urban sprawl

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pages: 282 words: 69,481

Road to ruin: an introduction to sprawl and how to cure it by Dom Nozzi

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business climate, car-free, Jane Jacobs, New Urbanism, Parkinson's law, place-making, Ray Oldenburg, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, skinny streets, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban decay, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city

By 1988, a British study reflected the about-face in our priorities: “The pedestrian remains the largest single obstacle to free traffic movement. . . . For decades, traffic engineers who design roadways actually referred to walkers in the Highway Capacity Manual as ‘traffic interruptions.’ ”7 Whatever a community makes its main form of transportation profoundly shapes the way it will use its land, not the other way around. Weak land use plans and feeble regulations did not create urban sprawl, for example; pouring money into roads and cars did. And whatever transportation our community chooses—for most of us, cars—also shapes our quality of life. As we have learned over the years, single-mindedly choosing car transportation has dispersed and isolated us and degraded our communities’ quality of life, environment, and financial health. The more convenient we make life for cars, the less livable it becomes for us.

Porter fifteen years ago.10 Furthermore, we cannot make car travel easier without making other forms of travel—public transit, bicycling, or our two feet—more difficult.11 So every “solution” that makes our communities more car friendly not only doesn’t work but also makes things worse. All such remedies force us to drive more often; encourage more people and businesses to move from in-town locations; make walking, bicycling, and riding the bus more diffi-cult; degrade our quality of life with noise, hazards, and air pollution; cost us a lot of money; and move our once unique communities closer to becoming Anywhere, USA. As it has become more clear that auto-oriented urban sprawl puts our quality of life in a downward spiral, people-friendly solutions have started to present themselves again. We could develop vacant, underused in-town property instead of more remote “greenfield” suburbs. We could design more modest, low-speed streets and build fewer enormous parking lots. We could design places where people can park once, then walk—to their workplaces, stores, recreation, and civic activities.

With a car at our command, we don’t have to trudge to the subway, huddle in the rain or snow waiting for a bus, or simmer in the summer sun sweating our way six miles to work on a bicycle. So we’re in agreement. We’re keeping our Expeditions, F-150s, Blazers, and Explorers. It is irrational for us not to. WHAT DO THOSE SUVs COST US? Of course, we pay a price for all that convenience. Air, water, and noise pollution. Injury and death. Environmental degradation. Loss of land. Urban sprawl. Our time. Lots and lots of money. Social and emotional isolation. Clean Air Air pollution is an easy place to start, because nearly everyone agrees that cars cause it—or a large portion of it. Beyond that agreement, the arguments get murky. Just to make clear the correlation between driving cars and air pollution . . . The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency indicated that in 1997, motor vehicles emitted over 50 million tons of carbon monoxide into the air, over 7 million tons of nitrogen oxides, over 5 million tons of volatile organic compounds, 320 tons of sulfur dioxide, and almost 15 million tons of road dust into the nation’s air.

 

pages: 296 words: 76,284

The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher

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Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

That same year, a report written by Russ Lopez of the Boston University School of Publish Heath for Fannie Mae entitled Thirty Years of Urban Sprawl in Metropolitan America warned of the dangers of our settlement patterns. “Urban sprawl is emerging as a major environmental, health and social issue,” Lopez wrote. California’s Inland Empire, the twenty-seven-thousand-square-mile zone between Los Angeles and the Riverside/San Bernardino hubs, emerged as a poster child of urban sprawl, a massive region where two-thirds of residents lived more than ten miles from a central business district, and the packed highways and clogged arterial roads had led to almost unbearable rates of congestion and pollution. In 2002 a report by the nonprofit agency Smart Growth America rated it the nation’s worst example of urban sprawl. “There is no ‘there’ there,” said one of the authors of the report

In places like Atlanta: Demographia.com, U.S. Census Bureau; see also http://www.demographia.com/db-atl1960.htm. By 2000, metropolitan areas covered: U.S. Census Bureau. That same year: Russ Lopez, Thirty Years of Urban Sprawl in Metropolitan America: 1970–2000: A Report to the Fannie Mae Foundation. a massive region where two-thirds of residents: Scott Gold and Massie Ritsch, “Swallowed by Urban Sprawl,” Los Angeles Times, October 18, 2002. In 2002 a report: Reid Ewing, Rolf Pendall, and Don Chen, Measuring Sprawl and Its Impact, Smart Growth America, 2002. “There is no ‘there’ there”: Gold and Ritsch, “Swallowed by Urban Sprawl.” The historian Lewis Mumford: Jackson, Crabgrass Frontier, pp. 237, 244; Lewis Mumford, The Culture of Cities (Mariner Books, 1970). Her influential 1961 book: Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Random House, 1961).

Researchers have also found that people get less exercise as the distances among where we live, work, shop, and socialize increase. As far back as 2001, a report from the CDC asserted a link between the design of our “built environment” and our increasing rates of chronic diseases like heart disease, diabetes, obesity, asthma, and depression. “There is a connection . . . between the fact that the urban sprawl we live with daily makes no room for sidewalks or bike paths and the fact that we are an overweight, heart disease-ridden society,” wrote the report’s author, Richard Jackson, MD, a pediatrician, chair of Environmental and Health Sciences at UCLA, and former director of the CDC’s National Center for Environmental Health. Jackson has been tracking the impact of environment on health for his entire career, in recent years focusing specifically on the influence of urban planning, including sprawl, on our overall well-being.

 

pages: 224 words: 69,494

Mobility: A New Urban Design and Transport Planning Philosophy for a Sustainable Future by John Whitelegg

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active transport: walking or cycling, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, decarbonisation, energy transition, eurozone crisis, glass ceiling, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, post-industrial society, price mechanism, smart cities, telepresence, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban sprawl

The Atlanta system burdens city and regional administrations with unaffordable costs and a widening gap between revenue and expenditure. It also causes enormous problems for ordinary families. The impact on ordinary families of similar situations in Australian cities has been very well documented by Dodson and Sipe (2008). The consequences of misguided policies in Australian cities to encourage urban sprawl, longer distances for most journey purposes and high levels of dependency on private cars has been to give ordinary families huge problems of managing budgets, coping with rising petrol prices and in extremis being unable to get to work and joining the ranks of the urban poor. Urban poverty in this case is directly linked to all those policies that have combined to produce sprawl, car dependency, and lack of destinations that are easily accessible and grossly inadequate public transport.

E-mobility is currently promoted as part of the maximum mobility objective and to provide a green smokescreen to reinforce the mobility paradigm by suggesting that mobility can be zero carbon/lower carbon and non-polluting. If e-mobility can be delivered to the extent that it can replace the vast majority of petrol/diesel car trips in Europe (and this has not yet been demonstrated) the result will be hugely expensive and many more roads with all their damaging effects will be funded and built. Urban sprawl will continue to consume valuable land that could be used for food production and land also provides valuable landscape, ecological and biodiversity services that are destroyed when new roads occupy that space. Distances travelled will increase and as distances increase so walking and cycling decline. With the decline in “active travel” (walking and cycling) obesity prevalence will increase (Roberts 2010) and citizens will be living in increasingly remote suburban communities with all the problems identified by Dodson and Sipe (2008) and paying for their mobility with larger percentages of their disposable income.

E-mobility offers some relief from damaging exhaust emissions and their health impacts but sits very uneasily in the wider context of polices and measures that could increase accessibility reduce congestion and reduce deaths and injuries in the road traffic environment. It cannot deliver on these wider societal objectives and should be more correctly seen as a device to maintain the growth of mobility and in particular the growth of private motorised transport and urban sprawl. It is not located within a coherent sustainable transport policy context characterised by the demotion of mobility as a societal objective. This demotion is now recognised as an overdue policy change by a United Nations report (United Nations, 2013) and this same report recommends its replacement by comprehensive accessibility objectives: “Achieving transport affordability objectives require actions that support non-motorised transport; reduce the financial costs of transport services; and increase transportation affordability through improved land-use accessibility.”

 

pages: 342 words: 86,256

Walkable City: How Downtown Can Save America, One Step at a Time by Jeff Speck

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A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, car-free, carbon footprint, congestion charging, David Brooks, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Enrique Peñalosa, food miles, Frank Gehry, Guggenheim Bilbao, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Florida, skinny streets, smart cities, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, transit-oriented development, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

This is why Chris Leinberger believes that “all the fancy economic development strategies, such as developing a biomedical cluster, an aerospace cluster, or whatever the current economic development ‘flavor of the month’ might be, do not hold a candle to the power of a great walkable urban place.”37 WHY JOHNNY CAN’T WALK The obesity bomb; Clearing the air; American car-nage; Tense and lonely The best day for being a city planner in America was July 9, 2004. That’s when Howard Frumkin, Lawrence Frank, and Richard Jackson published their book Urban Sprawl and Public Health. Until that day, the main arguments for building walkable cities were principally aesthetic and social. More significantly, almost nobody but the planners was making them. But it turns out that while we were shouting into the wilderness about the frustrations, anomie, and sheer waste of suburban sprawl, a small platoon of physicians was quietly doing something much more useful: they were documenting how our built environment was killing us.

.● And sometimes when children do walk to school, their parents are visited by the police: a Salt Lake City newspaper carried in December 2010 the story of Noah Talbot, of South Jordan, who was picked up by the police on the way to school and his mother issued a citation for child neglect.5 Jackson and his coauthors note how “children are increasingly medicated for inattentiveness or hyperactivity, even as many are losing their opportunities for exercise at school or in the neighborhood. There are third-grade classes in which as many as a third of the boys are on Ritalin or similar medications.”6 To summarize the findings of Urban Sprawl and Public Health—which are echoed by a growing number of epidemiologists nationwide—the inactivity-inducing convenience, often violent speed, and toxic exhaust of our cars have contributed mightily to the circumstance that “for the first time in history, the current generation of youth will live shorter lives than their parents.”7 THE OBESITY BOMB In any meaningful discussion about American health (and health care), obesity has to be front and center.■ In the mid-1970s, only about one in ten Americans was obese, which put us where much of Europe is right now.

The study concluded that an hour spent driving triples your risk of heart attack in the hours that follow.32 A Belgian paper published in The Lancet found that traffic exposure accounts for more heart attacks worldwide than any other activity, even including physical exertion.33 Closer to home, a Miami study found that “after driving their cars across the city for forty-five minutes, university students had higher blood pressure, higher heart rates, and lower frustration tolerance.” This study is mentioned in Urban Sprawl and Public Health, where Dr. Jackson and his colleagues go on at length about driving stress, road rage, and their significant impacts on our national well-being. And the numbers are not insignificant—but let’s step back from health for a minute and talk about happiness. Is motoring around and around really how we want to be spending so much of our time? While many of us love driving, we hate commuting.

 

pages: 225 words: 54,010

A Short History of Progress by Ronald Wright

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Albert Einstein, Atahualpa, Bretton Woods, British Empire, clean water, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, invention of agriculture, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, nuclear winter, out of africa, Parkinson's law, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, urban sprawl

The food crisis, for example, has merely been postponed by switching to hybrid seed and chemical farming, at great cost to soil health and plant diversity.56 Following the attacks of September 11th, 2001, the world’s media and politicians focused understandably on terrorism. Two things need to be said here. First, terrorism is a small threat compared with hunger, disease, or climate change.57 Three thousand died in the United States that day; 25,000 die every day in the world from contaminated water alone. Each year, 20 million children are mentally impaired by malnourishment.58 Each year, an area of farmland greater than Scotland is lost to erosion and urban sprawl, much of it in Asia. Second, terrorism cannot be stopped by addressing symptoms and not the cause. Violence is bred by injustice, poverty, inequality, and other violence. This lesson was learnt very painfully in the first half of the twentieth century, at a cost of some 80 million lives.59 Of course, a full belly and a fair hearing won’t stop a fanatic; but they can greatly reduce the number who become fanatics.

See Alan Kolata, Tiwanaku and Its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books, 1996); and Charles Stanish, Ancient Titicaca: The Evolution of Complex Society in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003). 37. Twenty-one square kilometres. 38. The white man was not the first to be guilty of urban sprawl in great rectangles across American landscapes. 39. Webster, for example, (Ancient Maya, p. 297) notes maize pollen at Copan by 2000 B.C. Other Maya cities also began as farming villages at about this time. 40. The early text is on a stela at El Portón, in highland Guatemala. See Sharer, Ancient Maya, p. 79. 41. Nine hectares. 42. This is the Danta platform at El Mirador, which measures 1,000 feet (300 metres) on each side and is 230 feet (70 metres) tall.

., 15, 135n20 rulers, see kings Rwanda, 185n64 salt and soil, 77, 78, 79, 157n62 science and religion, collision, 10 science fiction, 122 scientific method, 10 Scientific Romance, A (Wright), 83, 122–23 scientific romances, 119, 122 Second World War, 121 Secret Agent, The (Conrad), 120, 147n47 sheep, 43, 159n9 slavery, 71, 114 smallpox, 50, 112, 116–17 social Darwinism, 130, 186n70 social safety net, 127, 183n60 social structure, see classes; “pyramids,” social Solon, 87 Soros, George, 129 Soviet Union, 6 Spanish conquests, 86, 112, 174n15 spearthrower, 141n13 speech, 13, 135n19 Steinbeck, John, 124 stock market, 129 Sumerians, 33, 65–79, 82, 83 blind to impact on nature, 87 city-states, 68, 70 classes, 71 collapse, 83, 158n3 emergence of civilization, 33, 149n1 environment, 67–68, 74–75 floods, 74–77, 156n55, 156n56 human sacrifice, 71–73 irrigation and effects, 68, 77–79 kingship, 70–73 population, 68, 154n38, 157n2 priesthood, 69, 70 slaves, 71 temple prostitution, 70, 154n35 trade, 69 writing, 69–70 ziggurats, 69, 153n32 Tainter, Joseph, 92, 107, 125, 128, 181n52 Tattersall, Ian, 38 technological determinism, 47 technology concerns, 122, 182n54 early machinery, 177n28 as measure of progress, 4–7, 46–47 temple prostitution, 70, 154n35 Teotihuacan, 95, 163n38 terrorism, 49, 126, 147n47 Tikal, 95–96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 105, 165n49, 167n55 Time Machine, The (Wells), 120, 121 Tiwanaku, 94, 163n36, 166n52 towns and villages, Neolithic, 48–49 trade China with Rome, 104, 170n75 Sumerians, 69 trees, 59–60, 86, 185n67 United Nations, 128 United States deficits, 186n69 hostility to conservation, 124, 129–30, 181n49 imperial expansion, 86, 159n7 Ur, 78, 79, 154n38 urban sprawl, 126 Uruk, 67, 70, 79 Ussher, Archbishop, 11 Utnapishtim, 75–77, 156n56 Utopia (More), 115–16 Victorian ideal of progress, 3 violence, 33–34, 71–73, 126, 139n5, 140n6 Waiting for the Barbarians (Coetzee), 71, 122 War of the Worlds, The (Wells), 117, 178n35 warfare, 33–34, 48–49, 121 early humans, 24–26 twentieth century, 121, 180n43 waste, 125 weapons, 5–6, 29, 31, 121, 179n41 of early humans, 36, 141n13 Webster, David, 100, 101, 145n39 Wells, H.

 

pages: 329 words: 85,471

The Locavore's Dilemma by Pierre Desrochers, Hiroko Shimizu

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air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, Community Supported Agriculture, edge city, Edward Glaeser, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, intermodal, invention of agriculture, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, land tenure, megacity, moral hazard, mortgage debt, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, planetary scale, profit motive, refrigerator car, Steven Pinker, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, Upton Sinclair, urban sprawl

Increased farming biodiversity is not only desirable from an ecological perspective, but also more aesthetically pleasing than factory farming. In addition, large-scale producers are much less likely to be held accountable by distant consumers for the damage they cause to ecosystems. Promoting local food production also encourages land conservation for agricultural purposes and is an indirect way to fight urban sprawl. Unlike imported food, locally grown produce is often sold without packaging that then gets thrown away. • Security: Populations fed by local producers can always count on them in times of crisis such as during wars or with sudden price hikes on imported food items. By their very nature, international food markets only cater to the highest bidders and are not concerned with the fate of marginal populations.

Of course, additional trade-offs are also present in the case of more modest urban agriculture proposals, from rooftop gardening to the raising of backyard chickens, whose small size and consequent inability to generate economies of scale (try using a tractor on top of a high-rise building or obtaining large-scale discounts on the costs of inputs when farming small backyards) will always confine the practice to the realm of hobby gardeners, or, at best, high-margin luxury producers—either way, a result that is a far cry from the affordable and abundant food promised by locavores. “Protecting” the farmland that surrounds large cities from “urban sprawl” (in other words, preventing residential, industrial, and commercial development on agricultural land) through strict zoning is equally problematic. While restricting development might suit the sensibilities of people who already own residential property in thriving cities, it also unavoidably drives up housing prices, thus affecting disproportionately people of more modest means and newcomers (to say nothing of farmers’ children who would like to get out of this line of work and cash in on the family property).

If, on the other hand, residential and commercial developers are willing to put their own money into new projects, this signals that more people believe that agricultural land should be converted to other uses. (Of course, many individuals argue that markets are too short-sighted and that future agricultural land shortages are looming. Yet, because in advanced economies we now produce much more food on the same piece of land than in the not so distant past, much more agricultural land is currently reverting to a “wild” state than swallowed by “urban sprawl.”47) Also, nothing prevents environmentalists from purchasing land they deem worth preserving rather than using political power to declare private farmland part of a “greenbelt” and prevent its owner from selling it to developers or converting it to other uses. Prohibiting the redevelopment of agricultural land might appeal to the sensibilities of well-off or already established urbanites and environmentalists, but it is a selfish policy that ignores the economic benefits of urbanization and the needs of people of lesser means.48 Time and Trade-offs Finally, another point lost on many locavores is that the one thing that money cannot buy is more time, thus making it the scarcest commodity of all.

 

pages: 598 words: 140,612

Triumph of the City: How Our Greatest Invention Makes Us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier, and Happier by Edward L. Glaeser

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affirmative action, Andrei Shleifer, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Celebration, Florida, clean water, congestion charging, declining real wages, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Edward Glaeser, endowment effect, European colonialism, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, global village, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Home mortgage interest deduction, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, job-hopping, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, megacity, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, place-making, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, Rosa Parks, school vouchers, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Steven Pinker, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Government Printing Office, Congressional Research Service, A Chronology of Housing Legislation and Selected Executive Actions, 1892-2003, Mar. 2004, www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CPRT-108HPRT92629/html/CPRT-108HPRT92629.htm. 176 the McMansions of their day: Hayden, “Building the American Way,” 276. 176 disproportionately to middle-class enclaves: U.S. General Accounting Office, Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division, House of Representatives, Community Development: The Extent of Federal Influence on “Urban Sprawl” Is Unclear, Apr. 30, 1999, GAO/RCED-99-87 Research on “Urban Sprawl,” www.gao.gov/archive/1999/rc99087.pdf. 176 overwhelmingly single-family houses: U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Census 2000, Data Profile for the United States, Summary File 3, generated using American FactFinder. 177 half of the jobs . . . away from the city center: Kneebone, “Job Sprawl.” 177 inverse connection between density and car usage: Glaeser and Kahn, “Sprawl,” 2499-2500. 177 Accord... a hundred square feet on its own: According to Honda’s Web site, a 2010 Honda Accord has a length of 194.1 inches and a width of 72.7 inches, for an area of 98 square feet: http://automobiles.honda.com/accordsedan/specifications.aspx?

There are still shops on the streets, but most of the office space is much further from the ground. Cities built around the car, like much of Los Angeles and Phoenix and Houston, have enormous, gently curving roads and often lack sidewalks. In those places, shops and pedestrians retreat from the streets into malls. While older cities usually have an obvious center, dictated by an erstwhile port or a rail station, car cities do not. They just stretch toward the horizon in undifferentiated urban sprawl. Places like Atlanta and Houston remind us that there are places that lie between hyperdense Hong Kong and rural Saskatchewan. Living and working in car-oriented Silicon Valley offers plenty of proximity, at least to people in the computer industry. The threat that these places pose to traditional cities reflects the fact that they offer some of the old advantages of urban access along with plenty of land and the ability to drive everywhere.

group=dimensions. 178 typical parking space: Parking regulations in Massachusetts, for instance, require parking spaces to measure at least 9 feet by 18 feet, or 162 square feet: www.mass.gov/Cago/docs/Municipal/sb_parking.rtf. 178 structured parking, which can cost more than $50,000: Marshall and Emblidge, Beneath the Metropolis, 181. 178 average gas tax in France: Glaeser and Kahn, “Sprawl,” 2499-2500. 178 Comparing seventy cities ... 40 percent: Glaeser and Kahn, “Sprawl.” 178 Today, 84 percent of passenger transport: European Road Federation, European Road Statistics 2009, table 6.3: “Inland Transport Modal Split by Country in EU-27,” p. 43. 178 In Italy ... 5 and 5.66: European Automobile Manufacturing Association, Automobile Industry Pocket Guide, “Trends in Motorisation,” p. 4, www.acea.be/images/uploads/files/20090529_motorisation.pdf. 178 there are 7.76 cars for every 10 Americans: Ibid. 178 European Environment Agency . . . “low density residential areas”: European Environment Agency, Urban Sprawl in Europe, fig. 2, p. 12. 179 in the United States . . . forty-eight minutes: Glaeser and Kahn, “Sprawl,” 2499-2500. 179 That time cost . . . for buses and subways: Glaeser et al., “Why Do the Poor Live in Cities?” 12. 180 The Woodlands: General history of The Woodlands from Galatas and Barlow, The Woodlands. 180 on twenty-eight thousand sylvan acres: The Woodlands. http://www.thewoodlands.com/masterplan.htm. 180 over ninety-two thousand people live in The Woodlands: The Woodlands Development Company.

 

pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, Zipcar

The innovation precipitated a powerful new economic engine: as people moved from inner cities to detached homes in increasingly distant sprawl, they bought furniture and appliances to fill those homes, and cars to move between increasingly disconnected destinations. The market economist’s case for suburban sprawl goes like this: if you can judge what makes people happy by observing how they spend their money, then the fact that so many people have purchased detached homes in urban sprawl is proof that it leads to happiness. As writers such as Robert Bruegmann and Joel Kotkin have argued, sprawl fulfills American’s preferences for privacy, mobility, and detachment from the problems of high-density environments. By this way of thinking, sprawl reflects every individual’s natural-born right to maximize utility. But this interpretation ignores a few inconvenient truths. First, as I will explore in this book, our preferences—the things we buy, the places we choose to live—do not always maximize our happiness in the long run.

She was surveying what looked to me like the middle of nowhere. Mableton, you may recall, showed up in Lawrence Frank’s urban-health studies as one of those towns that is so unwalkable that people get fatter just living there. The unincorporated community fifteen miles west of downtown Atlanta is the kind of place where you could drive for days and never quite feel that you had arrived anywhere. Tendrils of asphalt braid and curl through the semi-urban sprawl northeast of Atlanta’s Perimeter beltway, with cul-de-sacs and strip malls and business parks evenly scattered over the rolling terrain. If you circled the dying mall down on Veterans Memorial Highway—cruelly misnamed the Village at Mableton—or doubled back and headed up to the big-box power centers that cling to the East-West Connector, you would find yourself increasingly disoriented, and you would not have found anything you’d call a downtown—certainly not the view from the post office parking lot.

Savage, “From Financial Hardship to Child Difficulties: Main and Moderating Effects of Perceived Social Support,” Child: Care, Health and Development, 2011: 679–91. sleep better: Kurina, L. M., K. L. Knutson, L. C. Hawkley, J. T. Cacioppo, D. S. Lauderdale, and C. Ober, “Loneliness Is Associated with Sleep Fragmentation in a Communal Society,” SLEEP 2011; 34(11):1519–26. live longer: Putnam, Robert D., Bowling Alone (New York: Simon and Schuster Paperbacks, 2000); Frumkin, Howard, Lawrence Frank, and Richard Jackson, Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building Healthy Communities (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2004); Seeman, T. E., “Social Ties and Health: The Benefits of Social Integration,” Annals of Epidemiology, 1996: 442–51; Hirdes, J. P., and W. F. Forbes, “The Importance of Social Relationships, Socioeconomic Status, and Health Practices with Respect to Mortality Among Healthy Ontario Males,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 1992: 175–82; Veenstra, Gerry, “Social Capital and Health (Plus Wealth, Income Inequality and Regional Health Governance),” Social Science and Medicine, 2002: 849–68; Berkman, Lisa F., “The Role of Social Relations in Health Promotion,” Psychosomatic Medicine, 1995: 245–54.

 

pages: 233 words: 71,342

Straight Flush: The True Story of Six College Friends Who Dealt Their Way to a Billion-Dollar Online Poker Empire--And How It All Came Crashing Down... by Ben Mezrich

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asset allocation, call centre, urban sprawl

Most of the American operators seemed like criminals—the way they dressed, the way they spoke, the way they offhandedly mentioned associates back in New York and Vegas. By the third and fourth book they’d visited, the seediness was reaching almost cartoonish proportions. Around 4 P.M., at the last stop before they were to break for dinner—and start a night of festivities that Eric had assured them would rival anything they had experienced at the fraternity house—they pulled up in front of a warehouse at the edge of an urban sprawl of similar rectangular buildings. Eric parked the car and led them through the front door, past a security desk, then a pair of secretaries who didn’t even bother looking up from the Spanish newspapers they were reading. Then through an unmarked wooden door and into a corner office. And there, the man behind the desk was right out of a Martin Scorsese movie. Overweight, in his midfifties, with an angry, pug-like face and a ring of graying curls barely covering the expansive dome of his skull, he was wearing a polyester suit right out of the seventies, all brown and burnt orange, and he was holding the biggest cigar Scott had ever seen.

Scott leaned back against the seat, trying to find a comfortable position. Outside, the city flashed by. It was midafternoon, just like the last time he’d arrived in San José, but the roads seemed even more congested, traffic going in every direction. As before, he was amazed at how alive the place felt, how it seemed to throb with energy. So many cars, people, noise—even above the insanely loud music pumping through the van’s speakers, the sounds of the urban sprawl felt like a hand, reaching right through those trembling windows, grabbing at Scott’s skin. This was it. He was really here; this was actually happening. It was goddamn exhilarating. Nearly an hour later they were still engulfed by the thrill of it all when Shane shot a finger toward the window by his head. “This is it. Casa Absolute Poker.” The house was situated on a low hill, in a pretty, leafy residential neighborhood in one of the more upscale suburbs of the city.

Brent and Garin would be staying there as well, and although Brent had toured the place a few times since Scott first moved in, he was still awed by its scale. The building itself was massive, an old Spanish-style mansion with at least six bedrooms, a living room that could have doubled as a ballroom, and multiple decks overlooking downtown San José—a vista of sparkling lights, bolstered by the pulsing flare of the constant traffic that threaded between the buildings, like a radiated circulatory system feeding that ravenous urban sprawl. The party was mostly confined to the house’s massive pool deck. A DJ had set up shop on an elevated stage, the music from his spinning CDs blasting out of massive twin speakers that had been built right into one of the house’s exterior brick walls. At five minutes to midnight, Scott strolled through the party, pulling everyone he could find out of whatever trouble they had gotten into to lead them to the farthest railing that looked out over the city.

 

pages: 321 words: 85,267

Suburban Nation by Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Jeff Speck

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A Pattern Language, big-box store, car-free, Celebration, Florida, City Beautiful movement, desegregation, edge city, Frank Gehry, housing crisis, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, intermodal, Jane Jacobs, jitney, McMansion, New Urbanism, place-making, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, skinny streets, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

—Witold Rybczynski, author of City Life and The Most Beautiful House in the World “Suburban Nation provides a marvelously detailed critique of suburbia as it exists, a landscape most of us are intimately familiar with but few of us have thought much about … Duany, Plater-Zyberk and Speck write surprisingly pithy, elegant prose, and Suburban Nation is full of juicy insider observations drawn from the Orwellian world of suburban planning.” —Andrew O’Hehir, Salon “[A] bold and damning critique … [This] visionary book holds out hope that we can create ‘places that are as valuable as the nature they displaced.’” —Publishers Weekly “I am convinced that the explosion of urban sprawl over the last fifty years has played a part in the breakdown of America’s civic engagement. Suburban Nation calls on all of us to revolutionize how we use politics and public policy to shape our built environment—our local homes, towns, and cities—and ultimately the public life of our own communities.” —Congressman Sam Farr “Lucidly detailing the environmental, aesthetic, and social costs of sprawl, the authors deliver a passionate, stylish manifesto on community quality of life.”

A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (the “Green Book”). Washington, D.C.: AASHTO, 1990. Arnold, Henry. Trees in Urban Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993. Aschauer, David. “Transportation, Spending, and Economic Growth.” Report by the American Public Transit Association, September 1991. Benefield, F. Kaid; Matthew D. Raimi; and Donald D.T. Chen. Once There Were Greenfields: How Urban Sprawl Is Undermining America’s Environment, Economy, and Social Fabric. New York: National Resources Defense Council, 1999. Beyond Sprawl: New Patterns of Growth to Fit the New California. Report by the Bank of America, the Resources Agency of California, the Greenbelt Alliance, and the Low Income Housing Fund, 1995. Blakely, Edward, and Mary Gail Snyder. Fortress America: Gated Communities in the United States.

Louis, Pruitt Igoe housing project San Antonio San Bernardino (California) San Diego San Francisco; Embarcadero Freeway Santa Barbara Santa Fe Savannah schools; consolidated districts; federal mandate on; in new towns and villages; state policies on; urban Schuster, Bud Seagrove (Florida) Seaside (Florida); architectural style of; civic buildings in; live-work units in Seattle security; private segregation, income-based Sennett, Richard sense of place septic-tank sprawl Sert, Jose Luis setbacks sewage facilities Shaker Heights (Ohio) shipping methods shootings, high school shopping centers; adjacency versus accessibility to; along highways; versus main streets; neighborhood-scale; see also malls sidewalks; width of Sierra Club Silvetti, Jorge single-family houses; architectural style of; builders of; design of, value and; facades of; federal loan programs for; in new towns and villages; taxes on; urban single-use zoning; adjacency versus accessibility in; investor security and; in regional planning site plans; of five-minute walk neighborhoods site-value taxation Sitte, Camillo smart growth, government policies on “smart streets,” Snyder, Mary Gail soccer moms social decline, environmental causes of social equity: greenfield development and; regional planning and Southern California Association of Governments South Florida Water Management District Soviet Union sparse hierarchy spatial definition special-needs populations, facilities for speeding Spivak, Alvin sports events, urban sprawl; aesthetics of; architectural style and; components of; design to combat; developers and; environmentalist attack on; government policies to combat; history of; homebuilders and; housing as largest component of; increased automobile use and; municipalities bankrupted by; parking requirements and; plans for; poverty and; principles for reshaping, see new towns and villages; proactive approach to fighting; regional planning and; road rage and; successes in fight against; traffic congestion created by; victims of squares, town Stalin, Joseph Stanford Research Institute, state policies stores, corner, see corner stores; see also retail streets: in new towns and villages; pedestrian-friendly, see pedestrian-friendly design; in subdivisions; termination of vistas on; traditional neighborhood; width of strip centers, see shopping centers Stuart (Florida) style, architectural subdivisions; adjacency versus accessibility of shopping to; anticipated costs of servicing; boring; connectivity of new neighborhoods and; construction costs for; “cookie cutter,” 48; crime in; and federal loan programs; homebuilders and; landscaping of; marketing of; open space in; permitting process for; public realm and; street design in subsidies, retail suicide, teenage Supreme Court, U.S.

 

pages: 313 words: 92,907

Green Metropolis: Why Living Smaller, Living Closer, and Driving Less Are Thekeys to Sustainability by David Owen

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A Pattern Language, active transport: walking or cycling, big-box store, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, delayed gratification, distributed generation, drive until you qualify, East Village, food miles, garden city movement, hydrogen economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, linear programming, McMansion, Murano, Venice glass, Negawatt, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, placebo effect, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, unemployed young men, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city

This is a reprint edition of the book, which was published originally in 1995. 29 Richard Register, Ecocities: Rebuilding Cities in Balance with Nature (Gabriola Island, B.C., Canada: New Society Publishers, 2006), pp. 316-17. 30 Newman and Kenworthy, Sustainability and Cities, pp. 30-31. 31 Sharon Feigon and David Hoyt, “Land Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transportation,” Center for Neighborhood Technology, 2003. 32 Ignacio San Martín, “The Character of Urban Sprawl and Its Indicators,” First Policy Forum on Urban Sprawl, Center for Environmental Studies, Budapest, Hungary, 2000. 33 The sprawling development of Phoenix is aptly described by the caption below a photograph on a NASA website: “Phoenix is actually surrounded by 22 towns and cities that have grown so closely together in recent decades it is almost impossible to distinguish one from another in this 30-meter-resolution satellite image.”

Sagan, Carl Samsø, Denmark San Francisco San Martín, Ignacio Sanderson, Eric Schembri, Dave Schendler, Auden Schwab, Susan Scientific American Seagram Building (New York) shale oil Shellenberger, Michael Sierra Club anti-city ethos anti-sprawl campaign founding of on outdoor activity Silent Spring (Carson) Silverstein, Murray Simonsick, Eleanor Singapore Small Is Profitable (Lovins) solar power systems solid waste soybeans Specter, Michael sprawl. See also anti-urbanism; suburbs and nonurban areas automobile’s role in consumer cost of power corporate campus public transit and Sierra Club campaign against traffic pattern improvement and in Washington D.C. zoning ordinances and Sprint Nextel Corporation building Standard Oil Strong, Gordon Strong, Steven J. suburbs and nonurban areas. See also anti-urbanism; sprawl acquisition and storage of possessions appeal of downsized automobiles environmental profile of home, automobile in grass cultivation inefficient use of resources necessity of automobiles outdoor activity population-dispersion concept sedentary lifestyle and obesity zoning sustainability. See environmental movement Sustainability and Cities (Newman and Kenworthy) Sustainable Urbanism (Farr) SUVs Sway (Brafman and Brafman) Swofford, Anthony Taub, Eric A.

 

pages: 359 words: 104,870

Extreme Rambling: Walking Israel's Separation Barrier. For Fun. by Mark Thomas

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Boycotts of Israel, facts on the ground, urban planning, urban sprawl

It is this phenomenal growth rate that requires the settlement to expand; except the land it intends to use belongs to the Palestinian village of Bil’in, conveniently annexed by the Barrier. The Israeli city was started in 1982 but it feels like the builders were paid before they finished. Roads occasionally run out of pavement, piles of rubble appear in the street and roundabouts wait to be landscaped. I don’t know the correct architectural term for this place but I suspect it might be ‘urban sprawl’ or ‘urban sprawl … with a very long snagging list’. Palm trees sporadically line the roads or sit by bus shelters, but it is tower blocks that dominate the city, stacked side by side in pale brown and grey brick, block after block after block. Essentially, the settlement is a nice religious council estate. Our Hebrew translator is a wiry chap with a close-cut crop of ginger hair. He is an Israeli ex-soldier and a political activist involved in refugee rights.

Like the other illegal settlements, it will find itself encircled by the proposed Barrier, thus extracting it from deep within the West Bank and placing it on the Israeli side. ‘It’s over there,’ says Ray, turning slightly and pointing to apartment blocks on the horizon. ‘That’s Ma’ale Adumim, over in the hills.’ He points to the map once more, and an area called E1, a controversial development plan to extend from the northeast of Jerusalem, deep into the West Bank to the settlement of Ma’ale Adumim. Once completed, it will connect the two cities into one large urban sprawl extending across the West Bank. Not only will it ensure there is no room for natural growth for Palestinian areas of East Jerusalem; it will also irrevocably cut off East Jerusalem from the rest of the West Bank, and break the West Bank in two. Richard Makepeace, the British Consul General, had explained one of the hazards of this type of expansion when we had walked with him earlier: ‘Every additional settlement that is built, every settlement unit – whether it is in Jerusalem or elsewhere in the Occupied Territories – that is a problem that has to be overcome in reaching a final status deal.’

 

pages: 222 words: 50,318

The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger

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American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight

Department of Transportation at www.fhwa.dot.gov and population from U.S. Census at http://www .census.gov/prod/2005pubs/06statab/pop.pdf. 27. Our Built Environment, EPA, January, 2001, 231-R-01-002. 28. R. Ewing and R. Cervero, “Travel and the Built Environment: A Synthesis,” Transportation Research Board Record no. 1780 (2001): 87–114. 29. Howard Frumkin, Lawrence Frank, and Richard Jackson, Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2004). 30. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis,” http://www.ipcc.ch/SPM2feb07.pdf. 31. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “2007 Draft U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report,” http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventory report07.html. 32.

Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report,” http://epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventory report07.html. 32. Ibid. 33. Lawrence Frank et al., “New Data for a New Era: A Summary of the SMARTRAQ Findings,” Smart Growth America, January 2007, http:// www.smartgrowthamerica.org/documents/SMARTRAQSummary_000 .pdf. 34. Dr. William Rees, interview by Dr. Michael Gismondi, 2000, Aurora Online, http://aurora.icaap.org/index.php/aurora/article/view/18/29. 35. Frumkin, Frank, and Jackson, Urban Sprawl and Public Health. 36. Lawrence D. Frank, Peter O. Engelke, and Thomas L. Schmid, Health and Community Design: The Impact of the Built Environment on Physical Activity (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2003). 37. Lawrence Frank and Barbara McCann, “Driving, Walking, and Where You Live: Links to Obesity,” http://www.choices4health.org/resource Files/82.pdf. 38. Deborah Cohen et al., Park Use and Physical Activity in a Sample of Public Parks in the City of Los Angeles (Arlington, Va.: Rand Corporation, 2006). 39.

 

Culture Shock! Costa Rica 30th Anniversary Edition by Claire Wallerstein

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anti-communist, bilateral investment treaty, call centre, card file, out of africa, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban sprawl

Guanacaste’s desiccated and deforested, though beautiful, plains are home to huge cattle ranches, and are dotted with shady Guanacaste trees, shaped like giant mushrooms. The remaining natural forest is deciduous, the trees losing their leaves in the unbearable summer heat. Cattle on the Guanacaste plains—the archetypal scene of the north. Overview of the Land and History 39 In between the two extremes lies the Meseta Central, the central highland plateau which is now home to well over half the country’s population in the urban sprawl of San José and its surrounding towns. This is the traditional coffee-growing area, and the climate is mild thanks to the altitude—San José stands 1,150 m (3,773 ft) above sea level—and temperatures rarely exceed 25°C (77°F). Both coasts are hot, and are home to steamy banana and African palm plantations (excluding the Guanacaste part of the Pacific coast). While the Pacific side has a distinct dry season, the Caribbean coast is rainy all year round, and blanketed in a profusion of wild greenery.

This can also be attributed to the high level of literacy (96 per cent in 2003), widespread use of contraceptives and family planning, and its high standard of health care. The population is very young, with 26.7 per cent of Ticos under the age of 14, and only 6.2 per cent over 65. Ticos have also become, in recent decades, a very urban people (even though they retain many rural habits). Around half of the population lives in the greater San José area alone, and more than two-thirds in the urban sprawl of the Meseta Central. ‘White Ticos’ and Ideas of Colour It has only been a few decades since Costa Rican tourist literature trumpeted the ‘whiteness’ of the people as an attraction. In his 1943 Nueva Geografía de Costa Rica, author Jorge León said the country was ‘effectively the white state of the Caribbean... in Heredia, 96.6 per cent of the population are direct descendants from Europe—a little more than in New York’.

 

pages: 355 words: 63

The Elusive Quest for Growth: Economists' Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics by William R. Easterly

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Andrei Shleifer, business climate, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, clean water, colonial rule, correlation does not imply causation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, interchangeable parts, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, large denomination, manufacturing employment, Network effects, New Urbanism, open economy, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, urban sprawl, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

As growth proceeds, old industries die and new ones are created. Growth alters the landscape, turning farms intofast-food restaurants and factory sites. And because growth involves losers as well as winners, it’s easy to see why there has always been a vocal antigrowth faction, even aside from the concern for the environment. On the web is a site for the Preservation Institute, a group that calls for ”the end of economic growth.”18 1999 study warns, ”Urban sprawl is undermining America’s environment, economy, and social fabric.”19 The historian Paul Kennedy notes that economic change ”like wars and sporting tournaments” is ”usually not beneficial to all.” Progress benefits some ”just as it damages others.”20Browsing the library, I find titles like Sustainable Development Is Possible Only If We Forgo Growth,EconomicGrowthandDecliningSocialWelfare, DevelopedtoDeath,ThePoverty of Afluence,TheCosts of Economic Growth, andthemorerestrained GrowthIllusion:HowEconomic Growth Has Enriched the Few, Impoverished the Many, and Endangered the Planet?

“Human Capital, Fertility, and Economic Growth.” Journal of Political Economy 98, no. 5 (October): S12-37. Bell-Fialkoff, Andrew. 1996. Ethnic Cleansing. New York St. Martin’s Press. Belser, Patrick. 2000. “Vietnam: On the Road to Labor-intensive Growth.” World Bank Policy Research Paper 2389. July. Benfield, F.Kaid, Matthew D. Raimi, and Donald D. T.Chen. 1999. Once There Were Greenfields: How Urban Sprawl Is UnderminingAmericas’sEnvironment,Economy,and Social Fabric. New York: Natural Resources Defense Council. 315 References and Further Reading Benhabib, Jess, and Mark Spiegel. 1994. ”Role of Human Capital in Economic Development: Evidence from Aggregate Cross-country Data.” Journal of Monetary Economics 34 (October): 143-173. Poor People: Politics andSociety Benjamin, Thomas. 1996. A RichLand,a Chiapas.

 

pages: 104 words: 34,784

The Trouble With Brunch: Work, Class and the Pursuit of Leisure by Shawn Micallef

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big-box store, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, ghettoisation, Jane Jacobs, knowledge worker, Mason jar, McMansion, new economy, post scarcity, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, World Values Survey

What people do with their free time is golden, a cherished interregnum that most use how they please and that is increasingly endangered. In 2010, the Canadian Index of Wellbeing at the University of Waterloo released a report called ‘Caught in the Time Crunch: Time Use, Leisure and Culture in Canada.’ Its findings were not surprising. For one thing, it reported that Canadians ‘perceive and spend time much differently than they once did,’ and that leisure and cultural activities were changing as a result. Urban sprawl and longer commutes had shrunk free time while laptops and smartphones created a workforce that was perpetually on call. Longer working hours, providing care to an aging population and working non-standard shifts have also devoured more time and reduced leisure. Further, time constraints were worse for people ‘marginalized by race, ethnicity, religion, socioeconomic status, dis/ability, gender, sexual orientation and language proficiency, [and who] experience systemic barriers to social and economic opportunity.’

 

pages: 133 words: 36,528

Peak Car: The Future of Travel by David Metz

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autonomous vehicles, bike sharing scheme, Clayton Christensen, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Just-in-time delivery, Network effects, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, Skype, urban sprawl, yield management, young professional

Given that both travel generally and car use per person are no longer increasing, what now drives the growth of total travel are demographic factors—population growth, urbanisation and increasing longevity. Planning policy There has been much debate amongst planners and policy makers about the merits of city versus suburban living. In Britain, a general concern to protect the countryside has led to the adoption of ‘green belts’ around many cities—areas of countryside where urban sprawl will be resisted. One result has been the movement of people, housing and employment into towns and villages beyond the green belts. This in turn has prompted calls for an urban renaissance, aimed at both protecting the countryside from house building on greenfield sites and preserving the vitality of the central core of cities. In the US, anxieties about inner city dereliction have led to calls for policies to encourage growth in metropolitan areas in the form of more compact communities less dependent on the automobile.

 

pages: 424 words: 140,262

Blood, Iron, and Gold: How the Railways Transformed the World by Christian Wolmar

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banking crisis, Beeching cuts, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, invention of the wheel, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Mahatma Gandhi, railway mania, refrigerator car, side project, South China Sea, transcontinental railway, tulip mania, urban sprawl

The Illinois Central, which built most of the lines, was probably being just a tad optimistic in portraying ‘the very perfect system of Suburban Trains now run by this Company [in which] seated in their comfortable cars, the business man, after a hard day’s work in the city, finds the homeward ride along the beautiful Lake Front a pleasure rather than a task, as he waits for no drawbridges, railroad crossings or other annoyances’ 40 except, of course, the numerous stops which these trains invariably made. The Illinois Central deliberately set out to attract suburban dwellers and the railways, therefore, were responsible for urban sprawl a couple of generations before the motor car made it possible for every town, rather than only those blessed with a suburban railway network, to expand in that way. Commuting railways were transforming life in big cities all around the world, greatly extending the area in which workers could live. This changed the nature of cities, stimulating the creation of what are now called central business districts that can be served by train with high office blocks densely concentrated in an area of expensive land, while allowing urban sprawl to outer areas where land is cheaper. While in Europe the railways were built into existing cities, in America the central terminals became the focus of development.

 

pages: 717 words: 150,288

Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham

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airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, McMansion, megacity, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight

Following extensive training at these sites, units deploy to the real cities of Iraq, Palestine, Lebanon, and elsewhere to undertake so-called Military Operations on Urban Terrain – MOUT for short. Like the rest of the world, then, military training sites are rapidly being urbanized. Colonel Thomas Hammes, writing in the US Marine Corps Gazette in 1999, was one of many defence planners then asserting the need to build new mock cities because US military training sites were out of phase with ‘the urban sprawl that dominates critical areas of the world today. Continuing in that vein, he wrote, ‘We know we will fight mostly in urban areas. Yet, we conduct the vast majority of our training in rural areas – the hills of Camp Pendleton, the deserts of Twenty Nine Palms, the woods of Camp Lejeune, the jungles of Okinawa, Japan’.4 The US military’s response has been dramatic. The US Army alone has plans to build sixty-one urban-warfare training cities across the world between 2005 and 2010.

‘As the fear of crime, however irrational, has risen in lockstep with the intensification of violence in the mass media’, he writes, ‘the SUV offers itself as an ideal technology for armoring the self against the perceived dangers that lurk outside’.36 As an icon of neoliberal subjecthood, the SUV helps reconfigure urban life as an interlinked series of mobile built capsules, withdrawn from the wider social environment, whilst selective connectivity is maintained through new control and surveillance technologies.37 SUV users’ perceptions of increased security are both paradoxical and illusory, however. For such vehicles merely promote increased oil consumption and dependence, which will only deepen current and future crises and insecurities.38 With suburbanization and sprawl – a project so critical to the mass adoption of SUVs – now threatened by oil depletion, the paradox is pronounced indeed. One influential critic of urban sprawl, Jim Kunstler, is convinced that ‘the grand meta-cycle of the suburban project as a whole’, within which SUVs now play such a major role, is ‘at the end of the cycle’. To him, ‘the remaining things under construction are the last twitchings of a dying organism’ – a process accelerated by the US recession, brought on by a credit crunch generated largely by criminally lax lending of largely fictitious capital to fuel yet another massive round of sprawl and exurbanization.39 Kunstler argues that US suburban history, climaxing in mass SUV ownership and hypersprawl, must be interpreted through the lens of oil geopolitics: The suburban expansion has been based entirely on cheap-and-abundant supplies of oil.

 

pages: 386 words: 122,595

Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science (Fully Revised and Updated) by Charles Wheelan

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, congestion charging, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, Doha Development Round, Exxon Valdez, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, index fund, interest rate swap, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Malacca Straits, market bubble, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, open economy, presumed consent, price discrimination, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Yogi Berra, young professional

But we don’t have to pay for some of the other significant costs of our driving: the emissions we leave behind, the congestion we cause, the wear and tear on public roads, the danger we pose to drivers in smaller cars. The effect is a bit like a night on the town with Dad’s credit card: We do a lot of things that we wouldn’t do if we had to pay the whole bill. We drive huge cars, we avoid public transportation, we move to far-flung suburbs and then commute long distances. Individuals don’t get the bill for this behavior, but society does—in the form of air pollution, global warming, and urban sprawl. The best way to deal with this growing problem is not the stuff that laissez-faire conservatives usually talk about. It is higher taxes on gasoline and cars. Only with those kinds of measures, as we shall explore in Chapter 3, will the cost of climbing behind the wheel of a car (or a hulking SUV) reflect the real social cost of that activity. Similarly, larger subsidies for public transportation would properly reward those commuters who spare the rest of us by not getting into their cars.

We have an entire public school system that still does not really reward teachers and principals when their students do well (or punish them when their students do poorly). We talk about how important education is, but we make it difficult and time-consuming for smart people to become teachers (despite evidence that this training has little impact). We don’t pay good teachers more than bad ones. We make it artificially cheap to travel by car, implicitly subsidizing everything from urban sprawl to global warming. We assess most of our taxes on productive activity, like work, savings, and investment, when we might raise revenue and conserve resources with more “green taxes.” If we get the incentives right, we can use markets to do all kinds of things. Consider the case of rare diseases. However bad it is to have a serious illness, it is worse to have a serious illness that is also rare.

 

pages: 523 words: 159,884

The Great Railroad Revolution by Christian Wolmar

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, accounting loophole / creative accounting, banking crisis, Bay Area Rapid Transit, big-box store, collective bargaining, cross-subsidies, intermodal, James Watt: steam engine, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, too big to fail, trade route, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban sprawl

Journeys on such lines might be delayed by the conductor’s deciding it was a good time to shoot a rabbit or, more seriously, because beavers had decided to make a meal of a bridge, a common hazard on the two-foot-gauge lines in western Maine. These lines were run informally, and rarely for profit: “The engineer might well be the president of the company, the brakeman his brother.”34 One kind of local line did prosper, however. This was the period when the number of commuting services began to spread, notably in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, stimulating the growth of the urban sprawl that would later be served so much better by the automobile. In fact, as early as the 1840s, a few railroads had begun offering “commuted” tickets—reduced fares for regular use—to stimulate travel, but demand was limited, as there were few businesses needing such workers or, indeed, suburbs from which they could commute. Boston was an exception, as it boasted eighty-five commuter stations within fifteen miles of the city center by 1848 when a fifth of its managerial class lived in surrounding suburbs and came to work by train.

He saw that good transportation was as essential as ensuring the houses had water and electricity and therefore was not concerned that he lost money on providing it: “The result was the characteristic low-rise form of the region, with mile upon mile of ‘California bungalows’ spreading along the tentacles of the Pacific Electric Network. This extensive urban spread gave Los Angeles a reputation, which has lasted to this day, as the very model of urban sprawl.”19 Lots that were a half-dozen blocks away from the streetcar were simply left undeveloped, but once the car became commonplace, they were built upon and their residents’ automobiles soon displaced the streetcars on the highway. Development of these interurban streetcars was so intensive in parts of the Midwest that it was possible in 1910 to travel continuously by interurban from Elkhart Lake, Wisconsin, to Oneonta, New York, a distance of nearly eleven hundred miles.

 

pages: 868 words: 147,152

How Asia Works by Joe Studwell

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, financial deregulation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, land tenure, large denomination, market fragmentation, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, purchasing power parity, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, working-age population

Japanese agriculture swung back from post-feudal abundance to brutal conditions of rural capitalist exploitation. Journey 1: Tokyo to Niigata You can begin to understand much about Japan’s agricultural history simply by driving around, because that history is so heavily dependent on topography. A journey from Tokyo north-west across the main island of Honshu to Niigata prefecture, producer of the country’s finest rice, highlights the basic challenges. First, however, you must exit from Tokyo’s urban sprawl. The capital, with its silent, strange residential suburbs, its little lanes and its religiously maintained road markings, ends only in theory. In practice it merges into a series of other, less prosperous towns in a seamless continuum of low-rise clapboard houses, malls, discount stores, fast-food restaurants and car showrooms. Not only has Japan developed with an impossibly small supply of cultivable land per capita, but large swathes of that land have been relentlessly gobbled up by its urban and industrial development.

Not only has Japan developed with an impossibly small supply of cultivable land per capita, but large swathes of that land have been relentlessly gobbled up by its urban and industrial development. This trend has long been exacerbated by a cultural aversion to high-rise building. The insistence on low-rise, sadly, has done nothing to make modern Japanese construction more attractive. Avoiding expressways, it is a 40-kilometre, two- to three-hour grind through spirit-sapping urban sprawl, past the vast American Yokota air base, before you see anything remotely rural to the north-west of Tokyo. What happens is that eventually the hills become too steep to build on or, indeed, to farm. And that is the reason why Japan has so little cultivable land – the country is covered in hills and mountains, which in turn are covered in forests. Inside a car, the smell of pine trees announces the ascent.

 

The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power by Joel Bakan

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Berlin Wall, Cass Sunstein, corporate governance, corporate personhood, corporate social responsibility, energy security, Exxon Valdez, IBM and the Holocaust, joint-stock company, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, new economy, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, South Sea Bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, urban sprawl

Local governmental bodies, such as city councils and school and park boards, should play greater roles in the regulatory system, as they are often more accessible to citizens than federal and state agencies and more willing and able to forge alliances with citizen groups around particular issues (as they have done effectively in relation to, among other things, restrictions on advertising in schools, urban sprawl, "box" retailers, and environmentally damaging practices ). The roles of trade unions and other workers' associations in monitoring and regulating the behavior of corporations should be protected and enhanced, as should those of environmental , consumer, human rights, and other organizations that represent interests and constituencies affected by what corporations do. STRENGTHEN POLITICAL DEMOCRACY.

 

Great Britain by David Else, Fionn Davenport

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active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Beeching cuts, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Attenborough, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

It’s most easily reached down a little alley off Henley St. BOAT Punts, canoes and rowing boats are available for hire from Avon Boating by Clopton Bridge – it’s under the Thai Boathouse restaurant. Return to beginning of chapter STAFFORDSHIRE Stoke-born novelist Arnold Bennett once wrote that Staffordshire was ‘unsung by searchers after the extreme’, but that doesn’t mean that it’s boring. Wedged between the urban sprawls of Birmingham and Manchester, the county is surprisingly beautiful, from rolling Cannock Chase, a magnet for walkers and cyclists, to the jagged backbone of the Peak District known as the Roaches. The stern might of Lichfield’s cathedral, the wild rides at Alton Towers, and the neoclassical mansion of Shugborough are among the county’s other charms. Orientation Staffordshire’s attractions are spread fairly evenly around the county: Stoke to the northwest; the Peak District and Leek northeast, with Alton Towers just south; Lichfield to the southeast; and Stafford just southwest of the centre.

Nudging a horseshoe loop in the river, Shrewsbury’s defensive potential was crucial to keeping the Welsh in line for many centuries. Then in medieval times the town grew fat on the wool trade. It is also the birthplace of Charles Darwin (1809–82), who rocked the world with his theory of evolution. Orientation Shrewsbury’s near-island status helps preserve the Tudor and Jacobean streetscapes of its centre and protects it from unattractive urban sprawl. The train station is a five-minute walk northeast of the centre and is as far as you’ll need to venture. Information Library ( 01743-255300; Castle Gates; 9.30am-5pm Mon, Wed, Fri & Sat, 9.30am-8pm Tue & Thu, 1-4pm Sun) Free internet access. Royal Shrewsbury Hospital ( 01743-261000; Mytton Oak Rd) Tourist office ( 01743-281200; www.visitshrewsbury.com; Music Hall, The Square; 9.30am-5.30pm Mon-Sat, 10am-4pm Sun May-Sep, 10am-5pm Mon-Sat Oct-Apr) Guided 1½-hour walking tours (adult/child £3.50/1.50) leave the tourist office at 2.30pm Monday to Saturday, and 11am Sunday from May to September and at 2.30pm Saturday only from November to April.

The communities had to then rely on their own resources, gradually becoming reabsorbed into the war-band culture of the native Britons – for some generations soldiers had been recruited locally in any case. Orientation Hadrian’s Wall crosses beautiful, varied landscape. Starting in the lowlands of the Solway coast, it crosses the lush hills east of Carlisle to the bleak, windy ridge of basalt rock known as Whin Sill overlooking Northumberland National Park, and ends in the urban sprawl of Newcastle. The most spectacular section lies between Brampton and Corbridge. Carlisle, in the west, and Newcastle, in the east, are good starting points, but Brampton, Haltwhistle, Hexham and Corbridge all make good bases. The B6318 follows the course of the wall from the outskirts of Newcastle to Birdoswald; from Birdoswald to Carlisle it pays to have a detailed map. The main A69 road and the railway line follow 3 or 4 miles to the south.

 

pages: 268 words: 76,709

Tomatoland: How Modern Industrial Agriculture Destroyed Our Most Alluring Fruit by Barry Estabrook

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Bernie Sanders, biofilm, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, McMansion, medical malpractice, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

With advances in the technologies of working with DNA, new areas are opening up for breeders. Better methods will allow scientists to routinely address more complex traits, such as the elusive matter of taste, which is controlled by multiple genes. Chetelat said he viewed it as a time of opportunity. But, unfortunately, time could be running out for the wild populations upon which future discoveries may depend. Modern agricultural practices and urban sprawl eliminate habitat for wild tomatoes. Herds of goats, llamas, alpacas, and other domestic animals eat and trample them. Even though the Rick Center can produce seed from previously gathered wild specimens, thereby maintaining genetic lines, Chetelat insisted that collections preserved by humans, however carefully, are no substitute for what he calls “in situ” plants, meaning ones that grow in their native environments without human interference.

 

pages: 201 words: 64,545

Let My People Go Surfing by Yvon Chouinard

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air freight, business process, clean water, Donald Trump, Doomsday Book, Mahatma Gandhi, pushing on a string, Ralph Waldo Emerson, urban sprawl

People may be afraid of the term activist because they associate it with ecosabotage and violent protests, but I’m talking about normal citizens who want the government to live up to its obligation to protect our air, water, and all other natural resources. Activists have infectious passion about the issues they support, whether they are mothers fighting to clean up toxic landfills that are killing their children or farmers losing their fourth-generation family businesses to urban sprawl. These are the people on the front lines, trying either to make the government obey its own laws or to recognize the need for a new law. That’s why our earth tax, 1 percent of our net sales, goes primarily to them. I’ve learned from a lifetime of being outdoors that nature loves diversity. It hates monoculture and centralization. A thousand activist groups, each working on a specific problem that it’s passionate about, can accomplish much more than a bloated organization or government.

 

pages: 258 words: 77,601

Everything Under the Sun: Toward a Brighter Future on a Small Blue Planet by Ian Hanington

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, Exxon Valdez, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hydraulic fracturing, oil shale / tar sands, stem cell, sustainable-tourism, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, urban planning, urban sprawl

Although it is encouraging to see more people take greater responsibility for the food they eat by choosing to buy local, we can’t let governments off the hook. Politicians need to support local agriculture by implementing policies and laws that protect farmland, ensure that farmers receive a fair price for the food they grow, and remove regulatory barriers that hinder farm-gate sales. The protection of rich agricultural soil from urban sprawl, roads, industrial development, and other land use must be central to any government local food strategy. Study after study has shown that valuable agricultural land around the world is being chewed up and paved over because of poor urban-planning decisions that value parking lots, new highways, and larger strip malls over keeping our precious bank of fertile soil for current and future generations of farmers to steward—for our benefit.

 

pages: 202 words: 8,448

Blueprint for Revolution: How to Use Rice Pudding, Lego Men, and Other Nonviolent Techniques to Galvanize Communities, Overthrow Dictators, or Simply Change the World by Srdja Popovic, Matthew Miller

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, British Empire, corporate governance, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Occupy movement, Rosa Parks, urban planning, urban sprawl

Paramilitaries patrol the streets of the tiny island wearing blue camou age uniforms, and you can often see smoke rising on the horizon as the incinerators at the largest garbage island in the world—an artificial reef four miles off the coast of Malé—work overtime to deal with the 330 tons of trash that are added to the heap each day. Malé is humid, and you sweat constantly. Between the temperature and the stress, it’s hard not to get headaches. Still, there’s one place in the city that’s relatively relaxing. It’s an arti cial beach on the eastern side of the island. While this beach is not much by the Maldives’ standards—it’s really just a thin strip of sand in the middle of the urban sprawl—the beach is your best option if you nd yourself in Malé and want to escape the city. Here, at least, there are a few open-air cafés facing the ocean that attract hip young Maldivians, and you can always see a few middle-aged men smoking hashish in the nearby bushes. Women dressed in burkas will bring their children to frolic in the surf, and depending on the season whole sections of the beachfront are taken over by either young surfers or skateboarders.

 

pages: 1,104 words: 302,176

The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living Since the Civil War (The Princeton Economic History of the Western World) by Robert J. Gordon

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, Apple II, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of penicillin, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, feminist movement, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, Mason jar, McMansion, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, occupational segregation, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, rent control, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yield management

By maintaining the perspective of changes in the standard of living as viewed by the consumer, we omit most topics related to urban planning, urban politics, and the regulation of electric utilities. The spread of the city is treated in chapter 5, in which the development of the city is viewed as a corollary of a succession of transportation innovations that steadily increased the distance that was feasible to travel between the home and the workplace. Decisions that encouraged urban sprawl after World War II are reserved for chapter 10, on housing after 1940. Another deliberate omission from this chapter is the effect of the business cycle. The ease or difficulty of finding jobs varied across recession intervals and across decades, and the decline in the standard of living during the Great Depression stands out. But the Great Depression did not cause housing units to become unplugged from the electricity, water, and sewer networks; the appliances purchased before 1929 still worked to improve the standard of living; and the decade of the 1930s witnessed a sharp increase in the diffusion of electric refrigerators and washing machines.

Howard Johnson’s 1925 drug-store soda fountain in Quincy, Massachusetts, began a chain of roadside restaurants that by 1939 had 132 franchised outlets and in the 1950s and 1960s had a dominant market position, with about 1,000 outlets.137 Harland Sanders developed his famous chicken recipe in 1930 at “Sanders’ Servistation” in Corbin, Kentucky; J. F. McCullough founded what became Dairy Queen in Kankakee, Illinois, in 1938.138 The victory of the motor vehicle was not without controversy. Government policies encouraged urban sprawl and undermined the financial viability of urban transit and passenger railways. Even before World War II, public policy was skewed in favor of the automobile by building streets and highways with public funds while leaving urban transit and the interurban electric railways to operate as self-sufficient private companies. Many of the early roads were built by issuing bonds on which the interest was paid by local property taxes, so the automobile owner and transit rider paid equally to build a road system that made the automobile ever more attractive than transit.

“Heading Off the Entitlement Meltdown; Demography Is Destiny: The Retirement of 77 Million Baby Boomers Is Not a Theoretical Projection,” Wall Street Journal, July 21, pp. 1–2. Pratt, Gill A. (2015). “Is a Cambrian Explosion Coming for Robotics?” Journal of Economic Perspectives 29, no. 3 (summer): 51–60. Prieto, Luis, and Sacristan, Jose A. (2003). “Problems and Solutions in Calculating Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs),” Health Qual Life Outcomes, December 19. www.ricbi.nim.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC317370/. Puga, Diego. (2008). “Urban Sprawl: Causes and Consequences,” Eis Opuscles del CREI, no. 18 (January). Pursell, Carroll. (2007). The Machine in America: A Social History of Technology, 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins Press. Radde, Bruce. (1993). The Merritt Parkway. New Haven, CT/London: Yale University Press. Radford, Gail. (1992). “New Building and Investment Patterns in 1920s Chicago,” Social Science History 16, no. 1: 1–21.

 

pages: 829 words: 229,566

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate by Naomi Klein

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1960s counterculture, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, British Empire, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, crony capitalism, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy security, energy transition, equal pay for equal work, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, financial deregulation, food miles, Food sovereignty, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, ice-free Arctic, immigration reform, income per capita, Internet Archive, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, market fundamentalism, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, new economy, Nixon shock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, patent troll, planetary scale, post-oil, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rana Plaza, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, wages for housework, walkable city, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

Meanwhile, Sam Rawlings Walton, grandson of Walmart founder Sam Walton, sits on the EDF’s board of trustees (identified merely as “Boatman, Philanthropist, Entrepreneur” on the organization’s website).40 The EDF claims that it “holds Walmart to the same standards we would any other company.” Which, judging by Walmart’s rather dismal environmental record since this partnership began—from its central role in fueling urban sprawl to its steadily increasing emissions—is not a very high standard at all.41 Nor is the Environmental Defense Fund the only environmental organization to have benefited from the Walton family’s largesse. Their foundation is one of the top green funders, handing out more than $71 million in grants for environmental causes in 2011, with about half of the money going to the EDF, Conservation International, and the Marine Stewardship Council.

., 15 Thoreau, Henry David, 184, 286 350.org, 140, 156, 233n, 353, 356 tidal power, 127 Tiger Management, 208 tight-rock formations, 311; see also shale, fracking of Tillerson, Rex, 111, 314 Time magazine, Planet Earth on cover of, 74, 204 Tiputini oil field, 410 Tjelmeland, Aaron, 192, 195 Tongue River, 389, 390 Tongue River Railroad (proposed), 389 tornados, 406 Toronto, 55, 65, 67, 73, 126 Total, 246 Totnes, England, 364 Toyota, 196 trade, see free trade agreements; international trade trade unions, 81, 83, 177, 204, 454 job creation and, 126–27 job protection by, 126, 178 NAFTA opposed by, 84 transaction tax, 418 TransCanada, 149, 346, 359, 361, 362 see also Keystone XL pipeline Transition Town movement, 364 Transocean, 330 Trans-Pacific Partnership, 78 transportation infrastructure, 85, 90, 127 travel, wealth and, 113 Treaty 6, 372 tree farms, 222 Trenberth, Kevin, 272, 275 Trent River, 300 trickle-down economics, 19 Trinity nuclear test, 277 triumphalism, 205, 465 Tropic of Chaos (Parenti), 49 tropics, techno-fixes and risk to, 49 Trump, Donald, 3 Tschakert, Petra, 269 Tsilhqot’in First Nation, 345 Tsipras, Alexis, 181–82, 466 Tsleil-Waututh First Nation, 323 Tutu, Desmond, 464 Tuvalu, 13 2 degrees Celsius boundary, 87–88, 89, 150, 354, 456 Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, 13, 21, 56, 86–87, 214, 283 typhoons, 107, 175, 406, 465 Uganda, 222 ultra-deepwater “subsalt” drilling, 145 Undesirables (Isaacs), 167 unemployment, 180 unemployment insurance, 454 Unified Campesino Movement of Aguán, 222 Union of Concerned Scientists, 201 Clean Vehicles Program at, 237 United Kingdom, 13, 149, 170, 224, 225 compensation of slave-owners in, 415–16, 457 “dash for cash” in, 299 divestment movement in, 354 flooding in, 7, 54, 106–7 fracking in, 299–300, 313 Industrial Revolution in, 172–73, 410 negatives of privatization in, 128 politics of climate change in, 36, 150 supports for renewable energy cut in, 110 Thatcher government of, 39 World War II rationing in, 115–16 United Nations, 7, 18, 64, 87, 114 Bloomberg as special envoy for cities and climate change of, 236 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), 219–20, 224, 226 climate governance and, 280 climate summits of, 5, 11, 65, 150, 165, 200; see also specific summits Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 110 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, see Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) international agreements and, 17 Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, 135 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment of 1972, 202 United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 377, 383 United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, 180 United Nations Environmental Modification Convention, 278 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 272 United Nations Framework on Climate Change, 200, 410 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 76, 77, 78–79 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 167 United Nations Rio Declaration on Environment and Development (1992), 55, 293 United Policyholders, 109 United States, 19, 67, 68, 143 carbon emissions from, 409 coal exports from, 320, 322, 346, 349, 374, 376 Copenhagen agreement signed by, 12, 150 energy privatization reversals in, 98 environmental legislation in, 201–2 failure of climate legislation in, 226–27 Kyoto Protocol and, 218–19, 225–26 oil and gas export restrictions in, 71 opposition movement in, 9 solar energy market in, 72 WTO challenges brought against, 65 WTO challenges brought by, 64–65, 68 United States Climate Action Partnership (USCAP), 226–28 University College London, 415–16 uranium, 176 urban planning, green, 16 urban sprawl, 90, 91 US Airways, 1–2 U.S. Chamber of Commerce, 227 utilities, alternative models for, 130–33 U’wa, 376–77 Vagt, Robert F., 217 van Beurden, Ben, 358, 376 Vancouver, Canada, 13 Var, France, 317–18 Vassiliou, Anni, 347 vegetation, carbon and, 14 Venezuela, 179–80 Venkataraman, R., 75 venture capitalists, 252 Vermont: anti-fracking movement in, 348 local agriculture in, 404–5 Vernon, Caitlyn, 365 victory gardens, 16, 17 Vidal, John, 244 Vietnam War, 261 Virgin Earth Challenge, 257, 284–85 Virgin Green Fund, 238, 239, 253 Virgin Group, 230, 237 Virgin Airlines, 231, 238, 241–44, 249–52 Virgin Fuels, 238 Virgin Racing, 243 Virgin Trains, 231, 238, 252–53 Viteri, Franco, 388 volcanic eruptions: droughts and, 272–73 global impact of, 274 weather patterns and, 259, 270, 271–74 Volney, Constantin-François, 273 Vonnegut, Kurt, 286, 287 Vowel, Chelsea, 371 Voynet, Dominique, 218 wage controls, 125 Wallach, Lori, 359–60 Wall Street, 206, 208 in financial crisis of 2008, 9, 44 Wall Street Journal, 207, 312 Walmart, 196, 208–10 Walton, Sam, 209 Walton, Sam Rawlings, 209 Walton Family Foundation, 209 Wang Wenlin, 300 Wania, Frank, 328n Ward, Barbara, 286 Warsaw climate change summit (2013), 200–201, 276 Washington, D.C.: Keystone XL protest in, 139, 301–2 record temperatures in, 73 Washington Consensus, 81 Washington State, 319 Indigenous land rights in, 323, 374–75, 380–81 proposed coal export terminals in, 320, 322, 346, 349, 374, 380–81 Washington, Tracie, 419 water: disruption to supplies of, 14, 165 First Nations and, 384 privatization of, 133 as public utility, 7 water pollution: extractive industry and, 83, 94, 295, 296, 332, 344–47 from fracking, 328–29, 332, 344, 346 water power, 16, 101, 215 of factories, 171 steam engine vs., 171–72 Waters, Donny, 431, 432 Watt, James, 171–75, 204, 266, 394, 410 Waxman-Markey, 227 wealth: concentration of, 154, 155 decentralization of, 131 greenhouse gas emissions and, 113–14 inequality of, 123, 454–55 redistribution of, 40, 42, 453 transfers of, 5 Wealth of Nations (Smith), 173, 462 weapons, climate change and, 9 weather, extreme, 35, 102–10 weather futures, 8–9 weatherization, 93 weather patterns: global warming and, 269 historical record of, 271–76 Pinatubo eruption and, 259, 270, 271–72, 274 variations in, 269 weather patterns, intentional modification of: as weapon, 261, 278 see also Pinatubo Option; Solar Radiation Management Weintrobe, Sally, 12 Werner, Brad, 449–50, 451, 460 West Antarctic ice sheet, 13, 14, 15 West Burton, England, 300 Western Australia, 376 West, Thomas, 365 West Virginia, 332, 357n, 367 wetlands, extractive industry damage to, 425–26 Weyerhaeuser, 369 Where Do We Go from Here (King), 453 Whitehead, Andrew, 432 Whitehorn, Will, 230–31 Whitehouse, Mark, 428 Whiteman, Phillip, Jr., 386 Whole Earth Catalogue, 288 WikiLeaks, 78, 165 wilderness system, federal, 203 wildfires, 14, 52, 108, 446 Wildlife Conservation Society, 221–22 Wildlife Society, 192 Willemse, Oom Johannes, 347 Willett Advisors, 216, 235 Williams, Eric, 415 Willis, Rebecca, 90 wind farms, 110, 223, 287 “Window for Thermal Coal Investment Is Closing” (Goldman Sachs), 352 wind power, 16, 67, 70, 97, 102, 118, 122, 124, 127, 131–32, 147, 215, 237 in combined-cycle plant, 129 fracking’s negative impact on, 129, 144n large offshore, 131 manufacturers in, 68 private sector and, 100–101 Wood, Lowell, 268n, 271, 280, 288 Woolsey, R.

 

Frommer's Egypt by Matthew Carrington

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airport security, centre right, colonial rule, Internet Archive, land tenure, Maui Hawaii, open economy, rent control, rolodex, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, walkable city, Yom Kippur War

Whether the details of how they did it will ever be fully worked out, however, remains an open question. Kids The Pyramids It’s a cliché, but there’s really no sight like them. For sheer, dominating bulk, the pyramids on Giza have got pretty well everywhere else in the world beat. It used to be that you came upon them slowly, riding on horseback across the green fields that separated the plateau from the city. Nowadays, urban sprawl laps at the very feet of the Sphinx himself, and by the time you see the pyramids, they’re right on top of you. It’s a moment that you’ll never forget. The Great Pyramid of Khufu is the first one you come to. The entrance is on the north face, and once inside, you face a long and uncomfortable scramble to the Great Gallery, which is some 47m (154 ft.) long and 8.5m (28 ft.) high. Don’t even think about going in if you suffer from the slightest bit of claustrophobia—the passages are narrow and the spaces are tight, and in the heat of the summer stuffed with tourists, the inside of this place is guaranteed to set you off.

On the north coast, as with much of Egypt, you have to develop the trick of 09_259290-ch06.qxp 7/22/08 12:31 AM Page 128 Northern Egypt 0 50 mi N 0 50 km M e d i t e r r a n e a n Sidi Barrani Salum Marsa Matruh N O R T H Area of detail EGYPT Sidi abd al Rahmen 3 200 mi Q Siwa Oasis 2 El-Alamein War Cemet C Red Sea Hixj el-Qatar 0 1 Nile Cairo Zawyat Sidi Musa A T T A R A N SIO ES PR E D Qara Oasis seeing through a thick layer of urban sprawl that has taken place in the last 30 or 40 years, as well as past the decay that has accompanied it. Many miles of once pristine beach both east and west of Alexandria have been obscured by swathes of cheap concrete “holiday village” development, and the city itself has swelled from a population of 1 million in the 1960s to almost 4 times that today, with some of the growth going into new, unplanned neighborhoods and the rest being absorbed into the neglected housing of Alexandria’s old quarters.

 

pages: 740 words: 161,563

The Discovery of France by Graham Robb

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Brownian motion, deindustrialization, Honoré de Balzac, Louis Pasteur, New Economic Geography, Peace of Westphalia, price stability, trade route, urban sprawl

The idea that hunters had a special understanding of the animals they killed is extremely dubious. Even at the end of the nineteenth century, some hunters believed that marmots pulled each other along like carts and that chamois and bouquetins (ibex) swung themselves headlong down sheer cliffs by stabbing their horns into the earth. Many of the wild inhabitants of France were no better known than the human inhabitants of the French colonies. * ROADKILL AND URBAN SPRAWL are modern innovations, but even two centuries ago there were signs that the discovery and colonization of France would bring devastation and death to animals. Domestic animals in towns were protected by the Grammont Law, but the only protection for animals in the wild was provided by occasional hunting restrictions, and most hunters found that these only enhanced the thrill of the chase. In the early 1780s, while ominous rumblings were threatening the monarchy, the geologist Horace–Bénédict de Saussure became one of the first people to notice a quiet catastrophe in the animal kingdom.

In Lou Pouèmo dóu Rose (The Poem of the Rhône, 1896), the poet Mistral looked back a generation as though to ancient times and compared the grooves cut by the barges’ cables on the stone embankments to the ruts of chariot wheels on Roman roads. The fairgrounds of Beaucaire are now a long, flat riverbank of weeds and rubbish haunted by dog-walkers and bored teenagers. Fortunately, economic development is not the only measure of urban health. Now that many large cities are surrounded by Stygian fields of concrete tedium, urban sprawl looks like an obnoxious side effect of prosperity and decline. The oceanic awfulness of northern Paris and the disheartening suburbs of Marseille exact a heavy toll from travellers who come in search of aesthetic pleasure. Yet until the mid-nineteenth century, the suburbs of Marseille were one of the great sights of southern France. The hills that form an amphitheatre behind the city were covered with tiny houses known as bastidous or cabanons.

 

pages: 692 words: 167,950

The Ripple Effect: The Fate of Fresh Water in the Twenty-First Century by Alex Prud'Homme

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, carbon footprint, Chance favours the prepared mind, clean water, Deep Water Horizon, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, hydraulic fracturing, invisible hand, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, megacity, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, renewable energy credits, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl

In November, Georgia governor Sonny Perdue declared a state of emergency for the northern third of his state, asked President George W. Bush to label it a major disaster area, and cut public utilities’ water withdrawals by 10 percent. Then Perdue joined hands with supporters on the statehouse steps to pray for rain. To some, the calamity was no surprise. Years of pro-growth policies and lax zoning had led to poor water management and urban sprawl; hydrologists had warned Georgia for nearly two decades that such a drought was possible, but legislators had never developed a coherent response. In the 1990s, plans to build a network of state reservoirs were defeated, largely by developers who were angered that they would not be allowed to build homes around the new lakes. A 2003 plan to sell water permits, which would limit water use, was derailed by Georgians who feared that neighboring states would be able to outbid them.

., 81 Uganda, 197 ultrapure water, 113, 339 ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, 111 Umma, 199 Unconfined Aquifer, 144 United Kingdom (UK), 75, 76, 267 floods in, 200, 204, 212 United Nations (UN), 93, 124, 145, 268, 276, 352 Development Goals of, 199 Food and Agriculture Organization of, 352n water crisis warnings of, 12, 127, 194, 196, 199 United States: annual wastage of water in, 120 assumptions about drinking water in, 9–10, 126 desalination plants in, 331 droughts in, 12, 128, 133, 361–62 energy demand in, 280 flood control in, 210–13 floods in, 12, 95–96, 128, 204, 207–8, 209–10, 326, 354–55 natural gas use in, 286 need for national water policy in, 354 population growth in, 280 water use in, 125–26, 186–87 see also specific regions and states United Water, 2, 271–72 United Water Resources, 2 Unquenchable (Glennon), 341–42 Upper Clark Fork River, 41 Upper Talarik Creek, 305 Upper Yellowstone River, 85 uranium, 20 urban heat-island effect, 132–33 urbanization: global, 124, 204 see also cities urban sprawl, 154, 206 usufructuary rights, 137 Utah, 169–70, 171, 174, 288 Vaca Partners, 147, 149 Valencia, Pablo, 131–32 value: paradox of (diamond-water paradox), 13, 343 of water, 13, 166, 167, 176–77, 240, 250, 266–67, 343–45, 355–56 Van Cortlandt Park Valve Chamber, 121–22, 124 Vanity Fair, 276, 286 Venice, Italy, 212 Veolia, 265, 266, 268, 269–70, 272, 273, 276 Vermont, 299 Verrado, Ariz., 327 Vibrio cholerae, 107 Vidler Water Company, 159 Vietnam War, 220 Villaraigosa, Antonio, 157, 158 vintners, viniculture, 137 Virginia, 83 water-quality standards of, 79 Virginia Institute of Marine Science, 90 Virginia Poultry Federation, 86 Virgin River, 160, 175 “virtual water,” 137 VISTA, 312 Vivendi, 270, 274 Volta River, 130, 196 Vonnegut, Bernard, 328 Wade, Michael, 193, 251–52 Waldrop, Bob, 320 Wall Street Journal, 101, 265, 273, 320, 333, 337 Wanger, Oliver, 246 Warm Springs Dam, 185 War of 1812, 217 Wasatch Mountains, 167 Washington, 318, 319, 357 Washington, DC, 55, 67, 71, 83 Washington Post, 91, 99 Waste Management Healthcare Solutions, 68 wastewater treatment, see recycled wastewater; sewage treatment, sewage treatment plants water: as axis resource, 4–5, 13, 14, 239, 265, 343, 355 bottled, see bottled water commodification of, 260–66, 268, 277 as defining resource of twenty-first century, 343 energy used by treatment, conveyance, and heating of, 278, 279 fixed supply of, 12, 129, 166, 235, 239, 343–44 global distribution of, 129 as human right, 266, 267–68, 277 power generation use of, 125–26, 278–91 rationing of, 240 as renewable resource, 343–44 valuation of, 13, 166, 167, 176–77, 240, 250, 266–67, 343–45, 355–56 “wet” vs.

 

pages: 251 words: 88,754

The politics of London: governing an ungovernable city by Tony Travers

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active transport: walking or cycling, congestion charging, first-past-the-post, full employment, job satisfaction, new economy, urban sprawl

About a third of workplaces have their main market elsewhere in the UK, and a small but sizeable proportion of workplaces rely mainly on international markets (London TEC Council, 1998). Three quarters of workplaces in London employ ten people or fewer, but a third of all jobs are provided by large workplaces (more than 200 employees). Within Britain, and particularly in southern England, concern has developed about the problems of urban sprawl. Although London has been hemmed in since 1939 by a highly effective Green Belt, the prosperity of the southern part of the country has led to major and continuous development in virtually all of the counties surrounding London. Towns such as Reading, Bracknell, Crawley and Watford have been subjected to enormous planning pressure for many years. During the 1960s, migration from London to the South East region ran at a rate of up to 100,000 per year (Greater London Council, 1969, Table 2.5).

 

pages: 300 words: 65,976

The Gospel of Food: Everything You Think You Know About Food Is Wrong by Barry Glassner

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Gary Taubes, haute cuisine, income inequality, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Urbanism, placebo effect, profit motive, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Saturday Night Live, stem cell, urban sprawl, working poor

For younger children, McDonald’s offers seesaws, slides, and climbing gyms at eight thousand of its restaurants. Failing to acknowledge how valuable these are for tens of thousands of families who don’t have access to safe and well-equipped playgrounds, Schlosser sees them only in a 158 The Gospel of Food marketing context, as lures to incite children to beg their parents to bring them in.30 Critics blame fast food for every modern-day ill from heart disease and cancer to crime and urban sprawl. According to an article in the Ecologist, “no corner of the Earth is safe from its presence and no aspect of life is unaffected.” Joe Kincheloe, a professor of education at Brooklyn College, actually suggests that McDonald’s is responsible for Japanese children’s losing their facility with chopsticks.31 McDonald’s engages in a “cultural pedagogy” that produces “disciplined subjects” with “colonized desires” and a “commodified identity,” Kincheloe explains in a book published by Temple University Press that is part of a large body of writing by academics who use rarefied language from social and literary theory to discuss “the McDonaldization of society,” as the title of a much discussed book put it.

 

pages: 304 words: 87,702

The 100 Best Vacations to Enrich Your Life by Pam Grout

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Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, complexity theory, David Brooks, East Village, global village, Golden Gate Park, if you build it, they will come, Maui Hawaii, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, supervolcano, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl, Yogi Berra

“America is based on pilgrims coming over here and knocking together log cabins,” says Patrice Hennin, founder of the Shelter Institute. “Everyone, deep down in his heart, knows he can build a house. It’s not as if we’re sending rockets to the moon here; we’re just building houses.” Arcosanti. This experimental town in the high desert of Arizona offers workshops in building throughout the year that focus on eliminating urban sprawl and lessening our impact on Mother Earth. A one-week workshop, including meals and dorm- or apartment-style accommodations, is $475 and includes seminars explaining the concept of “arcology” (architecture with an eye toward ecology), tours around the alternative urban site, and a silt-casting workshop. Collective work projects and in-depth studies of the departments at Arcosanti begin in the second week and cost an extra $250.

 

pages: 220 words: 88,994

1989 The Berlin Wall: My Part in Its Downfall by Peter Millar

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anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, glass ceiling, kremlinology, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine, urban sprawl, working-age population

But Teltow had a Brandenburg rather than a Berlin postcode, so in August 1963 it suddenly found itself on the other side of the Wall. To the inhabitants of such fringe suburbs the sudden severing of their lifelines to the city they thought they belonged to was unbelievable. Teltow was little more than a straggle of streets where the Greater Berlin that had grown up in the nineteenth century sprawled out into the countryside. On its own it was nothing, yet now, literally overnight, this little overflow of urban sprawl had been designated a rural village. It was an anomaly on a par with the ‘walled garden’ allotments I had seen from my helicopter tour when I first arrived. It was true that Pieps and his neighbours could still drive into ‘Berlin’ – at least the eastern half of it – but now it was a journey of some forty kilometres just to reach the edge of the city and when they did it was a part they were completely unfamiliar with.

 

pages: 334 words: 98,950

Bad Samaritans: The Myth of Free Trade and the Secret History of Capitalism by Ha-Joon Chang

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour mobility, land reform, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, offshore financial centre, oil shock, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, urban sprawl, World Values Survey

Many of these slums would ultimately be cleared forcefully by the police and the residents dumped in far-flung neighbourhoods, with even worse sanitation and poorer road access, to make way for new apartment blocks for the ever-growing middle class. If the poor could not get out of the new slums fast enough (though getting out of the slums was at least possible, given the rapid growth of the economy and the creation of new jobs), the urban sprawl would catch up with them and see them rounded up once again and dumped in an even more remote place. Some people ended up scavenging in the city’s main rubbish dump, Nanji Island. Few people outside Korea were aware that the beautiful public parks surrounding the impressive Seoul Football Stadium they saw during the 2002 World Cup were built literally on top of the old rubbish dump on the island (which nowadays has an ultra-modern eco-friendly methane-burning power station, which taps into the organic material dumped there).

 

pages: 262 words: 83,548

The End of Growth by Jeff Rubin

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, deglobalization, energy security, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, flex fuel, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Hans Island, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income per capita, Jane Jacobs, labour mobility, McMansion, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, Yom Kippur War

CHAPTER 6: THE DANISH RESPONSE this page: Information about Denmark’s environmental track record, including its level of carbon dioxide emissions since 1990, comes from figures available through the State of Green, a government-backed initiative to raise international awareness of the country’s green credentials (www.stateofgreen.com). this page: The argument for the relationship between urban population density and vibrant cities is well documented. Jane Jacobs, for one, argued convincingly against urban sprawl in her seminal work The Death and Life of Great American Cities, which has influenced thoughts on urban planning since its publication in 1961. CHAPTER 7: ZERO-SUM WORLD this page: The figures for Venezuela’s oil exports to the United States come from the EIA. US oil imports from Venezuela reached a high of 1.77 million barrels a day in 1997. (www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=pet&s=mttimusve2&f=a) this page: The figure for the number of licensed American drivers comes from the US Federal Highway Administration, an agency within the Department of Transportation (www.fhwa.dot.gov/ohim/onh00/onh2p4.htm).

 

pages: 364 words: 103,162

The English by Jeremy Paxman

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back-to-the-land, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, Etonian, game design, global village, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, Khartoum Gordon, Own Your Own Home, Ralph Waldo Emerson, sensible shoes, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

By 1930, there were a million cars on the roads and a torrent of books began to appear celebrating the English countryside as a place to visit or to dream about. Batsford’s Face of Britain series was phenomenally successful. Arthur Mee, inventor of the Children’s Encyclopaedia and the Children’s Newspaper, produced forty-one volumes describing The King’s England. The Shell Oil company invited John Betjeman to edit its series of Shell Guides to the counties of England. Recognizing the way that urban sprawl was gorging upon the countryside, the Council for the Preservation of Rural England was founded in 1926 to protest against the spread of tar. Putting footwear upon this interest, the Ramblers Association was established in 1935, a crusade to allow urban walkers to stroll where they pleased across the countryside. They could find cheap and wholesome accommodation with the Youth Hostel Association, which had been founded in 1930 and within five years had nearly 50,000 members.

 

pages: 369 words: 94,588

The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce

Making sure that the world’s oil supplies are open for exploitation has drawn the US into conflict in the Middle East and elsewhere and energy politics, just to take one example of a crucial relation to nature, has often emerged as a dominant issue within the state apparatus and in inter-state relations. But on the other hand the politics of cheap oil have posed problems of excessive depletion, as well as global warming and a host of other air quality issues (ground level ozone, smog, particulate matter in the atmosphere, and the like) that pose increasing risks to human populations. High-energy-consuming urban sprawl has produced chronic land use degradation conducive to flooding, the siting of waterways and the production of urban ‘heat islands’. These environmental impacts complement the depletion of the natural resources required to support an automobile industry which played such a pivotal role in capital surplus absorption from the 1930s onwards. Some Marxists, led by the Californian economist Jim O’Connor, who founded the journal Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, refer to the barriers in nature as ‘the second contradiction of capitalism’ (the first being, of course, the capital–labour relation).

 

pages: 305 words: 73,935

The Cohousing Handbook: Building a Place for Community by Chris Scotthanson, Kelly Scotthanson

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card file, index card, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl

. • It costs more initially to insulate well, build tightly, and use high-performance windows. • Many alternative materials and systems cost more. Do now what you can’t do later • Detail your foundation for radon pre-mitigation. ☞ ENVIRONMENT The decision between a rural or urban location is a difficult one. If everyone chose to move out into the country and build new, what we would have would be more urban sprawl. With the sprawl we have suburbia, and the complete destruction of the natural environment. It seems to me that true environmentalists would choose to live in the high density of the city, doing their part to protect the natural environment from further development. It is possible for your community to choose an urban location, even a tiny site, or a few of fioors in a high-rise, and then buy some rural agricultural land to be owned and managed by the community.

 

pages: 302 words: 97,076

The Trigger: Hunting the Assassin Who Brought the World to War by Tim Butcher

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centre right, colonial rule, land reform, Scramble for Africa, trade route, urban sprawl, éminence grise

CHAPTER 10 Arming the Trigger The only known photograph of Princip, right, during his time in Belgrade, 1914 Police sketch of the Drina River crossing used by the assassination team covertly entering Bosnia from Serbia, May-June 1914 Two days of hitch-hiking took me across the Drina River frontier from Bosnia into Serbia, the landscape easing all the time as the mountains on the western side of the river gave way to a plain that was tabletop-flat reaching east all the way to Belgrade. Travellers in the early twentieth century knew from afar when they were approaching the city from the sight of the great fortress built on the high rocky promontory that towers over the junction of the Sava and Danube Rivers. It would have been visible from miles away, dominating unchallenged what was otherwise a classic central-European flatland of forest, field and marsh. The urban sprawl of modern Belgrade, with its ranks of electricity pylons, tower blocks and red-and-white-chequered factory chimneys, rather diffused the sense of drama when my last lift dropped me in the city. But soon enough I was back on the trail of my quarry, as the road I found myself walking up near Belgrade’s railway station was named Gavrilo Princip Street. The capital city reached by Princip in 1912 was new and still very small, although growing rapidly in a rush of nationalist awakening.

 

pages: 262 words: 93,987

The Buy Side: A Wall Street Trader's Tale of Spectacular Excess by Turney Duff

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asset-backed security, Berlin Wall, buy low sell high, collateralized debt obligation, fixed income, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, urban sprawl

He carries a sign that reads MR. TURNEY. “Turney is my first name,” I say by way of introduction. “Bill’s mine,” he says as he reaches for my bags. “I got ’em,” I say. I must look weaker than I thought. Bill and I walk across the airport parking lot to a maroon van. It’s about a thirty-minute drive to the facility. I spend the first part just looking out the window at the sights, the usual just-outside-the-airport urban sprawl of highway cloverleafs and chain stores. I can’t believe I’m going to rehab. “What’s your drug of choice?” Bill asks, breaking the silence. “Cocaine and alcohol, I guess. Do you work for the rehab?” “I’m retired but I work for the center a few days a week doing whatever they need. I like to be around it. It helps me remember why I can’t drink today.” “How long’s it been?” I ask. “Clean?”

 

pages: 318 words: 85,824

A Brief History of Neoliberalism by David Harvey

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business climate, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, debt deflation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, financial repression, full employment, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, labour market flexibility, land tenure, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, new economy, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Chicago School, transaction costs, union organizing, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent

The Pentagon also argues that global warming might well in the long run be a more serious threat to the security of the US than terrorism.28 Interestingly, the two main culprits in the growth of carbon dioxide emissions these last few years have been the powerhouses of the global economy, the US and China (which increased its emissions by 45 per cent over the past decade). In the US, substantial progress has been made in increasing energy efficiency in industry and residential construction. The profligacy in this case largely derives from the kind of consumerism that continues to encourage high-energy-consuming suburban and ex-urban sprawl and a culture that opts to purchase gas-guzzling SUVs rather than the more energy-efficient cars that are available. Increasing US dependency on imported oil has obvious geopolitical ramifications. In the case of China, the rapidity of industrialization and of the growth of car ownership doubles the pressure on energy consumption. China has moved from self-sufficiency in oil production in the late 1980s to being the second largest global importer after the US.

 

pages: 347 words: 99,317

Bad Samaritans: The Guilty Secrets of Rich Nations and the Threat to Global Prosperity by Ha-Joon Chang

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Brownian motion, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial deregulation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour mobility, land reform, low skilled workers, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, offshore financial centre, oil shock, price stability, principal–agent problem, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, urban sprawl, World Values Survey

Many of these slums would ultimately be cleared forcefully by the police and the residents dumped in far-flung neighbourhoods, with even worse sanitation and poorer road access, to make way for new apartment blocks for the ever-growing middle class. If the poor could not get out of the new slums fast enough (but getting out of the slums was at least possible, given the rapid growth of the economy and the creation of new jobs), the urban sprawl would catch up with them and see them rounded up once again and dumped in an even more remote place. Some people ended up scavenging in the city’s main rubbish dump, Nanji Island. Few people outside Korea were aware that the beautiful public parks surrounding the impressive Seoul Football Stadium they saw during the 2002 World Cup were built literally on top of the old rubbish dump on the island (which nowadays has an ultra-modern eco-friendly methane-burning power station, which taps into the organic material dumped there).

 

pages: 350 words: 100,822

Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update by Donella H. Meadows, Jörgen Randers, Dennis L. Meadows

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agricultural Revolution, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, demographic transition, financial independence, game design, income per capita, informal economy, means of production, new economy, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review

But for several decades the output of the industry and service sectors remains sufficiently high to maintain acceptable living standards, despite the need for capital investment in agriculture and, later, for pollution control. In the last third of the twenty-first century, the pollution level has fallen so much that land fertility recovers. But the population pressure is large, and the amount of arable land declines due to urban sprawl and erosion. Furthermore, after the middle of the century industrial output falls rapidly, because so much capital has been pulled into the agricultural and pollution sectors that there is no longer enough investment to offset depreciation. The economy declines, and a collapse sets in, exacerbated late in the century by an increasing scarcity of nonrenewable resources. The society in Scenario 3 greatly reduces its pollution level and succeeds in maintaining a high human welfare index for a long time.

 

pages: 295 words: 89,430

Small Data: The Tiny Clues That Uncover Huge Trends by Martin Lindstrom

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autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, big-box store, correlation does not imply causation, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, Richard Florida, rolodex, self-driving car, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, too big to fail, urban sprawl

If asked, most natives would tell you that if they closed their eyes and shut out any nearby landmarks, or local signage, they could be almost anywhere in the United States. The sameness of everything has a numbing effect, just as it did for the Norwegian writer Karl Ove Knausgaard who, assigned to take a road trip across North America for the New York Times Magazine last year, wrote, “Ever since I landed in Cleveland the previous day, the landscape had been the same, a sort of centerless, semi-urban sprawl of highways, subdivisions, shopping malls, warehouses, gas stations and factories.”1 Nothing in the landscape, he wrote, felt surprising or natural. Concluded Knausgaard, “I was supposed to write something about this trip, and not only that, I was supposed to use this trip to grasp something essential about the United States, perceive something with my foreign gaze that Americans couldn’t see for themselves.

 

Oryx and Crake by Margaret Atwood

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British Empire, delayed gratification, European colonialism, neurotypical, urban sprawl, wage slave

Maybe that’s the real him, the last Homo sapiens – a white illusion of a man, here today, gone tomorrow, so easily shoved over, left to melt in the sun, getting thinner and thinner until he liquefies and trickles away altogether. As Snowman is doing now. He pauses, wipes the sweat off his face, drinks half of his bottle of water. He hopes there will be more somewhere, soon. Up ahead, the houses thin out and vanish. There’s an interval of parking lots and warehouses, then barbed wire strung between cement posts, an elaborate gate off its hinges. End of urban sprawl and pleeb city limits, beginning of Compound turfdom. Here’s the last station of the sealed-tunnel bullet train, with its plastic jungle-gym colours. No risks here, the colours are saying. Just kiddie fun. But this is the dangerous part. Up to here he’s always had something he could climb or scramble up or dodge around in case of a flank attack, but now comes an open space with no shelter and few verticals.

 

The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler

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A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration

The little white church functions as a sign as well as a miniature office building. In symbolic shorthand it says, "We sell traditional real estate here ! We sell the coherence and stability, the enduring community, of traditional New England town life !" Saratoga is not a traditional New England town and never was. At the present time, Saratoga is the remnant of a Victorian gambling resort overlayed by an urban sprawl­ scape, with all the disconnectedness and loss of traditional values that implies. Why should this matter? Why not just accept the little fake church as a playful, harmless, adorable architectural oddity, as the lovers of kitsch do ? Because it's a bad building, cheaply cute, out-of-scale, symbolically false, and stuck in the middle of a parking lot, a little noplace that contributes to the greater noplace.

 

pages: 318 words: 93,502

The Two-Income Trap: Why Middle-Class Parents Are Going Broke by Elizabeth Warren, Amelia Warren Tyagi

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business climate, Columbine, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, labor-force participation, late fees, McMansion, mortgage debt, new economy, New Journalism, payday loans, school choice, school vouchers, telemarketer, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

Parents’ competitive energies could be channeled toward signing up early or improving their children’s qualifications for a certain school, not bankrupting themselves to buy homes they cannot afford. If a meaningful public school voucher system were instituted, the U.S. housing market would change forever. These changes might dampen, and perhaps even depress, housing prices in some of today’s most competitive neighborhoods. But these losses would be offset by other gains. Owners of older homes in urban centers might find more willing buyers, and the urge to flee the cities might abate. Urban sprawl might slow down as families recalculate the costs of living so far from work. At any rate, the change would cause a one-time readjustment. The housing market would normalize, with supply and demand more balanced and families freed from ruinous mortgages. The Price of Education Even with that perfect house in a swanky school district, parents still are not covered when it comes to educating their kids—not by a long shot.

 

pages: 1,079 words: 321,718

Surfaces and Essences by Douglas Hofstadter, Emmanuel Sander

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Arthur Eddington, Benoit Mandelbrot, Brownian motion, Chance favours the prepared mind, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, dematerialisation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Ernest Rutherford, experimental subject, Flynn Effect, Georg Cantor, Gerolamo Cardano, Golden Gate Park, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, l'esprit de l'escalier, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mandelbrot fractal, Menlo Park, Norbert Wiener, place-making, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, theory of mind, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl

Then it served to represent causal links (“It fell and broke”). Then it linked combinations of abstract qualities (“hot and cold water”), as well as of relationships (“before and after my haircut”) and other abstract attributes (“a hot and healthy meal”). And then many more came, in an avalanche. Like any category, the category of and situations expands gradually and smoothly in each human mind — indeed, so smoothly that after the fact the resulting urban sprawl seems, albeit illusorily, monolithic and uniform, as if it had been constructed all at once, as if there were but one single elementary idea there, which had never needed any generalizing at all. There are no conscious traces left of the many concentric layers of outward expansion of and, just as there are no conscious traces left of how we acquired categories that give the impression of being considerably more complex, such as mother, stop, and much.

And in exactly the same year, 1932, the Dictionnaire de l’Académie française defined the word “bureau” (French for “desk”) as follows (the original was in French, of course): A piece of furniture having drawers in which one can store papers and having horizontal surfaces on which one can write or draw. By extension, a table on which one does written or other work. These definitions are based on the idea of a desk as a piece of furniture. That was the “downtown area” of the vintage-1932 concept of desk. To be sure, even back then, there was already a good deal of conceptual urban sprawl in various directions. But back in 1932, no one could have dreamt of the kind of desk that we information addicts now spend most of our workdays working “upon”. Let’s give the name “hard-desk” to the concept of the 1932-style piece of furniture. It has a physical existence, and it is heavy and rather awkward to move around. Today’s screen-based version of the concept — we’ll call it “soft-desk” — is immaterial, or in any case it is material only in a highly indirect fashion; it is transportable, instantly copyable, easily sharable, and fits handily on a flash drive, carryable in one’s pocket.

 

pages: 1,072 words: 297,437

Africa: A Biography of the Continent by John Reader

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agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, clean water, colonial rule, discovery of the americas, illegal immigration, land reform, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, new economy, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, surplus humans, the market place, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

Furthermore, ‘cakes of copper’ and other items bearing strong affinities with artefacts characteristic of Zambia, the Congo basin, and West Africa, invite the conclusion28 that Great Zimbabwe was on the eastern edge of a widespread and complex internal trading network which substantially pre-dated the external trade that was founded primarily on gold. At the time of its pre-eminence in the fifteenth century, at least 11,000 and possibly as many as 18,000 people are said to have lived at Great Zimbabwe.29 The massive stone-built enclosures were in fact only the central feature of an extensive urban sprawl of huts and living space30 that covered an area of about seven kilometres in circumference.31 Great Zimbabwe was large enough to be called a town, or even a city, but this was urban living at its most basic and unhealthy. The huts were so close together that their eaves nearly touched.32 Such a dense concentration of human activity imposed tremendous demands on the natural resources of the surrounding regions.

The land suffered from excessive cultivation and overgrazing; water supplies became inadequate or contaminated; and unrelenting demands for firewood cleared progressively more distant woodland. As the site grew larger, people were obliged to travel ever further to tend fields and gather firewood. Ultimately the system became unsustainable; the centre could not hold and political authority gravitated to the periphery. Great Zimbabwe flourished for little more than one hundred years. When the stone enclosures and surrounding urban sprawl were abandoned in the late fifteenth century, the ecological damage that just three or four generations of human inhabitants had inflicted upon the landscape was such that certain tree species will not grow in the area to this day.33 With the collapse of Great Zimbabwe two other Shona states rose to prominence on the plateau: Torwa, centred on Khami, about 250 km west of Great Zimbabwe; and Mutapa, 400 km north.

 

pages: 666 words: 131,148

Frommer's Seattle 2010 by Karl Samson

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airport security, British Empire, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, place-making, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, urban sprawl

Bremerton isn’t just about naval history; it’s also home to the Aurora Valentinetti Puppet Museum, 257 Fourth St. ( 36 0/373-2992;www.ectandpuppets.com), which has a large collection of puppets and marionettes and is sure to be a hit with your younger children. The museum is open Wednesday through Saturday from 11am to 4pm. Admission is by donation. 7 Snoqualmie Falls & the Snoqualmie Valley One of the reasons so many people put up with Seattle’s drawbacks—urban sprawl, congested highways, and high housing prices—is that less than an hour east lie mountains so vast and rugged you can hike for a week without crossing a road. Between the city and this wilderness lie the farmlands of the Snoqualmie Valley, the Seattle region’s last bit of bucolic countryside. Here you’ll find small towns, pastures full of spotted cows, “U-pick” farms, and a few unexpected attractions, including an impressive waterfall and a reproduction of a medieval village.

 

pages: 570 words: 151,259

Broken Angels by Richard Morgan

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friendly fire, gravity well, Lao Tzu, the High Line, urban sprawl

It stuck up at the edge of the district like a burnished bronze conning tower, double the height of the surrounding blocks and utterly featureless from the outside. Like much of the architecture in Landfall, it was mirror-surfaced and the reflected sun made its edges difficult to look at directly. It wasn’t the tallest tower in Landfall, but the structure had a raw power to it that throbbed across the surrounding urban sprawl and spoke volumes about its designers. Testing the human frame to destruction The phrase flopped out of my memory like a corpse from a closet. “How close you want to get?” asked Schneider nervously. “A bit closer.” The Khumalo sleeve, like all Carrera’s Wedge custom, had a satdata locational display wired in as standard and reckoned to be quite user-friendly when not fucked up by the webs of jamming and counter-jamming that currently swathed most of Sanction IV.

 

pages: 462 words: 150,129

The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves by Matt Ridley

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23andMe, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, food miles, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, packet switching, patent troll, Pax Mongolica, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Productivity paradox, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supervolcano, technological singularity, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, working poor, working-age population, Y2K, Yogi Berra

By 2025, it looks as if there will be five billion people living in cities (and rural populations will actually be falling fast), and there will be eight cities with more than twenty million people each: Tokyo, Mumbai, Delhi, Dhaka, São Paolo, Mexico City, New York and Calcutta. As far as the planet is concerned, this is good news because city dwellers take up less space, use less energy and have less impact on natural ecosystems than country dwellers. The world’s cities already contain half the world’s people, but they occupy less than 3 per cent of the world’s land area. ‘Urban sprawl’ may disgust some American environmentalists, but on a global scale, the very opposite is happening: as villages empty, people are living in denser and denser anthills. As Edward Glaeser put it, ‘Thoreau was wrong. Living in the country is not the right way to care for the Earth. The best thing that we can do for the planet is build more skyscrapers.’ After a ‘stinking hot’ evening in a taxi in central Delhi in the 1960s, the ecologist Paul Ehrlich had an epiphany.

 

pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders

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agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, megacity, microcredit, new economy, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

The Poles and eastern Europeans of the 2000s have made what scholars call a “J-turn”: They used migration to urbanize themselves in the cities of the Atlantic, then returned not to the village but to the major cities of their own countries, bringing savings and entrepreneurial knowledge with them. Their arrival ended the drought of skilled labor in Poland, and these arrival-city returnees contributed to economic revivals in Gdansk, Warsaw, and the “Polish silicon valley” of Wrocław, Cracow, and Upper Silesia. The Polish capital was by now experiencing genuine urban sprawl, and former rural areas around Warsaw’s perimeter were turning into new enclaves for ex-villagers who had arrived by way of the West. In large part as a result of this, Poland was the one of the few places in Europe that escaped the worst of the global economic downturn, experiencing economic growth (albeit at reduced levels) and maintaining exports. At long last, and in spite of its best efforts to the contrary, Poland was getting its arrival cities.

 

pages: 311 words: 168,705

The Rough Guide to Vienna by Humphreys, Rob

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centre right, ghettoisation, Peace of Westphalia, strikebreaker, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban sprawl

Schiele succumbed three days later at his mother-in-law’s house and is buried in the nearby Friedhof Ober-St-Veit, beneath a tombstone sculpted by the Hungarian Benjamin Ferenczy, commissioned by Schiele’s friends on the tenth anniversary of his death. 177 SCHÖNBRUNN, THE W I E NE RWAL D AND THE Z E N T R A L F R I E D H O F later; free), enclosed within a 25km-long wall by Emperor Josef II. It’s now the wildest of Vienna’s public parks, with virtually no traffic, and no formal gardens at all – head here if you want to leave the urban sprawl far behind. It may not boast the views of the Wienerwald, but you’re more likely to spot wildlife, including wild boar, mouflon, woodpecker, and, most easily, red squirrels and deer; in addition, the famous Lipizzaner horses of the Spanische Reitschule spend their summer holidays in the park. The main entrance is the Lainzer Tor, at the end of Hermesstrasse (tram #60 or #62 and then bus #60B), where a visitor centre can help you get your bearings.

 

pages: 379 words: 114,807

The Land Grabbers: The New Fight Over Who Owns the Earth by Fred Pearce

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Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, big-box store, blood diamonds, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, clean water, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, index fund, Jeff Bezos, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, out of africa, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, smart cities, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks

See also “Territorial Affairs: Turning Battlefields into Marketplaces in Postwar Laos,” http://erg.berkeley.edu/ (2010). Ziegler’s account, “The Rubber Juggernaut,” is available at http://www.sciencemag.org (2009). Also see “China Rubber Demand Stretches Laos,” http://www.atimes.com (2007), and “Rubber: Costs or Benefits to the Lao PDR,” http://www.sumernet.org (2009). Doan Nguyen Duc is profiled in “Condo Boss,” at http://www.forbes.com (2009). “Farmland Grabs by Urban Sprawl and Their Impacts on Peasants’ Livelihood in China” is from the Brighton conference. Complant’s Jamaica deal is described in “Gov’t Seals Sugar Deal with Complant,” http://www.jamaicaobserver.com (2011). Beidahuang’s grabs are detailed in “China Ups Argentine Farmland Purchases,” http://www.lab.org.uk (2011) and “China Land Deal Causes Unease in Argentina,” http://www.guardian.co.uk (2011). See also “New Agricultural Agreement in Argentina: A Land Grabbers’ Instruction Manual,” http://www.grain.org (2011), and “Goldman Sachs Buys Chinese Poultry Farms,” at http://www.thepoultrysite.com (2008).

 

pages: 402 words: 123,199

In the Company of Heroes by Michael J. Durant, Steven Hartov

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back-to-the-land, friendly fire, job satisfaction, placebo effect, Saturday Night Live, trade route, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

Ray and I were flying by rote, heads alternating inside and outside the cockpit, tuning radios, reviewing maps, doing our pre-assault checks, miniguns armed, shoulder harnesses locked, and all the while orienting ourselves on the city below and keeping our spot in the flight. It wasn’t even a five-minute hop and we were over the thick of the city, if you could call it that. It was more like an urban sprawl of concrete and plaster huts, corrugated roofs, frameless windows, jagged holes punched into everything. I remembered how when I’d first come into Mogadishu a month earlier aboard a C-5A, from a distance the pastel Indian Ocean and sugar cube town looked like the French Riviera. And then you got up close and the Mog’s bad haircut and acne scars came into focus. Every single thing that couldn’t be bolted down had been snatched up by the poverty-riddled populace.

 

pages: 462 words: 142,240

Iron Sunrise by Stross, Charles

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blood diamonds, dumpster diving, gravity well, hiring and firing, industrial robot, life extension, loose coupling, mutually assured destruction, phenotype, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, RFID, side project, speech recognition, technological singularity, trade route, uranium enrichment, urban sprawl

Rachel leaned back in her chair and watched George. Cho was a diplomat, and a polished and experienced gambler who liked nothing better than a game of three-stud poker — so the experience of seeing him actually looking angry and upset about something was a novelty in its own right. The wall behind him showed supporting evidence. Rippling fields of grain as far as the eyes could see, a city rising — if that was the word for an urban sprawl where only city hall was more than three stories high — from the feet of blue-tinted mountains, white-painted houses, huge automated factory complexes, wide empty roads stretching forever under a sky the color of bluebells. “Not everyone on Moscow was totally laid-back,” George continued, after taking a sip from his water glass. “They had a small military, mostly equipped for disaster relief work — and a deterrent.

 

pages: 606 words: 157,120

To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov

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3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks

It seems counterintuitive to suggest that a deliberate attempt to behave morally—even one that would require recruiting technology to help you with the mission—will somehow compromise your morality. Granted, you won’t have a chance to express your impeccable morality at every left turn, but you have still expressed it when, unsure of your own driving abilities, you surrendered control to the car itself. Of course, there may be other reasons to oppose automated and driverless cars; for instance, they might completely devastate whatever is left of public space in America, as urban sprawl might continue even more aggressively. But this is a very different type of critique from Kerr’s concerns about automating virtue. There are perhaps good arguments to be made as to why mastering how to drive an unautomated car might be as intellectually and aesthetically stimulating as repairing a motorcycle. Likewise, some have argued that relying on natural navigation—from wind patterns to tide heights—might be preferable to relying on GPS, much in the same way that cooking without detailed instructions might be preferable to having a robot dictate the next step.

 

pages: 369 words: 121,161

Alistair Cooke's America by Alistair Cooke

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Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, British Empire, double entry bookkeeping, full employment, Hernando de Soto, imperial preference, interchangeable parts, joint-stock company, Maui Hawaii, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, urban sprawl, wage slave, Works Progress Administration

Maybe this is the ultimate hope, the next stage in the human family. But the people of Honolulu are in the same stew as the rest of us, Eighty percent of the islanders have chosen to jam into this city. Planters burn sugar cane for real estate and fill the air with smoke and ash. Surf riders, noticing the signs – ‘Warning: Polluted Water’ – pick out the clean waves. There is choking traffic and urban sprawl and suburban density, and towering skyscrapers, and – ‘Stop For Guard Check’ – the new fear of one’s neighbor. Hawaiians had a strong original culture and now preserve a microcosm of it on the east coast of Oahu as a poor Hawaiian’s Williamsburg. The more entertaining elements – the music, the flower festivals, the hula, the native drinks – have been diluted and bottled for the tourists who invade the islands in order to feel carefree and safe in the last of the states.

 

pages: 407 words: 121,458

Confessions of an Eco-Sinner: Tracking Down the Sources of My Stuff by Fred Pearce

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additive manufacturing, air freight, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, ghettoisation, Isaac Newton, Kibera, megacity, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, profit motive, race to the bottom, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

The Shenzhen plant feeds off dozens of local component manufacturers, like Delta, which employs 20,000 young workers in nearby Dongguan and is the world’s largest manufacturer of adaptors and capacitors for computers and mobile phones. And Hua Tong in nearby Huizhou, which makes Nokia’s circuit boards. Like Foxconn, both are Taiwanese companies. Shenzhen is a city literally made by mobile phones. Twenty-five years ago it was a fishing village surrounded by rice paddy. Today it is an urban sprawl of 12 million people – twice the size of Hong Kong – and stretches for 100 kilometres along the east bank of the Pearl River to Dongguan. I met a man who had been resident for eighteen years in Shenzhen. He claimed he knew nobody who had been there longer. I certainly felt, and quite possibly was, the oldest person in the city. But this is no bargain-basement metropolis. The city’s gleaming new central business district has five-star hotels, a stock exchange, concert hall, huge exhibition centre – and a profusion of Starbucks.

 

pages: 400 words: 129,320

The Way We Eat: Why Our Food Choices Matter by Peter Singer, Jim Mason

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agricultural Revolution, air freight, clean water, collective bargaining, dumpster diving, food miles, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Isaac Newton, means of production, rent control, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review

Yet even without the industry's cooperation, we were able to discover a great deal about how these families' foods were produced, and this can help food consumers-that is, all of us-make better, more ethical food choices for ourselves and for our families. EATING THE STANDARD AMERICAN DIET JAKE AND LEE here is no downtown, no bustling public square, no quaint historic district in Mabelvale, Arkansas. The "main drag" is Baseline Roadfour lanes of traffic running through a corridor of gas stations, convenience stores, and strip malls in the urban sprawl southwest of Little Rock, to which it was annexed in 1980. Sixty percent of Mabelvale's 5,000 inhabitants are white, 25 percent are African-American, and 10 percent are Latino; they live in homes worth around $75,000 and earn about $30,000 annually. Among the residents of Mabelvale is the family of Jake Hillard, 36, and Lee Nierstheimer, 26. We chose them for their basic meat-andpotatoes diet-sometimes called the Standard American Diet, or SAD.

 

pages: 447 words: 126,219

The Subterranean Railway: How the London Underground Was Built and How It Changed the City Forever by Christian Wolmar

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British Empire, full employment, invention of the telephone, profit motive, railway mania, South Sea Bubble, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, women in the workforce

The LT’s dominance also allowed it to set fares which were not as expensive, per mile, as stations which were further away from central London, and this increased the competitive advantage of the more distant suburbs in relation to the ones closer to town. Given that land prices were somewhat cheaper in those areas, LT’s policy meant that these suburbs grew much more quickly than would otherwise have been the case. How much, ultimately, that benefited London and Londoners is debatable. It could be argued that this policy ensured even more urban sprawl and, moreover, the faster dispersal of the tightly knit communities characteristic of crowded inner-city life. Nevertheless, Charles Pearson would have been pleased. The gradual climb out of the Depression also provided the ideal economic conditions for the rapid growth of the suburbs. The stock market crash, and the low returns on government securities, meant the building societies were awash with cash and eager to lend to house purchasers.

 

pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Governments thus make tough demands on companies to transfer technology and train locals such that even when foreign capital moves on, the supply chain does not necessarily leave with it. * * * *1 On average across developing countries, participating in the intermediate stages of product creation represents 30 percent of GDP and far more if SEZs are used not just for specialization but also to diversify into more complex industries. *2 Hukou refers to the system of permits that regulates Chinese citizens’ residency rights in the countryside. *3 China’s urban sprawl has hastened due to cheap Japanese and Korean scooters, followed by even cheaper Chinese-made ones, which muscled over bicyclists while expanding the effective range of commuting. While China is now trying to encourage bicycling again, other cities have learned the lesson and are banning scooters, taxing automobiles, building more public transport, and designating more pedestrian zones. *4 The United States has woken up to the need for an infrastructure focus by setting up an interagency working group that links the National Security Council and the Millennium Challenge Corporation to set up special-purpose vehicles that give grants for infrastructure but monitor them like private equity investors through board seats and milestones before disbursing more funds.

 

pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

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1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, means of production, megacity, megastructure, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks

Only a powerfully coordinated approach to planning, engineering and design between emerging groups of tall buildings similar to the integrated engineering that currently plugs them into ground and subterranean-level infrastructures might allow raised skybridge systems to emerge in the future. Were such towers built and the new, raised-access bridges fully public in terms of their accessibility, UK architectural researcher Antony Wood, for one, believes that there is considerable potential for addressing the overwhelmingly private cultures of vertical urban sprawl. ‘Could some of the retail, arts and leisure facilities that normally occur at ground level within the city’, he wonders, ‘be lifted up into the sky to occupy a new “public zone” at height?’61 Given the barriers to the successful implementation of a fully vertical and public skybridge system within vertically growing cities dominated by private real estate development, however, the sci-fi urban visions discussed at the start of this chapter will have readers waiting for a considerable while yet.

 

pages: 369 words: 120,636

Commuter City: How the Railways Shaped London by David Wragg

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Beeching cuts, British Empire, financial independence, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Louis Blériot, North Sea oil, railway mania, South Sea Bubble, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Winter of Discontent, yield management

The track consisted of cast-iron plates of L-section fixed to stone blocks, with a gauge of 4ft 2in. Traction was provided by horses, which, because of the lack of any substantial gradient, could move five or six wagons, each weighing 3½ tons fully loaded, at around 2½ mph. The line was supported by the many mills and factories spread along its route, showing that some, at least, of London’s urban sprawl pre-dated the arrival of the railways. Not realising its shortcomings, so obvious to us today with the benefit of hindsight (always 20:20 vision, of course) the promoters of the line had ambitions and were keen to see it extended to Portsmouth, but only succeeded in extending the tracks as far as the quarry at Merstham, a further 8½ miles. All was not lost, however, as part of its route was later to be used by the London Brighton & South Coast Railway.

 

pages: 537 words: 135,099

The Rough Guide to Amsterdam by Martin Dunford, Phil Lee, Karoline Thomas

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banking crisis, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, spice trade, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, young professional

Day-trips from the city Amsterdammers always try to persuade you that there’s nothing remotely worth seeing outside their city, but the truth is very much the opposite – indeed, you’re spoilt for choice. The fast and efficient Dutch railway network puts a whole swathe of the Netherlands within easy reach, including all of the Randstad (literally “Ring City”), a sprawling conurbation that stretches south of Amsterdam to encompass the country’s other big cities, primarily The Hague, Utrecht and Rotterdam. Amid the urban sprawl, and very close to Amsterdam, is one especially appealing medium-sized town, Haarlem, whose attractive centre is home to the outstanding Frans Hals Museum. Further south – about 40km from Amsterdam and 15km from Haarlem – is another enticing attraction, the world–famous Keukenhof Gardens, the springtime showcase for the country’s flower growers, the land striped by long lines of brilliant blooms.

 

England by David Else

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active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

Taking in a play or concert in the beautiful landscaped gardens is a real summer pleasure, weather permitting. Ragley is 2 miles southwest of Alcester off the A435/A46, or about 10 miles west of Stratford-upon-Avon. STAFFORDSHIRE Stoke-born novelist Arnold Bennett once wrote that Staffordshire was ‘unsung by searchers after the extreme’, but that doesn’t mean that it’s boring. Wedged between the urban sprawls of Birmingham and Manchester, the county is surprisingly beautiful, from rolling Cannock Chase, a magnet for walkers and cyclists, to the jagged backbone of the Peak District known as the Roaches. The stern might of Lichfield’s cathedral, the wild rides at Alton Towers, and the neoclassical mansion of Shugborough are among the county’s other charms. Orientation Staffordshire’s attractions are spread fairly evenly around the county: Stoke to the northwest; the Peak District and Leek northeast, with Alton Towers just south; Lichfield to the southeast; and Stafford just southwest of the centre.

Nudging a horseshoe loop in the river, Shrewsbury’s defensive potential was crucial in keeping the Welsh in line for many centuries. Then in medieval times the town grew fat on the wool trade. It is also the birthplace of Charles Darwin (1809–82), who rocked the world with his theory of evolution. Orientation Shrewsbury’s near-island status helps preserve the Tudor and Jacobean streetscapes of its centre and protects it from unattractive urban sprawl. The train station is a five-minute walk northeast of the centre and is as far as you’ll need to venture. Information Library ( 01743-255300; Castle Gates; 9.30am-5pm Mon, Wed, Fri & Sat, 9.30am-8pm Tue & Thu, 1-4pm Sun) Free internet access. Royal Shrewsbury Hospital ( 01743-261000; Mytton Oak Rd) Tourist office ( 01743-281200; www.visitshrewsbury.com; Music Hall, The Square; 9.30am-5.30pm Mon-Sat, 10am-4pm Sun May-Sep; 10am-5pm Mon-Sat Oct-Apr) Guided walking tours (adult/child £3.50/1.50 1½hr) leave the tourist office at 2.30pm Monday to Saturday, and 11am Sunday from May to September and at 2.30pm Saturday only from November to April.

The communities had to then rely on their own resources, gradually becoming reabsorbed into the war-band culture of the native Britons – for some generations soldiers had been recruited locally in any case. Orientation Hadrian’s Wall crosses beautiful, varied landscape. Starting in the lowlands of the Solway coast, it crosses the lush hills east of Carlisle to the bleak, windy ridge of basalt rock known as Whin Sill overlooking Northumberland National Park, and ends in the urban sprawl of Newcastle. The most spectacular section lies between Brampton and Corbridge. Carlisle, in the west, and Newcastle, in the east, are good starting points, but Brampton, Haltwhistle, Hexham and Corbridge all make good bases. The B6318 follows the course of the wall from the outskirts of Newcastle to Birdoswald; from Birdoswald to Carlisle it pays to have a detailed map. The main A69 road and the ­railway line follow 3 or 4 miles to the south.

 

pages: 795 words: 212,447

Dead or Alive by Tom Clancy, Grant (CON) Blackwood

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affirmative action, air freight, airport security, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Benoit Mandelbrot, defense in depth, failed state, friendly fire, Google Earth, Panamax, post-Panamax, Skype, uranium enrichment, urban sprawl

Knowing Allah would take it as a sign of faithlessness, Hadi had always resisted believing in omens, but the proximity of Rio’s Botanical Garden to the O Cristo Redentor, or Christ the Redeemer statue, was unnerving. But then again, he reminded himself, in Rio everything seemed close to the O Cristo Redentor. Sitting at 2,300 feet atop Corcovado Mountain, gazing down at hundreds of square miles of jungle and urban sprawl, the 120-foot, 600-ton soapstone-and-concrete monolith was the city’s most famous landmark—and a reminder to Hadi that he was in a largely heathen country. Hadi had made good time after parting company with Ibrahim and the others, but he’d spent the first two hours of the journey with his hands clenched white on the wheel and looking in his rearview mirror every twenty seconds. An hour after dawn he had pulled into the municipality of Seropédica, on the far eastern outskirts of Rio.

 

pages: 389 words: 210,632

Frommer's Oregon by Karl Samson

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airport security, Burning Man, carbon footprint, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, sustainable-tourism, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Works Progress Administration

However, Gewürztraminer and Riesling are also produced, and with the 09_537718-ch06.indd 128 3/17/10 2:05 PM 129 Taster’s Tip Although few Oregon wineries have regularly scheduled winery tours, if you’re interested and there is someone on hand to show you around, you’re usually welcome to tour the facilities. 6 T H E N O R T H W I L L A M E T T E VA L L E Y W I N E CO U N T R Y 09_537718-ch06.indd 129 T H E W I L L A M E T T E VA L L E Y introduction of early ripening Dijon-clone chardonnay grapes, the region is finally beginning to produce chardonnays that can almost compete with those of California. Other wines you’ll likely encounter in this area include Müller-Thurgaus (usually off-dry white wines), muscats (dessert wines), and sparkling wines (often made from pinot noir and chardonnay grapes). Wine country begins only a few miles west and southwest of Portland. Approaching the town of Newberg on Ore. 99W, you leave the urban sprawl behind and enter the rolling farm country of Yamhill County. These hills form the western edge of the Willamette Valley and provide almost ideal conditions for growing wine grapes. The views from these hills take in the Willamette Valley’s fertile farmlands as well as the snowcapped peaks of the Cascades. Between Newberg and Rickreall, you’ll find dozens of wineries and tasting rooms that are open on a regular basis.

 

The death and life of great American cities by Jane Jacobs

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City Beautiful movement, Golden Gate Park, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen

, 57, 75, 109, 112, 115, 130, 330,401 Turner, William 13 "Unbuilding" 408,417 Union Carbide Building 381 Union Settlement (East Harlem, NY) 16, 69, 278, 397 Union Square (San Francisco) 104 University of Chicago 44ff Unslumming 9, 185, 203, 232; chap 15; 314, 409 Unspecialized play 81 Unwin, Sir Raymond 17, 206 Urban renewal 4, 8, 15, 23, 25, 44, 137, 197, 202, 207, 270, 287, 303, 31 iff, 400 Urban sprawl 6ff, 308, 310, 44sff, 219 Utopia i7ff, 41, 193, 289, 324, 374 Vladeck Houses (NY housing project) 48 Wagner Houses (NY housing project) 306 Wall Street (NY) 154, 347, 384 Wanamaker's 147 Washington (DC) 5, 173 Georgetown 71, 185 Washington Houses (NY housing project) 34,42 Washington Square (NY) 70, 89, 92fF, 102, i04ff, 127, 360 Washington Square (Philadelphia) 97ff Washington Square Village (NY housing project) 194 "Wasteful" streets 8,185 Waterfronts 8, 114, 159, 258, 267, 269 Weaver, Dr.

 

pages: 734 words: 244,010

The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution by Richard Dawkins

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agricultural Revolution, Alfred Russel Wallace, complexity theory, delayed gratification, double helix, Drosophila, Haight Ashbury, invention of writing, Louis Pasteur, nuclear winter, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steven Pinker, the High Line, urban sprawl

Sometimes the same kind of community springs up in parallel in different parts of the world where the climate favours it. 'Mediterranean' communities have arisen not just around the Mediterranean Sea itself, but on the coasts of California, Chile, south-western Australia and the Cape region of South Africa. The particular species of plants found in these five regions are different, but the plant communities themselves are as characteristically 'Mediterranean' as, say, Tokyo and Los Angeles are recognisably 'urban sprawl'. And an equally characteristic fauna goes with the Mediterranean vegetation. Tropical reef communities are like that. They vary in detail but are the same in essentials, whether we are talking about the South Pacific, the Indian Ocean, the Red Sea or the Caribbean. There are also temperate-zone reefs, which are somewhat different, but one very particular thing the two have in common is the remarkable phenomenon of cleaner fish -- a wonder which epitomises the sort of subtle intimacy that can arise in a climax ecological community.

 

pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

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3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Yogi Berra

., 25–38; aviation and aircraft industry in, 26; cities in style of, 21; ports of, 34; regional airports around, 31, 35–37; as shaped by automobile, 11, 12; Westchester neighborhood of, 28–29 Los Angeles International Airport (LAX): condition of, 32, 38; as declining cargo hub, 33–35; early complaints about, 26–27, 176; early history of, 25–29, 420–21; economic impact of, 30; expansion of, 31; litigation involving, 29;municipal neglect of, 32; noise complaints against, 28–29; as political pawn, 26; Theme Building of, 32; traffic through, 33–35, 38; urban sprawl around, 29 Loughead, Allan and Malcolm, 27 Louisville, Ky., 64–69; economic history of, 80–81 Louisville Airport Improvement Program, 87–90; opposition to, 88–90 Louisville International Airport, expanded for UPS, 64 Lovins, Amory, 329, 342 Lutz, Bob, 203 Lutz, Scott, 126–27 Macau, China, as tourism hub, 378–79 Madrid: airport in, 16; high-speed rail in, 352 MAE-East, 41 Magna International, 197 Malaysia: floral industry in, 221; Multimedia Super Corridor in, 261–62 Malthus, Thomas, 339 Manjoo, Farhad, 75 manufacturing sector: employment in, 202;in U.S. recession, 202 Mao Zedong, 409 Marchetti, Cesare, 116–17 Marchetti’s Constant, 116–17 Martin, James G., 169–70, 173 Marx, Karl, 11 Ma Ying-jeou, 388–89 McCain, John, 49, 87–88 McCarran International, 110 McDonnell Douglas, 27 MCI, 41–42 McKenzie, Roderick D., 424 McKinsey, 126 McWilliams, Carey, 28 Mears, Walter, 183 medical tourism, 265–76, 429; aerial connectivity as boost to, 275–76; as boon to developing nations, 269; in India, 275–77; insurer’s acceptance of, 272, 273; outcomes from, 272–73; political opposition to, 273–74; prices driving, 268–69; promoted by word of mouth, 272, 276; to U.S.

 

pages: 552 words: 168,518

MacroWikinomics: Rebooting Business and the World by Don Tapscott, Anthony D. Williams

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, airport security, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, car-free, carbon footprint, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collaborative editing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, demographic transition, distributed generation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fault tolerance, financial innovation, Galaxy Zoo, game design, global village, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, hive mind, Home mortgage interest deduction, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Marshall McLuhan, medical bankruptcy, megacity, mortgage tax deduction, Netflix Prize, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, online collectivism, open borders, open economy, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, scientific mainstream, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social web, software patent, Steve Jobs, text mining, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, value at risk, WikiLeaks, X Prize, young professional, Zipcar

The 600 million cars on the road today account for 10 percent of global CO2 emissions, not to mention the cocktail of noxious fumes that make cars one of the single largest sources of atmospheric pollution and a major contributor to respiratory problems and other public health challenges.2 Cars are also expensive for drivers, consuming 18 percent of the average American income, a figure that will surely increase as one factors in the rising costs of fuel, parking, tolls, car maintenance and insurance, not to mention the lost productivity resulting from increased traffic congestion.3 Of course, cars only work—that is, they only give us freedom of mobility—when we have roads to drive on. And this creates still more trauma to the planet. In the developed world, roads consume about 40 percent of land in urban areas and even more in North America.4 In 2008, the world’s expansive road network covered some 70 million kilometers—enough roadway to build 180 expressways to the moon.5 Urban planners have long known that high rates of car ownership encourage urban sprawl—sprawl that further entrenches our car dependency while increasing roadway congestion. Fewer people recognize that roads also disrupt ecosystems, interfere with species migration, and compromise natural drainage. Given that cars are one of the most popular forms of transportation in the developed world, cars inevitably become a nexus for death. In 2004, the World Health Organization reported that an estimated 1.2 million people die and that 50 million people are injured in road accidents each year, making car accidents the tenth leading cause of death worldwide.

 

pages: 683 words: 203,624

The Victorian City: Everyday Life in Dickens' London by Judith Flanders

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anti-work, centre right, Corn Laws, John Snow's cholera map, Ralph Waldo Emerson, traveling salesman, urban sprawl, working poor

By adding water to the waste as it was flushed, cesspools filled up ‘twenty or more times as fast’, and with liquids rather than solids, which made them more difficult to clean. In 1844, the Metropolitan Buildings Act reversed the prohibition on house drains being connected to the sewers: now such a connection was mandatory, to wash the waste from the city into the river, and from there out to sea. But all that happened was that ‘The Thames is now made a great cesspool instead of each person having one of his own.’ To compound the problem, by mid-century urban sprawl had pushed the market gardens that took the waste-turned-fertilizer ever further away and the economic returns of transporting it were diminishing. When in 1847, guano, concentrated bird excrement, began to be imported as fertilizer, the market for normal waste collapsed, with prices halving. Soon farmers found they could refuse to pay for waste entirely, the nightsoil men being pleased to find anyone at all to take it.

 

pages: 506 words: 167,034

Riding Rockets: The Outrageous Tales of a Space Shuttle Astronaut by Mike Mullane

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affirmative action, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, dark matter, Donald Trump, Donner party, feminist movement, financial independence, invisible hand, Magellanic Cloud, placebo effect, Potemkin village, publish or perish, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, space pen, Stephen Hawking, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

A passerby could easily think it was a university campus or a corporate headquarters. The architecture screamed “low bid.” Except for size, every building was identical, each featuring a façade of exposed aggregate concrete. The major buildings were positioned around a duck pond landscaped with pine and oak trees to relieve the otherwise flat, boring terrain of southeast coastal Texas. Johnson Space Center was located in the far south of Houston’s urban sprawl. It was nearly as close to Galveston as it was to Houston’s city center. The community in which many NASA employees lived was the suburb of Clear Lake City—implying a lake nearby, and a clear one at that. Wrong. Clear Lake was neither clear nor a lake, but rather a chocolate-tinted, humidity-shrouded inlet from the nearby Gulf of Mexico that served as a time-share for a couple billion vacationing mosquitoes.

 

pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells

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Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, British Empire, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, planetary scale, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl

I shall argue that, because of the nature of the new society, based upon knowledge, organized around networks, and partly made up of flows, the informational city is not a form but a process, a process characterized by the structural domination of the space of flows. Before developing this idea, I think it is first necessary to introduce the diversity of emerging urban forms in the new historical period, to counter a primitive technological vision that sees the world through the simplified lenses of endless freeways and fiber-optic networks. America’s last suburban frontier The image of a homogeneous, endless suburban/ex-urban sprawl as the city of the future is belied even by its unwilling model, Los Angeles, whose contradictory complexity is revealed by Mike Davis’s marvelous City of Quartz.60 Yet it does evoke a powerful trend in the relentless waves of suburban development in the American metropolis, West and South as well as North and East, toward the end of the millennium. Joel Garreau has captured the similarities of this spatial model across America in his journalistic account of the rise of Edge City, as the core of the new urbanization process.

 

Atlas Obscura: An Explorer's Guide to the World's Hidden Wonders by Joshua Foer, Dylan Thuras, Ella Morton

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, centre right, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, cosmic microwave background, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, double helix, East Village, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, horn antenna, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index card, Jacques de Vaucanson, Kowloon Walled City, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mutually assured destruction, phenotype, Pluto: dwarf planet, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Tunguska event, urban sprawl, Vesna Vulović, wikimedia commons, working poor

Over the years, thousands of volunteers have helped construct apartments, storefronts, an outdoor amphitheater, and a visitor’s center, all rendered in concrete with lots of arcs and semicircles. Landscaping workshops and internships are still available for people who want to be part of the urban experiment. Work at Arcosanti is funded by sales of bronze and ceramic wind chimes. The buildings are a little rundown and shabby; Soleri passed away in 2013, so they’ll likely stay that way. But Arcosanti is a fascinating look at one man’s ambitious alternative to urban sprawl. 13555 South Cross L Road, Mayer. Arcosanti is located between Sedona and Scottsdale. 34.345418 112.116278 Arcosanti’s experimental community is run by eco-loving volunteers. Also in Arizona Santa Claus Mohave County · At this abandoned Christmas-themed town in the middle of the desert, the faded festive decor is covered with graffiti. Antelope Canyon Page · Due to flash-flood risks, the Southwest’s most beautiful slow canyon can be visited with a guided tour.

 

When Cultures Collide: Leading Across Cultures by Richard D. Lewis

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Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, business climate, business process, colonial exploitation, corporate governance, global village, haute cuisine, hiring and firing, invention of writing, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, open borders, profit maximization, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

There is generally a “distance of respect” of more than one meter between speakers. Having said that, Mediterranean Turks are somewhat tactile among friends (this is usually confined to one’s own sex). In many towns and villages, men dancing with men is a common spectacle. Foreigners are often invited to participate—don’t be shy! Things take time in Turkey and people turn up late for appointments. Istanbul—the largest urban sprawl in Europe—is not easy to move around in, and many delays originate from traffic problems. at te e s At 392 WHEN CULTURES COLLIDE Cultural Factors in Communication Communication Pattern The Turkish communication style derives from its three main roots: Islamic, Mediterranean and Eastern (Ottoman, Seljuk). The first two are sources of their liveliness—they are in the main both multi-active and dialogue-oriented.

 

Southeast Asia on a Shoestring Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

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active transport: walking or cycling, airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwatching, colonial rule, Google Earth, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, large denomination, low cost carrier, Mason jar, megacity, Skype, South China Sea, spice trade, superstar cities, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

Bisnis and eksekutif trains can be booked weeks ahead, and the main stations have efficient, computerised booking offices for eksekutif trains. Try to book at least a day in advance, or several days beforehand, for travel on public holidays and long weekends. The railway’s Train Information Service (www.kereta-api.com) has more information (on the website, Jadwal means schedule). Jakarta 021 / POP 8.9 MILLION First impressions of Jakarta are not good. One of the world’s greatest megalopolises, its grey, relentlessly urban sprawl spreads for tens of traffic-snarled kilometres across a flood-prone plain with barely a park to break the concrete monotony. And yet beneath the unappealing facade of high-rises, slums and gridlocked streets, this is a city of surprises and many faces. From the steamy, richly scented streets of the old quarter to the city’s riotous, decadent nightlife, Jakarta is filled with unexpected corners.

Besides the popular dance-and-music shows, there are numerous courses that allow you to become fully immersed in Balinese culture. Ubud is home to chilled-out restaurants and cafes, plus artful and serene places to stay. Around Ubud are temples, ancient sites and whole villages producing handicrafts (albeit mostly for visitors). Although the growth of Ubud has engulfed several neighbouring villages, leading to an urban sprawl, parts of the surrounding countryside remain unspoiled, with lush rice paddies and towering coconut trees. You’d be remiss if you didn’t walk one or more of the dozens of paths during your stay. Ubud Area Top Sights Agung Rai Museum of ArtC5 Neka Art MuseumB1 Sleeping 1Aji LodgeD4 2BiangsD3 3Puri Asri 2D4 4Santra PutraA2 5Swasti CottageB5 6Yuliati HouseD3 Eating 7Mama's WarungD3 8Warung Pulau KelapaB2 Drinking 9Jazz CaféD3 Entertainment 10Arma Open StageC5 Sights Spend time in the museums and walking the beautiful countryside.

 

pages: 3,292 words: 537,795

Lonely Planet China (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Shawn Low

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bike sharing scheme, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, indoor plumbing, land reform, place-making, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, young professional

Best for Scenery AShennongjia AWudang Shan AThree Gorges Dam Best for History AJingzhou AWudang Shan AWuhan AHubei Provincial Museum Hubei Highlights 1 Study taichi where it all began, on the awe-inspiring mountain slopes of Wudang Shan. 2 Explore the historic gates, city walls and ruined temples of ancient Jingzhou. 3 Find a bar and knock back a beer in the riverside concession district of mighty Wuhan. 4 Flee China’s urban sprawl and camp out in the wilds of stunning Shennongjia. 5 Go against the tourist tide and start your Three Gorges cruise in Yichang rather than Chongqing. History The Hubei area first came to prominence during the Eastern Zhou (700–221 BC), when the powerful Chu kingdom, based in present-day Jingzhou, was at its height. Hubei again became pivotal during the Three Kingdoms (AD 220–280). The Chinese classic The Romance of the Three Kingdoms (San Guo Yanyi) makes much reference to Jingzhou.

They’re easy to spot, but difficult to catch on large roads because of roadside barriers. CYCLING HaINaN Hainan is a great destination for recreational touring. You’re rarely more than an hour from a village with food and water, and never more than a few hours from a town with a decent hotel. At the same time, you’ll find most of your riding is out in nature or through pretty farming valleys, not urban sprawl. Preparation time for a tour can be minimal. Some popular routes include the following: Haidian Island Plenty of fishing villages and rural landscapes and so close to Haikou. North Coast Ride alongside kilometre after kilometre of sand beaches and down side routes into the interior. Wenchang County Ride 100km out to Dongjiao Coconut Plantation and spend the night at a quiet beachside cabin.

 

pages: 1,364 words: 272,257

Jerusalem: The Biography by Simon Sebag-Montefiore

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, California gold rush, Etonian, facts on the ground, haute couture, Khartoum Gordon, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, spice trade, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, Yom Kippur War

The Montefiore Windmill still stands and the Montefiore Quarter, know as Yemin Moshe, is one of the city's most elegant Neighbourhoods and one of five named after him. His baronetcy was inherited by his nephew Sir Abraham who was childless (his wife went insane on their wedding night) but Moses left his estates to his Moroccan-born nephew Joseph Sebag who became Sebag-Montefiore. The Ramsgate mansion burned down in the 1930s. An almost forgotten figure (except in Israel), his tomb was neglected for a long time, threatened by urban sprawl and graffiti, but in the twenty-first century, his tomb has become a shrine: thousands of ultra-Orthodox Jews make a pilgrimage there on the anniversary of his death. * Ironically Twain stayed in the Mediterranean Hotel in the Muslim Quarter, the very building which the Israeli Likud leader and general Ariel Sharon bought in the late 1980s in his bid to judaize the Muslim Quarter. Today it is a Jewish seminary.

 

pages: 1,016 words: 283,960

Aftermath: Following the Bloodshed of America's Wars in the Muslim World by Nir Rosen

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Ayatollah Khomeini, failed state, glass ceiling, Google Earth, unemployed young men, urban sprawl, éminence grise

On the first floor, in the Arab Nations section of the Visa Renewal section, past Somalis and Sudanese sitting and awaiting their turn, was a sign that said, “Booth 23 for Iraqis only.” When I visited in late February 2006 the crowds of Iraqis there exceeded the numbers at the nearby section for Palestinian refugees. Iraqis continued to enter Egypt by the planeload. They came on tourist visas at first, but extended them indefinitely or applied for temporary protection at the UNHCR, and settled into the urban sprawl of Cairo. In the Medinat Nasr district, past the Layali Baghdad (Baghdad Nights) restaurant, I found a small Internet cafe owned by Muhamad Abu Rawan, a twenty-seven-year-old Sunni man who fled Iraq on May 15, 2006, with his wife, Lubna, also twenty-seven. Muhamad walked me to their nearby apartment, where we found Lubna watching a soap opera and holding their three-month-old daughter, Rawa.

 

Rainbow Six by Tom Clancy

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air freight, airport security, clean water, computer age, Exxon Valdez, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, rent control, rolodex, urban sprawl

The customs clerks were kind and waved him right through to the cabstand, where, for the usual exorbitant fee, he engaged a Pakistani driver to take him into town, making him wonder idly if the cabbies had a deal with the customs people. But he was on an expense account-meaning he had to get a receipt-and, besides, he had ensured that day that he could afford such things without one, hadn't he? He smiled as he gazed at the passing urban sprawl. It got thicker and thicker on the way to Manhattan. The cab dropped him off at his apartment house. The flat was paid for by his employer, which made it a tax-deductible business expense for them-Popov was learning about American tax law-and free for him. He spent a few minutes dumping his dirty laundry and hanging up his good clothes before heading downstairs and having the doorman flag a cab.

 

Frommer's Israel by Robert Ullian

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airport security, British Empire, car-free, East Village, haute cuisine, Khartoum Gordon, Maui Hawaii, place-making, Silicon Valley, Skype, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yom Kippur War

Isfiya is the first village you’ll reach from Haifa; Daliat-el-Carmel is a very short ride farther. The trip takes about half an hour, and it’s a splendid drive along the uppermost rim of Carmel. The Mediterranean is way down below you, as are the entire city, the port, and the industrial area. Bring your camera. Architecturally, the villages are no longer the quaint enclaves of 30 or 40 years ago; instead, they’ve become part of the urban sprawl at the outer edge of the city. Israelis visit the villages for the many home-style Middle Eastern restaurants that have sprung up, and for bargain-basement shopping, especially on Saturday (see below). The Druze are Arabic-speaking people who are, however, not Muslims. Theirs is a rather secretive religion; they draw heavily on the Bible and venerate such personages as Jethro (a Midianite priest and the non-Israelite father-in-law of Moses).

 

pages: 2,020 words: 267,411

Lonely Planet Morocco (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Paul Clammer, Paula Hardy

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air freight, Airbnb, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, illegal immigration, place-making, Skype, spice trade, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

Today Morocco’s 40 different ecosystems provide a habitat for many endemic species, including flora and fauna that are rare elsewhere. Industrialisation has put considerable pressure on Morocco’s delicately balanced natural environments, and while steps are being taken to create wildlife reserves for Morocco’s endangered species, visitors can do their part to preserve natural habitats by staying on marked pistes (dirt tracks) and taking out waste. Coastal Species Away from the urban sprawl of port cities and resort complexes are long stretches of rugged Moroccan coastline, where people are far outnumbered by abundant bird populations and marine mammals such as dolphins and porpoises. Along beaches, you’ll spot white-eyed gulls, Moroccan cormorants and sandwich terns. Seabirds and freshwater birds thrive in preserves such as Souss-Massa National Park, where you might spy endangered bald ibis along with the ducks and waders who migrate here from Europe for the winter.

 

France (Lonely Planet, 8th Edition) by Nicola Williams

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active transport: walking or cycling, back-to-the-land, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information trail, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Murano, Venice glass, pension reform, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

CYCLING To get from Dijon to Beaune by bike, follow the quiet (but almost vergeless/shoulderless) D122, which gradually becomes pretty south of Couchey, to Nuits-St-Georges. From there, take either the challenging D8 and the D115C, or the flatter D20, just east of the N74, which offers fine views of the wine slopes. The ride takes three or four hours and covers about 50km. To avoid cycling both ways (or through Dijon’s ugly and heavily trafficked urban sprawl, which stretches as far south as Marsannay-la-Côte), you can take your bike along on most Dijon–Beaune trains – look for the bicycle symbol on train schedules. The 20km Voie des Vignes (Vineyard Way), a bike route marked by rectangular green-on-white signs, goes from Beaune’s Parc de la Bouzaize via Pommard, Volnay, Meursault, Puligny-Montrachet and Chassagne-Montrachet to Santenay, where you can pick up the Voie Verte (Click here) to Cluny.

 

Lonely Planet France by Lonely Planet Publications

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banking crisis, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, Murano, Venice glass, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

The beautiful medieval village of Entrevaux is just 1½ hours from Nice (return €20.60), perfect for a picnic and a wander through its historic centre and citadel. Sights & Activities Vieil Antibes HISTORIC QUARTER Vieil Antibes is a pleasant mix of food shops, boutiques and restaurants. Mornings are a good time to meander along the little alleyways, when the Marché Provençal (cours Masséna; 7am-1pm Tue-Sun Sep-Jun, daily Jul & Aug) (market) is in full swing. Check out the views from the sea walls, from the urban sprawl of Nice to the snowy peaks of the Alps and nearby Cap d’Antibes. Musée Picasso ART MUSEUM (www.antibes-juanlespins.com; Château Grimaldi, 4 rue des Cordiers; adult/student/child €6/3/free; 10am-noon & 2-6pm Tue-Sun) ‘If you want to see the Picassos from Antibes, you have to see them in Antibes.’ Pablo Picasso Spectacularly positioned overlooking the sea, 14th-century Château Grimaldi served as Picasso’s studio from July to December 1946.