Wired, July 1, 1997, https://www.wired.com/1997/07/longboom/.   3.   Jane Meyer, “The Making of the Fox News White House,” New Yorker, March 4, 2019, https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2019/03/11/the-making-of-the-fox-news-white-house.   4.   


pages: 364 words: 99,613

Servant Economy: Where America's Elite Is Sending the Middle Class by Jeff Faux

back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disruptive innovation, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kickstarter, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, McMansion, medical malpractice, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Naomi Klein, new economy, oil shock, old-boy network, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, working poor, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

“Sub-Prime Mortgage Crisis Has Spilled Over Into Home Equity Loans and Lines,” Common Sense Forecaster (blog), January 17, 2008, http://commonsenseforecaster.blogspot.com/2008/01/sub-prime-mortgage-crisis-has-spilled.html. 6. William Cohan, “A Tsunami of Excuses,” New York Times, March 11, 2009. 7. Quoted in Kevin Phillips, Bad Money: Reckless Finance, Failed Politics, and the Global Crisis of American Capitalism (New York: Viking, 2008), 180. 8. Thomas L. Friedman, “Palin’s Kind of Patriotism,” New York Times, October 7, 2008. 9. David Brooks, “Greed and Stupidity,” New York Times, April 2, 2009. 10. Bill Marsh, “A History of Home Values,” New York Times, August 26, 2006, http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2006/08/26/weekinreview/27leon_graph2.large.gif. 11. Joe Nocera, “The Big Lie,”New York Times, December 23, 2011. Italics mine. 12. Duhigg, “Pressured to Take More Risk.” 13.


pages: 289 words: 99,936

Digital Dead End: Fighting for Social Justice in the Information Age by Virginia Eubanks

affirmative action, Berlin Wall, call centre, cognitive dissonance, creative destruction, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of work, game design, global village, index card, informal economy, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, race to the bottom, rent control, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, telemarketer, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban planning, web application, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

In the popular press, accounts of the information economy posit that increased instability and volatility can offer more horizontal forms of power, free workers to retool their skills and renegotiate their work arrangements, and sweep away old forms of inequity.12 The combination of new IT and leaner, neoliberal governance, optimists argue, results in rapidly increasing wealth and flatter hierarchies, although these claims have been somewhat muted in recent years.13 The most popular of these narratives, penned by business writers, futurists, and management gurus, often make it to the bestseller lists, suggesting that they tap into widely held hopes 56 Chapter 4 and beliefs about the power of IT and the new economy to dismantle outof-date institutions, decentralize power, and create broad-based equity.14 For example, Kevin Kelly, executive editor of Wired magazine, argues in his 1998 book, New Rules for the New Economy, that the network economy is based on the principles of flux. He writes, “Change, even in its shocking forms, is rapid difference. Flux, on the other hand, is more like the Hindu god Shiva, a creative force of destruction and genesis. Flux topples the incumbent and creates a platform for more innovation and birth” (10). Thomas L. Friedman makes a similar argument in his 2005 bestseller, The World Is Flat, explaining that digital connectivity produced rapid changes in the last two decades—including the fall of the Berlin Wall, the invention of the Netscape Web browser, and employment practices such as outsourcing and off-shoring—that act as flattening and leveling forces, creating broad-based equity across the globe. He writes, “[F]lattening forces are empowering more and more individuals today to reach farther, faster, deeper, and cheaper than ever before, and this is equalizing power—and equalizing opportunity, by giving so many more people the tools and ability to connect, compete, and collaborate” (x).


Cataloging the World: Paul Otlet and the Birth of the Information Age by Alex Wright

1960s counterculture, Ada Lovelace, barriers to entry, British Empire, business climate, business intelligence, Cape to Cairo, card file, centralized clearinghouse, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, European colonialism, Frederick Winslow Taylor, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Law of Accelerating Returns, linked data, Livingstone, I presume, lone genius, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, Norman Mailer, out of africa, packet switching, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog

In his reflections on the project in 1957, he once again invoked the spirit of the old friend he used to call Saint Paul. “Like a Wandering Jew,” he wrote, “this World City seeks a home.”6 The spirit of internationalism that drove Otlet has not disappeared. From the United Nations and its constellation of affiliated nongovernmental organizations to the steady stream of news articles chronicling the effects of globalization, the evidence for it is everywhere. Thomas L. Friedman and others gave a popular voice to the argument that the Internet and its protocols, coupled with the rise of open-source software, have provided a “crude foundation of a whole new global platform for collaboration.”7 In this networked world, traditional hierarchies—national, organizational, and ontological—are giving way to a “flat” world, characterized by long-distance collaboration, 303 C ATA L O G I N G T H E WO R L D o­ ffshoring, and rapid advances in computing speed and communication protocols.


pages: 309 words: 95,644

On Writing Well (30th Anniversary Edition) by William Zinsser

affirmative action, Alistair Cooke, Donald Trump, feminist movement, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Joan Didion, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, popular capitalism, telemarketer, Thomas L Friedman

Add all the books combining history and biography that have distinguished American letters in recent years: David McCullough’s Truman and The Path Between the Seas; Robert A. Caro’s The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York; Taylor Branch’s Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954–63; Richard Kluger’s The Paper: The Life and Death of the New York Herald Tribune; Richard Rhodes’s The Making of the Atomic Bomb; Thomas L. Friedman’s From Beirut to Jerusalem; J. Anthony Lukas’s Common Ground: A Turbulent Decade in the Lives of American Families; Edmund Morris’s Theodore Rex; Nicholas Lemann’s The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America; Adam Hochschild’s King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa; Ronald Steel’s Walter Lippmann and the American Century; Marion Elizabeth Rodgers’s Mencken: The American Iconoclast; David Remnick’s Lenin’s Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire; Andrew Delbanco’s Melville; Mark Stevens’s and Annalyn Swan’s de Kooning: An American Master.


pages: 382 words: 100,127

The Road to Somewhere: The Populist Revolt and the Future of Politics by David Goodhart

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, central bank independence, centre right, coherent worldview, corporate governance, credit crunch, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, market friction, mass immigration, mittelstand, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, obamacare, old-boy network, open borders, Peter Singer: altruism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, shareholder value, Skype, Sloane Ranger, stem cell, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

, Harvard University and Centre for Economics Policy Research discussion paper, http://drodrik.scholar.harvard.edu/files/dani-rodrik/files/who-needs-the-nation-state.pdf 4.Ivan Krastev, ‘Fear and loathing of a world without borders’, Financial Times, 6 April 2016, https://ft.com/content/328f15da-fa4e-11e5-8f41-df5bda8beb40 5.Alexander Betts and Paul Collier, Refuge: Transforming a Broken Refugee System, London, London: Penguin, forthcoming. 6.Thomas L. Friedman, The World is Flat: The Globalized World in the Twenty-first Century, Penguin, 2007. 7.Pankaj Ghemawat, ‘Distance Still Matters’, Harvard Business Review, September 2001. 8.‘The World Economy Special Report’, The Economist, 1 October 2016. 9.Some 10.7 per cent lived on less than $1.90 a day in 2013. ‘Overview’, The World Bank, www.worldbank.org/en/topic/poverty/overview 10.Adam Corlett, ‘Examining an elephant: Globalisation and the lower middle class of the rich world’ Resolution Foundation, September 2016, www.resolutionfoundation.org/app/uploads/2016/09/Examining-an-elephant.pdf 11.Ibid., p. 33. 12.Douglas Irwin, Free Trade Under Fire, Princeton University Press, 2009. 13.Joao Paulo Pessoa, ‘International Competition and Labor Market Adjustment’, CEP Discusssion Paper No. 1411, March 2016, http://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/dp1411.pdf 14.Dani Rodrik, ‘Who Needs the Nation State?’


pages: 393 words: 91,257

The Coming of Neo-Feudalism: A Warning to the Global Middle Class by Joel Kotkin

Admiral Zheng, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, creative destruction, deindustrialization, demographic transition, don't be evil, Donald Trump, edge city, Elon Musk, European colonialism, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Google bus, guest worker program, Hans Rosling, housing crisis, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, liberal capitalism, life extension, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, megacity, Nate Silver, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Parag Khanna, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, post-work, postindustrial economy, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Sam Altman, Satyajit Das, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator

., 1967), 58–60; Arthur Herman, The Idea of Decline in Western History (New York: Free Press, 1997), 17; Talcott Parsons, “The Distribution of Power in American Society,” in The Power Elite, ed. C. Wright Mills (Boston: Beacon, 1968), 79; J. Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution (New York: New American Library, 1962), 327. 11 C. Wright Mills, The Causes of World War Three (1958; Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1985), 170. 12 Robert B. Reich and Ira C. Magaziner, Minding America’s Business (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1982), 13, 378. 13 Thomas L. Friedman, “Our One-Party Democracy,” New York Times, September 8, 2009, https://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/09/opinion/09friedman.html; John Hudson, “Peter Orszag Is So Over Democracy,” Atlantic, September 26, 2011, https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2011/09/peter-orszag-so-over-democracy/337475/; Joseph C. Sternberg, “The European Union’s Democracy Deficit,” Wall Street Journal, February 15, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-european-unions-democracy-deficit-1518739588. 14 Daniel Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society (New York: Basic Books, 1973), 15, 51, 213, 387. 15 “An hereditary meritocracy,” Economist, January 22, 2015, https://www.economist.com/briefing/2015/01/22/an-hereditary-meritocracy; Kevin Carey, “‘I Do’ Between Elites Widens Class Gap, Researchers Say,” WRAL, March 31, 2018, https://www.wral.com/-i-do-between-elites-widens-class-gap-researchers-say/17456597/. 16 Bell, The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, 427. 17 Michael Lind, “The New Class War,” American Affairs, Summer 2017, https://americanaffairsjournal.org/2017/05/new-class-war; Michael Lind, The New Class War: Saving Democracy from the Managerial Elite (New York: Portfolio, 2020). 18 Charles Murray, Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960–2010 (New York: Crown Forum, 2012), 19–20. 19 Marge Anderson, “The Clergy and the Nobility: The French Revolution,” Big Site of History, June 9, 2008, https://bigsiteofeistory.com/the-clergy-and-the-nobility-the-french-revolution/. 20 Christophe Guilluy, Twilight of the Elites: Prosperity, the Periphery, and the Future of France (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016), 2, 9. 21 U.S.


pages: 484 words: 104,873

Rise of the Robots: Technology and the Threat of a Jobless Future by Martin Ford

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, business cycle, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer age, creative destruction, debt deflation, deskilling, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, Freestyle chess, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gunnar Myrdal, High speed trading, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, McJob, moral hazard, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, optical character recognition, passive income, Paul Samuelson, performance metric, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, precision agriculture, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, reshoring, RFID, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Sam Peltzman, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, strong AI, Stuxnet, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, uber lyft, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, very high income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce

The story of the Stanford AI course is drawn from Max Chafkin, “Udacity’s Sebastian Thrun, Godfather of Free Online Education, Changes Course,” Fast Company, December 2013/January 2014, http://www.fastcompany.com/3021473/udacity-sebastian-thrun-uphill-climb; Jeffrey J. Selingo, College Unbound: The Future of Higher Education and What It Means for Students (New York: New Harvest, 2013), pp. 86–101; and Felix Salmon, “Udacity and the Future of Online Universities” (Reuters blog), January 23, 2012, http://blogs.reuters.com/felix-salmon/2012/01/23/udacity-and-the-future-of-online-universities/. 7. Thomas L. Friedman, “Revolution Hits the Universities,” New York Times, January 26, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/27/opinion/sunday/friedman-revolution-hits-the-universities.html. 8. Penn Graduate School of Education Press Release: “Penn GSE Study Shows MOOCs Have Relatively Few Active Users, with Only a Few Persisting to Course End,” December 5, 2013, http://www.gse.upenn.edu/pressroom/press-releases/2013/12/penn-gse-study-shows-moocs-have-relatively-few-active-users-only-few-persisti. 9.


pages: 380 words: 118,675

The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon by Brad Stone

airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, bank run, Bernie Madoff, big-box store, Black Swan, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, buy and hold, call centre, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, facts on the ground, game design, housing crisis, invention of movable type, inventory management, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kodak vs Instagram, late fees, loose coupling, low skilled workers, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, optical character recognition, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, quantitative hedge fund, recommendation engine, Renaissance Technologies, RFID, Rodney Brooks, search inside the book, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, Skype, statistical arbitrage, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, Tony Hsieh, Whole Earth Catalog, why are manhole covers round?, zero-sum game

., King County Superior Court, case 10-2-12192-7 SEA. 5 Miguel Bustillo and Stu Woo, “Retailers Push Amazon on Taxes,” Wall Street Journal, March 17, 2011. 6 Aaron Glantz, “Amazon Spends Big to Fight Internet Sales Tax,” Bay Citizen, August 27, 2011. 7 Tim O’Reilly, blog post, Google Plus, September 5, 2011, https://plus.google.com/+TimOReilly/posts/QypNDmvJJq7. 8 Zoe Corneli, “Legislature Approves Amazon Deal,” Bay Citizen, September 9, 2011. 9 Bryant Urstadt, “What Amazon Fears Most: Diapers,” Bloomberg Businessweek, October 7, 2010. 10 Nick Saint, “Amazon Nukes Diapers.com in Price War—May Force Diapers’ Founders to Sell Out,” Business Insider, November 5, 2010. 11 Amazon, “Amazon Marketplace Sellers Enjoy High-Growth Holiday Season,” press release, January 2, 2013. 12 Roy Blount Jr., “The Kindle Swindle?,” New York Times, February 24, 2009. 13 Brad Stone, “Amazon’s Hit Man,” Bloomberg Businessweek, January 25, 2012. 14 Thomas L. Friedman, “Do You Want the Good News First?,” New York Times, May 19, 2012. 15 “Contracts on Fire: Amazon’s Lending Library Mess,” AuthorsGuild.org, November 14, 2011. 16 Richard Russo, “Amazon’s Jungle Logic,” New York Times, December 12, 2011. Chapter 11: The Kingdom of the Question Mark 1 George Anders, “Inside Amazon’s Idea Machine: How Bezos Decodes the Customer,” Forbes, April 4, 2012. 2 Amazon’s Leadership Principles, http://www.amazon.com/Values-Careers-Homepage/b?


pages: 385 words: 115,697

The Forever War by Dexter Filkins

animal electricity, friendly fire, Khyber Pass, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Thomas L Friedman

In the Shiite areas like Balad—in halls and venues like the Balad Youth Center—the Iraqis thanked the Americans for their liberation, and their neighborhoods were largely safe and secure. Sassaman’s virtues flourished there: his vision, his intelligence, his tirelessness. When I met him, in October 2003, Sassaman had already dispersed nearly $ 1 million to set up a new government and refurbish mosques and schools. His junior officers were studying Arabic, and Sassaman was halfway through From Beirut to Jerusalem, Thomas L. Friedman’s book on the Middle East. Every Friday, inside a circle of armored personnel carriers, the local Iraqis and the men of Sassaman’s 1-8 battalion would square off for a game of soccer. His men loved him. “It wouldn’t be anything to be out there doing a raid or doing whatever and then a Bradley would pull up behind you and it would be like, who the hell is this?” Captain Matthew Cunningham, a company commander, told me.


pages: 411 words: 114,717

Breakout Nations: In Pursuit of the Next Economic Miracles by Ruchir Sharma

3D printing, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, cloud computing, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, eurozone crisis, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inflation targeting, informal economy, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, land reform, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population, zero-sum game

The book’s greatest strength is its refreshing antidote against herd behaviour and hype.” —Pratap Bahnu Mehta, Indian Express “It is really the focus of economic attention around the world. It is a whole new look at which economies are going to be winners and which are going to be losers.” —NDTV “This is among the best books to understand the emerging world. . . . Sharma matches the brilliance of Thomas L. Friedman, author of the widely cited The World Is Flat.” —CNN-IBN Copyright © 2013, 2012 by Ruchir Sharma All rights reserved First published as a Norton paperback 2013 Photograph credits: p. xii: Michael Nichols / National Geographic / Getty Images; p. 16: Panos Pictures; p. 36: Mary Evans Picture Library; p. 60: Martin Adolfsson / Gallery Stock; p. 74: Jon Lowenstein / Noor Images BV; p. 84: Donald Weber / VII Photo Agency LLC; p. 98: Mark Power / Magnum Photos; p. 112: Redux Pictures LLC; p. 130: Panos Pictures; p. 154: Liu Jin / AFP / Getty Images; p. 172: Benedicte Kurzen / VII Network; p. 186: Panos Pictures; p. 222: Jan Cobb Photography Ltd / Photographer’s Choice / Getty Images; p. 240: Comstock Images / Getty Images.


pages: 450 words: 113,173

The Age of Entitlement: America Since the Sixties by Christopher Caldwell

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, computer age, crack epidemic, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Attenborough, desegregation, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, George Gilder, global value chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, illegal immigration, immigration reform, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, libertarian paternalism, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mortgage tax deduction, Nate Silver, new economy, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, pre–internet, profit motive, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game

as New York mayor Michael Bloomberg discovered: James Crawford, Educating English Learners, 5th ed. (Los Angeles: Bilingual Education Services, 2004). See also Melnick, “The Odd Evolution of the Civil Rights State.” 7. Winners “the only way international competition”: Richard Baldwin, The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press, 2016), 167. “virtual meetings”: Thomas L. Friedman, “It’s a Flat World, After All,” New York Times Magazine, April 3, 2005. By the end of the 1970s: This section draws on the following sources: Christopher Caldwell, “Easy Credit, Hard Landing” [review of/essay on Raghuram Rajan, Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010)], Weekly Standard, July 26, 2010. Christopher Caldwell, “Fannie and Freddie: A Fool’s Errand” [review of Viral Acharya, Matthew Richardson, Stijn van Nieuwerburgh, and Lawrence J.


pages: 443 words: 125,510

The Great Delusion: Liberal Dreams and International Realities by John J. Mearsheimer

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Ayatollah Khomeini, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, Clive Stafford Smith, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, liberal world order, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, Peace of Westphalia, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, Ted Kaczynski, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs

., https://mobile.twitter.com/GeoffPyatt/status/437308686810492929. 67. On the initial decision to expand NATO eastward, see Ronald D. Asmus, Opening NATO’s Door: How the Alliance Remade Itself for a New Era (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002); James M. Goldgeier, Not Whether but When: The U.S. Decision to Enlarge NATO (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1999). 68. Quoted in Thomas L. Friedman, “Foreign Affairs; Now a Word from X,” New York Times, May 2, 1998. 69. “Moscow Looks with Concern at NATO, EU Enlargement—2004-02-17,” Voice of America English News, October 26, 2009. 70. One reason there was so little resistance to NATO expansion is that liberals assumed the alliance would never have to honor its new security guarantees, because the nature of international politics, at least in Europe, had fundamentally changed.


pages: 497 words: 123,778

The People vs. Democracy: Why Our Freedom Is in Danger and How to Save It by Yascha Mounk

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, basic income, battle of ideas, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, clean water, cognitive bias, conceptual framework, David Brooks, deindustrialization, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, investor state dispute settlement, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, land value tax, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, open borders, Parag Khanna, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, price stability, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Conover, Emilio Ferrara, Filippo Menczer, and Alessandro Flammini, “The Digital Evolution of Occupy Wall Street,” PLoS ONE 8, no. 5 (2013); and Munmun De Choudhury, Shagun Jhaver, Benjamin Sugar, and Ingmar Weber, “Social Media Participation in an Activist Movement for Racial Equality,” paper presented at the Tenth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media, Cologne, May 2016. 14. Thomas L. Friedman, “The Square People, Part 1,” New York Times, May 13, 2014, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/14/opinion/friedman-the-square-people-part-1.html. 15. Diamond, “Liberation Technology,” 71. 16. See for example Morozov, Net Delusion; and Evgeny Morozov, “Whither Internet Control?” in Liberation Technology, ed. Diamond and Plattner. 17. See Cass R. Sunstein, Republic.com 2.0. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2009); Elanor Colleoni, Alessandro Rozza, and Adam Arvidsson, “Echo Chamber or Public Sphere?


pages: 627 words: 127,613

Transcending the Cold War: Summits, Statecraft, and the Dissolution of Bipolarity in Europe, 1970–1990 by Kristina Spohr, David Reynolds

anti-communist, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, computer age, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, liberal capitalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nixon shock, oil shock, open borders, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, shared worldview, Thomas L Friedman, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Remarks at Q&A session, 3 December 1989, 1.20 pm on board ‘Gorky’, APP website, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=17900&st=&st1. 20. James A. Baker Papers, Mudd Library, Princeton, NJ (henceforth BP), Box 108, Folder 12, JAB notes from 12/4/89 following POTUS-Gorbachev mtg @Malta, Brussels, Belg. (WEU was the Western European Union.) Underlinings are in the original typescript; italicized phrases and deletions are handwritten additions by Baker. 21. Quotes from Thomas L. Friedman, ‘Baker in Berlin, Outlines Plan To Make NATO a Political Group’, New York Times, 13 December 1989, A1, A18. See also Speech by Secretary of State James Baker to the Berlin Press Club (Extracts), 13 December 2015, printed in Lawrence Freedman, ed., Europe Transformed: Documents on the End of the Cold War (London, 1990), 397–8. 22. Werner Weidenfeld et al., Geschichte der deutschen Einheit, vol. 4—Auβenpolitik für die deutsche Einheit: Die Entscheidungsjahre 1989/90 (Stuttgart, 1998), 179–87.


pages: 378 words: 121,495

The Abandonment of the West by Michael Kimmage

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, City Beautiful movement, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global pandemic, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, Peace of Westphalia, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas L Friedman, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, Washington Consensus

See Philip Zelikow and Condoleezza Rice, Germany Unified and Europe Transformed: A Study in Statecraft (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995). 9. Warren Christopher, Chances of a Lifetime (New York: Scribner’s, 2011), 274. Madeleine Albright thesis, cited in Michael Dobbs, Madeleine Albright: A Twentieth-Century Odyssey (New York: Henry Holt, 1999), 153; Madeleine Albright, “broad-based coalitions,” quoted in Dobbs, Madeleine Albright, 350; on photos in Secretary Albright’s office, see Dobbs, Madeleine Albright, 401 10. See Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree: Understanding Globalization (New York: Picador, 2012). 11. Robert Kaplan, “lifelong Democrat,” in “Looking the World in the Eye,” Atlantic Monthly, December 2001, https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2001/12/looking-the-world-in-the-eye/302354/. 12. Samuel Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996), 13, 20, 19, 28. 13.


pages: 520 words: 129,887

Power Hungry: The Myths of "Green" Energy and the Real Fuels of the Future by Robert Bryce

addicted to oil, Bernie Madoff, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, cleantech, collateralized debt obligation, corporate raider, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, flex fuel, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Menlo Park, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Stewart Brand, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Chapter 10 1 CBSNews.com, “Transcript: Obama’s Earth Day Speech,” April 22, 2009, http://www.cbsnews.com/blogs/2009/04/22/politics/politicalhotsheet/entry4962412.shtml. 2 BBC, “Denmark ‘World’s Happiest Nation,’” July 3, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/7487143.stm. 3 BBC, “Denmark ‘Happiest Place on Earth,’” July 28, 2006, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/5224306.stm. 4 Cal Fussman, “The Energizer,” Discover, February 20, 2006, http://discovermagazine.com/2006/feb/energizer/article_print. 5 Hannah Sentenac, “Denmark Points Way in Alternative Energy Sources,” Fox News, November 28, 2006, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,203293,00.html. 6 Thomas L. Friedman, “Flush with Energy,” New York Times, August 9, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/10/opinion/10friedman1.html?_r=2&oref=slogin. 7 Joshua Green, “The Elusive Green Economy,” Atlantic Monthly, July/August 2009, 79, http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200907/carter-obama-energy. 8 Ibid., 86. 9 Energy Information Administration, “Denmark Energy Profile,” http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/country/country_time_series.cfm?


pages: 458 words: 134,028

Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow's Big Changes by Mark Penn, E. Kinney Zalesne

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, big-box store, call centre, corporate governance, David Brooks, Donald Trump, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, glass ceiling, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, haute couture, hygiene hypothesis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, life extension, low cost airline, low skilled workers, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Rubik’s Cube, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, the payments system, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white picket fence, women in the workforce, Y2K

Life expectancy data come from the Centers for Disease Control: Table 27, “Life Expectancy at Birth, at 65 Years of Age, and at 75 Years of Age, by Race and Sex: United States, Selected Years 1900–2004,” accessed April 2007, at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus06.pdf#027. The Napolitano piece is Peter Napolitano, “Modern Love; Close Enough for Momma, Too Close for Me,” New York Times, December 24, 2006. Figures on the value lost to companies from absentee workers come from Jane Gross, “As Parents Age, Baby Boomers and Businesses Struggle to Cope,” New York Times, March 25, 2006. VI. Politics Impressionable Elites The Friedman book is, of course, Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the 21st Century (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2005). The income data come from David Cay Johnston, “Income Gap Is Widening, Data Shows,” New York Times, March 29, 2007. The PSB poll was 806 telephone interviews among likely 2008 presidential voters, including an oversample of 400 very likely Democratic presidential primary voters. Cited journalists and articles include Mark Leibovich, “Listening and Nodding, Clinton Shapes ’08 Image,” New York Times, March 6, 2007; and Christopher Cooper and Ray A.


pages: 422 words: 131,666

Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-globalists, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, Charles Lindbergh, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, negative equity, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, peer-to-peer, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional, zero-sum game

But the damage was done. 196 These sterile technologies Jonathan Zittrain, The Future of the Internet and How to Stop It (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008). 197 Once high-tech security-minded Patrick McGreevy, “Senate Blocks Mandatory ID Implants,” Los Angeles Times, August 31, 2007, B-3. 198 Current estimates number the Chinese labor David Barboza, “Ogre to Slay? Outsource It to Chinese,” The New York Times, December 9, 2005, Technology section. 200 As seminal essays by Copies of all these essays, and more, are collected in Randall Packer, Ken Jordan, and William Gibson, eds., Multimedia: From Wagner to Virtual Reality (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2001). CHAPTER EIGHT No Returns 209 Addicted to a system in which Thomas L. Friedman, “Et Tu, Toyota?” The New York Times, October 3, 2007, Opinion section. 210 While advertising its own commitment Staff, “Et Tu, Tom Friedman,” Edmunds AutoObserver, October 4, 2007, http://www.autoobserver.com/2007 /10/et-tu-tom-friedman.html (accessed October 5, 2007). 213 In short, small farmers Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (New York: Penguin Group, 2006), 136. 213 publicly traded corporation Whole Foods Market Though swinging wildly along with the stock market, Whole Foods’ stock price multiplied by total number of shares issued has stood between $2 and $5 billion. 213 Thanks to a law written Jack Hedin, “My Forbidden Fruits (and Vegetables),” The New York Times, March 1, 2008, Opinion section. 214 Having spent $855 million Ken Dilanian, “Senators Who Weakened Drug Bill Received Millions from Industry,” USA Today, May 11, 2007, News section. 214 In one recent example “Hidden Drug Payments at Harvard,” The New York Times, June 10, 2008, editorial page. 214 Not only can the FDA seal Johnson & Johnson obscured evidence that its Ortho Evra birth-control patch delivered dangerous amounts of estrogen, but has successfully argued that FDA approval preempts legal liability for deaths and injuries associated with the patch.


pages: 675 words: 141,667

Open Standards and the Digital Age: History, Ideology, and Networks (Cambridge Studies in the Emergence of Global Enterprise) by Andrew L. Russell

American ideology, animal electricity, barriers to entry, borderless world, Chelsea Manning, computer age, creative destruction, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Edward Snowden, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Leonard Kleinrock, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, open economy, packet switching, pre–internet, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, web of trust

., Open Education and Education for Openness (Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers, 2008). 2 Barack Obama, “Transparency and Openness in Government,” The White House, http://www.whitehouse.gov/open (accessed August 19, 2010). 3 Lewis Mumford, “Authoritarian and Democratic Technics,” Technology & Culture 5 (1964): 1–8. See also David E. Nye, “Shaping Communication Networks: Telegraph, Telephone, Computer,” Social Research 64 (1997): 1067–1091. 4 Manuel Castells, The Rise of the Network Society (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1996); Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005); Louis Galambos, “Recasting the Organizational Synthesis: Structure and Process in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries,” Business History Review 79 (2005): 1–37; Louis Galambos, The Creative Society – And the Price Americans Paid for It (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012); Alfred E.


pages: 466 words: 127,728

The Death of Money: The Coming Collapse of the International Monetary System by James Rickards

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, business climate, business cycle, buy and hold, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, complexity theory, computer age, credit crunch, currency peg, David Graeber, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, financial repression, fixed income, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, G4S, George Akerlof, global reserve currency, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invisible hand, jitney, John Meriwether, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, Lao Tzu, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market design, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, reserve currency, risk-adjusted returns, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, Stuxnet, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, working-age population, yield curve

Scott Fitzgerald, The Crack-Up (1936; reprint New York: New Directions, 2009). The bitcoin phenomenon began in 2008 . . . : Satoshi Nakamoto, “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System,” November 1, 2008, http://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf. the history of barter is mostly a myth: David Graeber, Debt: The First 5,000 Years (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Melville House, 2011), pp. 21–41. “Sept. 11 was not a failure of intelligence or coordination . . .”: Thomas L. Friedman, “A Failure to Imagine,” New York Times, May 19, 2002, http://www.nytimes.com/2002/05/19/opinion/a-failure-to-imagine.html. Chapter 11: Maelstrom “The broad question is whether central banks . . .”: Arthur F. Burns, memorandum to President Gerald R. Ford, June 3, 1975, U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian, http://history.state.gov/historicaldocuments/frus1969-76v31/d86.


pages: 442 words: 130,526

The Billionaire Raj: A Journey Through India's New Gilded Age by James Crabtree

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Asian financial crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Branko Milanovic, business climate, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate raider, creative destruction, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, facts on the ground, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global supply chain, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, Joseph Schumpeter, liberal capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, special economic zone, spectrum auction, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, yellow journalism, young professional

Luisa Kroll, “The World’s Billionaires,” Forbes, October 3, 2010. 15. “India’s 100 Richest Are All Billionaires; Mukesh Ambani Tops List,” Indian Express, September 25, 2014. 16. Jayant Sinha, “Share Your Billions with Our Billion,” Outlook Business, November 1, 2008. 17. Ibid. 18. Bremmer, The Fat Tail, p. 196. 19. Rajakumar and Henley, “Growth and Persistence of Large Business Groups in India.” 20. Thomas L. Friedman, “It’s a Flat World, After All,” New York Times, April 3, 2005. 21. Richard Waters, “Business Pioneers in Technology,” Financial Times, March 31, 2015. 22. Foreign Affairs, July–August 2006. 23. James Crabtree, “India’s Billionaires Club,” Financial Times, November 16, 2012. 24. Raghuram Rajan, “Is There a Threat of Oligarchy in India?” September 10, 2008. 25.


pages: 461 words: 128,421

The Myth of the Rational Market: A History of Risk, Reward, and Delusion on Wall Street by Justin Fox

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, asset-backed security, bank run, beat the dealer, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, Brownian motion, business cycle, buy and hold, capital asset pricing model, card file, Cass Sunstein, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, discovery of the americas, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, Edward Thorp, endowment effect, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, fixed income, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, Henri Poincaré, Hyman Minsky, implied volatility, impulse control, index arbitrage, index card, index fund, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Meriwether, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, libertarian paternalism, linear programming, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, market design, Myron Scholes, New Journalism, Nikolai Kondratiev, Paul Lévy, Paul Samuelson, pension reform, performance metric, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pushing on a string, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Richard Thaler, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sharpe ratio, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, stocks for the long run, The Chicago School, The Myth of the Rational Market, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, transaction costs, tulip mania, value at risk, Vanguard fund, Vilfredo Pareto, volatility smile, Yogi Berra

Thaler, “Irving Fisher: Modern Behavioral Economist,” American Economic Review (May 1997): 439–41. 3. The origin of the 401(k) is described in Michael J. Clowes, The Money Flood (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000), 188–89. The story of the rise of “investor nation” is told in depth in Joseph Nocera, A Piece of the Action: How the Middle Class Joined the Money Class (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994). 4. Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York: Anchor Books, Random House, 2000), 58. 5. Quantitative Analysis of Investor Behavior 2003, Dalbar, Inc., July 14, 2003. 6. Chris Flynn, Herbert Lum, DC Plans Under Performed DB Plans (Toronto: CEM Benchmarking, 2006). 7. John J. Curran, “Why Investors Make the Wrong Choices,” Fortune, Nov. 24, 1986; Clint Willis, “The Ten Mistakes to Avoid with Money,” Money, June 1990. 8.


pages: 483 words: 134,377

The Tyranny of Experts: Economists, Dictators, and the Forgotten Rights of the Poor by William Easterly

"Robert Solow", air freight, Andrei Shleifer, battle of ideas, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, discovery of the americas, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, greed is good, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, M-Pesa, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, place-making, Ponzi scheme, risk/return, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, young professional

William Easterly, “Benevolent Autocrats,” DRI Working Paper Number 75, Development Research Institute, New York University, New York, NY, 2011. 7. Nancy Birdsall and Francis Fukuyama, “The Post-Washington Consensus: Development After the Crisis,” Foreign Affairs 90, no. 2 (March/April 2011): 51. Available at: http://iis-db.stanford.edu/pubs/23124/foreignaffairs_postwashingtonconsensus.pdf, accessed August 31, 2013. 8. Thomas L. Friedman, “Our One-Party Democracy,” New York Times (September 8, 2009). Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/09/opinion/09friedman.html?_r=0, accessed August 31, 2013. 9. United Kindgom Department for International Development, Ethiopia Country Page, http://www.dfid.gov.uk/ethiopia, accessed January 14, 2013. 10. US Agency for International Development, Ethiopia (USAID Ethiopia), Country Development Cooperation Strategy 2011–2015: Accelerating the Transformation Toward Prosperity, March 2012, page 3; http://ethiopia.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/images/CDCS-Ethiopia.pdf, accessed September 12, 2013. 11.


Super Continent: The Logic of Eurasian Integration by Kent E. Calder

3D printing, air freight, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business intelligence, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, colonial rule, Credit Default Swap, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, energy transition, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial cluster, industrial robot, interest rate swap, intermodal, Internet of things, invention of movable type, inventory management, John Markoff, liberal world order, Malacca Straits, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, money market fund, moral hazard, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, supply-chain management, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, trade route, transcontinental railway, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, union organizing, Washington Consensus, working-age population, zero-sum game

For the 2008 acquisition, see “India’s ONGC Buys into Russian Oil Sector with Takeover of British Energy Company,” Nikkei Weekly, February 2, 2009; “Energy: Indian Suitor Wins 1.4bn Bid Battle for Imperial Oil,” Guardian, August 27, 2008. 42. John Ryan, “The Iran Nuclear Deal and Asia,” National Bureau of Asian Research, January 2016, http://​nbr​.org/​downloads/​pdfs/​psa/​sa15​_essay​_iran​_jan2016​.pdf; and Hrishabh Sandilya, “India, Iran, and the West,” The Diplomat, November 9, 2014, http://​ thediplomat​.com/​2014/​11/​india​-iran​-and​-the​-west/. 43. See Thomas L. Friedman and Michael Mandelbaum, That Used to Be Us: How America Fell Behind in the World It Invented and How We Can Come Back (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011). 44. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) was signed into law in 2003. See Henry J. Aaron, “Prescription Drug Bill: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly,” The Brookings Institution, January 15, 2004, https://​www​.brookings​ .edu/​articles/​prescription​-drug​-bill​-the​-good​-the​-bad​-and​-the​-ugly. 45.


pages: 523 words: 148,929

Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100 by Michio Kaku

agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, blue-collar work, British Empire, Brownian motion, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, DARPA: Urban Challenge, delayed gratification, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, friendly AI, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hydrogen economy, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of movable type, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, John von Neumann, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, mass immigration, megacity, Mitch Kapor, Murray Gell-Mann, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, social intelligence, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Turing machine, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Walter Mischel, Whole Earth Review, X Prize

Holstein, “To Gauge the Internet, Listen to the Steam Engine,” New York Times, August 26, 2001, http:­/­/­www.­nytimes.­com/­2001/­08/­26/­business/­26SVAL.­html­?scp=1&­sq=%22to%20gauge%20the%20internet%22&­st=cse. ­ ­3 “attribute 90 percent of income growth in England and the United States”: Virginia Postrel, “Avoiding Previous Blunders,” New York Times, January 1, 2004, www.­nytimes.­com/­2004/­01/­01/­business/­01scene.­html. ­ ­4 “A century ago, railroad companies”: Ibid. ­ ­5 “In the 19th century”: Thomas L. Friedman, “Green the Bailout,” New York Times, September 28, 2008, p. WK11, www.­nytimes.­com/­2008/­09/­28/­opinion/­28friedman.­html. ­ ­6 From 1900 to 1925, the number of automobile start-up companies: Steve Lohr, “New Economy; Despite Its Epochal Name, the Clicks-and-Mortar Age May Be Quietly Assimilated,” New York Times, October 8, 2001, www.­nytimes.­com/­2001/­10/­08/­business/­new-­economy-­despite-­its-­epochal-­name-­clicks-­mortar-­age-­may-­be-­quietly.­html­?


pages: 532 words: 155,470

One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness

active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War

His frustration stemmed from being expected to pay for the crew’s transportation both to and from the workshop (a whopping 20 cents per ride), even though Calfee bikes (i.e., the frame, front fork, and paint job) retail for no less than $2,000, with most hovering around the $3,000–$6,000 range. See “Ghana Bamboo Bike Journal, February 2008 Trip,” Calfee Design, available at http://www.calfeedesign.com/Ghana2008.htm. Thomas l. Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century (new york: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007), 537. The literal dogma of free market capitalism is perhaps best articulated by an executive at Opportunity international (the company formerly run by Eric Thurman, coauthor of A Billion Bootstraps): “Serving the poor is an act of worship. Every time you serve the poor, you express your love for Jesus.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Kathryn Ware, “Coursera Co-founder Reports on First 10 Months of Educational Revolution,” UVA Today, February 21, 2013, http://curry.virginia.edu/articles/coursera-co-founder-reports -on-first-10-months-of-educational-revolution (accessed November 8, 2013); “Courses,” Coursera, 2013, https://www.coursera.org/courses, (accessed November 12, 2013). 14. Cindy Atoji Keene, “A Classroom for the Whole World,” Boston Globe, May 19, 2013, http://www.bostonglobe.com/business/specials/globe-100/2013/05/18/edx-president-anant-agarwal -aims-reach-billion-students-around-world/Kv5DZOiB0ABh84F4oM8luN/story.html (accessed October 30, 2013); Thomas L. Friedman, “Revolution Hits the Universities,” New York Times, January 26, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/27/opinion/sunday/friedman-revolution -hits-the-universities.html?_r=0 (accessed October 31, 2013). 15. Cadwalladr, “Do Online Courses Spell the End.” 16. Ibid. 17. Josh Catone, “In the Future, The Cost of Education Will Be Zero,” Mashable, July 24, 2013, http://mashable.com/2009/07/24/education-social-media/ (accessed August 6, 2013). 18.


pages: 590 words: 153,208

Wealth and Poverty: A New Edition for the Twenty-First Century by George Gilder

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, cleantech, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, Gunnar Myrdal, Home mortgage interest deduction, Howard Zinn, income inequality, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, medical malpractice, minimum wage unemployment, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, non-fiction novel, North Sea oil, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, price stability, Ralph Nader, rent control, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, volatility arbitrage, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, yield curve, zero-sum game

Rockefeller, Nelson Romero Barcelo, Carlos Roth, William Rouse, James rule-and-consent systems Ryan, Paul S Said, Edward Salomon, Richard San Diego (California) Sarbanes-Oxley Saudi Arabia The Savage Mind (Claude Levi-Strauss) savings, decline of desire for insurance and Keynes and rates wealth and See also Investment savings accounts Sawyer, John Say, Jean-Baptiste Say’s Law Schlafly, Phyllis Schmidt, Eric Schuettinger, Robert Schultz, Howard Schumpeter, Joseph Schwarzenegger, Arnold scientific breakthroughs s-curves of growth Seattle (Washington) secondary sector jobs security segregation bilingual education and Seldon Technologies semiconductors Senate Budget Committee Senate Finance Committee services, productivity of sexuality and poverty sexual liberation Sexual Suicide (George Gilder) Shackle, George Shamir, Yithzak Shockley, William shopping centers Sierra Club silicon chip Silicon Valley Singapore sinks of purchasing power Sismondi, Simonde de Siuai “Skinner box,” Smith, Adam Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act socialism attitude toward businessmen critique of capitalism demise of hostility to spirit of giving priority of demand under See also Communism social security sociology sociology of despair Software Garden Solomon Islands Solow, Robert Solyndra Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr South civil rights movement and Southwest Airlines Soviet Union Sowell, Thomas space program Spain speculation Spitzer, Elliott Sprague, Peter Sprague Electric company Starbucks Star Wars (film) state college and university system statistical distributions, illusions of statistics of crisis Steiger, William Steiger Amendment Stein, Herbert Steyn, Mark Stockman, David stock market The Studio (John Gregory Dunne) subsidies suffrage, limitations on The Suicide of a Superpower (Patrick Buchanan) sumps of wealth supply curves supply-side economics Susu Sutton, Percy Sweden Switzerland T Taiwan take-home pay Tanamoshi Tanous, Peter Tanzi, Vito targeted approach to promoting investment tariffs tax brake theory taxes and taxation bureaucracy and cuts in deficit spending and destructive effect of government and high level of, in US. hikes in inflation and inflationary effects of necessity for tax cuts policy progressive rates the rich and shelters women workers and See also Capital gains taxes taxflation tax-push concept tax revolt technostructure Tehran telecommunications tenure Texas Instruments Thatcher, Margaret That Used to Be Us (Thomas L. Friedman and Michael Mandelbaum) Theory of Moral Sentiments (Adam Smith) thermodynamics Third World Thomas, Franklin thrift paradox of Thurow, Lester Tiger, Lionel time, as capital role in upward mobility time pinch Tocqueville, Alexis de tokenism Tolstoy, Leo total capital formation Toxic Substances Control Act trade international policies transfer payments treasury guarantees Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) Truman, Harry Trump, Donald Tucker, William Turkey Two Cheers for Capitalism (Irving Kristol) U underground economy unemployment among blacks among youth credentialism and demand-oriented politics and government approach to male in Massachusetts unemployment compensation The Unheavenly City (Edward Banfield) unions.


pages: 537 words: 158,544

Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order by Parag Khanna

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, different worldview, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, land reform, low cost airline, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pax Mongolica, Pearl River Delta, pirate software, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Potemkin village, price stability, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

Kennedy School of Government, 2003); Khalil Shikaki, Building a State, Building Peace: How to Make a Roadmap That Works for Palestinians and Israelis (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2003). 10. In spending over $100 million per year on education, Jordan spends more on education per student than almost any country in the world. 11. Muhamad Magraby, “Some Impediments to the Rule of Law in the Middle East and Beyond,” Fordham International Law Journal 26, no. 3 (March 2003): 777. 12. Thomas L. Friedman, From Beirut to Jerusalem (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1989), 214. 13. P. W. Singer, “Mike Tyson and the Hornet’s Nest: Military Lessons of the Lebanon Crisis,” Brookings Institution, August 1, 2006. 14. Muhamad Mugraby, “Lebanon, a Wholly Owned Subsidiary,” Middle East Quarterly, March 1998. 15. Lawrence, Seven Pillars of Wisdom, 131. 24. THE FORMER IRAQ: BUFFER, BLACK HOLE, AND BROKEN BOUNDARY 1.


Globalists: The End of Empire and the Birth of Neoliberalism by Quinn Slobodian

Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, Hernando de Soto, invisible hand, liberal capitalism, liberal world order, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, Mercator projection, Mont Pelerin Society, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Pearl River Delta, Philip Mirowski, price mechanism, quantitative easing, random walk, rent control, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, special economic zone, statistical model, The Chicago School, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, zero-sum game

Regierungserklärung des Bundeskanzlers Gerhard Schröder (SPD), “Mut zum Frieden und zur Veränderung,” March 14, 2003, http://­w ww​.­documentArchiv​.­de​ /­brd​/­2003​/­rede​_­schroeder​_­03​-­14​.­html. 3. Quoted in Wolfgang Streeck, Buying Time: The Delayed Crisis of Demo­cratic Capitalism (New York: Verso, 2014), 213. 4. Chakravarthi Raghavan, “Trade: The Empire Strikes Back,” SUNS—­South North Development Monitor, September 20, 1999; Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, ­Empire (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000). 5. See Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-­First ­Century (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005). 6. Rajesh Venugopal, “Neoliberalism as Concept,” Economy and Society 44, no. 2 (2015): 181. See also Bill Dunn, “Against Neoliberalism as a Concept,” Capital and Class, November 23, 2016, https://­doi​.­org​/­10​.­1177​/­0309816816678583. 7. Jonathan D. Ostry, Prakash Loungani, and Davide Furceri, “Neoliberalism: Oversold?


The State and the Stork: The Population Debate and Policy Making in US History by Derek S. Hoff

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Alfred Russel Wallace, back-to-the-land, British Empire, business cycle, clean water, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, feminist movement, full employment, garden city movement, George Gilder, Gunnar Myrdal, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, New Economic Geography, new economy, old age dependency ratio, Paul Samuelson, peak oil, pensions crisis, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, War on Poverty, white flight, zero-sum game

Marc Linder, The Dilemmas of Laissez-Faire Population Policy in Capitalist Societies: When the Invisible Hand Controls Reproduction (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1997), chap. 5. 14. Gunnar Myrdal, “Population Problems and Policies,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 197 (May 1938): 200. 15. Linder, Dilemmas of Laissez-Faire Population Policy, esp. preface. 16. Thomas L. Friedman, Hot, Flat, and Crowded: Why We Need a Green Revolution—and How It Can Renew America (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008). 17. For example, see Gary S. Becker, Edward L. Glaeser, and Kevin M. Murphy, “Population and Economic Growth,” American Economic Review 89 (May 1999): 145–49. 18. Jared Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (New York: Viking, 2005), explores demographically induced calamity in Rwanda (chap. 10). 19.


pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

., 108. 109 Neither of them mentions: I’m thankful to Joshua Cohen for helping to crystallize my thinking on this issue. 109 Such plebiscites exert a paralyzing effect on the state: for an excellent discussion of plebiscite-driven politics, see Yannis Papadopoulos, “Analysis of Functions and Dysfunctions of Direct Democracy: Top-Down and Bottom-Up Perspectives,” Politics & Society 23 (December 1995): 421–448. 110 “what Amazon.com did to books”: Thomas L. Friedman, “Make Way for the Radical Center,” New York Times, July 23, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/24/opinion/sunday/24friedman.html. 111 “10,000 clicks from 10 states”: Lawrence Lessig, “The Last Best Chance for Campaign Finance Reform: Americans Elect,” The Atlantic, April 25, 2012, http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2012/04/the-last-best-chance-for-campaign-finance-reform-americans-elect/256361 . 111 Cue the Shirky-esque tone of Mark Zuckerberg’s remarks in 2008: see his interview with Sarah Lacy at SXSW 2008.


pages: 533

Future Politics: Living Together in a World Transformed by Tech by Jamie Susskind

3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airport security, Andrew Keen, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, automated trading system, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, British Empire, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, cellular automata, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, continuation of politics by other means, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google bus, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, mittelstand, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, night-watchman state, Oculus Rift, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, payday loans, price discrimination, price mechanism, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Mercer, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selection bias, self-driving car, sexual politics, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, technological singularity, the built environment, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, universal basic income, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population

Jamie Condliffe, ‘Chip Makers Admit Transistors Are About to Stop Shrinking’, MIT Technology Review, 25 July 2016 <https://www. technologyreview.com/s/601962/chip-makers-admit-transistorsare-about-to-stop-shrinking/?> (accessed 28 November 2017); Tom Simonite, ‘Moore’s Law is Dead. Now What?’ MIT Technology Review, 13 May 2016 <https://www.technologyreview.com/s/601441/ moores-law-is-dead-now-what/> (accessed 28 November 2017); Thomas L. Friedman, Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist’s Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2016), 43; Tim Cross, ‘Beyond Moore’s Law’, in Megatech: Technology in 2050, ed. Daniel Franklin (New York: Profile Books, 2017), 56–7. 52. Shanahan, Technological Singularity, 160; Kelly, What Technology Wants, 166. 53. Friedman, Thank You for Being Late, 21. 54. Kristian Vättö, ‘Samsung SSD 850 Pro (128GB, 256GB & 1TB) Review: Enter the 3D Era’, AnandTech, 1 July 2014 <http://www. anandtech.com/show/8216/samsung-ssd-850-pro-128gb-256gb1tb-review-enter-the-3d-era> (accessed 28 November 2017); Intel, ‘New Technology Delivers an Unprecedented Combination of Performance and Power Efficiency’, Intel 22 NM Technology <http:// www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/silicon-innovations/ intel-22nm-technology.html> (accessed 28 November 2017). 55.


pages: 565 words: 164,405

A Splendid Exchange: How Trade Shaped the World by William J. Bernstein

Admiral Zheng, asset allocation, bank run, Benoit Mandelbrot, British Empire, call centre, clean water, Columbian Exchange, Corn Laws, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, domestication of the camel, double entry bookkeeping, Eratosthenes, financial innovation, Gini coefficient, God and Mammon, ice-free Arctic, imperial preference, income inequality, intermodal, James Hargreaves, John Harrison: Longitude, Khyber Pass, low skilled workers, non-tariff barriers, Paul Samuelson, placebo effect, Port of Oakland, refrigerator car, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, working poor, zero-sum game

Thus, an annual income of one hundred dinars corresponds to about $8,000 per year in today's currency. 12. Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976), I: 17. 13. Paul Mellars, "The Impossible Coincidence. A Single-Species Model for the Origins of Modem Human Behavior in Europe," Evolutionary Anthropology, 14:1 (February, 2005): 12-27. 14. Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005). 15. Warmington, 35-39; see also William H. McNeill, Plagues and Peoples (New York: Anchor, 1998), 128. 16. Warmington, 279-284. See also Ian Carapace, review of Roman Coins from India (Paula J. Turner) in The Classical Review, 41 (January 1991): 264-265. 17. Alfred W. Crosby, The Columbian Exchange (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1973), 75-81. 18.


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Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Charles Lindbergh, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, disruptive innovation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kangaroo Route, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, kremlinology, low cost airline, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Calthorpe, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, starchitect, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

You’re going to get hammered on the environmental front and the noise, and we’re going to come bitch at you because you’re driving prices up, and because there’s not enough checkout lanes, and would you like to sign up for this?’ And the mayor says, ‘Absolutely! We already have an airport like that, so why not get into the grocery business!’ ” We laughed, but it wasn’t that funny. America’s airports are a joke to its citizens, while foreign visitors see them as symptoms of some deeper malaise. LAX is bad enough, but New York’s airports are even worse. “Fly from Zurich’s ultramodern airport to La Guardia’s dump,” Thomas L. Friedman challenged his readers in The New York Times. “It is like flying from the Jetsons to the Flintstones.” The Financial Times’s John Gapper sin-gled out New York’s other airport: “If anyone doubts the problems of U.S. infrastructure, I suggest he or she take a flight to John F. Kennedy airport (braving the landing delay), ride a taxi on the pot-holed and congested Brooklyn-Queens Expressway and try to make a mobile phone call en route.”


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The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and Its Dangerous Legacy by David Hoffman

active measures, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, failed state, joint-stock company, Kickstarter, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, standardized shipping container, Stanislav Petrov, Thomas L Friedman, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, zero-sum game

Feoktistov: A Self-Portrait and Reminiscences] (Moscow: Voskresenye Press, 2003). 4 Avrorin, the Chelyabinsk director, sent his first e-mail in April. Cochran correspondence files, 1991-1992. 5 James A. Baker III, The Politics of Diplomacy: Revolution, War and Peace, 1989-1992 (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1995), pp. 614-616. This account is based on my notes and account in the Washington Post, "Atom Scientists at Ex-Soviet Lab Seek Help; Baker Hears Appeals on Tour of Arms Complex," Feb. 15, 1992, p. A1; Thomas L. Friedman, "Ex-Soviet Atom Scientists Ask Baker for West's Help," New York Times, Feb. 15, 1992, p. 1. 6 "Moscow Science Counselors Meeting," State Department cable, Jan. 31, 1992. 7 "Comprehensive Report of the Special Advisor to the DCI on Iraq's WMD," CIA, Sept. 30, 2004. 8 Glenn E. Schweitzer, who became the first executive director of the science center, said these were his best estimates. Moscow DMZ (Armonk, N.Y.: M.


The Chomsky Reader by Noam Chomsky

American ideology, anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, British Empire, business climate, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, interchangeable parts, land reform, land tenure, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, theory of mind, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, War on Poverty, zero-sum game, éminence grise

Israel & Palestine, July-August 1982. Sartawi’s relations with the PLO had been stormy. While he was regularly defended by Arafat against the “radicals” and rejectionists, his conflicts with them were sufficiently harsh so that he occasionally resigned from the National Council, with varying interpretations as to what had in fact occurred. See TNCW, pp. 443–44 for a mid-1981 example. See also Thomas L. Friedman, “A P.L.O. Moderate Resigns in Protest,” New York Times, February 21, 1983, reporting at length Sartawi’s resignation from the National Council once again after he was prevented from addressing the group (the resignation was not accepted; see Trudy Rubin, Christian Science Monitor, March 11, 1983; it is also worth noting that Labor party leader Shimon Peres had succeeded in preventing him from speaking at the Socialist International meeting, just prior to his assassination).


The Code: Silicon Valley and the Remaking of America by Margaret O'Mara

"side hustle", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, Byte Shop, California gold rush, carried interest, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer age, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deindustrialization, different worldview, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Frank Gehry, George Gilder, gig economy, Googley, Hacker Ethic, high net worth, Hush-A-Phone, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Paul Terrell, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the market place, the new new thing, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Y Combinator, Y2K

Brennan, “Advanced Technology Center”; William Chapman, “High Stakes Race: Japanese Search for Breakthrough in Field of Giant Computers,” The Washington Post, February 27, 1978. 6. Chalmers Johnson, MITI and the Japanese Miracle: The Growth of Industrial Policy, 1925–1975 (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1982); Judith Stein, Pivotal Decade: How the United States Traded Factories for Finance in the Seventies (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2010). 7. Thomas L. Friedman, “Silicon Valley’s ‘Underworld,’” The New York Times, December 3, 1981, B1; “Valley of Thefts,” Time, December 14, 1981, 66; D. T. Friendly and Paul Abramson, “In Silicon Valley, Goodbye, Mr. Chips,” Newsweek, May 12, 1980, 78. 8. Regis McKenna, interviews with the author, December 3, 2014, and May 31, 2016. 9. Hearings on H.R. 5805 “Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979,” Subcommittee on Economic Stabilization, Committee on Banking, Finance, and Urban Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-sixth Congress, First Session, October 19, 1979; Charles K.


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The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution by Francis Fukuyama

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, endogenous growth, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, invention of agriculture, invention of the printing press, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, means of production, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, principal–agent problem, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Right to Buy, Scramble for Africa, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), spice trade, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996). 19 See Charles Gati, “Faded Romance,” American Interest 4, no. 2 (2008): 35–43. 20 Walter B. Wriston, The Twilight of Sovereignty (New York: Scribner, 1992). 21 This can be read, among other places, at http://w2.eff.org/Censorship/Internet_censorship_bills/barlow_0296.declaration. 22 See the chapter “The Golden Straitjacket” in Thomas L. Friedman, The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999), pp. 99–108. 23 See, for example, Ron Paul, End the Fed (New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2009); Charles Murray, What It Means to Be a Libertarian: A Personal Interpretation (New York: Broadway Books, 1997). 24 See Francis Fukuyama, ed., Nation-Building: Beyond Afghanistan and Iraq (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006). 25 “Getting to Denmark” was actually the original title of Lant Pritchett and Michael Woolcock’s “Solutions When the Solution Is the Problem: Arraying the Disarray in Development” (Washington, D.C.: Center for Global Development Working Paper 10, 2002). 26 Economic growth theories under titles like Harrod-Domar, Solow, and endogenous growth theory, are severely reductionist and are of questionable value in explaining how growth actually happens in developing countries. 27 A number of observers have made this argument, beginning with Herbert Spencer in the nineteenth century, continuing through Werner Sombart, John Nef, and Charles Tilly.


pages: 669 words: 210,153

Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss

Airbnb, Alexander Shulgin, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, lateral thinking, life extension, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, post scarcity, post-work, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

We don’t have another one.’ [The organizer] said, ‘Play the first one again.’” Fifty Shades of Chicken That’s the title of Shaun’s “most-gifted” book. Totally serious. I assumed it would be a complete joke, but it has nearly 700 reviews on Amazon and a 4.8-star average. The Law of Category “In the world of ideas, to name something is to own it. If you can name an issue, you can own the issue.” —Thomas L. Friedman I constantly recommend that entrepreneurs read The 22 Immutable Laws of Marketing by Al Ries and Jack Trout, whether they are first-time founders or serial home-run hitters launching a new product. “The Law of the Category” is the chapter I revisit most often, and I’ve included a condensed version below. It was originally published in 1993, so some of the “today” references are dated, but the principles are timeless.


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Hard Landing by Thomas Petzinger, Thomas Petzinger Jr.

airline deregulation, buy and hold, centralized clearinghouse, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, cross-subsidies, desegregation, Donald Trump, feminist movement, index card, low cost airline, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, price stability, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, the medium is the message, The Predators' Ball, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, yield management, zero-sum game

Air Florida Flight 90: The account of the crash is based mostly on the Aircraft Accident Report of the National Transportation Safety Board, NTSB-AAR-82-8, Aug. 10, 1982. Additional insights were obtained from an excellent reconstruction in Nance, Blind Trust. 5. after leaving Braniff: Though not affirming legal travails as the reason for his departure from Braniff, Acker provided the details of his post-Braniff career in the 6/3/93 interview. 6. reminded Acker of … Southwest: Ibid. 7. “worse than dope”: Quoted in “At the Controls of Pan Am,” by Thomas L. Friedman, NYT, Aug. 28, 1981. 8. controlling interest: Acker’s turnaround moves at Air Florida were detailed in the Acker interviews of 1/7/93 and 6/3/93 and, among other places, in “Air Florida, Soaring Out of Obscurity, Becomes Profitable, Feisty Contender,” by Roger Thurow, WSJ, Aug. 17, 1978; and Friedman, NYT, Aug. 28, 1981; “Air Florida’s Fortunes Soar in Six Market Areas,” by Joseph S. Murphy, Airline Executive, May 1980. 9.


pages: 828 words: 232,188

Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy by Francis Fukuyama

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, Atahualpa, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, information asymmetry, invention of the printing press, iterative process, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour management system, land reform, land tenure, life extension, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, means of production, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, Nelson Mandela, new economy, open economy, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, Port of Oakland, post-industrial society, post-materialism, price discrimination, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Oswald Spengler, The Decline of the West (New York: Knopf, 1926); Arnold Toynbee, A Study of History (London: Oxford University Press, 1972); Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000 (New York: Random House, 1987); Diamond, Collapse. 16. Samuel P. Huntington, “Political Development and Political Decay,” World Politics 17, (no. 3) (1965). 17. See Fukuyama, Origins of Political Order, chap. 2. 18. Diamond, Collapse, pp. 136–56. 19. See for example Fareed Zakaria, The Post-American World (New York: Norton, 2003); Thomas L. Friedman and Michael Mandelbaum, That Used to Be Us: How America Fell Behind in the World It Invented and How We Can Come Back (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011); Edward Luce, Time to Start Thinking: America in the Age of Descent (New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2012); Josef Joffe, The Myth of America’s Decline: Politics, Economics, and a Half Century of False Prophecies (New York: Liveright, 2014). 32: A STATE OF COURTS AND PARTIES 1.


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Why the West Rules--For Now: The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal About the Future by Ian Morris

addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Doomsday Clock, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Flynn Effect, Francisco Pizarro, global village, God and Mammon, hiring and firing, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, market bubble, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, out of africa, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pink-collar, place-making, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Sinatra Doctrine, South China Sea, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, upwardly mobile, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

We cleared a broad firebreak around our home against future blazes and in the end had only one really close call before the rains came. Or perhaps I should say before the rains finally came: the active fire season in the western United States is now seventy-eight days longer than it was in the 1970s. The typical fire burns five times as long as it did thirty years ago. And firefighters predict worse to come. All this comes under the heading of what the journalist Thomas L. Friedman has called “the really scary stuff we already know.” Much worse is what he calls “the even scarier stuff we don’t know.” The problem, Friedman explains, is that what we face is not global warming but “global weirding.” Climate change is nonlinear: everything is connected to everything else, feeding back in ways too bewilderingly complex to model. There will be tipping points when the environment shifts abruptly and irreversibly, but we don’t know where they are or what will happen when we reach them.


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Empire of Things: How We Became a World of Consumers, From the Fifteenth Century to the Twenty-First by Frank Trentmann

Airbnb, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, clean water, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equity premium, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial exclusion, fixed income, food miles, full employment, germ theory of disease, global village, haute cuisine, high net worth, income inequality, index card, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, labour mobility, libertarian paternalism, Livingstone, I presume, longitudinal study, mass immigration, McMansion, mega-rich, moral panic, mortgage debt, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, profit motive, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, stakhanovite, the built environment, the market place, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade liberalization, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game

In 2004, quoted in Choon-Piew Pow, ‘Constructing a New Private Order: Gated Communities and the Privatization of Urban Life in Post-reform Shanghai’, in: Social & Cultural Geography (2007) 8/6, 813–33, at 826. 54. China Business Weekly, 7–13 Aug. 2006, 9. 55. http://residence.net.cn/main.htm. 56. 2004, quoted in Deborah Davis, ‘Urban Consumer Culture’, in: China Quarterly, 2005: 692–709, 706. See also: Deborah S. Davis, ed., The Consumer Revolution in Urban China (Berkeley, CA, 2000). 57. Thomas L. Friedman, The World is Flat: A Brief History of the Globalized World in the Twenty-first Century (London, 2005). 58. Shunya Yoshimi, ‘Consuming America, Producing Japan,’ in: Garon & Maclachlan, eds., Ambivalent Consumer, 64. 59. Harootunian, Overcome by Modernity, esp. chs. 2–3. 60. Shunya Yoshimi, ‘Consuming America, Producing Japan’, in: Garon and Maclachlan, eds., Ambivalent Consumer, ch. 3. See also: Shunya Yoshimi, ‘Made in Japan: The Cultural Politics of “Home Electrification” in Post-war Japan ,’ in: Media, Culture & Society 21, no. 2, 1999: 149–71. 61.


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The Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East by Robert Fisk

Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Farzad Bazoft, friendly fire, Howard Zinn, IFF: identification friend or foe, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, music of the spheres, Ronald Reagan, the market place, Thomas L Friedman, Transnistria, unemployed young men, uranium enrichment, Yom Kippur War

(n.) 470 “these people who were shot”: Interview with Bassam Abu Sharif, Ramallah, 8 August 2001. 474 “What should the residents”: Ha’aretz, 12 August 2001. 477 “There are qualities”: Sayed Hassan Nasrallah, interviewed by the author, Beirut to Bosnia: Muslims and the West, a Personal Journey by Robert Fisk of The Independent, dir. Michael Dutfield (Baraclough Carey/Chameleon), 1993, Episode 1, “The Martyr’s Smile.” (n.) 478 “as an Israeli”: Hass interview, 18 August 2001. (n.) 479 The most shameful explanation: See International Herald Tribune , 1 April 2002, “Suicide Bombers Threaten Us All,” by Thomas L. Friedman, reprinted from New York Times. (n.) 479 “we have been disturbed to find”: The Friend (London), 26 July 2002, also quoting Amnesty report from Gaza. 489 Some of Israel’s “targeted killing”: Vanity Fair, January 2003, “Israel’s Payback Principle,” by David Margolick. 489 “there is no language known”: Mail on Sunday (London), 23 September 2001, “You know the problem, now hear the facts,” by Stewart Steven. 489 “culture that glorifies depravity”: Irish Times, 6 October 2003, “Palestinian regime’s murky terror links,” by Mark Steyn. 490 called for the execution of family members: See Forward, 7 June 2002, “Top Lawyer Urges Death For Families of Bombers,” by Ami Eden.