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Cape Town After Apartheid: Crime and Governance in the Divided City by Tony Roshan Samara
conceptual framework, deglobalization, ghettoisation, global village, illegal immigration, late capitalism, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, structural adjustment programs, unemployed young men, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, working poor
The result of this process, unveiled in February 2001, was the Cape Flats Renewal Strategy (CFRS), a joint effort led by the provincial government and involving also the municipal government, local communities, and the private sector in implementing an integrated and multisectoral approach to development on the Cape Flats. The CFRS was intended to combat crime on the Flats in line with directives laid out in the National Crime Prevention Strategy (NCPS) and to complement the National Urban Renewal Programme (NURP). It was linked, at least conceptually, to the urban renewal process under way in the city center through its incorporation of the spatial governance model of reclaiming and revitalizing key geographic nodes. The CFRS, like the central city’s improvement district model, also foregrounds crime and security, making very clear that its primary task of urban renewal is to address the “gang phenomenon.” The goal here, according to law enforcement and political authorities, is not simply a “cleanup” for which a “broken window” strategy will suffice, though it will have a role to play.
Critics from township communities and from many civil society organizations that were focused on crime reduction, rehabilitation, and development claimed that implementation was tilted from the start in favor of police priorities, with social crime prevention efforts losing out to aggressive, deterrence-oriented hard policing tactics that leaned too heavily on the use of overwhelming force. In the process, social development, including youth development, while still a goal of urban renewal on the Flats, was neglected in practice. For too many young people in the townships, as the arrest statistics in the preceding chapter indicate, the primary experience they had with the new strategy was through the police. Policing was quickly becoming the central mechanism in the urban renewal program and a primary institution mediating relations between the state and the people, as the police not so quietly slipped into the role of de facto agents of underdevelopment. Understanding how and where young people fit into urban renewal on the Cape Flats—the focus of the next chapter— thus turns on an understanding of how gangsterism and policing have come to largely define the parameters of development practice in this vast territory to the east of the city’s core.
Central to understanding this process is the concept of social order. Urban renewal under conditions of neoliberalism is best understood as a sociospatial ordering project, but one that manifests differently in 106 â•‡ ·â•‡ Gangsterism and the Policing of the Cape Flats different urban spaces. The role of policing in developing the city center mirrors urban renewal in South Africa as a whole, where both conceptually and practically it provides for the police to play a central role in the transition away from the urban geography of apartheid, in whose creation and reproduction they also figured prominently, and toward a new democratic division of space and distribution of resources. Unlike in the past, however, the role of the police is not to enforce an urban renewal whose goal is to pacify the population. Rather, law enforcement is meant to participate in a process of reform that incorporates less militaristic, human security perspectives in approaching crime and security challenges.
City: Urbanism and Its End by Douglas W. Rae
agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business climate, City Beautiful movement, complexity theory, desegregation, edge city, ghettoisation, income per capita, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, manufacturing employment, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Works Progress Administration
The accounting and regulatory processes are intricate beyond ordinary understanding, but the big story is that Lee and Logue could export nearly all the net costs of renewal work. At the same time, the state of Connecticut had, with some urging from Lee, passed Public Act 24 (1958), Public Act 8 (1958), and Public Act 594 (1961) offering state funding for the local share of specified aspects of urban renewal.19 The net effect of these machinations is that the local percentage of total urban renewal costs was very low indeed. City urban renewal cash spending from locally generated revenues appears to have amounted to as little as 5 percent of total urban renewal costs during the Lee era as a whole. Not only was the funding largely beyond the pockets of New Haven voters, it was largely beyond the control of city government at large. Funds came directly into the accounts of the Redevelopment Agency and provided Logue and his successors with considerable leverage in dealing with budgets.
But, most of all, a large number of mainly Italian-American whites were lost to the neighborhood in a very short period of time.44 A major residential story in late twentieth-century New Haven is the decentralization of white households and their replacement by people of color—but on a rough two-for-three basis, two new families of color for three departed white families basis—so that total population in the central city diminished pretty steadily over the decades. Did urban renewal and highway construction cause these shifts? I do not think so, at least not in any simple way. These changes were 342 E X T R A O R D I N A R Y P O L I T I C S under way long before Lee came to power in 1954, and they have continued since. The earliest instances of “white flight” trace to the 1920s, long before blacks arrived in numbers and long before urban renewal began.45 One could say that the visibility of urban renewal, reinforcing the certification of workingclass neighborhoods as slums, may have sent a signal that encouraged departure. And, certainly, the highways made it easier to move into relatively distant suburbs and still hold on to a city job. These are credible guesses. What can be said with complete confidence is that urban renewal failed to reverse the growing trend toward the suburbanization of whites, most notably middle-class whites.
This story, titled “Snow Tickets,” evokes the older habits of urbanism that came under so much pressure at mid-century, and it introduces the politician who would dramatically attempt to renew the city when he was elected mayor. xiv P R E F A C E Chapters 9 and 10 are about the Dick Lee era, urban renewal, and the realization that the city was not going to return to its former glory even with massive federally funded intervention. The first of these chapters tells the story of a growing rivalry between Irish and Italian groups in city politics, and of Lee’s eventual uneasy marriage of the two groups in the Democratic Party. It also tells how Lee came to be an advocate of urban renewal, and how the idea of the “slumless city” emerged from his early career. Chapter 10 tells the story of Lee as mayor. In this period Lee overcame many of the limitations of city government by creating parallel institutions, funded externally and managed by technocrats whose aims and loyalties had nothing to do with city politics. His urban renewal effort was run from what he called the Kremlin, dominated by Ed Logue and other brilliant, often Yale-educated figures who were able to operate almost entirely outside normal political constraints.
City for Sale: The Transformation of San Francisco by Chester W. Hartman, Sarah Carnochan
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, business climate, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Loma Prieta earthquake, manufacturing employment, new economy, New Urbanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, young professional
Traditional controls of public power, so endemic in American government, run a little thin with these agencies.1 The SFRA was established in 1948 in anticipation of passage by Congress of the 1949 Housing Act, which introduced the urban renewal program. Like redevelopment bodies in general, SFRA is a semiautonomous entity with vast independent legal, ﬁnancial, and technical powers and 15 16 / Chapter 2 resources. Its commissioners are appointed by the mayor and conﬁrmed by the Board of Supervisors. During the heyday of urban renewal—the 1960s and ﬁrst half of the 1970s—the agency had access to massive sums of federal funds; between 1959 and 1971, it was able to secure $128 million in federal urban renewal dollars for the city. Its relative freedom from local control and its direct access to federal money tended to reduce city hall control over its activities. Its large technical staff developed an exclusive familiarity with the complex arcana of federal urban renewal statutes and administrative regulations.
The ratio of annual administrative budget to total grant was 1:77 for Pittsburgh and 1:55 for Boston, while San Francisco had a 1:22 ratio. 7. For portraits of the few ﬁgures in the urban renewal game who rivaled Herman, see (on Robert Moses) Jeanne Lowe, Cities in a Race with Time (New York: Random House, 1967), 45 – 109, and Robert Caro, The Power Broker: Robert Moses and the Fall of New York (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974); (on Edward Logue) Richard Schickel, “New York’s Mr. Urban Renewal,” New York Times Magazine (1 March 1970). See also Jewel Bellush and Murray Hausknecht, eds., “Entrepreneurs and Urban Renewal: The New Men of Power,” in Urban Renewal: People, Politics and Planning (New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1967), 289 – 97. Further description of Herman is found in William Lilley III, “Herman Death Ends an Era,” National Journal (18 September 1971): 1939.
Without the land, the scheme was only so much paper. Here, as in many similar situations, the ideal solution seemed to be the urban renewal program, but the program was available only for “blighted” areas, and, according to the City Planning Department, Swig’s original four blocks did not qualify. One large area South of Market had been approved earlier as a possible urban renewal project. Known as Area D, it was farther from Market Street and the central business district and thus less attractive to private developers than the blocks Swig proposed. City planning director Paul Oppermann had studied the Swig area and reported that two of the four original blocks were only 10 percent blighted. Oppermann determined that to use urban renewal to erect the center in these blocks would be a perversion of the program’s purpose, and he recommended that development of Swig’s area be left to the private market.
Creating Unequal Futures?: Rethinking Poverty, Inequality and Disadvantage by Ruth Fincher, Peter Saunders
barriers to entry, ending welfare as we know it, financial independence, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, minimum wage unemployment, New Urbanism, open economy, pink-collar, positional goods, purchasing power parity, shareholder value, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban planning, urban renewal, very high income, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population
A second, but less pronounced, perception related to the southern growth corridor (Woree and Edmonton, in particular) and the housing affordability, employment insecurity and transport problems faced by residents. Manifestations of disadvantage, however, distinguish these two localities, as discussed below. Because the areas are delimited sections of larger ABS spatial aggregates (such as postcodes or statistical local areas), the presence and level of disadvantage can only be gleaned through local knowledge and on-site visits. Public housing and urban renewal The planned urban renewal of Manoora surfaced in each interview as a major initiative to tackle the spatial expression of conspicuous inequalities in Cairns. During the discussions, however, it became clear that Manoora was grouped in people’s perceptions with Mooroobool and Manunda, two other areas of public housing concentration located in the same central Cairns postcode zone. Approximately half the public rental stock in Cairns converges within postcode 4870 containing Manoora, Mooroobool and Manunda (Figure 6.5).
These seemingly disadvantaged suburbs are situated prominently alongside high-cost real estate in the city, producing stark spatial juxtapositions of low- and highcost housing. Manoora, for example, is overlooked in many spots by extremely expensive housing. This appears to be a product of the city’s topography—leafy hillside suburbs edge the lower income plains suburbs in many spots and new semi-gated communities of high-cost housing sit up the hill from areas of cheaper homes. Urban renewal refers to the current strategy of Australian State housing authorities that aims to address the concentration of disadvantage on public housing estates. Urban renewal initiatives can take a number of forms including upgrading ageing public dwellings, demolishing stock, selling off some public housing and/or relocating tenants. But overall, this policy has been ‘little 174 PDF OUTPUT c: ALLEN & UNWIN r: DP2\BP4401W\MAIN p: (02) 6232 5991 f: (02) 6232 4995 36 DAGLISH STREET CURTIN ACT 2605 174 MOVING IN AND OUT OF DISADVANTAGE debated or systematically analysed’ (Arthurson 1998, p. 35), although the policy impetus clearly derives from concern over the lack of social mix in public housing estates.
They are thus implicated in two forms of mobility—they are destinations in regional in-migration to Cairns, and they are places of ‘churn’ in housing. The Urban Renewal Program for Manoora follows Housing Queensland policy in recommending that no more than 20 per cent of houses in any one area contain public housing residents (referred to, rather innocently in the interviews, as the ‘salt and pepper’ approach). Based on the philosophy that concentrations of poor people ‘stigmatise’ communities, the government aims to 175 PDF OUTPUT c: ALLEN & UNWIN r: DP2\BP4401W\MAIN p: (02) 6232 5991 f: (02) 6232 4995 36 DAGLISH STREET CURTIN ACT 2605 175 CREATING UNEQUAL FUTURES? ‘scatter’ low-income families throughout Cairns, particularly through the southern growth corridor. Relocating residents, one community worker said, ‘provides people with a new start’. Another social service professional echoed this sentiment and said ‘urban renewal will make a difference to the quality of lives’.
The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler
A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration
But whatever soulless little bottom-line god the Ramada executives pray to told them that Saratoga's main street was of no importance in the corporation's grand scheme to maximize their profits, so they of fered four blank brown fire doors and those lovely ventilation grilles. Meanwhile, the hotel's main entrance on the parking lot side of the building is connected to the life of the town only by cars. Facing this main entrance are blocks and blocks that were designated an urban renewal zone in the 1960s. Here stood little stores with dwellings up stairs (i. e . , affordable housing), public amenities like saloons and lunch rooms, and even a sprinkling of small factories or workshops. Here lived the shop clerks, laborers, small artisans, and in some cases the owner of the business below. All the urban renewal blocks on each side of Broadway were turned into parking lots. In twenty years, not a single new building has gone up on them. As a result the business district has been reduced pretty much to one street : Broadway. Wherever arson has eliminated a build ing on Broadway in the past fifteen years, the property has been turned into yet another parking lot, which is to say a little dead noplace be tween the buildings.
In fact, part of the Corbu doctrine of the Esprit Nouveau, as filtered through Corbu Purism, was a rejection of decorative art per se. Except that for all his rejection of decorative art, his pavilion ended up being about style anyway : the style of no style. In a decade preoccupied with glamour, what could be more chic? The pavilion held another curiosity : an exhibit of Le Corbusier's Plan Voison, a fanciful urban renewal scheme to bulldoze the Marais district of Paris-a massive historic chunk of the city a stone's throw from the Louvre that included the Place de Bastille and the old Palais Royale (Place de Vosges )-and replace it with a gargantuan "Radiant City" complex of twenty-four sixty-story high-rises set amid parklike grounds and served by limited-access automobile roads. Sound familiar? The Esprit Nouveau house was largely ignored, or laughed at, and yet in five years the reductive, industrially inspired manner of building that it illustrated-as promoted also by Gropius, his Bauhaus colleague Lud wig Mies van der Rohe, Bruno and Max Taut, J.
In a peculiar way, /America seemed eager to emulate the postwar devastation of European \cities, to envy their chance to clear away the rubble and begin again. Bulldozing the entire downtown of a Worcester, Massachusetts, or a 7 8 _ Y E S T E R D A Y ' S T O M O R R O W New Haven, Connecticut, and starting over from scratch, didn't seem like such a bad idea. Americans certainly did not respond to the postwar "urban renewal" schemes with anything like the gape-mouthed horror of Parisians contemplating Corbu's plan Voison in 1925. Finally, the Radiant City appealed to all the latent Arcadian yearnings in our culture. It was the old romantic idea-going back to William Penn---of combining the urban with the rural, of living close to nature, of creating a city out of buildings in a park. That it might end up, in practice, as "buildings in a parking lot," as Lewis Mumford put it, was a possibility that planners and architects did not admit.
Planet of Slums by Mike Davis
barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, centre right, clean water, conceptual framework, crony capitalism, declining real wages, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, failed state, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, jitney, Kibera, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, megacity, microcredit, New Urbanism, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent control, structural adjustment programs, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor
Architect David Glasser visited a former single-family villa in Quito, for example, that housed 25 families and 128 people but had no functioning municipal services.40 Although rapidly being gentrified or torn down, some of Mexico City's vedndades are still as crowded as Casa Grande, the famous tenement block housing 700 people which anthropologist Oscar Lewis made famous in The Children of Sanche% (1961).41 In Asia the equivalents are the decayed (and now municipalized) ^amindar mansions of Kolkata and the poetically named "slum gardens" of Colombo which constitute 18 percent of the city's rundown housing.42 The largest-scale instance, although now reduced in size and population by urban renewal, is probably Beijing's inner slum, the Old City, which consists of Ming and Qing courtyard housing lacking modern facilities.43 Often, as in Sao Paulo's once-fashionable Campos Eliseos or parts of Lima's colonial cityscape, whole bourgeois neighborhoods have devolved into slums. In Algiers's famous seaside district of Bab-elOued, on the other hand, the indigenous poor have replaced the colon working class.
After a final defiance — the bulldozing of Colonia Santa Ursula in Ajusco in 29 Young and Turner, The Rise and Decline of the Zairian State, p. 98; Deborah Posel, "Curbing African Urbanization in the 1950s and 1960s," in Mark Swilling, Richard Humphries, and Khehla Shubane (eds), Apartheid City in Transition, Cape Town 1991, pp. 29-30. 30 Carole Rakodi, "Global Forces, Urban Change, and Urban Management in Africa," in Rakodi, The Urban Challenge in Africa, pp. 32-39. 31 Urban Planning Studio, Columbia University, Disaster-Resistant Caracas, New York 2001, p. 25. September 1966 - he was deposed by President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, a politician notorious f or his many ties to foreign capital and land speculators. A fast-growth agenda that included tolerance for pirate urbanization on the periphery in return for urban renewal in the center became the PRI policy in La Capital.32 A generation after the removal of barriers to influx and informal urbanization elsewhere, China began to relax its controls on urban growth in the early 1980s. With a huge reservoir of redundant peasant labor (including more than half of the labor force of Sichuan, according to the People's Daily) the loosening of the bureaucratic dike produced a literal "peasant flood."33 Officially sanctioned migration was overshadowed by a huge stream of unauthorized immigrants or "floaters."
Two residents were shot dead; the rest were trucked out to the countryside, 40 kilometers from their old homes, and left to fend for themselves.28 The most extraordinary contradictions between residual ideology and current practice, however, are enacted in China, where the still putatively "socialist" state allows urban growth machines to displace millions of history's former heroes. In a thought-provoking article comparing recent inner-city redevelopment in the PRC to urban renewal in the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s, Yan Zhang and Ke Fang claim that Shanghai forced the relocation of more than 1.5 million citizens between 1991 and 1997 to make way for skyscrapers, luxury apartments, malls, and new infrastructure; in the same period nearly 1 million residents of Beijing's old city were pushed into the outskirts 29 In the beginning, urban redevelopment in Deng Xiaoping's China, as in Harry Truman's America, consisted of pilot housing projects that seemed to pose little threat to the traditional urban fabric.
affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional
He ended up preferring pay raises to strikes, and the increasing costs of city government were then hidden with increasingly creative bookkeeping, which led straight to New York’s near bankruptcy in 1975. Cavanagh’s fatal flaw was his penchant for razing slums and building tall structures with the help of federal urban-renewal dollars. Detroit’s housing market had peaked in the 1950s and was already depressed when Cavanagh took office. The city was shedding people and had plenty of houses. Why subsidize more building? Successful cities must build in order to accommodate the rising demand for space, but that doesn’t mean that building creates success. Urban renewal, in both Detroit and New York, may have replaced unattractive slums with shiny new buildings, but it did little to address urban decline. Those shiny new buildings were really Potemkin villages spread throughout America, built to provide politicians with the appearance of urban success.
We mustn’t ignore the needs of the poor people who live in the Rust Belt, but public policy should help poor people, not poor places. Shiny new real estate may dress up a declining city, but it doesn’t solve its underlying problems. The hallmark of declining cities is that they have too much housing and infrastructure relative to the strength of their economies. With all that supply of structure and so little demand, it makes no sense to use public money to build more supply. The folly of building-centric urban renewal reminds us that cities aren’t structures; cities are people. After Hurricane Katrina, the building boosters wanted to spend hundreds of billions rebuilding New Orleans, but if $200 billion had been given to the people who lived there, each of them would have gotten $400,000 to pay for moving or education or better housing somewhere else. Even before the flood, New Orleans had done a mediocre job caring for its poor.
The Renaissance Center dominates the skyline. Riding on the People Mover feels like a trip to Disney World, if Disney World were in the middle of a desperate city. But as in other declining places, billions were spent on infrastructure that the city didn’t need. Unsurprisingly, providing more real estate in a place that was already full of unused real estate was no help at all. The failures of urban renewal reflect a failure at all levels of government to realize that people, not structures, really determine a city’s success. Could an alternative public policy have saved Detroit? By the time Young was elected, Detroit was far gone, and I suspect that even the best policies could only have eased the city’s suffering. But it is possible to imagine a different path, if it was taken during earlier decades, when the city was far richer.
Anton Chekhov, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, fear of failure, Jane Jacobs, jitney, megastructure, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, rent control, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal
“They were using the development designation as a carrot to try to get us to agree to the low values,” says Robert Brandt, who directed the family’s real estate operations. “The numbers they were putting on the table for our properties were grossly inadequate.” The Brandts fought back in letters to the editor and op-ed articles; they hired a prominent social scientist to trumpet the evils of urban renewal; and they ended with a fusillade of litigation. The implacable opposition of the Brandts and other powerful real estate forces demonstrates why it was so difficult to use urban renewal laws to revitalize Times Square: the state was seizing property with great current economic value and even greater potential value. If the state had to pay what the owners considered fair value, the project would never happen. But the battle also proved why forceful state action was necessary. The businesses that catered to Times Square’s population did very well; they had no more incentive to enter a more respectable line of work that would draw different customers than opium farmers have to grow wheat.
I love overhearing conversations in the subway. I love the accidental quality of city life, the incongruous and the surreal. And to say that you love cities is to say that you love old cities, for only cities built before the advent of the automobile have the density that makes these myriad accidents and incongruities possible. (I do not love thee, Phoenix.) Jane Jacobs, that great champion of cities and dauntless foe of urban renewal, believes in density to the exclusion of almost everything, including open space and grass. And when I think of Times Square during the epoch I am most inclined to sentimentalize—the era of Damon Runyon and A. J. Liebling, the era just before and after 42nd Street—I think of an infinitely dense and busy asphalt village, or even a series of micro-villages, such as Jacobs loves, in the space of a few blocks.
The prize would not necessarily go to the best or most popular idea— Alexander Parker, after all, had no plans to ask anybody whether they wanted a convention center—so the debate over the redevelopment of 42nd Street was also a struggle over who had “the public interest” at heart, and who would be able to impose that vision. It is quite possible that there were no good answers to the problem of re-creating 42nd Street. There were only answers that would disappoint different people, in different ways. ALEXANDER PARKER’S BULLDOZER approach was already becoming passé by the mid-1970s, for the excesses of “urban renewal” had convinced even the most pragmatic that cities could not survive the wholesale destruction of their history and texture. Now 42nd Street began to attract reformers who recognized that the block still had a life of its own, and who thus wanted to rejuvenate rather than flatten it. In 1976, just as Parker was wowing the business press with his grandiose plans, an advertising executive and urban gadfly named Fred Papert was establishing the 42nd Street Development Corporation in hopes of revitalizing the western end of the street.
Free to Choose: A Personal Statement by Milton Friedman, Rose D. Friedman
affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, bank run, banking crisis, Corn Laws, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, invisible hand, labour mobility, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, school vouchers, Simon Kuznets, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration
The apartments are on the average subsidized in the amount of more than $200 per month. "Director's Law" at work again. Urban renewal was adopted with the aim of eliminating slums—"urban blight." The government subsidized the acquisition and clearance of areas to be renewed and made much of the cleared land available to private developers at artificially low prices. Urban renewal destroyed "four homes, most of them occupied by blacks, for every home it built—most of them to be occupied by middle- and upper-income whites."18 The original occupants were forced to move elsewhere, often turning another area into a "blighted" one. The program well deserves the names "slum removal" and "Negro removal" that some critics gave it. The chief beneficiaries of public housing and urban renewal have not been the poor people. The beneficiaries have, rather, been the owners of property purchased for public housing or located in urban renewal areas; middle- and upper-income families who were able to find housing in the high-priced apartments or townhouses that frequently replaced the low-rental housing that was renewed out of existence; the developers and occupants of shopping centers constructed in urban areas; institutions such as universities and churches that were able to use urban renewal projects to improve their neighborhoods.
The beneficiaries have, rather, been the owners of property purchased for public housing or located in urban renewal areas; middle- and upper-income families who were able to find housing in the high-priced apartments or townhouses that frequently replaced the low-rental housing that was renewed out of existence; the developers and occupants of shopping centers constructed in urban areas; institutions such as universities and churches that were able to use urban renewal projects to improve their neighborhoods. As a recent Wall Street Journal editorial put it, The Federal Trade Commission has looked into the government's housing policies and discovered that they are driven by something more than pure altruism. An FTC staff policy briefing book finds that the main thrust seems to come from people who make money building housing—contractors, bankers, labor unions, materials suppliers, etc.
Allen Wallis put it in a somewhat different context, socialism, "intellectually bankrupt after more than a century of seeing one after another of its arguments for socializing the means of production demolished—now seeks to socialize the results of production." 2 In the welfare area the change of direction has led to an explosion in recent decades, especially after President Lyndon Johnson declared a "War on Poverty" in 1964. New Deal programs of Social Security, unemployment insurance, and direct relief were all expanded to cover new groups; payments were increased; and Medicare, Medicaid, food stamps, and numerous other programs were added. Public housing and urban renewal programs were enlarged. By now there are literally hundreds of government welfare and income transfer programs. The Department of Health, Education and Welfare, established in 1953 to consolidate the scattered welfare programs, began with a budget of $2 billion, less than 5 percent of expenditures on national defense. Twenty-five years later, in 1978, its budget was $160 billion, one and a half times as much as total spending on the army, the navy, and the air force.
The death and life of great American cities by Jane Jacobs
City Beautiful movement, Golden Gate Park, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen
Van R. 252 Prado (Boston) 102 Primary uses 150; chap 8; 9, 10, 12,13.333-385.393 Privacy 56, sSff, 6^, -ji Private spaces 35ff, 79ff, 107, 217 Problem uses 230, 234 Promenades, see Malls Prospect Park (NY) 90 Public buildings 129, 381, see also Landmarks Public characters 68ff, 394, 399^ Public housing, see Housing and its subheads, especially Housing projects Public life chap 3; 279, 354 Public responsibility 82£F Public space 29, 35ff, 394 Public transportation 369, see also Buses; Traffic Puerto Ricans no, 136, 283, 306 Quick-take laws 315 Racial Discrimination, see Segrega- Radburn (NJ) 18 Radiant City 2 iff, 42, 50, 93, 106, 185,342,360,371,374,436 Radiant Garden City 25, 45, 47-8, 50, 79, 102, 287, 300, 305, 417 Railroad tracks 257ff, 261, 264 Rapkin, Dr. Chester A. 302 Raskin, Eugene 224, 229 Ratcliff, Richard i65ff Rats 334 Redevelopment, see Urban renewal Regional Plan Association of New York 84, 336, 389 Regional planning i9ff, 2i9ff, 289 Reichek, Jesse 77 Renewal, see Urban renewal Rent 326ff, 401 Restaurants, see Stores Rittenhouse Square (Philadelphia) 89, 92ff, 96ff, 102, io4ff, 121, 175, 185, 202, 203, 207, 211, 227 Riverside Drive (NY) 204 Rockefeller Plaza (NY) 89, 104, no, 181, 386,439 Rogan, Jimmy 54 Roosevelt, Mrs. Eleanor 13 5 Rouse, James 335 Roxbury (Mass) 33ff, 203 Rubinow, Raymond 12 7 Rush, Dr.
Reap they the field that is none of theirs, strip they the vineyard wrongfully seized from its owner . . . A cry goes up from the city streets, where wounded men lie groaning . . . If so, he was also thinking of New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Washington, St. Louis, San Francisco and a number of other places. The economic rationale of current city rebuilding is a hoax. The economics of city rebuilding do not rest soundly on reasoned investment of public tax subsidies, as urban renewal theory proclaims, but also on vast, involuntary subsidies wrung out of helpless site victims. And the increased tax returns from such sites, accruing to the cities as a result of this "investment," are a mirage, a pitiful gesture against the ever increasing sums of public money needed to combat disintegration and instability that flow from the cruelly shaken-up city. The means to planned city rebuilding are as deplorable as the ends.
And by analogy, the principles of sorting out—and of bringing order by repression of all plans but the planners'—have been easily extended to all manner of city functions, until today a land-use master plan for a big city is largely a matter of proposed placement, often in relation to transponation, of many series of decontaminated sortings. From beginning to end, from Howard and Bumham to the latest amendment on urban-renewal law, the entire concoction is irrelevant to the workings of cities. Unstudied, unrespected, cities have served as sacrificial victims. Part One THE PECULIAR NATURE OF CITIES The uses of sidewalks: safety Streets in cities serve many purposes besides carrying vehicles, and city sidewalks—the pedestrian parts of the streets—serve many purposes besides carrying pedestrians. These uses are bound up with circulation but are not identical with it and in their own right they are at least as basic as circvdation to the proper workings of cities.
Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer
affirmative action, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional
Competing Interests and Divergent Needs Almost every day, somewhere in Toronto, Vancouver, New York, or Chicago, there is a community meeting about building a suburban mall, establishing a mosque, or organizing a shelter for the homeless. In these meetings, divergent conceptions of what is needed and how to develop it emerge, reflecting the differences of class, culture, and race of the proponents. This was what bedevilled the urban renewal programs of the 1960s and 1970s,5 and it continues to resonate in current controversies concerning gentrification and area development. With immigration and the consequent explosion of ethno-racial diversity, the differences of community interests have also taken on the cultural colours and politics of identity. An Asian mall is proposed in the San Gabriel Valley, Los Angeles County, and political battle lines are drawn between the Chinese community and the long-established White suburbanites.
It has experimented with various organizational models for the planning and implementation of slum improvement programs. They have ranged from public-sponsored mega-projects, to public-private consortiums and community-managed development and delivery of services. These tools and lessons continue to be a part of urban planning’s repertoire for slum improvement and overcoming social deprivation. One lesson that came out of the urban renewal programs of the 1960s and 1970s is that physical rebuilding alone is not enough for overcoming slum conditions. There have to be simultaneous efforts for social reconstruction and empowering people through the provision of social services and community organization. The physical and social-development programs have to be interlinked to unfold a process of comprehensive community renewal. Another lesson from the earlier programs is that the large-scale clearance of slums tears apart viable communities and displaces long-settled residents, and so has to be avoided.
This policy helps mix social classes and ethno-racial groups. Yet one need not be a Pollyanna about the promise of such strategies. The displacement and squeezing of minorities, particularly Blacks and Latinos in US cities and poor immigrants in Canada, continues to be the fallout from the public and private redevelopment of deprived neighbourhoods. Redevelopment occurs in spoonfuls rather than in the massive doses of the urban renewal programs. Community-based social development in poor neighbourhoods is another strategy commonly used in deprived neighbourhoods and areas of ethno-racial concentrations. Toronto has a network of multiservice neighbourhood centres in Malvern, Thorncliffe, Fairlawn, Davenport, and other poor neighbourhoods of immigrants. These centres offer youth counselling, job search assistance, English language classes, seniors’ clubs, settlement assistance, after-school programs, and so on.
Machinery of Freedom: A Guide to Radical Capitalism by David Friedman
back-to-the-land, Fractional reserve banking, hiring and firing, jitney, laissez-faire capitalism, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, means of production, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Stewart Brand, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog
Here again, I know of no precise calculations that have measured the overall effect. One could list similar programs for many pages. State universities, for instance, subsidize the schooling of the upper classes with money much of which comes from relatively poor taxpayers. Urban renewal uses the power of the government to prevent slums from spreadinAg, a process sometimes referred to as 'preventing urban blight'. For middle-class people on the border of low-income areas, this is valuable protection. But 'urban blight' is precisely the process by which more housing becomes available to low-income people. The supporters of urban renewal claim that they are improving the housing of the poor. In the Hyde Park area of Chicago, where I have lived much of my life, they tore down old, low-rental apartment houses and replaced them with $30,000 and $40,000 town houses.
'Gift, Sale, Payment, Raid: Case Studies in the Negotiation and Classification of Exchange in Medieval Iceland', Speculum, 61 (1986). Miller is a law professor who has written extensively on Medieval Iceland. He writes as a legal scholar not an economist, and his conclusions are not always the same as mine. Public Policy Martin Anderson, The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal, 1949-1962 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1964). The book that showed what urban renewal does to, not for, the poor. Leslie Chapman, Your Disobedient Servant (London: Chatto and Windus, 1978). A fascinating first-hand account of the mechanics of Friedman's first law — why things cost twice as much when governments do them. The author was a British bureaucrat who tried to reduce the costs of his part of the bureaucracy by modest measures such as not heating buildings that nobody occupied.
Quack's cancer cure — should be repealed. Also laws requiring cars to have seat belts. The right to control my life does not mean the right to have anything I want free; I can do that only by making someone else pay for what I get. Like any good right winger, I oppose welfare programs that support the poor with money taken by force from the taxpayers. I also oppose tariffs, subsidies, loan guarantees, urban renewal, agricultural price supports — in short, all of the much more numerous programs that support the not-poor — often the rich — with money taken by force from the taxpayers — often the poor. I am an Adam Smith liberal, or, in contemporary American terminology, a Goldwater conservative. Only I carry my devotion to laissez-faire further than Goldwater does — how far will become clear in the following chapters.
When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor by William Julius Wilson
affirmative action, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deliberate practice, desegregation, Donald Trump, edge city, ending welfare as we know it, full employment, George Gilder, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, income inequality, informal economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, school choice, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration
They retained zoning and other restrictions that allowed only affluent blacks (and in some instances Jews) to enter, thereby intensifying the concentration and isolation of the urban poor.” Other government policies also contributed to the growth of jobless ghettos, both directly and indirectly. Many black communities were uprooted by urban renewal and forced migration. The construction of freeway and highway networks through the hearts of many cities in the 1950s produced the most dramatic changes, as many viable low-income communities were destroyed. These networks not only encouraged relocation from the cities to the suburbs, “they also created barriers between the sections of the cities, walling off poor and minority neighborhoods from central business districts. Like urban renewal, highway and expressway construction also displaced many poor people from their homes.” Federal housing policy also contributed to the gradual shift to jobless ghettos. Indeed, the lack of federal action to fight extensive segregation against African-Americans in urban housing markets and acquiescence to the opposition of organized neighborhood groups to the construction of public housing in their communities have resulted in massive segregated housing projects.
Their stay in the projects was relatively brief. The economic mobility of these families “contributed to the sociological stability of the first public housing communities, and explains the program’s initial success.” The passage of the Housing Act of 1949 marked the beginning of the second policy stage. It instituted and funded the urban renewal program designed to eradicate urban slums. “Public housing was now meant to collect the ghetto residents left homeless by the urban renewal bulldozers.” A new, lower-income ceiling for public housing residency was established by the federal Public Housing Authority, and families with incomes above that ceiling were evicted, thereby restricting access to public housing to the most economically disadvantaged segments of the population. This change in federal housing policy coincided with the mass migration of African-Americans from the rural South to the cities of the Northeast and Midwest.
None of the other industrialized democracies has allowed its city centers to deteriorate as has the United States. In European countries, suburbanization has not been associated with the abandonment of cities as residential areas. “The central governments continued to treat cities as a national resource to be protected and nurtured.” Indeed, the city centers in Europe remain very desirable places to reside because of better public transportation, more effective urban renewal programs, and good public education that is more widely available to disadvantaged students. Moreover, unlike in the United States, cheap public transportation makes suburbanized employment sites more accessible. It will be difficult to address growing racial tensions in U.S. cities unless we tackle the problems of shrinking revenue and inadequate social services and the gradual disappearance of work in certain neighborhoods.
A People's History of Poverty in America by Stephen Pimpare
affirmative action, British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, East Village, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, payday loans, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration
As early as 1829, a group of concerned New York citizens pressured the Common Council to level some Five Points tenements to make way for a new road, citing their occupation “by the lowest description and most degraded and abandoned of the human Species.”25 Even the famed Trinity Church was a slumlord until publicity outed it; its response was to raze the dilapidated tenements it owned, putting up office buildings in their place, thus destroying more housing, however bad it may have been.26 Owing to the efforts of Riis and others, Mulberry Bend (where we could find the Bandits’ Roost and Thieves’ Alley made infamous by his iconic photographs) was finally destroyed late in the nineteenth century, leaving many uprooted and homeless. 27 Boston leveled an entire Irish neighborhood, “squalid Fort Hill,” in the late 1860s,28 just as more recent slum clearance and urban renewal projects (“negro removal,” some called it during the 1960s) also destroyed intact, if fragile, communities, ones that may not seem to be communities in the minds of well-to-do reformers.29 While it is undertaken in the guise of a progressive-minded reform, one wonders what happens to the denizens of these poorest of areas, for whatever the rhetoric, urban renewal has been a project of the white middle and business classes. In post–World War II New York, it was black and Puerto Rican neighborhoods that were displaced for new housing or commercial ventures, but few blacks and Puerto Ricans were to be found after the “improvements” were made.
crime and violence in and employment opportunities and ethnic mutual aid societies exploitative economic practices extended family networks female-headed common households history of isolation of the modern ghetto mutual dependence networks nineteenth-century and the pathology of the ghetto and the political economy of the ghetto and prostitution public housing and urban renewal efforts and race “race mixing,” and “slumming,” social organization of statistics on world’s slum dwelling population and underground local economies See also Five Points (New York City); Lower East Side (New York City) urban renewal efforts U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) U.S. Commission on Civil Rights U.S. Conference of Mayors U.S. Department of Agriculture U.S. Department of Defense U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Department of Justice U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs U.S.
Index abolitionism abortion abusive relationships African American women domestic violence homeless women leaving sexual violence women on welfare Addams, Jane adoption advertising messages The Affluent Society (Galbraith) African Americans and AFDC program anonymous letters to FDR and orphanages Civil War service and colonial jails convict labor/leasing Depression-era disenfranchisement families and marriage and the Freedmen’s Bureau generosity to tramps and ghetto communities and government redlining policies and history of the welfare state and history of welfare in the South homeless population incarceration rates infant mortality rates Jim Crow era mortality rates and New Deal programs and NWRO54 and official poverty rates post-abolition lives poverty over the life course and public housing/urban renewal efforts and radical organizing and sexual violence and Social Security Act as tenant farmers tramps and vagrants underrepresentation/neglect in histories of poverty and welfare women on welfare and work/employment See also slaves and slavery; women, African American African Marine Society Agriculture Adjustment Act (AAA) Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) actual benefits received and African Americans eligibility for unmarried women and labor market effects recipients’ lodging of complaints and standards of “moral fitness,” stigma and shame of receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) (cont.)
Composing a Further Life: The Age of Active Wisdom by Mary Catherine Bateson
affirmative action, Berlin Wall, Celebration, Florida, desegregation, double helix, estate planning, feminist movement, invention of writing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce
It was, in that sense, a very closed society. “I think that’s part of why I couldn’t wait to graduate college. I went to college where my parents had gone, and then I went straight to New York. Because I thought not only ‘big city,’ exciting, et cetera, but ‘Ooh, wouldn’t it be good to get away from all this?’ ” Ruth majored in psychology and studied social work in graduate school. While she was away, urban renewal came to Baton Rouge, and her grandparents’ home fell victim to development. “When they were in their early seventies and I was nineteen,” she said, “their little neighborhood and their house all fell to eminent domain. They were retired by that time. My grandfather had had a heart condition for a very long time, but he was functioning pretty well. My grandmother, I guess she lived another year and died.
And I mean white churches, because black churches didn’t have big national things in the first place. So I meet regularly with the Lutheran man and the United Church of Christ man and the Methodist man, and a new Roman Catholic man. So this group of inner-city executives of the churches decided that what was needed was a national center to retrain clergy—not seminarians but those who were already sitting in various downtown places that were now surrounded by alienated brown people, while urban renewal was doing its stuff, often making things worse. “Don Benedict, who was running the Chicago City Missionary Society, which was a United Church of Christ operation, said, ‘I think Chicago is the right place to do it because it’s a very, very black-white city, and a lot of churches have national offices in Chicago’ (they don’t now, but they did then), ‘and I have a place for it to be, right by the First Congregational Church on the West Side, and you can have that free.’
The ritual life of a cathedral necessarily evokes attention to performance, which had also been an important part of his growing up, but I asked how that all flowed together with architecture and design. “Well, it doesn’t—it really doesn’t flow,” he said, “but it explodes when I come to the cathedral, because that is the opportunity to be architect, complete the cathedral, make the cathedral the center of the city, the center of urban renewal”—he circled his hand—“and it’s also there that I recognize that the city is not all Episcopalian and not all Christian. This notion of a cathedral—think of those windows—it’s a cosmic notion. It’s to hold an entire people.… My whole interfaith thing starts there—it wasn’t part of Chicago at all.” I grinned. “You mean you weren’t even an ecumenical Christian when you went to Chicago?” “Oh, I was very ecumenical, but I was very Christian.
Imagining India by Nandan Nilekani
affirmative action, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, distributed generation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, joint-stock company, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, land reform, LNG terminal, load shedding, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, pension reform, Potemkin village, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, smart grid, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population
Both in the cities and in the villages, the lack of infrastructure, whether it is rural roads or modern airports, is impeding Indians from accessing education, health, markets and employment. And finally, every Indian, whether he is looking for a job or a college, or is a customer, now wants to tap opportunities across the entire country. My own sense of how these ideas have come into the mainstream has evolved since the time I was heading the Bangalore Agenda Task Force (BATF), and working on the reforms we needed for the city’s urban renewal. My early approach was a technocratic one, where I mainly focused on “getting things done.” It took me a few years and some frustrated initiatives to realize that our cities were being held back by political and financial weaknesses, not just weaknesses in operational issues. I made some progress, but in 1999, rejuvenating our cities was still seen as an elite task and the popular take was that India’s “true reformers” worked in the rural areas.
A decade later, however, urban reform has become the policy bandwagon everybody is clambering on, and every progressive minister across the country wants a piece of the urban development pie. As these various ideas become priorities for our voters, we are seeing large investments earmarked for them. Primary education is getting an unprecedented amount of money under new initiatives. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission ( JNNURM) is the first major thrust to revitalize Indian cities with significant money and a reform agenda, and the eleventh five-year plan (2007-12) has earmarked $500 billion for India’s infrastructure. And the buoyancy of our direct-tax revenues has enabled the government to pave the way toward a unified, single market. But the allocation of funds is just one aspect of what it takes to implement an idea whose time has come.
The eGovernments Foundation I support is also using IT systems to streamline property tax and accounting systems in city governments across the country. Improving management to garner more revenues becomes especially critical now as an old tax, the octroi, is being abolished in nearly all states. Local bodies are now searching for new alternatives in their financing, such as municipal bonds. These have become especially important in the light of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission ( JNNURM), which requires investments from municipal bodies of well more than Rs 300 billion in the next seven years, up to half of which can be market borrowings. This is compelling municipal corporations across cities to obtain credit ratings from agencies such as Credit Rating Information Services of India Ltd (CRISIL), ICRA and Credit Analysis and Research Ltd (CARE).bs A change in attitudes “Our cities have gained new political relevance with our economic growth,” Ramesh says.
Why Government Is the Problem by Milton Friedman
But they would be far fewer, and much more could be done to reduce their number and help the remainder. Homelessness What produced the current wave of homelessness around the country, which is a disgrace and a scandal? Much of it was produced by government action. Rent control has contributed, though it has been even more damaging in other ways, as has the governmental decision to empty mental facilities and turn people out on the streets and urban renewal and public housing programs, which together have destroyed far more housing units than they have built and let many public housing units become breeding grounds for crime and viciousness. Family Values Government alone has not been responsible for the extraordinary collapse that has occurred in family values and the resulting explosion in the number of teenage pregnancies, illegitimate births, and one-parent families.
Rats by Robert Sullivan
An even less visible but more significant result of Gray's rat strike was the way in which Gray's grassroots group energized grassroots groups like it all over the city, and possibly the U.S.—one historian wrote that Gray's strike helped spawn the National Tenants' Organization, in 1969. It was the time in America when urban renewal was paving over old neighborhoods in New York in the name of progress and relocating them for the sake of highways, for sterile planned cities that were like laboratory cities, not at all wild. The chief formulator of urban renewal in New York and, because of his influence, in cities all over America was Robert Moses, the city's master builder. Most historians argue that Robert Moses and his destructive policies were finally halted by a liberal elite—groups of upper-middle-class homeowners who organized in Greenwich Village, for instance—but some people say it was the power of the tenants movement that stopped Robert Moses.
He appeared relaxed and was making me feel comfortable: hearing that I was from New York City, he said that his brother-in-law, a musician, had played with Tito Puente, the salsa player from the Bronx. The bodyguard drove and he was doing a good job of being quiet and formidable-looking. As we all drove out of the rat-infested neighborhood and into the beautifully renovated downtown, the mayor was going over some of his impressive credentials as an advocate for urban renewal and job creation; he talked about some of the factories he had encouraged to open up in the area; he talked about job creation plans. I was making notes when I made a remark that questioned whether crime was not somehow linked to poverty. "If you're looking for a poverty angle—well, if people really wanted to get a job they could," the mayor said, and turned around in his seat to look at me.
Nomad Citizenship: Free-Market Communism and the Slow-Motion General Strike by Eugene W. Holland
capital controls, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, deskilling, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, price mechanism, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, slashdot, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, wage slave, working poor
But in addition, for Jacobs, the neighborhood itself had to be well situated in relation to a larger urban space that would provide a supportive context (of pedestrian flows, adjacent destinations, etc.) for the neighborhood. Jacobs was writing more or less explicitly against the utopian programs of urban renewal that posed one kind of challenge to her ideal of com plex urban order; Berman cites another: suburbanization. In the decades following World War II, not only were older neighborhoods being wiped clean for urban renewal but jobs and those lucky enough to have them were being moved out of inner cities to suburban spaces, leaving the inner city to wither and die. For Berman, this more or less gradual process was made catastrophic in New York by the expressway system masterminded by Robert Moses, which ravaged the fabric of the five boroughs to make M anhattan accessible to suburbanites commuting by car.
The very density, anonymity, and complexity of city life counterbalances the centripetal force of commu nity self-organization and self-identification, compelling or encouraging urban dwellers to frequent “public spaces [where] people encounter other people, meanings, expressions, issues, which they may not understand or with which they do not identify.”40 City living not only fosters the de velopment of multiple, different affinity groups but also brings members of those groups into regular contact with others: the complexity of the city thus fosters not just self-contained difference but related difference. In The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Jacobs provides a pio neering account of the city as matrix of immanently related difference. H er work opposed not only the practices and programs of urban renewal rampant in post-World War II America but also the modernist view of city planning promulgated by Le Corbusier and others starting early in the century.41 The modernist city planner sought to simplify and ratio nalize the city: his ideal was a gridlike plan whereby various urban func tions—commercial, recreational, industrial, residential, and so on—would be carefully segregated from one other and the “formal layout” of city structure purified accordingly.42 To Jacobs, such single-use functionalism and geometrical moralism were anathema: she favored, instead, the rich complexity of multiuse urbanism as it emerged over time, without the need for top-down planning.43And where Follett emphasized the self-sufficiency of the neighborhood, Jacobs emphasized its necessary imbrication in the larger structures and dynamics of the surrounding city.
The Great Stagnation by Tyler Cowen
Asian financial crisis, Bernie Madoff, en.wikipedia.org, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, income inequality, indoor plumbing, life extension, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Peter Thiel, RAND corporation, school choice, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban renewal
The proper role of government in society is beyond the scope of this discussion. But still it is a general principle that the most fundamental functions of government are worth more than the extra, addon, or optional things that governments do. A dollar spent on very basic police and courts and army protection is worth more than a dollar spent on refurnishing a warehouse in Minneapolis under the guise of urban renewal. A dollar spent on welfare for the poorest is more valuable than a dollar spent extending the program to better-off but still poor cases. And so on. Yet when it comes to national income accounting, and measuring GDP, we are valuing every one of these different expenditures at $1. In our measurements, we are assuming that the quality, importance, and efficacy of government stays constant as the size of government grows.
The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger
American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight
Virtually every downtown was in absolute and relative decline, virtually no housing being built in the center city, office space growing at half the rate required to maintain regional market share, industrial zones being abandoned, and retail almost completely deserting the downtown for the suburbs. Most downtown department stores were closed by the end of the 1980s. The middle class left most center cities, leaving only the poor, who have the most social welfare needs and the least financial ability to pay the taxes to support these services. Certainly there were much-publicized efforts at revitalization; the Johnson administration launched the Model Cities program and urban renewal in the 1960s, city planners in the 1970s closed main streets to pretend the city was a suburban mall, and in the 1980s the federal government handed out Urban Development Action Grants. These programs had limited success at best, and most failed to achieve their objectives of returning center cities to health. Over time, these programs were putting billions of dollars into cities, but the cities were offering a kind of lifestyle the market did not want at the time.
., 75, 186n34 Redevelopment, xi, 40, 61, 80, 125– 129, 153, 156–158, 167–169 Regional malls, 5, 35, 39, 109, 155, 159 Regional-serving walkable urbanism, 118, 124–128, 135–139, 173–174, 195n22 downtown-adjacent, 90, 119–122, 128, 132, 136, 146 greenfield town, 123 redeveloped malls, 118, 125–128 suburban town, 80, 88, 90, 97–98, 118, 122–123, 129 traditional downtown, 35–36, 99, 118–119, 167 REIT, 49–50, 58 Resolution Trust orporation (RTC), 47–49, 183n6 Reston Town Center, 102, 119, 123–124, 125f, 127, 136, 153 Retail chains, 109, 146–149 Retirement, 51, 128, 153, 160 Revitalization, 5, 88, 106, 129, 146, 156, 169 model cities program, 29 urban development action grants, 29 urban renewal, 29 Road diet, 197n7 Roulac, S., 8, 177n5 Rural areas, 22–23 S&Ls, 46–49, 182–183 crisis, 46 Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act (SAFETEA-LU), 164–165, 198n18 Schmid, T., 186n36 Seattle, 37, 98 Segregation, (see also Social segregation) 39–40, 65 Seinfeld, 87, 90, 106, 131 Shearin, R., 194n12 Shibut, L., 182n2 Shoup, D., 67, 184n6 Singer, A., 177n4 Smith-Lovin, L., 181n9 Social engineering, 25, 44, 67, 84, 137 segregation, 68–71 Solomon, D., 180n28 Southworth, M., 180n28 Sprawl, 78, 93, 122, 131, 151, 160, 184n4, 186n29 Street grid, 5, 199 INDEX | 207 Stein, B., 185n23 Strip malls, 5, 90, 92, 118, 125, 131, 148 Subdivisions, 6, 28, 35, 47, 50, 55, 88 Subsidies, 9, 11, 29–31, 67, 112, 144, 151, 162, 171–173 Suburban town center, 88, 90, 129 Superhighways, 17–21 Sustainable development, 112 Target market, 54–55 Terrestrial affiliation, 64, 67, 115, 184n1 Toll roads, 161 Torng, G-W., 189n6 Town center, 87–90, 112, 123, 129 Traditional neighborhood development (TND), 93, 117 Transect, 191n3 Transit-oriented development, 112, 117, 190n27, 199n20 Transportation, 3–4, 21–22, 27–32, 40, 63, 67–68, 74–81, 83, 93, 96, 116, 127, 142, 144, 151, 163, 166, 171–175, 181n1 infrastructure, 142, 165 Transportation Equity Act, 164, 182 Unemployment rate, 12, 69 Urbanism, see Walkable urbanism U.S.
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, big-box store, car-free, hydraulic fracturing, if you build it, they will come, Jane Jacobs, job automation, Loma Prieta earthquake, medical residency, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, ride hailing / ride sharing, science of happiness, the built environment, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional
The automobile gained an irrevocable place on city streets just in time for the new prosperity that came after World War II. Cities at that time were often crowded and poor. Those who could afford it now began to move into the suburbs, thanks to the automobile. They could live in commuting distance from city office and industrial jobs but live separate from the mayhem, with their nuclear family in their own small estate. Over the following decades, inner cities were gutted by urban renewal and inner-city freeways and these new suburbs seemed more and more attractive. And as more people wanted to buy houses, the investment of building new neighborhoods seemed more and more attractive to developers. In the last decade, new development rose to fever pitch, aided by heavy subsidies to builders and ill-considered bank loans to new home owners who could in no way afford them. Ultimately the housing bubble burst in 2008, ushering in the recession that we are in now.
But the hospital in the neighborhood wanted to add a new wing—and they wanted the land right in the core of the district. Community activists fought back and lost. The land was claimed, the theater, music halls, and restaurants at the heart of the neighborhood were torn down … and then nothing. The new wing of the hospital fell through, and the land sat empty for decades. The neighborhood around it failed to thrive until an urban renewal district was born. A light rail line was built to the neighborhood. Newcomers could, and did, get assistance buying houses and opening increasingly upscale businesses. Police started responding more promptly to calls from the area, and enforcing complaints against such grievous crimes as African American youth hanging out on their blocks and playing music. Property values rose, and rents right along with them.
Power at Ground Zero: Politics, Money, and the Remaking of Lower Manhattan by Lynne B. Sagalyn
affirmative action, airport security, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, estate planning, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, high net worth, informal economy, intermodal, iterative process, Jane Jacobs, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, place-making, rent control, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, the High Line, time value of money, too big to fail, Torches of Freedom, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, white flight, young professional
“In order to increase efficiency and protect pedestrians from traffic accidents, the great plaza that provided access to all the buildings was connected to neighboring blocks on three sides by bridges (in the process removing customers from city streets and damaging local businesses). Unfortunately, the plaza had to be closed four to five months out of the year due to danger that falling ice posed to pedestrians.”50 As one of the last of the massive urban renewal efforts in New York City, the World Trade Center complex was widely regarded as prima facie evidence of that era’s brutal disregard for the humanistic fabric of a city. It wore this legacy boldly, just the way its domineering public developer had intended. The 1960s plan for the World Trade Center complex embodied a planning concept woefully out of date at the start of the twenty-first century: a superblock assemblage dominated by skyscrapers rising up out of a vast open plaza (figure 1.7).
He was a good but not distinguished builder, as were his competitors in the tight world of New York real estate—Mortimer Zuckerman of Boston Properties, Jerry Speyer of Tishman Speyer, John Zuccotti of Brookfield Properties, Richard LeFrak of the LeFrak Organization, to name a few. He was not like one of his well-known partners, William Zeckendorf Jr., son of legendary “Big” Bill, a man of big visions. The senior Zeckendorf assembled seventy-five parcels formerly housing smelly slaughterhouses on the East Side of Manhattan where the United Nations rose in 1947, and he built large-scale urban renewal projects in many cities (Century City in Los Angeles, Mile High Center in Denver, and Place Ville Marie in Montreal, among others) before his development company, Webb & Knapp, went bankrupt in 1965. Zeckendorf Jr. was more conservative than his father, but equally intense about building projects and of being in the game, although less focused than Silverstein on making the last dollar. “The idea of building and creating was more important to him than earning a lot of money from these buildings,” Herbert Sturz, a former chairman of the New York City Planning Commission, told the Wall Street Journal during the bidding for the World Trade Center.20 Like others in the real estate industry, Silverstein became a philanthropist and a contributor to political campaigns.
In time, though, the LMDC’s redevelopment responsibilities extended beyond Ground Zero to include all of the southern portion of the island, from Canal Street down to Battery Park and from the Hudson across to the East River—“some of the most valuable, most important, and most heavily populated real estate in the world,” as Whitehead saw it.9 The area of approximately twenty miles square traversed several distinctive neighborhoods: Chinatown, Tribeca, Battery Park City, and the financial district (see map 3.2). Map 3.2 The neighborhoods of lower Manhattan. Cartography: C&G Partners for the author The division of power between the state and the city is an age-old issue for mayors. For more than two decades during the era of ambitious federal support for revitalizing the nation’s urban centers beginning with the federal highway and urban renewal programs of the 1950s, mayors succeeded in winning the fight for local control.10 This victory, however, stands as an exception to the historical pattern. Under the U.S. Constitution, cities have no formal legal standing. Because of 9/11, Ground Zero was one place where this arrangement might have been different, remarked Carl B. Weisbrod. But from the start, the process of governing for rebuilding was structured in such a way that precluded the city’s active involvement in rebuilding lower Manhattan; only through the mayor’s appointments to the LMDC board did the city have some say over the distribution of an unprecedented pledge of federal dollars.
Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham
1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, means of production, megacity, megastructure, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks
Vertical stacking would, the argument went, allow land to be used much more intensively than through the more traditional horizontal separation of land uses in cities. One master plan for the comprehensive redevelopment of central Birmingham outlined the underlying ideas. ‘A factor which is absolutely essential in any modern master plan is the principle of segregation’, it suggested. ‘No project for urban renewal, be it extensive or quite local, will match up to modern necessities unless it provides for proper segregation of operations.’ Such a shift, it was argued, was ‘essential for safety, for maximum concentration of use, and for amenity and comfort … The transport design should, therefore, aim at the segregation of pedestrians, city roads, service roads, and car park roads, leading to multi-level circulation of functions such as two-storey shopping.’13 Shaped by the thinking of the Tatton-Browns, between 1955 and 1970, the City of London embarked on an ambitious programme of vertical segregation.
‘I draw an automobile on this regained ground [for parking], and I let air and vegetation go through.’14 In the process, as historian David Gissen points out, ‘the clean-up of the modern sewer and the banishment of the cellar from modernity represented a victory of the rhetoric of light and air over the dark, the tepid and the dank.’15 However, basements have also had their advocates. Some philosophers, as part of the wider backlash against the steamroller of modernist urban renewal, have been keen to point out the psychosocial importance of cellars and basements. French phenomenologist Gaston Bachelard, for example, argued passionately that housing provided more than technologically modern and sanitised ‘machines for living’ (in Le Corbusier’s infamous phrase). Housing architecture, Bachelard countered, also needed to address primordial psychological human needs for spaces within which dreamlike experiences could link with subconscious cultures of nature.
See Jamie Peck, ‘Economic Rationality Meets Celebrity Urbanology: Exploring Edward Glaeser’s City’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 2016 (forthcoming). 6Paul Goldberger, ‘Too Rich, Too Thin, Too Tall, Vanity Fair, May 2014. 7As well as blocking out light, new towers often create wind systems at ground level that can be uncomfortable and even dangerous to those on the street. 8Lloyd Alter, ‘It’s Time to Dump the Tired Argument That Density and Height Are Green and Sustainable’, Treehugger, 3 January 2014, available at treehugger.com. 9Ibid. 10Samuel Zipp ‘The Roots and Routes of Urban Renewal’, Journal of Urban History 39:3, May 2013, p. 372. 11Walter Gropius, The New Architecture and the Bauhaus, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1965, p. 146. 12Paul Christoph Haacke, ‘The Vertical Turn: Topographies of Metropolitan Modernism’, PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 2011, available at escholarship.org/uc/item/1857736f. 13Fosco Lucarelli and Mariabruna Fabrizi, ‘The Trellick Tower: The Fall and Rise of a Modern Monument’, San Rocco Magazine 5, Fall 2012. 14Sigfried Giedeon, Building in France, Building in Iron, Building in Ferroconcrete, Santa Monica, CA: Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities, 1995 . 15Le Corbusier, The City of Tomorrow and Its Planning, New York: Dover, 1987 , p. 280. 16This term comes from the US Citizens Housing Council, 1940.
Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right by Jennifer Burns
anti-communist, bank run, barriers to entry, centralized clearinghouse, collective bargaining, desegregation, feminist movement, financial independence, George Gilder, invisible hand, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, lone genius, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, side project, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Wisdom of Crowds, union organizing, urban renewal, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog
For every NBI student who found Rand harsh or was the target of an unprovoked rage, there is another who remembers Rand’s sensitivity and caring. Jan Richman, a Los Angeles NBI representative, described her first meeting with Rand: “[She] said that I should take my glasses off. I took them off, and she said, you have very beautiful eyes. You shouldn’t hide them behind glasses; get contact lenses. I remember I felt like crying.” Martin Anderson, the author of a controversial book that attacked federal urban renewal programs, The Federal Bulldozer, was a professor at Columbia Business School when he and his girlfriend attended an NBI lecture they saw advertised in the New York Times. There he befriended Alan Greenspan, who invited him to several smaller events with Rand. Anderson remembers Rand as a “pussycat,” a warm and caring figure. It was Rand, alone out of a late-night café crowd, who noticed his trouble and helped prepare his coffee when a broken arm left him unable to open a package of cream.
Albert Ellis, Is Objectivism a Religion? (New York: Lyle Stuart, 1968); John Hospers to AR, May 25, 1960, ARP 146-H01. 47. Letters, 531, 532. 48. Ibid., 532, 535, 533. 49. Karen Reedstrom, “Interview with Laurence I. Gould,” Full Context, November 1991, 3. 50. Jan Schulman, née Richman, September 26, 1997, Oral History, ARP; Martin Anderson, The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal 1949–62 (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1964); Martin Anderson, interview with author, January 11, 2008. Charles and Mary Ann Sures also emphasize the warmer side of Rand in Facets of Ayn Rand (Irvine, CA: Ayn Rand Institute, 2001). 51. Karen Reedstrom, “Interview with Roger Donway,” Full Context, May 1992, 1; Karen Reedstrom and David Saum, “Interview with Ronald E. Merrill,” Full Context, November 1995, 7. 52.
The Conservatives: Ideas and Personalities throughout American History Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009. Alpers, Benjamin L. Dictators, Democracy, and American Public Culture. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003. Amadae, S. M. Rationalizing Capitalist Democracy: The Cold War Origins of Rational Choice Liberalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. Anderson, Martin. The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal 1949–62. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1964. Anderson, Martin, and Barbara Honegger, eds. The Military Draft: Selected Readings on Conscription. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1982. Andrew, John A., III. The Other Side of the Sixties: Young Americans for Freedom and the Rise of Conservative Politics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1997. Baker, James. Ayn Rand. Boston: Twayne, 1987.
Instant City: Life and Death in Karachi by Steve Inskeep
battle of ideas, British Empire, call centre, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, illegal immigration, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Kibera, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, urban planning, urban renewal
At the close of World War II the Athenian oversaw substantial rebuilding in his battered nation, using American money provided by the Marshall Plan. He coined the term “ekistics” to describe the scientific study of human settlement, and he founded a firm that grew over many years to employ a staff of four hundred. They worked everywhere from Baghdad to Rio de Janeiro to cities in the United States—an urban renewal project in Philadelphia, the waterfront in Louisville, the redevelopment of Washington, D.C. Time magazine once described Doxiadis as a man who had “helped resettle 10 million humans in 15 countries.” As he considered the plan for a suburb at Korangi in 1958, Doxiadis recorded misgivings in his diary. “Several aspects of the problem begin to worry me,” he wrote. The site had been chosen before his arrival.
It was the price he paid for becoming, in effect, the chief planner to the king. He worked for the government of Pakistan for much of the next decade. Doxiadis’s firm planned the new capital city, Islamabad, laid out in a green valley in the northern reaches of the country. Broad lawns surrounded public buildings. Future generations of American visitors would get the feeling that they had arrived in an American urban renewal project from the 1960s: Pakistan’s presidential palace brings to mind the Kennedy Center in Washington, no coincidence since the two buildings had the same American architect, Edward Durell Stone. In Islamabad, General Ayub Khan and his chief planner seized the rare opportunity of a blank slate. The city grew so rapidly that in time heavy traffic overwhelmed its broad thoroughfares, but it stood apart for decades as probably the most orderly and comfortable metropolis in Pakistan.
Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar
As a reminder of how the federal government had become essential even to road building within cities, the last third of the Expressway couldn’t have been built at all without a very healthy contribution from the Highway Trust Fund, for which it qualified after a few hundred yards were shoehorned into the plans for Interstate 95. It was, along with the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, the Master Builder’s last great success, and his swan song. By the time it opened, any notion that the Cross-Bronx Expressway would revive the Bronx specifically, and be a model for urban renewal generally, was the punch line to a joke. The Expressway hadn’t just destroyed East Tremont. Despite all the care Moses and his engineers lavished on keeping the Grand Concourse as grand as ever—the Concourse, unsurprisingly, with its 180-foot-wide streets and monumental architecture, was very much in the Moses style—it was already sliding into a vicious cycle of poverty and crime. Though there are many reasons for the decline of urban centers in the 1960s (city centers had trouble retaining their appeal even without limited-access highways crisscrossing them), the Cross-Bronx Expressway had made a dozen middle-class New York neighborhoods less and less desirable as places to live, and by the 1970s the Bronx had become a poster child for urban blight in America.
Bruce Ratner, who was the CEO of the development company, had been the city’s consumer affairs commissioner around the same time I headed the Traffic Department. Despite his pedigree—four of his uncles had founded the multibillion-dollar family corporation in 1920—he was a down-to-earth, unassuming guy. A year before, Forest City Ratner had received the go-ahead from the relevant city and state authorities to start work on redeveloping the two dozen acres that had been designated the Atlantic Yards Urban Renewal Area, specifically the Long Island Rail Road yards between Atlantic Avenue and Pacific Streets.a The Atlantic Yards project called for a complex of residential and commercial buildings, but its centerpiece was to be a basketball and hockey arena, Barclays Center. Bruce had bought the NBA’s New Jersey Nets in 2004 and had spent the following two years planning to move the team to a new arena by the time he called on Sam Schwartz Engineering to design a transportation plan for it.
From Bauhaus to Our House by Tom Wolfe
In July of 1972, the city blew up the three central blocks of Pruitt-Igoe with dynamite. The Pruitt-Igoe projects, St. Louis, July 15, 1972. Mankind finally arrives at a workable solution to the problem of public housing. That part of the worker-housing saga has not ended. It has just begun. At almost the same time that Pruitt-Igoe went down, the Oriental Gardens project went up in New Haven, the model city of urban renewal in America. The architect was one of America’s most prestigious compound architects, Paul Rudolph, dean of the Yale School of Architecture. The federal government’s Department of Housing and Urban Development, which was paying for the project, hailed Rudolph’s daring design as the vision of the housing projects of the future. The Oriental Gardens were made of clusters of prefabricated modules.
The New Prophets of Capital by Nicole Aschoff
3D printing, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Bretton Woods, clean water, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, feminist movement, follow your passion, Food sovereignty, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global value chain, helicopter parent, hiring and firing, income inequality, Khan Academy, late capitalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, performance metric, profit motive, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), founded in 1909, was funded with money from numerous foundations, including Rosenwald, Peabody, and Rockefeller, and served as a crucial counterweight to the growing appeal of the Communist Party for black Americans during the 1920s. New Deal legislation of the 1930s was written by the Social Science Research Council, a Rockefeller organization, while Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society programs were developed from the Ford Foundation’s “Gray Areas” experiments—urban renewal programs designed to curb urban unrest and political organizing.13 The story today is similar. The consequences of skyrocketing inequality are of increasing concern, particularly to the super-elites. They worry about the long-term economic impacts of inequality, in terms of growth and innovation, and the political consequences of inequality—social unrest and demands for redistribution, particularly from the middle and upper-middle classes who believe in meritocracy.
Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay
3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Yogi Berra
This is what Kasarda means when he says that cities exist to create jobs. Barely a year later, on June 22, 1988, the city and state announced a $700 million plan to essentially build a new airport atop the existing one, with long parallel runways, a sweet spot in between for the hub, and room to grow on either side. The next day, local officials announced what they dubbed the Louisville Airport Improvement Program: the condemnation, under “urban renewal” statutes, of the homes of 3,760 families in a half-dozen communities. Looking at a before-and-after mural hanging in the offices of the airport authority, one can see that entire neighborhoods have been wiped off the map. No one left empty-handed, at least—nearly $400 million was set aside to pay for buyouts of homes and businesses, including Minors Lane Heights, now the site of a “Renaissance Zone.”
They had worked so hard and so closely together under occasionally harrowing circumstances—Linda had had more than one gun waved in her face when she knocked on residents’ doors—that their manner suggested not just a married couple, but a married vaudeville couple, with Burt playing the polished magician and Linda his frazzled assistant. Exasperation still leaks into Burt’s voice when he describes the homeowners’ gut reaction to the improvement program: howling and lawsuits. Part of the problem was the “urban renewal” clauses in their foreclosures. Although he had tried to convince them that the payouts would be greater, a little extra cash had meant nothing to their pride—their homes were not blighted. They sued, took the relevant agencies to the Supreme Court, and won. Burt and Linda sighed and found another statute that would get the job done. Twenty years on, neighborhoods like Edgewood and Highland Park—wedged between highways on one side and the airport on the other—have turned feral, as if civilization had vanished and the land was returning to wilderness.
Its mayor at the time, Kwame Kilpatrick, had dismissed this expedition as a conspiracy. But no one cared what he thought after the “hip-hop mayor” quit office to serve time for perjury. Not that he was wrong—each ringleader flew here scheming to raise a new city beyond the ruins of his own. Can an aerotropolis save Detroit? The city that most desperately needs one is also its worst-case scenario. The self-styled “Renaissance City” has been a laboratory—and cemetery—for urban renewal fads since the 1970s. Perhaps the city’s most pathetic symbol of abortive rebirth is the People Mover, an elevated monorail gliding empty past downtown towers deserted for decades. Kasarda proposes custom-building cities by companies for companies, guaranteeing their survival by tailoring them to clients’ specifications— beginning with the airport. But this is exactly what happened in Detroit: the city was reshaped politically, economically, and geographically to suit the needs of the Big Three—Ford, GM, and Chrysler.
The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells
Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, British Empire, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, planetary scale, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl
Nine years later, this time as a sociologist, I was still walking Belleville, working with immigrant workers’ committees, and studying social movements against urban renewal: the struggles of what I labeled “La Cité du Peuple,” reported in my first book.87 More than thirty years after our first encounter, both Belleville and I have changed. But Belleville is still a place, while I am afraid I look more like a flow. The new immigrants (Asians, Yugoslavs) have joined a long-established stream of Tunisian Jews, Maghrebian Muslims, and southern Europeans, themselves the successors of the intra-urban exiles pushed into Belleville in the nineteenth century by the Hausmannian design of building a bourgeois Paris. Belleville itself has been hit by several waves of urban renewal, intensified in the 1970s.88 Its traditional physical landscape of a poor but harmonious historic faubourg has been messed up with postmodernism, cheap modernism, and sanitized gardens on top of a still somewhat dilapidated housing stock.
We both agreed that the new architectural monuments of our epoch are likely to be built as “communication exchangers” (airports, train stations, intermodal transfer areas, telecommunication infrastructures, harbors, and computerized trading centers). 86 For a useful debate on the matter, see Lillyman et al. (1994). 87 Castells (1972: 496ff). 88 For an updated social and spatial, illustrated history of Belleville, see the delightful book by Morier (1994); on urban renewal in Paris in the 1970s, see Godard et al. (1973). 89 Boyer (1994). 90 Jacobs (1993). 91 Machimura (1995: 16). See his book on the social and political forces underlying the restructuring of Tokyo: Machimura (1994). 7 The Edge of Forever: Timeless Time We are embodied time, and so are our societies, made out of history. Yet the simplicity of this statement hides the complexity of the concept of time, one of the most controversial categories in the natural and social sciences alike, whose centrality is underlined by current debates in social theory.1 Indeed, the transformation of time under the information technology paradigm, as shaped by social practices, is one of the foundations of the new society we have entered, inextricably linked to the emergence of the space of flows.
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, big-box store, blue-collar work, Donner party, edge city, new economy, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, side project, smart transportation, traveling salesman, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen
Time was of the essence, he pointed out, because " here and there, in the midst of the decaying slum areas, substantial new properties of various sorts are beginning to rise—some created by private initiative, some by public." These new investments could " block the logical projection of the needed new arteries." In short, it would be easier and cheaper to take advantage of the blight before the blight was cleaned up. To read these passages today, tucked into the dense text of a little-known 1939 report, is to feel a twinge of foreboding, for the urban-renewal formula laid out in Toll Roads and Free Roads was exactly that adopted by cities across the nation a few years later—and because, for all of its clarity and comprehensiveness, the document overlooked an important element of the slum areas it targeted: degraded though they might be, they were home to millions of people. *** Among those praising Toll Roads and Free Roads was Miller McClintock, the originator of the friction theory, who'd long corresponded with MacDonald; he called the report " an excellent example of economic common sense and practical administrative statesmanship."
Some of the coming construction might be tough medicine. " Admittedly, an expressway through a densely populated area does involve razing numerous buildings, including many dwellings," MacDonald wrote. But " in most instances" the selected routes aimed for " sections where property values are low, and most of the buildings are of the type that should be torn down in any case, to rid the city of its slums." MacDonald's boss, General Fleming, went so far as to propose that Truman assign him the nation's entire urban renewal effort, arguing that highway and housing officials would be able to better choreograph their efforts. The president wasn't interested; he instead backed what became the Housing Act of 1949, which replaced decrepit slums with often-bleak public housing projects. Still, the Chief threw Public Roads into its part of changing the cityscape. Surveys were under way in Little Rock and Tulsa even before the 1944 act was put to a vote.
1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War
As Katherine Hayles has observed, such devices “functioned as exchangers,” bringing “man and machine into equivalence.”49 In the process, they served to exemplify in real, concrete terms—and thus to legitimate—the claims of cyberneticians and systems theorists that just as information itself spanned multiple domains, their theory could be deployed in multiple disciplines. Over the two decades following World War II, such claims found a home in massive military research projects; in a variety of academic disciplines, including management theory, clinical psychology, political science, biology, and ecology; and ultimately in the urban renewal projects of Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society.50 As Katherine Hayles and Steve Heims have shown, cybernetics’s migration into the social and, to some extent, the physical and biological sciences was driven in large part by the Macy Conferences.51 Sponsored by the Macy Foundation in the late 1940s and early 1950s, these meetings brought together biologists, physicists, and mathematicians, including cyberneticians such as Arturo Rosenblueth and Warren McCulloch, psychiatrists such as Ross Ashby, and sociologists and anthropologists such as Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead.
Bowker, “How to Be Universal,” 108. 47. Ibid., 116. 48. Pickering, “Gallery of Monsters.” For more on Ashby’s homeostat, see Hayles, How We Became Posthuman, 65 – 66. 49. Hayles, How We Became Posthuman, 62. [ 266 ] N o t e s t o Pa g e s 2 6 _ 3 2 50. See Lilienfeld, Rise of Systems Theory. For a fascinating study of the roles defense planners and cybernetics played in cold war attempts at urban renewal, see Light, From Warfare to Welfare. 51. Hayles, How We Became Posthuman; Heims, Social Science for Post-War America. 52. According to Hayles, these meetings ultimately helped bring into existence a new cultural category, the “posthuman.” Within this view, she writes, the world consists of information patterns and the boundaries of the individual body and mind are highly porous, and because of these facts, the human being can be “seamlessly articulated with intelligent machines.”
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar
The idea is similar to tax increment financing (TIF), which is used in redeveloping dilapidated areas in cities such as Chicago, Albuquerque, and Almeda. The basic idea is that the province would use the revenue generated from property taxes in the newly developed areas to finance urban renewal projects in the older sectors of the city. However, because the end goal of these initiatives is economic, the programs often receive criticism for being too much like a Robin Hood scheme—stealing from the rich and giving to the poor. But if the notion of urban renewal also included energy savings and environmental protection for the whole region, “energy financing” would ultimately benefit both the rich and the poor. The property tax revenue from new developments could be put into a fund that would help subsidize building owners in blighted areas of the city to retrofit their buildings.
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, desegregation, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, payday loans, post-industrial society, post-oil, price mechanism, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yom Kippur War
Northern cities were still solidly Democratic, but faltering economies produced local conflicts between white and black Democrats that threatened to weaken the party. Many jobs and much of the middle class had moved from cities such as Detroit, Chicago, Cleveland, Philadelphia, New York, and Boston to the suburbs, or even farther away from urban areas during the 1950S and 1960S. Cities attempted to attract the middle class back with arts centers, sports stadiums, hospitals, and universities, and this form of urban renewal often destroyed working-class neighborhoods, Such victims relocated in adjacent quarters, which became overcrowded and turned run-down areas into genuine slums.10 At the same time, the continued black migration from the South turned cities like Newark, Detroit, and Gary into majority-black municipalities. Even in cities where African Americans were not a majority, black politicians sought political representation commensurate with their numbers and thus challenged other Democrats for power.
Carter, The Politics of Rage: George Wallace, the Origins of the New Conservatism, and the Transformation of American Politics (New York: Simon and Shuster, 1995), 456–65. 6. Witcover, Marathon, 185. 7. New York Times, Nov. 5, 1975. 8. Harry McPherson, A Political Education (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972), 37–39. 9. Harry McPherson Oral History Interview, 4/9/69, 7, Internet Copy, Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum, Austin, Tex. 10. Martin Anderson, The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal, 1949–1962 (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1964). For the story of the Hough neighborhood in Cleveland, see Todd Swanstrom, The Crisis of Growth Politics: Cleveland, Kucinich, and the Challenge of Urban Populism (Philadelphia: Temple University Press), 1985), 98–100. 11. Margaret Weir, Politics and Jobs: The Boundaries of Employment Policy in the United States (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 86. 12.
Future Shock by Alvin Toffler
Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, corporate governance, East Village, global village, Haight Ashbury, information retrieval, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog
As technological change roars through the advanced economies, outmoding whole industries and creating new ones almost overnight, millions of unskilled and semiskilled workers find themselves compelled to relocate. The economy demands mobility, and most Western governments—notably Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and the United States—spend large sums to encourage workers to retrain for new jobs and leave their homes in pursuit of them. For coalminers in Appalachia or textile workers in the French provinces, however, this proves to be excruciatingly painful. Even for big-city workers uprooted by urban renewal and relocated quite near to their former homes, the disruption is often agonizing. "It is quite precise to speak of their reactions," says Dr. Marc Fried of the Center for Community Studies, Massachusetts General Hospital, "as expressions of grief. These are manifest in the feelings of painful loss, the continued longing, the general depressive tone, frequent symptoms of psychological or social or somatic distress ... the sense of helplessness, the occasional expressions of both direct and displaced anger, and tendencies to idealize the lost place."
The uneven, rocketing rates of change, the shifts and jerks in direction, compel us to ask whether the techno-societies, even comparatively small ones like Sweden and Belgium, have grown too complex, too fast to manage? How can we prevent mass future shock, selectively adjusting the tempos of change, raising or lowering levels of stimulation, when governments—including those with the best intentions—seem unable even to point change in the right direction? Thus a leading American urbanologist writes with unconcealed disgust: "At a cost of more than three billion dollars, the Urban Renewal Agency has succeeded in materially reducing the supply of low cost housing in American cities." Similar debacles could be cited in a dozen fields. Why do welfare programs today often cripple rather than help their clients? Why do college students, supposedly a pampered elite, riot and rebel? Why do expressways add to traffic congestion rather than reduce it? In short, why do so many well-intentioned liberal programs turn rancid so rapidly, producing side effects that cancel out their central effects?
Overbooked: The Exploding Business of Travel and Tourism by Elizabeth Becker
airport security, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, BRICs, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, corporate governance, Costa Concordia, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, Masdar, Murano, Venice glass, open borders, out of africa, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, statistical model, sustainable-tourism, the market place, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave, young professional, éminence grise
“I was born here, I’ve lived here all my life and I know the beauty of Bordeaux, it is part of me,” he said. “We had been a city of millionaires fascinated by the river and trade since the eighteenth century, a golden age . . . then Bordeaux lost its role, no trade, no industry, and we treated our city’s patrimony badly . . . our wines are absolutely magical, so why wasn’t Bordeaux seductive, too?” Delaux said the tourism campaigns were planned in parallel with Juppé’s urban renewal. “Before, Bordeaux was absolutely not touristic—no, not at all. Tourists were condescending towards Bordeaux. They were only interested in the vineyards.” The public works proceeded apace, cleaning the city, uncovering buildings that had been shrouded in two centuries of filth. “We were shocked by its beauty.” The tourism policy was built around the city and the wine—“le vin et la ville”—and coordinated between the city, region, and national governments and tourism agencies.
., 1996 Olympics in, 350, 351 Atlantic, 370 Atlantis Hotel, Dubai, 178–79, 180, 196 ATOUT France, 46, 47, 52, 66, 75 Auschwitz, Poland, 106 Australia, Chinese tourists in, 307 Baedeker, Karl, 26 Baedeker travel guides, 23 Bahamas, 157, 161 ship registry of, 140 Bahrain, 172, 193 Baker, Simeon, 127 Bali, 197, 281 Banda, Rupiah, 229–30, 237–38 Bangkok, 37, 281 Bangladesh, 183 Bank of China, 236 Barboza, David, 314–15 Barcelona, 1992 Olympics in, 350 Bargemon, France, 73 Bar Harbor, Maine, 152 Barro Colorado, 248 Baumgartner, Jean-Claude, 273–74 Bayon, 93, 98 Beijing, China, 296 architectural and cultural destruction in, 297–99 “Democracy Wall” in, 297 International Tourism Conference in, 303–4, 306 Tiananmen Square massacre in, 305, 330 2008 Olympics in, 293–94, 322, 323, 333 Beijing Marriott Hotel City Wall, 312–13, 315, 316 Belize, 130–31, 150, 153 Belize Audubon Society, 153 Bennett, Paul, 152 Berlin Wall, fall of, 13, 173 Bethlehem, West Bank, 185 Bhutan, 21 bin Laden, Osama, killing of, 366 Bin Tahnoon Al Nahyan, Sultan, 193 Bizzaro, Andrea, 219 Bjørnøy, Helen, 162–63 Black Lamb and Grey Falcon (West), 25 Blum, Léon, 52 BOAC, 172 Bordeaux, France, 37, 58–66 Tourism Bureau of, 64 Bordeaux City, France, 58–59 tourism policy of, 64–65 urban renewal in, 59–60, 61–62, 63, 64–66 Bordeaux Uncorked, 63–64 Bosnian War, 25 Botswana, 208, 209, 233 Bourdain, Anthony, 32 Bowling, Charles, 370 Bradesco Bank, 275 Brazil, 36–37, 272–76 deforestation in, 275 sex tourism in, 116 2016 Summer Olympics in, 273, 276, 362 U.S. visa applications in, 364 Brazilian tourists, in U.S., 365 Brenes Mora, Alberto Manuel, 251 British Airways, 175 British tourists: declining U.S. travel of, 356 in France, 49, 50–51 Brocon Group, 112 Broderick, Douglas, 100 Bruner, Edward M., 241–42 Bryson, John, 365 Buddha Zen Hotel, 338–39 Budowski, Gerardo, 251 Building Towers, Cheating Workers (Human Rights Watch), 187 Burj Al Arab Hotel, 195, 200 Burj Khalifa, 167, 177–78 Burma, 19 Burton, Richard, 25 Bush, George W., 348, 354, 359 Bush (George W.) administration, 353, 354, 358, 359–60, 366, 374 Bushcamp Company, 214, 217, 219, 225–29 Byrd, Richard E., 24 Byron, George Gordon, Lord, 82 Caballos-Lascuráin, Héctor, 266 Cabrini, Luigi, 35 California, 161 Calvo, José, 252 Cambodia, 37, 87–89 evictions and land seizures in, 109–13 foreign investment in, 96, 99, 100 French colonial legacy of, 89 Khmer Rouge in, 88, 90, 92, 95, 104, 105–8 money-laundering in, 113 orphanages in, 101–3 poverty and unemployment in, 91 private coastline development in, 111–12 Tourism Ministry of, 105, 108–10, 119 U.N. peacekeeping mission to, 89, 114–15 Vietnamese invasion of, 106 wealth inequality in, 101 Cambodia, tourism in, 14, 21, 89–121 Asian tourists in, 93 beach resorts in, 92, 105 casinos in, 112–13 corruption in, 91–92, 96, 100–101, 104, 108–9 “dark tourism” in, 92, 107 as development strategy, 99 as percentage of economy, 92 sex trade in, 92, 93, 104–5, 111, 114–21 South Korea and, 98–99 travel philanthropy scams in, 101–2, 103 see also Angkor temples Cambodian War, 87–88 Cambridge, Catherine, Duchess of, 385 Camp, Beatrice, 364 Canada, 16, 377 capuchin monkeys, 252, 261–62 carbon emissions, 20, 38, 195–96, 199–200, 271, 276 Carnival Corporation, 133 Carnival Cruise Lines, 137–38, 140–41, 143, 149 Arison and, 133–34, 136–37 Diamonds International and, 149 illegal waste water dumping by, 159 ship registry of, 140 Carnivale (cruise ship), 137 Carr, Greg, 238–39 Carr, Norman, 217–18 Carte Blanche (Deaver), 180 Catholic Relief Services, 259 Center for Responsible Travel (CREST), 259–60, 268 Center on Ecotourism and Sustainable Development, 153 Centers for Disease Control, U.S., 379 Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), 260 Centre Georges Pompidou, 56 Cerro Frantzius, 250 Certification for Sustainable Tourism, 261 Cézanne, Paul, 47 Chakari, Mohammad Sidiq, 183 Changqing Nature Reserve, 336 Charles de Gaulle Airport, 56–57, 171 Château Haut-Bailly, 60–61 Cheng, Henry K.
Half Empty by David Rakoff
He is trying to get a knot of puzzled German tourists to move, but he squeaks out a high-pitched gibberish that only seems to increase his frustration, as the Germans just look at him. Perplexed Northern Europeans—hereafter PNEs—turn out to be just one of the mainstays of the area, along with leafleting evangelicals, sex workers, harmless ambulant schizophrenics, and beat cops. There are some places where an intrinsic melancholy might be reason enough to stay away, I suppose, although I can’t think of any. Hollywood Boulevard recently underwent a major urban renewal, a charge led by the building of the Kodak Theatre complex, current home of the Oscars and American Idol telecasts. But the neighborhood’s dilapidated, honky-tonk charms, and they are legion, lie in the vestiges of its storied past that endure obstinately: Grauman’s Egyptian Theatre, currently home of the American Cinematheque, with its sandstone forecourt and hieroglyphics, looking like something straight out of the Valley of the Kings; the polychrome-plaster opulence of the El Capitan Theatre, restored and now owned by Disney; the affronted but intact dignity of Marlene Dietrich’s star as it sits for eternity in front of Greco’s New York Pizzeria; similarly the star of June Havoc, baby sister to Gypsy Rose Lee, which welcomes shoppers to the rubber and fetish extravaganza of Pleasure’s Treasures.
Top 10 San Diego by Pamela Barrus, Dk Publishing
Apothecary & Soap Shoppe This Old Town shop is filled with bins of herbal- and citrus-scented bath salts, and handmade soaps and lotions with unusual scents such as cotton candy, lemongrass, and eucalyptus. d Map N5 • 2765 San Diego Ave • (619) 574-1115 Whole Foods With an emphasis on fresh organic food, you’ll find flavorful produce, a great assortment of imported cheese and olives, a deli that specializes in healthy takeout, and all the vitamins you’ll ever need. d Map C4 • 711 University Ave • (619) 294–2800 Diego Ave • (619) 692-0466 Wear It Again Sam Vintage clothing includes party dresses, leopard jackets, and Western wear. d Map C4 • 3823 5th Ave • (619) 299-0185 Village Hat Shop If you want to keep the sun off your head, this is the right 82 . Adams Avenue & Park Boulevard Antique Row Still untouched by San Diego’s urban renewal boom, antique stores, second-hand book and record shops, and retro-clothing boutiques are sprinkled along these streets in east Hillcrest and Normal Heights. d Adams Ave: Map D4 • Park Blvd: Map D4 Price Categories $ $$ $$$ $$$$ $$$$$ For a three course meal for one with half a bottle of wine (or equivalent meal), taxes and extra charges. under $20 $20–$40 $40–$55 $55–$80 over $80 Places to Eat Kemo Sabe If you like to experiment with wild combinations of ethnic flavors, you’ll have fun here.
blue-collar work, centre right, delayed gratification, income inequality, new economy, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the built environment, urban renewal, War on Poverty
The typical study would not capture the motives and decisions of that woman in the fashion program and the guy who joined the navy. Furthermore, no matter how refined the collection and analysis of statistical data, without knowledge of the history and culture and daily reality of the place from which the data were 14 I N T RO D U C T I O N collected, policy makers can make huge blunders, as the history of failures in urban renewal and agricultural development illustrate. In general, the makers of education policy have not learned this lesson. The heightened attention these studies of student success have brought to the community college (and likewise to adult school) has definitely put reform of two-year colleges on the map—a welcome development, for that segment of postsecondary education typically gets little attention.
Beer Money: A Memoir of Privilege and Loss by Frances Stroh
With a population drop of over 50 percent, the city was returning the valueless land to farmland, trying to consolidate the occupied area into a more sustainable footprint. No longer could Detroit afford the trash collection, police force, and fire protection in so widespread an area, and the grocery chains had fled the city because of the ever-rising crime, putting vegetables in high demand. Come springtime, grassroots urban renewal groups would be working the fields, planting everything from romaine to rutabaga. “Just surreal,” I said, staring out the window. “I mean . . . I can’t believe we still own an office building down here.” Bobby kept his eyes on the road. “John’s trying to get government leases now.” He turned down the volume on the radio. “But the city can’t even afford the infrastructure upgrade to keep the stoplights running—Did you know they’re trying to sell the entire stoplight grid to a private contractor?”
Masters of Mankind by Noam Chomsky
affirmative action, Berlin Wall, failed state, income inequality, land reform, Martin Wolf, means of production, nuremberg principles, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit maximization, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus
Similarly, it may be true, in the abstract, that “the techniques of economic stimulation and stabilization are simply neutral administrative tools capable of distributing national income either more or less equitably, improving the relative bargaining position of either unions or employers, and increasing or decreasing the importance of the public sector of the economy.56 But in the real world, as the same author points out, these “neutral administrative tools” are applied “within the context of a consensus whose limits are defined by the business community.” The tax reforms of the “new economics” benefit the rich.57 Urban renewal, the war on poverty, expenditures for science and education, turn out, in large measure, to be a subsidy to the already privileged. There are a number of ways in which the intellectual who is aware of these facts can hope to change them. He might, for example, try to “humanize” the meritocratic or corporate elite or the government bureaucrats closely allied to them, a plan that has seemed plausible to many scientists and social scientists.
business climate, car-free, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, Parkinson's law, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, skinny streets, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban decay, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city
Mixed-use neighborhoods, as opposed to residential-only neighborhoods, allow us to reestablish and rediscover what Oldenburg calls “third places,” where people get together to develop friendships, discuss issues, and interact, in the process building a feeling of community identity. (Thefirst and second places are home and work.) The disappearance of third places—a trend that began about the same time many of us took off for the suburbs—has been part of a decline in informal public life in the United States. Old neighborhoods and their cafes, taverns, and corner stores fell to urban renewal, freeway expansion, and newer neighborhoods zoned residential only. Third places are the bedrock of community life, according to Oldenburg. Distinctive, informal gathering places, they make us feel at home; they nourish relationships and a diversity of human contact; they help create a sense of place and community; they evoke civic pride; they provide numerous opportunities for serendipity; they promote companionship; they allow people to relax and unwind after work; they are socially binding; they encourage sociability instead of isolation; they make life more colorful; and they enrich public life and democracy.
Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, butterfly effect, computer age, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, East Village, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Grace Hopper, gravity well, Guggenheim Bilbao, Honoré de Balzac, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, Mother of all demos, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Potemkin village, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Robert X Cringely, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, social software, spaced repetition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, walkable city, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Shockley: the traitorous eight
She went over the whole sad history of those inﬂuential thinkers who saw 84 WEB n.0 cities as horrid, dirty, overcrowded places ﬁlled with the dregs of humanity who needed planners to come in and rationalize, de-densify, and order their spaces for them. Jacobs instead looked out her window and analyzed what worked in cities, seeking those “ﬁne grained mixtures of street-uses” that enliven any great city. She valued mixed-use areas, where people live, work, shop, and play in contiguous spaces, at discontinuous times. As urban renewal destroyed these kinds of neighborhoods in favor of single-use ones—think of the Lincoln Center arts complex in New York City or the Cabrini Green housing projects in Chicago—cities no longer were able to knit themselves together as well as remain safe, enjoyable, and viable. Jacobs wanted stimulating, mixed-use cityscapes to enhance urban economic actants. These urbanites develop technologies, export them out of the city, and establish cosmopolitan habits.
Getting By: Estates, Class and Culture in Austerity Britain by Lisa McKenzie
British Empire, call centre, credit crunch, delayed gratification, falling living standards, full employment, income inequality, low skilled workers, New Urbanism, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, unpaid internship, urban renewal, working poor
Demolition and concrete As 1970 approached, St Ann’s Victorian back-to-backs came down, the cobbled streets were covered in tarmac, and there was a need for cheap mass housing throughout the UK’s cities. Modernist interpretations vaguely linked to the works and writings of Le Corbusier’s visions of homes and cities began to spring up all over the UK, from the Thamesmead estate and Trellick Tower in London, to Manzoni’s concrete modernist dream of Birmingham. Local authorities on tight budgets have since been accused of plagiarising modernist theories on urban renewal which often failed to understand the essential humanism behind Le Corbusier’s plans, and his would-be imitators led modernist architecture to being blamed for the problems of Western cities in the 1960s and 1970s. During this period the inner-city middle class moved out to the suburbs, leaving the poorest whites and minority ethnic groups within their new concrete estates. However, in St Ann’s there had never been an obvious middle class, although all of the small businesses were run by independent and small business men and women often coming from the migrant population, who had made the area vibrant and colourful; but these businesses had also been demolished, and after that, they never returned.
Toast by Stross, Charles
anthropic principle, Buckminster Fuller, cosmological principle, dark matter, double helix, Ernest Rutherford, Extropian, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, glass ceiling, gravity well, Khyber Pass, Mars Rover, Mikhail Gorbachev, NP-complete, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, performance metric, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, slashdot, speech recognition, strong AI, traveling salesman, Turing test, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Review, Y2K
But if this is for real . . . ” “Pretty heavy?” He grinned. “You’re going to have to re-write the route discovery code. Never mind, it’ll run a bit faster . . . ” I rose out of cubicle hell in a daze, blinking in the cloud-filtered daylight. Eight years lay in ruins behind me, tattered and bleeding bodies scattered in the wreckage. I walked to the landscaped car park: on the other side of the world, urban renewal police with M16’s beat the crap out of dissident organizers, finally necklacing them in the damp, humid night. War raged on three fronts, spaced out around a burning planet. Even so, this was by no means the worst of all possible worlds. It had problems, sure, but nothing serious—until now. Now it had just acquired a sucking chest wound; none of those wars were more than a stubbed toe in comparison to the nightmare future that lay ahead.
The Perfect Storm: A True Story of Men Against the Sea by Sebastian Junger
That spring Ethel remembers the older boys being excused from school to fight the brush fires that were raging across Cape Ann; the fires burned through a wild area called Dogtown Common, an expanse of swamp and glacial moraine that was once home to the local crazy and forgotten. The bridge was the northern terminus of Boston's Route 128 beltway, and it basically brought the twentieth century to downtown Gloucester. Urban renewal paved over the waterfront in the 1970s, and soon there was a thriving drug trade and one of the highest heroin overdose rates in the country. In 1984, a Gloucester swordfishing boat named the Valhalla was busted for running guns to the Irish Republican Army; the guns had been bought with drug money from the Irish Mafia in Boston. By the end of the 1980s the Georges Bank ecosystem had started to collapse, and the town was forced to raise revenue by joining a Section 8 subsidized-housing program.
Raw Data Is an Oxymoron by Lisa Gitelman
collateralized debt obligation, computer age, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Earth, Howard Rheingold, index card, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, knowledge worker, Louis Daguerre, Menlo Park, optical character recognition, RFID, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, social graph, software studies, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, text mining, time value of money, trade route, Turing machine, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush
For others this presented a natural experimental condition: “This, for us, was a great experimental opportunity because we had seven years of background data off these twelve streams and a few of them were very strongly affected by the sewage improvements and a few of them were not.” Considered as an “experiment,” the new sewage system provided a unique occasion for a novel study that no other researcher has had the ability to enact. Long-term data stretching before and after a change will open a window of understanding on urban renewal. Many cities in America and around the world are going through a similar process. But, how are these new data to be reconciled as a single longitudinal arc? Scores of variables that were well understood are thrown into a complex flux—making environmental claims difficult for those scientists to assert. Instruments: Breakdown and Automation In a longitudinal study instruments come to be part of the field sites themselves.
Times Square Red, Times Square Blue by Samuel R. Delany
. — (Sexual cultures : new directions from the Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-8147-1919-8 (cloth : perm. paper) — ISBN 0-8147-1920-1 pbk. 1. Sex-oriented businesses—New York (State)—New York. 2. Sex customs—New York (State)—New York. 3. Times Square (New York, N.Y.)—Social life and customs. 4. Times Square (New York, N.Y.)—Social conditions. 5. Homosexuality, Male—New York (State)—New York. 6. Urban renewal—New York (State)—New York—History—20th century. I. Title. II. Series. HQ146.N7 D45 1999 306.74'09747—dc21 99-6130 CIP New York University Press books are printed on acid-free paper, and their binding materials are chosen for strength and durability. Manufactured in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 For Bruce Benderson Contents Acknowledgments Writer’s Preface ix xi Part 1.
Free as in Freedom by Sam Williams
Asperger Syndrome, cognitive dissonance, Debian, East Village, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Isaac Newton, John Conway, Maui Hawaii, Murray Gell-Mann, profit motive, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software patent, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, urban renewal, VA Linux, Y2K
"Our primary goal was to fight Tammany Hall, Carmine DeSapio and his henchman,"Carmine DeSapio holds the dubious distinction of being the first Italian-American boss of Tammany Hall, the New York City political machine. For more information on DeSapio and the politics of post-war New York, see John Davenport, "Skinning the Tiger: Carmine DeSapio and the End of the Tammany Era," New York Affairs (1975): 3:1. says Lippman. "I was the representative to the city council and was very much involved in creating a viable urban-renewal plan that went beyond simply adding more luxury housing to the neighborhood." Such involvement would blossom into greater political activity during the 1960s. By 1965, Lippman had become an "outspoken" supporter for political candidates like William Fitts Ryan, a Democratic elected to 36 Congress with the help of reform clubs and one of the first U.S. representatives to speak out against the Vietnam War.
Culture works: the political economy of culture by Richard Maxwell
1960s counterculture, AltaVista, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, business process, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, intermodal, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, Network effects, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, structural adjustment programs, talking drums, telemarketer, the built environment, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce
Immediately after this seemingly minor change in the tax code, the nationwide number of new retail projects shot up, and the size of shopping centers became larger. The tax code offered little incentive for upkeep and rehabilitation, so it fostered the now familiar pattern of sparkling new malls being built next door to faded old ones. Meanwhile, Hanchett argues, direct federal grants during the ﬁrst ten years of urban renewal, aimed at alleviating the crisis of housing and jobs in the older downtowns, totaled only $712 million, “less than a single year’s tax expenditure for accelerated depreciation in real estate” (ibid., 1107). 31. Ibid., 1105. 32. Ibid., 1104–5. 33. Ibid., 1105. Investment in real-estate structures rose by 56 percent in the ﬁrst ﬁve years of the Reagan administration, under which Congress enacted new tax shelters that reaccelerated the building boom.
Albert Einstein, AltaVista, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, c2.com, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, crowdsourcing, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Hacker Ethic, HyperCard, index card, Jane Jacobs, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, jimmy wales, Marshall McLuhan, Network effects, optical character recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, wikimedia commons, Y2K
There is no better historical example than that explored in Jane Jacobs’s book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, her critique of the modernist planning policies of the 1950s and 1960s, an era when New York City developer Robert Moses was razing entire swaths of neighborhoods for planned housing projects and communities. Jacobs argued for preserving her small neighborhood on Hudson Street and resisting massive urban renewal, because the intimate sidewalks served an important social function. She argued that sidewalks provided three important things: safety, contact, and the assimilation of children in the community. In the summary of Jacobs’s vision of the sidewalk, there are parallels to wikis and how to build community: Street safety is promoted by pavements clearly marking a public/private separation, and by spontaneous protection with the eyes of both pedestrians and those watching the continual flow of pedestrians from buildings.
Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck
A Pattern Language, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration
Lippincott eISBN 9781429932110 First eBook Edition : May 2011 Published in 2000 by North Point Press First paperback edition, 2001 10th anniversary paperback edition, 2010 The Library of Congress has cataloged the hardcover edition as follows: Duany, Andres. Suburban nation : the rise of sprawl and the decline of the American Dream / Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck.—1st ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. 1. Urbanization—United States. 2. Suburbs—United States. 3. Community development, Urban—United States. 4. Urban renewal—United States. 5. Urban policy—United States. I. Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth. II. Speck, Jeff. III. Title. HT384.U5 D83 2000 307·76′0973—dc21 990052186 10th Anniversary Paperback ISBN: 978-0-86547-750-6
The Caryatids by Bruce Sterling
Why do you own a giant war machine that destroys the homes of helpless refugees with heat rays?” “What, you mean in an immersive-world simulation? I can’t remember my roles in immersive worlds—there are just too many.” “No, I meant last August,” said Feininger politely. “In the streets of Los Angeles. You were lasciviously dancing on the top of a giant walking tripod that fired laser weapons into people’s homes.” “Oh that!” said Radmila. “You mean our urban-renewal festival.” “That behavior truly baffles us in the Acquis,” said Feininger. “Please try not to worry,” said Radmila, wide-eyed. “I’m just an actress. It’s all for show.” “Leaving aside the social-justice aspects of preferentially wrecking the neighborhoods of the poor,” said Feininger, “are you aware of what happens, technically speaking, within the legs of those tripods?” “Should I be?” “I know the sinister genius who constructed that device,” said Feininger.
The Sushi Economy: Globalization and the Making of a Modern Delicacy by Sasha Issenberg
air freight, Akira Okazaki, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, call centre, Deng Xiaoping, global supply chain, haute cuisine, means of production, Nixon shock, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, telemarketer, trade route, urban renewal
“Thinking about the heady days of my youth, there always seemed to be sushi and cocaine intermingled together—often served off the same platter.” Sushi began to adapt to a pullulating city’s shifting moods and attitudes, its alternating affections for high culture and low, its willingness to succumb to faddishness all while impervious to the attendant embarrassment. In Japanese Village Plaza, an openair mini-mall bizarrely styled as a mountain hamlet by a city government that saw it as an urban-renewal solution to Little Tokyo’s problems, sushi spun around a conveyor belt at the inexplicably named Frying Fish, a nod to the kaiten-zushi popping up all over Japan at the time. Nearby, Sushi Kappo Bukyu opened with a different gimmick: all you can eat in an hour for $12.99. On the side of its sake cups, California Beach, in Newport Beach, promised ROCK & ROLL SUSHI. At Sushi on Tap, in Studio City, all the chefs were tap dancers, who would every twenty minutes come out from behind the bar and dance.
Farm City: The Education of an Urban Farmer by Novella Carpenter
back-to-the-land, crack epidemic, David Attenborough, dumpster diving, Golden Gate Park, haute cuisine, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Mason jar, McMansion, New Urbanism, Port of Oakland, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, urban decay, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog
The Black Porter’s Union was headquartered in West Oakland, a major nexus for the railroad lines. From those stable, well-paying jobs sprang a community. But it wasn’t just African Americans, Ali said; there were Norwegians and Chinese people, too—a multiethnic community in which people mostly got along. “But they broke it up,” Melvin said, sighing. “They” was the city of Oakland and the federal government and something called urban renewal, Melvin told me. First came the construction of Oakland’s main post office, in the heart of the burgeoning black community. Though the post office was supposed to provide jobs, the leveling of homes with tanks, actual military tanks, alienated many. And when the jobs did come, there were only a few. Then came BART, which used eminent domain to raze hundreds of homes and businesses. To cap off the destruction, they built an expressway and highways 24 and 980 through predominantly African American neighborhoods.
back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, centre right, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, Hyman Minsky, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, lake wobegon effect, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, McMansion, medical malpractice, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, working poor, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War
The New Deal restored the earlier idea of internal development as a conscious national enterprise, which had been lost in the late nineteenth century when industrialization morphed into finance capitalism and the westward expansion morphed into the thirst for overseas empire. Roosevelt understood that investment is the future-shaping act. The government financed dams, rural electrification, schools, roads and bridges, agricultural research, parks, and conservation and urban renewal projects and connected these infrastructure needs of the future to the immediate need to create jobs. Social Security, unemployment compensation, and other social insurance programs reflected a political ethos of taking shared responsibility for tomorrow. The United States would remain a private market economy, but be guided by shared public goals. The age of Roosevelt lasted almost fifty years as the framework by which the governing class managed the nation’s economy, under Republicans as well as Democrats.
Cultureshock Paris by Cultureshock Staff
Then came Greeks, Armenians and Turks, and most recently Asians, Arabs and Africans—again, some with legal papers, others without—bringing a tangible instability and some anger (sometimes explosive) to the area, as the French endlessly debate how to handle the large immigrant influx and its high 52 CultureShock! Paris rate of unemployment. Today this population congregates to the sides of the boulevard de Belleville at the Arab and Asian shops, Muslim and Jewish establishments and the crowded, inexpensive market. Much of this western side where the 20e and the 11e abut is rundown, but some parts bear the mixed results of urban renewal. In the 1960s, the 20e began to experience the same faceless development as parts of the 13e and 15e, but the outcry of the residents, les Bellevillois, caused at least some areas to be preserved. Thus, this hilly northern part of the district contains apartment blocks, charming cottages and dismal slums. The area immediately above the steep Parc de Belleville is up-and-coming, with new cafés and bars enlivening the area; downhill, it approaches boulevard de Belleville and the unsettled area described above.
Dreaming in Public: Building the Occupy Movement by Amy Lang, Daniel Lang/levitsky
Bay Area Rapid Transit, bonus culture, British Empire, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deindustrialization, facts on the ground, glass ceiling, housing crisis, Kibera, late capitalism, Naomi Klein, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Port of Oakland, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Slavoj Žižek, structural adjustment programs, the medium is the message, too big to fail, trade liberalization, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, white flight, working poor
The freedom to make and remake our cities and ourselves is, I want to argue, one of the most precious yet most neglected of our human rights.’5 The construction of a thing called ‘The Oakland Commune’ at a plaza that was renamed after Oscar Grant was, in this sense, not a franchise of Occupy Wall Street but a revolutionary defense of that particular space, the demand that we who occupy it have the right to decide what will be made of it. * * * At this point, then, we have to talk about Oakland itself, about what ‘Oscar Grant’ means to the people who made that name the center of their protest (or what it would mean if Occupy Oakland renamed itself ‘Decolonize and Liberate Oakland.’6) The broad and racialized social restructuring that Oakland has undergone in the last half century – an ‘urban renewal’, after the end of segregation, that has melded seamlessly into suburbanization and gentrification – is a process that has analogs in cities across the United States. But the Bay Area is also unique, and the fact that Oscar Grant was a young African American man traveling on the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system – and was shot and killed by a police officer charged with policing BART – is a perfect symbol of the forms of differential inclusion through which Oakland has been formed and reformed (as this blogger describes too precisely for me to need to replicate7).
Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand
agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working-age population, Y2K
You should provide clean water, toilets, electricity, garbage collection and disposal, and maybe let people build their own houses if they can, using materials that you can provide,” says Aprodicio Laquian, the Filipino-Canadian planner who practically invented the idea of slum-dweller-designed urban rehabilitation in the 1960s. . . . These sorts of schemes, known as “slum upgrading” or “sites and services,” have been at the heart of the most successful urban-renewal projects of the past 40 years. As the 2003 UN report points out, “When more than half of the urban population lives in them, the slums become the dominant city.” A city planet has every reason to learn to understand slums, to respect the people there, and to help clear the way for them to become full citizens. That in turn helps the world, for practical as well as ethical reasons. There’s more to be said about what the world gains from its urban majority, and how.
Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator
Better Blocks, for example, creates community improvement flash mobs. They band people together to paint bike lanes on streets, plant trees in public spaces, and create outdoor cafés and pop-up shops—all without governmental approval. Not only does this help them build their community, the point they make with these crowdsourced, temporary urban improvements usually leads to changes in legislature and long-term urban renewal.27 6. Host Events. This has been discussed before, but it’s worth repeating: nothing brings people together like, well, actually bringing people together. 7. Technical Optimization. If you want a larger online presence, don’t forget the tried and true: search engine optimization tactics, AdWords, Facebook advertising, etc. Monetization Okay, so you are, after all, an entrepreneur, and making money—at some point—matters to you.
Cheap hotels and adult video parlors sat next to gleaming new condos and renovated brownstones. In this sense, Hell’s Kitchen had become a sort of postmodern neighborhood, stuck between genres—just like the world music my more artsy academic colleagues admired. Once again, all this would have been a rare sight in Chicago. Gentrification and urban development took place there, to be sure. Indeed, the national program of “urban renewal” was first developed in Chicago in an effort to reclaim seedy areas. But Chicago mayors typically sent bulldozers into down-and-out neighborhoods and then resold the land for private development—sports stadiums, universities, highways. It was a rapid-fire form of social bleaching. Gentrification in New York was like an IV drip. As old buildings came down, property changed hands, creating new neighborhoods in a more organic way.
The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey
accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce
Robert Moses ‘took a meat axe to the Bronx’ (in his own infamous words) and long and loud were the lamentations of neighbourhood groups and movements, which eventually coalesced around the rhetoric of the inveterate urban reformer Jane Jacobs, at the unimaginable destruction of valued urban fabric but also at the loss of whole communities of residents and their long-established networks of social integration. Once the brutal power of state expropriations and older neighbourhood destruction for purposes of highway construction and urban renewal had been successfully resisted and contained by the political and street agitations of ’68 (with Paris once more an epicentre but with violent confrontations everywhere from Chicago to Mexico City and Bangkok), a far more insidious and cancerous process of transformation began through fiscal disciplining of democratic urban governments, the freeing up of land markets from controls, property speculation and the sorting of land to those uses that generated the highest possible financial rate of return.
The Global Minotaur by Yanis Varoufakis, Paul Mason
banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, business climate, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, debt deflation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, full employment, Hyman Minsky, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mortgage debt, new economy, Northern Rock, paper trading, planetary scale, post-oil, price stability, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, structural adjustment programs, systematic trading, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Yom Kippur War
To put the importance of the Kennedy–Johnson social programmes in perspective, it helps to note that, from 1955 until Kennedy’s election in 1960, economic growth tailed off in the United States – a petering out that affected mostly the poor and the marginal. After eight years of Republican rule (1952–60), Kennedy was elected on a New Deal-alluding platform. His New Frontier manifesto promised to revive the spirit of the New Deal by spending on education, health, urban renewal, transportation, the arts, environmental protection, public broadcasting, research in the humanities, etc. After Kennedy’s assassination, President Johnson, especially after his 1964 landslide victory, incorporated many of the (largely un-enacted) New Frontier policies into his much more ambitious Great Society proclamation. While Johnson pursued the Vietnam War abroad with increasingly reckless vigour, domestically he attempted to stamp his authority by means of the Great Society, a programme that greatly inspired progressives when it set centre stage the goal of eliminating not only poverty for the white working class, but also racism.
A Place of My Own: The Architecture of Daydreams by Michael Pollan
A Pattern Language, back-to-the-land, Benoit Mandelbrot, dematerialisation, Frank Gehry, interchangeable parts, Marshall McLuhan, Mercator projection, place-making, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, The Great Good Place, urban renewal
In our own time, the balance between the two terms has been steadily tilting toward the There end of the scale. There are some powerful abstractions on the side of There, and in the last century or so these have tended to run over the local landscape. The force and logic of these abstractions are what have helped farmland to give way to tract housing, city neighborhoods to ambitious schemes of “urban renewal,” and regional architecture to an “international style” that for a while elevated the principle of There—of universal culture—to a utopian program and moral precept. Modernism has always regarded Here as an anachronism, an impediment to progress. This might explain why so many of its houses walked the earth on white stilts, looking as though they wanted to get off, to escape the messy particularities of place for the streamlined abstraction of space.
The Human Age: The World Shaped by Us by Diane Ackerman
23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Earth, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, Internet of things, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Masdar, megacity, microbiome, nuclear winter, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, skunkworks, Skype, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the High Line, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog
Picturesque, with many scenic views, it’s also richly detailed and alive, allowing you to feel elevated in spirit, floating in a garden in space where butterflies, birds, humans, and other organisms mingle. In a practical sense, it’s a lofty shortcut, a sky alley that avoids all the intersections. A million people have already strolled its landscaped corridors, and it’s inspired other cities hoping for similar sky parks. Chicago, Mexico City, Rotterdam, Santiago, and Jerusalem are among those following suit with their derelict trestles, each an urban renewal project featuring regional plants and its own special character or sense of humor. In Wuppertal, Germany, the rails-to-trails corridor includes a brightly colored LEGO-style bridge. Like the wastewater wetlands, such projects are widening our notion of recycling and yielding an urban lifestyle that’s interwoven with nature. As one salve in our medicine cabinet of good ideas, these vest-pocket urban parks and wildlife corridors have deep roots around the world, from nest boxes for storks in Romania, Switzerland, Poland, Germany, Spain, and other havens along their well-flapped migration routes to species-rich Central Park in the heart of New York City, London’s eight city parks (in several of which deer roam), the temperate rainforest of Vancouver’s Stanley Park, Moscow’s Losiny Ostrov (“Moose Island”) National Park, Sanjay Gandhi National Park in Mumbai, sod roofs and greenways from Germany to the Faroe Islands, St.
After the Berlin Wall by Christopher Hilton
Until they started to recreate the Altmarkt area, the only memorial that they had was in the cobblestones: little individual letters on steel pegs saying that this was where all these people were cremated. The cars rolled over it and the people walked over it without realising.’ Rüdiger Patzschke, a Berlin architect, helped found the Association for the Historic Dresden Newmarket (Gesellschaft Historischer Neumarkt Dresden) to rebuild the area as near as possible to exactly how it had been. Gabriele Tagliaventi – a leading figure in European urban renewal – and his students at the University of Ferrara began work on a plan for all of the Newmarket. ‘A lot of people don’t realise that parts of the city were not blown down,’ Dr Russell says. ‘If you go out into the suburbs where the hills and all those great villas and the three castles are, there is a lot of beauty which survived. Of the city centre only a limited amount will be rebuilt in the old style.
Among Schoolchildren by Tracy Kidder
Perhaps they were cleaner in memory than they ever were in fact, but back then, in the late 1950s, the Flats still looked like a thriving part of a thriving city. But even by then Holyoke's industries had fallen into a decline, which by the 1970s became altogether visible. As the city's population fell, from nearly seventy thousand at the peak to about forty thousand in the 1980s, the buildings of the Flats deteriorated. Some mills were abandoned. In the name of urban renewal—and partly in order to limit the size of the growing Puerto Rican population—City Hall presided over the demolition of many old apartment blocks. Most dramatically, the Flats burned. For years, flames lit the nighttime sky over Holyoke. Fires started in old wiring. Pyromaniacs and people bent on personal vendettas and professionals interested in insurance money set fires, and several were fatal.
A Brief History of Neoliberalism by David Harvey
affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business climate, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, debt deflation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, financial repression, full employment, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, labour market flexibility, land tenure, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, new economy, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Chicago School, transaction costs, union organizing, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent
The privatization of the ejidos in Mexico during the 1990s had analogous effects upon the prospects for the Mexican peasantry, forcing many rural dwellers off the land into the cities in search of employment. The Chinese state has sanctioned the transfer of assets to a small elite to the detriment of the mass of the population and provoking violently repressed protests. Reports now indicate that as many as 350,000 families (a million people) are being displaced to make way for the urban renewal of much of old Beijing, with the same outcome as that in Britain and Mexico outlined above. In the US, revenue-strapped municipalities are now regularly using the power of eminent domain to displace low- and even moderate-income property owners living in perfectly good housing stock in order to free land for upper-income and commercial developments that will enhance the tax base (in New York State there are more than sixty current cases of this).15 The neoliberal state also redistributes wealth and income through revisions in the tax code to benefit returns on investment rather than incomes and wages, promotion of regressive elements in the tax code (such as sales taxes), the imposition of user fees (now widespread in rural China), and the provision of a vast array of subsidies and tax breaks to corporations.
The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt
anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, McMansion, New Urbanism, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional
In the past 20 years, Charlotte has done something no other American city has done: It has ripped out its historic city center, put up a brand-new one, and made the rebuilt downtown into a functional, generally appealing economic and cultural enclave. Even the recession that has badly damaged the city’s two big banks and economic drivers, Bank of America and Wachovia (and forced Wachovia to merge with Wells Fargo), has not diminished the entertainment vibrancy and affluent ambience of the downtown streets. Many big cities, including a significant number in the South and West, tried wholesale urban renewal in the mid- to late twentieth century, nearly always with disastrous results. Charlotte, for now at least, seems to have beaten the odds. It has done that for many reasons, but one above all: the presence of two of America’s four biggest banking institutions. Bank of America and Wachovia wanted to stay in downtown Charlotte, they wanted it to be a showplace, and they paid for what they wanted.
A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar
—Harriet Tregoning, founder of the National Smart Growth Network North Point Press A division of Farrar, Straus and Giroux 18 West 18th Street, New York 10011 Copyright © 2012 by Jeff Speck All rights reserved Published in 2012 by Farrar, Straus and Giroux First paperback edition, 2013 Grateful acknowledgment is made to Charles Marohn for permission to use an excerpt from Grist. The Library of Congress has cataloged the hardcover edition as follows: Speck, Jeff. Walkable city: how downtown can save America, one step at a time / Jeff Speck. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-374-28581-4 (alk. paper) 1. Central business districts—United States—Planning. 2. Pedestrian areas—United States—Planning. 3. Urban renewal—United States. 4. City planning—United States. I. Title. HT175 .S64 2012 307.1'2160973—dc23 2012018934 Paperback ISBN: 978-0-86547-772-8 www.fsgbooks.com www.twitter.com/fsgbooks • www.facebook.com/fsgbooks eISBN 9781429945967 ●This program, now in its twenty-sixth year, has served nearly one thousand mayors, with dramatic results. More information can be found at micd.org. ●54 out of 100.
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, blue-collar work, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gini coefficient, income inequality, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, labor-force participation, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mortgage debt, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, obamacare, occupational segregation, Occupy movement, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price discrimination, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Simon Kuznets, single-payer health, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration
Blue-collar white workers who had their own modest homes saw any black movement into these neighborhoods as detrimental to their property values.19 Even when African Americans could get their mortgages guaranteed by the federal government, as with GI Bill–entitled veterans, banks were reluctant to extend credit. The upwardly mobile black middle class pushed the boundaries of urban settlement, leaving behind the poorest black people concentrated in areas that then became neglected ghettoes. The construction of highways, and “urban renewal” without replacement of destroyed housing, left formerly prosperous black neighborhoods disconnected and devastated; evicted residents had nowhere to live. Public housing was also racially segregated, and needy white families were placed into public housing more rapidly than were black families.20 The drive for racial equality in the 1950s focused on the legal and social realms rather than the economic realm.
Equal Is Unfair: America's Misguided Fight Against Income Inequality by Don Watkins, Yaron Brook
3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Apple II, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, blue-collar work, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, financial deregulation, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, laissez-faire capitalism, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, obamacare, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, profit motive, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Uber for X, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor
Take the cost of housing, which is often the greatest financial burden people face. Land-use laws, zoning restrictions, height restrictions, and minimum-lot-size requirements all constrain the supply of housing and help to raise prices in many areas.31 Rent-control laws, among other evils, lead to poor quality of rent-controlled units and higher prices for non-rent-controlled units. So-called urban renewal projects have demolished much of the affordable housing once available to low-income Americans, largely in order to appease outsiders who had enough money to live elsewhere.32 And the government’s “affordable housing” crusade helped spur the housing bubble that drove up the cost of many houses, to the detriment of everyone who didn’t yet own homes. Then there are energy costs, which not only affect us directly through gas and electricity prices, but also indirectly, by adding to the production and transportation costs of all the others things we buy.
Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection by John T. Cacioppo
Alfred Russel Wallace, biofilm, butterfly effect, Celebration, Florida, corporate governance, delayed gratification, experimental subject, impulse control, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, Rodney Brooks, Ted Kaczynski, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Walter Mischel
He noted that “low population density and the loss of natural daily social gatherings on the porch, the street, or the corner drugstore made sharing experiences and insulating problems more difficult.”5 Residents of transient communities lacked not only long-term relationships with friends and neighbors but the benefits of living close to older generations of their own families. Weiss’s colleague Mark Fried referred to the loneliness of working-class residents of Boston’s West End “grieving for a lost home” after their neighborhood was razed for what was then called urban renewal.6 This was a community of people rich in attachments, both to the place and to one another. Just a few years ago you could get a taste of what the West End had been like by walking through Boston’s North End—a chaotic jumble that seemed to operate as an extended family. But now gentrification threatens the established connections in that community as well. In most industrialized nations, champions of modernism like New York’s “master builder” Robert Moses continued until very recently to bulldoze older neighborhoods to run expressways through cities, and urban planners built huge housing projects—“vertical slums”—to warehouse the poor.
West Berlin's industries only limped through the decades during which the half-city was a subsidized political symbol and an economic absurdity. But East Berlin remained a major industrial center until 1990. Only the demise of the East German economy shut down the old factories along the upper Spree and jerked it over to the Western European norm of empty factories and unemployed proletarians. Despite war and urban renewal, the valley of the Spree across much of Berlin remains a landscape of old industrial structures. Among them are the innovative and influential factory buildings built for AEG by Peter Behrens between 1909 and 1914 (years during which his assistants included Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe). Very few of the city's older buildings predate 1850. Even the inner city was utterly transformed in the half-century before 1914, as old houses were replaced one by one with new and larger buildings.
Eon by Greg Bear
“There has always been some puzzlement as to the coexistence of the second chamber city, known as Alexandria, and the far more advanced Thistledown City in the third chamber. We’ve all asked the question at one time or another: Why did the Stoners keep Alexandria in its earlier state, rather than rebuilding and modernizing? Certainly people with our present-day temperament would feel awkward living in comparatively primitive surroundings when more modern facilities could he had for the price of a little urban renewal. “We know a great deal now about living conditions in Alexandria but substantially less about Thistledown City. As you know, security–Stoner security—is very tight at Thistledown City, and unless we want to do some extensive breaking and entering, we have only one location where we have access to living quarters. Alexandria is more open, in some ways more friendly, if I may be excused a very unanthropological judgment.
Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, megastructure, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, Victor Gruen
The World Trade Center had a personality, and it was what gave the towers their impact, as much as their height. The towers were interpreted as a signal of power and authority by those who wanted to challenge America’s hold on the world. They were, it was insinuated, the personification of the evils of capitalism. The idea of building them was first put forward by David Rockefeller, as part of an urban renewal proposal that would have the effect of safeguarding his investment in the area. His brother Nelson, from his Albany citadel, ensured its financial viability when, as Governor of New York State, he leased space in them for 1,000 civil servants. But they were actually built by a group of public officials in a bid to revitalize the local economy of the city, badly damaged by the loss of traditional employers as shipping operations in Manhattan vanished in the 1950s.
The Right to Earn a Living: Economic Freedom and the Law by Timothy Sandefur
barriers to entry, big-box store, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Edward Glaeser, housing crisis, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, minimum wage unemployment, positional goods, price stability, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal
John Dewey, “The Future of Liberalism,” Journal of Philosophy 32, no. 9 (1935): 225–30. 37. Charles Paul Freund, “Our Secret Pledge,” Reason, June 27, 2002, http: //reason.com/news/show/33640.html. 38. McGerr, A Fierce Discontent, p. 214. 39. Eric R. Claeys, “Euclid Lives? The Uneasy Legacy of Progressivism in Zoning,” Fordham Law Review 73 (2004): 751–53; and Wendell E. Pritchett, “The ‘Public Menace’ of Blight: Urban Renewal and the Private Uses of Eminent Domain,” Yale Law and Policy Review 21 (2003): 1–52. 40. Woodrow Wilson, “Position and Importance of the Arts Course as Distinct from the Professional and Semi-Professional Courses,” Journal and Proceedings of the Association of American Universities Sixth Annual Conference (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1905), p. 74. 41. U.S. Const. Amends. XVII, XVIII. 42.
air freight, Apple II, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, card file, Chance favours the prepared mind, cuban missile crisis, dumpster diving, Hush-A-Phone, index card, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Menlo Park, popular electronics, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, the scientific method, urban renewal, wikimedia commons
When she returned the phone booth was empty. The man was gone, along with his Volkswagen van. Nearby, a telephone company employee toiled, doing whatever it is that telephone company employees do. She walked over and told him about the rude man and his odd little box. Months earlier, in April 1971, British Columbia Telephone took a wrecking ball to the phone phreaks’ home on the network. In a bit of telephonic urban renewal, the old mechanical Vancouver step tandem—home to the 2111 conference—was replaced with a shiny new 4A crossbar toll switching machine. The old step tandem still existed but it was relegated to other, lesser duties. Unfortunately for the phreaks, the telephone company thoughtlessly failed to provide a phone phreak conference call setup in the new switching machine. The 2111 conference really was something special.
Capitalism: the unknown ideal by Ayn Rand
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, East Village, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, Isaac Newton, laissez-faire capitalism, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, profit motive, the market place, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, War on Poverty
The following authors are not exponents of Objectivism, and these recommendations should not be understood as an unqualified endorsement of their total intellectual positions. Anderson, Benjamin M., Economics and the Public Welfare: Financial and Economic History of the United States, 1914-1946, Princeton, New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1949. Anderson, Martin, The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal, 1949-1962, Cambridge, Massachusetts: The M.I.T. Press, 1964. Ashton, T. S., An Economic History of England: The Eighteenth Century, New York: Barnes and Noble, 1955. ——, The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830, London: Oxford University Press, 1948. Ballvé, Faustino, Essentials of Economics, Princeton, New Jersey: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1963. Bastiat, Frédéric, Economic Sophisms, Princeton, New Jersey: D.
Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham
airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, McMansion, megacity, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight
Many of these, in turn, have stimulated not only vast migrations but also the construction of city-scale refugee camps to accommodate the displaced populations, who already numbered some fifty million by 2002.72 The permiation of organized, political violence within and through cities and systems of cities is complicated by the fact that much ‘planned’ urban change, even in times of relative peace, itself involves warlike levels of violence, destabilization, rupture, forced expulsion and place annihilation.73 Particularly within the dizzying peaks and troughs of capitalist and neoliberal urbanism or the implementation of programmes for large-scale urban ‘renewal’, ‘regeneration’ or ‘renaissance’, state-led planning often amounts to the legitimized clearance of vast tracts of cities in the name of the removal of decay, of modernization, improvement, or ordering, of economic competition, or of facilitating technological change and capital accumulation and speculation.74 While tracts of booming cities are often erased through state-engineered speculation, the many cities that are shrinking because of de-industrialization, global industrial relocation, and demographic emptying are also vulnerable to clean-sweep planning.
Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Tomorrow's Big Changes by Mark Penn, E. Kinney Zalesne
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, big-box store, call centre, corporate governance, David Brooks, Donald Trump, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, haute couture, illegal immigration, immigration reform, index card, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, life extension, low skilled workers, mobile money, new economy, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, the payments system, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, Y2K
At that rate, Extreme Commuters listening in their cars can habla español in a week without giving up any other activities. And after a couple months, they could be U.N. translators, if their current jobs don’t work out. Or books on tape. Extreme Commuters are the transportation equivalent of speed readers. They could get through War and Peace in twelve days, or The Da Vinci Code in five. Lyndon Johnson said he was declaring war on poverty and beginning massive urban renewal because, he predicted, 95 percent of Americans were going to live in cities. But in fact, people have spread out across the country to suburbs and exurbs faster than anyone could have predicted. (This just proves how hard it is to make assumptions about what America will look like fifty years from now—while you’re focused on a few big trends, other microtrends seep in and upset your expectations.)
airport security, Atahualpa, back-to-the-land, Bartolomé de las Casas, Colonization of Mars, Columbian Exchange, dematerialisation, diversified portfolio, Francisco Pizarro, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, trade route, urban renewal
Calls flooded in from across the country, particularly New England, where Gannon was dubbed “the Grinch who stole Thanksgiving.” The historian didn’t flinch from the controversy; he stoked it. When a TV interviewer in Boston told him that Plymouth officials had called an emergency meeting to discuss his remarks, the professor coolly replied: “By the time the Pilgrims came to Plymouth, St. Augustine was up for urban renewal.” In the years since, Gannon had often replayed his role as Thanksgiving provocateur. But he cheerfully acknowledged that the fuss was much ado about little. Other Europeans in pre-Mayflower America had also marked their arrival by offering prayers of thanksgiving. Some may have celebrated the occasion by feasting with Indians. At best, St. Augustine’s thanksgiving was the first to occur at a permanent European settlement on the continent.
Business Lessons From a Radical Industrialist by Ray C. Anderson
Albert Einstein, banking crisis, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, cleantech, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, dematerialisation, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Indoor air pollution, intermodal, invisible hand, late fees, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, music of the spheres, Negawatt, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, renewable energy credits, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, supply-chain management, urban renewal, Y2K
But what were the comparable metrics when it came to fairness? Diversity? Equality of opportunity? Community involvement? I knew how many tons of nylon we’d recycled. But how do you quantify what is so much the qualitative? How much social sustainability had we created, and how much was enough? My right brain seemed inadequate for the challenge. Fortunately, our guest speaker that night, Majora Carter, a visionary voice in city planning who views urban renewal through an environmental lens, had a lot to say to us about some of these things. Carter was awarded a 2005 MacArthur “genius” grant after founding Sustainable South Bronx, a community organization that pushes for eco-friendly practices (such as green and cool roofs). Equally important are job training and green-related economic development for her neighborhood. She currently runs a green economic consulting firm that bears her name.
Wealth and Poverty: A New Edition for the Twenty-First Century by George Gilder
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, capital controls, cleantech, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, Home mortgage interest deduction, Howard Zinn, income inequality, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, medical malpractice, minimum wage unemployment, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, non-fiction novel, North Sea oil, paradox of thrift, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, price stability, Ralph Nader, rent control, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, skunkworks, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, volatility arbitrage, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, yield curve
Similarly in and around Los Angeles, where 20 percent of Americans were jobless, aliens poured into the city from Mexico and found work on farms and in factories, in hotels and restaurants, in the garment industry and as domestics—all jobs that they now dominate in many American cities.18 Most of these aliens, like earlier immigrants, worked for low pay at menial jobs, disdaining the dole. In San Diego County, a center of Mexican flows, officials could discover only ten illegal aliens among 9,132 welfare cases surveyed in 1975.19 These newcomers are a great American capital asset. Senator Chafee of Rhode Island said that “our best urban renewal program is Portuguese immigrants.”20 Of the thousands of Vietnamese who arrived in the United States wide-eyed and battered from harrowing ordeals on land and sea, only 10 percent ended on welfare, and hundreds opened shops, laundries, and restaurants. In San Diego thousands worked in the city’s electrical-component assembly shops, which operated under contract to larger manufacturers of ordnance and communications equipment.21 They received low pay, but it was far higher than that of their competitors in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore.
airport security, Atahualpa, carbon footprint, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, financial independence, Google Earth, megacity, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Ronald Reagan, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, urban renewal
Five hundred lives were lost in building the nineteen miles of road, which included twenty-two bridges and seven tunnels. His nephew, Louis Napoléon—elected the first president of France’s Second Republic in 1848, before restoring the monarchy and becoming Emperor Napoléon III in 1852—focused more on home. The industrial revolution was taking hold in France; buoyed by a popular mandate to restore and remake his chaotic nation, Napoléon III undertook a program of massive urban renewal. The ramshackle, medieval quarters of Paris were symbols not only of poverty and disease but of insurrection. Among his early projects was construction of the grand boulevards of Paris. Though the Champs-Élysées had begun to take shape nearly two centuries before, Napoléon III (through his prefect, Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann) expanded the concept, tearing down twisting crowded districts dating from the Middle Ages and remaking the fractious city by endowing it with, in Haussmann’s words, “spaces, air, light, verdure and flowers, in a word, with all that dispenses health.”
Fighting Traffic: The Dawn of the Motor Age in the American City by Peter D. Norton
clean water, Frederick Winslow Taylor, garden city movement, invisible hand, jitney, new economy, New Urbanism, Ralph Nader, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, Thorstein Veblen, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban planning, urban renewal
The most effective proponents of the motor age city saw more possibilities in highway engineers, who were represented as mere technicians responding almost automatically to the demands of consumers (gasoline-tax-paying motorists). 131. The reality was somewhat different. Though highway engineers (especially c. 1930–1970) represented themselves as technicians working to fulfill others’ demands, in practice they did much more. For example, in locating highways they sometimes involved themselves in sensitive policy questions (e.g. urban renewal), and in meeting motorists’ demands they promoted motor transportation over other modes. See Peter Norton, “Fighting Traffic: U.S. Transportation Policy and Urban Traffic Congestion, 1950–1970,” Essays in History 38 (1996), available at http://etext. lib.virginia.edu. 132. “The Story of the ‘Snitching Post,’ ” Highway User, Nov. 1965, 19–21 (19). 133. Public Relations Department, AAA, Special Information Bulletin 2, “Parking Meter Developments,” in Vertical File: “Parking,” AAA Headquarters Library. 134.
Life Inc.: How the World Became a Corporation and How to Take It Back by Douglas Rushkoff
affirmative action, Amazon Mechanical Turk, banks create money, big-box store, Bretton Woods, car-free, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, don't be evil, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, easy for humans, difficult for computers, financial innovation, Firefox, full employment, global village, Google Earth, greed is good, Howard Rheingold, income per capita, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, laissez-faire capitalism, loss aversion, market bubble, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Milgram experiment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, peak oil, place-making, placebo effect, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, principal–agent problem, private military company, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social software, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Victor Gruen, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, young professional
Patrons thought they were visiting a theme-park museum when, of course, they were really just visiting a mall. For most visitors the connection felt real enough—at least compared with whatever else they were getting in their home neighborhoods and office parks. These projects were hailed as successes from nearly all corners. Landmarks were being restored, and the uniqueness of place was being celebrated. Urban-renewal advocates issued reports showing how these projects lowered crime in the streets, relieved residents of boredom, and increased tourism. Theme malls served as a compelling enough proof-of-concept for developers to attempt the Gruen Transfer on an even greater scale: they would transform whole districts into master-planned shopping environments. Instead of requiring people to get to a mall, why not just bring the mall to them?
Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend
1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar
As Anthony Flint recounts in Wrestling with Moses, Jacobs was dumbstruck when she learned about the plans in the pages of the New York Times in February 1961, a month after submitting the manuscript for Death and Life of Great American Cities. “Her home and neighborhood, the very neighborhood she had identified as a model of city living in the book she had just written, were now targeted by the urban renewal machine that Robert Moses had set in motion.”21 The blight study was a trick she knew well. “It always began with a study to see if a neighborhood is a slum,” Jacobs had noted in her manuscript. “Then they could bulldoze it and it would fall into the hands of developers who could make a lot of money.”22 In place of the funky nineteenth-century neighborhood of bohemians and ethnics would rise modern middle-class tower blocks.
The Making of an Atlantic Ruling Class by Kees Van der Pijl
anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, deskilling, diversified portfolio, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, imperial preference, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, North Sea oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit maximization, RAND corporation, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty
‘Liberalism’ at home, embodied in such programmes as the ‘War on Poverty’ which particularly infuriated conservatives, was in fact necessary to allow the offensive turn of foreign policy. The outward thrust of the Kennedy policy was based firmly in domestic reforms and expansionary measures, even if it was often left to his successor to win final congressional approval. In his own lifetime, Kennedy succeeded in having passed an improved minimum wage, low-cost housing projects and urban renewal, as well as a $900 million public works programme.78 Employment was still recovering from the 1958 and 1959/60 recessions when Kennedy came to power. At first, the new administration refrained from substantial state intervention and seemed to continue the passive attitude of its predecessor, allowing unemployment to rise again in 1961. By 1962, however, capital accumulation accelerated and employment opportunities improved accordingly.
air freight, Andrei Shleifer, battle of ideas, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, discovery of the americas, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, fundamental attribution error, germ theory of disease, greed is good, income per capita, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, M-Pesa, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, oil shock, place-making, Ponzi scheme, risk/return, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey, young professional
This entire section draws heavily upon William Easterly, Laura Freschi, and Steven Pennings, “A Long History of a Short Block: Four Centuries of Development Surprises on a Single Stretch of a New York City Street,” DRI Working Paper No. 96, Development Research Institute, New York University, New York, NY, 2013. 24. “Shacktown Pulls Through the Winter,” New York Times, March 26, 1933, accessed September 10, 2013, http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00C1FFE3D5E1A7A93C4AB1788D85F478385F9. 25. Arthur C. Holden, “Planning Recommendations for the Washington Square Area” prepared for the Washington Square Association, 1946, 12. 26. Hilary Ballon, “Robert Moses and Urban Renewal,” in Robert Moses and the Modern City: The Transformation of New York, eds. Hillary Ballon and Kenneth T. Jackson (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2007). 27. Holden, “Planning Recommendations,” 17, 42. 28. Ibid., 54. 29. “South Village: Slum Clearance Plan Under Title I of the Housing Act of 1949,” January 1951 and “Washington Square South: Slum Clearance Plan Under Title I of the Housing Act of 1949,” January 1951, Robert Moses Papers, New York Public Library Manuscript and Archives Division, New York. 30.
The Voice of Reason: Essays in Objectivist Thought by Ayn Rand, Leonard Peikoff, Peter Schwartz
affirmative action, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business process, cuban missile crisis, haute cuisine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, laissez-faire capitalism, means of production, medical malpractice, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, War on Poverty
If a man who earns his living hears constant denunciations of his “selfish greed” and then, as a moral example, is offered the spectacle of the War on Poverty—which fills the newspapers with allegations of political favoritism, intrigues, maneuvering, corruption among its “selfless” administrators—what will happen to his sense of honesty? If a young man struggles sixteen hours a day to work his way through school, and then has to pay taxes to help the dropouts from the dropout programs—what will happen to his ambition? If a man saves for years to build a home, which is then seized by the profiteers of Urban Renewal because their profits are “in the public interest,” but his are not—what will happen to his sense of justice? If a miserable little private holdup man is hauled off to jail, but when the government forces men into a gang big enough to be called a union and they hold up New York City, they get away with it—what will happen to the public’s respect for the law? Can anyone wish to give his life to defend the rights of South Vietnam—when the rights of Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Albania, East Germany, North Korea, Katanga, Cuba, and Hungary were not defended?
Chaos Monkeys: Obscene Fortune and Random Failure in Silicon Valley by Antonio Garcia Martinez
Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Web Services, Burning Man, Celtic Tiger, centralized clearinghouse, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, financial independence, global supply chain, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, hive mind, income inequality, interest rate swap, intermodal, Jeff Bezos, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, means of production, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Network effects, Paul Graham, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, second-price auction, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, social web, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, telemarketer, urban renewal, Y Combinator, éminence grise
The company had outgrown the office on Folsom and, after much bickering with SF’s always schizophrenically inept city management, had opted to stay inside SF city limits, despite the city’s threat to tax the stock options given out as compensation like candy on Halloween. The new office was just south of that crusty asshole of the SF cityscape, the Tenderloin. With Twitter setting up shop there, and the entire attendant economy of yuppie/hipster services like $5 coffee, craft beer, and expensive lofts that would no doubt arise to service it and its employees, local wags had renamed that part of the slum “the Twitterloin.” Who needed urban renewal or half-competent city planning when SF had IPOs? Name tag back around neck, I greeted Adam Bain’s admin in the reception area and was walked to a conference room. Through the conference room window, I spied the two men I’d last spoken to when I was wooing them and their company, and was then wooed in return, only to ultimately spurn. This will be very interesting. Polite handshakes and smiles all around.
Bourgeois Dignity: Why Economics Can't Explain the Modern World by Deirdre N. McCloskey
Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, BRICs, British Empire, butterfly effect, Carmen Reinhart, clockwork universe, computer age, Corn Laws, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, European colonialism, experimental economics, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, greed is good, Howard Zinn, income per capita, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Economic Geography, New Urbanism, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, tulip mania, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, V2 rocket, very high income, working poor, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra
Francis Bacon’s proposals during the 1620s for improving science look like those of a bourgeois projector (though my Lord Bacon was as far from bourgeois, and as far from an advocate for dignity and liberty, as one can imagine). Let us do thus-and-such, organized in this way, says the projector in Holland and then England, and — behold! — what great benefits will flow! It is a methodical and accounting rhetoric, foreign to an aristocratic society. Much later the rhetoric appears in the public and bourgeois spirit of people like Nassau Senior around 1840 or John Snow around 1850 calling for urban renewal and the redirection of water intakes. The germ theory of disease, Mokyr has emphasize, was of course a late nineteenth-century discovery, before which and quite independent of science a cleanliness obsession had taken hold among bourgeois men and especially women, long anticipated in the Low Countries and finally spreading to France and England. Nobody took care of the water supply or public education in London in the eighteenth century.
call centre, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, credit crunch, deindustrialization, deskilling, Downton Abbey, financial independence, full employment, income inequality, manufacturing employment, New Urbanism, Red Clydeside, rent control, rising living standards, strikebreaker, The Spirit Level, unemployed young men, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, young professional
.), Living in Towns: Selected Research Papers in Urban Sociology of the Faculty of Commerce and Social Science, University of Birmingham (London: Cresset Press, 1953) Madge, C., War-time Patterns of Saving and Spending (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1943) Madge, C., and T. Harrisson, Britain by Mass Observation (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1939) Marsden, D., Mothers Alone: Poverty and the Fatherless Family (London: Allen Lane, 1969) Mogey, J.M., Family and Neighbourhood: Two Studies in Oxford (London: Oxford University Press, 1956) Muchnick, D.M., Urban Renewal in Liverpool: A Study of the Politics of Redevelopment (London: Bell, 1970) Orwell, G., The Road to Wigan Pier (London: V. Gollancz, 1937) Pantazis, C., D. Gordon and R. Levitas, Poverty and Social Exclusion in Britain: The Millennium Survey (Bristol: Policy, 2006) Park, A. et al. (eds.), British Social Attitudes: The 20th Report (London: Sage, 2003). ——British Social Attitudes: The 22nd Report.
Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order by Parag Khanna
Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, complexity theory, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, knowledge economy, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Pax Mongolica, pirate software, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Potemkin village, price stability, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce
Laissez-faire is a somewhat inaccurate way to describe America’s social and economic principles when skewed societal structures actually favor the perpetuation of inequality. The social mobility that “equal opportunity” would entail is increasingly a myth, particularly for those already at the bottom: African Americans and Latinos, 50 percent of whom do not complete high school. From Los Angeles to Brooklyn, Latino minorities crowd crumbling districts and live at the mercy of despotic slumlords. Gentrification is a euphemism for urban renewal, which widely amounts to the same slum clearance seen in the second and third worlds. The influx of low-wage migrant labor has expanded the ranks of the poor, both due to their own numbers and because they reduce the wages of unskilled Americans.24 Almost two decades ago Los Angeles was described as the “capital of the third world” due to its segregated immigrant communities seeking simply to stay afloat with little regard for the broader society.25 Samuel Huntington also recently argued that America’s Anglo-Protestant culture and melting pot creed have been undermined by nonintegrating Hispanic minorities, warning that there cannot be an “Americano dream” to substitute for the American Dream without America becoming a schizophrenic nation.26 But it is hard to speak of a deep “community of values” in America when the primary reason Americans don’t support a welfare state to support the poor is that the poor are disproportionately minorities.27 In a country where recidivist violence seems never more than a few steps away, could white nativism reappear more regularly than it already does?
Nixonland: The Rise of a President and the Fracturing of America by Rick Perlstein
affirmative action, Alistair Cooke, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, cognitive dissonance, cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, East Village, European colonialism, full employment, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, immigration reform, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, indoor plumbing, Mahatma Gandhi, Marshall McLuhan, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, Own Your Own Home, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, the medium is the message, traveling salesman, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, walking around money, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog
So Newark had the highest percentage of substandard housing of any American city: 7,097 units had no flush toilets; 28,795, no heaters. Twenty-eight babies died in a diarrhea epidemic in 1965, eighteen of them at City Hospital, which was also infested by bats. The city’s major industry was illegal gambling. Cops ran heroin rings. Food stores raised prices the day welfare checks arrived. All the same, downtown was filled with construction cranes. “Urban renewal” served Mayor Addonizio’s political purpose: by continually scattering Negroes, who were 65 percent of the population, it radically reduced their power. Wednesday, July 12, 1967, police manhandled a cabdriver during an arrest. He had bushy hair, and they might have thought that made him a Black Muslim, whose lairs they had recently been raiding. A false report got around that he had died in police custody.
The “want to get out now” constituency, in other words, whatever their numerical or geographical distribution, no matter that they included the Sports Illustrated “Sportsman of the Year” Tom Seaver (who now recorded a TV commercial: “If the Mets can win the World Series, the United States can get out of Vietnam”), were strangers to the group Buchanan labeled “Americans.” The theory was further developed by Richard Nixon’s new bulldog, the vice president of the United States. Agnew was scheduled to speak October 19 at a party fund-raiser in New Orleans. He was still sufficiently low on the White House totem pole that his speeches tended to fixate on the tiny policy portfolio they’d given him (maritime affairs, urban renewal, Native Americans), or to repeat what the president had said the week before. His public appearances ran to affairs like the ribbon-cutting for the Spiro T. Agnew Mental Health Center in Maryland. For New Orleans, his speechwriter drafted him seven dry pages of facts for the party faithful on the administration’s accomplishments and goals, thirty-nine methodical bullet points from “casualties for the first nine months of this year are down by two-thirds” to “the Soviets have already deployed 64 ABMs.”
For the Win by Cory Doctorow
barriers to entry, Burning Man, double helix, Internet Archive, inventory management, loose coupling, Maui Hawaii, microcredit, New Journalism, Ponzi scheme, Post-materialism, post-materialism, random walk, RFID, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, slashdot, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, union organizing, urban renewal, wage slave
. :: :: Last year, the city completed a new housing project nearby to :: here, and social workers descended on the shantytowners to get :: them to pick up and move to these low-rent high-rises. The :: shantytowners wouldn’t go: “It was too expensive,” said Mrs X, :: who doesn’t want her family back in Oklahoma to know she’s :: squatting with her husband and their young daughter. “We can’t :: afford any rent, not if we want to put food on the table on :: what we earn.” :: :: She made the right decision: the housing project is an urban :: renewal nightmare, filled with crime and junkies, the kind of :: place where little old ladies triple-chain their doors and order :: in groceries that they pay for with direct debit, unwilling to :: keep any cash around. :: :: The squatter village was a shantytown, but it was no slum. It was :: a neighborhood that could be improved. And the boys are doing :: that: having relocated the village to their grounds, they’re :: inventing and remixing new techniques for building cheap and :: homey shelter fast.
Frommer's Oregon by Karl Samson
airport security, Burning Man, carbon footprint, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Works Progress Administration
FESTIVALS Eugene’s two biggest and most important music festivals are the Oregon Bach Festival (& 800/457-1486 or 541/346-5666; www.oregonbachfestival.com) and 09_537718-ch06.indd 163 6 EUGENE & SPRINGFIELD ESSENTIALS T H E W I L L A M E T T E VA L L E Y Although Eugene, with more than 150,000 residents, is the third-largest city in Oregon, tie-dyed T-shirts are more common than silk ties on downtown streets. This laid-back character is due in large part to the presence of the University of Oregon, the state’s liberal-arts university. Although downtown does have a small historic district with restaurants and interesting shops, much of downtown is dominated by parking garages and the characterless buildings of 1970s urban renewal. Consequently, life in Eugene tends not to revolve around downtown but rather around the university. For this reason, you’ll want to spend time on the school’s tree-shaded 250-acre campus, where you’ll find both an excellent art museum and a small natural-history museum. Eugene has for years been home to liberal-minded folks who have adopted alternative lifestyles. At the Saturday Market, a weekly outdoor craft market, you can see the works of many of these colorful and creative spirits.
Frommer's San Diego 2011 by Mark Hiss
airport security, California gold rush, car-free, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, El Camino Real, glass ceiling, New Journalism, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, Works Progress Administration
These joined the already-established Scripps Institution of Oceanography (p. 154) and San Diego’s State Teachers’ College (later renamed San Diego State University). Despite civic and cultural improvements, downtown—still overrun with porn theaters, strip clubs, flophouse hotels, and dive bars—was decidedly unbefitting of California’s second-largest city. But the 1984 construction of the kaleidoscopic, carnivalesque Horton Plaza (p. 208) shopping center, named for founding father Alonzo Horton, kicked off urban renewal in San Diego. Downtown’s seedy elements were eradicated, and the quirky, colorful, multilevel mall now anchors the vibrant Gaslamp Quarter (p. 183) entertainment district. The construction of a new baseball stadium east of the Gaslamp Quarter further invigorated downtown. When PETCO Park (p. 180) opened in 2004, the surrounding neighborhood (dubbed the East Village, p. 54) began to gentrify, with restaurants, galleries, and boutiques replacing industrial warehouses.
The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War
Half the Indian population is under twenty-five; 40 percent under eighteen. In 1950, 29 percent of the world population lived in cities; in 2008 the figure was 60 percent, with India in the vanguard. Singh has committed billions to refurbish sixty-three Indian cities. Plans call for luring the poor in from the depressing outskirts of urban areas with decent living. Hyderabad has completed its urban renewal, and Calcutta and Bangalore have entered the blueprint stage. What makes these ambitious programs possible has been the 8.8 percent growth rate India has sustained for several years. Should it persist—a tall order—its one-trillion-dollar economy will double by mid-2016! A Young Cohort of Indian Consumers India is pressing close to the United States in having the world’s top spenders; domestic consumption is 64 percent of Indian GDP, compared with 70 percent in the United States, 57 percent in Japan, 54 percent in Europe, and 38 percent in China.
Rewired: The Post-Cyberpunk Anthology by James Patrick Kelly, John Kessel
back-to-the-land, Columbine, dark matter, Extropian, Firefox, gravity well, haute couture, Internet Archive, pattern recognition, phenotype, post-industrial society, price stability, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, technological singularity, telepresence, the scientific method, Turing test, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Y2K, zero day
Then the quaint little coffeehouses, then the bakeries. Pretty soon the offices of professionals will be filtering in, and they’ll restore the water and the wiring. Once that happens, the real-estate prices will kick in big-time, and the whole zone will transmute right back into gentryville. It happens all the time.” Mabel waved her arm at the door. “If you knew anything about modern urban geography, you’d see this kind of, uh, spontaneous urban renewal happening all over the place. As long as you’ve got naive young people with plenty of energy who can be suckered into living inside rotten, hazardous dumps for nothing, in exchange for imagining that they’re free from oversight, then it all works out just great in the long run.” “Oh.” “Yeah, zones like this turn out to be extremely handy for all concerned. For some brief span of time, a few people can think mildly unusual thoughts and behave in mildly unusual ways.
Red Rabbit by Tom Clancy, Scott Brick
Theoretically, the Navy could get a submarine there and make the snatch, but you couldn't just whistle up a submarine, and the Navy would have a cow over that, just for having it asked of them. That left the fraternal socialist states of Eastern Europe, which were about as exciting as tourist spots as central Mississippi in the summer: a good place to go if you got off on cotton plantations and blazing heat, but otherwise why bother? Poland was out. Warsaw had been rebuilt after the Wehrmacht's harsh version of urban renewal, but Poland right now was a very tight place due to its internal political troubles, and the easiest exit point, Gdansk, was now as tightly guarded as the Russian-Polish border. It hadn't helped that the Brits had arranged for the purloining of a new Russian T-72 main battle tank there. Mary Pat hoped the stolen tank was useful to somebody, but some idiot in London had bragged about it to the newspapers and the story had broken, ending Gdansk's utility as a port of exit for the next few years.
The Age of Turbulence: Adventures in a New World (Hardback) - Common by Alan Greenspan
air freight, airline deregulation, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, currency peg, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, equity premium, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, market bubble, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, North Sea oil, oil shock, open economy, pets.com, Potemkin village, price mechanism, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, random walk, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, working-age population, Y2K
So I didn't relate to flower power. I had the freedom not to participate, and I didn't. My involvement in public life started in 1967 with Nixon's campaign for president. I'd been writing an economics textbook on the side with a Columbia University finance professor named Martin Anderson. Marty had made a reputation for himself in conservative circles with a book called The Federal Bulldozer, a critique of urban renewal that had caught Nixon's eye. Our plan had been to collaborate on a textbook describing a laissez-faire capitalist system; with some sense of irony we'd decided that Marty the academic, would write the chapters about business, and I, the business consultant, would write the chapters about theory. But we hadn't gotten very far when Nixon asked Marty to join his presidential campaign as his chief domestic policy adviser.
White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America by Nancy Isenberg
back-to-the-land, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Copley Medal, desegregation, Donald Trump, feminist movement, full employment, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration
In 1969, the thirteen Appalachian states were on the receiving end of 40 percent of mobile home shipments, and, not surprisingly, the cheapest models (under $5,000) headed for the hills. In 1971, New York City approved its first trailer park, after Mayor John Lindsay found support for a policy of housing the homeless in trailers. These were not Bowery bums, but people who were being uprooted as a result of urban renewal—yet somehow the solution was to stow them away in a most nonurban sort of accommodation. From Appalachia to the Big Apple, then, those without economic security and with the least political clout were seen as the most likely candidates for the trailer park.40 Cheap land, a plot of concrete and mud, and a junkyard trailer—the updated squatter’s hovel—became the measure of white trash identity.
The Fabric of the Cosmos by Brian Greene
airport security, Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, Arthur Eddington, Brownian motion, clockwork universe, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, dark matter, dematerialisation, Hans Lippershey, Henri Poincaré, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Murray Gell-Mann, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Stephen Hawking, urban renewal
Instead, he and other physicists suggested invariance theory, stressing that the theory, at its core, involves something that everyone agrees on, something that is not relative.8 Absolute spacetime is the vital next chapter in the story of the bucket, because, even if devoid of all material benchmarks for defining motion, the absolute spacetime of special relativity provides a something with respect to which objects can be said to accelerate. Carving Space and Time To see this, imagine that Marge and Lisa, seeking some quality together-time, enroll in a Burns Institute extension course on urban renewal. For their first assignment, they are asked to redesign the street and avenue layout of Springfield, subject to two requirements: first, the street/avenue grid must be configured so that the Soaring Nuclear Monument is located right at the grid’s center, at 5th Street and 5th Avenue, and, second, the designs must use streets 100 meters long, and avenues, which run perpendicular to streets, that are also 100 meters long.
Jerusalem: The Biography by Simon Sebag-Montefiore
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, California gold rush, Etonian, facts on the ground, haute couture, Khartoum Gordon, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, spice trade, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, Yom Kippur War
Spolia in Jaffa Gate: Boas, Jerusalem 52. Suleiman and Roxelana, political ethos: Finkel 115-18, 129-30; 133, 144-5, 148-50. Solomon of his age, politics, imperial projection: David Myres, 'An Overview of the Islamic Architecture of Ottoman Jerusalem', OJ 325-54. Abraham Castro, gates, Sinan planner, Archeological Park 8. Walls, second Solomon: Yusuf Natsheh, 'The Architecture of Ottoman Jerusalem', in OJ 583-655. Urban renewal, number of tiles, and Dome/al-Aqsa: Beatrice St Laurent, 'Dome of the Rock: Restorations and Significance, 1540-1918', in OJ 415-21. Khassaki Sultan project: OJ 747-73. David Myres, 'Al-Imara al-Amira: The Khassaki Sultan 1552', in OJ 539-82. Ottoman style: Hillenbrand, OJ 15-23. Hereditary architect dynasty of al-Nammar: Mahmud Atallah, 'The Architects in Jerusalem in the 10th-11th/16th-17th Centuries', in OJ 159-90.
Vanished Kingdoms: The Rise and Fall of States and Nations by Norman Davies
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, Corn Laws, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, labour mobility, land tenure, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, Red Clydeside, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, trade route, urban renewal
Persistent unemployment bred radical politics, and the epithet of ‘Little Moscow’ was coined to match that of adjacent ‘Red Clydeside’. In the 1950s the run-down district was used to locate several of Glasgow’s largest projects of overspill housing. Forty and fifty years on, the massive, dilapidated estates such as the Mill of Haldane in East Balloch were the scene of equally massive campaigns of attempted urban renewal. Yet a positive development began when one of Scotland’s leading whisky distillers moved into Dumbarton to employ the laid-off dockers. ‘George Ballantine’s Finest’ is one of the most popular and best-known brands of blended whisky in the world. Every bottle bears the proud assignations: ‘Scotch Whisky, Fully Matured, Finest Quality’, ‘George Ballantyne & Sons, Founded in 1827 in Scotland’ and ‘By Appointment to the Late Queen Victoria and the Late King Edward VII’.
call centre, card file, cuban missile crisis, Ford paid five dollars a day, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, job satisfaction, Ralph Nader, strikebreaker, traveling salesman, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Yogi Berra, zero day
They have enough records. They have police records, social history records, welfare records. (Laughs.) I should have to keep records? I think the parents are glad we’re around. We take a great deal of pressure off them. We give them a chance to get on with other things in their lives. We’ve had a lot of families move back South. A great deal of our neighborhood has gone under the bulldozer of urban renewal. Families who haven’t done so well after eight, nine years have now decided they’ll give the South another try. Kids are getting in neighborhood trouble. City life may be just a bit too hard. We’re really content when our students get a full-time, good paying job. We’re always around for him to learn if he wants to. He’s still interested in learning about himself. He realizes his life doesn’t end when he gets a job.
The Year's Best Science Fiction: Twenty-Sixth Annual Collection by Gardner Dozois
augmented reality, clean water, computer age, cosmological constant, David Attenborough, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, financial independence, game design, gravity well, jitney, John Harrison: Longitude, Kuiper Belt, Mahatma Gandhi, Paul Graham, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Skype, stem cell, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, urban renewal, Wall-E
Because the president upon whose orders Kennedy acted wasn’t the current one. Kennedy was following the orders of the only man he believed should be president at the moment. His brother, Jack. _______ The scene wasn’t hard to find; a coroner’s van blocked the entrance to the alley. Bryce walked quickly, already cold, his heartburn worse than it had been when he had gone to bed. The neighborhood was in transition. An urban renewal project had knocked down some wonderful turn of the century buildings that had become eyesores. But so far, the buildings that had replaced them were the worst kind of modern—all planes and angles and white with few windows. In the buildings closest to the park, the lights worked and the streets looked safe. But here, on a side street not far from the construction, the city’s shady side showed.
air freight, Albert Einstein, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, family office, feminist movement, full employment, ghettoisation, Indoor air pollution, medical malpractice, Mikhail Gorbachev, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, trade route, transaction costs, traveling salesman, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty
The tobacco bloc, in defense of its realm, enjoyed a natural affinity with other Southern lawmakers, who tended to unite in matters of regional concern, and with congressional Republicans, by and large pro-business and anti-governmental intervention—except when protecting, indeed subsidizing, the farmers in the G.O.P.-dominated Midwest. Northern liberals partial to government efforts to ameliorate pressing social problems found themselves susceptible to tobacco-state congressmen willing to trade off their votes on measures they would ordinarily oppose but were dear to liberal hearts—like urban renewal funding—in return for keeping government regulators away from the cigarette business. As consumer advocate Ralph Nader commented, “Any group of really cohesive congressmen can have disproportionate power like the tobacco bloc … [and become] a proverbial battering ram, saying in effect to their colleagues, ‘This is our particular bailiwick, and if you ever want us to defer to you someday, you’d better go along with us on this issue.’”
New York by Edward Rutherfurd
Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, illegal immigration, margin call, millennium bug, out of africa, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, rent control, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, the market place, urban renewal, Y2K, young professional
The city, it seemed to Gorham, was being tidied up and streamlined. The mighty hand of Robert Moses had continued to lay down highways for the motor car, and for the huge trucks which now delivered to, and frequently blocked, the Midtown streets. Moses wanted to sweep away the slums as well, and in numerous places along the East River, high-rise blocks, for better or worse, were springing up in their place. Urban renewal, it was called. The masses of small manufacturers and factories that had crowded the poorer districts, especially in Brooklyn and the New York waterfront areas—those dirty, grainy, humble powerhouses of the city’s wealth—had also been melting away. But if Manhattan was changing its character, if services were replacing manufacture, if Ellis Island was long since closed, and New York’s huge floods of immigrants regulated into a less visible seepage through the nation’s borders, the great city of New York still contained in its five boroughs vibrant communities from all the ends of the Earth.
J.K. Lasser's Your Income Tax by J K Lasser Institute
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, asset allocation, collective bargaining, distributed generation, employer provided health coverage, estate planning, Home mortgage interest deduction, medical malpractice, medical residency, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, passive income, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, rent control, telemarketer, transaction costs, urban renewal, zero-coupon bond
However, cash gifts from friends and relatives to help defray the cost of repairs do not reduce the loss where there are no conditions on the use of the gift. Also, gifts of food, clothing, medical supplies, and other forms of subsistence do not reduce the loss deduction nor are they taxable income. Cancellation of part of a disaster loan under the Disaster Relief Act is treated as a partial reimbursement of the loss and reduces the amount of the loss. Payments from an urban renewal agency to acquire your damaged property under the Federal Relocation Act of 1970 are considered reimbursements reducing the loss. Insurance payments for the cost of added living expenses because of damage to a home do not reduce a casualty loss. The payments are treated as separate and apart from payments for property damage. Payments for excess living costs are generally not taxable (18.17).
Great Britain by David Else, Fionn Davenport
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Beeching cuts, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Attenborough, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent
Today, however, it’s not the steel of the foundries, mills and forges that made the city’s fortune, or the canteens of cutlery that made ‘Sheffield steel’ a household name, but the steel of scaffolding and cranes, of modern sculptures and supertrams, and of new steel-framed buildings rising against the skyline. The steel industry that made the city famous is long since gone, but after many years of decline Sheffield is on the up again – like many of northern England’s cities it has grabbed the opportunities presented by urban renewal with both hands and is working hard to reinvent itself. The new economy is based on services, shopping and the ‘knowledge industry’ that flows from the city’s universities. Orientation The most interesting parts of Sheffield are clustered in the ‘Heart of the City’ district about 300m northwest of the train station (and immediately west of the bus station), a compact area outlined by Arundel Gate, Furnival St, Carver St, West St, Church St and High St.
England by David Else
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent
Today, however, it’s not the steel of the foundries, mills and forges that made the city’s fortune, or the canteens of cutlery that made ‘Sheffield steel’ a household name, but the steel of scaffolding and cranes, of modern sculptures and supertrams, and of new steel-framed buildings rising against the skyline. The steel industry that made the city famous is long since gone, but after many years of decline Sheffield is on the up again –like many of northern England’s cities it has grabbed the opportunities presented by urban renewal with both hands and is working hard to reinvent itself. The new economy is based on services, shopping and the ‘knowledge industry’ that flows from the city’s universities. This renaissance got off to a shaky start in 2000 when the city’s signature millennium project, the National Centre for Popular Music, closed down due to lack of visitors only 15 months after it opened. An eye-catching and controversial piece of modern architecture shaped like four giant, stainless steel kettles, it now houses Sheffield Hallam University’s student union.
France (Lonely Planet, 8th Edition) by Nicola Williams
active transport: walking or cycling, back-to-the-land, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information trail, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Murano, Venice glass, pension reform, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket
Île St-Louis (Map) is residential and much quieter, with just enough boutiques and restaurants – and a legendary ice-cream maker Click here – to attract visitors. ÎLE DE LA CITÉ The site of the first settlement in Paris, around the 3rd century BC, and later the Roman town of Lutèce (Lutetia), the Île de la Cité remained the centre of royal and ecclesiastical power even after the city spread to both banks of the Seine during the Middle Ages. The buildings on the middle part of the island were demolished and rebuilt during Baron Haussmann’s great urban renewal scheme of the late 19th century. Notre Dame Cathedral The Cathédrale de Notre Dame de Paris (Cathedral of Our Lady of Paris; Map; 01 42 34 56 10; www.cathedraledeparis.com; place du Parvis Notre Dame, 4e; Cité; audioguide €5; 7.45am-6.45pm) is the true heart of Paris; in fact, distances from Paris to all parts of metropolitan France are measured from place du Parvis Notre Dame, the square in front of Notre Dame.
Lonely Planet France by Lonely Planet Publications
banking crisis, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, Murano, Venice glass, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket
The Islands Top Sights Cathédrale de Notre Dame de ParisD3 Ste-Chapelle B2 Sights 1Cathédrale de Notre Dame de Paris North TowerD3 2 Conciergerie C1 3 Église St-Louis en l'Île F4 4 Musée de la Monnaie de Paris A1 5Pont NeufA1 Activities, Courses & Tours 6FreescootD4 Sleeping 7 Guest Apartment Services G4 8 Hôtel de Lutèce E3 9 Hôtel Esmeralda C3 10 Hôtel Henri IV A1 11 Hôtel les Degrés de Notre Dame D4 12Hôtel St-Louis en I'ÎleE3 Eating 13BerthillonF3 14Café Saint RegisE3 15 La Tour d'Argent F4 Mon Vieil Ami (see 8) 16 Polidor A4 17 Roger la Grenouille A2 18 Ze Kitchen Galerie A2 Drinking 19 Taverne Henri IV A1 Shopping 20 Clair de Rêve F3 21 Marché aux Fleurs C2 22 Mariage Frères A2 ÎLE DE LA CITÉ The site of the first settlement in Paris, around the 3rd century BC, and later the Roman town of Lutèce (Lutetia), the Île de la Cité remained the centre of royal and ecclesiastical power even after the city spread to both banks of the Seine during the Middle Ages. The buildings on the middle part of the island were demolished and rebuilt during Baron Haussmann’s great urban renewal scheme of the late 19th century. Cathédrale de Notre Dame de Paris CATHEDRAL Offline map Google map ( www.cathedraledeparis.com; 6 place du Parvis Notre Dame, 4e; 7.45am-7pm; Cité) This is the heart of Paris – so much so that distances from Paris to every part of metropolitan France are measured from place du Parvis Notre Dame , the square in front of the Cathedral of Our Lady of Paris. A bronze star across the street from the cathedral’s main entrance marks the exact location of point zéro des routes de France .
Lonely Planet China (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Shawn Low
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bike sharing scheme, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, indoor plumbing, land reform, place-making, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, young professional
Turn right from the metro exit and make your way to the alley immediately behind the one you're on. About 200m down the alley, turn left into a dirt road. ENNING Lu If you like history, a stroll down century-old Enning Lu (Enning Road MAP GOOGLE MAP ; hLuanyu Tang 10am-3pm; mChangshou Lu) can be rewarding. Located in the area known traditionally as Xiguan, the western gate and commercial hub of old Canton, it retains a few cultural relics, despite earnest urban renewal efforts. Bahe AcademyHISTORIC BUILDING (Bahe Huiguan MAP GOOGLE MAP ; 117 Enning Lu) Bahe Academy was a guild hall for Cantonese opera practitioners. The original institution opened in 1889 to provide lodging and other services to opera troupes. It’s now a meeting place for retired artists. Bahe is not open to the public, but you can see the original 3m-tall wooden door from 1889, the only item that survived a bombing by the Japanese in 1937.