future of work

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pages: 236 words: 67,953

Brave New World of Work by Ulrich Beck

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, full employment, future of work, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job automation, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, McJob, means of production, mini-job, postnationalism / post nation state, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, working poor, working-age population

(eds), Der unscharfe Ort der Politik, Opladen 1999. 17 Mary Kaldor, ‘Reconceptualizing Organized Violence’, in Daniele Archibugi, David Held and Martin Köhler (eds), Reimagining Political Community, Cambridge 1998, pp. 91–110. 18 James N. Rosenau, ‘Governance and Democracy in a Globalizing World’, in Archibugi et al. (eds), Reimagining Political Community, p. 28. 4 The Future of Work and Its Scenarios An Interim Balance-Sheet The debate on the future of work resembles a labyrinth. Adapting an idea of Bertolt Brecht's, we might say: there are as many scenarios and questions as there are authors. So how can the future of work in the second modernity be analysed in a systematic manner? To bring a certain clarity into this bustling international debate, it makes sense to draw a fundamental distinction between the framework of scenario-building and the challenges of the second modernity. Most of the scenarios revolve around the question of Yes or No, end or recovery of full employment, hopes and worries.

Table of Contents Title page Copyright page 1: The Brazilianization of the West: Two Scenarios, One Introduction The political economy of insecurity The right to breaks in lifetime economic activity A method with risks Notes 2: The Antithesis to the Work Society The Greek polis, or unfreedom through work Modern work-democracy, or freedom through work The future of work and political action Notes 3: The Transition from the First to the Second Modernity: Five Challenges What is meant by ‘reflexive modernization’? Globalization, or the ‘despatialization of the social’ When the frontiers blur: beyond war and peace? Notes 4: The Future of Work and Its Scenarios: An Interim Balance-Sheet Scenario 1: from the work society to the knowledge society Scenario 2: capitalism without work Scenario 3: the world market – the neoliberal jobs miracle Scenario 4: the fixed location of work – a globalization risk Scenario 5: sustainable work – the ecological economic miracle Scenario 6: global apartheid Scenario 7: the self-employed – the freedom of insecurity Scenario 8: individualization of work – disintegration of society Scenario 9: the multi-activity society Scenario 10: the free-time society A summary A critique of the future work scenarios Notes 5: The Risk Regime: How the Work Society is Becoming Risk Society The Fordist regime The risk regime Dimensions of the risk regime: globalization, ecologization, digitalization, individualization and politicization of work Multi-employment and the open organization of work Flexibilization of working time: less money, but more control Eyes-closed politics and criminalization Justice deficits of the caring society Summary Notes 6: A Thousand Worlds of Insecure Work: Europe's Future Glimpsed in Brazil Farewell to the Western universalism of the work society The future of informality ‘Being your own boss’ in a global world of opaque dependence Beyond the certainties of the work society On the cynicism of statistics: more hopeless, less jobless The ascription of unemployment and exclusion Time poverty, have-nots and the civil society revolution Notes 7: The Great Example?

It rests upon the insight that only people with a home and a secure job, and thus a material stake in the future, are or will become citizens who make democracy their own and breathe real life into it. The simple truth is that without material security there can be no political freedom – hence no democracy, but rather a threat to everyone from new and old totalitarian regimes and ideologies. The future of work and political action Quite clearly the work society is reaching its technological and ecological limits. This reintroduces a paradox that was once decisive for the development of the work society: on the one hand, work is the centre of society around which everything and everyone revolve and take their bearings; on the other hand, everything is done to eliminate as much work as possible. Productivity, to be worthy of the name, means the removal of more and more human labour, yet this sets off and establishes a dynamic in which the vita activa, if not yet superfluous, loses its central meaning.


pages: 361 words: 76,849

The Year Without Pants: Wordpress.com and the Future of Work by Scott Berkun

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barriers to entry, blue-collar work, Broken windows theory, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Hangouts, Jane Jacobs, job satisfaction, Lean Startup, lone genius, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, remote working, Results Only Work Environment, Richard Stallman, Seaside, Florida, side project, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the map is not the territory, Tony Hsieh, trade route

Table of Contents Praise for The Year Without Pants Title Page Copyright What You Need to Know Chapter 1: The Hotel Electra Chapter 2: The First Day Notes Chapter 3: Tickets for Caturday Notes Chapter 4: Culture Always Wins Notes Chapter 5: Your Meetings Will Be Typed Notes Chapter 6: The Bazaar at the Cathedral Notes Chapter 7: The Big Talk Notes Chapter 8: The Future of Work, Part 1 Results Trump Traditions Creatives versus Supporters Hire Self-Sufficient, Passionate People Notes Chapter 9: Working the Team Chapter 10: How to Start a Fire Notes Chapter 11: Real Artists Ship Notes Chapter 12: Athens Lost and Found Notes Chapter 13: Double Down Notes Chapter 14: There Can Be Only One Notes Chapter 15: The Future of Work, Part 2 Life Without E-Mail Notes Chapter 16: Innovation and Friction Notes Chapter 17: The Intense Debate Notes Chapter 18: Follow the Sun Chapter 19: The Rise of Jetpack Notes Chapter 20: Show Me the Money Notes Chapter 21: Portland and the Collective Notes Chapter 22: The Bureau of Socialization Chapter 23: Exit Through Hawaii Chapter 24: The Future of Work, Part 3 Notes Epilogue: Where Are They Now?

Most of what I remember are the notable oohs and aahs as we did our demonstration, sounds I hadn't heard about software I'd worked on with a team of people for far too long. Notes 1 A good overview of the history of fire teams is at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fireteam. 2 David McCullough, The Great Bridge (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1983), 381. Chapter 8 The Future of Work, Part 1 Books about the future of work make the same mistake: they fail to look back at the history of work or, more precisely, the history of books about the future of work and how wrong they were. Few visions of the future come true, as we're very bad at predicting much of anything. Can you guess what sentence will come next? Did you guess this one would have a flaming zombie banana in it, a fruit so horrific it crawls the earth forever, eating banana brains? If we can't guess the next sentence in a book, there's little hope of guessing the future.

His insights will make you laugh, think, and ask all the right questions about your own company's culture.” —Gina Trapani, founding editor, Lifehacker “The future of work is distributed. Automattic wrote the script. Time for rest of us to read it.” —Om Malik, founder, GigaOM “Some say the world of work is changing, but they're wrong. The world has already changed! Read The Year Without Pants to catch up.” —Chris Guillebeau, author, New York Times bestseller The $100 Startup “You'll be surprised, shocked, delighted, thrilled, and inspired by how WordPress.com gets work done. I was!” —Joe Belfiore, corporate vice president, Microsoft “Most talk of the future of work is just speculation, but Berkun has actually worked there. The Year Without Pants is a brilliant, honest, and funny insider's story of life at a great company.”


pages: 375 words: 88,306

The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar

Table of Contents Title page Copyright page Dedication Author’s Note and Acknowledgments Introduction I Cause1 The Sharing Economy, Market Economies, and Gift Economies 2 Laying the Tracks: Digital and Socioeconomic Foundations 3 Platforms: Under the Hood 4 Blockchain Economies: The Crowd as the Market Maker II Effect5 The Economic Impacts of Crowd-Based Capitalism 6 The Shifting Landscape of Regulation and Consumer Protection 7 The Future of Work: Challenges and Controversies 8 The Future of Work: What Needs to Be Done 9 Concluding Thoughts Index List of Tables Table 3.1 Platforms: hierarchies, markets, or hybrids? Table 8.1 Definitions of “employee” under selected statutes Table 8.2 Estimated percentage of workers who want a different type of employment, 2005 Table 8.3 Factors in assessing a platform’s support of entrepreneurship List of Illustrations Figure 0.1 Paid US workforce, 1900–1960.

Additionally, at an October 2015 labor conference hosted by the White House, President Barack Obama discussed ways of protecting the new workforce in an hour-long town hall discussion he moderated with Michelle Miller, the co-founder of coworker.org, after highlighting the opportunities created by the future of work heralded by platforms like Uber, Lyft, and TaskRabbit in an earlier keynote speech. But what exactly do these opportunities look like? On one side of the argument, there are the Liss-Riordans of the world who may consider the future of work—at least as it is currently unfolding in the sharing economy—as a near-certain race to the bottom. Among the most vocal proponents of this view is the former labor secretary and University of California professor Robert Reich. Asserting that a better name for the sharing economy would be the “share-the-scraps economy,” Reich posits: “Customers and workers are matched online.

Or will it represent the culmination of the end of broad-based and high standards of living that the United States witnessed in the 1950s and 1960s—a disparaging race to the bottom that leaves workers around the world working more hours for less money and with minimal job security and benefits? Put another way, will the future of work be populated by successful microentrepreneurs, like David with his fleet of cars on Turo, ThreeBirdNest’s Alicia Shaffer on Etsy, and Don Dennis running his business from the island of Gigha? Or will the future be populated by disenfranchised workers who scurry between platforms as they hunt for their next wedge of piecework? In this chapter, I highlight the labor issues central to shaping this future of work. First, I examine the current debate on the employment status of sharing economy workers and proposed expansions to the US worker categorization model. Next, I ask, how do we ensure that a social safety net is available to people whose chosen form of work is something other than full-time employment?


pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

The challenge we face is to come up with new forms of social and employment contracts that suit the changing workforce and the evolving nature of work. We must limit the downside of the human cloud in terms of possible exploitation, while neither curtailing the growth of the labour market nor preventing people from working in the manner they choose. If we are unable to do this, the fourth industrial revolution could lead to the dark side of the future of work, which Lynda Gratton, a professor of management practice at London Business School describes in her book The Shift: The Future of Work is Already Here - increasing levels of fragmentation, isolation and exclusion across societies.29 As I state throughout this book, the choice is ours. It entirely depends on the policy and institutional decisions we make. One has to be aware, however, that a regulatory backlash could happen, thereby reasserting the power of policymakers in the process and straining the adaptive forces of a complex system.

This is particularly the case for the younger generation who often feel that corporate jobs constrain their ability to find meaning and purpose in life. In a world where boundaries are disappearing and aspirations are changing, people want not only work-life balance but also harmonious work-life integration. I am concerned that the future of work will only allow a minority of individuals to achieve such fulfilment. 3.2 Business Beyond the changes in growth patterns, labour markets and the future of work that will naturally influence all organisations, there is evidence that the technologies that underpin the fourth industrial revolution are having a major impact on how businesses are led, organized and resourced. One particular symptom of this phenomenon is that the historical reduction in the average lifespan of a corporation listed on the S&P 500 has dropped from around 60 to approximately 18.31 Another is the shift in the time it takes new entrants to dominate markets and hit significant revenue milestones.

, The New York Times, 7 March 2015 http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/08/opinion/sunday/if-an-algorithm-wrote-this-how-would-you-even-know.html?_r=0 25 Martin Ford, Rise of the Robots, Basic Books, 2015. 26 Daniel Pink, Free Agent Nation – The Future of Working for Yourself, Grand Central Publishing, 2001. 27 Quoted in: Farhad Manjoo, “Uber’s business model could change your work”, The New York Times, 28 January 2015. 28 Quoted in: Sarah O’Connor, “The human cloud: A new world of work”, The Financial Times, 8 October 2015. 29 Lynda Gratton, The Shift: The Future of Work is Already Here, Collins, 2011. 30 R. Buckminster Fuller and E.J. Applewhite, Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking, Macmillan, 1975. 31 Eric Knight, “The Art of Corporate Endurance”, Harvard Business Review, April 2, 2014 https://hbr.org/2014/04/the-art-of-corporate-endurance 32 VentureBeat, “WhatsApp now has 700M users, sending 30B messages per day”, January 6 2015 http://venturebeat.com/2015/01/06/whatsapp-now-has-700m-users-sending-30b-messages-per-day/ 33 Mitek and Zogby Analytics, Millennial Study 2014 , September 2014 https://www.miteksystems.com/sites/default/files/Documents/zogby_final_embargo_14_9_25.pdf 34 Gillian Wong, “Alibaba Tops Singles’ Day Sales Record Despite Slowing China Economy”, The Wall Street Journal, 11 November 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/alibaba-smashes-singles-day-sales-record-1447234536 35 “The Mobile Economy: Sub-Saharan Africa 2014”, GSM Association, 2014.


pages: 344 words: 94,332

The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity by Lynda Gratton, Andrew Scott

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3D printing, Airbnb, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, diversification, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, Lyft, Network effects, New Economic Geography, pattern recognition, pension reform, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, women in the workforce, young professional

The fact that this is already happening is given credence in one recent economic study which found that the long-running increase in demand for skilled workers started to go into reverse in 2000.13 In a much-quoted study, Oxford academics Carl Frey and Michael Osborne14 calculate that a total of 47 per cent of jobs in the US are vulnerable to these forces in the next few decades – that’s 60 million jobs. The future of work These are complex issues, yet those looking forward to a long life are faced with making some early bets about what path to go down. What would be the advice to them? What will be the future of work? Unique human skills From a technological perspective, the real question about the future of work concerns the limits of AI and robotic substitution. At the time of writing there is broad agreement that certain skills and capabilities are unique to humans and cannot (yet) be replicated or substituted by AI or robotics. David Autor and his co-authors point to two sets of these uniquely human capabilities.

As we look forward, the question to be addressed is how ‘sticky’ this pay gap is likely to be. Right now it is likely that when Jane enters her first job she will experience gender parity. But will this continue over her career? For example, will Jane find it as hard to become a senior executive as women in 2014 are finding it? Forecasts from the International Labour Organization (ILO)22 report ‘Women and the Future of Work’, published in early 2015, suggest it will take at least seventy years to reach gender wage parity given current rates of change. That’s 2085, by which time Jane will be 87. It is a very dispiriting thought. Flexibility Goldin’s detailed analysis sheds much light on the issue of why women earn less than men. She concludes that the gender gap in pay is largely a result of the value placed on the different characteristics of the work in which men and women have historically engaged.

The scarcer your talents, the stronger your negotiation hand and therefore the more choices you have to structure your life and make the most of your 100 years. Not everyone will have this negotiation hand or access to choice. How far along on this agenda are corporations? As part of this 100-year study, we took a sounding of what corporations are currently doing to prepare for these new ways of working. This became a theme of the Future of Work Consortium that Lynda directs and which brings together executives from around the world. In a series of interviews, and then in a workshop in London in October 2014, we discussed their plans to make the most of this 100-year bonanza. We found that, with a few exceptions, most are doing very little. Many firms simply don’t currently have the practices and processes to deal with the complexity of Jimmy’s and Jane’s lives.


pages: 86 words: 27,453

Why We Work by Barry Schwartz

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Atul Gawande, call centre, deskilling, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, if you build it, they will come, invisible hand, job satisfaction, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Toyota Production System

ISBN 978-1-4767-8486-1 ISBN 978-1-4767-8487-8 (ebook) To Ruby, Eliza, Louis, and Nico. May your lives be full of opportunities for good work. TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION The Crucial Question EPIGRAPH CHAPTER 1 The False Rationale CHAPTER 2 When Work Is Good CHAPTER 3 How Good Work Goes Bad CHAPTER 4 The Technology of Ideas CHAPTER 5 The Future of Work ACKNOWLEDGMENTS WORKS CITED AND FURTHER READING ABOUT THE AUTHOR The ideas of economists and political philosophers, both when they are right and when they are wrong, are more powerful than is commonly understood. Indeed the world is ruled by little else. Practical men, who believe themselves to be quite exempt from any intellectual influences, are usually the slaves of some defunct economist.

The idea technology that dominates our age is a fiction; it is ideology. But it is a powerful fiction, and it becomes less and less fictional as it increasingly pervades our institutions and crowds out other types of relations between us and our work. Because of its self-fulfilling character, we cannot expect this fiction to die of natural causes. To kill it, we must nourish the alternatives. And that will not be easy. 5 The Future of Work: Designing Human Nature A scorpion wants to cross the river, but it can’t swim. It goes up to a frog, who can swim, and asks for a ride. The frog says, “If I give you a ride on my back you’ll go and sting me.” The scorpion replies, “It would not be in my interest to sting you, since, as I’ll be on your back, we both would drown.” The frog thinks about this logic for a while and accepts the deal.


pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

(London: Penguin, 2012); Andrew McGettigan, The Great University Gamble: Money, Markets and the Future of Higher Education (London: Pluto Press, 2013). 128.Standing, Precariat, p. 45. 129.Notably, even Paul Krugman and Lawrence Summers are doubtful that skills training will be able to solve the upcoming problems. Paul Krugman, ‘Sympathy for the Luddites’, New York Times, 13 June 2013; Lawrence Summers, ‘Roundtable: The Future of Jobs’, presented at The Future of Work in the Age of the Machine, Hamilton Project, Washington, DC, 19 February 2015, at hamiltonproject.org. 130.Glyn, Capitalism Unleashed, pp. 27–31. 131.Harvey, Companion to Marx’s Capital, Volume 1, pp. 284–5. 132.PMI surveys suggest the annual growth rate has been 2 per cent, which is far below what has been standard for global GDP growth. (Chris Williamson, ‘January’s PMI Surveys Signal First Global Growth Upturn for Six Months’, Markit, 4 February 2015, at markit.com.)

., p. 42. 38.In an unexpected revival of an old Marxist theory, two recent models have suggested that automation will lead to the immiseration of workers: Jeffrey Sachs, Seth Benzell and Guillermo LaGarda, Robots: Curse or Blessing? A Basic Framework, Working Paper, National Bureau of Economic Research, April 2015, at nber.org; Seth Benzell, Laurence Kotlikoff, Guillermo LaGarda and Jeffrey Sachs, Robots Are Us: Some Economics of Human Replacement, Working Paper, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2015, at nber.org. 39.Lawrence Summers, ‘Roundtable: The Future of Jobs’, presented at The Future of Work in the Age of the Machine, Hamilton Project, Washington, DC, 19 February 2015, at hamiltonproject.org. The ILO also argues that today’s sluggish global job growth is related largely to sluggish economic growth, but they also note that productivity growth has recovered quicker than employment growth. ILO, World Employment and Social Outlook: The Changing Nature of Jobs (Geneva: International Labour Organization, 2015), pp. 19, 23. 40.Bank of International Settlements, Annual Report, 2013/2014 (Basel: Bank for International Settlements, 2014), at bis.org, pp. 58–60; Robert Gordon, ‘US Productivity Growth: The Slowdown Has Returned After a Temporary Revival’, International Productivity Monitor 25 (2013); David Autor, ‘Roundtable: The Future of Jobs’, presented at the The Future of Work in the Age of the Machine, Hamilton Project, Washington, DC, 19 February 2015, at hamiltonproject.org. 41.Susantu Basu and John Fernald, Information and Communications Technology as a General-Purpose Technology: Evidence from U.S.

ILO, World Employment and Social Outlook: The Changing Nature of Jobs (Geneva: International Labour Organization, 2015), pp. 19, 23. 40.Bank of International Settlements, Annual Report, 2013/2014 (Basel: Bank for International Settlements, 2014), at bis.org, pp. 58–60; Robert Gordon, ‘US Productivity Growth: The Slowdown Has Returned After a Temporary Revival’, International Productivity Monitor 25 (2013); David Autor, ‘Roundtable: The Future of Jobs’, presented at the The Future of Work in the Age of the Machine, Hamilton Project, Washington, DC, 19 February 2015, at hamiltonproject.org. 41.Susantu Basu and John Fernald, Information and Communications Technology as a General-Purpose Technology: Evidence from U.S. Industry Data (San Francisco: Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Working Paper, 2006), p. 17, pdf available at frbsf.org. 42.However, emerging research suggests industrial robots have already contributed around 16 per cent of recent labour productivity growth.


pages: 323 words: 90,868

The Wealth of Humans: Work, Power, and Status in the Twenty-First Century by Ryan Avent

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3D printing, Airbnb, American energy revolution, autonomous vehicles, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Lyft, manufacturing employment, means of production, new economy, performance metric, pets.com, price mechanism, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, very high income, working-age population

A man must always live by his work, and his wages must at least be sufficient to maintain him. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations1 Don’t mourn for me, friends, don’t weep for me never, For I’m going to do nothing for ever and ever. Epitaph for a charwoman, traditional, quoted in ‘Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren’, John Maynard Keynes, 19302 Introduction In January of 2014, The Economist, my employer, published a piece I had written on the future of work in an age of rapid automation. A sample: Ten years ago technologically minded economists pointed to driving cars in traffic as the sort of human accomplishment that computers were highly unlikely to master. Now Google cars are rolling round California driver-free no one doubts such mastery is possible … A taxi driver will be a rarity in many places by the 2030s or 2040s … bad news for journalists who rely on that most reliable source of local knowledge and prejudice.1 Not long after, a minor earthquake rattled the city of Los Angeles early in the morning.

America was the world’s richest nation at the time (having surpassed Britain in income per person, adjusted for inflation, in the first decade of the twentieth century) yet much of the country still lacked electricity and running water, and many earned incomes not much different from those of workers in Medieval Europe.18 I’m not sure my great-grandfather would have believed that, just eighty years later, his grandson and great-grandson would enjoy a standard of living that would have been the envy of ancient kings – and which was perfectly common among middle-class Americans of the late twentieth century – relaxing on a couch in front of a large colour television in an air-conditioned home with two cars in the garage, a full pantry, and a refrigerator stocked with cold drinks. Never before in history have so many people been so well off as at this moment in time. But the next shoe is about to drop. Before we make it to point C – a world in which the benefits of the digital revolution are shared broadly and peacefully – we can expect difficulties. They have already begun. The subject of the future of work in a digital economy has been well covered – in serious magazines, including but by no means limited to my employer, The Economist, and in a growing number of important books. Worries and speculation have grown more intense and more common since 2011, when Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee published Race Against the Machine,19 which laid out in compelling detail how quickly the capabilities of clever software and robots were improving.

Mandel might be right, but that vision of future work relies on a very specific version of biomedical advance; innovations that grow the organ on the inside of the body or repair existing organs non-surgically might, alternatively, dramatically reduce the need for medical care.6 Indeed, while fields such as education and healthcare have long been held out as the great hope for future employment growth, that hope is built on an assumption that productivity in those industries will remain low. But it might not; the future of work in education and healthcare hinges on how society opts to resolve the trilemma. COST DISEASE, AND THE DOWNSIDE TO JOB CREATION William Baumol is an American economist. His career has been a long and productive one: he finished his PhD in 1949 and published his most recent book in 2012. Yet among his most significant contributions to the world is the story behind stagnant productivity growth across large swathes of modern economies.


pages: 413 words: 119,587

Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots by John Markoff

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight

Green, and Ben Sand, “The Great Reversal in the Demand for Skill and Cognitive Tasks,” NBER Working Paper No. 18901, National Bureau of Economic Research, March 2013, http://www.economics.ubc.ca/files/2013/05/pdf_paper_paul-beaudry-great-reversal.pdf. 26.Ibid. 27.James Manyika, Susan Lund, Byron Auguste, and Sreenivas Ramaswamy, “Help Wanted: The Future of Work in Advanced Economies,” McKinsey Global Institute, March 2012, http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/employment_and_growth/future_of_work_in_advanced_economies. 28.Robin Harding, “US Has Lost 2M Clerical Jobs since 2007,” Financial Times, April 1, 2013, http://www.ft.com/intl/cm/s/0/37666e6c-9ae5-11e2-b982-00144feabdc0.html#axzz3V2czZqsP. 29.Melody Johnson, “Right-Wing Media Attack Obama for Accurate Remarks on Business’ [sic] Investment in Automated Machines,” MediaMatters for America, June 15, 2011, http://mediamatters.org/research/2011/06/15/right-wing-media-attack-obama-for-accurate-rema/180602. 30.

In the future, how these systems are designed will foretell either a great renaissance or possibly something darker—a world in which human skills are passed on wholesale to machines. McCarthy’s and Engelbart’s work defined a new era in which digital computers would transform economies and societies as profoundly as did the industrial revolution. Recent experiments that guaranteed a “basic income” in the poorest part of the world may also offer a profound insight into the future of work in the face of encroaching, brilliant machines. The results of these experiments were striking because they ran counter to the popular idea that economic security undercuts the will to work. An experiment in an impoverished village in India in 2013 guaranteeing basic needs had just the opposite effect. The poor did not rest easy on their government subsidies; instead, they became more responsible and productive.

Indeed, in the decade from 2003 to 2013, the size of the U.S. workforce increased by more than 5 percent, from 131.4 million to 138.3 million—although, to be sure, this was a period during which the population grew by more than 9 percent. If not complete collapse, the slowing growth rate suggested a more turbulent and complex reality. One possibility is that rather than a pure deskilling, the changes observed may represent a broader “skill mismatch,” an interpretation that is more consistent with Keynesean expectations. For example, a recent McKinsey report on the future of work showed that between 2001 and 2009, jobs related to transactions and production both declined, but more than 4.8 million white-collar jobs were created relating to interactions and problem-solving.27 What is clear is that both blue-collar and white-collar jobs involving routinized tasks are at risk. The Financial Times reported in 2013 that between 2007 and 2012 the U.S. workforce gained 387,000 managers while losing almost two million clerical jobs.28 This is an artifact of what is popularly described as the Web 2.0 era of the Internet.


pages: 372 words: 152

The End of Work by Jeremy Rifkin

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banking crisis, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, cashless society, collective bargaining, computer age, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, general-purpose programming language, George Gilder, global village, hiring and firing, informal economy, interchangeable parts, invention of the telegraph, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, strikebreaker, technoutopianism, Thorstein Veblen, Toyota Production System, trade route, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

Bureau of Labor Statistics, Current Population Survey, 1993. 30. '1\pocalypse-But Not Just Now," Financial Times, January 4,1993, p. D1. 31. Drucker, p. 68. 296 Notes 32. "Life on the Leisure Track," Newsweek, June 14, 1993, p. 48. 33. "From Coast to Coast, from Affluent to Poor, Poll Shows Anxiety Over Jobs," New York Times, March 11, 1994, p. AI. CHAPTER 2 1. Bell, John Fred, A History of Economic Thought, (New York: Ronald Press Co., 1985), pp. 285-286. 2. Jones, Barry, Sleepers Wake! Technology and the Future of Work (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982), p. 2$ Standing, Guy, "The Notion of Technological Unemployment," International Labour Review, March/April1984, p. 131, 3. McLellan, David, tr., Marxs Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Okonomie (New York: Harpers, 1977) pp. 162-163. 4. Clark, John Bates, Essentials of Economic Theory (London, 1907) p. 452. 5. Leiserson, William M., "The Problem of Unemployment Today," Political Science Quarterly 31, March 1916, p. 12. 6.

Masuda, Yoneji, The Information Society as Post-Industrial Society (Bethesda, MD: World Future Society, 1981), p. 49. 20. Kurzweil, p. 186. 21. Ceruzzi, Paul, ''An Unforeseen Revolution: Computers and Expectations, 1935-1985," in Corn, Joseph J., Imagining Tomorrow: History, Technology, and the American Future (Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1986), P·19 0 . 22. Ibid., PP.190-191. 23. Jones, Barry, Sleepers, Wake: Technology and the Future of Work (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), pp. 104-105' 24. "The First Automation," American Machinist, December 1990, p. 6; Noble, p.67· 25. ''Automatic Factory," Fortune, November 1946, p. 160. 26. "Machines Without Men," Fortune, November 1946, p. 204. 302 Notes 27. Noble, p. 25· 28. Business Week, January 1946, cited in "The End of Corporate Liberalism: Class Struggle in the Electrical Manufacturing Industry 1933-50," Radical America, July- August 1975. 29· Noble, p. 249. 30.

Masuda, Yoneji, The Information Society as Post-Industrial Society (Washington, D.G: World Future Society, 1981), p. 74. 4. Society for the Reduction of Human Labor Newsletter, Hunnicutt, Benjamin Kline, and McGaughey, William, eds., Winter 1992-1993, vol. 3 #1, P.14. 5. Schor, Juliet, The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure (New York: Basic Books, 1991) pp. 1, 2, 5, 29, 32. 6. Jones, Barry, Sleepers Wake! Technology and the Future of Work (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), ch. 9. 7. Interview, March 18, 1994. Former Senator Eugene McCarthy argues that in the emerging high-tech era, the need to redistribute work becomes the essential battle cry of the forces fighting for economic justice. "What you have to look to," says McCarthy, "is a redistribution of work, through which you establish a claim to what is being produced." 8.


pages: 366 words: 94,209

Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity by Douglas Rushkoff

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3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business process, buy low sell high, California gold rush, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, centralized clearinghouse, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate personhood, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, diversified portfolio, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global village, Google bus, Howard Rheingold, IBM and the Holocaust, impulse control, income inequality, index fund, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, medical bankruptcy, minimum viable product, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, passive investing, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, post-industrial society, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software patent, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, trade route, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, unpaid internship, Y Combinator, young professional, Zipcar

* Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams’s widely read book Wikinomics points to Wikipedia as a new model for mass collaboration and value creation online. They go on to credit Amazon Mechanical Turk with creating valuable new opportunities for the next generation of digital workers. * I have been participating in the Open Society’s “Future of Work” initiative, and the labor theorists, union leaders, and futurists in attendance—arguably the world’s experts on the future of work—can’t even agree on the parameters for defining a “job” from this point forward. * The places in the world where subsistence agriculture is no longer possible are themselves largely the victims of colonialism, global market inequities, or Western-owned factory pollution. By most responsibly derived accounts, we have more than enough bounty for the entire globe

., 229 Circuit City, 90 Citizens United case, 72 Claritas, 32 click workers, 50 climate change, 135, 227–28, 237 coin of the realm, 128–29 collaboration as corporate strategy, 106–7 colonialism, 71–72 commons, 215–23 co-owned networks and, 220–23 history of, 215–16 projects inspired by, 217–18 successful, elements of, 216–17 tragedy of, 215–16 worker-owned collectives and, 219–20 competencies, of corporations, 79–80 Connect+Develop, 107 Consumer Electronics Show, 19 Consumer Reports,33 contracting with small and medium-sized enterprises, 112 cooperative currencies, 160–65 favor banks, 161 LETS (Local Exchange Trading System), 163–65 time dollar systems, 161–63 co-owned networks, 220–23 corporations, 68–82 acquisition of startups, growth through, 78 amplifying effect of, 70, 73 Big Shift and, 76 cash holdings of, 76, 77–78 competency of, 79–80 cost reduction, growth through, 79–80 decentralized autonomous corporations (DACs), 149–50 Deloitte’s study of return on assets (ROA) of, 76–77 distributive alternative to platform monopolies, 93–97 evaluation of, 69–74 extractive nature of, 71–72, 73, 74, 75, 80–82 growth targets, meeting, 68–69 income inequality and, 81–82 limits to corporate model, 75–76, 80–82 managerial and financial methods to deliver growth by, 77–79 monopolies (See monopolies) obsolescence created by, 70–71, 73 offshoring and, 78–79 personhood of, 72, 73–74, 90, 91 recoding of, 93–97, 125–26 repatriation and, 80 retrieval of values of empire and, 71–72, 73 as steady-state enterprises, 97–123 Costco, 74 cost reduction, and corporate growth, 79–80 Couchsurfing.com, 46 crashes of 1929, 99 of 2007, 133–34 biotech crash, of 1987, 6 flash crash, 180 Creative Commons, 215 creative destruction, 83–87 credit, 132–33 credit-card companies, 143–44 crowdfunding, 38–39, 198–201 crowdsharing apps, 45–49 crowdsourcing platforms, 49–50 Crusades, 16 Cumbrian Pounds, 156 Curitiba, Brazil modified LETS program, 164–65 Daly, Herman, 184 data big, 39–44 getting paid for our own, 44–45 “likes” economy and, 32, 34–36 in pre-digital era, 40 Datalogix, 32 da Vinci, Leonardo, 236 debt, 152–54 decentralized autonomous corporations (DACs), 149–50 deflation, 169 Dell, 115–16 Dell, Michael, 115–16 Deloitte Center for the Edge, 76–77 destructive destruction, 100 Detroit Dollars, 156 digital distributism, 224–39 artisanal era mechanisms and values retrieved by, 233–34 developing distributive businesses, 237–38 digital industrialism compared, 226 digital technology and, 230–31 historical ideals of distributism, 228–30 leftism, distinguished, 231 Pope Francis’s encyclical espousing distributed approach to land, labor and capital, 227–28 Renaissance era values, rebirth of, 235–37 subsidiarity and, 231–32 sustainable prosperity as goal of, 226–27 digital economy, 7–11 big data and, 39–44 destabilizing form of digitally accelerated capitalism, creation of, 9–10 digital marketplace, development of, 24–30 digital transaction networks and, 140–51 disproportionate relationship between capital and value in, 9 distributism and, 224–39 externalizing cost of replacing employees in, 14–15 industrialism and, 13–16, 23–24, 44, 53–54, 93, 101–2, 201, 214, 226 industrial society, distinguished, 11 “likes” and similar metrics, economy of, 30–39 platform monopolies and, 82–93, 101 digital industrialism, 13–16, 23–24, 101–2, 201 digital distributism compared, 226 diminishing returns of, 93 externalizing costs and, 14–15 growth agenda and, 14–15, 23–24 human data as commodity under, 44 income disparity and, 53–54 labor and land pushed to unbound extremes by, 214 “likes” economy and, 33 reducing bottom line as means of creating illusion of growth and, 14 digital marketplace, 24–30 early stages of e-commerce, 25–26 highly centralized sales platforms of, 29 initial treatment of Internet as commons, 25 “long tail” of widespread digital access and, 26 positive reinforcement feedback loop and, 28 power-law dynamics and, 26–29 removal of humans from selection process in, 28 digital transaction networks, 140–51 Bitcoin, 143–49, 150–51, 152 blockchains and, 144–51 central authorities, dependence on, 142 decentralized autonomous corporations (DACs) and, 149–50 PayPal, 140–41 theft and, 142 direct public offerings (DPOs), 205–6 discount brokerages, 176–78 diversification, 208, 211 dividends, 113–14, 208–10 dividend traps, 113 Dorsey, Jack, 191–92 Draw Something, 192, 193 Drexler, Mickey, 116 dual transformation, 108–9 dumbwaiter effect, 19 Dutch East India Company, 71, 89, 131 eBay, 16, 26, 29, 45, 140 education industry, 95–97 Eisenhower administration, 52–53, 63, 75 Elberse, Anita, 28 employee-owned companies, 116–18 Enron, 133, 171n Eroski, 220 eSignal, 178 EthicalBay, 221 E*Trade, 176, 177 Etsy, 16, 26, 30 expense reduction, and corporate growth, 78–79 Facebook, 4, 31, 83, 93, 96, 201 data gathering and sales by, 41, 44 innovation by acquisition of startups, 78 IPO of, 192–93, 195 psychological experiments conducted on users by, 32–33 factors of production, 212–14 Fairmondo, 221 Family Assistance Plan, 63 family businesses, 103–4, 231–32 FarmVille, 192 favor banks, 161 Febreze Set & Refresh, 108 Federal Reserve, 137–38 feedback loop, and positive reinforcement, 28 Ferriss, Tim, 201 feudalism, 17 financial services industry, 131–33, 171–73, 175 Fisher, Irving, 158 flash crash, 180 flexible purpose corporations, 119–20 flow, investing in, 208–10 Forbes,88, 173, 174 40-hour workweek, reduction of, 58–60 401(k) plans, 171–74 Francis, Pope, 227, 228, 234 Free, Libre, Open Knowledge (FLOK) program, 217–18 Free (Anderson), 33 free money theory, local currencies based on, 156–59 barter exchanges, 159 during Great Depression, 158–59 self-help cooperatives, 159 stamp scrip, 158–59 tax anticipation scrip, 159 Wörgls, 157–58 frenzy, 98–99 Fried, Jason, 59 Friedman, Milton, 64 Friendster, 31 Frito-Lay, 80 front running, 180–81 Fulfillment by Amazon, 89 Fureai Kippu (Caring Relationship Tickets), 162 Future of Work initiative, 56n Gallo, Riso, 103–4 Gap, 116 Gates, Bill, 186 General Electric, 132 General Public License (GPL) for software, 216 Gesell, Silvio, 157 GI Bill, 99 Gimein, Mark, 147 Gini coefficient of income inequality, 81–82, 92 global warming, 135, 227–28, 237 GM, 80 Goldman Sachs, 133, 195 gold standard, 139 Google, 8, 48, 78, 83, 90–91, 93, 141, 218 acquisitions by, 191 business model of, 37 data sales by, 37, 44 innovation by acquisition of startups, 78 IPO of, 194–95 protests against, 1–3, 5, 98–99 grain receipts, 128 great decoupling, 53 Great Depression, 137, 158–59 Great Exhibition, 1851, 19 Greenspan, Alan, 132–33 growth, 1–11 bazaars, and economic expansion in late Middle Ages, 16–18 central currency and, 126, 129–31, 133–36 digital industrialism, growth agenda of, 14–15, 23–24 highly centralized e-commerce platforms and, 29 startups, hypergrowth expected of, 187–91 as trap (See growth trap) growth trap, 4–5, 68–123 central currency as core mechanism of, 133–34 corporations as program and, 68–82 platform monopolies and, 82–93, 101 recoding corporate model and, 93–97 steady-state enterprises and, 98–123 guaranteed minimum income programs, 62–65 guaranteed minimum wage public jobs, 65–66 guilds, 17 Hagel, John, 76–77 Hardin, Garrett, 215–16 Harvard Business Review,108–9 Heiferman, Scott, 196–97 Henry VIII, King, 215, 229 Hewlett-Packard UK, 112 high-frequency trading (HFT), 179–80 Hilton, 115 Hobby Lobby case, 72 Hoffman, Reid, 61 Holland, Addie Rose, 205–6 holograms, 235 Homeport New Orleans, 121 housing industry, 135 Huffington, Arianna, 34, 35, 201 Huffington Post, 34, 201 human role in economy, 13–67 aristocracy’s efforts to control peasant economy, 17–18 bazaars and, 16–18 big data and, 39–44 chartered monopolies and, 18 decreasing employment and, 30–39 digital marketplace, impact of, 24–30 industrialism and, 13–16, 18–24, 44 “likes” economy and, 30–39 reevaluation of employment and adopting policies to decrease it and, 54–67 sharing economy and, 44–54 Hurwitz, Charles, 117 IBM, 90–91, 112 inclusive capitalism, 111–12 income disparity corporate model and, 81–82 digital technology as accelerating, 53–54 Gini coefficient of, 81–82, 92 growth trap and, 4 power-law dynamics and, 27–28, 30 public service options for reducing, 65–66 IndieGogo, 30, 199 individual retirement accounts (IRAs), 171 industrial farming, 134–35 industrialism, 18–24 branding and, 20 digital, 13–16, 23–24, 44, 53–54, 93, 101–2, 201, 214, 226 disempowerment of workers and, 18–19 human connection between producer and consumer, loss of, 19–20 isolation of human consumers from one another and, 20–21 mass marketing and, 19–20 mass media and, 20–21 purpose of, 18–19, 22 value system of, 18–19 inflation, 169 Instagram, 31 Intercontinental Exchange, 182 interest, 129–31 investors/investing, 70, 72, 168–223 algorithmic trading and, 179–84 bounded, 210–15 commons model for running businesses and, 215–23 crowdfunding and, 198–201 derivative finance, volume of, 182 digital technology and, 169–70, 175–84 direct public offerings (DPOs) and, 205–6 discount brokerages and, 176–78 diversification and, 208, 211 dividends and, 208–10 flow, investing in, 208–10 high-frequency trading (HFT) and, 179–80 in low-interest rate environment, 169–70 microfinancing platforms and, 202–4 platform cooperatives and, 220–23 poor performance of do-it-yourself traders and, 177–78 retirement savings and, 170–75 startups and, 184–205 ventureless capital and, 196–205 irruption, 98 i-traffic, 196 iTunes, 27, 29, 34, 89 J.


pages: 168 words: 50,647

The End of Jobs: Money, Meaning and Freedom Without the 9-To-5 by Taylor Pearson

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Airbnb, barriers to entry, Black Swan, call centre, cloud computing, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Google Hangouts, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, means of production, Oculus Rift, passive income, passive investing, Peter Thiel, remote working, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, software is eating the world, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, Thomas Malthus, Uber and Lyft, unpaid internship, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog

These significant trends are also all accelerating. At some point, the two will intersect. The scarce resource—entrepreneurship—can be invested in more easily than ever. You are now sitting at a nexus where your cost basis is very low, but your profits are very high if you’re an entrepreneur. Let’s look more closely at what those profits look like. Section 5: Entrepreneurship Is More Profitable than Ever The Future of Work “I don’t think of work as work or play as play. It’s all just living.” Richard Branson A Brief History of Work and Jobs If we look at modern day pre-neolithic, hunter/gatherer groups, they don’t “have jobs” or “do work” in the sense we think about them today. They did what they have to do to survive and different members have different roles. These roles aren’t seen as a disutility, something to actively be avoided that should be balanced by utilities, or things we want to do.

What that act is for each individual is different. The opportunity for our generation is that the tools to do the deed, to generate the work, to go out into the world and create, have never been more accessible, safer. For the first time in human history, the pursuit of money, meaning, and freedom through entrepreneurship are more profitable and synergistic than ever before. Conclusion The Future of Work Many people I talked to in the process of writing this asked me, do you really think that’s happening? You really think that we’re moving into this amazing period of freedom and wealth as entrepreneurs? The short answer: maybe. I don’t believe this is a future that will create itself. The opportunity is real. I’ve seen and talked with hundreds people that have grabbed it. But, it’s one of many possible futures.


pages: 219 words: 63,495

50 Future Ideas You Really Need to Know by Richard Watson

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23andMe, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, digital Maoism, Elon Musk, energy security, failed state, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, germ theory of disease, happiness index / gross national happiness, hive mind, hydrogen economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, life extension, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peak oil, personalized medicine, phenotype, precision agriculture, profit maximization, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Florida, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, smart transportation, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, supervolcano, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Turing test, urban decay, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, women in the workforce, working-age population, young professional

Txteagle sends small jobs to anyone with access to a cell phone. The jobs are tiny—little bits of translation, a quick market research survey, or a handful of images to be tagged—each of which pays just a few cents each. To some extent, Jana is simply a tale of a savvy entrepreneur and the way companies are chopping up big tasks into small bits, aided by technology. But it’s also a story about the future of work, especially the way in which independent or freelance workers are taking over from salaried employees. According to the US Government Accountability Office, such jobs—“contingent workers” in jargon-speak—already make up a third of the US workforce. This trend is starting to make some people rethink what a job actually is or could be in the future. Of course, a job is more than just a series of tasks.

So if employers break up each position into a series of projects or tasks, they run the risk of threatening both. Jobs also provide legal security, healthcare, pensions and other benefits. Or at least they used to. “The best way to appreciate your job is to imagine yourself without one.” Oscar Wilde, writer and poet But beyond considering why people need work it’s worth pausing to consider what else will affect the future of work and how the nature of jobs themselves will change. The list of factors impacting on work is a long one, and includes: globalization, automation, digitalization, artificial intelligence, workforce aging, skilled labor shortages, job mobility, open collaboration, outsourcing, transparency, business ethics, educational practices, regulatory changes, fluid networks, resource shortages, climate change, shifts in organizational structures and the impact of more women in the workforce.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

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1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

Amazon also purchased Kiva Systems, a leading manufacturer of warehouse automation systems. See Scott Kirsner, “Amazon Buys Warehouse Robotics Start-Up Kiva Systems for $775 Million,” Boston.com, March 19, 2012, http://www.boston.com/business/technology/innoeco/2012/03/amazon_buys_warehouse_robotics.html. 65.  Stowe Boyd, “If Amazon Is the Future of Work, Then Be Afraid,” Gigaom Research, February 22, 2013, http://research.gigaom.com/2013/02/if-amazon-is-the-future-of-work/. 66.  This dynamic is the central problem drawn out in Jaron Lanier in Who Owns the Future? (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2013), and it leads him to advocate for, among other things, a revaluation of how tacit human knowledge might be rewarded by ubiquitous micropayments. See also Jaron Lanier and Douglas Rushkoff, “The Local-Global Flip, or, ‘The Lanier Effect,’” Edge, August 29, 2011, http://edge.org/conversation/the-local-global-flip. 67. 

By all accounts, Amazon space is already built on the nimble precision of a logistical engineering of human workers’ movements with a repetitious efficiency probably better suited to robots. In describing the stress and precariousness of work in Amazon fulfillment centers, GigaOM, a Bay Area technology blog, went so far as to characterize employment at Amazon as a “dystopian model of neofeudalism.”65 As Amazon absorbs, centralizes, and consolidates production labor into tighter strata of proprietary commerce-logistics algorithms, the future of work is made that much more uncertain, and along with it the buying power of the workers who would also be their customer-Users.66 Perhaps the boldest (not necessarily best) design statement made by a Cloud platform is Campus 2 in Cupertino, as proposed by Apple and Sir Foster during Steve Jobs's last years (though when Jobs pitched the plans to the Cupertino City Council, he neglected to mention with whom exactly his vision sought collaboration; Foster was not named).

By all accounts, Amazon space is already built on the precision of an object flow that engineers the movements of human workers with a repetitious efficiency probably better suited to robots. In describing the stress and precariousness of work in Amazon fulfillment centers it may be that less human labor is more humane, but as Amazon (and really all the major Cloud platforms) absorbs, centralizes, and consolidates production labor into tighter strata of proprietary commerce-logistics algorithms, the future of work is made that much more uncertain, and along with it, the real economic power of their workers to also be their customer-Users. 20.  For example, Ian Berry, “Monsanto to Buy Planting Technology Company,” Wall Street Journal, May 23, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702304707604577422162132896528. 21.  Sleep Dealer, directed by Alex Rivera (Vaya Entertainment, 2008). 22.  From a private Facebook post by Christopher Head. 23. 


pages: 209 words: 80,086

The Global Auction: The Broken Promises of Education, Jobs, and Incomes by Phillip Brown, Hugh Lauder, David Ashton

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affirmative action, barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, collective bargaining, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, glass ceiling, global supply chain, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial robot, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market design, neoliberal agenda, new economy, pensions crisis, post-industrial society, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor

—Jay Tate1 Standardization in terms of IT has become huge . . . not only standards for a single customer but across countries . . . technology is the ultimate equalizer . . . it will drive globalization, drive change . . . I hope that people don’t get reduced to the state of drones . . . but I think increasingly employment will shrink. —Chief Information Officer, Financial Services T he opportunity bargain rests on an upbeat view of the future of work where a growing number of Americans will do clever and complex things to earn a living in the global economy. Much of the business literature has focused on how companies should develop their human capital to create innovative ideas, products, and services to take American companies forward. Peter Drucker, a highly respected management guru, argued that the source of productivity in a knowledge-driven economy was different from an earlier age of mass production.

We need people who enjoy solving problems . . . so now when we recruit, we look for that high-end empathy and look for that desire to solve problems, that desire to complete things in our profiles . . . we can’t teach people to be more flexible, to be more empathetic . . . but we can teach them the basics of banking. We’ve got core products, core processes; we can teach that quite easily. So we are recruiting against more of the behavioral stuff and teaching the skills stuff, the hard knowledge that you need for the role. Whatever the merits of her argument about the future of portfolio careers, it is diametrically opposed to how pundits of the knowledge economy have portrayed the future of work, within loosely defined occupational roles and high levels of employee discretion. In the modular corporation, there is a different kind of flexibility that requires clearly defined roles that are simplified and codified to enable plugand-play even for highly qualified employees. This is what is at the heart of digital Taylorism—the digital documentation of business process and job descriptions, linked to electronic databases of individual competence profiles, based on human capital metrics.


pages: 261 words: 78,884

$2.00 A Day: Living on Almost Nothing in America by Kathryn Edin, H. Luke Shaefer

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, clean water, ending welfare as we know it, future of work, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, impulse control, indoor plumbing, informal economy, low-wage service sector, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

. [>] retirement plans: Schmitt, “Low-Wage Lessons.” [>] projected to grow, not shrink: “Industry Employment and Output Projections to 2022,” Monthly Labor Review, December 2013, http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2013/article/industry-employment-and-output-projections-to-2022-1.htm. See also Rebecca Thiess, “The Future of Work: Trends and Challenges for Low-Wage Workers” (EPI Briefing Paper No. 341, Economic Policy Institute, Washington, DC, April 27, 2012), http://s2.epi.org/files/2012/bp341-future-of-work.pdf. [>] set workers up for failure: Susan J. Lambert, Anna Haley-Lock, and Julia R. Henly, “Schedule Flexibility in Hourly Jobs: Unanticipated Consequences and Promising Directions,” Community, Work & Family 15, no. 3 (2012): 293–315; Arne L. Kalleberg, “Precarious Work, Insecure Workers: Employment Relations in Transition,” 2008 presidential address, American Sociological Review 74 (February 2008): 1–22; Susan J.


pages: 318 words: 77,223

The Only Game in Town: Central Banks, Instability, and Avoiding the Next Collapse by Mohamed A. El-Erian

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Airbnb, balance sheet recession, bank run, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, currency peg, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, financial repression, Flash crash, forward guidance, friendly fire, full employment, future of work, Hyman Minsky, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, income inequality, inflation targeting, Jeff Bezos, Kenneth Rogoff, Khan Academy, liquidity trap, Martin Wolf, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, mortgage debt, oil shale / tar sands, price stability, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, yield curve

It is a revolution that combines two critical elements: empowering individuals to an extent that was deemed unlikely, if not unthinkable, not so long ago; and deploying big data, artificial intelligence, and what Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee have dubbed “the second machine age.”3 Many observers and researchers have referred to these revolutionary and transformational forces as among the most powerful in history. In a March 2015 conference on the Future of Work, organized by WorldPost, a joint venture between Nicolas Berggruen’s Institute and Arianna Huffington’s Huffington Post, Andrew McAfee added that it is “the only free lunch that economists can agree on.” (He also noted that there are no economic laws that guarantee that the benefits will be shared equally or fairly.) While opinions differ, most agree on one thing: We are still at the early stages of truly historical transformations.

Powered by an economic liftoff as politicians are finally tipped into pursuing their policy-making responsibilities (the “Sputnik moment”), and amid stronger multilateral policy coordination, this second road out of the T junction leads to unambiguously better outcomes. The improved enabling environment allows for the productive engagement of lots of sidelined cash. With remarkable innovations accelerating and amplifying the beneficial effects—to quote Andrew McAfee at the March 2015 conference on the Future of Work, hosted in London by WorldPost, “we haven’t seen anything yet…[as these are] the best economic developments in human history”—the emergence of high inclusive growth would be underpinned by genuine financial stability, including the ability to grow out of excessive indebtedness. As hard as we try, it is challenging to predict precisely either when we will get to the neck of the T, or which road we’ll take.


pages: 94 words: 26,453

The End of Nice: How to Be Human in a World Run by Robots (Kindle Single) by Richard Newton

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3D printing, Black Swan, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Clayton Christensen, crowdsourcing, deliberate practice, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google Glasses, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, Paul Erdős, Paul Graham, recommendation engine, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Y Combinator

All those occupations that rested on repetitive, rule-bound, machine-like efficiency are the ones that will be imminently automated out of existence. This is true for blue collar and white collar work; for high skill and low skill. If it can be reduced to computer code then software will eat the job. The period during which society reshapes from one dedicated to machine-like efficiency to one based on individual creativity will be bumpy. The economists Maarten Goos and Alan Manning forecast that the future of work is bifurcating into “lovely jobs and lousy jobs”. The lovely jobs will go to those who offer something that machines cannot. That something is their individuality. This will no longer be mere lip-service. What you personally bring will matter. This will be scary and exciting because the world will call on you to create, develop, expose and share your own ideas and thus be authentically yourself.


pages: 396 words: 117,149

The Master Algorithm: How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake Our World by Pedro Domingos

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3D printing, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Arthur Eddington, Benoit Mandelbrot, bioinformatics, Black Swan, Brownian motion, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, constrained optimization, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, future of work, global village, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, information retrieval, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, mandelbrot fractal, Mark Zuckerberg, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, NP-complete, P = NP, PageRank, pattern recognition, phenotype, planetary scale, pre–internet, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, theory of mind, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight

It doesn’t take much to avoid these fiascoes. In fact, all it takes is to read this book. If you’re a citizen or policy maker concerned with the social and political issues raised by big data and machine learning, this book will give you a primer on the technology—what it is, where it’s taking us, what it does and doesn’t make possible—without boring you with all the ins and outs. From privacy to the future of work and the ethics of roboticized warfare, we’ll see where the real issues are and how to think about them. If you’re a scientist or engineer, machine learning is a powerful armory that you don’t want to be without. The old, tried-and-true statistical tools don’t get you far in the age of big (or even medium) data. You need machine learning’s nonlinear chops to accurately model most phenomena, and it brings with it a new scientific worldview.

Whether you read this book out of curiosity or professional interest, I hope you will share what you’ve learned with your friends and colleagues. Machine learning touches the lives of every one of us, and it’s up to all of us to decide what we want to do with it. Armed with your new understanding of machine learning, you’re in a much better position to think about issues like privacy and data sharing, the future of work, robot warfare, and the promise and peril of AI; and the more of us have this understanding, the more likely we’ll avoid the pitfalls and find the right paths. That’s the other big reason I wrote this book. The statistician knows that prediction is hard, especially about the future, and the computer scientist knows that the best way to predict the future is to invent it, but the unexamined future is not worth inventing.

Total Recall, by Gordon Moore and Jim Gemmell (Dutton, 2009), explores the implications of digitally recording everything we do. The Naked Future, by Patrick Tucker (Current, 2014), surveys the use and abuse of data for prediction in our world. Craig Mundie argues for a balanced approach to data collection and use in “Privacy pragmatism” (Foreign Affairs, 2014). The Second Machine Age, by Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee (Norton, 2014), discusses how progress in AI will shape the future of work and the economy. “World War R,” by Chris Baraniuk (New Scientist, 2014) reports on the debate surrounding the use of robots in battle. “Transcending complacency on superintelligent machines,” by Stephen Hawking et al. (Huffington Post, 2014), argues that now is the time to worry about AI’s risks. Nick Bostrom’s Superintelligence (Oxford University Press, 2014) considers those dangers and what to do about them.


pages: 515 words: 126,820

Blockchain Revolution: How the Technology Behind Bitcoin Is Changing Money, Business, and the World by Don Tapscott, Alex Tapscott

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Airbnb, altcoin, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, failed state, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Google bus, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, microcredit, mobile money, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, performance metric, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price mechanism, Productivity paradox, quantitative easing, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, renewable energy credits, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, seigniorage, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, smart grid, social graph, social software, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, unorthodox policies, X Prize, Y2K, Zipcar

Edella Schlarger and Elinor Ostrom, “Property-Rights Regimes and Natural Resources: A Conceptual Analysis,” Land Economics 68(3) (August 1992): 249–62; www.jstor.org/stable/3146375. 47. Interview with Haluk Kulin, June 9, 2015. 48. John Paul Titlow, “Fire Your Boss: Holacracy’s Founder on the Flatter Future of Work,” Fast Company, Mansueto Ventures LLC, July 9, 2015; www.fastcompany.com/3048338/the-future-of-work/fire-your-boss-holacracys-founder-on-the-flatter-future-of-work. 49. World Bank, September 2, 2015; www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2015/04/15/massive-drop-in-number-of-unbanked-says-new-report. 50. “Bitcoin Powers New Worldwide Cellphone Top-Up Service,” CoinDesk, February 15, 2015; www.coindesk.com/bitcoin-powers-new-worldwide-cellphone-top-service/, accessed August 26, 2015.


pages: 362 words: 99,063

The Education of Millionaires: It's Not What You Think and It's Not Too Late by Michael Ellsberg

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affirmative action, Black Swan, Burning Man, corporate governance, financial independence, follow your passion, future of work, hiring and firing, job automation, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, Peter Thiel, profit motive, race to the bottom, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Ballmer, telemarketer, Tony Hsieh

They want to work for themselves, creating value for other people on their terms—perhaps on a Wi-Fi-connected laptop from a mobile location. These people, young and old, read books like The Four-Hour Workweek: Escape 9–5, Live Anywhere, and Join the New Rich by Tim Ferriss, Escape from Cubicle Nation: From Corporate Prisoner to Thriving Entrepreneur by Pamela Slim, and Career Renegade: How to Make a Great Living Doing What You Love by Jonathan Fields. Daniel Pink, in Free Agent Nation: The Future of Working for Yourself, his 2001 book prophesying the current tidal wave of microentrepreneurialism, small business, and self-employment, calls them “self-employed knowledge workers, proprietors of home-based businesses . . . freelancers and e-lancers, independent contractors and independent professionals, micropreneurs and infopreneurs, part-time consultants . . . on-call troubleshooters, and full-time soloists.”9 These new kinds of opportunities, open to anyone who wants to pursue them, without any formal, traditional, or academic qualifications necessary to compete, have arisen largely because of technology.

The baby boomers were too different, at a time when that was the wrong strategy. Now the millennials are too conformist, at a time when that’s the wrong strategy. We’re now in a chaotic time, where people need to have skills that are adaptable.” Thiel is pointing out something which I think is incredibly important, and cuts to the heart of my whole intention with this book. If we only know one thing for certain about the future of work, business, and careers, it is this: the future is not going to be anything like we predict. The only thing we can be certain of is uncertainty. I say that, not as some pseudo-spiritual poetic notion, but as a cold, hard, objective fact. Systems theorists have known for decades that the more complex any system gets (whether it’s a physical or biological system, a social network, an organization, or an entire economy), the more unpredictable its behavior gets.


pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

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23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

Each of these robots currently costs $25,000: John Biggs, “Foxconn Allegedly Replacing Human Workers with Robots,” TechCrunch, November 13, 2012, http://techcrunch.com/2012/11/13/foxconn-allegedly-replacing-human-workers-with-robots/; Nicholas Jackson, “Foxconn Will Replace Workers with 1 Million Robots in 3 Years,” Atlantic, July 31, 2011, http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2011/07/foxconn-will-replace-workers-with-1-million-robots-in-3-years/242810/. By the end of 2012: Jackson, “Foxconn Will Replace Workers.” Gou hopes to have the first: Robert Skidelsky, “Rise of the Robots: What Will the Future of Work Look Like?” Guardian, February 19, 2013, http://www.theguardian.com/business/2013/feb/19/rise-of-robots-future-of-work. As he explained in a 2012 New York Times article: John Markoff, “Skilled Work, without the Worker,” New York Times, August 19, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/19/business/new-wave-of-adept-robots-is-changing-global-industry.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0. But wages in China: Keith Bradsher, “Even as Wages Rise, China Exports Grow,” New York Times, January 10, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/10/business/international/chinese-exports-withstand-rising-labor-costs.html?


pages: 118 words: 35,663

Smart Machines: IBM's Watson and the Era of Cognitive Computing (Columbia Business School Publishing) by John E. Kelly Iii

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AI winter, call centre, carbon footprint, crowdsourcing, demand response, discovery of DNA, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, global supply chain, Internet of things, John von Neumann, Mars Rover, natural language processing, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, planetary scale, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, smart grid, smart meter, speech recognition, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

For instance, in 1994 he visited the founding engineers of Mosaic Communications (later to be renamed Netscape) shortly after they set up shop in a tiny office on Castro Street in Mountain View, Calif. That was the dawn of the Internet era. Since then he has written hundreds of stories about innovation. In addition, he has authored books about the rise of the Indian tech industry, mobile computing, and the future of work. With that kind of deep experience, Steve’s a natural partner for me in this project. He interviewed dozens of IBM’s scientists and engineers plus numerous outside experts to flesh out the vision and shape the narrative. The creation of this new era of computing is a monumental endeavor, and, while IBM possesses a vision of the future and a broad portfolio of expertise, no company can take on this sort of challenge alone.


pages: 429 words: 114,726

The Computer Boys Take Over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise by Nathan L. Ensmenger

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barriers to entry, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, deskilling, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Grace Hopper, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, loose coupling, new economy, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, performance metric, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture, Y2K

Andrew Pollack, “Year 2000 Problem Tests Professionalism of Programmers,” New York Times (May 3, 1999): C1; Mark Manion and William M. Evan, “The Y2K Problem: Technological Risk and Professional Responsibility,” ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society 29, no. 4 (1999): 24–29. 16. John Shore, “Why I Never Met a Programmer I Could Trust,” Communications of the ACM 31, no. 4 (1988): 372. 17. Shoshana Zuboff, In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power (New York: Basic Books, 1988). 18. Thomas Gieryn, “Boundary-Work and the Demarcation of Science from Non-Science: Strains and Interests in Professional Ideologies of Scientists,” American Sociological Review 48, no. 4 (1983): 781–795. 19. Ibid. 20. Andrei P. Ershov, “Aesthetics and the Human Factor in Programming,” Communications of the ACM 15, no. 7 (1972): 502. 21. Gieryn, “Boundary work,” 792. 22.

Zabusky, Stacia, and Stephen Barley. Redefining Success: Ethnographic Observations on the Careers of Technicians. In Broken Ladders: Managerial Careers in the New Economy, ed. Paul Osterman, 185–214. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Zaphyr, P. A. “The Science of Hypology” (letter to editor). Communications of the ACM 2 (1) (1959): 4. Zuboff, Shoshana. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books, 1988. Zussman, Robert. Mechanics of the middle class: Work and politics among American engineers. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. Index Abbott, Andrew, 234 ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) academic orientation of, 173–174, 191 Communications of the ACM, 101, 114–115, 173, 182 conflict with DPMA, 177, 182, 189, 196 Education Committee, 118, 173, 234 history of, 170–175 Journal of the ACM, 173 membership statistics, 170–171 Adaptive programming.


pages: 742 words: 137,937

The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional

But to think clearly about the future and sustainability of any given job, we should start by thinking about its constituent tasks and move on from there. As the example with the doctor shows, changes in a person’s job start from an underlying churn and adjustment in the bundle of tasks that make it up. Some tasks are lost (to other people or to machines) and others are gained. This has far-reaching consequences for the future of work, and in sections 7.3 and 7.4 we develop these ideas more fully. There, we use them to provide an answer to pressing questions about ‘technological unemployment’—whether, as machines become increasingly capable, there will be any reasonably-paid work left for people to do. There is a further, practical reason for thinking in this way. If we proceed with a jobs- rather than a task-mindset, we are encouraged to think of professional work in terms of artificial, self-contained compartments.

And so, while there may no longer be jobs for sausage-preparers (those have been lost to machines), there will be more jobs for bun-bakers and hotdog-compilers, because the machines have given rise to an increase in the overall output of hotdogs. If enough of these new jobs are created to balance the loss of jobs in preparing sausages, and if the old sausage-preparers can learn the skills required for these new jobs, we do not need to worry about the future of work at this company. The newly created jobs can absorb those whose jobs were destroyed. We concede that the hotdog story is a simplification of this corner of the food industry.26 But it does demonstrate that technology can be both destructive, by displacing people from their jobs, and creative, in that it can give rise to new jobs. The next step in this story is the important one. So far we have assumed that each job is made up of only one task.


pages: 176 words: 55,819

The Start-Up of You by Reid Hoffman

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Airbnb, Andy Kessler, Black Swan, business intelligence, Cal Newport, Clayton Christensen, David Brooks, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, fear of failure, follow your passion, future of work, game design, Jeff Bezos, job automation, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, out of africa, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, Richard Bolles, risk tolerance, rolodex, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs

We’ll reply to and promote the best questions, comments, or ideas that circulate on Twitter. See you online! Further Reading Below is more information on the books referenced in the earlier chapters, as well as a few additional recommendations on related themes. On our website, we link to each of these books, as well as to numerous other articles, blogs, Twitter feeds, and more. Free Agent Nation: The Future of Working for Yourself By Daniel H. Pink In 2002, Pink made popular the phrase “free agent” to describe the self-employment phenomenon in the United States. At the time, Pink estimated that one-quarter to one-third of American workers worked as independent contractors. He explores their attitudes toward autonomy, informal networks, self-constructed safety nets, and more. The mentality of the self-employed people Pink profiles is relevant to anyone who wants to think more like an entrepreneur.


pages: 238 words: 73,824

Makers by Chris Anderson

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3D printing, Airbnb, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Buckminster Fuller, Build a better mousetrap, business process, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, factory automation, Firefox, future of work, global supply chain, global village, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Menlo Park, Network effects, profit maximization, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, South of Market, San Francisco, spinning jenny, Startup school, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize, Y Combinator

In short, it must be like the best hardware companies and the best software companies. Atoms and bits. Maryam Alavi, vice-dean of Emery University’s Goizueta Business School, argues that the only way firms can continue to have lower transaction costs than the open market is if they become more complex internally in order to respond to the increasingly complex external market. In the Aspen Institute’s “The Future of Work,” she explained that this was due to the “law of requisite variety” in systems theory, and she argued that a system must be as complex as the environment it is working within: “There are parts of the organization that are going to become more hierarchical because of the uncertainties that they deal with or don’t deal with. And there are parts of the organization that will need to be highly dynamic, open, and changing.”36 Thus the new industrial organizational model.


pages: 291 words: 81,703

Average Is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation by Tyler Cowen

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Amazon Mechanical Turk, Black Swan, brain emulation, Brownian motion, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, cosmological constant, crowdsourcing, dark matter, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deliberate practice, Drosophila, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, experimental economics, Flynn Effect, Freestyle chess, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, Isaac Newton, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, Loebner Prize, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, reshoring, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Yogi Berra

The reality of the progress on the ground is based on an integration of capabilities rather than on any one thing that might be described as “artificial intelligence.” What is happening is an increase in the ability of machines to substitute for intelligent human labor, whether we wish to call those machines “AI,” “software,” “smart phones,” “superior hardware and storage,” “better integrated systems,” or any combination of the above. This is the wave that will lift you or that will dump you. The fascination with technology and the future of work has inspired some important writings, including Martin Ford’s classic The Lights in the Tunnel, the more recent and excellent eBook Race Against the Machine by Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, and Ray Kurzweil’s futuristic work on how humans will meld with technology. Debates about mechanization periodically resurface, most prominently in the 1930s and in the 1960s but now once again in our new millennium.


pages: 271 words: 77,448

Humans Are Underrated: What High Achievers Know That Brilliant Machines Never Will by Geoff Colvin

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Ada Lovelace, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Black Swan, call centre, capital asset pricing model, computer age, corporate governance, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, Freestyle chess, future of work, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, job automation, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Narrative Science, new economy, rising living standards, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs

Bruneau and Rebecca Saxe, “The Power of Being Heard: The Benefits of ‘Perspective-Giving’ in the Context of Intergroup Conflict,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology (2012), doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2012.02.017. Ask employers which skills they’ll need most . . . Oxford Economics, Global Talent 2021: How the New Geography of Talent Will Transform Human Resource Strategies, 2012, p. 6. The biggest increases by far . . . http://www.npr.org/blogs/money/2012/03/20/149015363/what-america-does-for-work. The McKinsey Global Institute found . . . McKinsey Global Institute, Help Wanted: The Future of Work in Advanced Economies, 2012, p. 2. Harvard professor William H. Bossert, a legendary figure . . . I was a student in Bossert’s class, Natural Sciences 110, and describe it from still-vivid memory. The phenomenon has been explained most persuasively . . . Goldin and Katz, op. cit.(chap. 2, n. 17), p. 2. “College is no longer the automatic ticket to success . . .” Ibid., pp. 352–353.


pages: 260 words: 76,223

Ctrl Alt Delete: Reboot Your Business. Reboot Your Life. Your Future Depends on It. by Mitch Joel

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3D printing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, call centre, clockwatching, cloud computing, Firefox, future of work, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, place-making, prediction markets, pre–internet, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, WikiLeaks

We now have physical locations that look very different; a connectivity through mobile devices that allows us to work anywhere and everywhere; and platforms to keep us intimately closer to our team members and the projects that are being worked on and to provide us with an overall bird’s-eye view of what’s happening within the organization. The physical and digital realms begin to gel and morph. THE FUTURE OF WORK AND SPACE. In April 2008, The Economist ran an article titled “The New Oases,” which looked at how our newfound mobility was in the process of redefining and changing our physical work spaces: In the 20th century architecture was about specialized structures—offices for working, cafeterias for eating, and so forth. This was necessary because workers needed to be near things such as landline phones, fax machines and filing cabinets, and because the economics of building materials favored repetitive and simple structures, such as grid patterns for cubicles….


pages: 270 words: 64,235

Effective Programming: More Than Writing Code by Jeff Atwood

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AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, cloud computing, endowment effect, Firefox, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, gravity well, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Merlin Mann, Minecraft, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, price anchoring, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, science of happiness, Skype, social software, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator

Nothing is more exciting for me than the prospect of adding international members to the Stack Overflow team. The development of Stack Overflow should be reflective of what Stack Overflow is: an international effort of like-minded — and dare I say totally awesome — programmers. I wish I could hire each and every one of you. OK, maybe I’m a little biased. But to me, that’s how awesome the Stack Overflow community is. I believe remote development represents the future of work. If we have to spend a little time figuring out how this stuff works, and maybe even make some mistakes along the way, it’s worth it. As far as I’m concerned, the future is now. Why wait? * * * Become a Hyperink reader. Get a special surprise. Like the book? Support our author and leave a comment! VI. Your Batcave: Effective Workspaces for Programmers The Programmer’s Bill of Rights “Demand your rights as a programmer!

The Economic Singularity: Artificial intelligence and the death of capitalism by Calum Chace

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lump of labour, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

He described smart machines as an example of a “super class” of technologies which carry out a wide variety of tasks, both physical and intellectual. He illustrated the case by pointing out that machines have been grading multiple choice examinations for years, but they are now moving on to essays and unstructured text. The Millennium Project The Millennium Project was established in 1996 by a coalition of UN organisations and US academic research bodies. Its “2015-16 State of the Future” contained a section on the future of work based on a poll of 300 experts from around the world. Although they mostly thought that technology would impact employment significantly, their collective estimates for long-term unemployment were relatively conservative. They expected global unemployment to reach only 16% in 2030, and just 24% in 2050. Pew Research Center The Pew Research Center published a report entitled “AI, robotics, and the future of jobs”[li] in November 2014.


pages: 843 words: 223,858

The Rise of the Network Society by Manuel Castells

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Apple II, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, British Empire, capital controls, complexity theory, computer age, Credit Default Swap, declining real wages, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, edge city, experimental subject, financial deregulation, financial independence, floating exchange rates, future of work, global village, Hacker Ethic, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, illegal immigration, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, intermodal, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, job-hopping, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, packet switching, planetary scale, popular electronics, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Robert Gordon, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social software, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, special economic zone, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ted Nelson, the built environment, the medium is the message, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, transaction costs, urban renewal, urban sprawl

. —— (2000) “The temporal gaze: the challenge for social theory in the context of GM food”, British Journal of Sociology, 51(1): 125–42. Adler, Gerald (1999) “Relationships between Israel and Silicon Valley in the software industry”, unpublished masters thesis, Berkeley, CA: University of California. Adler, Glenn and Suarez, Doris (1993) Union Voices: Labor’s Responses to Crisis, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Adler, Paul S. (1992) Technology and the Future of Work, New York: Oxford University Press. Agence de l’Informatique (1986) L’Etat d’informatisation de la France, Paris: Economica. Aglietta, Michel (1976) Régulation et crise du capitalisme: l’expérience des Etats-Unis, Paris: Calmann-Levy. Alarcon, Rafael (1998) “Mexican engineers in Silicon Valley”, unpublished PhD dissertation, Berkeley, CA: University of California. Allen, G.C. (1981a) The Japanese Economy, New York: St Martin’s Press. —— (1981b) A Short Economic History of Modern Japan, London: Macmillan.

. —— (1995) Japan: Who Governs? The Rise of the Developmental State, New York: W.W. Norton. ——, Tyson, L. and Zysman, J. (eds) (1989) Politics and Productivity: How Japan’s Development Strategy Works, New York: Harper Business. Johnston, William B. (1991) “Global labor force 2000: the new world labor market”, Harvard Business Review, March–April. Jones, Barry (1982) Sleepers, Wake! Technology and the Future of Work, Melbourne: Oxford University Press (references are to the 1990 rev. edn). Jones, David (1993) “Banks move to cut currency dealing costs”, Financial Technology International Bulletin, 10(6): 1–3. Jones, Eric L. (1981) The European Miracle, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. —— (1988) Growth Recurring: Economic Change in World History, Oxford: Clarendon Press. Jones, L.P. and Sakong, I. (1980) Government Business and Entrepreneurship in Economic Development: the Korean Case, Cambridge, MA: Council on East Asian Studies.


pages: 319 words: 89,477

The Power of Pull: How Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things in Motion by John Hagel Iii, John Seely Brown

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Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Black Swan, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate governance, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, game design, George Gilder, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Louis Pasteur, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Maui Hawaii, medical residency, Network effects, packet switching, pattern recognition, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart transportation, software as a service, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs

Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004. Jacobs, Jane. The Economy of Cities. New York: Vintage Books, 1970. Kauffman, Stuart. Reinventing the Sacred. New York: Basic Books, 2008. Langlois, Richard, and Paul Robertson. Firms, Markets and Economic Change. New York: Routledge, 1995. Loasby, Brian. Knowledge, Institutions and Evolution in Economics. New York: Routledge, 2002. Malone, Thomas W. The Future of Work. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004. McKelvey, Bill, and Pierpaolo Andriani. “Extremes and Scale-Free Dynamics in Organization Science.” Strategic Organization 3, no. 2 (2005): 219-228. Page, Scott E. The Difference. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2007. Perez, Carlota. Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital. Northampton, Mass.: Edward Elgar, 2002. Polanyi, Michael.


pages: 289 words: 99,936

Digital Dead End: Fighting for Social Justice in the Information Age by Virginia Eubanks

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affirmative action, Berlin Wall, call centre, cognitive dissonance, desegregation, Fall of the Berlin Wall, future of work, game design, global village, index card, informal economy, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low-wage service sector, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, race to the bottom, rent control, Silicon Valley, South of Market, San Francisco, telemarketer, Thomas L Friedman, trickle-down economics, union organizing, urban planning, web application, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor

In Deliberative Democracy: Essays on Reason and Politics, ed. James Bohman and William Rehg, 383–406. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Yunus, M. 2001. Microcredit and IT for the Poor. New Perspectives Quarterly 18 (1): 25–26. Zimmerman, Andrew D. 1995. Toward a More Democratic Ethic of Technological Governance. Science, Technology & Human Values 20:86–107. Zuboff, Shoshana. 1989. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books. Index Academia, 33 Addams, Jane, 105 Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), 158–159 African Americans earnings, 70 education, 57–58, 67 poverty, 61 unemployment, 58, 69 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 85–86, 97 Allen, Dorothy, 42, 45, 91, 97, 134, 136 American Graduation Initiative, 153 ARISE (A Regional Initiative Supporting Empowerment), 168 Autonomous Technology, 83 Banta, Martha, 74 Barney, Darrin, 36 Basel hazardous waste ban, 169 Beat the System: Surviving Welfare, 119–125, 215 Benner, Chris, 61 Bernhardt, Annette, 162–163 Borda, Orlando Fals, 106 Bush (George W.) administration, 36 Call centers, 72–73 Campbell, Nancy D., 13, 145, 149–150 Campus architecture, 83–84 Capital Region, 158–159 Caregiving, 65, 75–77, 160–163 Caseworkers, 94–95 Child care, 160–162 Citizenship conceptions of, 30 as contract, 25 and IT, 29–31, 89 and political learning, 85–86 and popular technology, 96–98, 104, 125–127, 131–132, 136 Clinton, Bill, 35 Code: And Other Laws of Cyberspace, 84 Cognitive justice, 147–148, 151–152, 163 Collar Laundry Union, 50 Collective process, 18–19 Collingwood, Harris, 53–55 Colorful cards, 133 Community Asset Bank (CAB), 120, 215 Community benefits agreements (CBAs), 167 Community building, 144–146 Community Technology Center Program, 166 Community technology centers (CTCs), 165–166 Community Technology Laboratory, 109–114, 215 260 Index Composite stories, 120, 123, 125 Confidentiality, 92–93 Consensus conferences, 163–164 DuBois, W.


pages: 361 words: 81,068

The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

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3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, the medium is the message, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

Harris, “The Airbnb Economy in New York: Lucrative but Often Unlawful,” New York Times, November 4, 2013. 16 Alexia Tsotsis, “TaskRabbit Gets $13M from Founders Fund and Others to ‘Revolutionize the World’s Labor Force,’” TechCrunch, July 23, 2012. 17 Brad Stone, “My Life as a TaskRabbit,” Bloomberg Businessweek, September 13, 2012. 18 Sarah Jaffe, “Silicon Valley’s Gig Economy Is Not the Future of Work—It’s Driving Down Wages,” Guardian, July 23, 2014. 19 Guy Standing, The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class (Bloomsbury Academic, 2001). 20 Natasha Singer, “In the Sharing Economy, Workers Find Both Freedom and Uncertainty,” New York Times, August 16, 2014. 21 George Packer, “Change the World,” New Yorker, May 27, 2013, newyorker.com/reporting/2013/05/27/130527fa_fact_packer. For my TechCrunchTV interview with Packer about his New Yorker piece, see “Keen On . . .


pages: 313 words: 84,312

We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production by Charles Leadbeater

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1960s counterculture, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, c2.com, call centre, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, congestion charging, death of newspapers, Debian, digital Maoism, double helix, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jean Tirole, jimmy wales, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lone genius, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, microcredit, new economy, Nicholas Carr, online collectivism, planetary scale, post scarcity, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, software patent, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Whole Earth Catalog, Zipcar

Weaving Complexity & Business: Engaging the Soul at Work (New York/London: Texere, 2001) Leydesdorff, Loet, and Peter Van Den Besselaar (Eds), Evolutionary Economics and Chaos Theory: New Directions in Technology Studies (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1994) Loudon, Alexander, Webs of Innovation: The Networked Economy Demands New Ways to Innovate (Harlow: FT.com, 2001) Luthje, Christian, Cornelius Herstatt and Eric von Hippel, ‘The Dominant Role of “Local” Information in User Innovation: The Case of Mountain Biking’, MIT Sloan School of Management Working Paper No. 4377–02, July 2002. Available from http://userinnovation.mit.edu/ papers/6.pdf Malone, Thomas W., The Future of Work (Boston, MA: HBS Press, 2004) Markoff, John, What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer Industry (Penguin, 2006) McGonigal, Jane, ‘Why I Love Bees: A Case Study in Collective Intelligence Gaming’, February 2007. Available from http://www.avantgame.com/McGonigal_WhyILoveBees_Feb2007.pdf McKelvey, Maureen, Evolutionary Innovations (Oxford University Press, 2000) Mercer Management Consulting, Audiences with Attitude (Marsh & McLennan Companies) Micklethwait, John, and Adrian Wooldridge, The Company (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2003) Miller, Paul, and Paul Skidmore, The Future of Organizations (Demos, 2004) Moody, Glyn, Rebel Code: Linux and the Open Source Revolution (Penguin, 2002) Moore, Mark H., Creating Public Value (Cambridge, MA/London: Harvard University Press, 1995) Morgan, Gareth, Images of Organization (Sage, 1997) Morris, Dick, Vote.com (Renaissance Books, 1999) Myerson, Jeremy, IDEO: Masters of Innovation (Lawrence King, 2001) Nalebuff, Barry J., and Adam M.


pages: 791 words: 85,159

Social Life of Information by John Seely Brown, Paul Duguid

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AltaVista, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, cross-subsidies, disintermediation, double entry bookkeeping, Frank Gehry, frictionless, frictionless market, future of work, George Gilder, global village, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, information retrieval, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Productivity paradox, rolodex, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Y2K

Change: The Magazine for Higher Learning 31 (1): 12 19. Yates, Jo Anne. 1989. Control through Communication: The Rise of System in American Management. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press. Ziman, John M. 1967. Public Knowledge: An Essay Concerning the Social Dimension of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Zuboff, Shoshona. 1988. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books. Page 307 Index A A.B. Dick, 159 Aetna, 175 Age of the Smart Machine, 30 Alexa.com, 188 Amazon.com, 148 acquisitions activities of, 25 bot use on, 37, 44, 45, 47 48 American Airlines, 45 American Notes, 195 Anderson, Benedict, 194, 197 AOL, acquisitions activities of, 25, 26 Apple Computer, 70, 87 innovativeness of, 159 160 relations with PARC, 151, 157, 163, 166 structure of, 154 AT&T, 178 downsizing by, 122 reengineering of, 92 relations with Microsoft, 25, 28 Attewell, Paul, 29 Autonomous agents, 36 37 and delegation, 53 54 negotiation and, 48 52 and representation, 54 56 strengths and limitations of, 41 56 unethical use of, 56 59 See also Bots B Babbage, Charles, 86 Barlow, John Perry, 66, 198 Barnard, Chester, 114 Barnes & Noble, 148 Bateson, Gregory, 138 Being Digital, 15 Bell, Alexander Graham, 87 88 Bell, Gordon, 11 Berkeley, University of California at, 228 Bots (autonomous agents), 36 37 and delegation, 53 54 future of, 39 41, 61 62 negotiation and, 48 52 as representative, 54 56 strengths and limitations of, 41 56 unethical use of, 56 59 Page 308 Boyle, Robert, 191 British Telecom, and home office, 98 99 Bruner, Jerome, 128, 135, 138, 153 Burg, Urs von, 166 Bush, Vannevar, 179 180 Business processes formal versus informal, 113 115 improvisation in, 109 111 reengineering of, 91 93, 97 99 C Cameron, Stephen, 223 Cancelbots, 58 Canon, 157 Carlson, Chester, 159, 161 CDNow, bot use on, 37, 44 Champy, James, 92, 107, 111, 144 Chandler, Alfred, 161 Chaparral Steel, 123 Chatterbots, 36 Chaum, David, 60 Chiat, Jay, 71 Chiat/Day, 70 73, 75, 82 Chrysler Financial, technology costs at, 82 Claims processing, 96 Clustering, 161 164 and distance, 167 170 and ecologies of knowledge, 165 167 economic effects of, 164 165 Coase, Ronald, 23 24 Code of code, 249 Cole, Robert, 123 Common Sense, 195 Communities formed around Internet, 189 190 of practice, 141, 142 143, 162 scientific, 191 192 support of knowledge management, 125 127 textual, 190 Competition, changes in, 208 209 Conduit metaphors, 184 Constraints, complexities of, 244 245 Context, 202 Control Data Systems, 212 Copyright law, 248 software issues and, 249 250 Covidea (AT&T), 178 Credentialing, 214 215 bogus, 216 future of, 215 216, 234 235 meaning of, 217 221 Customization, 26 D Daniel, Sir John, 25, 223 Databases, versus documents, 186 Davenport, Tom, 122, 198 David, Paul, 83 de Long, Brad, 46, 52 Decentralization, 29 30 Dee, John, 211 Defoe, Daniel, 139 Degrees.


pages: 308 words: 84,713

The Glass Cage: Automation and Us by Nicholas Carr

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Airbnb, Andy Kessler, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, business process, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, cloud computing, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, High speed trading, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, natural language processing, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, software is eating the world, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

., Manufacturing Output, Productivity and Employment Implications (New York: Nova Science, 2005); and Judith Banister and George Cook, “China’s Employment and Compensation Costs in Manufacturing through 2008,” Monthly Labor Review, March 2011. 32.Tyler Cowen, “What Export-Oriented America Means,” American Interest, May/June 2012. 33.Robert Skidelsky, “The Rise of the Robots,” Project Syndicate, February 19, 2013, project-syndicate.org/commentary/the-future-of-work-in-a-world-of-automation-by-robert-skidelsky. 34.Ibid. 35.Chrystia Freeland, “China, Technology and the U.S. Middle Class,” Financial Times, February 15, 2013. 36.Paul Krugman, “Is Growth Over?,” The Conscience of a Liberal (blog), New York Times, December 26, 2012, krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/12/26/is-growth-over/. 37.James R. Bright, Automation and Management (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, 1958), 4–5. 38.Ibid., 5. 39.Ibid., 4, 6.


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Most Likely to Succeed: Preparing Our Kids for the Innovation Era by Tony Wagner, Ted Dintersmith

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affirmative action, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Bernie Sanders, Clayton Christensen, David Brooks, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, immigration reform, income inequality, index card, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, new economy, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, school choice, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, the scientific method, unpaid internship, Y Combinator

The Race between Education and Technology (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2010). 7 “A Nation At Risk: The Imperative For Education Reform.” A Report to the Nation and the Secretary of Education, United States Department of Education, by the National Commission on Excellence in Education, April 1983. http://www2.ed.gov/pubs/NatAtRisk/index.html. 8 Busteed, Brandon. “Why the education economy is the next big thing for the American workforce.” Fast Company, July 29, 2014. http://www.fastcompany.com/3033593/the-future-of-work/why-the-education-economy-is-the-next-big-thing-for-the-american-workforc (accessed August 16, 2014). Chapter 2. The Purpose of Education 1 Laneri, Raquel. “In pictures: America’s best prep schools.” Forbes.com, April 29, 2010. http://www.forbes.com/2010/04/29/best-prep-schools-2010-opinions-private-education_slide_15.html (accessed December 30, 2014). 2 Interview and private communication, Kevin Mattingly, Dean of Faculty, Lawrenceville Academy, December 18, 2014. 3 Quigley, Rachel.


pages: 378 words: 110,518

Postcapitalism: A Guide to Our Future by Paul Mason

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Alfred Russel Wallace, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, capital controls, Claude Shannon: information theory, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, deglobalization, deindustrialization, deskilling, discovery of the americas, Downton Abbey, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, eurozone crisis, factory automation, financial repression, Firefox, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, game design, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, Internet of things, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, means of production, Metcalfe's law, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, post-industrial society, precariat, price mechanism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFID, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, secular stagnation, sharing economy, Stewart Brand, structural adjustment programs, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Transnistria, union organizing, universal basic income, urban decay, urban planning, wages for housework, women in the workforce

Access to consumer goods did not subdue militancy. It was a material change, but wholly containable within working-class culture. But automation triggered a long-term psychological change. If work seemed ‘absurd, ridiculous and boring’ to the Fiat workers Alquati interviewed in the early 1960s, there was a deeper reason. The automation levels of the time were crude, but advanced enough to illustrate what the future of work would be like. Though the actuality of a factory run by computer was decades away, and robotization even further, workers understood that these things were no longer science fiction but distinct possibilities. There would come a time when manual work was no longer necessary. Subtly, the sense of what it meant to be ‘a worker’ changed. What united the young workers in the 1950s, Gorz believed, was their alienation from work: ‘In short, for the mass of workers it is no longer the power of the workers that constitutes the guiding utopia, but the possibility of ceasing to function as workers; the emphasis is less on liberation within work and more on liberation from work.’40 Strikes would happen among the expanded service proletariat once the crisis began in the late 1960s, but they almost never reached the levels of total shutdown possible in factories, ports and mines.

Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson

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Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, linked data, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Economist Intelligence Unit (2006) Foresight 2020: Economic, Industry and Corporate Trends, Economist Intelligence Unit. Friedman, George (2009) The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century, Black. Greenfield, Susan (2004) Tomorrow’s People: How 21st-Century Technology Is Changing the Way We Think and Feel, Penguin. Kusek, David, and Leonhard, Gerd (2005) The Future of Music, Berklee Press. Maddox, John (1998) What Remains to Be Discovered, Papermac. Malone, Thomas W (2004) The Future of Work, Harvard Business School Press. Mercer, David (1998) Future Revolutions, Orion Business Books. Naisbitt, John (2006) Mind Set!, Collins. Penn, Mark (2007) Microtrends: The Small Forces Behind Today’s Big Changes, Allen Lane. Seidensticker, Bob (2006) Future Hype: The Myths of Technology Change, Berrett-Koehler. Shapiro, Robert (2008) Futurecast 2020, Profile. Sharper, Thomas (1917) Originality, T Werner Laurie.


pages: 320 words: 86,372

Mythology of Work: How Capitalism Persists Despite Itself by Peter Fleming

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1960s counterculture, anti-work, call centre, clockwatching, corporate social responsibility, David Graeber, Etonian, future of work, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, illegal immigration, late capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, means of production, neoliberal agenda, Parkinson's law, post-industrial society, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, Results Only Work Environment, shareholder value, The Chicago School, transaction costs, working poor

‘The Rise of the Renegade Professionals’. http://surface.theguardian.com/more-inspiration/ Guardian, The (2014b). ‘Closed Shop in Elitist Britain, Study Says’. Available at www.theguardian.com/society/2014/aug/28/closed-shop-deepy-elitist-britain Hamper, B. (1992). Rivethead: Takes from the Assembly Line. New York: Warner Books. Hanlon, G. (2007). ‘HRM Is Redundant? Professions, Immaterial Labor and the Future of Work’. In S.H. Bolton (ed.). Searching for the Human in Human Resource Management: Theory, Practice and Workplace Contexts. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, pp.263–280. Hardt, M. and Negri, A. (2000). Empire. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Hart, A. (2014). ‘Why Everyone’s Started Clockwatching’. Stylist, 30 April. Harvey, D. (2001). Spaces of Hope: Towards a Critical Geography. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press.


pages: 423 words: 126,096

Our Own Devices: How Technology Remakes Humanity by Edward Tenner

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Bonfire of the Vanities, card file, Douglas Engelbart, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Network effects, optical character recognition, QWERTY keyboard, Stewart Brand, women in the workforce

On the German steel helmet, Ludwig Baer’s The History of the German Steel Helmet, 1916–1945, trans. K. Daniel Dahl (San Jose, Calif.: R. J. Bender, 1985) is based on original documents. Donald A. Norman’s The Psychology of Everyday Things (New York: Basic Books, 1988), now reprinted as The Design of Everyday Things, emphasizes the mental side of physical objects. The most important recent study of the body in today’s workplace is Shoshana Zuboff, In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power (New York: Basic Books, 1988). For the history of the visionary side of technology, mind, and body, there is Thierry Bardini’s Bootstrapping: Douglas Engelbart, Coevolution, and the Origins of Personal Computing (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000). In cyborg anthropology, the starting point is Donna Haraway, Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (New York: Routledge, 1991).


pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

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1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

Alienation and Charisma: A Study of Contemporary American Communes. New York: Free Press, 1980. Zelizer, Barbie. Covering the Body: The Kennedy Assassination, the Media, and the Shaping of Collective Memory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992. Zicklin, Gilbert. Countercultural Communes: A Sociological Perspective. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983. Zuboff, Shoshana. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power. New York: Basic Books, 1988. Index abstract expressionism, 46, 47 “Access Mobile,” 71 Acid Tests, 65, 66 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 108, 213 Albrecht, Bob, 70, 101, 113, 114, 133 Alinsky, Saul, Rules for Radicals, 98 Allison, Dennis, 252 Alloy, 96 –97, 273n54 Alpert, Richard (Baba Ram Dass), 61 Altair, 114, 274n1 alternative energy, 233 Alto, 111 American Indian Movement, 97 America Online, 161 analog computers, 20 Andreesen, Marc, 213 Ant Farm art and design collective, 86, 272n36 anti-aircraft predictor, 21, 25, 26, 95, 178 anti-automationists, 29 antiwar protests, 64, 74, 118, 209 AOL, 217 Apple Computer, 106, 116, 129, 139, 198, 247 Architecture Machine Group, 163, 177–78 Arcosanti, 81 ARPA community, 116 ARPANET, 28, 109, 117, 213 artificial intelligence, 177 Artificial Intelligence (AI) Laboratory, 116, 133, 134, 177 Artificial Life Conference, 198 –99 artificial-life movement, 203 Ashby, Ross, 26, 178 “Aspen Summit: Cyberspace and the American Dream II,” 230 Association for Computing Machinery / Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (ACM/IEEE), 110 AT&T, 182, 193 Atari, 134, 163 Atkinson, Bill, 137 Atlas missile system, 19 atomic bomb, 18 atomic era, 17, 30 –31, 243 atomic forecasting, 187 Aufderheide, Patricia, 230 Augmentation Research Center (ARC), 61, 106, 107– 8, 109, 110 Autodesk, 163 automaton, 21 Baba, Meher, 75 back-to-the-land movement, 73, 76, 244, 245 Baer, Steve, 81, 95, 96, 97, 109; Dome Cookbook, 94 Baldwin, Jay, 94 Barayón, Ramón Sender, 65, 146 Barbrook, Richard, 208, 259, 279n43 Bardini, Thierry, 105, 274n1 Barlow, John Perry: and Aspen conference, 223; and computational metaphor, 16; conference on bionomics, 224; contributions to Wired, 217, 218; “Crime and Puzzlement,” 171, 172 –74, 195; “Declaration of [ 313 ] [ 314 ] Index Barlow, John Perry (continued) the Independence of Cyberspace,” 13 –14; and Electronic Frontier Foundation, 172, 218, 220; experiences with mysticism and LSD, 165; forum on hacking on the WELL, 168 –70; and Grateful Dead, 166; and Kapor, 172; linked hacking and free speech as central components of “cyberspace,” 171; linking of virtual reality to LSD, 163, 165; longing to return to an egalitarian world, 248; notion of cyberspace as an electronic frontier, 162, 172 –74; shift from agricultural work to information work, 166; and the WELL, 3, 142, 155, 167; and the Whole Earth network, 7 Barnett, Steve, 191 Basch, Reva, 154, 155 BASIC programming language, 113, 114 Bateson, Gregory, 121–25; attacked mechanistic visions of the social and natural worlds, 126; bridged high technology and communitarian idealism, 124; Communication: The Social Matrix of Psychiatry, 53; on ecological crisis, 276n42; intellectual influence on CQ, 124; and Macy Conferences, 26; rejection of transcendence, 123; and second-generation cybernetics, 123, 148; Steps to an Ecology of Mind, 123, 124, 165; theory of immanent mind, 123 –24; and “the pattern that connects,” 243; transformed cybernetic principles into communication-based theories of alcoholism, schizophrenia, and learning, 123; vision of material world as information system, 104 Bateson, Mary Catherine, 182, 189, 191 Battelle, John, 209, 216 Baxter, Richard, 171 Bay area computer programmers, 103 Beach, Scott, 102 Beat movement, 62 “Behavior, Purpose, and Teleology” (Rosenblueth, Wiener, and Bigelow), 22 “be-in,” 51–52, 269n20 Bell, Daniel, 32, 228, 245; The Coming of PostIndustrial Society, 241– 42 Berkeley Barb (magazine), 80, 114 Berners-Lee, Tim, 213 Berry, Wendell, 126 –27 Bertalanffy, Ludwig von, 265n43 Best, Eric, 221 Bevirt, Ron, 81 Big Brother & the Holding Company, 66 Bigelow, Alice, 226 Bigelow, Julian, 20, 21, 22, 122, 226 Big Rock Candy Mountain publishers, 70 Biondi, Frank, 208 bionomics, 224, 225 Biosphere, 176, 182, 190 Black Mountain College, 47 Black Panthers, 97 Black Power, 34 Blanchard, Chuck, 172 Boczkowski, Pablo, 271n7 Bolt, Baranek, and Newman, 134 Bonestell, Chesley, The Conquest of Space, 42 Bonner, Jay, 99 Borsook, Paulina, 226 “boundary object,” 72 Bourdieu, Pierre, 157 Bowker, Geoffrey, 25 –26, 84 Brand, Lois, 71, 74, 76, 113 Brand, Stewart, 3, 223; aimed to imitate the goals and tactics of American research culture, 78; at Alloy, 97; America Needs Indians, 66, 69, 270n49; analytical framework drawn from ecology and evolutionary biology, 44 – 45; argument that personal computer revolution and Internet grew out of counterculture, 103; and “Aspen Summit,” 231; association of cybernetics with alternative forms of communal organization, 43; authority across technological, economic, and cultural eras, 250 –51; brought together representatives of the technical world and former New Communalists, 109 –10, 116, 132, 216, 246, 247, 250, 255; buttons, 69; celebrated as a socio-technical visionary, 101; and coevolution, 121; coverage of Alloy, 96; crossing of disciplinary and professional boundaries, 249; cybernetic notion of organization-as-organism, 90; cybernetics as social and rhetorical resources for entrepreneurship, 5; definition of purpose of Catalog, 82 – 83; “Demise Party,” 101–2; depicted Media Lab as living demonstration of an alternative society, 179 – 81; description of Whole Earth as a “research organization,” 96; drew on systems theory to design the Catalog, 78; on Dyson, 227; editorial tactics, 79, 273n43; Index and Electronic Frontier Foundation, 172, 218; enthusiasm for computer-conferencing, 130; on faculty of School of Management and Strategic Studies, 129 –30; fear of living in a hyperrationalized world, 42 – 43; fear of Soviet attack in 1950s, 41– 42; first experience with LSD, 61; forum on hacking on the WELL, 168 –70; and Global Business Network, 176, 184, 188, 189, 191, 192, 193; and Hackers’ Conference, 139 – 40, 254; helped computers to be seen as “personal” technology, 105, 238; and Herman Kahn, 186; How Buildings Learn, 205; idealized vision of Native Americans, 59; idea that information-based products embodied an economic paradox, 136; imagined world as a series of overlapping information systems, 250; influence of Fuller on, 57; influence of Kesey on, 60; integration of ideas and people of Whole Earth into world of networked computing, 132; interview with Newsweek in 1980, 128 –29; introduction to Signal, 196; issues facing hackers to the themes of countercultural work and the Whole Earth group, 139; Kesey as role model, 65; and Learning Conferences, 181– 83; linking of information technologies to New Communalist politics, 216; Long Now Foundation, 206, 285n67; as a manager, 79, 89 –90; The Media Lab: Inventing the Future at MIT, 178 – 81; and the Merry Pranksters, 61– 62; military service, 46; mirror logic of cybernetics, 259; at MIT’s Media Lab, 177; modeled the synthesis of counterculture and research culture, 253; multimedia pieces, 270n49; networked cultural entrepreneurship, 251– 55; network forums, 239, 249 –50; “New Games Tournament,” 120; in New York art scene, 46; on outer space, 127; Point Foundation, 120; at Portola Institute, 70; portrayal of Nicholas Negroponte, 179 – 80; principle of juxtaposition, 84; private online conference for software reviewers, 131; reaction to the libertarianism of the mid-1990s, 287n49; reconfigured the cultural status of information and information technologies, 8, 238 –39, 249; repudiated the Catalog’s New Communalist origins, 121; response to criticism of Catalog’s poli- [ 315 ] tics, 99 –100; return to the Whole Earth Catalog, 120; search for individual freedom, 45; search for new, flexible modes of living, 59; and Software Catalog, 130 –31; “Spacewar: Fanatic Life and Symbolic Death among the Computer Bums,” 116 –18; “Sticking Your Head in Cyberspace,” 195; “Transcendental planning,” 90 –91; transcript of the Hacker Ethic forum, 138; travels after discharge from the army, 48; and Trips Festival, 65 – 68; turn back toward the computer industry, 104; visit to Drop City, 74; and the WELL, 141, 142 – 43, 145 – 46; work with USCO, 49, 51; writing for Wired, 217; and Xerox PARC, 246 – 47 Branwyn, Gareth, 81 Brautigan, Richard, “All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace,” 38 –39 Breines, Wini, 267n80 Briarpatch Society, 70 Brilliant, Larry, 141, 142 Britton, Lois, 273n44 Brockman, John, 129, 130, 290n24 Broderbund Software Inc., 135 Bronson, Po, 225 Brown, Jerry, 186 Browning, Page, 61 Budge, Bill, 135 bulletin board system (BBS), 144, 247 Burnham, Jack, 268n13 Burroughs, William, 62 Burstein, Daniel, 287n37 Burt, Ronald, 5, 135 Bush, Vannevar, 17, 20, 24, 229; “As We May Think,” 106 –7 Business 2.0 (magazine), 207 butterfly ecology, 43 Byte (magazine), 137 Cage, John, 43, 46 – 47, 67; Theatre Piece No. 1, 47– 48 “Californian Ideology,” 208, 285n4 Callahan, Michael, 48, 51, 66 Callon, Michelle, 277n71 Calvert, Greg, 35 Calvin, William, 191 Cameron, Andy, 208, 259 Carlston, Doug, 135 Carpenter, Edmund, 53 Carroll, Jon, 143, 155 [ 316 ] Index Castañeda, Carlos, 92 Castells, Manuel, 149, 242, 278n23 Center for Linear Studies, 198 Centre Européenne pour la Recherche Nucléaire (CERN), 213 Ceruzzi, Paul, 105 – 6, 129 “Cheerful Robot,” 29 Christian right, 215 CIA, MK-ULTRA program, 60 Citibank/Citicorp, 198 Citizens’ Band radio, 144 civil rights movement, 31, 34, 35 Clinton, Bill, 215 closed informational system, 17 Club of Rome, The Limits to Growth, 120 Coate, John, 146 – 47, 148, 155, 159 “coevolution,” 121 CoEvolution Quarterly, 97, 120 –22, 131, 132, 176, 186, 194 cold war era: artistic process, 47; engagement of universities with, 12; mechanistic world, 62.


pages: 464 words: 116,945

Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism by David Harvey

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, bitcoin, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, California gold rush, call centre, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, falling living standards, fiat currency, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Food sovereignty, Frank Gehry, future of work, global reserve currency, Guggenheim Bilbao, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, microcredit, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, peak oil, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, short selling, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wages for housework, Wall-E, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

Where three thousand years ago we could say with confidence that the technologies used a hundred years hence would resemble those currently in place, now we can barely predict the shape of technology fifty years ahead.8 So where, in this process of ‘combinatorial evolution’, lies the contradiction or contradictions that might threaten profitability and endless capital accumulation? There are, I want to suggest, two contradictions of huge import for the future prospects of capital. The first concerns technology’s dynamic relation to nature. This will be the subject of Contradiction 16. The second concerns the relationship between technological change, the future of work and the role of labour in relation to capital. This is the contradiction we will examine here. Control over the labour process and the labourer has always been central to capital’s ability to sustain profitability and capital accumulation. Throughout its history, capital has invented, innovated and adopted technological forms whose dominant aim has been to enhance capital’s control over labour in both the labour process and the labour market.


pages: 310 words: 34,482

Makers at Work: Folks Reinventing the World One Object or Idea at a Time by Steven Osborn

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3D printing, A Pattern Language, additive manufacturing, air freight, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, c2.com, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mason jar, means of production, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, Oculus Rift, patent troll, popular electronics, Rodney Brooks, Shenzhen was a fishing village, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software as a service, special economic zone, speech recognition, subscription business, telerobotics, urban planning, web application, Y Combinator

They organized a lot of exhibitions about the past, and they organized one exhibition in Torino about the future of Italy. It was the only one that really was about the future. So they asked me to think of something that had to do with work. So I said, “I’m not going to make an exhibition where you have a glass box with some stuff in there that represents work. You want to be there to represent the future of work.” So we said, “There is this concept called fab lab.1 We should really have a fab lab that operates there.” Luckily, at Arduino we already had some collaborators who were working with us already in Torino. We had the people on the ground that could put this together, so we made a proposal and we got some—they gave us the budget to create the fab lab inside the exhibition, to create a community, to hire a few people to manage it.


pages: 436 words: 141,321

Reinventing Organizations: A Guide to Creating Organizations Inspired by the Next Stage of Human Consciousness by Frederic Laloux, Ken Wilber

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Albert Einstein, augmented reality, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, failed state, future of work, hiring and firing, index card, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Rogoff, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, the market place, the scientific method, Tony Hsieh

It means that a coherent organizational model seems to be emerging, one we can describe in quite some detail. This is not a theoretical model, not a utopian idea, but a very concrete way to run organizations from a higher stage of consciousness. If we accept that there is a direction to human evolution, then we hold here something rather extraordinary: the blueprint of the future of organizations, the blueprint to the future of work itself. I write this with full awareness that we are in the early days of this emerging phenomenon. I don’t mean to suggest that this book offers a definitive, fixed description of this upcoming organizational model. As more companies start to innovate in this field, as more researchers look at them from different angles, and as society as a whole evolves, more richness and texture will certainly be added to the picture.


pages: 414 words: 119,116

The Health Gap: The Challenge of an Unequal World by Michael Marmot

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active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, Bonfire of the Vanities, Broken windows theory, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, centre right, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, Doha Development Round, epigenetics, financial independence, future of work, Gini coefficient, Growth in a Time of Debt, illegal immigration, income inequality, Indoor air pollution, Kenneth Rogoff, Kibera, labour market flexibility, lump of labour, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, New Urbanism, obamacare, paradox of thrift, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, road to serfdom, Simon Kuznets, Socratic dialogue, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, urban planning, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, working poor

It is planned and requires certain general societal conditions: low unionisation – or else working conditions would be better; lack of alternative employment – people would go elsewhere; relentless attention to the profit margin; and tolerance, or even fostering, by the society of this type of employment. If work and employment can be a cause of ill-health, we need, as elsewhere, to look at the causes of the causes – why work and employment are the way they are. Is Alan’s work a grim predictor of the future of work, divided into high-paid, high-skilled work at the top, drone-like work at the bottom, and a diminishing middle? We will examine the evidence on work and health in a moment, but first . . . IF YOU THINK ALAN HAD IT BAD . . . Lalta was a human scavenger. Her occupation, and that of a million or so others like her in India, was to clean human excrement out of dry latrines by hand, pile it in a reed basket, carry it on her head to a dumping place and deposit it.


pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

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3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Yogi Berra

With the Albuquerque airport only six minutes and one stoplight away, a former regular of the big-city airport crush can leave for meetings in other cities after breakfast and still be home for dinner. Mesa del Sol is an aerotropolis in the mold of the “no-collar workplace” imagined by Richard Florida: the twilight zone of multitasking knowledge workers drifting between home, cafés, the airport, and clients’ conferences and back. Like Florida—who once switched academic posts to be closer to Dulles—the Ratner clan believes the future of work belongs to those of us who do it wherever we want, whenever we want, so long as we do it longer and harder than anyone else. They aim to give us the city we deserve, a hub enabling our dispersal. No one can work from home forever—Kasarda’s Law still applies—but we can try. Forty percent of IBM’s employees don’t have an office, working either from home or at the client. Sixty percent of Agilent Technologies’s telecommute at least part of the time.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

Already Starwood hotels have introduced robotic butlers, “on call day and night.” They can find their ways to any guest’s room and deliver that toothbrush you forgot or the room service you ordered, freeing up staff to work on other tasks. Momentum Machines’ burger bot can crank out 360 perfectly cooked-to-order hamburgers per hour, each with the precise toppings (lettuce, ketchup, onions) requested by the customer. A 2013 study by Oxford University on the future of work conducted a detailed analysis of over seven hundred occupations and concluded that 47 percent of U.S. employees are at high risk of losing their jobs to robotic automation as soon as 2023. Those working in the transportation field (taxi drivers, bus drivers, long-haul truck drivers, FedEx drivers, pizza delivery drivers) face particular risk, with up to a 90 percent certainty that their jobs will be replaced by autonomous vehicles.


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Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss

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Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, post scarcity, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

Covey), The Checklist Manifesto (Atul Gawande) McGonigal, Jane: Finite and Infinite Games (James Carse), Suffering Is Optional (Cheri Huber), The Willpower Instinct (Kelly McGonigal), The Grasshopper: Games, Life, and Utopia (Bernard Suits) Miller, BJ: Any picture book of Mark Rothko art. Moynihan, Brendan: Money Game (Adam Smith), Once in Golconda: A True Drama of Wall Street 1920–1938 (John Brooks), The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind (Gustave Le Bon) Mullenweg, Matt: The Year Without Pants: WordPress.com and the Future of Work (Scott Berkun), How Proust Can Change Your Life (Alain de Botton), A Field Guide to Getting Lost (Rebecca Solnit), The Effective Executive; Innovation and Entrepreneurship (Peter Drucker), Words that Work (Frank Luntz), Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things (George Lakoff), History of the Peloponnesian War (Thucydides), Hard-Boiled Wonderland and the End of the World (Haruki Murakami), The Magus (John Fowles), The Everything Store (Brad Stone), The Halo Effect: . . . and the Eight Other Business Delusions that Deceive Managers (Phil Rosenzweig), Bird by Bird (Anne Lamott), On Writing Well (William Zinsser), Ernest Hemingway on Writing (Larry W.