15 results back to index

pages: 322 words: 88,197

Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Landlord's Game, lone genius, megacity, Minecraft, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern

European football is played professionally in almost every nation on the face of the earth. The global reach of games is even more pronounced in virtual gameplay. Consider the epic success of Minecraft, an immense online universe populated by players logging in from around the world. In the case of Minecraft, of course, the world of the game itself—and the rules that govern it—are being created by that multinational community of players, in the form of mods and servers programmed and hosted by Minecraft fans. McLuhan coined the term “global village” as a metaphor for the electronic age, but if you watch a grade-schooler constructing a virtual town in Minecraft with the help of players from around the world, the phrase starts to sound more literal. The migratory history of chess, like that of most games, did not begin with some immaculate conception in the mind of some original genius game designer.

As always, my wife, Alexa Robinson, read every word—but only improved every other word—with her wisdom and line-editing mojo. Thanks to Franco Moretti for introducing me to the kleptomaniacs of Paris more than two decades ago. And thanks to Jay Haynes, Annie Keating, Alex Ross, and Eric Liftin for so many conversations about music and the mind over the years. Finally, a word of gratitude to my sons—Clay, Rowan, and Dean—for keeping me in touch with the gaming world, from Minecraft to H1Z1, from Kingdom Builder to Far Cry. I love and respect the energy and creative spirit that you bring to your life in games. Now it’s time to turn off the computer and go read a book. July 2016 Marin County, California NOTES Introduction “Every household was plentifully supplied”: William Stearns Davis, ed., Readings in Ancient History: Illustrative Extracts from the Sources, 2 vols.

See also coffeehouses caffeine, 246–48 taste of, 248 utilitarian purposes of, 248 “Vertue of the COFFEE Drink” (essay), 249–50 Waghorn’s, 252 Woman’s Petition Against Coffee, 250–51 coffeehouses, 251, 253 Bedford, 252–54 differences among, 252–54 eclectic decor of Don Saltero’s, 255–57 intellectual networking, 254–55, 259 John Hogarth’s, 252 Lloyd’s, 254 London, 254 as a news source for journalists, 254 as places of productivity and innovation, 258–59 “Proclamation for the Suppression of Coffee Houses,” 251–52 Rawthmell’s, 259 Starbucks, 274 “Turk’s Head, The,” 249 cognitive science and chess, 193–94 chunking, 193 color chintz and calico, 27, 27 cotton, dyed, 26–27 as enhanced by a Claude glass, 265, 265–66 trends of the mid-1700s, 37 Tyrian purple, 18–21 Columbus, Christopher, 114–15, 211–14, 212 commodity fetishism, 153–54 Common Sense (Paine), 241 Compleat English Tradesman, The (Defoe), 24 computer technology. See also technology Deep Blue, 193–94 digital simulations that trigger emotions, 184–85 Expensive Planetarium, 217–18 and games, 230–31 global collaboration, 201–202, 217–20 Hingham Institute, 215–16 IBM, 193–94, 227–28, 230, 280 “low-rent” vs. “high-rent” product development, 220 Minecraft, 201 networks of the early 1990s, 170 PDP-1, 215–16 for purposes of non-scientific pursuits, 219–20 Claude Shannon, 221–26, 223 software, development of, 215–19 Spacewar! 216–20, 218 “Spacewar: Fanatic Life and Symbolic Death Among the Computer Bums,” 219–20 Edward Thorp, 221–27 Turing Test, 227 Type 20 Precision CRT, 215–16, 218 Watson, 228–30 wearable computers, 221, 225–26 Conflagration of Moscow, The, 164–66 Conroy, David, 241 Constantine the African, 134 Cooperstown, New York, 199–200 Copland, Aaron, 97 Cortés, Hernan, 213 cotton appealing texture of, 26–28 British East India Company, 28 “Calico Madams,” 28 chintz and calico, vivid colors of, 26–27, 27 described by John Mandeville, 26 economic fears regarding the import of, 28–29 European desire for, 29–31 importing from India, 26, 28 inventions to aid in the production of fabric, 29, 30 slavery to produce, 34–36 Cox, James, 14 criminology physiological causes vs. environmental causes, 47–48 Cristofori, Bartolomeo, 88 cultural diversity in modern times, 274–76 Darrow, Charles, 198–99 Darwin, Charles, 269–70 Das Kapital (Marx), 153–54 De Coitu (Constantine the African), 134 Defoe, Daniel, 24, 28 Dell, Michael, 216 demand for cotton fabrics, 29–31, 34–36 “desire of Novelties,” 30–31 for experiencing the world through exotic spices, 137–38 for new experiences and surprises, 61 for rubber, 214 democratizing force of fashion, 38–40 department stores as alternatives to chapels and cathedrals, 43–44 Au Bonheur des Dames (Zola), 43–44 Le Bon Marché, 41–46, 45 commercial profitability of wandering shoppers, 41–44 credit, extending, 44 “department-store disease,” 47 haggling, elimination of, 44 influence of Aristide Boucicaut, 40, 41–42, 48–49 origins of, 41 sensory overload and disorientation, 41–42 shoplifting, 46–49 De Smet, Pieter, 137 Devil’s Milk, The (Tully), 214 Devlin, Keith, 208–209 Diamond, Jared, 141, 143 dice astragali, 205–206, 208–209 and probability, 206–207, 209 to speed up the game of chess, 203 standardized design of, 209 Dickens, Charles, 163 Digital Revolution artistic origins of the, 83 Spacewar!


pages: 371 words: 108,317

The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review

Physics didn’t matter, materials were free, anything was possible. But it took many hours to master the arcane 3-D tools. In 2009 a game company in Sweden, Minecraft, launched a similar construction world in quasi-3-D, but employed idiot-easy building blocks stacked like giant Legos. No learning was necessary. Many would-be builders migrated to Minecraft. Second Life’s success had risen on the ability of kindred creative spirits to socialize, but when the social mojo moved to the mobile world, no phones had enough computing power to handle Second Life’s sophisticated 3-D, so the biggest audiences moved on. Even more headed to Minecraft, whose crude low-res pixelation allowed it to run on phones. Millions of members are still loyal to Second Life, and today at any hour about 50,000 avatars are simultaneously roaming the imaginary 3-D worlds built by users.

See also artificial intelligence “machine readable” information, 267 Magic Leap, 216 malaria, 241 Malthus, Thomas, 243 Mann, Steve, 247 Manovich, Lev, 200 manufacturing, robots in, 52–53, 55 maps, 272 mathematics, 47, 239, 242–43 The Matrix (1999), 211 maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), 265 McDonalds, 25–26 McLuhan, Marshall, 63, 127 media fluency, 201 media genres, 194–95 medical technology and field AI applications in, 31, 55 and crowdfunding, 157 and diagnoses, 31 future flows of, 80 interpretation services in field of, 69 and lifelogging, 250 new jobs related to automation in, 58 paperwork in, 51 personalization of, 69 and personalized pharmaceuticals, 173 and pooling patient data, 145 and tracking technology, 173, 237, 238–40, 241–42, 243–44, 250 Meerkat, 76 memory, 245–46, 249 messaging, 239–40 metadata, 258–59, 267 microphones, 221 Microsoft, 122–23, 124, 216, 247 minds, variety of, 44–46 Minecraft, 218 miniaturization, 237 Minority Report (2002), 221–22, 255 MIT Media Lab, 219, 220, 222 money, 4, 65, 119–21 monopolies, 209 mood tracking, 238 Moore’s Law, 257 movies, 77–78, 81–82, 168, 204–7 Mozilla, 151 MP3 compression, 165–66 music and musicians AI applications in, 35 creation of, 73–76, 77 and crowdfunding, 157 and free/ubiquitous copies, 66–67 and intellectual property issues, 208–9 and interactivity, 221 liquidity of, 66–67, 73–78 and live performances, 71 low-cost reproduction of, 87 of nonprofessionals, 75–76 and patronage, 72 sales of, 75 soundtracks for content, 76 total volume of recorded music, 165–66 Musk, Elon, 44 mutual surveillance (“coveillance”), 259–64 MyLifeBits, 247 Nabokov, Vladimir, 204 Napster, 66 The Narrative, 248–49, 251 National Geographic, 278 National Science Foundation, 17–18 National Security Agency (NSA), 261 Nature, 32 Negroponte, Nicholas, 16, 219 Nelson, Ted, 18–19, 21, 247 Nest smart thermostat, 253, 283 Netflix and accessibility vs. ownership, 109 and crowdsourcing programming, 160 and on-demand access, 64 and recommendation engines, 39, 154, 169 and reviews, 73, 154 and sharing economy, 138 and tracking technology, 254 Netscape browser, 15 network effect, 40 neural networks, 38–40 newbies, 10–11, 15 new media forms, 194–95 newspapers, 177 Ng, Andrew, 38, 39 niche interests, 155–56 nicknames, 263 nondestructive editing, 206 nonprofits, 157 noosphere, 292 Northwestern University, 225 numeracy, 242–43 Nupedia, 270 OBD chips, 251, 252 obscure or niche interests, 155–56 office settings, 222.


pages: 330 words: 91,805

Peers Inc: How People and Platforms Are Inventing the Collaborative Economy and Reinventing Capitalism by Robin Chase

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, banking crisis, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, business climate, call centre, car-free, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, decarbonisation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Ferguson, Missouri, Firefox, frictionless, Gini coefficient, hive mind, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, Internet of things, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Zipcar

Gretchen emailed me, “I cannot imagine working for someone else. Being my own boss affords me the independence and flexibility I need to express my creative processes, be they typically artistic or intellectually creative. I am not tied down to other people’s wants and expectations and can choose the paths I want or need to focus on at any particular stage in my life.” In Providence, Rhode Island, David told me about his son, Ethan, who started playing Minecraft about two years ago. His father described him as a fairly normal twelve-year-old enjoying a group-building experience with kids his age from around the globe. Ethan turned out to be quite adept at building these virtual kingdoms in the sky and below the earth. He soon got a little more serious about studying architecture, and he built his own computer for gaming from components. When Ethan realized that there was a group of highly skilled builders online who were actually being hired by other kids to build custom games, he started doing some virtual building himself.

In the process, he has made mistakes common to a lot of young entrepreneurs: underestimating the time required to complete a project, going too far beyond his actual skill set, taking on more work than he could actually do in a given time period, and getting into ill-conceived partnerships. He has also learned a lot: how to build solid, trusting relationships based on an unspoken code of ethics and honor, and how to invest in his small business. To spur his productivity, Ethan recently partnered up with another teenager to purchase a turnkey network Minecraft business with a ready-made client base, compiled code, and website. He stands to start making a lot more money. His father emailed me that “no one seems to care if he is fourteen. He can deliver the goods.” I met Miriam, a newly minted lawyer in her twenties, in Boston. She works long hours and is at the office more than sixty hours a week. She’s single and uses online dating sites to meet people.

., 86 LinkedIn, 127 Linux controlled kernel path, 109–110 power users, 117–118 private sector’s inability to influence, 208 Location, key criterion for success, 56 Lyft benefit of peers to company, 67–68 “everybody welcome” phase, 111–112 keeping drivers happy, 124 Ma, Jack, 37 Maps, replaced by GPS, 139 Martin, Trayvon, protests through social media, 84 Mayor’s Challenge, 174 Mazzella, Frédéric, 21, 111 McKibben, Bill, 232 Meetup, 238–239 Mesh network, Red Hook Initiative, 245–246 Micro-businesses, 187 Micro-entrepreneurs, 148, 154–156 Minds, diverse and networked, 66, 81–85, 177–178, 231, 251 Mindstorms, 175–176 Minecraft, benefits to peers, 51–52 Mining, Bitcoins, 213 Minitel, 142 Miracles theory excess capacity, 73–78 peers, 81–85 platforms, 78–81 pressing needs, 89–96 putting together, 72–73, 95 Mission edge, innovation, 167–169 Mondragon, 203 Money Bitcoin, 211–217 limitations, 253 See also Financing Monopolies, 124–126 avoiding, 187–188 diversity as barrier, 252–253 platforms as, 46 See also Power imbalance Muñoz, Jordi, 53–54 Musk, Elon, 177–178 MySQL, 43–44 Nakamoto, Satoshi, 212 NASA Apollo 13 innovation, 222–223 diverse contributions, 66–67 work with Global Forest Watch, 230–231 National Advisory Council for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 143–144 Newmark, Craig.


pages: 222 words: 53,317

Overcomplicated: Technology at the Limits of Comprehension by Samuel Arbesman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, algorithmic trading, Anton Chekhov, Apple II, Benoit Mandelbrot, citation needed, combinatorial explosion, Danny Hillis, David Brooks, discovery of the americas, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flash crash, friendly AI, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, HyperCard, Inbox Zero, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Kevin Kelly, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mandelbrot fractal, Minecraft, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, Parkinson's law, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, software studies, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Therac-25, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, Y2K

He can no longer form any abstractions because his tolerance for complications is too great. In fact, the end goal of biologists is to create models and identify regularities, even if on a smaller scale. So, when confronted with a complex piece of technology, we must begin by acting like field biologists, experimenting around its edges to see how it behaves, with the end goal of some degree of generalization. This is actually how a lot of people approach open-ended video games like Minecraft. You first collect huge amounts of information about your virtual world—what you can do, what you can’t, what kills you, how you successfully survive—and then begin to make little mental models, small-scale generalizations within a much larger whole. Or, when you are working with an advanced piece of software such as a gargantuan word-processing tool, and the endnotes in your document go haywire, do not panic.

., 40 machine translation, 57–59, 207 Macintosh computers, 161–63 magic crayons, 162–63 Maimonides, Moses, 151–52, 156 Mandel, Michael, 46 Mandelbrot, Benoit, 130 mathematics, limitative theorems in, 175 Mauries, Patrick, 87–88 Maxwell, James Clerk, 114–15 medicine, specialization in, 91 memory, human, long-term, 74–77 microbes, synthetic, 49 Microsoft, 106–7 Microsoft Office, 16 Microsoft Research, 62 Microsoft Windows, 35, 98 Microsoft Word, 42 Minecraft, 132 “miscellaneous,” concept of, 108–10, 140–41, 143 models, see scientific models modules, 63–65, 208 Moravec, Hans, 230 multitasking, 76 mutagenesis, 124–25 mutations, 109–10, 120 Myers, Brad A., 159 Myst, 162 mystery: human comprehension and, 173–74 under- vs. overemphasis on, 171 wonder vs., 170–76 Mythical Man-Month, The (Brooks), 38 naches: definition of, 167–68 as response to technological complexity, 168–69, 174 natural world: complexity in, 107–10 diversity of, 113–14 interconnection of technology and, 3 scientific study of, 107–10 search for unity in, see physics thinking Netflix, 5, 59, 107, 126 Newark, N.J., 46 Newton, Isaac, 89, 112, 114, 152, 221 New York Stock Exchange, 1, 187 Niagara Falls Museum, 88 nonlinear systems, 78–79 Norman, Don, 158–59, 172 Northeast Blackout (2003), 48, 128 Norton, Quinn, 22 Norvig, Peter, 56 “novelty detection,” 127 nuclear power plants, 126 Oremus, Will, 189 outliers, 76–77, 137 see also edge cases Out of Control (Kelly), 83 overclocking, 76 Oxford English Dictionary, 55 Pac-Man, 160 Parkinson’s Law, 41 particle accelerators, 2 pattern-making mind, 146–47 penicillin, 124 percolation, 133–34 personbyte, 212 pharmaceutical research, 125 Philosophical Transactions, 111 philosophy of technology, 79–81 Photoshop, 35 physical systems, biological systems vs., 116–17 physics thinking, 112–13, 121 abstraction in, 115–16, 121–22, 128 aesthetics and, 113, 114 in ancient Greece, 138–40 biological thinking vs., 114–16, 137–38, 142–43, 222 technological complexity and, 122, 127–28 unity in, 117 Pinker, Steven, 73 poliovirus, 49 polymaths, 86–89, 93, 144 Post, David, 61 Postal Service, U.S., 34 posterior hippocampus, 78 power grid, cascading blackouts in, 47–48, 128 power laws, 55–56, 206 pre-Socratics, 138–40 programmers, programming: computer vs. human counting in, 69–70, 209 differences of scale and, 50–51 languages in, 23 lessons from, 160–63 recursion and, 71 as valuable skill, 43 see also software Programming Pearls, 104–5 progress, overoptimistic view of, 12–13 progress bars, 159–60 Progressive Policy Institute, 46 Ptak, John, 147–48 Quabbin Reservoir, 101 radiation machines, overdose failures of, 67–69 radical novelty, 3, 50 railroads, 2 RAM, 110 Ramanujan, Srinivasa, 77, 78 recursion: in language, 71–72, 75 in programming, 71 refactoring, 200, 201 regulatory accumulation, 46–47 Renaissance man, 86–89, 93, 144 see also generalists resilience, in technological complexity, 16 resolution, levels of, 127–28 RNA interference (RNAi), 123–24, 141 road system, complexity of, 16 Rosenberg, Scott, 69 Royal Society, 111 scale, difference of, 50–51 Schwarz, Barbara, 10 scientific method, 109 limits to, 153 scientific models, 131 edge cases in, 54–62, 207 interconnection of, 2 as means of understanding complex systems, 165–67 software bugs in, 97 Scientific Reports, 4 Scientific Revolution, optimistic view of human comprehension in, 152–53 security, software bugs and, 97–98 Seinfeld (TV show), 130 sentences: garden path, 74–75 parsing of, 73–74 sewage systems, complexity of, 101 Shakespeare, William, 55 Shatner, William, 160 Shepard, Alan, 200 sickle-cell anemia, 128 SimCity, 159, 166 simulations, see scientific models software: accretion in, 37–38, 41–42, 44 in automobiles, 10–11, 13, 45, 65, 100, 174 branch points in, 80–81 complexity of, 43–44, 59, 68–69 “dark code” in, 21–22 “hygiene” in, 65, 81 interaction in, 44–45 kluges in, 35 legacy code in, see legacy code, legacy systems modules in, 63–64 multidisciplinary teams and, 92 testing of, 107 see also programmers, programming software bugs, 1, 45, 65, 156 complexity and, 96–97 dangerous consequences of, 67–69 debugging of, 103–7 in Galaga, 95–96, 97, 216–17 inevitability of, 174–75 in Microsoft Windows, 98 in scientific models, 97–98 security and, 97–98 in Vancouver Stock Exchange index, 105–6 soldiers, “losing the bubble” and, 70 sophistication, in technological complexity, 16 space shuttle missions, outdated computer systems used by, 38 spaghetti code, 44–45, 201 spatial memory, 78 special effects, greeblies in, 130 specialization: abstraction and, 24, 26–27 collaboration and, 91–92 complexity and, 85–93 generalists and, 146 as rewarded by job market, 144 technological complexity and, 142 Stephenson, Neal, 128–29 stock market systems: complexity of, 4 crashes in, 1, 4, 25, 187 interconnectivity of, 2, 24–26 laws and rules of, 25 and limits of human comprehension, 26–27, 189 storytelling, biological and physical thinking in, 129–30 strangeness, as impetus for scientific discovery, 124, 140–41 subitizing, 75 supply chains, interconnection of, 2 Supreme Court, U.S., 40 Symons, John, 79–80, 97 Systems Bible, The (Gall), 157–58 tax code, 16, 40, 42 Tay (chatbot), 106–7 technological complexity: abstraction and, 23–28, 81, 121–22 accretion in, 130–31 awe as response to, 6, 7, 154–55, 156, 165, 174 biological thinking and, 116–49, 158, 174 branch points and, 80–81 evolution of, 127, 137–38 as examples of human ingenuity, 4 fear as response to, 5, 7, 154–55, 156, 165 “field biologists” for, 123, 126, 127, 132 humility as response to, 155–56, 158, 165, 167, 170, 174, 176 impact of computer on, 3 inevitability of, 42 interconnectivity in, 2, 47–48 interdependence in, 47–48 interoperability in, 47–48, 64–65 interpreters of, 166–67, 229 kluges as inevitable in, 34–36, 127, 128, 154, 173–74 and limits of human comprehension, 1–7, 16–29, 69–70, 80–81, 153–54, 169–70, 175–76 misunderstandings about, 68–69 models as means of understanding, 165–67 naches as response to, 168–69, 174 new ways of thinking about, 6–7, 28–29, 163–67, 176 optimal interoperability in, 62–63 pervasiveness of, 15–16 physics thinking and, 122, 127–28 rapid growth of, 173 resilience in, 16 sophistication in, 16 specialization and, 142 unexpected behavior in, see unexpected behavior user interfaces and, 159 wonder vs. mystery in comprehension of, 170–76 see also complexity, complex systems technological werewolves, 93, 97, 102 technology: cost of construction vs. cost of failure in, 48–50 interconnection of natural world and, 3–4 “natural history” of, 103–4 philosophy of, 79–81 self-contained ecosystems in, 4 Teece, David, 144 Thales, 139 Theory of Everything, 113 Therac-25, overdose failures of, 67–69 Three Mile Island nuclear disaster, 12, 126 time zones, 2, 51–52 tinkering, 118, 125–26, 127, 132, 191 Torvalds, Linus, 102 Toyota automobiles: massively complex software in, 11, 45, 65 unintended acceleration of, 10–11, 13, 65, 174 Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS), 18–19 translation software, 57–59, 207 triumphalism, 153, 156 T-shaped individuals, 143–44, 146 Tubes (Blum), 101–2 TurboTax, 160 Turing, Alan, 96, 175 Twitter, 106 unexpected behavior, 4, 18–20, 95–110 accretion and, 38 in biology, 109–10, 123–24 complexity and, 93, 96–97, 98–99, 192 debugging and, 103–4 deliberate inducing of, 124–25 edge cases and, 99–100 inevitability of, 157, 174–75 interconnectivity and, 11–12 as learning experience, 102–7, 123–24, 219–20 and limits of human comprehension, 18–22, 96–97, 98 “magical” explanation for, 20–22 modules and, 64 of software, see software bugs of Toyota automobiles, 10–11, 13, 65, 174 United Airlines, 1 United States Code, 33–34, 64, 136–37 unity, search for, see physics thinking unthinkable present, 176 user interfaces, 159–60, 163 Valéry, Paul, 193 Vancouver Stock Exchange stock index, software bug in, 105–6 Wall Street Journal, 1, 187 water supply systems, complexity of, 101, 102 Watson, 169 Watts, Duncan, 62 weather science, 148, 165 Weber, Max, 13 websites, interconnection of, 2 Wells, H.


pages: 316 words: 106,321

Switched On: My Journey From Asperger's to Emotional Awakening by John Elder Robison

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, cognitive dissonance, Fellow of the Royal Society, Isaac Newton, Minecraft, neurotypical, placebo effect

Nick, their son, was a lanky eighth grader, kind and smart, with a large vocabulary and A’s in most of his classes.* With diagnoses of autism, attention deficit disorder (ADD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), he was still doing a lot better than I ever had in school, but his good grades didn’t insulate him socially. There, he ran into the same challenges that I had at his age. As Nick moved through junior high, he took to saying he was “just not a friend person,” spending his free time playing Minecraft and watching YouTube videos rather than hanging out with other kids. His parents watched him struggle to connect with other people and to function in his daily activities. As Kimberley described, “Although Nick is very smart in terms of vocabulary or math skills, it took him much longer than others to complete class work and homework and activities of daily living. He wrestled with OCD-type compulsions—he would write, erase, and rewrite letters over and over until they looked ‘perfect,’ so writing a few sentences or a few math equations could take an hour.”

“Today, Nick says he can’t remember anything being better after the TMS, he doesn’t acknowledge ever making any positive gains, and he professes himself unwilling to try it again. The school assignments he’d started breezing through are once again an insurmountable challenge. His ability to participate in conversations with others has slipped away, and he’s back to being interested in little besides Minecraft and YouTube videos.” As Kimberley says, “Outside of gaming and a few other interests, he doesn’t participate much in conversations unless we drag him in. He doesn’t ask us how we are, and at mealtimes, he sits with his face and body twisted away from us. The lovely parts of his personality that appeared after TMS are hidden once again.” One part of me hears that and thinks, Nick’s doing what he wants, and who are we to suggest that he change?


pages: 478 words: 149,810

We Are Anonymous: Inside the Hacker World of LulzSec, Anonymous, and the Global Cyber Insurgency by Parmy Olson

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

4chan, Asperger Syndrome, bitcoin, call centre, Chelsea Manning, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Firefox, hive mind, Julian Assange, Minecraft, Occupy movement, pirate software, side project, Skype, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Stuxnet, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day

Knowing that Ryan’s botnet could take out anything, Topiary announced the LulzSec hotline on Twitter and told the public: “Pick a target and we’ll obliterate it.” The hotline was suddenly inundated with calls, and the three people that initially got through all requested gaming companies: Eve, Minecraft, and League of Legends. Within minutes, Ryan’s botnet had hit all three, as well as a site called FinFisher.com, “because apparently they sell monitoring software to the government or some shit like that.” DDoSing sites like this was nothing new, and neither was one or two hours of downtime, but it was the first time anyone had boasted about it to a hundred fifty thousand Twitter followers or referred to it as a DDoS party called Titanic Takeover Tuesday. “If you’re mad about Minecraft, we’d love to laugh at you over the phone,” Topiary announced. “Call 614-LULZSEC for your chance to reach Pierre Dubois!” When Topiary started thinking about the Internet meme phrase “How do magnets work?”


pages: 310 words: 34,482

Makers at Work: Folks Reinventing the World One Object or Idea at a Time by Steven Osborn

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, A Pattern Language, additive manufacturing, air freight, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, c2.com, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mason jar, means of production, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, Oculus Rift, patent troll, popular electronics, Rodney Brooks, Shenzhen was a fishing village, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software as a service, special economic zone, speech recognition, subscription business, telerobotics, urban planning, web application, Y Combinator

She’s at Pretty Small Things.6 She’s a Broadway set designer. She used to use cardboard and glue and X-Acto knives to design things. Now she just makes things digitally and prints out this amazing model—making set furniture on her MakerBot, and then she has a whole side business where she sells dollhouse furniture. Super cool. There’s a whole bunch of folks using Minecraft as a modeling tool. That’s super cool, they just build things in Minecraft, then print it. They’re using MakerBot in the Natural History Museum to scan dinosaur bones. Then the art museum scans ­precious works of art that nobody can ever touch, so they can make copies of it that people can touch. 6 http://pretty-small-things.myshopify.com 251 252 Chapter 18 | Bre Pettis: CEO, MakerBot Osborn: My favorite project I think I found on Thingiverse is OpenRC.7 Pettis: Yeah, the RC car.


pages: 224 words: 45,431

Python Web Penetration Testing Cookbook by Cameron Buchanan, Terry Ip, Andrew Mabbitt, Benjamin May, Dave Mound

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

en.wikipedia.org, Minecraft, web application

./]{1,}$"), ("MD5(Joomla)", r"^[a-fA-F0-9]{32}:[a-zA-Z0-9]{16,32}$"), ("MD5(Wordpress)", r"^\$P\$[a-zA-Z0-9\/\.]{31}$"), ("MD5(phpBB3)", r"^\$H\$[a-zA-Z0-9\/\.]{31}$"), ("MD5(Cisco PIX)", r"^[a-zA-Z0-9\/\.]{16}$"), ("MD5(osCommerce)", r"^[a-fA-F0-9]{32}:[a-zA-Z0-9]{2}$"), ("MD5(Palshop)", r"^[a-fA-F0-9]{51}$"), ("MD5(IP.Board)", r"^[a-fA-F0-9]{32}:.{5}$"), ("MD5(Chap)", r"^[a-fA-F0-9]{32}:[0-9]{32}:[a-fA-F0-9]{2}$"), ("Juniper Netscreen/SSG (ScreenOS)", r"^[a-zA-Z0-9]{30}:[a-zA-Z0- 9]{4,}$"), ("Fortigate (FortiOS)", r"^[a-fA-F0-9]{47}$"), ("Minecraft(Authme)", r"^\$sha\$[a-zA-Z0-9]{0,16}\$[a-fA-F0- 9]{64}$"), ("Lotus Domino", r"^\(?[a-zA-Z0-9\+\/]{20}\)?$"), ("Lineage II C4", r"^0x[a-fA-F0-9]{32}$"), ("CRC-96(ZIP)", r"^[a-fA-F0-9]{24}$"), ("NT crypt", r"^\$3\$[a-zA-Z0-9./]{8}\$[a-zA-Z0-9./]{1,}$"), ("Skein-1024", r"^[a-fA-F0-9]{256}$"), ("RIPEMD-320", r"^[A-Fa-f0-9]{80}$"), ("EPi hash", r"^0x[A-F0-9]{60}$"), ("EPiServer 6.x < v4", r"^\$episerver\$\*0\*[a-zA-Z0-9]{22}==\*[a- zA-Z0-9\+]{27}$"), ("EPiServer 6.x >= v4", r"^\$episerver\$\*1\*[a-zA-Z0- 9]{22}==\*[a-zA-Z0-9]{43}$"), ("Cisco IOS SHA256", r"^[a-zA-Z0-9]{43}$"), ("SHA-1(Django)", r"^sha1\$.{0,32}\$[a-fA-F0-9]{40}$"), ("SHA-1 crypt", r"^\$4\$[a-zA-Z0-9./]{8}\$[a-zA-Z0-9./]{1,}$"), ("SHA-1(Hex)", r"^[a-fA-F0-9]{40}$"), ("SHA-1(LDAP) Base64", r"^\{SHA\}[a-zA-Z0-9+/]{27}=$"), ("SHA-1(LDAP) Base64 + salt", r"^\{SSHA\}[a-zA-Z0- 9+/]{28,}[=]{0,3}$"), ("SHA-512(Drupal)", r"^\$S\$[a-zA-Z0-9\/\.]{52}$"), ("SHA-512 crypt", r"^\$6\$[a-zA-Z0-9./]{8}\$[a-zA-Z0-9./]{1,}$"), ("SHA-256(Django)", r"^sha256\$.{0,32}\$[a-fA-F0-9]{64}$"), ("SHA-256 crypt", r"^\$5\$[a-zA-Z0-9./]{8}\$[a-zA-Z0-9./]{1,}$"), ("SHA-384(Django)", r"^sha384\$.{0,32}\$[a-fA-F0-9]{96}$"), ("SHA-256(Unix)", r"^\$5\$.{0,22}\$[a-zA-Z0-9\/\.]{43,69}$"), ("SHA-512(Unix)", r"^\$6\$.{0,22}\$[a-zA-Z0-9\/\.]{86}$"), ("SHA-384", r"^[a-fA-F0-9]{96}$"), ("SHA-512", r"^[a-fA-F0-9]{128}$"), ("SSHA-1", r"^({SSHA})?


pages: 247 words: 81,135

The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market design, Metcalfe's law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, web application

Progressive and iterative games These are the continuous games that we play over longer periods of time. They’re the games we come back to and continue to play from where we left off. They’re the games that more closely represent our physical reality. They include the social nuances of life, human interactions and replications enhanced in a digital environment. This genre includes Farmville, Cityville, World of Warcraft and Minecraft, games during which we want to use digital tools and a virtual environment to create a better (yet virtual) reality for ourselves. While these two types of game seem differentiated and separate, they’re starting to overlap. The smartphone-based games are teaching us to use them to track physical movements, while the continued web-enabled game play is teaching us to shape environments based on social interaction and iteration.


pages: 420 words: 61,808

Flask Web Development: Developing Web Applications With Python by Miguel Grinberg

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

database schema, Firefox, full text search, Minecraft, platform as a service, web application

I’m also in debt to David Baumgold, Todd Brunhoff, Cecil Rock, and Matthew Hugues, who reviewed the manuscript at different stages of completion and gave me very useful advice regarding what to cover and how to organize the material. Writing the code examples for this book was a considerable effort. I appreciate the help of Daniel Hofmann, who did a thorough code review of the application and pointed out several improvements. I’m also thankful to my teenage son, Dylan Grinberg, who suspended his Minecraft addiction for a few weekends and helped me test the code under several platforms. O’Reilly has a wonderful program called Early Release that allows impatient readers to have access to books while they are being written. Some of my Early Release readers went the extra mile and engaged in useful conversations regarding their experience working through the book, leading to significant improvements.


pages: 270 words: 64,235

Effective Programming: More Than Writing Code by Jeff Atwood

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, cloud computing, endowment effect, Firefox, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, gravity well, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Merlin Mann, Minecraft, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, price anchoring, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, science of happiness, Skype, social software, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator

In the 1920s, it was considered important to learn how to use slide rules. In the 1960s, it was considered important to learn mechanical drawing. None of that matters today. I’m hesitant to recommend any particular approach to coding other than the fundamentals as outlined in Code: The Hidden Language of Computer Hardware and Software, because I’m not sure we’ll even recognize coding in the next 20 or 30 years. To kids today, perhaps coding will eventually resemble Minecraft, or building levels in Portal 2. But everyone should try writing a little code, because it somehow sharpens the mind, right? Maybe in the same abstract way that reading the entire Encyclopedia Brittanica from beginning to end does. Honestly, I’d prefer that people spend their time discovering what problems they love and find interesting, first, and researching the hell out of those problems.


pages: 238 words: 75,994

A Burglar's Guide to the City by Geoff Manaugh

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

big-box store, card file, dark matter, game design, index card, megacity, megastructure, Minecraft, Skype, smart cities, statistical model, the built environment, urban planning

And the more nervous your attackers get, the more likely they are to lose their nerve, make rookie mistakes, or just run out of time and be caught. We left the main office and walked back into the attached workshop to see one of Alizade’s contraptions standing in the center of the warehouse. The unrelentingly gray, bunker-like box consisted of several dozen two-foot-square panels bolted together like a cubist armadillo. It was pieces attached to pieces attached to pieces. If ever a structure seemed to have been designed using Minecraft, this was it. Alizade was clearly happy with his product, as well as delighted by the visible scars left on its side from unsuccessful attacks by prospective clients. He even urged me to pick up a sledgehammer—several were lying about—and try it out myself, to drive home how pointless such an attack would be. It was like kicking a mountain. These rooms don’t only resist all of the major tools used by rapid-entry teams, from sledgehammers and Halligans to burning bars.


pages: 903 words: 235,753

The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator

We could mark an ancestral trace from Yona Friedman's La Ville Spatiale to the new Asian smart cities such as New Songdo City (“a ubiquitous city,” says its brochure) in South Korea's Incheon development, or see Paolo Soleri's Arcology as a first pass at Masdar, the massive “green” smart city in Abu Dhabi. (Both Songdo and Masdar were built with Cisco and IBM as key partners.) Is Situationist cut-and-paste psychogeography reborn or smashed to bits by Minecraft? What binds the hyperlibertarian secessionism of the Seasteading Institute, which would move whole populations offshore to live on massive ships floating from port to port unmolested by regulation and undesired publics (Facebook funder Peter Thiel is a key funder) with Archigram's Walking City project from 1967, which plotted for Star Wars Land Walker–like city machines to get up and amble away to greener pastures as needed?

See also interfaces atmospheric, 91 boundary, 123, 150, 172, 289, 324 encrypted, 288 legal and physical, 149–150 partition, 2, 22, 379n9 porosity, 123, 140 of safety, 23 memorialization, 239–240 memory memories of, 262 of objects, 212, 215 requirements for using, 239–240 software eclipsing need for, 239–240 theological, 239–240, 297 mereological technology, 206 message queue telemetry transport (MQTT), 207 messages, restricting, 194 Messianism, mythopoetic political, 382n40 meta-addressing, 296 metadata for surveillance, 287 Metahaven, 127 metals, mining and trading in, 82–83 meta-metadata recursivity, 287 meta-User, 259 metroeconomics, 159–160 metroplexes, borders within, 311–312 Mexican drug cartels, 110 Mexico-United States border, 172–173, 308, 323, 409n42 microbial biome, 268 microeconomics, 127 microjurisdictions, ecological, 99–100 microplatforms, 289 micropolitics, architectural, 166–167 Microsoft, 128, 134 Excel, 162 Kinect, 226 Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig, 53 Miéville, China, 112 migrants cross-border, Apps for aiding, 173–176 ecological, 100–101 interiority/exteriority status, 173–175 intracountry, 310, 409n39 rural to urban, 409n39 military/civilian deployments, 325 millenarianism, 442n14 Millionth Map, 195, 413n5 Minecraft, 180 mining of coins, 337 data, 267 gold, 337 mineral resource extraction, 82–83, 93–94 and trading in electronics, 171 Mirowski, Philip, 439n65 mirror box installations, 151 mirror reflection of the self, 253, 264 mirror stage parable, 261 mobile devices. See also consumer electronics Agamben on, 174, 176 anatomy of, 238 autonomy of, 342–343 cameras, 236, 240 evolution-to-come, 171 growth in data from, 225 at hand, 168, 238 inert metals in, 82 interfaces, 164, 168–169, 237 phone-car interface, 280 as sensors, 342 virtual envelope of, 168–170 mobile ecology of interfaces, 237–238 mobility.


pages: 479 words: 144,453

Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow by Yuval Noah Harari

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

23andMe, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, Chris Urmson, cognitive dissonance, Columbian Exchange, computer age, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, European colonialism, experimental subject, falling living standards, Flash crash, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, glass ceiling, global village, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, Kevin Kelly, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, mutually assured destruction, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, too big to fail, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, ultimatum game, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

You begin a game of chess with sixteen pieces, and you never finish a game with more. In rare cases a pawn may be transformed into a queen, but you cannot produce new pawns, nor can you upgrade your knights into tanks. So chess players never have to think about investment. In contrast, many modern board games and computer games revolve around investment and growth. Particularly telling are civilisation-style strategy games, such as Minecraft, The Settlers of Catan or Sid Meier’s Civilization. The game may be set in the Middle Ages, in the Stone Age or in some imaginary fairy land, but the principles always remain the same – and they are always capitalist. Your aim is to establish a city, a kingdom or maybe an entire civilisation. You begin from a very modest base, perhaps just a village and its nearby fields. Your assets provide you with an initial income of wheat, wood, iron or gold.


pages: 527 words: 147,690

Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

Amazon: amazon.comamazon.co.ukamazon.deamazon.fr

23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

A person might value his online pseudonym—I still have a soft spot for the one I used for many years in various online role-playing and action games; he exists as a distinct character in my mind—precisely because it is a form of expression, bound to certain experiences. And indeed, handles, avatars, and the other raw ingredients of online identity have long been treated as types of expression and play, things to be tried on and cast off, manipulated and customized. Markus Persson, the creator of the enormously popular game Minecraft, is widely known as Notch, and the nickname is no less real or authentic because it originated online. His continued use of it, both online and off, only shows how much he values it. Our digital and offline lives are more intertwined than ever, and in some respects, that’s a good thing. These two worlds have never been fully separate. Actions in one arena can easily affect us in another, and the notion that the digital is all illusory has often been employed as a justification for trollish behavior online.