gender pay gap

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pages: 480 words: 119,407

Invisible Women by Caroline Criado Perez

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, augmented reality, Bernie Sanders, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, Diane Coyle, Donald Trump, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, lifelogging, low skilled workers, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, obamacare, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, phenotype, post-industrial society, randomized controlled trial, remote working, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, the built environment, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

In any case, fifty year’s worth of US census data46 has proven that when women join an industry in high numbers, that industry attracts lower pay and loses ‘prestige’,47 suggesting that low-paid work chooses women rather than the other way around. This choice-that-isn’t-a-choice is making women poor. A recent Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) study found that the gender pay gap in hourly wages is substantially higher in countries where women spend a large amount of time on unpaid care compared to men.48 In the UK, women make up 61% of those earning below the living wage,49 and the Institute for Fiscal Studies has found that the gender pay gap widens over the twelve years after a child is born to 33%, as women’s careers – and wages – stagnate.50 The US pay gap between mothers and married fathers is three times higher than the pay gap between men and women without children.51 Over time, these pay gaps add up.

In short, the current US tax system for married couples in effect penalises women in paid employment, and in fact several studies have shown that joint filing disincentives married women from paid work altogether (which, as we have also seen, is bad for GDP).23 The US is not alone in having a tax system that, by failing to account for gender, ends up discriminating against women. A recent paper expressed bafflement at how ‘many OECD countries’ were passing legislation in an attempt to reduce the gender pay gap while at the same time effectively increasing it through their family tax and transfer systems.24 Two such countries are the UK and Australia where, although married couples file separate income tax returns, most benefits and tax credits still breach the principle of independent taxation. The UK’s Marriage Allowance gives the main wage earner (usually the man) a tax break in couples where the lower earner is on £11,500 or less.25 This bolsters the gender pay gap on two fronts: supplementing male income, while also creating a perverse incentive for women to work fewer paid hours. Japan has a similarly male-biased married-couples tax break.

., Dillard, Joseph S. and Block, Caryn J. (2016), ‘Gender differences in recommendation letters for postdoctoral fellowships in geoscience’, Nature Geoscience, 9, 805–8 48 Madera et al. (2009) 49 https://www.nature.com/news/women-postdocs-less-likely-than-men-toget-a-glowing-reference-1.20715 50 Trix, Frances and Psenka, Carolyn (2003), ‘Exploring the Color of Glass: Letters of Recommendation for Female and Male Medical Faculty’, Discourse & Society, 14:2, 191–220 51 Ibid. 52 Madera at al. (2009) 53 Nielsen, Mathias Wullum, Andersen, Jens Peter, Schiebinger, Londa and Schneider, Jesper W. (2017), ‘One and a half million medical papers reveal a link between author gender and attention to gender and sex analysis’, Nature Human Behaviour, 1, 791–6 54 http://gap.hks.harvard.edu/effects-gender-stereotypic-and-counter-stereotypic-textbook-images-science-performance 55 https://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/project/gendergap/www/papers/anatomy-WSQ99.html 56 Light, Jennifer S. (1999), ‘When Computers Were Women’, Technology and Culture, 40:3, 455–483 57 Ensmenger, Nathan L. (2010), The Computer Boys Take Over: Computers, Programmers, and the Politics of Technical Expertise, Cambridge MA 58 https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2016/09/what-programmings-past-reveals-about-todays-gender-pay-gap/498797/ 59 http://thecomputerboys.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/cosmopolitan-april-1967–1-large.jpg 60 https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2016/09/what-programmings-past-reveals-about-todays-gender-pay-gap/498797/ 61 Ensmenger, Nathan L. (2010) 62 Ibid. 63 https://www.hfobserver.com/exclusive-content/q4-top-recruiting-department-hires-and-an-acquisition/ 64 https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/sep/01/how-algorithms-rule-our-working-lives 65 https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/11/your-job-their-data-the-most-important-untold-story-about-the-future/281733/ 66 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1471–6402.2008.00454.x; Hannah Riley Bowles, Linda Babcock and Lei Lai (2007), ‘Social incentives for gender differences in the propensity to initiate negotiations: Sometimes it does hurt to ask’, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 103, 84–103. 67 https://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/23/technology/in-googles-inner-circle-a-falling-number-of-women.html 68 https://www.physiology.org/doi/10.1152/advan.00085.2017 69 https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/11/20/the-tech-industrys-gender-discrimination-problem 70 https://medium.com/@triketora/where-are-the-numbers-cb997a57252 71 http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/workplace-gender-quotas-incompetence-efficiency-business-organisations-london-school-economics-lse-a7797061.html 72 http://web.mit.edu/fnl/volume/184/hopkins.html 73 http://www.cwf.ch/uploads/press/ABusinessCaseForWomen.pdf 74 https://madebymany.com/stories/can-a-few-well-chosen-words-improve-inclusivity 75 Gaucher, D., Friesen, J. and Kay, A.


Sam Friedman and Daniel Laurison by The Class Ceiling Why it Pays to be Privileged (2019, Policy Press)

affirmative action, Boris Johnson, discrete time, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, equal pay for equal work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, Hyperloop, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, nudge unit, old-boy network, performance metric, psychological pricing, school choice, Skype, starchitect, The Spirit Level, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile

Specifically it showed that over two-thirds of high-earners were men, as well as all seven of the highest paid BBC executives. It also detailed stark gender pay gaps between stars of similar experience, fame and stature. Sports presenters Gary Lineker and Claire Balding provide an arresting example. Both are longstanding and much-loved BBC personalities, yet in 2017 Balding earned only one-tenth of Lineker’s £1.75m salary.1 In the days following the report, countless prominent figures – both inside and outside the organisation – lined up to denounce a normalised culture of gender discrimination at the BBC.2 The embattled BBC Director-General, Tony Hall, took swift action, authorising an immediate audit of staff pay,3 promising to end the gender pay gap by 2020 and later agreeing to reduce the salaries of six highly paid male presenters.4 This scandal is significant for several reasons.

Falcon (nd); Roberts and Arunachalam (nd). For the US, see Jencks et al (1972), Pfeffer (1977) and Torche (2011); for Sweden, see Hällsten (2013); for Norway, see Flemmen (2009) and Hansen (2001); for Scandinavia see (Hansen, 2001; Flemmen, 2009; Hällsten, 2013), and France (Falcon, nd). The scale and patterning of the UK gender pay gap is explored more extensively in Olsen (2010) and Olsen et al (2018), and the UK ethnicity pay gap in Longhi et al (2013) and Longhi and Brynin (2017). Recall that the gender pay gap in top jobs is on average £10,000 a year and the class pay gap (between those from privileged and working-class origins) is £6,400. Working-class women, however, earn £18,900 less than privileged men. Woodhams et al (2015). Skeggs (1997); Hanley (2017); Reay (2017). This work has emphasised how working-class women are routinely pathologised as bad mothers (Walkerdine, 1990), excessively sexual (Skeggs, 1997; Tyler, 2008) or displaying the wrong amount and type of femininity (Lawler, 2005).

The ethics of office and the ethics of social science in British cultural policy’, Journal of Cultural Economy, 9(2), 127-40 (https://doi.org/10.1080/1 7530350.2015.1100649). O’Brien, D., Allen, K., Friedman, S. and Saha, A. (2017) ‘Producing and consuming inequality: A cultural sociology of the cultural industries’, Cultural Sociology, 11(3), 271-82 (https://doi.org/10.1177/1749975517712465). Olsen, W. (2010) The gender pay gap in the UK 1995–2007, London: Government Equalities Office (www.escholar. manchester.ac.uk/uk-ac-man-scw:75226). Olsen, W., Gash, V., Kim, S. and Zhang, M. (2018) The gender pay gap in the UK: Evidence from the UKHLS, London: Government Equalities Office (www.gov.uk/government/publications/thegender-pay-gap-in-the-uk-evidence-from-the-ukhls). 348 References Notes ONS (Office for National Statistics) (2016) Quarterly Labour Force Survey, 2013–2016, UK Data Archive, Social Survey Division, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency, Central Survey Unit (https://discover.ukdataservice.ac.uk/ series/?


pages: 215 words: 59,188

Seriously Curious: The Facts and Figures That Turn Our World Upside Down by Tom Standage

agricultural Revolution, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blood diamonds, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, failed state, financial independence, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gini coefficient, high net worth, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, Internet of things, invisible hand, job-hopping, Julian Assange, life extension, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mega-rich, megacity, Minecraft, mobile money, natural language processing, Nelson Mandela, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, ransomware, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, South China Sea, speech recognition, stem cell, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks

For more explainers and charts from The Economist, visit economist.com Index A Africa child marriage 84 democracy 40 gay and lesbian rights 73, 74 Guinea 32 mobile phones 175–6 see also individual countries agriculture 121–2 Aguiar, Mark 169 air pollution 143–4 air travel and drones 187–8 flight delays 38–9 Akitu (festival) 233 alcohol beer consumption 105–6 consumption in Britain 48, 101–2 craft breweries 97–8 drink-driving 179–80 wine glasses 101–2 Alexa (voice assistant) 225 Algeria food subsidies 31 gay and lesbian rights 73 All I Want for Christmas Is You (Carey) 243 alphabet 217–18 Alternative for Germany (AfD) 223, 224 Alzheimer’s disease 140 Amazon (company) 225 America see United States and 227–8 Angola 73, 74 animals blood transfusions 139–40 dog meat 91–2 gene drives 153–4 size and velocity 163–4 and water pollution 149–50 wolves 161–2 Arctic 147–8 Argentina gay and lesbian rights 73 lemons 95–6 lithium 17–18 Ariel, Barak 191 Arizona 85 arms trade 19–20 Asia belt and road initiative 117–18 high-net-worth individuals 53 wheat consumption 109–10 see also individual countries Assange, Julian 81–3 asteroids 185–6 augmented reality (AR) 181–2 August 239–40 Australia avocados 89 forests 145 inheritance tax 119 lithium 17, 18 shark attacks 201–2 autonomous vehicles (AVs) 177–8 Autor, David 79 avocados 89–90 B Babylonians 233 Baltimore 99 Bangladesh 156 bank notes 133–4 Bateman, Tim 48 beer consumption 105–6 craft breweries 97–8 Beijing air pollution 143–4 dogs 92 belt and road initiative 117–18 betting 209–10 Bier, Ethan 153 Bils, Mark 169 birds and aircraft 187 guinea fowl 32–3 birth rates Europe 81–3 United States 79–80 black money 133–4 Black Power 34, 35 Blade Runner 208 blood transfusions 139–40 board games 199–200 body cameras 191–2 Boko Haram 5, 15–16 Bolivia 17–18 Bollettieri, Nick 197 bookmakers 209–10 Borra, Cristina 75 Bosnia 221–2 brain computers 167–8 Brazil beer consumption 105, 106 Christmas music 243, 244 end-of-life care 141–2 gay and lesbian rights 73 murder rate 45, 46 shark attacks 202 breweries 97–8 Brexit, and car colours 49–50 brides bride price 5 diamonds 13–14 Britain alcohol consumption 101–2 car colours 49–50 Christmas music 244 cigarette sales 23–4 craft breweries 98 crime 47–8 Easter 238 gay population 70–72 housing material 8 inheritance tax 119 Irish immigration 235 life expectancy 125 manufacturing jobs 131 national identity 223–4 new-year resolutions 234 police body cameras 191 sexual harassment 67, 68, 69 sperm donation 61 see also Scotland Brookings Institution 21 Browning, Martin 75 bubonic plague 157–8 Bush, George W. 119 C cables, undersea 193–4 California and Argentine lemons 95, 96 avocados 90 cameras 191–2 Canada diamonds 13 drones 188 lithium 17 national identity 223–4 capitalism, and birth rates 81–2 Carey, Mariah 243 Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 21 cars colours 49–50 self-driving 177–8 Caruana, Fabiano 206 Charles, Kerwin 169 cheetahs 163, 164 chess 205–6 Chetty, Raj 113 Chicago 100 children birth rates 79–80, 81–3 child marriage 84–5 in China 56–7 crime 47–8 and gender pay gap 115–16, 135–6 obesity 93–4 Chile gay and lesbian rights 73 lithium 17–18 China air pollution 143–5 arms sales 19–20 avocados 89 beer consumption 105 belt and road initiative 117–18 childhood obesity 93 construction 7 dog meat 91–2 dragon children 56–7 flight delays 38–9 foreign waste 159–60 lithium 17 rice consumption 109–10 Choi, Roy 99 Christian, Cornelius 26 Christianity Easter 237–8 new year 233–4 Christmas 246–7 music 243–5 cigarettes affordability 151–2 black market 23–4 cities, murder rates 44–6 Citizen Kane 207 citrus wars 95–6 civil wars 5 Clarke, Arthur C. 183 Coase, Ronald 127, 128 cocaine 44 cochlear implants 167 Cohen, Jake 203 Colen, Liesbeth 106 colleges, US 113–14 Colombia 45 colours, cars 49–50 commodities 123–4 companies 127–8 computers augmented reality 181–2 brain computers 167–8 emojis 215–16 and languages 225–6 spam e-mail 189–90 Connecticut 85 Connors, Jimmy 197 contracts 127–8 Costa Rica 89 couples career and family perception gap 77–8 housework 75–6 see also marriage cows 149–50 craft breweries 97–8 crime and avocados 89–90 and dog meat 91–2 murder rates 44–6 young Britons 47–8 CRISPR-Cas9 153 Croatia 222 Croato-Serbian 221–2 D Daily-Diamond, Christopher 9–10 Davis, Mark 216 De Beers 13–14 death 141–2 death taxes 119–20 democracy 40–41 Deng Xiaoping 117 Denmark career and family perception gap 78 gender pay gap 135–6 sex reassignment 65 Denver 99 Devon 72 diamonds 13–14, 124 digitally remastering 207–8 Discovery Channel 163–4 diseases 157–8 dog meat 91–2 Dorn, David 79 Dr Strangelove 207 dragon children 56–7 drink see alcohol drink-driving 179–80 driverless cars 177–8 drones and aircraft 187–8 and sharks 201 drugs cocaine trafficking 44 young Britons 48 D’Souza, Kiran 187 E e-mail 189–90 earnings, gender pay gap 115–16, 135–6 Easter 237–8 economy and birth rates 79–80, 81–2 and car colours 49–50 and witch-hunting 25–6 education and American rich 113–14 dragon children 56–7 Egal, Muhammad Haji Ibrahim 40–41 Egypt gay and lesbian rights 73 marriage 5 new-year resolutions 233 El Paso 100 El Salvador 44, 45 emojis 215–16 employment gender pay gap 115–16, 135–6 and gender perception gap 77–8 job tenure 129–30 in manufacturing 131–2 video games and unemployment 169–70 English language letter names 217–18 Papua New Guinea 219 environment air pollution 143–4 Arctic sea ice 147–8 and food packaging 103–4 waste 159–60 water pollution 149–50 Equatorial Guinea 32 Eritrea 40 Ethiopia 40 Europe craft breweries 97–8 summer holidays 239–40 see also individual countries Everson, Michael 216 exorcism 36–7 F Facebook augmented reality 182 undersea cables 193 FANUC 171, 172 Federer, Roger 197 feminism, and birth rates 81–2 fertility rates see birth rates festivals Christmas 246–7 Christmas music 243–5 new-year 233–4 Feuillet, Catherine 108 films 207–8 firms 127–8 5G 173–4 flight delays 38–9 Florida and Argentine lemons 95 child marriage 85 Foley, William 220 food avocados and crime 89–90 dog meat 91–2 lemons 95–6 wheat consumption 109–10 wheat genome 107–8 food packaging 103–4 food trucks 99–100 football clubs 211–12 football transfers 203–4 forests 145–6, 162 Fountains of Paradise, The (Clarke) 183 fracking 79–80 France career and family perception gap 78 Christmas music 244 exorcism 36–7 gender-inclusive language 229–30 job tenure 130 sex reassignment 66 sexual harassment 68–9 witch-hunting 26, 27 wolves 161–2 G gambling 209–10 games, and unemployment 169–70 Gandhi, Mahatma 155 gang members 34–5 Gantz, Valentino 153 gas 124 gay population 70–72 gay rights, attitudes to 73–4 gender sex reassignment 65–6 see also men; women gender equality and birth rates 81–2 in language 229–30 gender pay gap 115–16, 135–6 gene drives 153–4 Genghis Khan 42 genome, wheat 107–8 ger districts 42–3 Germany beer consumption 105 job tenure 130 national identity 223–4 sexual harassment 68, 69 vocational training 132 witch-hunting 26, 27 Ghana 73 gig economy 128, 130 glasses, wine glasses 101–2 Goddard, Ceri 72 Google 193 Graduate, The 207 Greece forests 145 national identity 223–4 sex reassignment 65 smoking ban 152 Gregg, Christine 9–10 grunting 197–8 Guatemala 45 Guinea 32 guinea fowl 32–3 guinea pig 32 Guinea-Bissau 32 Guo Peng 91–2 Guyana 32 H Haiti 5 Hale, Sarah Josepha 242 Hanson, Gordon 79 Hawaii ’Oumuamua 185 porn consumption 63–4 health child obesity 93–4 life expectancy 125–6 plague 157–8 and sanitation 155 high-net-worth individuals (HNWIs) 53 Hiri Motu 219 holidays Easter 237–8 St Patrick’s Day 235–6 summer holidays 239–40 Thanksgiving 241–2 HoloLens 181–2 homicide 44–6 homosexuality attitudes to 73–4 UK 70–72 Honduras 44, 45 Hong Kong 56 housework 75–6, 77–8 Hudson, Valerie 5 Hungary 223–4 Hurst, Erik 169 I ice 147–8 Ikolo, Prince Anthony 199 India bank notes 133–4 inheritance tax 119 languages 219 rice consumption 109 sand mafia 7 sanitation problems 155–6 Indonesia polygamy and civil war 5 rice consumption 109–10 inheritance taxes 119–20 interest rates 51–2 interpunct 229–30 Ireland aitch 218 forests 145 St Patrick’s Day 235–6 same-sex marriage 73 sex reassignment 65 Italy birth rate 82 end of life care 141–2 forests 145 job tenure 130 life expectancy 126 J Jacob, Nitya 156 Jamaica 45 Japan 141–2 Jighere, Wellington 199 job tenure 129–30 jobs see employment Johnson, Bryan 168 junk mail 189 K Kazakhstan 6 Kearney, Melissa 79–80 Kennedy, John F. 12 Kenya democracy 40 mobile-money systems 176 Kiribati 7 Kleven, Henrik 135–6 knots 9–10 Kohler, Timothy 121 Kyrgyzstan 6 L laces 9–10 Lagos 199 Landais, Camille 135–6 languages and computers 225–6 gender-inclusive 229–30 letter names 217–18 and national identity 223–4 Papua New Guinea 219–20 Serbo-Croatian 221–2 Unicode 215 World Bank writing style 227–8 Latimer, Hugh 246 Leeson, Peter 26 leisure board games in Nigeria 199–200 chess 205–6 gambling 209–10 video games and unemployment 169–70 see also festivals; holidays lemons 95–6 letter names 217–18 Libya 31 life expectancy 125–6 Lincoln, Abraham 242 lithium 17–18 London 71, 72 longevity 125–6 Lozère 161–2 Lucas, George 208 M McEnroe, John 197 McGregor, Andrew 204 machine learning 225–6 Macri, Mauricio 95, 96 Macron, Emmanuel 143 Madagascar 158 Madison, James 242 MagicLeap 182 Maine 216 Malaysia 56 Maldives 7 Mali 31 Malta 65 Manchester United 211–12 manufacturing jobs 131–2 robots 171–2 summer holidays 239 Maori 34–5 marriage child marriage 84–5 polygamy 5–6 same-sex relationships 73–4 see also couples Marteau, Theresa 101–2 Marx, Karl 123 Maryland 85 Massachusetts child marriage 85 Christmas 246 Matfess, Hilary 5, 15 meat dog meat 91–2 packaging 103–4 mega-rich 53 men career and family 77–8 housework 75–6 job tenure 129–30 life expectancy 125 polygamy 5–6 sexual harassment by 67–9 video games and unemployment 169 Mexico avocados 89, 90 gay and lesbian rights 73 murder rate 44, 45 microbreweries 97–8 Microsoft HoloLens 181–2 undersea cables 193 migration, and birth rates 81–3 mining diamonds 13–14 sand 7–8 mobile phones Africa 175–6 5G 173–4 Mocan, Naci 56–7 Mongolia 42–3 Mongrel Mob 34 Monopoly (board game) 199, 200 Monty Python and the Holy Grail 25 Moore, Clement Clarke 247 Moretti, Franco 228 Morocco 7 Moscato, Philippe 36 movies 207–8 Mozambique 73 murder rates 44–6 music, Christmas 243–5 Musk, Elon 168 Myanmar 118 N Nadal, Rafael 197 national identity 223–4 natural gas 124 Netherlands gender 66 national identity 223–4 neurostimulators 167 New Jersey 85 New Mexico 157–8 New York (state), child marriage 85 New York City drink-driving 179–80 food trucks 99–100 New Zealand avocados 89 gang members 34–5 gene drives 154 water pollution 149–50 new-year resolutions 233–4 Neymar 203, 204 Nigeria board games 199–200 Boko Haram 5, 15–16 population 54–5 Nissenbaum, Stephen 247 Northern Ireland 218 Norway Christmas music 243 inheritance tax 119 life expectancy 125, 126 sex reassignment 65 Nucci, Alessandra 36 O obesity 93–4 oceans see seas Odimegwu, Festus 54 O’Reilly, Oliver 9–10 Ortiz de Retez, Yñigo 32 Oster, Emily 25–6 ostriches 163, 164 ’Oumuamua 185–6 P packaging 103–4 Pakistan 5 Palombi, Francis 161 Papua New Guinea languages 219–20 name 32 Paris Saint-Germain (PSG) 203 Passover 237 pasta 31 pay, gender pay gap 115–16, 135–6 Peck, Jessica Lynn 179–80 Pennsylvania 85 Peru 90 Pestre, Dominique 228 Pew Research Centre 22 Phelps, Michael 163–4 Philippe, Édouard 230 phishing 189 Phoenix, Arizona 177 Pilgrims 241 plague 157–8 Plastic China 159 police, body cameras 191–2 pollution air pollution 143–4 water pollution 149–50 polygamy 5–6 pornography and Britain’s gay population 70–72 and Hawaii missile alert 63–4 Portugal 145 Puerto Rico 45 punctuation marks 229–30 Q Qatar 19 R ransomware 190 Ravenscroft, George 101 Real Madrid 211 religious observance and birth rates 81–2 and Christmas music 244 remastering 207–8 Reynolds, Andrew 70 Rhodes, Cecil 13 rice 109–10 rich high-net-worth individuals 53 US 113–14 ride-hailing apps and drink-driving 179–80 see also Uber RIWI 73–4 robotaxis 177–8 robots 171–2 Rogers, Dan 240 Romania birth rate 81 life expectancy 125 Romans 233 Romer, Paul 227–8 Ross, Hana 23 Royal United Services Institute 21 Russ, Jacob 26 Russia arms sales 20 beer consumption 105, 106 fertility rate 81 Rwanda 40 S Sahara 31 St Louis 205–6 St Patrick’s Day 235–6 salt, in seas 11–12 same-sex relationships 73–4 San Antonio 100 sand 7–8 sanitation 155–6 Saudi Arabia 19 Scotland, witch-hunting 25–6, 27 Scott, Keith Lamont 191 Scrabble (board game) 199 seas Arctic sea ice 147–8 salty 11–12 undersea cables 193–4 secularism, and birth rates 81–2 Seles, Monica 197 self-driving cars 177–8 Serbia 222 Serbo-Croatian 221–2 Sevilla, Almudena 75 sex reassignment 65–6 sexual harassment 67–9, 230 Sharapova, Maria 197 sharks deterring attacks 201–2 racing humans 163–4 shipping 148 shoelaces 9–10 Silk Road 117–18 Singapore dragon children 56 land reclamation 7, 8 rice consumption 110 single people, housework 75–6 Sinquefeld, Rex 205 smart glasses 181–2 Smith, Adam 127 smoking black market for cigarettes 23–4 efforts to curb 151–2 smuggling 31 Sogaard, Jakob 135–6 Somalia 40 Somaliland 40–41 South Africa childhood obesity 93 diamonds 13 gay and lesbian rights 73 murder rate 45, 46 South Korea arms sales 20 rice consumption 110 South Sudan failed state 40 polygamy 5 space elevators 183–4 spaghetti 31 Spain forests 145 gay and lesbian rights 73 job tenure 130 spam e-mail 189–90 sperm banks 61–2 sport football clubs 211–12 football transfers 203–4 grunting in tennis 197–8 Sri Lanka 118 Star Wars 208 sterilisation 65–6 Strasbourg 26 submarine cables 193–4 Sudan 40 suicide-bombers 15–16 summer holidays 239–40 Sutton Trust 22 Sweden Christmas music 243, 244 gay and lesbian rights 73 homophobia 70 inheritance tax 119 overpayment of taxes 51–2 sex reassignment 65 sexual harassment 67–8 Swinnen, Johan 106 Switzerland sex reassignment 65 witch-hunting 26, 27 T Taiwan dog meat 91 dragon children 56 Tamil Tigers 15 Tanzania 40 taxes death taxes 119–20 Sweden 51–2 taxis robotaxis 177–8 see also ride-hailing apps tennis players, grunting 197–8 terrorism 15–16 Texas 85 Thailand 110 Thanksgiving 241–2 think-tanks 21–2 Tianjin 143–4 toilets 155–6 Tok Pisin 219, 220 transgender people 65–6 Trump, Donald 223 Argentine lemons 95, 96 estate tax 119 and gender pay gap 115 and manufacturing jobs 131, 132 Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin 183 Turkey 151 turkeys 33 Turkmenistan 6 U Uber 128 and drink-driving 179–80 Uganda 40 Ulaanbaatar 42–3 Uljarevic, Daliborka 221 undersea cables 193–4 unemployment 169–70 Unicode 215–16 United Arab Emirates and Somaliland 41 weapons purchases 19 United Kingdom see Britain United States and Argentine lemons 95–6 arms sales 19 beer consumption 105 chess 205–6 child marriage 84–5 Christmas 246–7 Christmas music 243, 244 drink-driving 179–80 drones 187–8 end of life care 141–2 estate tax 119 fertility rates 79–80 food trucks 99–100 forests 145 gay and lesbian rights 73 getting rich 113–14 Hawaiian porn consumption 63–4 job tenure 129–30 letter names 218 lithium 17 manufacturing jobs 131–2 murder rate 45, 46 national identity 223–4 new-year resolutions 234 plague 157–8 police body cameras 191–2 polygamy 6 robotaxis 177 robots 171–2 St Patrick’s Day 235–6 sexual harassment 67, 68 sperm banks 61–2 Thanksgiving 241–2 video games and unemployment 169–70 wealth inequality 121 unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) see drones V video games 169–70 Vietnam weapons purchases 19 wheat consumption 110 Virginia 85 virtual reality (VR) 181, 182 Visit from St Nicholas, A (Moore) 247 W Wang Yi 117 Warner, Jason 15 wars 5 Washington, George 242 Washington DC, food trucks 99 waste 159–60 water pollution 149–50 wealth getting rich in America 113–14 high-net-worth individuals 53 inequality 120, 121–2 weather, and Christmas music 243–5 Weinstein, Harvey 67, 69 Weryk, Rob 185 wheat consumption 109–10 genome 107–8 Wilson, Riley 79–80 wine glasses 101–2 Winslow, Edward 241 wireless technology 173–4 witch-hunting 25–7 wolves 161–2 women birth rates 79–80, 81–3 bride price 5 career and family 77–8 child marriage 84–5 housework 75–6 job tenure 129–30 life expectancy 125 pay gap 115–16 sexual harassment of 67–9 suicide-bombers 15–16 World Bank 227–8 World Health Organisation (WHO) and smoking 151–2 transsexualism 65 X Xi Jinping 117–18 Y young people crime 47–8 job tenure 129–30 video games and unemployment 169–70 Yu, Han 56–7 Yulin 91 yurts 42–3 Z Zubelli, Rita 239

Alcohol consumption is falling around the world Why wheat has a more complex genome than humans Asian countries are eating more wheat By the numbers: economical, with the truth The easiest way to get rich in America Why women still earn much less than men Why China is rebuilding the old Silk Road Why “death taxes” have fallen out of favour Wealth inequality has been increasing since the stone age What makes something a commodity? Does longevity always increase with national wealth? Why do companies exist? Millennial Americans are just as loyal to their employers as previous generations Why old-fashioned manufacturing jobs aren’t coming back Why India scrapped its two biggest bank notes The roots of the gender pay gap lie in childhood Department of white coats: science, health and the environment Can young blood really rejuvenate the old? What people want at the end of life How China reduced its air pollution Why forests are spreading in the rich world The Arctic could be ice-free by 2040, 30 years sooner than expected Why there’s something in the water in New Zealand Measures to discourage smoking are spreading around the world Why “gene drives” have yet to be deployed in the wild Why it is so hard to fix India’s sanitation problems Why some deadly diseases are hard to eradicate Why China is sick of foreign waste Why are wolves coming back in France?

Social-media rumours had suggested that this could finance a one-off dividend to be dished out to all Indians. But with 99% of the money accounted for, the dividend would have amounted to only 100 rupees per person. The whole episode dented the RBI’s reputation for independence and competence. It also hit national pride: the demonetisation scheme constrained economic growth, thus handing back to China India’s coveted crown of being the world’s fastest-growing large economy. The roots of the gender pay gap lie in childhood It is well known that parenthood tends to hurt women’s careers but not men’s. Numerous studies have shown that having children lowers women’s lifetime earnings, an outcome known as the “child penalty”. A wide range of individual decisions account for this effect. Some women work fewer hours, or not at all, when their children are young. Others switch to jobs that are more family-friendly but lower-paid.


pages: 82 words: 21,414

The Myth of Meritocracy: Why Working-Class Kids Still Get Working-Class Jobs (Provocations Series) by James Bloodworth

Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, cognitive dissonance, Downton Abbey, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, income inequality, light touch regulation, precariat, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, zero-sum game

In this wretched incident, despite serious allegations of sexual assault being made against a senior party member of the SWP – ‘Comrade Delta’ – the female accusers were discouraged from going to the police on the basis that socialists should have ‘no faith in the bourgeois court system to deliver justice’.103 Again, rudimentary women’s rights had to wait until the victory of the glorious revolution. Nor is 21st-century Britain a meritocratic utopia for women and ethnic and sexual minorities. A gender pay gap evidently exists,104 even if there is a debate to be had over its size. Young black men are incarcerated in Britain at a much higher rate than young white men and are far more likely to be living in poverty.105 It is fashionable to emit a liberal sneer at the flagrant racism of the American justice system, but according to the Equality and Human Rights Commission, there is now greater disproportionality in the number of black people in prisons in the UK than in the US.106 Despite the state’s recognition of gay marriage, there also remain areas of Britain – and particularly within minority communities – where being openly gay is to risk physical injury or even death.

In fact, they encounter economic hurdles at least as difficult to surmount as the barriers of gender and racial equality faced by their contemporaries. A six-month unpaid internship at a prestigious newspaper – or an unpaid internship in any job, for that matter – is as off limits to a white working-class boy as it is to anyone else who lacks the sufficient funds. Professor Savage’s analysis of the British Class Survey found evidence of a social class pay gap comparable to the gender pay gap that rightly induces so much opprobrium in liberals. Those from the most elite backgrounds were often paid as much as 25 per cent more than those from more modest backgrounds for doing the same work.111 Equality of opportunity along the lines envisioned by proponents of identity politics would be an unquestionable improvement on the status quo. Equality gains of any sort are not to be sniffed at.


pages: 382 words: 100,127

The Road to Somewhere: The Populist Revolt and the Future of Politics by David Goodhart

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, central bank independence, centre right, coherent worldview, corporate governance, credit crunch, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, market friction, mass immigration, mittelstand, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, obamacare, old-boy network, open borders, Peter Singer: altruism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, shareholder value, Skype, Sloane Ranger, stem cell, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

And in Theresa May’s first speech as prime minister she included in her list of injustices to be tackled the fact that ‘if you’re a woman, you will earn less than a man.’ Yet there is only a small gender pay gap for men and women doing the same work, especially for those under forty (as Alison Wolf shows in her book The XX Factor). Indeed, since 2009 women working full time aged twenty-two to twenty-nine have been earning more than men. The gap May refers to is only generated by conflating the earnings of women of all ages, occupations and full-time/part-time status and comparing them with the same male total—and because many more women work part-time (43 per cent to 13 per cent for men) and are concentrated in some of the lowest paying sectors, such as cleaning and care, the average pay of women is still nearly 20 per cent less per hour than men. And to the extent that the gender pay gap for full time employees persists—it was 9.4 per cent in 2015—it is mainly because men and women are concentrated in different sectors of the labour market.13 Another reason for the domination of Anywhere priorities in family policy is that the mix of feminism (in its many varieties) and individualism are quintessential 1960s liberal baby boomer values and the liberal baby boomer generation now dominates British society and politics.

‘Families and households in the UK: 2016’, Office for National Statistics, 4 November 2016, https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/families/bulletins/familiesandhouseholds/2016 9.One Plus One, ‘Children Affected by Separation’, http://www.oneplusone.org.uk/content_topic/breaking-up/limiting-the-effects-of-separation-on-children/ 10.John Bingham and Ashley Kirk, ‘Divorce rate at lowest level in 40 years after cohabitation revolution’, The Telegraph, 23 November 2015, www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/12011714/Divorce-rate-at-lowest-level-in-40-years-after-cohabitation-revolution.html 11.Ann Berrington and Juliet Stone, ‘Cohabitation trends and patterns in the UK’, ESRC Centre for Population Change, February 2015, www.cpc.ac.uk/publications/Cohabitation%20trends%20and%20patterns%20in%20the%20UK.pdf 12.This is the point made by Charles Murray in Coming Apart, his book about white America and the patterns of behaviour in the two imaginary towns Belmont and Fishtown. Charles Murray, Coming Apart: The State of White America, 1960–2010, Crown, 2013. 13.Equal Pay Portal, ‘United Kingdom Data on the Gender Pay Gap’, http://www.equalpayportal.co.uk/statistics/ 14.Office for National Statistics, ‘How is the Welfare budget spent?’, http://visual.ons.gov.uk/welfare-spending/ 15.Relationships Foundation, ‘Counting the Cost of Family Failure’, http://knowledgebank.oneplusone.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Counting-the-Cost-of-Family-Failure-2016-Update.pdf 16.Office for National Statistics, ‘Working and Workless Households: 2015’, http://www.ons.gov.uk/employmentandlabourmarket/peopleinwork/employmentandemployeetypes/bulletins/workingandworklesshouseholds/2015–10–06#households 17.Paul Johnson, ‘IFS Budget Analysis 2014: Introductory Remarks’, https://www.ifs.org.uk/budgets/budget2014/opening_remarks.pdf 18.British Social Attitudes 30, ‘Gender Roles, An incomplete revolution?’

.: product lines of, 86 Appiah, Kwame Anthony: 117 assortative mating: 188 Aston University: 164 austerity: 98, 200 Australia: 4, 160 Austria: 56, 69–70 authoritarianism: 8, 12, 30, 33, 44, 57; concept of, 57; hard, 45 Baggini, Julian: observations of British class system, 59 Bangladesh: 130 Bank of England: personnel of, 86 Bartels, Larry: Democracy for Realists, 61 Bartlett, Jamie: Radicals, 64 Basel Accords: 85 BASF: 176 Bayer: 176 Belgium: 73, 75, 101; Brussels, 53, 89, 93, 95, 98 Berlusconi, Silvio: 65 birther movement: 68 Bischof, Bob: head of German-British Forum, 174 Blair, Tony: 10, 76, 159, 189; administration of, 218; foreign policy of, 96; speeches of, 3, 7, 49; support for Bulgarian and Romanian EU accession, 26; unravelling of legacy, 221 Bloomsbury Group: 34 Bogdanor, Vernon: concept of ‘exam-passing classes’, 3 Boyle, Danny: Summer Olympics opening ceremony (2012), 111, 222 Branson, Richard: 11 Brexit (EU Referendum)(2016): 1–2, 19, 27, 81, 89, 93, 99–100, 125, 233; negotiations, 103; polling prior to voting, 30, 64; Remainers, 2, 19–20, 52–3, 132; sociological implications of, 4–7, 13, 53–4, 118, 126, 167–8, 225; Stronger In campaign, 61; Vote Leave campaign, 42, 53, 72, 91, 132; voting pattern in, 7–9, 19–20, 23, 26, 36, 52, 55–6, 60, 71, 74, 215, 218 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC): 112, 145; Newsnight, 60; personnel of, 15; Radio 4, 31, 227; Today, 60 British Empire: 107 British National Party: European election performance of (2009), 119; supporters of, 38 British Future: 19 British Private Equity and Venture Capital Association: personnel of, 135 British Social Attitudes (BSA) surveys: 153; authoritarian-libertarian scale, 44–5; findings of, 38–9, 44, 106–7, 120, 202, 206–7, 218; immigration survey (2013), 44; personnel of, 218–19 British Values Survey: establishment of (1973), 43; groups in, 43 Brooks, Greg: Sheffield report, 155 Brown, Belinda: 205, 207–8 Brown, Gordon: 106; abolition of Married Couples Allowance, 204; budget of (2006), 147–8; political rhetoric of, 16–17 Brummer, Alex: Britain for Sale, 173 Bulgaria: 26; accession to EU, 225 (2007); migrants from, 126; population levels of, 102 Burgess, Simon: 131 Burggraf, Shirley: Feminine Economy and Economic Man, The, 194 Cahn, Andrew: 98 Callaghan, Jim: Ruskin College speech (1976), 154 Callan, Eamonn: 191 Callan, Samantha: 202, 212 Cambridge University: 35, 179, 186; faculty of, 37; students of, 158–9 Cameron, David: 71, 103, 179, 183, 189; administration of, 226; cabinet of, 187 Canada: 160; mass immigration in, 119 capital: 9, 100; cultural, 190; human, 34; liberalisation of controls, 97; social, 110 capitalism: 7, 11; organised, 159 Care (Christian Action Research & Education): 203 Carswell, Douglas: 13 Case, Anne: 67 Casey, Louise: review of opportunity and integration, 129 Catholicism: 15, 213; original sin, 57 Cautres, Bruno: 72 Center for Humans and Nature: 30 Centre for Social Justice: 206; personnel of, 202 chauvinism: 33; decline in prevalence of, 39; violent, 106 China, People’s Republic of: 10, 95, 104, 160; accession to WTO (2001), 88; manufacturing sector of, 86; steel industry of, 87 Chirac, Jacques: electoral victory of (2002), 49 Christianity: 33, 69, 83, 156 citizenship: 68, 121–2; democratic, 7; global, 114; legislation, 103; national, 5; relationship with migration, 126; shared, 113; temporary, 126 Clarke, Charles: British Home Secretary, 84 Clarke, Ken: education reforms of, 158–9 Clegg, Nick: 11, 13, 189 Cliffe, Jeremy: 10–11; ‘Britain’s Cosmopolitan Future’ 216; observations of social conservatism, 217 Clinton, Bill: 29, 76; administration of, 218 Clinton, Hillary: electoral defeat of (2016), 67–8 Coalition Government (UK) (2010–16): 13, 54, 226; cabinet members of, 16; immigration policies of, 124–5 Cold War: end of, 83, 92, 95, 98 Collier, Paul: 110; view of potential reform of UNHCR, 84 colonialism: 87; European, 105 communism: 58 Communist Party of France: 72 Confederation of British Industry (CBI): 164 confirmation bias: concept of, 30 Conservative Party (Tories)(UK): 19, 207; dismantling of apprenticeship system by, 157; ideology of, 76, 196; members of, 31, 164, 187; Party Conference (2016), 226; Red Toryism, 63; supporters of, 24, 35, 77, 143, 216–17 conservatism: 4, 9; cultural, 58; social, 217; Somewhere, 7–8; working-class, 8 Corbyn, Jeremy: elected as leader of Labour Party, 20, 53, 59, 75, 78 Cowley, Philip: 35 Crosland, Tony: Secretary of Education, 36; two-tier higher education system proposed by, 158 Crossrail 2: 228; spending on, 143 Czech Republic: 69, 73 D66: supporters of, 76 Dade, Pat: 43–4, 219; role in establishment of British Values Survey, 43, 218–19 Daily Mail: 227; reader base of, 4 Danish Peoples’ Party: 55, 69–70, 73; ideology of, 73 Darwin, Charles: 28 death penalty: 44; support for, 39, 216–17 Deaton, Angus: 67 deference, end of: 63 Delors, Jacques: 96, 103–4; President of European Commission, 94 Democratic Party: ideology of, 62, 65; shortcomings of engagement strategies of, 66–7 Demos: 137 Dench, Geoff: 207; concept of ‘quality with pluralism’, 214; Transforming Men, 209 Denmark: 69, 71, 99; education levels in, 156 Diana, Princess of Wales: death of (1997), 107 double liberalism: 1, 11, 63 Duffy, Gillian: 124 Dyson: 173; Dyson effect, 173 Economist: 10, 210, 216 Eden, Anthony: administration of, 187 Eichengreen, Barry: 91 Elias, Norbert: 119 Employer Skills Survey: 163 Engineering Employers Federation: 166 Englishness: 111 Erdogan, Recep Tayyip: 218 Essex Man/Woman: 186 Estonia: population levels of, 102 Eton College: 179, 187 Euro (currency): 100–1; accession of countries to, 98–9 European Commission: 26, 97 European Convention on Human Rights: 83–4 European Court of Justice (ECJ): 103 European Economic Community (EEC): 92; British accession to (1973), 93; Treaty of Rome (1957), 101 European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM): 97–8 European Parliament: elections (2009), 71–2; elections (2014), 72 European Union (EU): 10, 25, 53, 76, 89, 92–4, 99–100, 120, 124, 160, 215, 221–2, 229, 233; Amsterdam Treaty (1997), 94; Common Agricultural Policy, 92, 96; establishment of (1957), 91–2; freedom of movement principles, 100–1, 163–4; Humanitarian Protection Directive (2004), 83; integration, 50, 98–9, 173; Lisbon Treaty (2009), 94; Maastricht Treaty (1992), 94, 96, 103; members states of, 16, 31, 55, 71, 216; personnel of, 128; Schengen Agreement (1985), 94–5, 99, 117; Single European Act (1986), 94; Treaty of Nice (2000), 94 Euroscepticism: 69 Eurozone Crisis (2008–): 92, 99 Evening Standard: 143–5 Facebook: 86 family culture: 196–7; childcare, 202–3; cohabitation, 196, 211; divorce figures, 196–7; gender roles, 206–13; legislation impacting, 195–6; lone parents, 196; married couples tax allowance, 225; relationship with state intrusion, 200–2; tax burdens, 203–4; tax credit systems, 202, 204–5, 225 Farage, Nigel: 11; leader of UKIP, 72; political rhetoric of, 20 Fawcett Society: surveys conducted by, 195–6 federalism: 69 feminism: 185, 199, 205; gender pay gap, 198–9; orthodox, 194 Fidesz: 69, 71, 73 Fillon, François: 73 Financial Times: 91, 108, 115, 138, 145, 147 Finkelstein, Daniel: 34 Five Star Movement: 53, 55, 64, 70, 73 Florida, Richard: concept of ‘Creative Class’, 136 Foges, Clare: 183 food sector: 17, 102, 125, 126 Ford, Robert: 35, 150 foreign ownership: 172–74, 230 Fortuyn, Pim: assassination of (2002), 50, 69 France: 69, 75, 94–6, 101, 173; agricultural sector of, 96; compulsory insurance system of, 222; Paris, 104, 143; high-skill/low-skill job disappearance in, 151; Revolution (1789–99), 106 Frank, Thomas: concept of ‘liberalism of the rich’, 62 Franzen, Jonathan: 110 free trade agreements: opposition to, 62 Freedom Party: 69; electoral defeat of (2016), 70; ideology of, 73; supporters of, 70 French Colonial Empire (1534–1980): 107 Friedman, Sam: ‘Introducing the Class Ceiling: Social Mobility and Britain’s Elite Occupations’, 187 Friedman, Thomas: World is Flat, The, 85 Front National (FN): 53, 69, 72–3; European electoral performance of (2014), 72; founding of (1973), 72; supporters of, 72 Gallup: polls conducted by, 65 Ganesh, Janan: 115, 145 gay marriage: 5, 76; opposition to, 46–7; support for, 26, 220 General Electric Company (GEC) plc: 172, 175 German-British Forum: members of, 174 Germany: 70, 73, 86, 94, 96, 100–1, 173–4, 209; automobile industry of, 96; chemical industry of, 176; compulsory insurance system of, 222; education sector of, 166; high-skill/low-skill job disappearance in, 151; labour market of, 147; Leipzig, 58; Ludwigshafen, 176; Reunification (1990), 96, 147, 176; Ruhr, 176–7 Ghemawat, Prof Pankaj: 85–6 Gilens, Martin: study of American public policy and public preferences, 61–2 Glasman, Maurice: 227 Global Financial Crisis (2007–9): 56, 169–70, 177; Credit Crunch (2007–8), 98, 177 Global Villagers: 31–2, 44–5, 160, 226; characteristics of, 46; political representation of, 75; political views of, 109, 112 globalisation: 9–10, 50–2, 81–2, 85, 87–8, 90–1, 105–6, 148; economic, 9; global trade development, 86–7; growth of, 85–6; hyperglobalisation, 88–9; relationship with nation states, 85–6; sane, 90 Golden Dawn: 74; growth of, 105 Goldman Sachs: personnel of, 31 Goldthorpe, John: 184–5, 189–90 Goodhart, David: 12 Goodwin, Fred: 168 Goodwin, Matthew: 150 Gordon, Ian: 137–8, 140 Gould, Philip: 220 Gove, Michael: 64, 91 great liberalisation: 39–40, 47; effect of, 40 Greater London Authority (GLA): 143 Greece: 53, 56, 69, 74, 99, 105; Athens, 143; government of, 98 Green, Francis: 163 Green Party (UK): supporters of, 38 Group of Twenty (G20): 89 Guardian: 14, 210 Habsburg Empire (Austro-Hungarian Empire): collapse of (1918), 107 Haidt, Jonathan: 11, 30, 33, 133; Righteous Mind, The, 28–9 Hakim, Catharine: 205 Hall, Stuart: 14–15 Hames, Tim: 135–6 Hampstead/Hartlepool alliance: 75 Hanson Trust: subsidiaries of, 175 Hard Authoritarian: 43–7, 51, 119, 220; characteristics of, 24–5; political views of, 109 Harris, Gareth: 137; ‘Changing Places’, 137 Harvard University: faculty of, 57 Heath, Edward: foreign policy of, 96 Higgins, Les: role in establishment of British Values Survey, 43 High Speed 2 (HS2): 228 High Speed 3 (HS3): aims of, 151, 228 Hitler, Adolf: 94 Hoescht: 176 Hofstadter, Richard: ‘Everyone is Talking About Populism, But No One Can Define It’ (1967), 54 Holmes, Chris: 151 homophobia: observations in BSA surveys, 39; societal views of, 39–40, 216 Honig, Bonnie: concept of ‘objects of public love’, 111 Huguenots: 121 Huhne, Chris: 16, 32 human rights: 5, 10, 55, 113; courts, 113; legislation, 5, 83–4, 109, 112; rhetoric, 112–13 Hungary: 53, 64, 69, 71, 73–4, 99, 218; Budapest, 218 Ignatieff, Michael: leader of Liberal Party (Canada), 13 Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI): 172, 174–5; personnel of, 169; subsidiaries of, 175 Inbetweeners: 4, 25, 46, 109; political views of, 109 India: 104 Inglehart, Ronald: theories of value change, 27 Insider Nation: concept of, 61, 64; evidence of, 61–2 Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS): 201; findings of, 211–12 International Monetary Fund (IMF): 86–7, 102 interracial marriage: societal views of, 40 India: 10, 160 Ipsos MORI: polls conducted by, 42, 122 Iraq: 84; Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003–11), 82 Islam: 50; Ahmadiyya, 84; conservative, 131; Halal, 68; hostility to, 73; Qur’an, 50 Islamism: 130 Islamophobia: 130 Italy: 55, 64, 69–70, 73, 96; migrants from, 125 Jamaica: 14 Japan: 86; request for League of Nations racial equality protocol (1919), 109 Jews/Judaism: 121, 259; orthodox, 131; persecution of, 17 jingoism: 8 Jobbik: 53, 64, 74 Johnson, Boris: 145 Jones, Sir John Harvey: death of (2008), 169 Jordan, Hashemite Kingdom of: government of, 84 Jospin, Lionel: defeat in final round of French presidential elections (2002), 49 Judah, Ben: This is London: Life and Death in the World City, 145 Kaufmann, Eric: 8–9, 131, 219, 227; ‘Changing Places’, 137 Kellner, Peter: 78 King, Mervyn: Governor of Bank of England, 86 Kinnock, Neil: 98 knowledge economy: 147, 149, 154, 166, 221 Kohl, Helmut: 94 Kotleba: 74 Krastev, Ivan: 55, 65, 82–3 labour: 9, 89–90, 149; eastern European, 125–6; gender division of, 197; hourglass labour market, 150, 191; living wage, 26, 152; market, 95, 101–2, 124, 140, 147–8, 150–2, 156–7, 181, 225 Labour Party (Denmark): 77 Labour Party (Netherlands): 50; supporters of, 76 Labour Party (UK): 2, 23, 53, 57, 72, 123, 157, 159, 207; Blue Labour, 63; electoral performance of (2015), 75; European election performance (2014), 72; expansion of welfare state under, 199–200; members of, 14, 20, 36, 59, 61, 77–8, 84; Momentum, 53; New Labour, 33, 75, 107, 123, 155, 159, 167, 196, 207, 220, 226, 232; Party Conference (2005), 7; social media presence of, 79; supporters of, 17, 35, 75, 77, 143, 221; voting patterns in Brexit vote, 19 Lakner, Christoph: concept of elephant curve, 87 Lamy, Pascal: 97 Latvia: adoption of Euro, 98–9; migrants from, 25–6 Laurison, Daniel: ‘Introducing the Class Ceiling: Social Mobility and Britain’s Elite Occupations’, 187 Law and Justice Party: 69, 71, 73 Lawson, Nigel: 205 Le Pen, Jean-Marie: victory in final round of French presidential elections (2002), 49, 69 Le Pen, Marine: 53; electoral strategies of, 73 Leadbeater, Charles: 53 League of Nations: protocols of, 109 left-behinders: 20 Lega Nord: 69 Levin, Yuval: Fractured Republic, The, 232 liberal democracy: 2, 31, 55 Liberal Democrats: 23, 53–4; members of, 16; supporters of, 38, 78 Liberal Party (Canada): members of, 13 liberalism: 4–5, 12–13, 29–31, 55, 76, 119, 127–8, 199, 233; Anywhere, 27–8; baby boomer, 6; double, 1, 63; economic, 11; graduate, 216–17; meritocratic, 34; metropolitan, 216; orthodox, 13–14; Pioneer, 44; social, 4, 11 libertarianism: 8, 11, 22, 39, 44 Libya: 84; Civil War (2011), 225 Lilla, Mark: 35 Lind, Michael: 105, 135 Livingstone, Ken: 136 Lloyd, John: 56 London School of Economics (LSE): 54, 137–8, 140, 183 Low Pay Commission: findings of, 170 Lucas Industries plc: 172 male breadwinner: 149, 194, 195, 198, 206, 207 Manchester University: faculty of, 131 Mandelson, Peter: British Home Secretary, 61; family of, 61 Mandler, Peter: 135 Marr, Andrew: 53, 181 Marshall Plan (1948): 92 mass immigration: 14, 55, 104–5, 118–19, 121–4, 126–7, 140, 228–9; accompanied infrastructure development, 137–9; brain-drain issue, 102; debate of issue, 81–2; freedom of movement debates, 100–3; housing levels issue, 138–9; impact on wages, 152; integration, 129–32, 140–2; non-EU, 124–5; opposition to, 16–17, 120, 220 May, Theresa: 63, 179, 183, 198–9; administration of, 173, 176, 187, 191, 230; British Home Secretary, 124–5; ‘Citizens of Nowhere’ speech (2016), 31; political rhetoric of, 15, 31, 226 McCain, John: electoral defeat of (2008), 68 meritocracy: 152, 179–80, 190; critiques of, 180–1; perceptions of, 182–3 Merkel, Angela: reaction to refugee crisis (2015), 71 Mexico: borders of, 21 migration flows: global rates, 82, 87; non-refugee, 82 Milanovic, Branko: 126; concept of elephant curve, 87 Miliband, Ed: 78, 189 Mill, John Stuart: ‘harm principle’ of, 11–12 Millennium Cohort Study: 159 Miller, David: concept of ‘weak cosmopolitanism’, 109 Mills, Colin: 185 Mitterand, François: 94, 97 mobility: 8, 11, 20, 23, 36, 37, 38, 153, 167, 219; capital: 86, 88; geographical, 4, 6; social, 6, 33, 58, 152, 168, 179, 180, 182, 183–191, 213, 215, 220, 226, 231 Moderate Party: members of, 70 Monnet, Jean: 94–5, 97, 103–4 Morgan Stanley: 171 Mudde, Cas: observations of populism, 57 multiculturalism: 14, 50, 141–2; conceptualisation of, 106; laissez-faire, 132 narodniki: 54 national identity: 14, 38, 41, 111–12; conceptualisations of, 45; indifference to, 41, 46, 106, 114; polling on, 41 nationalism: 38, 46–7, 105; chauvinistic, 107, 120; civic, 23, 53; extreme, 104; moderate, 228; modern, 112; post-, 8, 105–6, 112; Scottish, 221 nativism: 57 Neave, Guy: 36 net migration: 126; White British, 136 Netherlands: 13–14, 50, 69, 73, 75, 99–100; Amsterdam, 49, 51; immigrant/minority population of, 50–1; Moroccan population of, 50–1 Netmums: surveys conducted by, 205–6 New Culture Forum: members of, 144 New Jerusalem: 105 New Society/Opinion Research Centre: polling conducted by, 33 New Zealand: 160 Nextdoor: 114 non-governmental organizations (NGOs): 21; refugee, 82 Norris, Pippa: 57 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): 91; opposition to, 62 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): 85, 92; personnel of, 84 Norway: 69 Nuttall, Paul: leader of UKIP, 72; Obama, Barack: 67; approval ratings of, 60; electoral victory of (2012), 68; healthcare policies of, 22–3; target of birther movement, 68 O’Donnell, Gus: background of, 15–16; British Cabinet Secretary, 15 O’Leary, Duncan: 232 Open University: Centre for Research on Socio-Cultural Change (CRESC), 172–3 Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003–11): political impact of, 56 Orbán, Victor: 69, 218 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD): 201, 204; report on education levels (2016), 155–6; start-ups ranking, 173 Orwell, George: Nineteen Eighty-Four, 108–9 Osborne, George: 189; economic policies of, 4, 226 Oswald, Andrew: 171 Ottoman Empire: collapse of (1923), 107 outsider nation: concept of, 61, 64 Owen, David: 99 Oxford University: 15, 35, 179, 186; Centre on Skills, Knowledge and Organisational Performance, 151; faculty of, 31, 151; Nuffield College, 32 Pakistan: persecution of Ahmadiyya Muslims in, 84 Parris, Matthew: 115 Parsons, Talcott: concept of ‘achieved’ identities, 115 Party of Freedom (PVV): 69; ideology of, 73; supporters of, 50, 76 Paxman, Jeremy: 42 Pearson: ownership of Higher National Certificates (HNCs)/Higher National Diplomas (HNDs), 157 Pegida: ideology of, 73 Pessoa, Joao Paulo: 88 Phalange: 74 Phillips, Trevor: 133 Pioneers: characteristics of, 43–4 Plaid Cymru: supporters of, 38 Podemos: 53, 64 Poland: 56, 69, 73; migrants from, 25–6, 121 Policy Exchange: ‘Bittersweet Success’, 188 political elites: media representation of, 63–4 populism: 1, 5, 13–14, 49–52, 55–6, 60, 64, 67, 69–74, 81; American, 54, 65; British, 63; decent, 6, 55, 71, 73, 219–20, 222, 227, 233; definitions of, 54; European, 49, 53, 65, 68–9, 74; left-wing, 54, 56; opposition to, 74; right-wing, 33, 51, 54 Populists: 54 Portillo, Michael: 31 Portugal: migrants from, 121, 125 post-industrialism: 6 post-nationalism: 105 poverty: 83, 168; child, 183–4, 200, 204; extreme, 87; reduction of, 78, 200; wages, 231 Powell, Enoch: ‘Rivers of Blood’ speech (1968), 127 Professionalisation of politics: 59 Progress Party: 69 progressive individualism: 5 Progressive Party: founding of (1912), 54 proportional representation: support for, 228 Prospect: 14, 91, 136 Prospectors: characteristics of, 43 Protestantism: 8, 213 Putin, Vladimir: 218 Putnam, Robert: 22; theory of social capital, 110 racism: 32, 73–4, 134; observations in BSA surveys, 39; societal views of, 39; violent, 127 Rashid, Sammy: Sheffield report, 155 Reagan, Ronald: 58, 63; approval ratings of, 60 Recchi, Ettore: 104 Refugee Crisis (2015–): 83–4; charitable efforts targeting, 21–2; government funds provided to aid, 83; political reactions to, 71 Relationships Foundation: 202 Republic of Ireland: 99; high-skill/low-skill job disappearance in, 151; property bubble in, 98 Republican Party: ideology of, 62, 65; members of, 68 Resolution Foundation: 87–8; concept of ‘squeezed middle’, 168–9; reports of, 171 Ricardo, David: trade theory of, 101 Robinson, Eric: 36 Rodrik, Dani: 82, 89; concept of ‘hyperglobalisation’, 88; theory of ‘sane globalisation’, 90 Romania: 26; accession to EU, 225 (2007); migrants from, 102, 126 Romney, Mitt: electoral defeat of (2012), 68 Roosevelt, Theodore: leader of Progressive Party, 54 Rousseau, Jean-Jacques: 156 Rowthorn, Bob: 149 Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS): personnel of, 168 Royal College of Nursing: 140 Rudd, Amber: foreign worker list conflict (2016), 17 Ruhs, Martin: 126 Russell Group: 55; culture of, 37; student demographics of, 130–1, 191 Russian Federation: 2, 92; Moscow, 218; St Petersburg, 218 Rwanda: Genocide (1994), 82 Saffy factor: concept of, 199, 221–2 Scheffer, Paul: 85; ‘Multicultural Tragedy, The’ (2000), 49–50 Schumann, Robert: 94 Sciences Po: personnel of, 104 Scottish National Party (SNP): 1, 23, 54, 112; electoral performance of (2015), 75; ideology of, 53 Second World War (1939–45): 105, 194; Holocaust, 109 Security and identity issues: 41, 78, 81 Settlers: characteristics of, 43 Sikhism: 131 Singapore: 101, 128; education levels in, 156 Slovakia: 69, 73–4 Slovenia: adoption of Euro, 98–9 Smer: 69, 73 Smith, Zadie: 141–2 Social Democratic Party: supporters of, 75–6 social mobility: 6, 33, 58, 179–80, 183, 187, 189–91, 220; absolute mobility, 184, 188; relative mobility, 184; slow, 168; upward, 152 Social Mobility Commission: 161, 179–80 socialism: 49, 72, 183, 190 Somewheres: 3–5, 12–13, 17–18, 20, 41–3, 45, 115, 177, 180, 191, 214, 223, 228; characteristics of, 5–6, 2, 32; conflict with Anywheres, 23, 79, 81, 193, 215; conservatism, 7–8; employment of, 11; European, 103; immigration of, 106; moral institutions, 223–4; political representation/voting patterns of, 13–14, 24–6, 36, 53–5, 77–9, 124, 227; political views of, 71, 76, 109, 112, 119, 199, 218, 224–6, 232; potential coalition with Anywheres, 220, 222, 225–6, 233; view of migrant integration, 134 Sorrell, Martin: 31 Soskice, David: 159 South Korea: 86 Soviet Union (USSR): 92, 188; collapse of (1991), 82, 107 Sowell, Thomas: 30; A Conflict of Visions, 29 Spain: 53, 56, 64, 74; government of, 98; migrants from, 125; property bubble in, 98 Steinem, Gloria: 198 Stenner, Karen: 30, 44, 122, 133, 227; Authoritarian Dynamic, The, 30–1 Stephens, Philip: 108 Sun, The: 227 Sutherland, Peter: 31–2 Sutton Trust: end of mobility thesis, 183–5 Swaziland: 135 Sweden: 56, 70, 100; general elections (2014), 70; Stockholm, 143; taxation system of, 222 Sweden Democrats: 70; electoral performance of (2014), 70; ideology of, 73 Switzerland: 37 Syria: Civil War (2009–), 82, 84 Syriza: 53, 69 Taiwan: 86 Teeside University: 164 terrorism: jihadi, 71, 74, 129 Thatcher, Margaret: 58, 63, 95, 189, 205; administration of, 169; economic policies of, 176 Third Reich (1933–45): 104; persecution of Jews in, 17 Times Education Supplement: 37 Timmermans, Frans: EU Commissioner, 128 Thompson, Mark: Director-General of BBC, 15 trade theory: principles of, 101 Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP): 89; support for, 225 Trump, Donald: 50, 62, 74, 85; electoral victory of (2016), 1–3, 5–7, 13, 27, 30, 64–8, 81, 232; political rhetoric of, 14, 22–3, 51, 54, 66–7; supporters of, 56, 67 Tube Investments (TI): 172 Turkey: 218 Twitter: use for political activism, 79 Uber: 140 UK Independence Party (UKIP): 53, 55, 63–4, 69, 71–3, 228; electoral performance of (2015), 75; European election performance (2009), 71–2; members of, 13; origins of, 72; supporters of, 24, 35, 38, 72, 75, 143, 168, 216, 222 ultimatum game: 52 Understanding Society: surveys conducted by, 37–8, 202 unemployment: 101–2; gender divide of, 208–9; not in employment, education or training (Neets), 151–2, 190; youth, 139, 151–2, 166 Unilever: 175 United Kingdom (UK): 1–3, 8, 11–12, 21, 27–8, 31, 33, 41, 44, 59–60, 69, 73, 75, 81, 83, 91, 111–12, 147, 165, 173, 180, 193–5, 199, 204, 217, 227; Aberdeen, 136; accession to EEC (1973), 93; Adult Skills budget of, 161, 225; apprenticeship system of, 154, 157, 162–3, 166; Birmingham, 7, 123, 166; Boston, 121; Bradford, 133, 136; Bristol, 136; British Indian population of, 77; Burnley, 151; Cambridge, 136; City of London, 95, 106, 174; class system in, 58–9, 75, 123, 135–6, 149–52, 172, 182–3, 186, 195; Dagenham, 136; Department for Education, 206; Department for International Development (DfID), 224; Divorce Law Reform Act (1969), 196; economy of, 152, 170; Edinburgh, 54, 136; education sector of, 35, 147, 154–8; ethnic Chinese population of, 77; EU citizens in, 101; Finance Act (2014), 211; Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), 224; Glasgow, 136; high-skill/low-skill job disappearance in, 150–1; higher education sector of, 35–7, 47, 159–62, 164–7, 179, 208, 230–1; Home Office, 17; House of Commons, 162; general election in (2015), 60; House of Lords, 31; Human Rights Act, 123, 225; income inequality levels in, 169–70, 172, 177, 184–5; labour market of, 16, 26, 124, 140–1, 148, 150–1, 152, 225; Leicester, 133; Leeds, 161; London, 3–4, 7, 10–11, 18–19, 24, 26, 34, 37, 59, 79, 101, 114–15, 119, 123, 131, 133–45, 151, 168, 216, 218, 226, 228, 232–3; Manchester, 123, 136, 151, 161, 228; manufacturing sector of, 17, 88; mass immigration in, 122–4, 126–7, 228–9; Muslim immigration in, 41–2, 44; Muslim population of, 127, 130; National Health Service (NHS), 72, 91, 111, 120, 140, 144, 200–1, 229; National Insurance system of, 204; Newcastle, 131, 136, 161; Northern Ireland, 38; Office for Fair Access, 180; Office for Standards in Education, Children’s Services and Skills (Ofsted), 155; Office of National Statistics (ONS), 138, 144–5; Oldham, 133; Olympic Games (2012), 111, 143, 222; Oxford, 136; Parliamentary expenses scandal (2009), 56, 168; Plymouth, 131; public sector employment in, 171, 208–9, 229–30; regional identities in, 3–4, 186; Rochdale, 124; Scotland, 110, 138; Scottish independence referendum (2014), 53, 110; self-employment levels in, 171; Sheffield, 161; Slough, 131, 133; social mobility rate in, 58, 184–5, 187; start-ups in, 173–4; Stoke, 121; Sunderland, 52, 172; Supreme Court, 66; taxation system of, 222; Treasury, 16; UK Border Agency, 108; vocational education in, 163; voting patterns for Brexit vote, 7–9, 19–20, 23, 26, 36, 52; wage levels in, 168; Wales, 138; welfare state in, 199–203, 223–4, 231–2; Westminster, 54, 58, 60; youth unemployment in, 151–2 United Nations (UN): 102, 198; Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), 10; Declaration of Human Rights (1948), 109; Geneva Convention (1951), 82–4; High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR), 82, 84; Security Council, 99 United States of America (USA): 1–2, 6–7, 22–3, 36–7, 51, 57, 60, 74, 86, 89, 94, 128, 168, 193, 208, 227; 9/11 Attacks, 130; Agency for International Development (USAID), 224; Asian population of, 68; borders of, 21; Chinese Exclusion Act (1882), 54; class identity in, 65–6; Congress, 67; Constitution of, 57; education system of, 166; higher education sector of, 167; Hispanic population of, 67–8, 85; House of Representatives, 67; immigration debate in, 67–8; Ivy League, 36, 61; New York, 135; political divisions in, 65; Senate, 67 University College London (UCL): Imagining the Future City: London 2061, 137, 139 University of California: 165 University of Kent: 36 University of Sussex: 36 University of Warwick: 36; faculty of, 171 Vietnam War (1955–75): 29 Visegrad Group: 69, 73, 99 Vlaams Belang: ideology of, 73 wages for housework: 194 Walzer, Michael: 117–18 War on Drugs: 62 WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialised, Rich and Democratic): 27 Welzel, Christian: Freedom Rising, 27 Westminster University: 165 white flight: 129, 134, 136 white identity politics: 9, 67 white supremacy: 8, 68, 73–4 Whittle, Peter: 144 Wilders, Geert: 50, 76 Willetts, David: 164, 185 Wilson, Harold: electoral victory of (1964), 150 Wolf, Prof Alison: 162, 164–5; XX Factor, The, 189, 198 working class: 2–4, 6, 51–2, 59, 61, 65; conservatism, 8 political representation/views of, 8, 52, 58, 63, 70, 72; progressives, 78–9; voting patterns of, 15, 52, 75–6; white, 19, 68 World Bank: 84 World Trade Organisation (WTO): 10, 85, 89–90, 97; accession of China to (2001), 88 World Values Survey: 27 xenophobia: 2, 14, 50–1, 57, 71, 119, 121, 141, 144, 225 York, Peter: 138 York University: 36 YouGov: personnel of, 78; polls conducted by, 16–17, 42, 66, 79, 114, 132, 141 Young, Hugo: 93 Young, Michael: 119, 190; Rise of the Meritocracy, The, 180–1 Yugoslav Wars (1991–2001): 97 Yugoslavia: 97 Zeman, Milos: President of Czech Republic, 73


pages: 334 words: 104,382

Brotopia: Breaking Up the Boys' Club of Silicon Valley by Emily Chang

23andMe, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, affirmative action, Airbnb, Apple II, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, California gold rush, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, game design, gender pay gap, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, high net worth, Hyperloop, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microservices, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, post-work, pull request, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, subscription business, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, women in the workforce

Research shows that job: Emily Peck, “Here Are the Words That May Keep Women from Applying for Jobs,” Huffington Post, June 2, 2015, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/06/02/textio-unitive-bias-software_n_7493624.html. “We believe everyone deserves”: “Career Opportunities,” Slack, accessed Nov. 20, 2017, https://slack.com/careers#openings. Glassdoor, a company: Andrew Chamberlain, “Demystifying the Gender Pay Gap,” Glassdoor, March 23, 2016, https://www.glassdoor.com/research/studies/gender-pay-gap/. For computer programming: Andrew Chamberlain, “The Widest Gender Pay Gaps in Tech,” Glassdoor, Nov. 15, 2016, https://www.glassdoor.com/research/studies/gender-pay-gap/. In 2015, Slack performed: “Inclusion and Diversity at Slack,” Slack, Sept. 9, 2015, https://slackhq.com/inclusion-and-diversity-at-slack-e42f93845732. The company is also contributing: “Diversity at Slack,” Slack, April 26, 2017, https://slackhq.com/diversity-at-slack-d44aba51d4b6.


pages: 241 words: 78,508

Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead by Sheryl Sandberg

affirmative action, business process, Cass Sunstein, constrained optimization, experimental economics, fear of failure, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, old-boy network, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, social graph, women in the workforce, young professional

Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P60–239 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2011), 12, http://​www.​census.​gov/​prod/​2011pubs/​p60-​239.​pdf. Statistics cited are drawn from calculations of the gender pay gap based on median annual earnings. According to Dr. Pamela Coukos, a senior program advisor at the Department of Labor’s Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, the most commonly cited estimate of the gender pay gap is based upon the difference between men’s and women’s median annual earnings. Another widely used estimate of the gender pay gap is based upon the difference between men’s and women’s median weekly earnings. Some scholars believe weekly earnings are more accurate because they can better account for differences in the total number of hours worked, and since men often work more hours than women, this difference can account for some of the pay gap.


pages: 364 words: 119,398

Men Who Hate Women: From Incels to Pickup Artists, the Truth About Extreme Misogyny and How It Affects Us All by Laura Bates

4chan, Ada Lovelace, Boris Johnson, cognitive dissonance, coherent worldview, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, off grid, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Snapchat, young professional

A community in whose name over 100 people, mostly women, have been murdered or injured in the past ten years. And it’s a community you have probably never even heard of. A year before I started writing this book, it wasn’t a community Alex had ever heard of either. Alex was a disillusioned young white man in his early twenties. He wasn’t a hardened misogynist, just a bored guy surfing the internet. A bored guy with a vague awareness of people talking a lot about sexual harassment and the gender pay gap on the news, and an uneasy sense that maybe that wasn’t great for him. Alex was twenty-four and had never had a girlfriend. He didn’t have a lot of money and he felt frustrated and lonely. It didn’t seem fair that people were complaining about women’s needs when his lot in life, as a supposedly ‘privileged’ white guy, didn’t seem so splendid. Alex didn’t feel privileged at all, so it annoyed him when people said that he was.

When we praise our daughters for their looks and our sons for their strength. When we automatically reach for the word ‘bitch’ to describe a woman who has acted in a way we don’t like. This is not extreme misogyny, but it is there nonetheless, and it has an impact. Fifty per cent of men are not extremist misogynists. But a recent survey found that almost half of all American men believe the gender pay gap is ‘made up to serve a political purpose’.24 That is what extremely successful fear-mongering looks like. And so you find yourself sitting on a panel at a literary festival, faced with a male audience member, who seems very nice and well-meaning, asking you, half-apologetically, how men are supposed to support movements like #MeToo when there is ‘evidence’ that thousands of innocent men have lost their jobs for no reason.

This was very different from the clumsily worded, badly thought-out jab about drivers in Saudi Arabia. It was co-ordinated, confident and smooth. Particular themes started cropping up again and again. Why should we listen to you when women lie about rape? Feminism is a man-hating conspiracy designed to let women take over the world when men are the real victims of gender inequality in today’s society. Men are actually more likely to be victims of domestic violence than women. The gender pay gap is a myth. The tone was breathless and defiant; the pose adopted was one of crusaders, speaking truth to power. The boy who quite calmly accused me of lying about my own sexual assault was not an outlier. He was part of something bigger. Now, having spent many months immersed in the manosphere, the arguments and their wording are immediately recognisable. But, at the time, I was baffled as to where these sentiments were coming from.


pages: 296 words: 86,188

Inferior: How Science Got Women Wrong-And the New Research That's Rewriting the Story by Angela Saini

Albert Einstein, demographic transition, Drosophila, feminist movement, gender pay gap, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, out of africa, place-making, scientific mainstream, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, women in the workforce

Small individual choices, multiplied over millions of households, can have an enormous impact on how society looks. The Institute for Women’s Policy Research in the United States estimates that in 2015 women working full time earned only seventy-nine cents for every dollar that a man earned. In the United Kingdom, the Equal Pay Act was passed in 1970. But today, according to the Office for National Statistics, a gender pay gap of more than 18 percent still exists, although it’s falling. In the scientific and technical activities sector this gap is as big as 24 percent. Housework and motherhood aren’t the only things affecting gender balance. There’s outright sexism, too. In a study published in 2012, psychologist Corinne Moss-Racusin and a team of researchers at Yale University explored the possibility of gender bias in recruitment by sending out fake job applications for a vacancy of laboratory manager.

A New Science Says Yes” (Playboy), 124 ducks, mallard, 130 Dyble, Mark, 116–17 Eddy, Sarah, 5–6 education, sexism in, 8 Ehrenberg, Israel, 177 Eliot, Lise, 85 empathizing-systemizing theory (Baron-Cohen): critiques, 63, 67–70; supporting evidence, popularity, 52–55, 57, 63 endocrinology. See estrogen; hormone therapy for menopause; sex hormones; testosterone Engels, Friedrich, 146 the Enlightenment, view of science during, 16 Equal Pay Act, UK, and the gender pay gap, 5 The Essential Difference (Baron-Cohen), 54–55 essentialism, 93 Estioko-Griffin, Agnes, 114–15 estrogen: loss of, and menopausal symptoms, 159–60; in men, discovery of and implications, 25–26. See also hormone replacement therapy for menopause; menopause; sex hormones Eté, Democratic Republic of the Congo, alloparenting among, 102 Evans, Herbert, 26 Eve, as subservient woman, 19 evolutionary biology: data on sex differences, 94–95; and the development of language and intelligence, 112–13; explanations for female orgasm, 145; explanations for menopause and postmenopausal survival, 161–63, 165, 168–69; and the importance of primate research, 98–99, 154; sexist assumptions, 19, 14–22, 98–99, 116–17, 134, 136; and sexual selection theory, 121–25 evolutionary psychology, and gender-based concepts of monogamy and polygamy, 125–26 The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating (Buss), 126 The Evolution of Human Sexuality (Symons), 125 The Evolution of Sex (Geddes and Thomson), 17 The Evolution of Woman, an Inquiry into the Dogma of Her Inferiority to Man (Gamble), 20 extended families, and the grandmother hypothesis, 163 extended longevity hypothesis, 165, 168 Facts and Fictions of Life (Gardener), 74 fathers, fathering, 103, 106–7.

See also alloparents; partible patrimony Fausto-Sterling, Anne: on fetal sex hormones and brain development, 70; on human beings as developmental systems, 70; newborn and baby research, 55, 71–72; on Victorian concepts of femininity, 25; on Wilson’s sexist language, 160 female dominance, animals that show, 151–53 female genital mutilation (FGM), 139–41 females, women: and alloparents, 101–2; biases against in high-achieving disciplines, 2–5, 66; as biologically predetermined, 3, 120–21, 131, 133, 143; childcare role, and development of language, 112–13; and choice of mate, benefits to children, 130; and concepts of femaleness, femininity, 16, 23–28, 90; cooperation among, 156; disease incidence and virulence in, 36–37, 40–41; economic limitations and restrictions, 17–18; educational limitations and restrictions, 8; endurance and strength, 31–33, 113–14, 177; experience of, brain effects, 89; as gatherers, work involved in, 109–10; and the gender pay gap, 5; as hunters, 110, 114–15; intelligence and skill acquisition, 63–65, 72–76, 84, 90, 110; and the maternal instinct, 103–4; and mate selectivity, 133; monthly cycles, physiology of, 159; as natural leaders, 177–78; as naturally monogamous, 121–26; pro-male gender bias shown by, 5; sexual assertiveness, 128; sex-related response to medications, 44–45; unique characteristics, 61–62; unpaid labor performed by, 4–5; violence against, 178–79.


We Need New Stories: Challenging the Toxic Myths Behind Our Age of Discontent by Nesrine Malik

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, continuation of politics by other means, currency peg, Donald Trump, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, invisible hand, mass immigration, moral panic, Nate Silver, obamacare, old-boy network, payday loans, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas L Friedman, transatlantic slave trade

This contract is a sort of bargain, where one gives up some rights voluntarily to create an order in which everyone can pursue individual happiness. Every day, women are giving up rights involuntarily to live in an order which is not optimised for the pursuit of their individual or collective happiness. It is not even optimised for their safety. As hard-won abortion rights in the US are rolled back, as the gender pay gap continues to persist and even widen, and as cyber sexual harassment and online abuse becomes an everyday part of a woman’s life, women are told not only that things are fine, but that they have in fact, never been better. I was used to this logic, this myth of gender equality, but did not expect to see it spread in the boardrooms of London, the respectable media of Britain and the United States, and the polite society of ostensibly liberal circles in those two countries.

It’s an almost Sufi position, an ascetic Muslim sect that seeks oneness with God and a higher spirituality in general by eschewing the material ambitions of brief earthly life. Peterson’s position on women is that they also, because of their genetic make-up, should not wander from their natural perch in the order. He attributes their modern distress at being torn between the demands of work and home to the fact that women went walkabout off the nature reserve. According to Peterson, the gender pay gap, the average difference between the remuneration for men and women in employment (around 20 per cent to the benefit of men in the US and the UK) is largely a natural reflection of existing differences between men and women. These differences are explained in his adaptation of the ‘Big Five personality traits’ taxonomy: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism.

Immediately after his inauguration, Trump also instituted a policy known as the ‘Global Gag Rule’ that makes non-governmental organisations receiving US funds for global health issues prove they do not use their other funding to provide abortions or talk about the option with patients. NGOs could not use US aid for abortion services before this rule. Trump also stopped an Obama-crafted rule from going into effect that would make companies track payment data based on race and gender. The data was meant to help close the gender pay gap. On a global level, according to the 2017 World Economic Forum report on gender equality, there has been a similar reversal in positive trends. Now in its eleventh year, the Global Gender Gap Report has given WEF an opportunity to identify long-term trends in gender equality, and the picture that is emerging shows that there is a sort of terminal velocity that has been reached. The global gender gap measures four overall areas of inequality between men and women – economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, political empowerment, and health and survival.


pages: 333 words: 99,545

Why We Get the Wrong Politicians by Isabel Hardman

affirmative action, Boris Johnson, crowdsourcing, deskilling, Donald Trump, gender pay gap, housing crisis, John Bercow, old-boy network

One Tory who went for 10 selections says, ‘It is incredibly bruising, as you have to go to two or three stages for each, with train tickets, hotel rooms each time.’ The cost seems to disproportionately affect women, too: a survey of 3,107 Labour members by the Fabian Society found that 49 per cent of women who have stood for selection for Parliament, Europe or a devolved administration couldn’t afford what they needed for their campaign. Just 27 per cent of men said the same.3 Presumably this is because of the gender pay gap, and because the bulk of childcare responsibilities fall upon women, meaning they have less access to savings. Polly Billington stood for Labour in Thurrock in 2015. After 18 years with a Labour MP, the seat had fallen to the Tories in 2010, albeit by only 92 votes. Billington was horrified when she first visited the constituency, because she couldn’t believe her party had managed to lose a working-class seat.

INDEX abortion, 66–7, 113 Abu Qatada, 157 abuse, 6, 28–30, 74, 154, 164–7 addiction, xviii–xx, 6, 30, 160–62 adoption, xvi, 233 Advice Plus, 67 Afghanistan War (2001–14), 257 Airports Commission, 212 alcohol, xvii, xviii, 44, 140, 141, 157–62 Alcohol Concern, 160, 162 All-Party Parliamentary Group on Fire Safety, 203 all-women shortlists (AWS), 15 Alternative Vote referendum (2011), 270 Altmann, Rosalind, 196 ambition, 120 Amin, Afzal, 7–8, 18 anorexia, 162 Antcliffe, Katherine, 143 anti-Semitism, xii, 99, 154, 165, 179 asbestos, 232 Asda, xiv Ashfield, Nottinghamshire, xxv al-Assad, Bashar, 258 asylum, 61 Atkinson, Andrew, 21 Atlantic, The, 260 Atlas Stones, 3 Atos Healthcare, 242, 243 Austen, Jane, 165 Australia, 65, 109 aviation policy, 211–13 Bad Laws (Johnston), 226 Bailey, Bex, 147 Baker, Kenneth, 226 Baker, Steve, 77–8 Balls, Edward, 53, 186, 195 Bank of England, 89 Barker, Greg, 174 Barwell, Gavin, 204 Bath, Somerset, 29, 178–9 Batley and Spen, Yorkshire, 72–4 bedroom tax, 234–41 benefits, xx, 28, 61, 68, 87, 94, 107, 198, 234–45 Benghazi, Libya, 259 Benn, Anthony ‘Tony’, 172 Bennett, Kate, 143 Bercow, John, 55–6, 112, 269–70, 271, 274 bereavement, 122 Berger, Luciana, 165 Bermondsey and Old Southwark, London, 117 Best, Richard Stuart, Baron Best, 238 Billington, Polly, 9–10, 31 bills, 85–100, 105–6, 113–5, 127, 136–7, 273 ‘Christmas tree bills’, 105–6 Crime and Courts Bill (2012–13), 223–6 European Union Withdrawal Bill (2017–), 93, 262 Health and Social Care Bill (2011–12), 88, 127–8, 245–52 Immigration Bill (2014), 93 Investigatory Powers Bill (2015–16), 87 Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Bill (2011–12), 98, 230–34 and rebellion, 17, 92, 94–6, 136–7, 229 Welfare Reform Bill (2011–12), 235–41 Birmingham Yardley, 75 Birstall, Yorkshire, 73 black pudding, 109 Blackford, Ian, 22 Blackman, Robert ‘Bob’, 104–5 Blackwood, Nicola, 78 Blair, Anthony ‘Tony’, xx, 27, 175, 177, 216, 251 and Field’s welfare reform proposals, 129–30 and Iraq invasion (2003), 254–6, 259 Royal Commission on social care, 216 ‘sofa government’, 259 Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (1999), 135 Blears, Hazel, 154 bobbing, 52 de Bois Nick, 181, 182 Boles, Nicholas, 130 Bolsover, Derbyshire, 54 Bonehill-Paine, Joshua, 165 Borwick, Victoria, 202, 205 Botting, Peter, 10–11, 17 Brady, Graham, 85, 89, 268 Brand, Russell, xi–xii Bray, Angie, 104–5 bread-throwing, 78 Brennan, Kevin, 91 Brexit, x, 65, 93, 136, 175, 212, 262–5, 270–71 Brexit Select Committee, 265 Bridgen, Andrew, 239 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), xi–xii, 99, 203, 205, 222, 258 British Medical Association, 248 Brixton, London, 193 Brooke, Heather, 45 Brown, Gordon, 65, 121, 134, 196, 258 Buck, Karen, 67–70, 79, 205, 238 Budgets, 53, 101, 110, 134, 157, 194–8, 235 Building Control Alliance, 206 Bundestag, 273 Burn Book, 277 Burnham, Andrew, 216, 220, 279 Burstow, Paul, 248 Bush, George Walker, 255 Butler Review (2004), 258 by-elections, 6, 9 2012 Rotherham, 15 2014 Clacton, 139 2016 Richmond Park, 212 Byrne, Liam, xviii, 161 Cable, Vince, 41 Cairns, Alun, 79 Cameron, David, xv, xix, 12, 30, 58, 112, 127, 175, 196 constituency work, 64–7, 175, 234 EU negotiations (2016), 54 EU referendum (2016), 175 expenses scandal (2009), 45 Forestry Commission privatisation (2011), 117 and Halfon, 122 Health and Social Care Bill (2011–12), 127, 246, 248–9, 251 and Heathrow Airport third runway, 212 Islamic State airstrikes (2014), 259 legal aid cuts U-turn (2016), 64, 82, 233–4 Libya intervention (2011), 259–62 Lopresti–Jenkyns affair (2015), 142 on Major, 175 and Morgan, 127 National Security Council, establishment of (2010), 259 ‘neighbours from hell’, 223 ‘new politics’, 88 and pay rise, 48 and peerages, 98 and phone hacking, 223–4 reshuffles, 121 resignation (2016), 175–6, 177 and riots (2011), 222 and Smith, 134 and Syria debate (2013), 258 ‘We’re all in this together’, 194 and women’s issues, 201–2 Cameron, Ivan, 66 Cameron, Samantha, 201–2 Camira Fabrics, 109 Campaign to Protect Rural England, 116 Campbell, Menzies, 53–4, 161 Canada, 79 Cann, Jamie, 160 caravan tax, 195 Care Quality Commission, 65, 217 Carlton Club, 34 Carswell, Douglas, 96, 139 cash-for-access scandals, xii Census of Local Authority Councillors, xxiv Chakrabarti, Shami, 99 Champion, Sarah, 15 Change.org, 117 Channel Four, 150 charity tax, 196 Chaytor, David, 46 Chief Medical Officer, 67 Chilcot inquiry (2009–16), 255, 256, 258, 261 children, 9, 16, 28, 154–6, 280 child benefit, 198 childcare, 9, 16, 280 China, 109 Choudhry, Roshonara, 76 ‘Christmas tree bills’, 105–6 church roof tax, 196 Churchill, Winston, 57, 60 circular chamber, 56–7 City Seats Initiative, 26 clapping, 52 Clarke, Kenneth, 174–5 Clarke, Mark, xxi–xxii, 8, 18, 24 Clegg, Nicholas, 12, 99, 248, 249 Clifford Chance, xxi Coalition government (2010–15) Crime and Courts Bill (2012–13), 223–6 Dilnot Commission, 216–17 and fire regulations, 207 Fixed Term Parliaments Act (2011), 184, 213 Health and Social Care Bill (2011– 12), 88, 127, 245–52 House of Lords Reform Bill (2012), 272 legal aid cuts, 64, 82, 229–34 and National Trust, 116 Omnishambles Budget (2012), 134, 194–7 and petitions, 118 and Wright report (2010), 271–2, 274 Welfare Reform Bill (2011–12), 235–41, 242 Coffey, Therese, 52, 80 Colne Valley, Yorkshire, 109 Colorado, United States, 3 committee rooms, 37 Communities and Local Government, 106, 130, 133, 203, 222, 236–7 community charge, 193, 197 Cones Hotline (1992), 226–7 conferences, 6, 7 Conservative Party Amin scandal (2015), 7–8, 18 and bills, scrutiny of, 84, 85, 88, 89–90, 93, 96–7 Budgets, 101, 134, 194–8, 235 Carswell defection (2014), 96, 139 City Seats Initiative, 26 Cones Hotline (1992), 226–7 constituency work, 64–7, 77–9, 80 cost of candidacy, 18, 19, 21, 32 Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme (2012), 103–5 Dangerous Dogs Act (1991), 226 divorce rates, 138 Education Regulations (2015), 102–3 EU Withdrawal Bill (2017–), 93, 262 expenses scandal (2009), 45 Health and Social Care Bill (2011–12), 88, 127, 245–52 and Heathrow Airport third runway, 211–13 heckling, 53–4 and homosexuality, 16, 29 and housing benefit, 235 and incapacity benefit, 242 Immigration Bill (2014), 93 Islamic State airstrikes (2014), 259 Johnson, suicide of (2015), xxi and legal aid, 64, 82, 229–34 legislation, scrutiny of, 84, 85, 88, 89–90, 93, 96–7 Libya intervention (2011), 259–62 long-term economic plan, 110 losing candidates, 34, 178–83 membership figures, xxii National Security Council, establishment of (2010), 259 and National Trust, 116 1922 Committee, 85, 89, 176, 268 parliamentary assessment boards, 7–8, 14 parliamentary private secretaries (PPSs), 125 partners and spouses event (2015), 140 peers, 98 and phone hacking, 223–6 Plebgate (2012), 167 and pointless questions, 109–12 poll tax (1989–90), 193, 197, 219 Reckless defection (2014), 158 and riots (2011), 222 Road Trip, xxi selection process, 7–8, 9, 10–11, 12, 14, 16, 17–18 sex scandals, 142–3, 146–7, 152 and social care, 214, 216–20 Syria debate (2013), 258, 259 Treasury Questions (2014), 109–10 Victims of Overseas Terrorism Compensation Scheme (2012), 103–5 voter contact targets, 26 ‘We’re all in this together’, 194 Welfare Reform Bill (2011–12), 235–41 whipping, 89, 90, 93, 96–7 Women2Win, 14, 15 youth wing, xxi–xxii ConservativeHome, 18, 132 consideration of amendments, 100 constituency work, 38, 40, 42–4, 60–82, 139, 173, 192, 198, 205, 207, 229, 275 Conway, Derek, 45 Cook, Chris, 205–6 Cook, Robin, 254 Corbyn, Jeremy, 210–11 constituency work, 40 and heckling, 54 and House of Lords, 99 leadership election (2015), xxiii, 102, 210–11 Marris resignation (2016), 92 and Prime Minister’s Questions, 56, 217–18, 275 rebellions, 95, 136 and Venezuela, 277 cost of candidacy, 18–23, 32, 35 councillors, xxiv–xxv, 21, 80 Cowdy, Serena, 143 Cox, Brendan, 73, 74 Cox, Helen Joanne ‘Jo’, 63, 72–4, 76, 165 Crabb, Stephen, 145 Creasy, Stella, 15, 165 Crewe, Ivor, 90, 273 Crime and Courts Bill (2012–13), 223–6 Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme (2012), 103–5 cross-benchers, 97 Crouch, Tracey, 155, 163 Croydon South, London, 11 Cumbria, England, 70–71 Daily Mail, 136, 143 Daily Politics, 123 Daily Telegraph, 45 Dalyell, Thomas ‘Tam’, 257 Dangerous Dogs Act (1991), 226 Davies, Howard, 212 Davies, Philip, 114 Davis, David, 264–5 Davis, Rowenna, 4–5 death penalty, 113 death tax, 216, 220 dementia tax, 215, 219–20 dementia, 65–6, 209, 215 demotions, 133–5, 174 Denham, John, 4 Department of Health, 132, 133 departmental question sessions, 108–13 depression, 163, 167–8 Devine, James ‘Jim’, 46 Devizes, Wiltshire, 14 Devon, England, 88 Dickens, Charles, 54 Dilnot Commission, 216–17 disabled people, xiv, 66 Dismore, Andrew, 114 divorce, 6, 30, 80, 138–41, 163 Dobson, Frank, 84 domestic violence, xx, 199, 201, 232, 237 Don Valley, Doncaster, xvi dopamine, xix Dorrell, Stephen, 252 Dorries, Nadine, 35 Down’s syndrome, 66–7 Doyle-Price, Jackie, 31 draft bills, 87 Draft Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme (2012), 103–5 Draft Victims of Overseas Terrorism Compensation Scheme (2012), 103–5 dressing-downs, 26 Dugher, Michael, 53 Duncan Smith, Iain, 257 dysfunctional upbringings, xvi East Ham, London, 76 East Worthing and Shoreham, Sussex, 79 eating disorders, 161, 162 Economic and Social Research Council, xxiii Ecorys, 222 Education Department, 135–6 Education Regulations (2015), 102–3 Education Select Committee, 135–6 ego of government, 87, 109, 240, 250 elephant, 27 Ellwood, Tobias, 48–9 Elphicke, Charles, 152 Emergency Budget (2010), 235 Employment and Support Allowance Regulations (2008), 242 Enfield North, London, 181 English Defence League, 7–8 Equality and Human Rights Commission, xxvi ‘Equity and Excellence’, 247 Erskine May, 54 ethnic minority MPs, xiii–xiv, 17 Eton College, xiii European Council, 64 European Union (EU), x, 54, 64, 65, 93, 129, 136, 175, 212, 262–5 European Union Withdrawal Bill (2017–), 93, 262 Evans, Jonathan, 104–5 Evans, Nigel, 230, 233 Evening Standard, 56, 176 executive, 84, 93, 95, 100–106, 111, 113, 120, 122, 136, 254–65 expenses scandal (2009), xii, 44–7, 173, 271 Fabian Society, 9, 16 Fabricant, Michael, 78–9 Facebook, 29, 30 Fallon, Michael, 146 family, 29, 39, 141, 158, 172 children, 9, 16, 28, 39, 154–6, 280 and constituencies, 43, 139–40 and loneliness, 158, 163 and losing seats, 154, 187–8 marriage, 6, 30, 80, 138–46, 163, 173, 187–8 money problems, 20, 32 and resignations, 172, 173 sitting hours, 39, 158 Farage, Nigel, 210 Farron, Timothy, 70–71, 98 Field, Frank, 130 Field, Mark, 143 filibustering, 113–15, 278 Fixated Threat Assessment Centre, 74 Fixed Term Parliaments Act (2011), 184, 213 Fleetwood, Lancashire, xvii Flint, Caroline, xvi–xviii, 134 Flint, Peter, xvi–xvii Folkestone and Hythe, Kent, 11 food banks, 72 Foreign Affairs Select Committee, 257, 261, 264 Forestry Commission, 117 Forth, Eric, 54 Frazer, Lucy, 59 Freedom of Information, 45 Friday sessions, 113–15 Friends of the Earth, 116 Fuller, Richard, 239 Gaddafi, Muammar, 259–61 Gardiner, Barry, 55 Garrick Club, london, 114 gastrointestinal surgeons, 228 Gauke, David, 112, 270 Gay, Oonagh, 62 gender pay gap, 9 general election, 1997, xvii, 31, 175 general election, 2001, 15, 160 general election, 2005, 15, 35 general election, 2010, 14, 20, 31, 185, 237 general election, 2015 Amin, Afzal, 7–8, 18 Atkinson, Andrew, 21 Billington, Polly, 9–10, 31 Burnham, Andrew, 279 Cable, Vince, 41 cost of candidacy, 18, 20–21, 22, 23, 32, 35 Davis, Rowenna, 4–5 Godfrey, Kate, 27 Liberal Democrat losses, 34 ‘long-term economic plan’, 110 losing candidates, 179, 181, 185 Mathias, Tania, 40–41 Onn, Melanie, 15 Mann, Scott, 25 national swing, 31, 34 resignations, 174 Scott, Lee, 179 Scottish Labour, 38–9 selection process, 4–5, 7–8, 9–10, 15 Slade, Vikki, 20–21, 32 Streeting, Wes, 35 tax lock, 218 Watkins, Dan, 24 general election, 2017, x, xiii, xxiii, 5, 31, 176, 181, 213, 281 Atkinson, Andrew, 21 Cable, Vince, 41 cost of candidacy, 21, 23 Goldsmith, 212 Howlett, Ben, 178–9 losing candidates, 181–2, 183, 184 and social care, 218–20 General Medical Council, xi Germany, 273 Gerrard, Neil, 243 Gilligan, Andrew, 258 Glasgow Central, Scotland, 71–2 Glen, John, 78 ‘glorified social work’, 60, 63, 173 Godfrey, Kate, 27–8, 32 Goldsmith, Zac, 212 Goldsworthy, Alison, 150–51 Goodman, Helen, 52 Google, 111 gossip, 123, 129, 170 Gove, Michael, xvi, 64, 128, 133, 143, 233–4 granny tax, 195–6 Grant, Helen, 104–5 Gray, James, 81 Grayling, Christopher, 132–3, 233 Great Grimsby, Lincolnshire, 15 Greatrex, Thomas, 91 Green Belt, 116 green papers, 87 Green, Damian, 146 Green Party, xxiii, 96, 280 Greening, Justine, 129, 212 Greggs, 195 Grenfell Tower fire (2017), 198, 202–8 Grieve, Dominic, 93 Guildford, Surrey, ix Gummer, Ben, 231 Gurling, Sarah, 160 Hackney, London, 9 Hague, William, 174, 260 Halfon, Robert, 122 Hames, Duncan, 155 Hammond, Philip, 270 Hancock, Matt, 121 Hands, Greg, 121, 139–40 Hanningfield, Lord, see White, Paul Hansard Society, 40, 49, 56, 102, 111, 262 Harlow, Essex, 122 Harman, Harriet, 15 Harrow East, London, 29 Hartley-Brewer, Julia, 146 Harvey Nichols, xxii Havant, Hampshire, 111 Have I Got News for You, 123 Healey, John, 78 Health and Social Care Bill (2011– 12), 88, 127–8, 245–52 Heath, David, 188 Heathrow Airport, 211–13 heckling, 53–5 Hereford, Herefordshire, 21 Heys, Mary Kate, 65 Hill, Fiona, 182 Hinds, Damian, 231 Hinduism, 29 HMRC (Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs), 106–7 Hodge, David, 217 Hodge, Margaret, 106–7, 108, 174, 247 homelessness, 199 homogeneity, 192 homosexuality, 16, 29, 113 Hosie, Stewart, 143 House Business Committee, 272 House of Commons, 36–43, 51–9, 276–7 address, terms of, 51 bobbing, 52 Budget, 53 clapping, 52 debates, 37, 38, 39, 42 departmental question sessions, 108–13 as dysfunctional, 41–3 facilities, 36 Friday sessions, 113–15 heckling, 53–5 language rules, 51–5 layout, 36, 41 legislation, 13, 17, 37, 50, 52, 58, 81–2, 83–97 maiden speeches, 51, 63, 72 private members’ bills, 113–15 Press Gallery, 73 Prime Minister’s Questions, 52, 53, 55–6, 112, 123, 199, 217–18, 271, 275–6, 277 Queen’s Speech, 55 renovation, need for, 36, 214 sitting hours, 39, 158 Scottish Questions, 110–11 Speaker, 51–2, 55 House of Lords, 84, 85, 86, 94, 95, 97–100, 102, 238, 250, 267 housing, 67–70, 82, 87, 107, 116, 130, 202–8, 234–41 Howlett, Ben, 29, 161, 162, 178–9, 182 Huddersfield, Yorkshire, 109 Hughes, Simon, 117 Hunt, Jeremy, 125, 128, 219, 252 Hunt, Tristram, 68 Hutton, John, 242, 243 Hutton inquiry (2003–4), 258 ICAP, 98 Ilford North, London, 35, 179 immigration, 61, 71–2, 77, 118, 233 Immigration Bill (2014), 93 Impress, 225 incapacity benefit, 241–5 incumbency factor, 24 Independent Parliamentary Standards Authority (IPSA), 47, 74–5, 181–2 Independent Press Standards Organisation (IPSO), 225 Inglese, Anthony, 107 Inside Housing, 203 Inside Out (Watt), xix International Development, 260 Investigatory Powers Bill (2015–16), 87 Iran, 128 Iraq War (2003–11), 76, 254–9 Islamic State (IS), 258, 260 Jackson, Stewart, 182 Javid, Sajid, 219 Jenkin, Anne, 14 Jenkyns, Andrea, 142–3 Jobseeker’s Allowance, 94 John Lewis, 45 Johnson, Alan, 48 Johnson, Boris, 123, 128–9, 166, 210, 212 Johnson, Elliott, xxi Johnston, Philip, 226 jolly hockey sticks, 15 Jones, Fiona, 160 Jones, Kevan, 168, 169 journalists, 36, 42, 73, 123, 131, 133, 159, 167, 198–9 phone hacking, 223–6 Jowell, Tessa, 132 Kelly, David, 258 Kempen, Katie, 200 Kennedy, Charles, 160, 161 Kenny, Bernard, 73 Kensal Rise, London, 70 Kerevan, George, 89 KGB (Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti), 78–9 King, Anthony, 12, 90, 273 Kumaran, Uma, 29 Labour Party all-women shortlists (AWS), 15–16 and anti-Semitism, 99 Bailey rape scandal (2017), 147 and bills, scrutiny of, 87, 89, 91, 92 constituency Labour Party (CLP), 7 constituency work, 62, 67–70, 72–7, 79, 80 cost of candidacy, 19, 22, 23, 35 Cox murder (2016), 73, 76, 165 divorce rates, 138 dressing-downs, 26 Education Regulations (2015), 102–3 Employment and Support Allowance Regulations (2008), 242–3 expenses scandal (2009), 45, 46 Facebook support group shutdown, 30 factions, 27–8 and Health and Social Care Bill (2011–12), 247 heckling, 53, 54–5 and incapacity benefit, 242 and Iraq War (2003–11), 76, 254–9 leadership election (2015), xxiii, 102, 210–11 Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Bill (2011–12), 98 legislation, scrutiny of, 87, 89, 91, 92 and Libya intervention (2011), 259 losing candidates, 32, 182–3 Marris resignation (2016), 92 membership figures, xxiii peers, 99 and phone hacking, 224 Progress, 27 Representation Committee, 27–8 Scottish Labour, 38–9 selection process, 7, 9–10, 13, 14, 15–16 sexual harassment scandals, 147, 152 and social care, 216, 220 Teenage Pregnancy Strategy (1999), 135 Timms, stabbing of (2010), 76–7 and trade unions, 10, 13 voter contact targets, 26–7 and Welfare Reform Bill (2011–12), 237–8, 239, 240 whipping, 91 Lakanal House fire (2009), 202–3 Lansley, Andrew, 127, 174, 245–52 Law Society, 233 Leadsom, Andrea, 264 Leapman, Ben, 45 legal aid, 64, 82, 229–34 Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders Bill (2011–12), 98, 230–34 legislation, 13, 17, 37, 50, 52, 58, 81–2, 83–119, 177 bills, 85–100, 105–6, 113–5, 127, 136–7, 273 executive, 100–106, 254–65 secondary legislation, 100–106, 253 Leveson Inquiry (2011–12), 224–5 Lewis, Brandon, 203 Lewis, Ivan, 147 Liberal Democrats assessment days, 7, 8 constituency work, 61, 70–71 cost of candidacy, 19, 20–21 divorce rates, 138 and Health and Social Care Bill (2011–12), 245, 247–8, 249, 250 House of Lords Reform Bill (2012), 272 Leadership Programme, 15 and legal aid, 231 losing candidates, 34 membership figures, xxiii pavement politics, 61 peers, 99 Rennard scandal (2013), 150–51 selection process, 7, 8, 12, 15 tuition fee U-turn (2010), xxiii and Welfare Reform Bill (2011–12), 239, 240 see also Coalition government ‘Liberating the NHS’, 247 Libor crisis (2012), 98 Libya, 259–62 Lichfield, Staffordshire, 78–9 Liddell, Helen, 155 line-by-line scrutiny, 85 Livermore, Spencer, 26 Llwyd, Elfyn, 188, 257 lobby groups, 115–19 Local Government Association, xxiv, 217 local government, xxiv–xxv loneliness, 73, 160–61, 162, 163, 164, 170 Lopresti, Jack, 142–3 Los Angeles, California, 109 losing, 32–4, 177–88 loss-of-office payments, 181–2 Loughton, Timothy, 79, 135–6 Lucas, Caroline, 96, 280 MacNeil, Angus, 143 MacShane, Denis, 46 Madan, Ira, 159–60 Magic Rock, 109 Magritte, René, 224 maiden speeches, 51, 63, 72 maintenance grants, 102 Mair, Thomas, 73–4 Major, John, 175, 226, 252 Mak, Alan, 111–12 Maltby, Kate, 146 Mann, Scott, 25 Marie Antoinette, Queen consort of France, 195 marriage, 6, 30, 80, 138–46, 163, 173, 187–8 Marris, Robert, 92 Mathias, Tania, 40–41 matrons’, 62 May, Philip, 140–41 May, Theresa and Brexit impact assessments, 265 and ‘disloyalty’, 129 and domestic abuse, 201 general election (2017), x, 5, 176, 182, 183, 213, 281 and Heathrow Airport third runway, 212 and Hunt, 128 and Immigration Bill (2014), 93 and Morgan, 136 and National Trust, 116 and Reckless, 157 and sex scandals, 143 and social care, 217 McBride, Damian, 196 McCartney, Jason, 109–10 McDonagh, Siobhain, 199 Meacher, Michael, 89 Mean Girls, 277 mental health, 6, 68, 153, 161, 162– 71, 179, 183 Merrick, Jane, 146 mice, 77, 84, 199 Mid-Dorset and North Poole, 20–21 middle class, 171 Miliband, Edward, 5, 166, 195, 211, 224, 259 military, xv Miller, Maria, 224 Mills, Iain, 160–61 Milnthorpe, Cumbria, 70–71 Milton, Anne, ix, 169 ministerial positions, 126–37 Mirror, 143 Mitcham and Morden, London, 199 Mitchell, Andrew, 167 Mone, Michelle, 98 Monster Raving Loony Party, 19 Moran, Margaret, 46 Morgan, Nicola ‘Nicky’, 127, 136 Morley, Elliot, 46 Morris, David, 143 Mr Blair’s Poodle Goes to War (Tyrie), 255–6 Mulberry, 136 Mumsnet, 279 Mundell, David, 110 Murdoch, Rupert, 125 National Audit Office, 244 National Care Service, 216 National Council for Teaching and Leadership, x–xi National Health Service (NHS), 4, 48, 128, 169, 215, 245–52 National House Building Council, 206 National Planning Policy Framework, 116 National Security Council, 259, 261 National Trust, 116, 130 ‘neighbours from hell’, 223 Neil, Andrew, 99 Neill, Robert ‘Bob’, 233 ‘new politics’, 88 Newmark, Brooks, 142, 162 Newsholme foods, 109 Newsnight, 134, 222 Nimmo, John, 165 no platforming, 75 North Cornwall, 25 North Curtain Corridor, House of Commons, 36 Norton, Philip, 62 Nunn, Peter, 165 Obama, Barack, 260 Observer, 252 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, 168 old boys’ networks, xxvi, 158 Omnishambles Budget (2012), 134, 194–7 Onn, Melanie, 15 Opposition Day, 264 Order Papers, 52, 206, 225, 263 Osborne, George, 176–7, 196 Budget (2012), 193–7 Budget (2015), 101, 197–8 Evening Standard editorship, 176–7 and Gauke, 112, 270 and Health and Social Care Bill (2011–12), 248–9 patronage, 121 and social care, 217, 248–9 Treasury Questions, 109–10 out of touch, 49, 60, 80, 192, 209 Oxford University, 197 Oxford West and Abingdon, 78 Panorama, 203 paperwork, 67–8, 229 Paralympics, 196 parenthood, 9, 16, 28, 154–6 parking, 71 Parkinson’s disease, 66 parliamentary assessment boards, 7–8 parliamentary private secretaries (PPSs), 112, 124–5, 271 pasty tax, 195 Pathways to Politics, xxvi patronage, 57, 84, 95, 110, 121, 268 pavement politics, 61 Paxman, Jeremy, 111, 134 pay rise, 47–9 peerages, 98–9 Perry, Claire, 14–15, 121 personality cults, xxi–xxii Peter Pan, 114 petitions, 117–19 Pew Research Center, 269 Phillips, Jessica, 75, 123, 200 Philp, Chris, 11 phone hacking, 223–6 Pickles, Eric, 116, 130, 203, 237 de Piero, Gloria, xxv–xxvi, 48 Pincher, Chris, 54 ‘ping pong’, 100, 238 Plaid Cymru, 188, 257 pointless questions, 108–12, 277 poll tax, 193, 197 ‘pork barrel politics’, 269 pornography, 146 Portcullis House, London, 36, 90, 97, 161, 184 poshness, 14–15 postmen, 25, 104 pre-legislative scrutiny, 87 Prescott, John, 79 Press Association, 124 Press Gallery, 73 Prime Minister’s Questions, 52, 53, 55–6, 112, 123, 199, 217–18, 271, 275–6, 277 Prisk, Mark, 130, 133 private members’ bills, 113–15 private schools, xiii Privy Council, 51 programme motions, 272 Progress, 27 prospective parliamentary candidates (PPCs), 3–18 Public Accounts Committee (PAC), 106–7, 244 Public Administration Select Committee, 271–2, 274 public payback, 275–6 Pudsey, Yorkshire, 109 Pugh, John, 247–8 Purnell, James, 242 Queen Mary University, London, xxiii Queen’s Jubilee, 78 Queen’s Speech, 55 Question Time, xi–xii Quince, William, 122 Raab, Dominic, 93 Radio Four, 160, 171 Reading, Berkshire, 125 rebellion, 17, 92, 94–6, 136–7, 229 Reckless, Mark, 157–8 red boxes, 126, 132 Redwood, John, 104–5 Rees-Mogg, Jacob, 114 Reeves, Rachel, 15, 195 Reform, 276 relationships, 6, 29–30, 80, 138–56, 163, 173 Remy, 11 Rennard, Christopher John, Baron Rennard, 150–51 Repeal Bill, see European Union Withdrawal Bill Republican Party, 269 researchers, 36, 43, 91, 92, 117, 143, 144, 145, 146 reshuffles, 121, 126, 133–5, 174 responsibilities, 37–40 Richards, David, 260 Richmond Park, London, 212 riots (2011), 222 River Mersey Order (2016), 101 Road Trip, xxi Robertson, Ian, xix, xx Rochester and Strood, Kent, 157 Ross, Skye and Lochaber, Scotland, 22 rotten boroughs, 23 Ruddock, Joan, 37 Saddam Hussein, 254, 255, 256, 258, 259 ‘safe spaces’, 75 Saga, 196 salary, 47–51 Salisbury, Wiltshire, 78 Sandys, Duncan, 60 Sarkozy, Nicolas, 260 Scott, Lee, 141, 179–80 Scotland general election (2015), 32–3, 38–9, 52 independence referendum (2014), xxiii, 32–3, 39 Parliament, 273 Scottish Labour, 38–9 Scottish National Party and bills, 89 clapping, 52 constituency work, 71–2 cost of candidacy, 19–20, 22 Cowdy scandal (2016), 143 divorce rates, 138 independence referendum (2014), xxiii, 32–3 membership figures, xxiii Scottish Questions, 110–11 secondary legislation, 100–106, 253 Seldon, Anthony, 260 select committees, 106–8, 128, 264, 270, 272, 276, 278 Brexit Select Committee, 265 Education Select Committee, 135–6 Foreign Affairs Select Committee, 257, 261, 264 Public Administration Select Committee, 271–2, 274 selection process, xxi–xxiv, 7–18, 192 separation of powers, 267–71 sex-and-sleaze scandals, x, xii, 138, 142–54 sexual harassment, 146–54, 156 Shapps, Grant, 130, 236–7 Shaw, Brian, 3 Sheehan, Shaista, Baroness Sheehan, 99 Shelter, 199 Sheridan, James ‘Jim’, 231 Short, Clare, 254 single-parent households, xvi Six Figure Society, 19 Skinner, Dennis, 54–5 Slade, Vikki, 20–21, 32 Smith, Chloe, 134 Smith, David James, 160 Smith, Jacqui, 15, 45 Snake Pit, House of Commons, 36 social care, 65–6, 88, 127, 214–20, 245–52 Social Democratic Party (SDP), 61 social housing, 234–41 social media, 29, 139, 142, 165–7 Social Mobility Foundation, 279 ‘sofa government’, 259 Southampton, Hampshire, 4–5, 203 Southwark, London, 4, 202 Spain, 109 Speaker of the House of Commons, 51–2, 55–6, 112 Speaker’s Conference on Parliamentary Representation, 37 Speaker’s Parliamentary Placement Scheme, 279 special advisers, 6, 13, 22, 43, 85, 121, 130, 131, 144, 187, 192, 279 Spectator, The, 219, 224, 255 Spencer, Michael, 98 St Faith’s, Havant, 111 St George’s Day Court, 78–9 St Paul’s school, London, 197 Stafford, Staffordshire, 27 Stagecoach, 70 statutory instruments, 101, 102–3, 104 Stevens, Simon, 252 stillbirths, 122 Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, 68 Streatham and Norwood, London, 60 Streeting, Wesley, 35, 84, 102–3, 180 Suffolk, England, 80 suicide, xxi, 152, 161, 229, 240, 244 Sun, 28, 122, 175, 194–6 Sunday Times, 136 ‘support groups’, 110–11 surgeries, 60, 63–82, 192, 198, 205, 207, 229, 275 Surrey Council, 217 Sussex University, xxiii Sutton Trust, xiii Swann, Alexandra, 143 Swinson, Joanne, 155 Sylvester, Rachel, 248 Syria, 73, 258, 259, 260 ‘taking the politics out’, 211–13 talking heads, 186 tax credit, 101, 197–8 taxation social care, 214–20 taxation, 106–7, 122, 193–8 Taylor, John, Baron Taylor of Warwick, 46 teachers, x–xi, 133 Teenage Pregnancy Strategy, 135 Telegraph, 224 temporary accommodation, 199 testosterone, xix Thatcher, Margaret, 193, 197 Thewliss, Alison, 71–2 ‘they’, 221 TheyWorkForYou, 42 38 Degrees, 117 Thompson, Louise, 92 Thornberry, Emily, 15 Thurrock, Essex, 9, 31 Times, The, 233, 248, 251 Timmins, Nicholas, 249, 250 Timms, Stephen, 63, 76–7 Timothy, Nicholas, 182, 219–20 Tomlinson, Justin, 143 Tooting, London, xxii, 24 Totnes, Devon, 88 ‘totty’, 144, 148–9 town criers, 77–8 trade unions, 10, 12, 13, 22 Trainspotting, xviii Transparency of Lobbying, Non-Party Campaigning and Trade Union Administration Act (2014), 117–18 Treasury, 106, 112, 122, 127, 195 Budgets, 53, 101, 110, 134, 157, 194–8 Questions, 109–10 trolls, 164–7 Troubled Families Programme, 222 Trump, Donald, 119 Truss, Elizabeth ‘Liz’, 143, 231 Tugendhat, Thomas, 129 Turnbull, Malcolm, 65 Twickenham, London, 41 Twitter, 29, 139, 142, 165–7 Tyler, Liv, 246 Tyrie, Andrew, 89, 255–6, 257 UK Independence Party anti-politics, 210 and bills, 96 Carswell defection (2014), 96, 139 general election (2015), 5 membership figures, xxiii Reckless defection (2014), 158 Umunna, Chuka, 56–7 unconscious bias, 14, 228 Ungoed-Thomas, Jon, 45 United Nations (UN), 255, 256 Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), 214 United States, 268–9, 270 Universal Credit, 107, 238 University of Southampton, 50 Unum, 242 urgent questions (UQs), 112–13 Utterly Pointless Questions (UPQs), 111, 277 VAT (value-added tax), 195 Venezuela, 277 Victims of Overseas Terrorism Compensation Scheme (2012), 103–5 Vine, Sarah, 143–4 ‘Vly Be on the Turmut, The’, 78 Wakeley, Amanda, 136 Walker, Charles, 163, 164, 166, 168, 169, 171, 224–5 Watkins, Dan, 24 Watt, Peter, xix ‘We’re all in this together’, 194 weapons of mass destruction, 255, 258 Webb, Steven, 84, 94–5 weighing of dignitaries, 77–8 Weinstein, Harvey, 146 Welfare Reform Act (2007), 242–3 Welfare Reform Bill (2011–12), 235–41 Wentworth and Dearne, Yorkshire, 78 West Oxfordshire Conservative Association, 66 Westminster Bubble, ix–x, xii, xv Westminster North, London, 67–70 Westmorland and Lonsdale, Cumbria, 70–71 whips, 36, 57, 74, 83, 86–91, 94–7, 103, 136, 153, 169–70, 229 White, Paul, Baron Hanningfield, 46 Who Governs Britain?

tour (2012), xxv–xxvi Wilberforce, William, 197 Willetts, David, 174 Williams, Shirley, Baroness Williams of Crosby, 249 Williams, Stephen, 203 Wilson, Robert, 125 Wiltshire, Max, 186–7 Winner Effect, The (Robertson), xix Witney, Oxford, 64–7 Wollaston, Sarah, 88, 159, 248 Woman’s Hour, 160 women and abuse, 154, 165 in Brown government, 121, 134 in Cameron government, 134 and childcare, 9, 16, 280 and domestic violence, xx, 199, 201, 232, 237 and gender pay gap, 9 and motherhood, 16, 28 and periods, 200 and police custody, 200 and pregnancy, 28 and Prime Minister’s Questions, 52 and resignations, 173 and selection, xiii, 9, 14–17, 280 and sexual harassment, 146–54 and ticking boxes, 134 and sexism, 28, 144, 148–50, 154 Women’s Equality Party, 281 Women2Win, 14, 15 Wood, David, 62 Work and Pensions, 94, 107, 145, 236–7, 240, 242, 243, 244 World’s Strongest Man, 3, 34 Wrexham, Wales, 21 Wright, Anthony ‘Tony’, 89, 272, 274 Wright, Ben, 160–61 Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, 77–8 Yellow Submarine, House of Commons, 36 yes-men, 228–52, 253, 262 Yorkshire, England, 72–4 YouGov, xxv, 56 Young Legal Aid Lawyers, 61 Young, George, 118 youth wings, xxi Zaghari-Ratcliffe, Nazanin, 128


pages: 419 words: 119,476

Posh Boys: How English Public Schools Ruin Britain by Robert Verkaik

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Alistair Cooke, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Brixton riot, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Etonian, G4S, gender pay gap, God and Mammon, income inequality, Khartoum Gordon, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Livingstone, I presume, loadsamoney, mega-rich, Neil Kinnock, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Robert Gordon, Robert Mercer, school vouchers, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, trade route, traveling salesman, unpaid internship

But we have invited him to speak to the boys because we want to encourage free speech.’ To illustrate the point Spence refers to an incident involving alt-right polemicist and former Breitbart News editor Milo Yiannopoulos, who he describes as ‘a YouTube phenomenon who has built his reputation on deeply misogynistic views’. Spence recalls: ‘[He] was asked by the boys running the Economics Society to give a talk here on the myth of the gender pay gap. For the first time in my career as headmaster I said, “He’s not coming.” I thought his presence would be incendiary and not help sensible debate at a time when we had just created an equality society [looking seriously and sensitively at questions of gender and at gender politics] – the boys understood my decision.’ Milos Yiannopoulos, educated at a Kent grammar school, was less understanding, firing back an email in which he accused the college of closing down free speech: ‘I do enjoy winding up professional grievance mongers with the truth.

Among the exceptions were Gary Lineker and Chris Evans, who have both sent their children to public schools. Goodall wrote: ‘If we actually talked or even cared about this peculiar taboo, we might begin to see one of the reasons the gender and race pay gaps exist in the first place. Just think about that. If you send your child to private school it increases their chances of being one of the biggest names in TV and media by a factor of six.’ He added: ‘The gender pay gap may be too large but it’s not nearly as big as the class pay gap for the people who never made it in the first place because of their background. The injustice is pretty overwhelming: after all, are we really saying that those who are lucky enough to be born into households which can afford to pay for private school fees are six times more talented? Six times better imbued with the skills required to be a successful BBC actor, sports presenter or journalist?’

INDEX Abbott, Diane 181 Abromovich, Roman 197 abuse 207–20, 254 Adams’ Grammar School 172–3, 184 Addrison, John 210 Adonis, Andrew 240–1, 333 Africa 53–4, 314–15 Ahmad, Muhammad 37, 38–9 Aitken, Jonathan 255 Aldridge, Sir Rod 318 Alexander, Danny 148 Alfred the Great, King 14 Allan, Tim 169 Alpha Plus 316–18 Ametistova, Ekaterina 200–1 Ampleforth College 219, 237, 250–1 Anderson, Bruce 146 Andersdon, Dr Eric 105, 106, 115, 137 Anne, HRH Princess 110 Anthony, Vivian 108–9 Apostles Club 306 aristocracy 18, 22, 28 Arkwright, Richard 32 Arnold, Matthew 66 Arnold, Thomas 31, 67 Aspinall, John 156 Asquith, Herbert 64 al-Assad, Bashar 128, 196, 202 Attlee, Clement 87, 88, 89, 99, 180 Augustine, St 13–14 Australia 283 Baddiel, David 263–5 Bailey, Mark 227 Balfour, Arthur 33 Ball, Peter 216–19 banking 295–9 Banks, Arron 163, 164, 165 Bannon, Steve 164, 282 Barrington, Robert 202 Barton, Laura 305 Barttelot, Sir Brian 38, 40–1 Barttelot, Maj Edmund Musgrave 38–40 Barttelot, Sir Walter 40–1, 60–1 Bash camps 212–13, 216 BBC 298–300 beatings 21, 30, 211, 213–14, 215 Beckett, Andy 304–5 Bedales 182–3 Beefsteak Club 291–2 Bellak, Benjamin 138 Benn, Melissa 255, 268, 323–4, 339 Benn, Tony 96–7, 174, 175, 176, 180, 255–6 Bennett, Alan 1, 336–7 Bentham, Jeremy 66 Berezovsky, Boris 199 Beveridge, William 89 Blackadder Goes Forth (TV show) 62 Blair, Tony 103–6, 107, 109, 111, 179, 180–1 Blunkett, David 106–8, 109, 111 Blunt, Anthony 133 Bo Xilai 198 Board of Education 68–9, 69 ‘Boarding School Syndrome’ 270–1 Boarding Schools Corporation 98 Boer War 40, 52–4 Bonar Law, Andrew 64 Borwick, Tom 165 Bracken, Brendan 85–6 Brexit 127, 151, 161–3, 164–70; see also Farage, Nigel Bridgeman, Luke 292–3 British Army 36, 40–2, 55–64, 72–3, 224, 225 British Empire 30, 32, 33–5, 36–7, 38–40, 42–3, 44–5 and Second World War 74–5 British Expeditionary Force (BEF) 52 Brodie, Stanley 116 Brooke, Rupert 62 Brook’s 291 Brooks, Charlie 147 Brougham, Henry 29 Brown, Gordon 107, 287 Bruce, Charles 136 Brunel, Isambard Kingdom 32 Bryant, Chris 128 Buchanan, Mike 119 Buffet, Warren 329 Bullingdon Club 137, 141–2, 306 bullying 271, 273 Burgess, Guy 133 bursaries 226–35, 321–2, 332 Butler, Rab 77, 78–9, 81, 82 Butler, Robin, Lord 193 Byers, Stephen 107–8 Cable, Vince 167 Caldicott prep school 209–10, 215, 219 Callaghan, James 99, 180 Cambridge Analytica (CA) 164–6 Cambridge, HRH Catherine, Duchess of 191 Cambridge Spy Ring 133 Cambridge University 1, 25 Cameron, David 6, 105, 133–8, 139, 140, 274 and ‘big society’ 313, 315 and Conservative Party 143, 144–8 and Eton 119, 190 and EU Referendum 127, 161, 162, 166–7, 169, 170 and government 148–54 and Oxford 141–2, 143 and psychology 271, 273 and Russia 132 camps 212–16 Canning, George 33 Card, Tim 61 Cardigan, James Brudenell, 7th Earl of 56 Carey, George, Lord 217 Carpenter, John 17 Carswell, Douglas 161 Cash, Bill 161 Castle House Preparatory School 172 Catling, Susan 95, 96 Chakrabarti, Shami 181–3 Chamberlain, Neville 72 chantry schools 15, 24, 26 Charitable Uses Act (1601) 109 Charities Act (2006) 114–16, 223 charity 17, 47, 88–9, 114–21, 341 and law 109–10, 111 Charles, HRH Prince of Wales 105, 110, 143, 216, 217, 283 Charterhouse School 19–20, 195–6, 233, 257 China 197–8, 200, 203, 204 Christianity 13–14, 15, 24, 215–16 and muscular 35–8, 44, 67, 211 church, the 2, 13–15, 24, 211–19 Churchill, Winston 40, 72, 74, 78, 84, 286 and Bracken 86 and Eden 91 and Harrow 33, 77, 82–3 City, the 4, 292–3, 295–7 City of London School 17, 181 Clarendon, George Villiers, 4th Earl of 48, 49–51 Clark, Alan 62 Clark, Ross 194 Clarke, Kenneth 146, 147 class 22, 65–6, 86–7, 95, 237–8, 315–16 and the army 55–6 and government 91–3 and grammar schools 67–8 and the media 298–300 classics 30–1 Clegg, Nick 147–8, 181, 209–10, 327–8 Clifford, Adm Sir Augustus 34 Clive, Robert 42–3 Comenius, John 27 comprehensive schools 94–5, 255–6 Conrad, Joseph 39–40 conscription 52–3 Conservative Party 69, 86, 90, 92, 99–100, 101–2 and Cameron 143, 144–8 Cook, Henry 169 Cooke, Alistair 143 Coombs, Mark 163 Corbet, Richard 23 Corbyn, Ben 178 Corbyn, Jeremy 17, 121, 171–5, 176–80, 186, 314 Corbyn, Sebastian 178 corporal punishment 21 Cranmer, Thomas 11–12, 14 Crawford, David Lindsay, 27th Earl of 59–60 Crimean War 56 Cromwell, Oliver 27 Crosland, Anthony 95–6, 97, 255 Cruz, Ted 164 Cumberbatch, Benedict 252 Cummings, Dominic 165–6 Cust, Sir Lionel Henry 222 Czerin, Peter 144 Dacre, Paul 147 Daffarn, Edward 318 Dalton, Hugh 180 Damasio, Antonio 276 D’Ancona, Matthew 144 Darwin, Charles 30–1 Davidson, Jim 261–3, 266–7 Davison, Dick 108 De Carvalho, Alexander 168–9 De Freitas, Geoffrey 89 Deakin, Chloe 157, 158 Dean, Victoria 169 Debrett’s 289 Derham, Patrick 120 Dimbleby, David 149, 251 Disraeli, Benjamin 42 Doggart, Simon 215 donations 228–9 Dorries, Nadine 250–1 Dowding, Hugh 83 Duff, Grant 47–9, 50 Duffell, Nick 271, 272–3, 276–7, 284 Dulwich College 90, 156–61, 181–2, 192, 248, 330–1 and overseas franchises 203, 204 and sponsorships 239–42 Duncan, Alan 167 Eden, Anthony 64, 90–2 Edinburgh Academy 47 Edmiston, Robert, Lord 163 education 11–12, 13–15, 27, 321–4, 327–9 and Ragged Schools 37 and reforms 65–6 and rights 337–8 and Scotland 43–4 see also grammar schools; public schools; state schools Education Acts: 1902: 69 1918: 65 1944: 82, 87, 93 Education Review Group 117 Edward III, King 16 Edward IV, King 26 11-plus exam 82, 93 Elizabeth I, Queen 18, 19 Elizabeth II, Queen 133 Elliott, Matthew 165 Emms, David 157 employment 341–3 End of the ‘Old School Tie’, The (Worsley) 75–6 Endowed Schools Commission 50 English Civil War 27 entry requirements 18–19 Establishment, the 125–6 Eton College 3, 17, 19, 22, 204, 278–9 and admission 189–90 and alumni 33, 140–1 and bursaries 228–9, 230 and Cameron 119, 136–8, 140 and charity 99, 115, 221–3, 235–6 and Eden 91, 92 and exams 257 and fees 113, 188–9, 227 and foundation boys 50 and Goldsmith 155 and government 134 and grants 238 and international students 198–9 and Leggatt 293 and masters 46–7 and Oxbridge 25, 301 and poor boys 28–9 and Putin 127–32 and reforms 26–7 and Rifles 52, 53, 59 and sponsorships 242 and sport 35 and town 187–8 and Wellington 33, 41–2 see also Old Etonians EU Referendum 127, 150–1, 161–3, 164–70 Evans, Chris 298–9 exams 82, 93, 257, 267–8 Fabian Society 180 fagging 22, 29, 98, 104 faith schools 180–1 Fallon, Michael 62 Faraday, Michael 32 Farage, Nigel 156–9, 160–1, 162, 163, 167, 169, 248 and the establishment 283 and psychology 273 and Trump 282 Farr, Clarissa 278 Farron, Tim 153 fascism 157, 158 federations 238 fees 13, 19, 67, 69, 111–13, 194 and Eton 188–9 and subsidies 221–2, 224–35, 245–9 and university 260–1 Fettes College 103–6, 211 Finkelstein, Daniel 146 Finland 268, 344 First World War 54–64, 65–6 Fisher, Herbert 68–9 Fleming, David Pinkerton, Lord 79–81, 90 Fletcher, David 200, 201 Fletcher, Frank 68, 69 Foot, Michael 106, 180 Fox, Edward 156 Fox, Laurence 252–3 France 268–9 Fraser, Giles 211, 216 free scholars 16, 17, 18, 23, 50–1 Freemasons 193 French, John 61 French Revolution 28 Freud, Matthew 147 Gaitskell, Hugh 180 Galsworthy, John 66–7 Gascoigne, Michael 104 Gates, Bill 329 Geelong Grammar School 283 GEMS Education 111, 113–14, 204–6 gender pay gap 298, 299 gentlemen’s clubs 143–4, 169, 291–2 Germany 196, 268–9, 344 Ghosh, Helen 149 Gibb, Dame Moira 217, 218 Gill, Ameet 168 Girls’ Public Days School Trust 68 girls’ schools 229 Girls’ Schools Association 108 Gladstone, William 33, 37, 48 Goldsmith, James 155–6 Goodall, Lewis 298–9 Goodhart, David 320–1 Gordon, Gen Charles 36–8, 53 Gordonstoun 110, 211 Goschen, Giles, Viscount 135–6 Gove, Michael 144, 149, 161, 282, 322 and Brexit 166, 168 and psychology 273 and sponsorships 238 and subsidies 247–9 government 4–5, 6, 148–54 Gracie, Carrie 298 grammar schools 14, 15, 24, 30, 44, 56–7 and grants 93–4, 100–1 and Labour 183–5 and reforms 49–50, 67–8 Granville, Granville George Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl of 48 Gray, Herbert Branston 45 Grayling, Chris 161 Great Depression 69–70 Green, Francis 307 Green, Michael 145 Greenwood, David 208, 219 Gregory, Pope 13 Grenfell Tower 316, 317–19 Greville, Fulke 22 Guppy, Darius 289–90 Guru-Murthy, Krishnan 234–5 Haberdashers’ Aske’s 263–5, 300 Haig, Gen Douglas 61 Haileybury College 88, 89 Haldane, Richard Burdon 53 Halfon, Robert 249, 311, 333, 336 Halls, Andrew 194 Hammond, Richard 67 Hancock, Matt 342 Hannan, Daniel 161 Hanson, David 219 Harding, David 163, 168 Hardman, Robert 144 Hargreaves, Peter 163 Harman, Harriet 181 Harrison, Rupert 144, 153, 275 Harrow School 17, 23, 24, 29, 31–2, 68 and alumni 33, 34, 252–3 and bursaries 233–4 and Churchill 83 and foundation boys 50 and overseas franchises 203 and soldiers 52, 53 Hart, Basil Liddel 62 Hasan, Mehdi 327 Hastings, Max 277 Hastings, Warren 43 Haynes, Tim 227 Headmasters’ and Headmistresses’ Conference (HMC) 51, 119 Healey, Denis 175, 176 Heart of Darkness (Conrad) 39–40 Heath, Edward 99, 287 Heath, Lt Gen Sir Lewis ‘Piggy’ Macclesfield 74 Heatherdown 135–6 Henderson, Simon 235 Hendon County Grammar School 183–5 Henry, Hugh 210 Henry VI, King 19, 26, 221, 301 Henry VIII, King 18, 26 Henty, G.A. 53 Heseltine, Michael 145, 167 Higgins, Matthew James 46–7 Hillman, Nick 99, 100, 255, 302–3 Hilton, Steve 144, 153 Hitler, Adolf 3, 73 Hobsbawm, Eric 34 Hoey, Kate 161 Hogg, Charlotte 295–6 Hogg, Dame Mary 294 Hogg, Douglas 294–5 Hogg, Quintin 97, 294, 295 Hogg, Sarah 294–5 Holle, Arnold 196 homosexuality 35–6 Hong Chin 201 Hosking, Jeremy 163 Howard, Adam 283–4 Howard, Michael 146 Howard, Nicholas 152 Howe, Geoffrey 101–2 Howell, Steve 183–5 Hughes, Billy 90 Hughes, Thomas 35 Huhne, Chris 148 Hunt, Jeremy 271, 273 Hurtwood House 225 Hutton, Will 274 Huxley, Thomas 66 Ibori, James 201 immigration 156, 157, 162, 168, 264 imperialism 33–4, 53–4; see also British Empire Independent Inquiry into Child Abuse 210–11 Independent Schools Council (ISC) 110, 113, 116, 120, 288, 325–7 and charity 223, 224, 226 and sponsorships 238 India 42–3, 53 industrial revolution 32 inequality 306–12, 314–16, 321–4, 327–9 initiation ceremonies 21 international students 196–202 internships 341–2 Iremonger, William 91 Itoje, Maro 234 Iwerne Trust 212, 214 Jameson, James Sligo 39 Japan 73–4 Jardine, Cassandra 94–5 Johnson, Boris 6, 31, 128, 142, 150–1, 272 and Brexit 162, 166, 167, 168, 169 and bursaries 321–2 and the Establishment 125–6 and Eton 136, 190 and Guppy 289–90 and psychology 271, 273, 276–7 Johnson, Jo 149 Johnson, Stanley 292 Jones, Owen 274–5, 328 Jonson, Ben 23 journalism 274–5, 297–8 Journey’s End (Sherriff) 58 judiciary 5, 292–3 Keir Hardie, James 180 Kensington Aldridge Academy (KAA) 318–19 KGB 132, 133 King Edward’s School 68, 93–4 Kingston Grammar School 56, 57 Kinnock, Neil 180 Kipling, Rudyard 53, 64 Kitchener, Gen Herbert 54–5, 57 Korski, Daniel 168–9 Kynaston, David 328–9, 337 Labour Party 6, 69, 86–8, 99, 100–1 and Corbyn 171, 174–5, 176–80 and education 180–6, 328–9 see also New Labour Lammy, David 303–4, 343 Lamont, Norman 143, 145 Lampl, Sir Peter 116 Landale, James 150 language 20–1, 277 Lansman, Jon 175–6, 178–9 Lansman, Max 178 Latin 14, 30 Laws, David 148 Leach, Arthur 14, 27 Leach, Sir John 109–10 league tables 267–8 Leanders, Rocky 214–15 Leather, Suzi 114–15, 117 Leggatt, George 292–3 Lenon, Barnaby 226–7, 228, 233–4, 258–61, 279, 303, 325–7 Leonard, Richard 186 Leslie, Chris 179 Letwin, Oliver 148, 149, 271 Levellers 27 Lewis, Sir George 48–9 Li Wei Gao 201 Liddle, Rod 299–300 Lineker, Gary 195, 298–9 literacy 14, 15, 43 Little, Steven 231–2 Little, Tony 190, 193–4, 198, 199, 205–6, 278–9 and assisted places 226, 230, 235 and parents 256 Litvinenko, Alexander 128 Livingstone, David 43, 44 Llewellyn, Ed 144, 148, 152 Lloyd George, David 65 local education authorities (LEAs) 80–1, 89–90, 98 Lockwood, Chris 144 London 316–19, 334; see also City, the London Oratory 180–1 Loom of Youth, The (Waugh) 63, 70 Lyon, John 17 Macdonald, Ramsay 180 McDonnell, John 174–5, 178–9, 186 McGovern, Steph 298 McKenna, Alison 116 Maclean, Donald 133 Macmillan, Harold 92 McNeil, Rosamund 120 Madders, Justin 185, 311–12 Made in Chelsea (TV show) 325 Magnitsky, Sergei 128 Major, John 321 Major, Lee Elliott 305 Mallinckrodt, Edward 135 Manchester Grammar School 27–8, 68 Mandelson, Peter 88, 183 Marathon Asset Management 292–3 Marlborough College 52, 55, 79, 192, 232 Marshall, Patrick 209 Marshall, Sir Paul 167–8 Marxism 177–8 Mason, A.E.W. 53 Masonic lodges 145, 193 May, Theresa 69, 118–19, 121, 127, 129 and internships 341–2 and ‘shared society’ 313–14, 322–3 and sponsorships 243 Meacher, Michael 176 media 297–300 Mercer, Robert 163, 164 Merchant Taylors’ School 17, 21, 28, 42–3, 140, 300–1 Merivale, Charles 22–3 Middleton, Kate, see Cambridge, Duchess of Milburn, Alan 315, 336 Military Cross 59 Millar, Fiona 109, 185–6, 324 Millfield School 247–8 Milne, Seumas 17, 177–9 Milton, John 27 Mitchell, Andrew 237, 271 Momentum 175–7, 178–9 monasteries 14, 15, 18, 24, 25, 26–7 money-laundering 201–2 Montgomery, Bernard 83 Moore, Thomas 42 morality 273–4 Morrison, Herbert 88 Mosley, Oswald 143, 158, 159 Mount, Ferdinand 139, 143 Mount, Harry 328 Mulcaster, Richard 20 Mumsnet 258 Murdoch, Rupert 147, 282–3 Murray, Andrew 178–9 Murray, Charles 334 Murray, Laura 178 Nash, Eric ‘Bash’ 212–13 Nash, Paul 62 National Front 157, 158 Neile, Richard 23 Nelson, Lord Horatio 44 New Labour 105, 106–7, 111 New York Military Academy (NYMA) 280–2 Newbolt, Sir Henry 55 Newmark, Brooks 292 Newsom, Sir John 97, 246 Newsome, David 273 newspapers 46–7, 297–8 Nix, Alexander 164, 165 non-cognitive skills 276 North Foreland Lodge 110 north–south divide 310–11 Norwood, Cyril 67, 70 Notting Hill Prep 316–18 Nyachuru, Guide 215 Oakes, Alex 163, 164 Oakes, Nigel 163–4 O’Brien, James 237, 250–1 Odey, Crispin 163, 167, 193 O’Dowda, Brendan 198 Office of Fair Trading (OFT) 112, 113 Officer Training Corps (OTC) 52, 53, 55, 62 old boys’ networks 21–2, 289–91 Old Etonians (OEs) 136, 140–1, 149, 192, 224, 228–9 Oldfield, Bruce 68 oligarchs 129–30, 140, 194, 197, 199, 202 Olympic Games 36 Onyeama, Dillibe 254 Operation Winthorpe 209 Organ, Bill 111–12 Orwell, George 3, 74, 76, 77, 254 and democracy 286, 309 Osborne, George 6, 144, 146, 147, 148, 153 and Brexit 162 and politics 274–5 and psychology 273 overseas franchises 202–6, 329 Oxbridge 1–2, 5, 264–5, 279, 300–6, 342–3; see also Cambridge University; Oxford University Oxford University 2, 16, 17, 18, 25, 107 and Cameron 141–2 and Union 125–6 Pakenham, Frank 180 Palmerston, Lord 33, 48 parents 194–6, 251–6, 257–8, 261–3, 265–7 and failure 278 and rights 337–8 Parker, Peter 62–3 Parris, Matthew 306, 314–15 Pasha, Emin 39 Patel, Priti 162 Patrick, Andrew 277 Paxman, Jeremy 223–4, 273 pay 298–9, 306–7 Peasants’ Revolt 16 Peat, Sir Michael 205 Peel, Robert 33 Percival, Arthur Ernest 73–4 Perry, Tom 210 Philby, Kim 133 Piers Gaveston Club 137, 141, 142–3 Pitt the Elder, William 28 Plato 313 Pleming, Richard 195 politics 91–3, 271–3, 274–5, 303–5; see also Conservative Party; government; Labour Party poor, the 16–17, 19–20, 22, 24, 28–9 and subsidised places 221–2, 224–7 Portillo, Michael 146 Portland Communications 169 ‘posh bashing’ 252–3 Powell, Enoch 93, 156–7 Powell, Hugh 138–40 prefects 21 Price, Leolin 115–16 Priestley, J.B. 76–7 private education, see public schools Profumo, John 92 property 310 psychology 270–3, 275–7 Public School Lodges’ Council 145, 193 public schools 2–7, 66–7, 258–61, 286–9, 324–5 and abolition 336–44 and abuse 207–20 and actors 252–3 and alumni 1–2, 140 and assisted places 87–8, 90, 101, 321–2, 329–33 and beginnings 15–20 and Brexit 161–2, 163, 165–6, 167, 170 and British Empire 33–4, 41, 42–3, 44–5 and business rates 243–4 and charity 88–9, 107–11, 114–21, 221–35 and class 22–4 and criticism 46–7 and demand 70–1 and entitlement 283–5 and espionage 132–3 and Europe 268–9 and facilities 193–4 and fees 111–14, 245–9 and funding 68–70 and government 91–3 and inequality 306–9 and international students 196–202 and Labour Party 180–3, 185–6 and London 316–18 and the media 297–300 and networks 21–2, 191–3, 289–91 and overseas franchises 202–6 and Oxbridge 300–6 and parents 194–6, 251–2, 253–6, 257–8, 261–3, 265–7 and psychology 270–3, 275–7 and reforms 25–7, 29–32, 47–51, 79–82, 95–100 and revolts 27–9 and Second World War 75–9 and slang 20–1 and society 334–6 and soldiers 52–64 and state schools 236–43, 326–7 Public Schools Act (1868) 51 Public Schools Commission 97–100 Puritans 27 Putin, Vladimir 127–32, 133, 154 Pyper, Mark 110 Queen’s Scholarship 19 Raab, Dominic 322 racism 156, 157, 162 Rae, John 101, 274, 302 Ragged School movement 29, 37, 38 Ranger, Terence 34 Rawls, John 5 Ray, Christopher 115 Reay, Diane 268, 269, 284–5, 335 Reckless, Mark 161 Redwood, John 161 Rees-Mogg, Jacob 31, 154, 161, 193, 251, 282 Referendum Party 155, 156 Reform Act (1832) 47 Reformation, the 26 Remain Vote 162, 163, 166, 168 Renton, Alex 219–20, 254 Repton School 302–3 Reznikov, Peter 131 Rhodes, Cecil 33, 43 Rich, Richard 11–12, 14 Richards, Amy 169 Richardson, Ed 197 Ripon Grammar School 67–8 Roberts, Frederick, Field Marshal Lord 52–3 Rock, Patrick 151–2 Roman Empire 13 Romilly, Peter 135 Rooney, Wayne 191 Rothermere, Jonathan Harmsworth, Lord 147 royal family 133, 134 Royal Military Academy Sandhurst 36, 38, 40, 56 Royal Military Academy Woolwich 36, 56 Royal Navy 44, 73 rugby 35 Rugby School 28, 31, 52, 53, 73 Ruskin, John 66 Russia 127–34, 139–40, 199–200, 202 Ruston, Mark 214 Sainsbury, David 163 St Paul’s School 14, 17, 18, 209, 227 Sandel, Michael J. 315–16 Sandhurst, see Royal Military Academy Sandhurst Sansom-Mallett, David 209 Sassoon, Siegfried 62 Sawar, Anas 186 Schaverien, Joy 270–1 Schellenberg, Walter Friedrich 3 Schneider, James 17, 177 scholarships 226–8, 240 School Teachers Superannuation Act (1918) 68 science 30 Scotland 43–4, 47, 186, 211, 341 Second World War 3, 40–1, 72–9, 82–4, 86–7 secondary schools 82, 90, 94–5 Sedbergh School 85 segregation 316 Seldon, Sir Anthony 192, 230, 242, 261, 331–3 serfdom 15 Sevenoaks School 111–12 sexual assault 207–20 Shaw, George Bernard 66 Shawcross, Hartley 99 Shawcross, William 117 Sherborne School 55, 70 Sherriff, Robert 56–7, 58 Shevkunov, Father Tikhon 130–1 Shrewsbury School 21–2, 30, 58 Shrosbree, Colin 31 Sidney, Sir Philip 21–2 Singapore 73–5 Sked, Alan 155 Smith, Ian Duncan 146, 161 Smith, Zadie 328 Smyth, John 211–12, 213–15, 216, 219 Soames, Nicholas 167 social media 165, 166 social mobility 93–4, 196, 311, 315, 321–2, 330–3 and Commission 336 socialism 86–7, 88, 95–6, 177–8 Socrates 313 song schools 14, 15 Spence, Dr Joseph 159, 160, 204, 241–2, 330–1 Spencer, Charles, 9th Earl 317 Spencer, Herbert 66 Spender, Stephen 70 Spielman, Amanda 252 spies 132–3 sponsorships 238–43 sport 20, 35–6, 233–4, 236–8 Stanley, Henry Morton 39, 40 Starkie, James 169 state schools 2, 6, 68, 83–4, 149, 318–20 and business rates 244 and Europe 268–9 and exams 257 and funds 265, 267 and Oxbridge 301–2 and parents 255–6 and public schools 120, 236–43, 326–7 Stephenson, George 32 Stephenson, Paul 168 Stewart, Rory 292 Stoics Club 142 Stowe School 233 Strachey, Lytton 38 Strategic Communication Laboratories (SCL) 164 Sudan 37, 38–40 Suez Crisis 91–2 super-rich 196–7 Sutton, Thomas 19, 233 Sutton Trust 116, 287, 296, 297, 303 Sweden 344 Taunton Commission 50 Tawney, R.H. 66, 89 taxation 243, 244–7, 248–9, 338–9; see also VAT teachers 257, 340 Thatcher, Margaret 93, 100, 101–2, 136, 138–9, 323 Thorn, John 213, 214 Timothy, Nick 121, 326 Titus Trust 215–16 Tom Brown’s School Days (Hughes) 35 Trades Union Congress 81 Transparency International 201–2 Trump, Donald 127, 163, 164, 280–2, 329 Turner, Andrew 233 Uber 151 UK Independence Party (UKIP) 155, 156, 157, 161 Ukraine 127, 128, 139–40 Ummuna, Chuka 179 United States of America 84, 164, 229, 280–2, 329 universities 260–1, 306, 308, 342–3; see also Oxbridge Utley, Tom 265–6 Vaizey, Ed 99 VAT (value added tax) 69, 107, 121, 183, 243, 247 Vereker, John 72–3 Victoria Cross (VC) 58–9 Villiers, Barbara 91 Villiers, Theresa 161–2 Viner, Katharine 67 Vote Leave 161–3, 164–6, 167–8 Vunipola, Billy 234 Wade, Rebekah 147 Waldegrave, William 342 Wang Sicong 198 Warre, Edmond 53 Warre-Dymond, Capt Godfrey 58 Warren, Justice 116 Wasserman, Gordon, Lord 102 Waterloo, Battle of 33, 42 Watson, Andrew 213 Waugh, Alec 55, 58, 59, 63, 67, 70, 254 wealth gap 309–10 Webb, Sidney 66 Welby, Justin, Archbishiop of Canterbury 79, 193, 212, 214, 216 Weller, Paul 136, 251–2 Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, Duke of 33, 41–2, 53 Wellington College 242 Westminster, Gerald Grosvenor, 6th Duke of 254 Westminster School 17, 18–19, 23, 43, 204 and Oxbridge 300, 302 Whetstone, Rachel 144, 145 Whitehouse, Mary 212 White’s 143–4, 169 Whittingdale, John 161, 177 Who’s Who 289, 292 Wilkinson, Ellen 87–8, 90 Willetts, David 93–4, 307–8 Wilshaw, Sir Michael 120, 205, 240, 340 Wilson, Harold 25, 95, 99, 180, 287 Winchester College 15–17, 23, 28, 81, 257 and abuse 212–14, 215 and bursaries 229, 230–2 and fees 111–12, 113 and international students 199–200 and Oxford 25, 301 and soldiers 52, 53 Witheridge, Rev.


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Empty Planet: The Shock of Global Population Decline by Darrell Bricker, John Ibbitson

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global reserve currency, Gunnar Myrdal, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, off grid, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban planning, working-age population, young professional, zero-sum game

.: Pew Research Center, 8 March 2014). http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/03/06/womens-college-enrollment-gains-leave-men-behind 163 “Growth in the Proportion of Female Medical Students Begins to Slow” (London: General Medical Council, October 2013). http://www.gmc-uk.org/information_for_you/23490.asp 164 “Women Still Underrepresented in STEM Fields,” USA Today, 21 October 2015. http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2015/10/21/women-still-underrepresented-in-stem-fields 165 Claire Cain Miller, “The Gender Pay Gap Is Largely Because of Motherhood,” New York Times, 13 May 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/13/upshot/the-gender-pay-gap-is-largely-because-of-motherhood.html 166 “Project on Student Debt: State by State Data 2015” (Washington, D.C.: Institute for College Access and Success, 2015). http://ticas.org/posd/map-state-data-2015 167 “Social Indicators of Marital Health and Well-Being,” State of Our Unions, 2011. http://www.stateofourunions.org/2011/social_indicators.php 168 Joyce A.


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Testosterone Rex: Myths of Sex, Science, and Society by Cordelia Fine

assortative mating, Cass Sunstein, credit crunch, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Drosophila, epigenetics, experimental economics, gender pay gap, George Akerlof, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, phenotype, publication bias, risk tolerance

A few years ago, in the frenzied lead-up to Christmas, the Australian Greens senator Larissa Waters catapulted herself into the heart of this debate by endorsing a campaign against gendered toy marketing.9 Waters went further than the usual complaint that “no child’s imagination should be limited by old-fashioned stereotypes.” These “outdated stereotypes,” she argued, “perpetuate gender inequality, which feeds into very serious problems such as domestic violence and the gender pay gap.”10 The reaction was a timely reminder that to refer to gender debates as “spirited” can be like describing the surface of the sun as “warm.” Waters was disparaged from the front page of the news to highest political office. The Australian’s Daily Telegraph’s cover headline announced a “Greens war on Barbie,” in which the subheading’s claim of evidence of political party insanity—“Now they’re really off their dolly claiming kids’ toys lead to domestic violence”—was accompanied by an image of Waters and a male Greens MP photoshopped onto the bodies of Barbie and GI Joe.11 Well-known Australian child psychologist Michael Carr-Gregg commented that “these gender differences are hard wired,” adding that “to argue that toys in any way relate to domestic violence is, I think, too far a stretch.

How much simpler a problem it would be if violent men simply had too much testosterone. So how should we think about those gender-coded toy aisles now—those pink and blue plastic safety knives being sold at the school market? A year on, in the lead-up to the next Christmas, Australian senator Waters drew links a second time between the rigid gender stereotypes promoted by sex-segregated toy marketing, and seemingly far-removed social issues, like the gender pay gap and domestic violence.62 More scorn was poured. But now think about gendered toy marketing not as boy versus girl nature made manifest, but part of the developmental system. At the very time children are laying down cultural meanings and norms in their minds, gendered marketing emphasizes sex as a critically important social divide.63 That booth seller at the local school market overlooked everything her two small customers had in common—their family background, their close age, their ethnicity, the shared fortune of a parent who doesn’t see sliced fingers as an inevitable and important childhood learning experience—and instead emphasized one thing that was different, their genitals.


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The Verdict: Did Labour Change Britain? by Polly Toynbee, David Walker

banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, Boris Johnson, call centre, central bank independence, congestion charging, Corn Laws, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Etonian, failed state, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, market bubble, mass immigration, millennium bug, moral panic, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, pension reform, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, Right to Buy, shareholder value, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, working-age population, Y2K

Towards the end, equalities – the era preferred the plural – came together as the party’s deputy leader Harriet Harman brought in an omnibus Act putting inequality based on class and material deprivation on the same footing as that related to gender and race. It imposed new duties on public bodies over pregnancy and maternity, sexual orientation, gender reassignment and religion and belief. In a contested move, it required big private-sector employers (a tiny proportion of firms) to audit their gender pay gap. As if to acknowledge all that Labour had failed to do and say, the Act required all public authorities to act to reduce class inequality. Passed in Labour’s last week, the Act was a mocking afterthought, a ghost of all that might have been. The inequality that hardly dared speak its name was social class. On their deathbed Labour recognized that society was closed: 45 per cent of senior civil servants, 70 per cent of finance directors and 75 per cent of judges were privately educated – as were the victorious Tory prime minister and his Liberal Democrat deputy after the election.

., 1 Gallagher, Liam, 1 Gallagher, Noel, 1 gambling, 1 gangmasters, 1, 2 gas, 1 Gates, Bill, 1 Gateshead, 1 Gaza, 1 GCHQ, 1 GCSEs, 1, 2, 3, 4 Gehry, Frank, 1 Geldof, Bob, 1 gender reassignment, 1 General Teaching Council, 1 genetically modified crops, 1 Germany, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 economy and business, 1, 2, 3, 4 and education, 1, 2 and health, 1, 2 Ghana, 1 Ghandi’s curry house, 1 Ghent, 1 Gladstone, William Ewart, 1, 2 Glaister, Professor Stephen, 1 Glasgow, 1, 2, 3, 4 Gleneagles summit, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 globalization, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and crime, 1 and foreign policy, 1, 2, 3 and inequality, 1 and migration, 1, 2 Gloucester, 1 Goldacre, Ben, 1 Good Friday agreement, 1 Goodwin, Sir Fred, 1 Goody, Jade, 1 Gormley, Antony, 1 Gould, Philip, 1 grandparents, and childcare, 1 Gray, Simon, 1 Great Yarmouth, 1 Greater London Authority, 1, 2 Greater London Council, 1 green spaces, 1 Greenberg, Stan, 1 Greengrass, Paul, 1 Greenspan, Alan, 1, 2 Greenwich, 1 Gregg, Paul, 1 Guardian, 1, 2, 3 Guizot, François, 1 Gulf of Mexico oil spill, 1 Gummer, John, 1 Gurkhas, 1 Guthrie of Craigiebank, Lord, 1 Guy’s and St Thomas’s Hospital, 1 habeas corpus, suspension of, 1 Hacienda Club, 1 Hackney, 1 Hale, Baroness Brenda, 1 Hallé Orchestra, 1 Ham, Professor Chris, 1 Hamilton, Lewis, 1 Hammersmith Hospital, 1 Hammond, Richard, 1 Hardie, Keir, 1 Hardy, Thea, 1 Haringey, 1, 2 Harman, Harriet, 1 Harris of Peckham, Lord, 1 Harrison, PC Dawn, 1, 2 Harrow School, 1 Hartlepool, 1, 2 Hastings, 1, 2 Hatfield rail crash, 1 Hatt family, 1, 2, 3, 4 health, 1 and private sector, 1, 2 and social class, 1 spending on, 1, 2 Health Action Zones, 1 Health and Safety Executive, 1 Heathcote, Paul, 1 Heathrow airport, 1, 2, 3, 4 Hellawell, Keith, 1 Hennessy, Professor Peter, 1 Henry, Donna Charmaine, 1, 2, 3 heroin, 1 Hewitt, Patricia, 1, 2 Higgs, Sir Derek, 1 Hills, Professor John, 1, 2, 3 Hirst, Damien, 1 HMRC, 1, 2, 3 Hogg, John, 1, 2, 3 Hoggart, Richard, 1 Holly, Graham, 1 homelessness, 1, 2 Homerton Hospital, 1 homosexuality, 1, 2, 3 ‘honour’ killings, 1 Hoon, Geoff, 1 hospital-acquired infections, 1 hospitals and clinics, 1, 2, 3, 4 A&E units, 1, 2 closures, 1, 2, 3 foundation trusts, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and PFI, 1 House of Commons reforms, 1, 2 House of Lords reforms, 1, 2, 3, 4 housing market, 1, 2, 3 housing policies, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Howe, Elspeth, 1 Hoxton, 1 Huddersfield, 1 Hudson, Joseph, 1 Hull, 1, 2, 3 Human Rights Act, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 Humber Bridge, 1 hunting ban, 1 Hussein, Saddam, 1, 2, 3, 4 Hutton, John, 1 Hutton, Will, 1, 2 identity cards, 1, 2 If (Kipling), 1 Imperial War Museum North, 1 income inequalities, 1, 2, 3 gender pay gap, 1, 2 and high earners, 1 and social class, 1 Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC), 1 Independent Safeguarding Authority, 1 independent-sector treatment centres (ISTCs), 1 Index of Multiple Deprivation, 1 India, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 individual learning accounts, 1 inflation, 1 and housing market, 1, 2 International Criminal Court, 1 International Monetary Fund (IMF), 1, 2, 3 internet, 1, 2, 3 and crime, 1 and cyber-bullying, 1 file sharing, 1 gambling, 1 and sex crimes, 1 Iran, 1, 2, 3 Iraq, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 arms supplies, 1 Chilcot inquiry, 1, 2, 3, 4 and Territorial Army, 1 and WMD, 1 Ireland, 1, 2, 3 Irish famine, 1 Irvine of Lairg, Lord, 1, 2 Ishaq, Khyra, 1 Islamabad, 1 Isle of Man, 1 Isle of Wight, 1, 2 Israel, 1 Italy, 1, 2, 3 and football, 1 Ivory Coast, 1 Japan, 1, 2, 3, 4 Jenkins, Roy, 1, 2 Jerry Springer: The Opera, 1 Jobcentre Plus, 1, 2 John Lewis Partnership, 1, 2 Johnson, Alan, 1, 2, 3, 4 Johnson, Boris, 1, 2 Judge, Lord (Igor), 1 Judge, Professor Ken, 1 Julius, DeAnne, 1 jury trials, 1, 2 Kabul, 1 Kapoor, Anish, 1, 2 Karachi, 1 Karadžic, Radovan, 1 Kashmir, 1 Kaufman, Gerald, 1 Keegan, William, 1 Keep Britain Tidy, 1 Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, 1 Kensit, Patsy, 1 Keynes, John Maynard, 1 Keys, Kenton, 1 Kidderminster Hospital, 1 King, Sir David, 1, 2 King, Mervyn, 1 King Edward VI School, 1 King’s College Hospital, 1 Kingsnorth power station, 1 Kirklees, 1 Knight, Jim, 1 knighthoods, 1 knowledge economy, 1 Kosovo, 1, 2, 3, 4 Kynaston, David, 1 Kyoto summit and protocols, 1, 2, 3 Labour Party membership, 1 Lacey, David, 1 Ladbroke Grove rail crash, 1 Lamb, General Sir Graeme, 1 Lambert, Richard, 1 landmines, 1 Lansley, Andrew, 1 lapdancing, 1 Las Vegas, 1 Lawrence, Stephen, 1 Lawson, Mark, 1 Layard, Professor Richard, 1 Le Grand, Professor Julian, 1 Lea, Ruth, 1 Lea Valley High School, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Leahy, Sir Terry, 1, 2 learndirect, 1 Learning and Skills Council, 1 learning difficulties, 1, 2 learning mentors, 1 Leeds, 1, 2, 3, 4 legal reforms, 1 Leigh, Mike, 1 Lenon, Barnaby, 1 Lewes, 1 Lewisham, 1 Liberty, 1 licensing laws, 1, 2 life expectancy, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Life on Mars, 1 Lincoln, 1 Lindsell, Tracy, 1, 2 Lindsey oil refinery, 1 Lisbon Treaty, 1 Liverpool, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Liverpool FC, 1 living standards, 1, 2 living wage campaign, 1, 2 Livingstone, Ken, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Livni, Tzipi, 1 Loaded magazine, 1 local government, 1, 2, 3 and elected mayors, 1 Lockerbie bomber, 1 London, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 bombings, 1, 2 congestion charge, 1, 2 detention of foreign leaders, 1 G20 protests, 1 Iraq war protests, 1, 2 mayoral election, 1, 2 and transport policy, 1, 2, 3 London Array wind farm, 1 Longannet, 1 Longfield, Anne, 1 Lord-Marchionne, Sacha, 1 Lorenzetti, Ambrogio, 1 lorry protests, 1, 2 Lowry Museum, 1 Lumley, Joanna, 1 Luton, 1, 2, 3, 4 Lyons, Sir Michael, 1 Macfadden, Julia, 1 Machin, Professor Stephen, 1, 2 Maclean, David, 1 Macmillan, Harold, 1 Macmillan, James, 1 McNulty, Tony, 1 Macpherson, Sir Nick, 1 Macpherson, Sir William, 1 McQueen, Alexander, 1 Madrid, 1, 2, 3 Major, John, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Malaya, 1 Malloch Brown, Mark, 1 Manchester, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 club scene, 1, 2 and crime, 1, 2 Gorton, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and local government, 1 and transport policy, 1, 2, 3 Manchester Academy, 1 Manchester United FC, 1, 2 Manchester University, 1 Mandelson, Peter, 1, 2 Manpower Services Commission, 1 manufacturing, 1, 2, 3 Margate, 1 ‘market for talent’ myth, 1 marriage rate, 1 Martin, Michael, 1 maternity and paternity leave, 1, 2 Mayfield, Charlie, 1 Medical Research Council, 1 mental health, 1, 2, 3, 4 mephedrone, 1 Metcalf, Professor David, 1 Metropolitan Police, 1, 2, 3 Mexico, 1, 2 MG Rover, 1 Michael, Alun, 1 Middlesbrough College, 1, 2 migration, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 Milburn, Alan, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Miliband, David, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Miliband, Ed, 1, 2, 3 Millennium Cohort Study, 1, 2 Millennium Dome, 1, 2, 3 Miloševic, Slobodan, 1 Milton Keynes, 1 minimum wage, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Mitchell, Senator George, 1 modern art, 1 Mohamed, Binyam, 1 Monbiot, George, 1 Moray, 1 Morecambe, 1, 2 Morecambe Bay cockle pickers, 1 Morgan, Piers, 1 Morgan, Rhodri, 1 mortgage interest relief, 1 Mosley, Max, 1 motor racing, 1 Mowlam, Mo, 1 Mozambique, 1 MPs’ expenses, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 MRSA, 1 Mugabe, Robert, 1 Muijen, Matt, 1 Mulgan, Geoff, 1 Mullin, Chris, 1 Murdoch, Rupert, 1, 2, 3 Murphy, Richard, 1 museums and galleries, 1, 2, 3 music licensing, 1 Muslims, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mutualism, 1 Myners, Paul, 1 nanotechnology, 1, 2, 3 National Air Traffic Control System, 1 National Care Service, 1 national curriculum, 1 national debt, 1 National Forest, 1 National Health Service (NHS) cancer plan, 1 drugs teams, 1 and employment, 1, 2 internal market, 1 IT system, 1 league tables, 1 managers, 1, 2 NHS direct, 1 primary care, 1 productivity, 1, 2 and public satisfaction, 1 staff numbers and pay, 1 and targets, 1, 2, 3 waiting times, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 National Heart Forum, 1 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), 1, 2 National Insurance, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 National Lottery, 1, 2, 3 National Offender Management Service, 1 National Savings, 1 National Theatre, 1 Natural England, 1, 2 Nazio, Tiziana, 1 Neighbourhood Watch, 1 Netherlands, 1, 2 neurosurgery, 1 New Deal, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 New Deal for Communities, 1, 2 New Forest, 1 Newcastle upon Tyne, 1, 2 Newham, 1, 2 newspapers, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Nigeria, 1 Nightingale, Florence, 1 non-doms, 1 North Korea, 1 North Middlesex Hospital, 1 North Sea oil and gas, 1 Northern Ireland, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Northern Rock, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Norway, 1 Nottingham, 1, 2 NSPCC, 1 nuclear power, 1 Number Ten Delivery Unit, 1 nurses, 1, 2, 3, 4 Nutt, Professor David, 1 NVQs, 1 O2 arena, 1 Oakthorpe primary school, 1, 2 Oates, Tim, 1 Obama, Barack, 1, 2 obesity, 1, 2 Octagon consortium, 1 Office for National Statistics, 1, 2 Office of Security and Counter Terrorism, 1 Ofsted, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Ofwat, 1 Oldham, 1, 2, 3, 4 O’Leary, Michael, 1 Oliver, Jamie, 1, 2 Olympic Games, 1, 2, 3 Open University, 1 O’Reilly, Damien, 1, 2 orthopaedics, 1 Orwell, George, 1, 2 outsourcing, 1, 2, 3, 4 overseas aid, 1, 2 Oxford University, 1 paedophiles, 1, 2, 3 Page, Ben, 1, 2 Pakistan, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Palestine, 1, 2 parenting, 1 absent parents, 1 lone parents, 1, 2 teenage parents, 1 Paris, 1, 2 Park Lane, 1 Parkinson, Professor Michael, 1 particle physics, 1 party funding, 1, 2, 3 passport fraud, 1 Passport Office, 1 Patch, Harry, 1 Payne, Sarah, 1, 2 Peach, Blair, 1 Pearce, Nick, 1 Peckham, 1, 2 Aylesbury estate, 1 Peel, Sir Robert, 1 pensioner poverty, 1, 2 pensions, 1, 2 occupational pensions, 1, 2 pension funds, 1, 2 private pensions, 1 public-sector pensions, 1 state pension, 1, 2 Persian Gulf, 1 personal, social and health education, 1 Peterborough, 1 Peugeot, 1 Philips, Helen, 1 Phillips, Lord (Nicholas), 1, 2 Phillips, Trevor, 1 Pilkington, Fiona, 1 Pimlico, 1 Pinochet, Augusto, 1 Plymouth, 1, 2 Poland, 1, 2 police, 1 and demonstrations, 1 numbers, 1, 2, 3 in schools, 1, 2, 3 pornography, 1 Portsmouth FC, 1, 2 Portugal, 1 post offices, 1 Postlethwaite, Pete, 1 poverty, 1, 2, 3 see also child poverty; pensioner poverty Premier League, 1 Prescott, John, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 press officers, 1 Preston, 1 Prevent strategy, 1 Primary Care Trusts (PCTs), 1, 2 prisons, 1, 2 Private Finance Initiative (PFI), 1, 2 probation, 1, 2 property ownership, 1 prostitution, 1, 2, 3 Public Accounts Committee, 1 public sector reform, 1, 2 public service agreements, 1 public spending, 1, 2, 3 and the arts, 1 and science, 1 Pugh, Martin, 1 Pullman, Philip, 1 QinetiQ, 1 Quality and Outcomes Framework, 1 quangos, 1, 2 Queen, The, 1 Quentin, Lieutenant Pete, 1, 2 race relations legislation, 1 racism, 1, 2 RAF, 1, 2, 3 RAF Brize Norton, 1 railways, 1 Rand, Ayn, 1 Rawmarsh School, 1 Raynsford, Nick, 1 Reckitt Benckiser, 1 recycling, 1 Redcar, 1 regional assemblies, 1, 2 regional development agencies (RDAs), 1, 2, 3 regional policy, 1 Reid, John, 1 Reid, Richard, 1 religion, 1, 2 retirement age, 1, 2 right to roam, 1 Rimington, Stella, 1 Rio Earth summit, 1 road transport, 1 Rochdale, 1, 2 Roche, Barbara, 1 Rogers, Richard, 1 Romania, 1, 2 Rome, 1 Rooney, Wayne, 1 Roosevelt, Franklin D., 1 Rosetta Stone, 1 Rosyth, 1 Rotherham, 1, 2, 3 Royal Opera House, 1 Royal Shakespeare Company, 1 Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, 1 Rugby, 1 rugby union, 1 Rumsfeld, Donald, 1 rural affairs, 1, 2 Rushdie, Salman, 1 Russia, 1, 2 Rwanda, 1 Ryanair, 1, 2 Sainsbury, Lord David, 1 St Austell, 1 St Bartholomew’s Hospital, 1, 2 St Pancras International station, 1 Salford, 1, 2, 3, 4 Sanchez, Tia, 1 Sandwell, 1 Sarkozy, Nicolas, 1, 2 Savill, Superintendent Paul, 1 Saville, Lord, 1 savings ratio, 1 Scandinavia, 1, 2, 3 Scholar, Sir Michael, 1 school meals, 1, 2 school uniforms, 1 school-leaving age, 1 schools academies, 1, 2, 3, 4 building, 1 class sizes, 1 comprehensive schools, 1, 2 faith schools, 1, 2, 3, 4 grammar schools, 1, 2, 3 and inequality, 1 nursery schools, 1 and PFI, 1, 2, 3 police in, 1, 2, 3 primary schools, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 private schools, 1, 2 secondary schools, 1, 2, 3 in special measures, 1 special schools, 1 specialist schools, 1 and sport, 1 science, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Scotland, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and children, 1 devolution, 1 electricity generation, 1 and health, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Scottish parliament, 1, 2 Section 1, 2 security services, 1 MI5, 1, 2, 3 Sedley, Stephen, 1 segregation, 1 self-employment, 1 Sellafield, 1 Serious Organized Crime Agency, 1 sex crimes, 1 Sex Discrimination Act, 1 Shankly, Bill, 1 Sharkey, Feargal, 1 Shaw, Liz, 1 Sheen, Michael, 1 Sheffield, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Sheringham, 1 Shetty, Shilpa, 1 Shipman, Harold, 1 shopping, 1 Short, Clare, 1 Siemens, 1 Siena, 1 Sierra Leone, 1, 2 Skeet, Mavis, 1 skills councils, 1 slavery, 1 Slough, 1 Smith, Adam, 1 Smith, Chris, 1 Smith, Jacqui, 1, 2 Smith, John, 1, 2 Smithers, Professor Alan, 1, 2 smoking ban, 1, 2 Snowden, Philip, 1 social care, 1, 2, 3 Social Chapter opt-out, 1 social exclusion, 1, 2 Social Fund, 1 social mobility, 1, 2 social sciences, 1 social workers, 1 Soham murders, 1, 2, 3, 4 Solihull, 1, 2 Somalia, 1, 2 Souter, Brian, 1 South Africa, 1 South Downs, 1 Spain, 1, 2, 3 special advisers, 1 speed cameras, 1 Speenhamland, 1 Spelman, Caroline, 1 Spence, Laura, 1 sport, 1, 2 see also football; Olympic Games Sri Lanka, 1, 2 Stafford Hospital, 1 Staffordshire University, 1 Standard Assessment Tests (Sats), 1, 2, 3 Standards Board for England, 1 statins, 1, 2, 3 stem cell research, 1 STEM subjects, 1 Stephenson, Sir Paul, 1 Stern, Sir Nicholas, 1, 2 Stevenson, Lord (Dennis), 1 Stevenson, Wilf, 1 Steyn, Lord, 1 Stiglitz, Joseph, 1 Stockport, 1 Stonehenge, 1 Stoppard, Tom, 1 Straw, Jack, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 student fees, 1 Stuff Happens, 1 Sudan, 1, 2 Sugar, Alan, 1 suicide bombing, 1 suicides, 1 Sun, 1, 2 Sunday Times, 1, 2 Sunderland, 1, 2 supermarkets, 1, 2 Supreme Court, 1, 2 Sure Start, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 surveillance, 1, 2 Sutherland, Lord (Stewart), 1 Swansea, 1 Sweden, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Swindon, 1 Taliban, 1, 2 Tallinn, 1 Tanzania, 1 Tate Modern, 1 Taunton, 1 tax avoidance, 1, 2, 3 tax credits, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 council tax credit, 1 pension credit, 1, 2, 3 R&D credits, 1 taxation, 1, 2 10p tax rate, 1 capital gains tax, 1, 2 corporation tax, 1, 2, 3, 4 council tax, 1, 2 fuel duty, 1, 2, 3 green taxes, 1, 2 and income inequalities, 1 income tax, 1, 2, 3, 4 inheritance tax, 1, 2 poll tax, 1 stamp duty, 1, 2, 3 vehicle excise duty, 1 windfall tax, 1, 2, 3 see also National Insurance; VAT Taylor, Damilola, 1 Taylor, Robert, 1 teachers, 1, 2, 3 head teachers, 1, 2 salaries, 1, 2 teaching assistants, 1, 2 teenage pregnancy, 1, 2, 3 Teesside University, 1 television and crime, 1 and gambling, 1 talent shows, 1 television licence, 1, 2, 3 Territorial Army, 1 terrorism, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Terry, John, 1 Tesco, 1, 2, 3, 4 Tewkesbury, 1 Thames Gateway, 1 Thameswey, 1 Thatcher, Margaret, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 Thatcherism, 1, 2, 3 theatre, 1 Thornhill, Dorothy, 1 Thorp, John, 1 Tibet, 1 Tilbury, 1 Times, The, 1 Times Educational Supplement, 1, 2 Timmins, Nick, 1 Titanic, 1 Tomlinson, Mike, 1 Topman, Simon, 1, 2 torture, 1, 2 trade unions, 1, 2, 3 Trades Union Congress (TUC), 1, 2, 3 tramways, 1 transport policies, 1, 2 Trident missiles, 1, 2, 3 Triesman, Lord, 1 Turkey, 1, 2 Turnbull, Lord (Andrew), 1 Turner, Lord (Adair), 1, 2, 3 Tweedy, Colin, 1 Tyneside Metro, 1 Uganda, 1 UK Film Council, 1 UK Sport, 1 UK Statistics Authority, 1 unemployment, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 United Nations, 1, 2, 3 United States of America, 1, 2 Anglo-American relationship, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and child poverty, 1 and clean technologies, 1 economy and business, 1, 2, 3 and education, 1, 2, 3 and healthcare, 1, 2 and income inequalities, 1 and internet gambling, 1 and minimum wage, 1 universities, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and migration, 1 and terrorism, 1 tuition fees, 1 University College London Hospitals, 1 University for Industry, 1 University of East Anglia, 1 University of Lincoln, 1 Urban Splash, 1, 2 Vanity Fair, 1 VAT, 1, 2, 3 Vauxhall, 1 Venables, Jon, 1 Vestas wind turbines, 1 Victoria and Albert Museum, 1 Waitrose, 1 Waldfogel, Jane, 1 Wales, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and children, 1 devolution, 1 Walker, Sir David, 1 walking, 1, 2 Walsall, 1 Wanless, Sir Derek, 1 Wanstead, 1 Warm Front scheme, 1 Warner, Lord Norman, 1 Warsaw, 1 Warwick accord, 1 water utilities, 1 Watford, 1 welfare benefits child benefit, 1, 2 Employment Support Allowance, 1 and fraud, 1, 2, 3, 4 housing benefit, 1 incapacity benefit, 1, 2 Income Support, 1 Jobseeker’s Allowance, 1, 2, 3 and work, 1, 2 Welsh assembly, 1, 2 Wembley Stadium, 1 Westfield shopping mall, 1 Wetherspoons, 1 White, Marco Pierre, 1 Whittington Hospital, 1 Wiles, Paul, 1 Wilkinson, Richard, and Kate Pickett, 1 Williams, Professor Karel, 1 Williams, Raymond, 1 Williams, Rowan, 1 Wilson, Harold, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Wilson, Sir Richard, 1 wind turbines, 1, 2 Winslet, Kate, 1 winter fuel payments, 1 Wire, The, 1 Woking, 1, 2 Wolverhampton, 1 Woolf, Lord, 1 Wootton Bassett, 1, 2 working-class culture, 1 working hours, 1, 2 World Bank, 1 Wrexham, 1 Wright Robinson School, 1, 2, 3 xenophobia, 1 Y2K millennium bug, 1 Yarlswood detention centre, 1 Yeovil, 1 Yiewsley, 1 York, 1, 2, 3, 4 Young Person’s Guarantee, 1 Youth Justice Board, 1 Zimbabwe, 1, 2 About the Author Polly Toynbee is the Guardian’s social and political commentator.


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The Golden Thread: How Fabric Changed History by Kassia St Clair

barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, butterfly effect, Dmitri Mendeleev, Elon Musk, Francisco Pizarro, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, gravity well, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kickstarter, out of africa, Rana Plaza, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spinning jenny, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Works Progress Administration

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Head, Hand, Heart: Why Intelligence Is Over-Rewarded, Manual Workers Matter, and Caregivers Deserve More Respect by David Goodhart

active measures, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, centre right, computer age, corporate social responsibility, COVID-19, Covid-19, David Attenborough, David Brooks, deglobalization, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, desegregation, deskilling, different worldview, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Flynn Effect, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, income inequality, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, new economy, Nicholas Carr, oil shock, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postindustrial economy, precariat, reshoring, Richard Florida, Scientific racism, Skype, social intelligence, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Thorstein Veblen, twin studies, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, young professional

Ever since the failure of the Wages for Housework movement in the 1970s, the main concern of women’s politics has been equality at work outside the home and, in more recent decades, above all equality with professional men in the world of careers. This goal has been substantially achieved, according to Wolf, with women, as already noted, now accounting for half of all members of the top—professional and managerial—social class in the United Kingdom, even if they are still largely absent from the very pinnacle of the professional and business tree. There is only a very small gender pay gap, as such; rather there remains a motherhood penalty caused by women with children working part-time or not at all, breaking their careers and so losing out on top positions. Much policy effort has been expended trying to ensure that the careers of professional women are held back as little as possible by motherhood. But child care subsidies to make a swift return to work possible are not always the priority of more traditionally minded women or women in lower socioeconomic groups.

., The Winner-Take-All Society (with Cook), 142 Franklin, Benjamin, 43 French, Marilyn, The Women’s Room, 247 Fried, Erich, 277 Friedan, Betty, 247 Fry, Martin “Mini,” 173 further education (FE) colleges (UK), 105–6, 108–10, 115 future: “Future of Work” transformation and, 143–44 of knowledge economy, 143–44, 253–74 need for cognitive diversity, 88–89, 281–84 of nursing, 232–42 rebalancing of Hand, Head, and Heart work, ix–xiii, 4–5, 20–29, 257–58, 275, 277–78, 284–301 of the university, 298 Gabbard, Keith, 290 Galton, Francis, 74n Gardner, Howard, 67 Gates, Bill, 33 gender: androgyny and, 223–24 assortative mating and, 79–83 cognitive class and, 32–33 Covid-19 crisis and, xii domesticity and, 27, 32–33, 226–32, 242–43, 293 feminism and, 79–80, 160–61, 224, 228–29, 231, 244, 247, 249 gender divide in status, 190–92, 213–14 gender equality and, 16, 32–33, 226 gender pay gap, 141, 152, 163 Hand (manual) work and, 190–94 Heart (care) work and, 4–5, 26–27, 226–32, 242–45, 249, 293–94 involved fathers, 243, 293 job status and, 190–92, 213–14 in knowledge economy, 151–52 #MeToo movement, 26 professional women and, 26 traditional masculinity and, 190–94, 243–44 General Certificates of Secondary Education (GCSEs, UK), 95–96, 141, 192, 198, 262 general intelligence (g), 56–71 measuring, 56, 61–71, see also IQ/IQ-type tests nature of, 57, 61, 62–63 geographic mobility, 17–19, 125–31, 273–74, 287–91 Germany: adult social care in, 218, 239 apprenticeships, 105, 112, 119–21, 198–99 decline of skilled workers, 139, 198 elite selection method, 66 geographic mobility and, 18, 288, 290 globalization and, 259 higher education system, 48, 50, 53, 102–4, 110, 117–21, 126, 156 immigration policy, 162 professions/professional exams, 44 social mobility research in, 81 vocational training in, 24, 35, 47, 117–19 Gest, Justin, The New Minority, 205 Gharbi, Musa al-, 283 GI Bill (1944, US), 43–44, 66, 96, 115 Gidron, Noam, 204 Gilens, Martin, 160 Gladwell, Malcolm, Outliers, 68 Glass-Steagall Act (1933, US), 284 globalization: centrifugal vs. centripetal forces and, x, 278 “Future of Work” transformation and, 143–44 Hand (manual) work and, 194–95, 198–206, 258–61 Head (cognitive) work and, 24, 258–62 hyper-globalization (Rodrik), ix lowest-cost approach and, x new version of, ix–x, 258–61 political cognitive domination and, 161–62, 175 training/retraining failure in developed countries, 111–17 world trade trends and, x see also immigration Goldie, Julie, 235–36 Goldin, Claudia, 117 Goldthorpe, John H., 75–76, 268, 269 Goleman, Daniel, 67 Goodman, David, 85n Google, 16, 33, 70 Gordon, Robert J., The Rise and Fall of American Growth, 122 Gottfredson, Linda, 57, 70–71 grammar school education, 46, 58, 65, 82, 98, 100 grandes écoles (France), 44, 48, 81, 102, 118, 141, 156 Gray, John, 166, 279 Great British Class Survey, 191, 191n great compression, 134 great divergence, 134–41 Green, Francis, 208–9 Greening, Justine, 17 grit (Duckworth), 67 groupthink, 20 Guilluy, Christophe, 126 Guyatt, Richard, 182 Hacker, Andrew, 82 Haidt, Jonathan: Heterodox Academy (US), 282–83 The Righteous Mind, 70 Hakim, Catherine, 248–49 Haldane, Andy, 255–58, 262, 298 Hall, Peter, 204 Hanbury, Jonathan, 238–39 Hand (manual) work, 189–215 Anywhere-Somewhere divide and, 12–20, 27 careers vs. jobs and, 211–12 Covid-19 crisis and, 7, 23, 26, 203, 277–78 craft skills, 114, 194, 195, 256–57, 294–96, 299–300, 301–2 decline of shop and home economics classes, 195–97 declining status of, 4–5, 13, 15, 189–95, 203–15 gender and, 190–94 globalization and, 194–95, 198–206, 258–61 immigration and, 194–95, 198–206 income divergence with Head (cognitive) work, 133–41 job/income decline and, 193–95, 199–200, 209, 210 new technologies in, 192, 198, 199 nostalgia for, 193, 194, 201–3 productivity in, 16–17 rebalancing with Head and Heart work, ix–xiii, 4–5, 20–29, 257–58, 275, 277–78, 284–301 as route to theoretical understanding, 196–97 scientific management and, 97, 260 separation from Head (cognitive) work, 97–99 skilled trades worker shortages, 15, 197–203 union membership decline and, 139–40 work satisfaction and, 208–11 see also apprenticeships Hankin, Steven M., 133, 142 happiness research, 11, 16–17, 220, 288, 302–3 Harari, Yuval Noah, 21, 36, 218–20, 299 Hardy, Thomas, Jude the Obscure, 47 Hargreaves, James, 42 Harrington, Mary, 248 Haskins, Ron, 82 Head (cognitive) work: Anywhere-Somewhere divide and, 12–20, 27 artificial intelligence (AI) and, 23–25 cognitive-analytical ability as gold standard of human esteem, 3–5, 11–12, 28 Covid-19 crisis and, 7, 23, 62, 277–78 crisis of meaning vs.


The Economics Anti-Textbook: A Critical Thinker's Guide to Microeconomics by Rod Hill, Anthony Myatt

American ideology, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, different worldview, endogenous growth, equal pay for equal work, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, experimental economics, failed state, financial innovation, full employment, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, Howard Zinn, income inequality, indoor plumbing, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, market bubble, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, medical malpractice, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Peter Singer: altruism, positional goods, prediction markets, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, profit motive, publication bias, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, random walk, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, ultimatum game, union organizing, working-age population, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

Second, a slightly more general version of the model presented in Figure 8.7 can explain a widely accepted principle in the personnel field – noted, for example, by Milkovitch and Newman (1987) – that some firms choose a ‘lowwage/high-turnover’ policy, and others a ‘high-wage/low-turnover’ policy. In this more general model, the wage offered by other firms is determined within the model itself (Card and Krueger 1995: 379). It turns out that even if workers and firms are identical to begin with, wages will end up differing systematically across firms in equilibrium. Third, Manning (2003: ch. 7) argues that monopsony is an important cause of the gender pay gap. He cites evidence that women place a higher value than men on the non-wage aspects of a job, such as relationships with co-workers. As a result, the labour market for women is more monopsonistic than that for men, allowing employers to pay them less. Is the dynamic monopsony model more empirically relevant than the fairness and status models? Campbell and Kamlani (1997) took the unusual step of actually asking firms what considerations were uppermost when setting their wage structure.

., 114 Friedman, Milton, 38, 78 204–7; influenced by business, 251; intervention by, 15, 71, 86, 135, 143, 165, 169, 196–218, 249, 256, 262 (in finance sector, 258); smaller, preferred, 249 Gramm, Phil, 262 green-washing of companies, 254 greenhouse gases, emissions of, 152, 153, 154–7, 231; pricing of, 155 growth, 10, 21, 135; endogenous, 211; fetish of, 150 Guatemala, coup d’état in, 240 Galbraith, James K., 115, 142, 166, 169 Galbraith, John Kenneth, 18–20, 115, 194; The Affluent Society, 79, 87 game theory, 129 gasoline: oligopolistic industry, 61; prices of, 73 gender pay gap, 189 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), 224 George, David, 42, 204 Gini coefficient, 200–1 Gintis, Herb, 1 Glass-Steagal Act, 259; repeal of, 260–1 global trading system, agreements, 224 global warming, evidence of, 156 globalization, 229–31; analysis of, 219–42 Gomory, R. E., 229 Goodwin, N., 74, 218 government: and determination of market outcomes, 13; and equity, 13–14; and externalities, 154; bias against, habit formation, 12 happiness, 246; maximization of, 10, 12; measurement of, 88–9 see also wellbeing and utility Harberger, A.


pages: 504 words: 147,722

Doing Harm: The Truth About How Bad Medicine and Lazy Science Leave Women Dismissed, Misdiagnosed, and Sick by Maya Dusenbery

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Atul Gawande, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, gender pay gap, Joan Didion, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, phenotype, pre–internet, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, selection bias, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), sexual politics, Skype, stem cell, women in the workforce

But of course, there is a gender gap among editors too: women make up just 17.5 percent of all editorial-board members of sixty major medical journals. Women doctors also earn less than their male counterparts. According to a 2016 study published in JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association of roughly 10,000 physician faculty members at twenty-four medical schools, the women earned over $50,000 less per year, on average, than their male colleagues. This gender pay gap is often blamed on the fact that the primary care specialties that women often go into tend to be lower paying. But even after adjusting for specialty and several other factors that affect pay—including age and experience—there was still a difference of almost $20,000 that wasn’t explained. In fact, some studies suggest that the gap has actually been increasing in recent years. Surveys of women in medicine attest to the persistent discrimination they face.

., 224 allergies, 297–98 All in My Head (Kamen), 195 Alzheimer’s disease, 3, 20, 27, 47, 243 Ambien (zolpidem), 43–44 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, 160 American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association (AARDA), 2, 138, 140, 142, 144, 145, 147, 148 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 26, 52 American College of Rheumatology, 200 American Gynecological Society, 214 American Heart Association, 110 American Medical Association (AMA), 7, 16, 52, 141; AMA Journal of Ethics article, 77; English’s open letter, 263; JAMA studies on gender pay gap and gender bias, 10 American Psychological Association (APA), Personality Characteristics of Patients with Pain, 195 American Thyroid Association, 159 anesthesia, 43, 53 anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, 167–69 anxiety, 50, 70, 91; misdiagnosis of other diseases as, 122–24, 146, 151, 154, 159; panic disorder, 124–25, 277; POTS undifferentiated from, 277; somatization and, 78, 82, 89, 92; symptoms attributed to, 61–62, 78, 80–82, 89, 122–24, 126–29, 151, 199 Aronowitz, Robert A., 288 arrhythmias, 110–11 Association of American Medical Colleges, online curriculum database, 54 asthma, 41, 73, 241, 242, 297, 302 Atkins, Chloë, My Imaginary Illness, 102, 103 attention deficit disorder, 117 Aucott, John, 291–92 Authors of Our Own Misfortune?


pages: 667 words: 149,811

Economic Dignity by Gene Sperling

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, corporate governance, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Elon Musk, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, full employment, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Gunnar Myrdal, housing crisis, income inequality, invisible hand, job automation, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, liberal world order, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, minimum wage unemployment, obamacare, offshore financial centre, payday loans, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, speech recognition, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Toyota Production System, traffic fines, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, War on Poverty, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game

Anderson, Private Government, 49. 7. Gene B. Sperling, “Judicial Right Declaration and Entrenched Discrimination,” Yale Law Journal 94, no. 7 (1985), https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/ylj/vol94/iss7/9; and Gene Sperling, “Does the Supreme Court Matter?” American Prospect, December 5, 2000, https://prospect.org/justice/supreme-court-matter/. 8. “The Gender Pay Gap by the Numbers,” Lean In, accessed January 19, 2020, https://leanin.org/equal-pay-data-about-the-gender-pay-gap#endnote3. 9. “The Wage Gap for Black Women: Working Longer and Making Less,” National Women’s Law Center, August 19, 2019, https://nwlc.org/resources/the-wage-gap-for-black-women-working-longer-and-making-less; and “Equal Pay for Latinas,” National Women’s Law Center, November 13, 2019, https://nwlc.org/resources/equal-pay-for-latinas. 10.


pages: 1,132 words: 156,379

The Ape That Understood the Universe: How the Mind and Culture Evolve by Steve Stewart-Williams

Albert Einstein, battle of ideas, carbon-based life, David Attenborough, European colonialism, feminist movement, financial independence, gender pay gap, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, out of africa, Paul Graham, phenotype, post-industrial society, Richard Feynman, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, twin studies

As evolutionary psychologist David Buss points out, women can normally land a more attractive partner if they offer sex without commitment, whereas men can land a more attractive partner if they offer commitment as well.55 Men are more likely than women to give potential sexual partners gifts such as flowers and extravagant meals.56 Men are virtually the sole consumers of prostitutes, and prostitutes are overwhelmingly women; as the sociologist Pierre van den Berghe observed, “The male prostitute, unless he caters to homosexuals, is an economic redundancy, constantly undercut by eager amateur competition.”57 And female porn stars are paid more than the males – a genuine gender pay gap.58 The radical feminist Andrea Dworkin summed it up well: A man wants what a woman has – sex. He can steal it (rape), persuade her to give it away (seduction), rent it (prostitution), lease it over the long term (marriage in the United States) or own it outright (marriage in most societies).59 The conclusion is hard to duck. Men, on average, are more interested than women in casual sex and sexual novelty.

Boyd, 48 Einstein, Albert, 68, 229, 233, 235, 280, 300 El Mouden, Claire, 218 elephant seals, 66, 67, 68, 75, 103–104, 105, 148, 166, 167 elephants, 57, 61, 108, 136, 238 Ellis, Bruce, 83 environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA), 38, 47, 50–51, 143, 209 equivalence of inclusive fitness and group selection, 211–212 Esperanto, 226 eternal recurrence, 292, see also Sisyphus Ethical Slut, The, 146 ethnocentrism, 135, 143, 270, 289 Ethnographic Atlas, 166 eugenics, 125, 283 eusocial insects, 24–26, 138, 176, 185, 209, 212, 216, 288 evolutionary medicine, 54–56, 213 evolutionary mismatch, 4–5, 38, 45–56, 143, 240–241, 270ADHD, 56 birth control, 51, 53 breast cancer, 54–55 junk food, 52, 53, 54, 55 mental illness, 55–56 non-kin altruism, 51, 209 obesity, 52–53, 209, 290291 phobias, 51, 53–54 postpartum depression, 55–56, 209 school, 54, 56 skin color, 51 smoking, 51, 53 evolutionary psychology, overview, 11–12, see also common misunderstandings of evolutionary psychology; criticisms of evolutionary psychology evolutionary tree(s) of descent, in biological evolution, 16 in cultural evolution, 220, 230–231 extreme altruism, 206, 207, 208 faith, 265 Farrell, Warren, 91 fascism, 267 Fat Acceptance Movement, 53 fear, 11, 36, 37, 39, 40, 156, 280, see also phobias Feldman, Marcus, 298 female orgasm, 58–59, 291 feminism, 56, 63, 64, 84, 90, 93, 99, 112, 114, 117–118, 122, 144, 255, see also patriarchy; sexism fertility norms, 247–248, 257 Feynman, Richard, 13 fight-or-flight response, 37, 143 Fischer, Edward, 144 Fisher, Helen, 138–139, 142 Fitzgerald, Carey, 187 Fletcher, Garth, 119 food preferences, 4, 36, 42, 45, 52, 60, 87, 112, 122, 196, 231, 261, see also conditioned taste aversions free riders, see problem of cheating Freud, Sigmund, 10, 27, 106, 252, 286 Friedman, Milton, 228 Frost, Peter, 277 functional analysis, 35–36, 38, 40–41, 119–120, 221222, 244, 248, 263264 fur seals, 66, 91, 136 Gaiman, Neil, 138 Gardner, Martin, 295 Gates, Bill, 245 gazelles, 17, 19 gender differences, see sex differences gender pay gap, 84, 102 gene–culture coevolution, 49–50, 222, 241, 268–279art, 277–278 cooking, 268, 272, 273–274 humor, 277–278 intelligence, 272, 274–275, 276 lactose tolerance, 50, 269–272, 275, 276, 298 language, 275–276 music, 277–278 religion, 276–277 salivary amylase, 50, 272 throwing, 273 See also gene–technology coevolution gene–meme hybrids, 14, 218, 280 gene’s-eye view of evolution, 12, 27–31, 120, 137, 156, 157, 178, 186, 213, 237, 244, 250, 253relationship to group selection, 33 relationship to inclusive fitness, 29–30 gene–technology coevolution, 272–273, 275, 278–279 genetic determinism, see criticisms of evolutionary psychology genetic drift, 17, 28, 34 geniuses, 235–236, 267 ghosts, 298–299 gibbons, 43, 73, 74, 77, 148, 149, 170 God, 8, 223, 229as adaptation, 259–260 cultural group selection, 248–249, 253 meme’s-eye view, 259–260, 261, 265 See also religion God Delusion, The, 265 Goodall, Jane, 19, 170, 231 gorillas, 64, 66, 68, 73, 74, 75, 116, 158, 160, 166, 167, 169–170 Gottfredson, Linda, 275 Gottschall, Jonathan, 96–97, 99, 144–145 Gould, Stephen Jay, 49, 57, 290–291 Graham, Paul, 252 group selection, 29, 31–34, 204, 243, 249altruism, 31–33, 205–213 equivalence to inclusive fitness, 211–212 relationship to gene’s-eye view, 33 See also cultural group selection groupishness, 206–207, 209–210, 211 Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer, 55–56 Haidt, Jonathan, 208 Hames, Raymond, 200 Hamilton, William, 25, 26–27, 28, 178, 181, 183–185, 187, 191, 192, 193, 251 Hamilton’s rule, 183–184 happiness, 29, 155–156, 176, 193, 252 Hardin, Garrett, 198 Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 48 Harford, Tim, 155 Harpending, Henry, 49, 271 Harris, Frank, 98 Haselton, Martie, 55–56 Hawkes, Kristen, 204 Hawking, Stephen, 1 Heartburn, 148 Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, 260 helping at the nest, 175, 185, 216 Henrich, Joseph, 223, 238, 240, 244–247, 322n11 heritability, 44, 256, 283 Hinduism, 10 hipster effect, 240 history, 208, 266–267, 268 History of Human Marriage, The, 133 hoax computer virus warnings, 221, 222, 249, 297 Hobbes, Thomas, 10, 194 Hollywood, 124, 144, 145 Holzer, Jenny, 144 homicide, 102, 103, 108, 138, 146, 147, 158–160, 163–164, 188–189, 202, 246, 291, see also Cinderella effect homosexual necrophilia, 66 homosexuality, see same-sex sexual orientation horizontal meme transfer, 230, 257 hormones, 55, see also sex differences; testosterone How the Mind Works, 41, 300 Hrdy, Sarah, 65, 77 Hughes, Jonnie, 267 human nature, 10, 12, 39, 40, 42, 54, 122, 146, 167, 173, 186, 187, 196, 214, 245–246, 249, 256, 259, 260, 280, 285–286, 289–290 humans as gene machines, 12, 14, 31, 33, 34, 39, 41, 45, 237, 249, 266 humans as meme machines, 14, 266–267, 296 humor, 8gene–culture coevolution, 277–278 operant conditioning, 225–226 sexual selection, 22, 43–45, 277 hunger, 11, 35, 38, 39 hunter-gatherers, 13, 46, 47–48, 49, 50–51, 54, 55–56, 111, 140, 151, 159, 161, 204, 241, 244, 245, 247–248, 272, 279, see also big-game hunting Huxley, Julian, 279 hybridization in cultural evolution, 230 hydra, 292, see also eternal recurrence hyenas, 110 hypercooperativeness, 206–208, 209–210, 233 illusion of intelligent design, 18, 35, 221, 223–224, 225–226, 227, 228, 229, 237, 246–247, 252, 253, 264–265, 266 imitation, 233, 238, 239, 240, 246, 256, 289 inbreeding depression, 131, 136 incest avoidance, 12, 39–43, 129–137, 186, 255, 287cross-cultural universality, 42, 135–136 cultural evolution, 135 emergence despite social pressure, 134 evolutionary explanation, 41, 130–131 in nonhuman animals, 43, 131–132, 136–137 in plants, 136–137 nature vs. nurture, 135–137 inclusive fitness, 24–28, 29, 31, 131, 201, 218, 237–238, 241, 256, 271, 288equivalence to group selection, 211–212 relationship to gene’s-eye view, 29–30 individualism, 143, 144, 214, 238 infanticide, 158, see also Cinderella effect infidelity, 40, 41, 65, 79, 85, 89, 128, 134, 135, 146, 151–152, 165–166, 239, 284in nonhuman animals, 73, 148–149, 166 sexual vs. emotional, 150–151 See also jealousy Inge, William Ralph, 237 in-group–out-group bias, 33, 208, 243, 249, 255, 285, see also groupishness inheritance records, 187–188, 189 intelligence, 1, 9, 13, 61, 76, 210, 223–224, 232–233, 234–236, 242, 256, 283, 285gene–culture coevolution, 272, 274–275, 276 sexual selection, 43, 44–45 intelligent design, see creationism; illusion of intelligent design Internet, 59, 143, 222, 226, 230, 233, 234, 237, 254, 257, 266 IQ, see intelligence Ismail the Bloodthirsty, 69, 77, 82, 245, 310n15 jacanas, 72–73 Jainism, 258 James, William, 34, 154, 250, 301 Jankowiak, William, 144, 190 jealousy, 6, 11, 39–43, 145–152, 169, 172, 173, 178, 197, 280, 287cross-cultural universality, 42, 146–147, 151 evolutionary explanation, 41, 147–150, 152 in nonhuman animals, 43, 147–149 nature vs. nurture, 146–147 See also sex differences in jealousy Jesus, 72, 74, 255, 257258, 299, 300 jewel beetles, 66, 91 John, Elton, 129–130 Judaism, 258 Julius Caesar, 136 junk food, 4, 5, 45, 52, 53, 54, 55, 60, 242, 251, 261–262 just-so stories, 135, 197, see also criticisms of evolutionary psychology kangaroos, 67, 116 karma, 10, 249 Kenrick, Douglas, 97 kibbutzim, 114, 133, 190 kin altruism, 7, 11, 12, 36, 42, 47, 77, 134, 174–175, 177–192, 193, 201, 205, 243, 280, 287, 288cross-cultural universality, 177178, 187, 190, 192 emergence despite culture, 190 in bacteria, 191 in nonhuman animals, 24–26, 43, 175–176, 177, 185–186, 191–192, 317n23 in plants, 43, 191, 192 nature vs. nurture, 176–177, 190–192 kin recognition, 132–134, 189in nonhuman animals, 132, 185–186 kin selection, 25–26, 131, 134, 177–192, 197, 202, 204, 206–, 288, 290, see also kin altruism; kin recognition; relatedness Kindchenschema, see baby schema King Solomon, 166167, 246 Kissinger, Henry, 98 Klingon, 226 Krakauer, David, 235 Kurzban, Robert, 292 lactose tolerance, 50, 269–272, 275, 276, 298 Laland, Kevin, 268, 294, 308n23 language, 8, 9, 13, 15, 47, 116117, 210, 221, 233as parasite, 251–252 biological evolution, 226, 261, 275, 287, 321n88 cultural evolution, 226–227, 230–231, 234 gene–culture coevolution, 275–276 meme’s-eye view, 261, 298, 301 sexual selection, 43–44, 276 See also color terms langur monkeys, 158, 161 Laozi, 214 Le Bon, Gustave, 64 learning biases, 222, 238–241, 242–243content biases, 238–239, 255 frequency-dependent biases, conformist bias, 240–241 rarity bias, 240 model-based biases, prestige bias, 239, 242–243 similarity bias, 239 Leibniz, Gottfried, 234 lemmings, 32, 33, 195 Lewontin, Richard, 57 Lieberman, Daniel, 55 lions, 17, 18, 19, 34, 36, 37, 40, 42, 149, 158, 161, 193194, 209, 210, 279 longevity, see sex differences in longevity love, 6, 11, 12, 15, 34, 39, 40, 76, 83, 86, 87, 91, 121, 130, 133, 134, 137–145, 147, 150, 165, 168, 172, 189, 197, 208, 218, 256, 280, 287, 290companionate love, 140–141 cross-cultural universality, 140, 144–145 evolutionary explanation, 141–143 nature vs. nurture, 144–145 romantic love, 137–140, 203 sociocultural explanation, 143–144 symptoms, 138–140 love birds, 73, 74 Love You Forever, 152–153 Lumsden, Charles, 238, 251 lust, see sexual desire Lykken, David, 108109 Lynch, Aaron, 257 Mach, Ernst, 301 MacLeane, Shirley, 146, 147 Madonna, 86 Mahdists of Sudan, 256 Maher, Bill, 83 maladaptive culture, 9, 14, 240–243, 244, 249, 251–252, 253, 296, 297, 302–303, see also memes as parasites male nipples, 58 male parental care, 5, 12, 45, 47, 62, 74, 76–77, 85, 9899, 105, 110111, 129, 141–142, 152, 153, 154–155, 170–172in nonhuman animals, 147–148, 170 See also biparental care male physique, 75, 77, 99, 105–106, 128, 130, 167 Malthus, Thomas, 236 Man a Machine, 18 Marks, Jonathan, 283 martyrdom, 2425, 262, 300, 302, 303 Marxism, 255, 267 mate guarding, 147–148, 149, 152, see also mutual mate guarding mate preferences, 6, 11, 39–43, 75, 120–129, 165as a cause of evolution, 21, 22, 44, 71, 75–76, 77, 101–102, 105, 160, 203, 277 cross-cultural universality, 42, 124, 127–128, 129, 203, 288, 290 evolutionary explanation, 41, 93, 124–125 facial femininity, 126–127, 128 fertility, 41, 43, 93, 94, 95–96, 122, 124–125, 126, 127, 129, 147, 161, 178, 312n85 good genes, 43, 45, 70, 91, 93, 98–99, 124–125, 126, 202, 204 health, 39, 40, 41, 43, 70, 93, 98, 124–125, 126, 127, 129, 202, 245 in nonhuman animals, 43, 91, 93, 98, 121–122, 126, 129 masculinity, 128–129 nature vs. nurture, 122–124, 129 sociocultural explanation, 122, 129 symmetry, 6, 39, 40, 41, 43, 60, 93, 125–126, 130 virginity, 288 voice pitch, 105106, 125, 128, 129 waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), 77, 127–128, 130, 314n16 youthfulness, 6, 40, 41, 69, 93, 94, 127, 128 See also sex differences in mate preferences; sex differences in the importance of good looks and youthfulness in a mate; sex differences in the importance of wealth and status in a mate materialism, 10, 18 mating displays, see sexual ornaments Mating Mind, The, 202 mating opportunity cost, 111–112, 171 mating systems, 128, 172–173, see also monogamy; polygyny; promiscuity Maugham, Somerset, 141 maximum offspring number, see sex differences in maximum offspring number McElreath, Richard, 238, 240 MCFC (males-compete/females-choose) model, 2223, 72, 73 McLaughlin, Mignon, 79 Mead, Margaret, 146 media, 64, 94, 95, 97, 124 medicine, 47, 59, 111, 262, 284 Meme Machine, The, 254 memeplexes, 252, 253, 257–258, 263–264, 265, 266, 269 memes as parasites, 251–252, 259, 261–263, 271 memetic adaptations, 257–258, 264–266 memetic drift, 254 memetic mismatch, 240–241, 267 memetics, 13–14, 144, 218–223, 249–268apple pie and ice cream, 251, 261–262, 303 calculus, 252, 267 celibacy, 256, 257, 262, 302, 303 chain letters, 219–222, 249, 253, 261–262, 297 cocooning, 257 color terms, 254–255 earworms, 14, 252, 253, 254, 259, 262, 263, 271, 296, 297 faith, 265 fertility norms, 257 God, 259–260, 261, 265 hoax computer virus warnings, 221, 222, 249, 297 language, 251–252, 261, 298, 301 martyrdom, 262, 300, 302, 303 morality, 14, 264, 301 mudslinging, 258 music, 252, 260–261, 262–263, 300, 301, 302 political ideologies, 222, 252, 255, 256, 258, 263, 266–267 proselytizing, 257–258 religion, 14, 222, 252, 255, 256, 257–258, 262, 263–265, 266, 295, 296, 299, 300, 301 science, 268, 300 smoking, 252, 253, 296, 297, 303 See also criticisms of memetics Mencken, H.


pages: 207 words: 59,298

The Gig Economy: A Critical Introduction by Jamie Woodcock, Mark Graham

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, collective bargaining, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deindustrialization, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, global value chain, informal economy, information asymmetry, inventory management, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, Lyft, mass immigration, means of production, Network effects, new economy, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, planetary scale, precariat, rent-seeking, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

We have chopped billions of tons of cotton, washed billions of dishes, scrubbed billions of floors, typed billions of words, wired billions of radio sets, washed billions of nappies, by hand and in machines. Work within the household is still work. As Anderson (2000: 1) has argued, ‘domestic work is vital and sustaining, and it is also demeaned and disregarded.’ The pressures of unpaid domestic work increase the likelihood of women working in ‘non-standard’ jobs (Fredman, 2003). This means that women are much more likely to end up in segregated jobs, with a gender pay gap and fewer social protections throughout the life course, amongst other negative outcomes. Similarly, when it is ‘paid domestic work in private households’, it ‘is disproportionately performed by racialized groups’ (Anderson, 2000: 1). The racialization of work has its roots in slavery, which played a key role in financing the industrial revolution. As Eric Williams (1994: 7) has argued, ‘slavery was not born of racism: rather, racism was the consequence of slavery.’


pages: 221 words: 55,901

The Globalization of Inequality by François Bourguignon

Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, minimum wage unemployment, offshore financial centre, open economy, Pareto efficiency, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Robert Gordon, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, very high income, Washington Consensus

As with the gap between men and women, the rate of the reduction of racial inequality in wages has slowed since the mid-­1980s, as differences in educational levels between blacks and whites have progressively declined. More generally, see the survey by Dominique Meurs and Sophie Ponthieux, “Gender Inequality” in Atkinson and Bourguignon (eds.), Handbook of Income Distribution, vol. 2, chapter 12. For the United States, see Francine Blau and Lawrence Kahn, “The U.S. Gender Pay Gap in the 1990s: Slowing Convergence,” Industrial & Labor Relations Review 60, no. 1 (2006): 45–66. 13 66 Chapter 2 Discrimination against migrants can be observed in most countries, even after controlling for differences in age, education, and occupation with respect to the native population or the dominant race or ethnicity. However, it is difficult to track discrimination against migrants over the long term.


pages: 239 words: 62,005

Don't Burn This Book: Thinking for Yourself in an Age of Unreason by Dave Rubin

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, Burning Man, butterfly effect, centre right, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Donald Trump, failed state, gender pay gap, illegal immigration, immigration reform, job automation, low skilled workers, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, school choice, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, Tim Cook: Apple, unpaid internship, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

In fact, women are actively thriving above men and boys in many critical domains. But if one still needs a reason to justify being a militant feminist, then head over to the Middle East. That’s where you’ll find real misogyny, which is propped up by a proper patriarchy. Happy travels! WAGE GAP There are two things that could survive a nuclear war: cockroaches and the myth of the gender pay gap. Despite being debunked by countless economists (many of whom are women), it’s a statistical lie that never dies. So let’s check the facts . . . First, the claim women earn 79 cents for every man’s dollar is pure spin. The figure is an aggregate one, which compares the median of all women’s earnings with the equivalent for all men, but this ignores job type, experience, and hours worked.


pages: 254 words: 61,387

This Could Be Our Future: A Manifesto for a More Generous World by Yancey Strickler

basic income, big-box store, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, effective altruism, Elon Musk, financial independence, gender pay gap, global supply chain, housing crisis, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Nash: game theory, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, medical bankruptcy, new economy, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, stem cell, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Travis Kalanick, universal basic income, white flight

He hosts on his website the PDFs of all the Business Roundtable’s previous statements (http://www.ralphgomory.com). “production distribution activities”: From The Value of Everything by Mariana Mazzucato (page 160). executive compensation has soared 1,000 percent: Statistic on the 1,000 percent rise in executive compensation comes from Bloomberg Businessweek (“American CEO Pay Is Soaring, but the Gender Pay Gap Is Drawing the Rage,” August 2018). CHAPTER FIVE: THE TRAP It was Harvard Business Review: The Harvard Business Review cover is from October 2015. attitudes of America’s college students: UCLA’s Higher Education Research Institute’s CIRP Freshman Survey reports, going all the way back to 1966 to today, can be found online at https://heri.ucla.edu/publications-tfs/. “has risen since”: This comes from Mariana Mazzucato’s The Value of Everything (page 167).


pages: 306 words: 78,893

After the New Economy: The Binge . . . And the Hangover That Won't Go Away by Doug Henwood

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate raider, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, deskilling, ending welfare as we know it, feminist movement, full employment, gender pay gap, George Gilder, glass ceiling, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, income inequality, indoor plumbing, intangible asset, Internet Archive, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, labor-force participation, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, manufacturing employment, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Naomi Klein, new economy, occupational segregation, pets.com, post-work, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, union organizing, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor, zero-sum game

"'Lousy' Sales Forecasts Helped Fuel the Telecom Mess," Wall Street Journal,]vly 9, p. Bl. Bjorhus,Jermifer (2000). "Productivity Is at Center of New Economy Debate," San Jose Mercury Neu/5,July3,2000. Blanchflower, David G., and Andrew J. Oswald, "Well-Being Over Time in Britain and the USA," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 7487, January <www.nber.org/papers/w7487>. Blau, Francine D. (1996)."Where Are We In the Economics of Gender? The Gender Pay Gap," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 5664, July <www.nber.org/ papers/w5664>. Blau, Francine D, and Lawrence M. Kahn (1992). "Race and Gender Pay Differentials," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 4120, July <www.nber.org/ papers/w4120>. (2000). "Gender Differences in Pay," National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 7732,June <www.nber.org/papers/w7732>.


pages: 477 words: 75,408

The Economic Singularity: Artificial Intelligence and the Death of Capitalism by Calum Chace

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lifelogging, lump of labour, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, post-work, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

The two systems can be set up to produce the same financial results, but they appeal to different economic and political instincts. UBI involves payments to people who really don't need them, while NIT could stigmatise recipients. The benefits claimed for UBI address issues which concern both the political left and right. Left-wing proponents see it as a mechanism to eradicate poverty and redress what they view as growing inequality within societies. They sometimes argue that it tackles the alleged gender pay gap, and redistributes income away from capital and towards labour. It has also been held out as a partial solution to the alleged generational theft whereby relatively wealthy pensioners are receiving income generated by taxes on young workers who have no assets, and who may not themselves receive similar benefits in later life because the welfare system looks increasingly unaffordable.[ccxcvii] Right-wing advocates see UBI as a way to remove swathes of government bureaucracy: abolishing means testing removes the need for the battalions of civil servants who devise and implement it.


pages: 279 words: 76,796

The Unbanking of America: How the New Middle Class Survives by Lisa Servon

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, basic income, Build a better mousetrap, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, employer provided health coverage, financial exclusion, financial independence, financial innovation, gender pay gap, George Akerlof, gig economy, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, late fees, Lyft, M-Pesa, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, Occupy movement, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, precariat, Ralph Nader, Richard Thaler, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, too big to fail, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, We are the 99%, white flight, working poor, Zipcar

Kendra has all but given up on the notion that she can plan for her future. Other members of her generation are beset by worry: 39 percent of millennials say they worry once a week or more about their financial future, and women worry more than men. Only 2 percent of millennial women claim that they never worry about money, whereas 20 percent of men say they’re worry-free. This is at least partially financial; while millennial women are making gains in closing the gender pay gap, they still earn about eighty-five cents to the millennial man’s dollar. Most millennials have savings accounts but there’s not much in them. They want to save but there’s nothing left over after paying the bills. More than three-quarters of adults under the age of thirty worry that they aren’t saving or investing enough. Very often, college debt makes saving a distant goal. We’ve always been told that investment in assets like education is okay, assigning student loans to the category of “good debt.”


pages: 258 words: 74,942

Company of One: Why Staying Small Is the Next Big Thing for Business by Paul Jarvis

Airbnb, big-box store, Cal Newport, call centre, corporate social responsibility, David Heinemeier Hansson, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, follow your passion, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, Inbox Zero, index fund, job automation, Kickstarter, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Naomi Klein, passive investing, Paul Graham, pets.com, remote working, Results Only Work Environment, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ruby on Rails, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, uber lyft, web application, Y Combinator, Y2K

Traditional banks give 50 percent of their fee to a salesperson as a commission, but WealthSimple and similar robo-management services give bonuses to their advisers based solely on client feedback and happiness. Their fees are published on their websites for anyone to compare to other wealth management services they might wish to use. Ellevest, a wealth management company that has built a new approach to women-focused investing (based on risk preferences, gender pay gaps, and women’s longer life expectancy), has a fiduciary duty to act in their clients’ best interests at all times and to not use their clients’ assets for their own gain. Consumer trust increases when the ulterior motive of selling a product just to make a commission is removed from the transaction. This is why transparent companies like WealthSimple and Ellevest are rapidly acquiring new customers, without much churn.


pages: 242 words: 73,728

Give People Money by Annie Lowrey

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airport security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, full employment, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Earth, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, indoor plumbing, information asymmetry, Jaron Lanier, jitney, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, late capitalism, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, McMansion, Menlo Park, mobile money, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, Peter Thiel, post scarcity, post-work, Potemkin village, precariat, randomized controlled trial, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, theory of mind, total factor productivity, Turing test, two tier labour market, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey, Y Combinator

the United States’ female labor participation rate: Eleanor Krause and Isabel Sawhill, “What We Know and Don’t Know About Declining Labor Force Participation: A Review” (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, May 17, 2017). the United States’ fastest-growing job: Karsten Strauss, “Predicting the Fastest-Growing Jobs of the Future,” Forbes, Nov. 7, 2017. “By the time a woman earns her first dollar”: Jessica Schieder and Elise Gould, “ ‘Women’s Work’ and the Gender Pay Gap: How Discrimination, Societal Norms, and Other Forces Affect Women’s Occupational Choices—and Their Pay” (Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute, July 20, 2016). “pollution theory of discrimination”: Claudia Goldin, “A Pollution Theory of Discrimination: Male and Female Differences in Occupations and Earnings” (NBER Working Paper no. 8985, June 2002). majority-male to majority-female: Claire Cain Miller, “As Women Take Over a Male-Dominated Field, the Pay Drops,” New York Times, Mar. 18, 2016.


pages: 309 words: 81,975

Brave New Work: Are You Ready to Reinvent Your Organization? by Aaron Dignan

"side hustle", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, butterfly effect, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, deliberate practice, DevOps, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, endowment effect, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, gender pay gap, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, hiring and firing, hive mind, income inequality, information asymmetry, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, new economy, Paul Graham, race to the bottom, remote working, Richard Thaler, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, smart contracts, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, software is eating the world, source of truth, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, the High Line, too big to fail, Toyota Production System, uber lyft, universal basic income, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

It’s been a half a century since the Equal Pay Act, but women still face a sizable wage gap, earning somewhere between 78 and 80 cents for every dollar a man earns. Many minorities face similar gaps, which are in some cases actually increasing. These pay gaps are a complex phenomenon, driven in part by discrimination and bias but also by broader educational and sociological patterns. A new study on the gender pay gap in Denmark, one of the world’s most egalitarian societies, reveals that women working full time are still paid 15–20 percent less than men. Surprising, until you realize that pay gap is largely a penalty for childbearing. Women experience a sharp decline of up to 30 percent in their earnings after the birth of their first child. This is less about different pay for the same work than about choosing different work altogether, seeking greater flexibility and/or reduced hours to accommodate a different set of demands on their time and energy.


Green Economics: An Introduction to Theory, Policy and Practice by Molly Scott Cato

Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Bretton Woods, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, carbon footprint, central bank independence, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deskilling, energy security, food miles, Food sovereignty, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, gender pay gap, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job satisfaction, land reform, land value tax, Mahatma Gandhi, market fundamentalism, mortgage debt, passive income, peak oil, price stability, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, the built environment, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, University of East Anglia, wikimedia commons

The richest 1 per cent of the population has increased its share of national income from around 6 per cent in 1980 to 13 per cent in 1999. Wealth distribution is more unequal than income distribution, and has continued to get more unequal in the last decade. Between 1990 and 2000 the percentage of wealth held by the wealthiest 10 per cent of the population increased from 47 per cent to 54 per cent. Although the gender pay gap has narrowed, only very slow progress has been made since 1994. In 1994 women in full-time work earned on average 79.5 per cent of what men earned; by 2003 this had only increased to 82 per cent. Deprived communities suffer the worst effects of environmental degradation. Industrial sites are disproportionately located in deprived areas: in 2003, there were five times as many sites in the wards containing the most deprived 10 per cent of the population, and seven times as many emission sources, than in wards with the least deprived 10 per cent.


pages: 273 words: 85,195

Nomadland: Surviving America in the Twenty-First Century by Jessica Bruder

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, back-to-the-land, big-box store, Burning Man, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, full employment, game design, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, income inequality, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Mars Rover, new economy, off grid, payday loans, Pepto Bismol, precariat, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sharing economy, six sigma, supply-chain management, union organizing, urban sprawl, white picket fence, Y2K

.: National Women’s Law Center, 2016. http://nwlc.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Poverty-Snapshot-Factsheet-2016.pdf. 38. Women earning less Social Security than men: Joan Entmacher and Katherine Gallagher Robbins, Fact Sheet: Women & Social Security. Washington, D.C.: National Women’s Law Center, 2015. http://nwlc.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/socialsecuritykeyfactsfactsheetfeb2015update.pdf. 38. Gender pay gap: Ariane Hegewisch and Asha DuMonthier, The Gender Wage Gap: 2015. Washington, D.C.: Institute for Women’s Policy Research, 2016. http://www.iwpr.org/publications/pubs/the-gender-wage-gap-2015-annual-earnings-differences-by-gender-race-and-ethnicity. 38. Outliving men by five years: Jiaquan Xu et al., Mortality in the United States, 2015. Hyattsville, MD: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics, 2016. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db267.pdf.


pages: 263 words: 80,594

Stolen: How to Save the World From Financialisation by Grace Blakeley

"Robert Solow", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, basic income, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate raider, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, currency peg, David Graeber, debt deflation, decarbonisation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, fixed income, full employment, G4S, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, land value tax, light touch regulation, low skilled workers, market clearing, means of production, money market fund, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, negative equity, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, payday loans, pensions crisis, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, principal–agent problem, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Right to Buy, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, road to serfdom, savings glut, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, sovereign wealth fund, the built environment, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, transfer pricing, universal basic income, Winter of Discontent, working-age population, yield curve, zero-sum game

As the PAM increased in size and importance, these elections would grow in significance, allowing working people to determine their priorities regarding collective investment. The PAM should take up a role as an activist investor in the corporations whose stock it owns. But rather than pressuring companies to maximise shareholder value, it should use its shareholdings to support the objectives of the Green New Deal. For example, encouraging sustainable business practices, promoting internal democracy, reducing pay differentials, closing the gender pay gap, and promoting responsible tax practices. Over the long term, as the PAM increases its holdings over domestic enterprises, it could provide an important role in promoting accountability amongst state- or worker-owned corporations — both promoting efficiency and ensuring these corporations are acting in the interests of stakeholders. 7. Institutional Reform To achieve any of these measures it will be necessary to democratise the UK’s existing financial system.


pages: 286 words: 87,168

Less Is More: How Degrowth Will Save the World by Jason Hickel

air freight, Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, cognitive dissonance, coronavirus, corporate governance, corporate personhood, COVID-19, David Graeber, decarbonisation, declining real wages, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Elon Musk, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, Fractional reserve banking, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gender pay gap, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, land reform, liberal capitalism, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, passive income, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, Simon Kuznets, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, universal basic income

Wages rose to levels higher than ever before in recorded history, doubling or even tripling in most regions and in some cases rising as much as sixfold.6 Rents declined, food became cheap, and nutrition improved. Workers were able to bargain for shorter working hours and weekends off, plus benefits like meals on the job and payment for each mile they had to travel to and from work. Women’s wages shot up too, narrowing what under feudalism had been a substantial gender pay gap. Historians have described the period from 1350 to 1500 as ‘the golden age of the European proletariat’.7 It was a golden age for Europe’s ecology, too. The feudal system had been an ecological disaster. Lords put peasants under heavy pressure to extract from the land and forests while giving nothing back. This drove a crisis of deforestation, overgrazing, and a gradual decline in soil fertility.


pages: 343 words: 91,080

Uberland: How Algorithms Are Rewriting the Rules of Work by Alex Rosenblat

"side hustle", Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, big-box store, call centre, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Chrome, income inequality, information asymmetry, Jaron Lanier, job automation, job satisfaction, Lyft, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, performance metric, Peter Thiel, price discrimination, Ralph Waldo Emerson, regulatory arbitrage, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, social software, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, TaskRabbit, Tim Cook: Apple, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, urban planning, Wolfgang Streeck, Zipcar

In 2017, a New York Times report citing internal documents at Uber indicated that “roughly a quarter of its drivers turn over on average every three months,” and Alison Griswold estimated in her weekly newsletter Oversharing that Uber’s one-year retention rate is between 15 percent and 25 percent.44 The problem of driver churn is complicated by driver motivations, but Uber’s employment model relies on a constant influx of new drivers who can be hired quickly to compensate for poor retention rates. By 2018, Uber published a study on the gender pay gap of its workforce indicating that 68 percent of its U.S. drivers have a six-month attrition rate, and the rate of attrition is higher for women than men.45 Hobbyists like Nathan from L.A., Carol from Charleston, and Steven from Toronto, who continue to drive despite declining earnings, represent workers who are motivated substantially by nonfinancial values and are usually better positioned to absorb pay cuts.


pages: 297 words: 89,206

Social Class in the 21st Century by Mike Savage

call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clapham omnibus, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, deskilling, Downton Abbey, financial independence, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, income inequality, liberal capitalism, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, moral panic, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, old-boy network, precariat, psychological pricing, Sloane Ranger, The Spirit Level, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, very high income, winner-take-all economy, young professional

Meritocratic recruitment does not eradicate the advantages which are enjoyed by those who come into these occupations from privileged backgrounds. Those occupations directly associated with finance see especially marked differences. Financial intermediaries from higher managerial and traditional professional backgrounds earn on average £24,000, nearly 40 per cent, more than those from routine and semi-routine backgrounds. Let us reflect further on this. We are quite rightly troubled by the existence of a gender pay gap within many occupations, which can be as much as 50 per cent in some managerial occupations. But it also appears that there is a ‘social class background pay gap’. Those who are best paid in many elite occupations are those who come from the most advantaged backgrounds. This ‘class salary gap’ regularly reaches 25 per cent in many of the more affluent occupations, but this has never previously come to light and should also be a cause for concern.


pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, post-work, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

More contemporary forms of this imperative have taken on a liberal-humanist character, portraying work as the central means of self-expression.129 Work has come to be driven into our identity, portrayed as the only means for true self-fulfilment.130 In a job interview, for instance, everyone knows the worst answer to ‘Why do you want this job?’ is to say ‘Money’, even as it remains the repressed truth. Contemporary service work heightens this phenomenon. In the absence of clear metrics for productivity, workers instead put on performances of productivity – pretending to enjoy their job or smiling while being yelled at by a customer. Working long hours has become a sign of devotion to the job, even as it perpetuates the gender pay gap.131 With work tied so tightly into our identities, overcoming the work ethic will require us overcoming ourselves. The central ideological support for the work ethic is that remuneration be tied to suffering. Everywhere one looks, there is a drive to make people suffer before they can receive a reward. The epithets thrown at homeless beggars, the demonization of those on the dole, the labyrinthine system of bureaucracy set up to receive benefits, the unpaid ‘job experience’ imposed upon the unemployed, the sadistic penalisation of those who are seen as getting something for free – all reveal the truth that for our societies, remuneration requires work and suffering.


pages: 284 words: 95,029

How to Fail: Everything I’ve Ever Learned From Things Going Wrong by Elizabeth Day

Airbnb, Desert Island Discs, disintermediation, fear of failure, financial independence, gender pay gap, Mikhail Gorbachev, pre–internet, Rosa Parks, stem cell, unpaid internship

That’s because I’d read about the influential 2003 study she conducted at Carnegie Mellon University which found that men are four times more likely than women to ask for a pay rise – and when women did ask, they typically requested 30 per cent less than men did. Among 78 masters-degree students, she found that just 12.5 per cent of women negotiated for their starting salary, versus 52 per cent of men. That led, by her estimate, to as much as $1.5 million in lost income over the woman’s career. That is now changing, thanks to a new generation of women who are less scared than I was to ask for what they deserve, but the pace is slow. The gender pay gap still exists and at the time of writing, female chief executives in the FTSE 100 were outnumbered by CEOs called David. I was at the Observer for eight years. I never once asked for a pay rise, despite considering myself a feminist. Instead, I simply carried on saying yes. I was nodding and pliant and pleasant. And at the end of eight years, I realised my journalistic career had not progressed one iota.


pages: 344 words: 94,332

The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity by Lynda Gratton, Andrew Scott

3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, disruptive innovation, diversification, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Economic Geography, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, pension reform, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, uber lyft, women in the workforce, young professional

We can also imagine that, as the acceptance and technological sophistication of virtual work increases, she will be able to join a virtual law firm and work from home.23 The trade-offs she faces are clear: as flexibility and autonomy increases, so remuneration decreases (and possibly the work has less variety and excitement). Or Jane could choose another career all together, one that has greater time flexibility, fewer clients and contact hours, more independence in determining tasks, and more projects with discretion over them. These are jobs that have what Goldin calls elasticity and her analysis shows that they are more likely to be found in technology and science, where the gender pay gap is small and does not widen over time. It is interesting, of course, that these are not the occupations to which women are currently flocking. One example would be the profession of pharmacy. Goldin’s analysis shows this is an occupation where there is currently a high degree of substitution, so that if one pharmacist is away, then another can take their place with ease. Of course, this is a profession that is paid significantly less than lawyers, consultants or investment bankers.


pages: 279 words: 90,888

The Lost Decade: 2010–2020, and What Lies Ahead for Britain by Polly Toynbee, David Walker

banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boris Johnson, call centre, car-free, centre right, collective bargaining, congestion charging, corporate governance, crony capitalism, David Attenborough, Dominic Cummings, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, energy transition, Etonian, first-past-the-post, G4S, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global village, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Dyson, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, moral panic, mortgage debt, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pension reform, quantitative easing, Right to Buy, Saturday Night Live, selection bias, smart meter, Uber for X, urban renewal, working-age population

Time is important, and the cultural capital laid down under Labour in the noughties lasted throughout the subsequent decade. The relationship between austerity and art is not linear. You can plot the popularity of Downton Abbey or Peaky Blinders against economic and societal trends (or, in the latter case, against Birmingham’s sense of identity), but the fit isn’t neat. In sports, women’s cricket, football and rugby rose in prominence over the decade, paralleling the response to #MeToo, but a gender pay gap persisted. This chapter tries to match political and economic circumstances to how we produced and consumed culture and what we told pollsters about our state of mind. Courting Failure Headline sporting achievement belied austerity. You won’t get, for example, a Liverpool supporter saying otherwise. Thanks to the athletics infrastructure built up on public subsidy in the noughties, the UK’s gold-medal tally at the 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games (respectively behind and ahead of China in the top three, with the US in first place at both) was impressive.


pages: 287 words: 92,194

Sex Power Money by Sara Pascoe

Albert Einstein, call centre, Donald Trump, Firefox, gender pay gap, invention of movable type, Louis Daguerre, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Neil Kinnock, phenotype, telemarketer, twin studies, zero-sum game

We must be so grateful to people who do not treat us like we’re stupid; it is the ultimate generosity and the only way we’ll learn. I now know that erotic capital is a value that we all possess, calculated on our sexual attractiveness and exchangeable for other forms of capital – money or services or goods. As in all economies, some of us are richer than others. It’s not fair. Kalinda made a fascinating point in her dissertation about the gender pay gap being easily bridged by how much more money men are willing to spend on sexy women than women are willing to spend on sexy men. My friend Carla sells her erotic capital in a strip club and makes more than her equally gorgeous sister who works for an insurance company – the latter being an example, for Kalinda, of someone refusing to capitalise on their sexual attractiveness and thus ‘doing themselves a disservice’.


pages: 976 words: 235,576

The Meritocracy Trap: How America's Foundational Myth Feeds Inequality, Dismantles the Middle Class, and Devours the Elite by Daniel Markovits

"Robert Solow", 8-hour work day, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Anton Chekhov, asset-backed security, assortative mating, basic income, Bernie Sanders, big-box store, business cycle, capital asset pricing model, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, corporate raider, crony capitalism, David Brooks, deskilling, Detroit bankruptcy, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Emanuel Derman, equity premium, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, fear of failure, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, high net worth, hiring and firing, income inequality, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, medical residency, minimum wage unemployment, Myron Scholes, Nate Silver, New Economic Geography, new economy, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, school choice, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, stakhanovite, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, telemarketer, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas Davenport, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, traveling salesman, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Vanguard fund, War on Poverty, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game

On the one hand, the most elite, highest-paying jobs in the economy belong among the most male-dominated. Only about 14 percent of the top executives (and just about 8 percent of the highest earners) in Fortune 500 companies are women, and more than a quarter of these companies have no women in top management; Wall Street remains overwhelmingly male-dominated; women make up only 18 percent of equity partners at American law firms; and the gender pay gap among doctors has widened in recent years. The intense personal involvement that elite education now demands, when overlaid on gender norms that distinctively bind mothers to parenting, rationalizes these patterns. The hours that superordinate work requires are incompatible with bearing (let alone raising) children. Elite women therefore no longer stay home to signal their leisure, as Veblen imagined, but rather to labor intensively at training their children.

But the meritocratic imperatives of dynastic succession overpower these efforts. On the other hand, middle-class men traditionally dominated the jobs—quintessentially in manufacturing—that have been lost or seen wage stagnation in recent decades, even as many of the service jobs that have displaced them are conventionally done by middle-class women. (In fact, progress in diminishing the gender pay gap overall principally comes courtesy of declining wages for men without a college degree.) Moreover, poorer men are less successful than poorer women at acquiring the schooling needed to secure better jobs in a meritocratic labor market: men make up only 42 percent of college students from households with annual incomes below $30,000. Veblen’s logic still applies to the middle class, although with a darkly ironic twist: in middle-class families, working women represent the no-longer adequacy of the male wage.


pages: 241 words: 90,538

Unequal Britain: Equalities in Britain Since 1945 by Pat Thane

Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, equal pay for equal work, full employment, gender pay gap, longitudinal study, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, old-boy network, pensions crisis, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, unpaid internship, women in the workforce

The comparable figures for other occupations are: local authority chief executives, 13.1/19.5; senior ranks in the armed services, 0.6/0/9; senior police officers, 7.5/11/9; senior judges, 6.8/9.6; civil service top management, 22.9/26.6; head teachers in secondary schools, 30.1 in 2003 and 34.1 in 2006 (2007/8 figures are not available for this group).52 There has been progress, but it is very slow. There is also a continuing gender pay gap at all levels of employment, currently 17 per cent, on average, in the United Kingdom. This is comparable with Denmark (also 17 per cent), Norway (16 per cent) and Sweden (16 per cent), and better than the United States (22.4 per cent), but worse than Australia (14.1 per cent).53 The gaps at specific levels of employment in 2003 are shown in the table below: Table 5.1 Average hourly earnings of full-time employees: 2003 Occupation Managers and senior officials Professionals Administrative and secretarial Skilled trades Personal service Sales and customer service Women (£) Men (£) 15.60 17.47 8.91 7.71 7.19 6.99 21.00 19.12 9.99 9.80 7.90 8.03 Source: Interim Update of Key Indicators of Women’s Position in Britain, Women and Equality Unit (London, Department of Trade and Industry, 2004).


Corbyn by Richard Seymour

anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, credit crunch, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, first-past-the-post, full employment, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, knowledge economy, land value tax, liberal world order, mass immigration, means of production, moral panic, Naomi Klein, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, pension reform, Philip Mirowski, precariat, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent control, Snapchat, stakhanovite, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, Wolfgang Streeck, working-age population, éminence grise

One such confrontation came to a head in the year after the Iraq War began, over Blair’s determination to persist with Private Finance Initiatives and market-based public sector ‘reform’. But any chance of this becoming an organised breach between the union leadership and the party leadership was neutralised by the decision of the National Policy Forum in Warwick to offer the unions a series of incentives to remain in the fold. The offer was modest, comprising some employment rights such as restrictions on firing striking workers, and a promised review on the gender pay gap.53 But this was the classic quid pro quo for the unions – squeezing for reforms in exchange for loyalty within the overarching policy framework. With this agreement under its belt, the anti-war movement still powerful but receding, and the Tories still stuck with an unpopular Thatcher-era relic as their leader, New Labour could go into the next general election with a war treasury supplied by the unions.


pages: 440 words: 108,137

The Meritocracy Myth by Stephen J. McNamee

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American ideology, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business cycle, collective bargaining, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, estate planning, failed state, fixed income, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, joint-stock company, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low-wage service sector, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, occupational segregation, old-boy network, pink-collar, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, prediction markets, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, school choice, Scientific racism, Steve Jobs, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, white flight, young professional

Burton, and Douglas E. Hyatt, chap. 2. Madison: University of Wisconsin, Industrial Relations Research Association. Blau, Francine D. 2012. “The Sources of the Pay Gap.” In The New Gilded Age: The Critical Inequality Debates of Our Time, ed. David B. Grusky and Tamar Kricheli-Katz, 189–208. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. Blau, Francine D., and Lawrence M. Kahn. 2006. “The Gender Pay Gap: Going, Going . . . but Not Gone.” In The Declining Significance of Gender?, ed. Francine D. Blau, Mary C. Brinton, and David B. Grusky, 37–66. New York: Sage. Bocian, Debbie Gruenstein, Wei Li, and Keith S. Ernst. 2010. Foreclosures by Race and Ethnicity: The Demographics of a Crisis. Durham, NC: Center for Responsible Lending. Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. 2003. Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States.


pages: 408 words: 108,985

Rewriting the Rules of the European Economy: An Agenda for Growth and Shared Prosperity by Joseph E. Stiglitz

Airbnb, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, basic income, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business cycle, business process, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, deindustrialization, discovery of DNA, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial intermediation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gender pay gap, George Akerlof, gig economy, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, investor state dispute settlement, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, market fundamentalism, mini-job, moral hazard, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, open economy, patent troll, pension reform, price mechanism, price stability, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, TaskRabbit, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, tulip mania, universal basic income, unorthodox policies, zero-sum game

See Sarath Davala, Renana Jhabvala, Soumya Kapoor Mehta, and Guy Standing, Basic Income: A Transformative Policy for India (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015); see Isabel Ortiz, Christina Behrendt, Andrés Acuña-Ulate, and Quynh Anh Nguyen, Universal Basic Income Proposals in Light of ILO Standards (ESS—Working Paper no. 62, Geneva: International Labour Organization, 2018), https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---soc_sec/documents/publication/wcms_648602.pdf. 16. Karl Widerquist, “What (If Anything) Can We Learn from the Negative Income Tax Experiments?” in Karl Widerquist, José A. Noguera, and Yannick Vanderborght, eds., Basic Income: An Anthology of Contemporary Research (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013), 216–29. CHAPTER 9: LABOR MARKETS, GOOD WAGES, AND WORKING CONDITIONS 1. According to the ILO’s Global Wage Report 2018/19: What Lies behind Gender Pay Gaps (Geneva: International Labour Organization, 2018), the median increase of real wages in northern, southern, and western Europe in the decade 2008–2017 has been 0.7 percent: https://www.ilo.org/global/research/global-reports/global-wage-report/2018/lang--en/index.htm. 2. One of the key reasons for the decline in income (instead of the growth, which was predicted by the Troika) was that lower wages decreased demand for non-traded goods, and the contraction in that part of the economy more than offset any expansion in exports.


pages: 436 words: 125,809

The Way of the Gun: A Bloody Journey Into the World of Firearms by Iain Overton

air freight, airport security, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, clean water, Columbine, David Attenborough, Etonian, Ferguson, Missouri, gender pay gap, gun show loophole, illegal immigration, interchangeable parts, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, More Guns, Less Crime, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

Data from the National Department of Arms and Explosives on applications for firearms licences, 2008–09; http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/A-Yearbook/2013/en/Small-Arms-Survey-2013-Chapter-2-EN.pdf 8. http://www.theguardian.com/money/2013/dec/18/what-are-the-best-paid-jobs-uk-2013 9. Lawrence Mishel, Josh Bivens, Elise Gould, Heidi Shierholz, The State of Working America, 12th edition (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2012). 10. http://www.aauw.org/research/the-simple-truth-about-the-gender-pay-gap/ 11. http://youliveyourlife.com 12. http://historynewsnetwork.org/article/154225 13. http://store.waltherarms.com/very-tough-ppx-shirt.html 14. http://www.salon.com/2012/12/17/bushmasters_horrible_ad_campaign/ 15. Small Arms Survey, Unfinished Business (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), p. 317; http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/fileadmin/docs/A-Yearbook/2006/en/Small-Arms-Survey-2006-Chapter-12-EN.pdf 16. http://kdvr.com/2012/12/28/colorado-columnist-assault-rifle-owners-have-tiny-penises/ 17. http://www.bloombergview.com/articles/2013-03-08/how-brazil-exploited-sexual-insecurity-to-curb-guns-an-interview-with-antonio-bandeira 18.


pages: 455 words: 133,719

Overwhelmed: Work, Love, and Play When No One Has the Time by Brigid Schulte

8-hour work day, affirmative action, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, Burning Man, business cycle, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deliberate practice, desegregation, DevOps, East Village, Edward Glaeser, epigenetics, fear of failure, feminist movement, financial independence, game design, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, hiring and firing, income inequality, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, profit maximization, Results Only Work Environment, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sensible shoes, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Thorstein Veblen, women in the workforce, working poor, Zipcar, éminence grise

But for women ages thirty-five to forty-four, the gap widens to 79 percent and expands again for women forty-five to fifty-four to 73 percent, where it stays until age sixty-five. At that point, women earn about 85 percent of what men do. 26. Michelle J. Budig, professor of sociology, faculty associate, Center for Public Policy Administration, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, before the U.S. Joint Economic Committee hearing on “New Evidence on the Gender Pay Gap for Women and Mothers in Management,” September 28, 2010, included in the report, United States General Accounting Office, Invest in Women, Invest in America: A Comprehensive Review of Women in the U.S. Economy, prepared by the majority staff of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, December 2010, 124–42. A 2003 GAO report found a 2.5 percent pay gap between mothers and higher-earning childless women and a 2.1 percent bonus for fathers compared to childless men.


pages: 459 words: 138,689

Slowdown: The End of the Great Acceleration―and Why It’s Good for the Planet, the Economy, and Our Lives by Danny Dorling, Kirsten McClure

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, business cycle, capital controls, clean water, creative destruction, credit crunch, Donald Trump, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Henri Poincaré, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, jimmy wales, John Harrison: Longitude, Kickstarter, low earth orbit, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage debt, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, price stability, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, random walk, rent control, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, sexual politics, Skype, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, very high income, wealth creators, wikimedia commons, working poor

Dayong Zhang, Ziyin Liu, Gang-Shi Fan, and Nicholas Horsewood, “Price Bubbles and Policy Interventions in the Chinese Housing Market,” Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 32 (2017): 133–55, doi:10.1007/s10901-016-9505-6. 40. Francisco Becerril, “The Sign of China’s ‘Rebound’ May Be a Housing Bubble,” Financial Times, 25 April 2019, https://www.ft.com/content/71d237aa-6520-11e9-9adc-98bf1d35a056. 41. International Labour Organisation, Global Wage Report 2018/19: What Lies behind Gender Pay Gaps (Geneva: International Labour Office, 2018), https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/---publ/documents/publication/wcms_650553.pdf. 42. Bruce Knuteson, “How to Increase Global Wealth Inequality for Fun and Profit,” Social Science Research Network, 12 November 2018, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3282845; or https://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3282845. 43.


pages: 526 words: 160,601

A Generation of Sociopaths: How the Baby Boomers Betrayed America by Bruce Cannon Gibney

1960s counterculture, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, business cycle, buy and hold, carbon footprint, Charles Lindbergh, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate personhood, Corrections Corporation of America, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, equal pay for equal work, failed state, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Haight Ashbury, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kitchen Debate, labor-force participation, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, medical bankruptcy, Menlo Park, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, Network effects, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, operation paperclip, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, school choice, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Snapchat, source of truth, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, survivorship bias, TaskRabbit, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, War on Poverty, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

Bloomberg, 3 Sept. 2013, www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-09-03/abortion-clinics-close-at-record-pace-after-states-tighten-rules. For a particularly bizarre example of the renewed debate over abortion, there is, of course, the example of Trump. Krieg, Gregory. “Donald Trump’s 3 Positions on Abortion in 3 Hours.” CNN, 31 Mar. 2016, www.cnn.com/2016/03/30/politics/donald-trump-abortion-positions/index.html. 22. White House, Council of Economic Advisors. Issue Brief. “Gender Pay Gap: Recent Trends and Explanations,” April 2015, p. 1, www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/equal_pay_issue_brief_final.pdf. 23. Cooper, Rob. “Inside Apple’s Chinese ‘Sweatshop’ Factory Where Workers Are Paid Just £1.12 Per Hour to Produce iPhones and iPads for the West.” Daily Mail, 25 Jan. 2013, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2103798/Revealed-Inside-Apples-Chinese-sweatshop-factory-workers-paid-just-1-12-hour.html (based on reporting originally conducted by Nightline). 24.