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The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar
Gartner has developed a “Hype Cycle” chart (Figure VI) showing the various stages of different 3D printing capabilities and their market impact, and plotting most business uses of the technology as entering the “slope of enlightenment”.95 Figure VI: Hype Cycle for 3D Printing Source: Gartner (July 2014) Positive impacts – Accelerated product development – Reduction in the design-to-manufacturing cycle – Easily manufactured intricate parts (not possible or difficult to do earlier) – Rising demand for product designers – Educational institutions using 3D printing to accelerate learning and understanding – Democratized power of creation/manufacturing (both limited only by the design) – Traditional mass manufacturing responding to the challenge by finding ways to reduce costs and the size of minimum runs – Growth in open-source “plans” to print a range of objects – Birth of a new industry supplying printing materials – Rise in entrepreneurial opportunities in the space96 – Environmental benefits from reduced transportation requirements Negative impacts – Growth in waste for disposal, and further burden on the environment – Production of parts in the layer process that are anisotropic, i.e. their strength is not the same in all directions, which could limit the functionality of parts – Job losses in a disrupted industry – Primacy of intellectual property as a source of value in productivity – Piracy – Brand and product quality Unknown, or cuts both ways – Potential that any innovation can be instantly copied The shift in action An example of 3D printing for manufacturing has been recently covered by FORTUNE: “General Electric’s Leap jet engine is not only one of the company’s bestsellers, it’s going to incorporate a fuel nozzle produced entirely through additive manufacturing. The process, popularly known as 3-D printing, involves building up layers of material (in this case alloyed metals) according to precise digital plans. GE is currently completing testing of the new Leap engines, but the benefit of additive manufactured parts has already been proven on other models.” Source: “GE’s first 3D-printed parts take flight”, Andrew Zaleski, FORTUNE, 12 May 2015, http://fortune.com/2015/05/12/ge-3d-printed-jet-engine-parts/ Shift 20: 3D Printing and Human Health The tipping point: The first transplant of a 3D-printed liver By 2025: 76% of respondents expected this tipping point to have occurred One day, 3D printers may create not only things, but also human organs – a process called bioprinting.
Aside from speed and breadth, the fourth industrial revolution is unique because of the growing harmonization and integration of so many different disciplines and discoveries. Tangible innovations that result from interdependencies among different technologies are no longer science fiction. Today, for example, digital fabrication technologies can interact with the biological world. Some designers and architects are already mixing computational design, additive manufacturing, materials engineering and synthetic biology to pioneer systems that involve the interaction among micro-organisms, our bodies, the products we consume, and even the buildings we inhabit. In doing so, they are making (and even “growing”) objects that are continuously mutable and adaptable (hallmarks of the plant and animal kingdoms).4 In The Second Machine Age, Brynjolfsson and McAfee argue that computers are so dexterous that it is virtually impossible to predict what applications they may be used for in just a few years.
As drones become capable of sensing and responding to their environment (altering their flight path to avoid collisions), they will be able to do tasks such as checking electric power lines or delivering medical supplies in war zones. In agriculture, the use of drones – combined with data analytics – will enable more precise and efficient use of fertilizer and water, for example. 3D printing Also called additive manufacturing, 3D printing consists of creating a physical object by printing layer upon layer from a digital 3D drawing or model. This is the opposite of subtractive manufacturing, which is how things have been made until now, with layers being removed from a piece of material until the desired shape is obtained. By contrast, 3D printing starts with loose material and then builds an object into a three-dimensional shape using a digital template.
The Sharing Economy: The End of Employment and the Rise of Crowd-Based Capitalism by Arun Sundararajan
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, call centre, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, distributed ledger, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, ethereum blockchain, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, job automation, job-hopping, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Lyft, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, recommendation engine, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Nature of the Firm, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, Zipcar
The Digitization of the Physical Alongside the consumerization of digital, we are now also witnessing a parallel yet equally important shift: the digitization of the physical. Two contemporary developments illustrate how the same three invariant forces, and thus the same economics, that led to the consumerization of digital may reshape our everyday physical objects: the Internet of Things and the emergence of additive manufacturing. The Internet of Things In the not-so-distant future, every “thing” will have the potential to be digitized and networked. In an iconic example (although perhaps not the most cost-effective), a milk carton nearing or getting close to its expiration date will communicate with your refrigerator, which will in turn communicate with your FreshDirect grocery list. Cartons of fresh milk will subsequently be delivered to your home, allowing you to focus your attention on more important things.
Put differently, a physical object will know where it is, how much it is being used, and will be able to arrange automated, digitally enabled transport for itself to its renter without human intervention.8 A physical object becomes, in a sense, like an intelligent iTunes movie file. As a consequence, the “rentability” of objects also expands. On-demand services of all kinds become more viable, more efficient, and more ubiquitous with the Internet of Things. 3-D Printing and Additive Manufacturing Until recently, if you wanted to get into the business of making and selling physical objects, you had to acquire the capabilities of manufacturing and find some way of distributing and selling objects (by connecting, for example, with a wholesaling or retailing network). We are now entering a world where you no longer need a factory or warehouse or distribution network to be engaged in the sale of physical objects.
You no longer need a distribution network to get spare parts to machines in remote locations. All you need is a design. The game-changing technology at work here is 3-D printing. Industrial era–manufacturing is typically “subtractive”; it starts with physical material—wood, metal, heated resin—and removes portions of it to create the components of the eventual product, using tools, machines, or a mold. Additive manufacturing is the opposite. It starts with a design, and uses a “printer” to additively construct the physical object. How might this reshape the economy? Let’s consider a digital analogue. (I enjoy having that pair of words next to each other.) Twenty years ago, most cities and towns had numerous music retailers with physical storefronts. Records and CDs, having been centrally manufactured and distributed to these stores, were sold from bins and shelves.
The End of Doom: Environmental Renewal in the Twenty-First Century by Ronald Bailey
3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, Cass Sunstein, Climatic Research Unit, Commodity Super-Cycle, conceptual framework, corporate governance, credit crunch, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, diversified portfolio, double helix, energy security, failed state, financial independence, Gary Taubes, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, phenotype, planetary scale, price stability, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Stewart Brand, Tesla Model S, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce, yield curve
Banning Garrett, founding director of the Atlantic Council’s Strategic Foresight Initiative, asserts that additive manufacturing “is likely to play a significant role in dramatically increasing the efficiency of resource use and in lowering overall carbon emissions, from the process of manufacturing and to delivering products to the end user. As only the material needed for parts is used, there is nearly zero waste.” The US Department of Energy’s Advanced Manufacturing Office noted, “Additive manufacturing has the potential to vastly accelerate innovation, compress supply chains, minimize materials and energy usage, and reduce waste.” Additive manufacturing is also known as 3-D printing; machines build up new items one layer at a time. The Advanced Manufacturing Office suggested that additive manufacturing can reduce material needs and costs by up to 90 percent.
Next Nature, June 28, 2013. www.nextnature.net/2013/08/meat-grown-in-labs-is-the-next-logical-step-for-food-production/. “building a progressive food system”: New Harvest, www.new-harvest.org/. “is likely to play a significant role”: Banning Garrett, “3D Printing: New Economic Paradigms and Strategic Shifts.” Global Policy 4.1 (February 2014): 70–75. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1758-5899.12119/full. “Additive manufacturing”: Advanced Manufacturing Office, “Additive Manufacturing: Pursuing the Promise.” US Department of Energy, August 2012. “Sustainable development”: Gro Harlem Brundtland, Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987. www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf. economic growth proceeded: Angus Maddison, The Maddison Project, Original Maddison Home Page, January 2013. www.ggdc.net/maddison/maddison-project/home.htm.
Northeastern Naturalist, Vol.5, No. 2 (1988), 165–174, biophilosophy.ca/Teaching/2070papers/kricher.pdf. INDEX The index that appeared in the print version of this title does not match the pages in your e-book. Please use the search function on your e-reading device to search for terms of interest. For your reference, the terms that appear in the print index are listed below. Acemoğlu, Daron additive manufacturing ADHD. See attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Adler, Jonathan Africa biotech crops for fertility rates in oil production in population projections in rewilding from water privatization in aging. See life expectancy agriculture. See biotech crops; food production; pesticides air pollution. See also emissions Akins, James algae Allen, Robert P. aluminum Anderson, Daniel W.
Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator
As new entrepreneurs are constantly improving this new interface, they are also further enabling new entrepreneurs—meaning a positive feedback loop of increasing interface innovation develops. It’s a virtuous cycle seen over and over again. More exciting, it’s exactly these kinds of robust, elegant interfaces that are beginning to show up in half a dozen exponential technologies—meaning there are literally a half dozen Internet-sized opportunities becoming available to the clued-in entrepreneur. 3-D Printing: The Origins and Power of Additive Manufacturing One such opportunity lies with 3-D printing, a technology now emerging from a thirty-year period of deceptive growth and beginning to disrupt a portion of the $10 trillion global manufacturing industry.7 In the rest of this chapter, we’re going to explore this technology’s past, present, and future and then acquaint you with a few entrepreneurs pioneering that future. The goal here is both to familiarize you with this technology and use it as a real-time template for the Six Ds, exploring how select entrepreneurs have correctly read the cycle of hype and positioned themselves to take full advantage of this tech’s exponential opportunity.
As he was then working for a small company in Southern California that specialized in developing applications for ultraviolet radiation, including curing (hardening) UV coatings and inks, Hull realized that curing’s methodology opened the door for an entirely new manufacturing process. Instead of having to create new plastic parts and prototypes through subtractive methods, if he could figure out how to print sheets of UV-hardened plastic atop one another (and attach them to one another), he could build new automotive components via accretion—a method of additive manufacturing in which objects are built up one layer at a time. This was the birth of 3-D printing.9 To give you better idea of how this works, think of an ink-jet printer. These ubiquitous office products are 2-D printers that convert digital instructions (from your computer) into an “object” (aka printed text on a page) by printing along a two-dimensional (x and y) axis. A 3-D printer does the same except it adds in a vertical dimension (the z axis)—thus allowing for creation in all three dimensions.
“The company was a train wreck,” says Avi Reichental.11 “They had lost sight of the fact that their technology was accelerating exponentially. They had forgotten how to innovate.” And Reichental would know, as he was the person brought in to save the company. On paper, Reichental was an odd choice for the job. Having spent the previous twenty-three years working for the Sealed Air Corporation, the inventors of Bubble Wrap, Reichental didn’t know much about additive manufacturing. But what he did understand was innovation. “Sealed Air wasn’t your standard package goods company,” says Reichental. “It was more like a Silicon Valley start-up: totally entrepreneurial, always exploring new possibilities, always trying to crack open new markets.” As a result, Reichental worked dozens of different jobs during his Sealed Air tenure—eventually becoming the company’s fourth-ranking officer and helping grow the firm from a 400-person, $100 million business (when he joined), into an 18,000-person, $5 billion behemoth (when he left).
Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams
3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population
These are tasks that computers are perfectly suited to accomplish once a programmer has created the appropriate software, leading to a drastic reduction in the numbers of routine manual and cognitive jobs over the past four decades.22 The result has been a polarisation of the labour market, since many middle-wage, mid-skilled jobs are routine, and therefore subject to automation.23 Across both North America and Western Europe, the labour market is now characterised by a predominance of workers in low-skilled, low-wage manual and service jobs (for example, fast-food, retail, transport, hospitality and warehouse workers), along with a smaller number of workers in high-skilled, high-wage, non-routine cognitive jobs.24 The most recent wave of automation is poised to change this distribution of the labour market drastically, as it comes to encompass every aspect of the economy: data collection (radio-frequency identification, big data); new kinds of production (the flexible production of robots,25 additive manufacturing,26 automated fast food); services (AI customer assistance, care for the elderly); decision-making (computational models, software agents); financial allocation (algorithmic trading); and especially distribution (the logistics revolution, self-driving cars,27 drone container ships and automated warehouses).28 In every single function of the economy – from production to distribution to management to retail – we see large-scale tendencies towards automation.29 This latest wave of automation is predicated upon algorithmic enhancements (particularly in machine learning and deep learning), rapid developments in robotics and exponential growth in computing power (the source of big data) that are coalescing into a ‘second machine age’ that is transforming the range of tasks that machines can fulfil.30 It is creating an era that is historically unique in a number of ways.
A series of emerging contemporary phenomena must be thought through carefully: for instance, the causes and effects of secular stagnation; the transformations invoked by the shift to an informational, post-scarcity economy; the changes wrought by the introduction of full automation and a universal basic income; the possible approaches to collectivising automated manufacturing and services; the progressive potentials of alternative approaches to quantitative easing; the most effective ways to decarbonise the means of production; the implications of dark pools for financial instability – and so on. Equally, research should be revived on what postcapitalism might look like in practice. Beyond a few outdated classics, very little research has been done to think through an alternative economic system – even less so in the wake of emerging technologies like additive manufacturing, self-driving vehicles and soft AI.68 What role, for instance, could non-state cryptocurrencies have? How does one measure value if not by abstract or concrete labour? How can ecological concerns be fully accounted for in a postcapitalist economic framework? What mechanism can replace the market and overcome the socialist calculation problem?69 And what are the likely effects of the possible tendency for the rate of profit to fall?
Logistics provides a particularly significant example, insofar as it simultaneously exploits wage differentials, enables global production and is at the leading edge of automation. Without denying the significance of logistics to the project of exploiting cheap labour across the world, it is possible to see that logistics would be useful to postcapitalism in a variety of ways.107 Its uses, in other words, go far beyond just capitalist ones. First, any postcapitalist economy will require flexibility in both production (for example, additive manufacturing) and distribution (for example, just-in-time logistics). This enables an economy to be responsive to changes in individual consumption, unlike the grand and inflexible planning efforts of the Soviet era. Without these technologies, postcapitalism would risk repeating all the economic problems already seen in the first communist experiment.108 Second, global logistics makes possible the use of a wide array of comparative advantages – not simply wage differentials.
Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, connected car, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, financial innovation, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar
The company has built a full-scale facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, to develop and scale up new alloys, processes and parts for use in additive manufacturing. GE has a global team of 600 engineers at 21 sites that is focused on additive manufacturing. Moreover, GE is committed to developing parts and components using additive techniques in several of its business lines and scaling up in a smart way based on early successes. For instance, GE Aviation plans to manufacture 100,000 additive parts by 2020. One application will be a fuel nozzle for the company’s CFM LEAP jet engine. In health care, GE researchers can print ultrasound transducers faster and more cheaply than using standard manufacturing techniques. GE does not do all this in-house. It works with innovators outside the group, with a view to building a global additive manufacturing ecosystem to spread the use of the technology.
It is increasingly used in planes and space travel, and can be produced in large single-piece sections, eliminating the need to rivet individual components together, and making overall construction more robust and secure. New tools for manufacturing 3D printers are responsible for a major breakthrough in manufacturing. When combined with computer-aided design and other digital tools, 3D printers can dramatically reduce manufacturing costs while increasing the capacity to customise products. 3D printers’ additive manufacturing involves adding several successive layers of a material until the product in question is finalised. This resource-efficient approach contrasts with the subtractive method used since the 19th century, in which a larger block of material, usually hard metal, is reduced, hammered, shaved or twisted into shape. Subtractive processes use more energy and waste at least half of the materials used.
PwC refers to the PwC network and/or one or more of its member firms, each of which is a separate legal entity. Please see www.pwc.com/structure for further details. Index 3D printers 18, 47–9, 50, 128, 132, 134, 152, 166 3D printing 9, 47–9, 50, 51, 52, 132, 151–2, 206 4D revolution 53–4 A Accor 172–6 Accountable Care Solutions 211 Active Health Management 211 adaptability 90, 154 additive manufacturing 47–9 ADEO Group 127, 128 advertising 24, 61–3, 71–2 aerosols 95, 96 Aetna 32, 208–13, 213, 215 Affinnova 31, 141 affordability 3, 82, 136, 153, 161, 172, 194, 216 in emerging markets 4, 56, 120, 198, 206 health-care innovations 202–3 and quality 1, 3, 9, 12, 75, 120–1, 198, 206 affordances 120–1 Africa 40, 56, 146, 161, 164, 197 financial services 198, 201 IBM in 200–2 innovation potential 200–2 as market 12, 169, 197–8, 199 ageing populations 109, 194 ageing workforce 13, 29, 49, 153 agility 26, 41, 69, 75, 143, 169–70 in innovation 21, 27, 33–4, 42–3, 72, 154, 167, 173, 176, 206 in manufacturing 44–5, 49, 52 Akerman, Dave 136 Air Liquide 205–7 air pollution 74, 78, 187, 200 Airbnb 10, 17, 85, 136, 140, 163, 173, 175 aircraft 68, 149 parts 48–9, 49, 121, 151–2 airlines 60, 121 Alteryx 32 Amazon 46, 60–1, 150 Amelio, Gil 68–9 AmEx (American Express) 161–2, 167, 215 Amgen 45 Anderson, Chris 18 Android operating system 130, 172 AOL 42 Apple 17, 24, 68–9, 71, 99, 150, 155, 172 Apple TV 62 apps 99, 106, 107, 108, 111–12, 124–5, 148 Arduino 135 Ariely, Dan 132 Arla Foods 37 artists 88, 93 ASDA 158–9, 159 Asia 161, 164, 200 aspirations 88–9, 119–20, 198 assets digitising 65–6 flexing see flexing assets reusing 92–3 sharing 159–61, 167 AT&T 21 ATMI 88 Auchan 13, 126, 128, 215 austerity 5, 6–7, 23 Australia 5, 62, 146, 200 Autodesk 48, 92, 132, 196–7 Automatic 131 automation 49–50 Avon 146 AXA 116 Ayed, Anne-Christine 75, 76 B B Corps (Benefit Corporations) 82 B2B (business-to-business) sectors 25–6, 34, 57, 142, 161, 175, 212 B2C (business-to-consumer) companies 25, 34, 212 Badrinath, Vivek 174 BAE Systems 48–9 Ban, Shigeru 93 Bangladesh 66 Bank of America 155 banking services 13, 17, 57, 161–2, 198 see also financial services Banner Health Network 210 Banzi, Massimo 135 Barber, Michael 181 Barclays 100, 115, 117, 215 Barry, Mike 183–4, 187 Bayer 66–7 Bazin, Sébastien 173 BBVA 125 Béhar, Yves 110 Belgium 103 Benefit Corporations (B Corps) 82 Benelux countries 7, 103 Benetton 67 Benoît, Paul 89 Berg 89 Bergh, Chip 122–3 Bertolini, Mark 208–9, 212, 213, 217 BHAGs (“big, hairy audacious” goals) 90–1, 158–9, 179, 191–2 Biasiotta, Bruno 123 big data 32–3, 117, 150 big-box retailers 9, 18, 137 “bigger is better” 2, 8, 14–15, 104 biomimetics (or biomimicry) 84 Birol, Jacques 163–4 BlaBlaCar 10, 85, 163 Blanchard, David 94, 96 Bloomberg, Michael 18, 79, 133 BMI (business model innovation) 192 BMW 47, 62–3, 86 BNP Paribas 168–9 Boeing 92, 144 Bolland, Marc 180–1, 186 Bontha, Ven 59 Booz & Company (now Strategy&) 6, 22, 23, 28, 171 Bosch 156 Boston Consulting Group 55, 64, 116, 145, 217 Botsman, Rachel 10 bottom-of-pyramid (BOP) customers 161, 203, 207 Bouygues Immobilier 90 BP 169 BPS (by-product synergy) 159 Brabeck-Letmathe, Peter 44, 78 brand ambassadors 143, 145 brand loyalty 46, 100, 204, 215 branding 15, 108, 119–20, 156 brands 1, 71, 139, 141, 143, 154, 165–6, 215 “conversations” with 129, 131–2 working together 154, 156–7 Braungart, Michael 82 Brazil 40, 74, 102, 146, 188, 199 emerging market 4, 12, 38, 146, 197, 199 Bretton Woods Conference (1944) 104 Brin, Sergey 63 BringBee 85 Bross, Matt 37–8, 171 Brown, Tim 121 Brusson, Nicolas 163 BT 37–8, 171 BTG (British Technology Group) 171 budgeting, personal 124–5 budgets 6–7, 36, 42 Buffett, Warren 138 buildings 196–7 bureaucracy 36, 63–4, 65, 70, 165, 169, 173, 182 business, primary purpose of 14 business model innovation (BMI) 192 business models 2, 34, 38, 80, 118, 205, 216, 217 changing 190–3, 213 business opportunities 36, 188–9, 190 business process re-engineering 192 business strategy 34 business-to-business see B2B business-to-consumer see B2C by-product synergy (BPS) 159 C C2C (cradle-to-cradle) design 75, 77, 82, 84, 97 Cacciotti, Jerry 22, 23 CAD (computer-aided design) 47, 65, 132, 165 California 79, 99 Calmes, Stéphane 127, 128 Camp, Garrett 163 Canada 5, 102 cannibalisation conundrum 15, 117–18 capital costs 45 car insurance 116 car sharing 10, 17, 85, 86, 108, 123, 163 car-related services 62–3, 116 Caravan Shop 89 carbon emissions 102, 103, 196 reducing 78–9, 106–7, 159, 160, 174 stabilising 184, 186 carbon footprint 94, 100, 102, 156, 184, 186 Carrefour 121–2, 157, 174 cars 89, 92, 116, 119–20, 144, 155, 156 electric 47, 86, 172 emissions 47, 106–7 fuel consumption 47, 106–7 fuel efficiency 8, 12, 24, 47, 78, 131, 197 low-cost 2–4 personalisation 129–30 related services 62–3 standards for 78–9 see also BMW; Ford; Nissan; Renault; Tesla; Toyota Caterpillar 31, 55 CellScope 110 Cemex 59 centralisation 9, 44, 51 CEOs 34, 40, 168, 203–5, 204 certification, sustainability 84 Chaparral Steel 159 chemical industry 33, 58, 66–7 chemical usage, reducing 79 Cheshire, Ian 185–6 Chesky, Brian 163 Chevron 170 China 44, 83, 102, 144, 213, 216 air pollution 187, 200 emerging market 4, 38, 169, 197, 205 innovation in 169, 200 mobile phones 198 R&D 40, 188, 206 selling into 187–8 shifting production from 55, 56 Christchurch (New Zealand) 93 Chrysler 166 circular economy 9, 76–7, 80–4, 159–60, 195–6 “Circular Economy 100” 76–7, 86 circular supply chains 193 Cisco 17, 29, 65, 110 CISL (University of Cambridge Institute for Sustainability Leadership) 158–9 cities 107, 153 Citigroup 161 climate change 8, 100 closed-loop products 86, 91, 185, 192–3 cloud computing 60, 61, 157, 169 CMF-A car platform 4–5, 198–9 CNC (computer numerical control) cutters 128, 134, 152 co-branding 143 co-creation 126–9, 202–3, 206–7 see also collaboration; horizontal economy; prosumers co-distribution 143 co-marketing 143 co-operation 64–5, 69, 70–1 co-opetition 158–9 Coase, Ronald 133 Coca-Cola 57, 62, 142, 154 “cold chains” 57 CoLearnr 114 Collaborating Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production (CSCP) 193–4 collaboration 76, 114, 138–9, 176, 211, 217–18 cross-functional 36–8, 39, 71–2 see also hyper-collaboration; TechShop collaborative consumption see sharing economy collaborative manufacturing 50–1 collective buying platforms 137 Commonwealth Fund 110 communities of customers 129, 131, 132–3 local 52, 57, 146, 206–7 commuting 131 competition 22, 27, 102, 189 competitive advantage 15–16, 80, 195 competitors 19, 26, 148, 149–50, 172, 215 emerging markets 16, 205–6, 216 engaging 158–9, 167 frugal 16–18, 26, 216 complexity 24, 64 components 3, 67 computer numerical control see CNC computer-aided design (CAD) 47, 65, 132, 165 Comstock, Beth 40–1, 149, 150, 151, 170 concentration 96 Concept Lab 211 concept testing 25, 31, 72, 191 Cone, Carol 7 congestion 108, 201 constraints 4–5, 22, 34, 36, 42, 207, 217 consumer behaviour 3, 6, 97, 98–101 shaping xix, 99–101, 105–9, 125 Consumer Empowerment Index 103 consumer spending 103 consumers 8, 27, 37, 97, 105 developed-world 2, 7, 9, 102 dissatisfaction 130–1 empowerment 22, 105, 106 environmental awareness 101–2, 105 frugal 197–200 of the future 193–4 innovative ideas from 50–1 with particular needs 194–5 power 102–4, 139 social experience 139 and sustainability 95, 97, 101–4 trust of 143 young 16, 85, 86, 122, 124, 131 see also customers; prosumers consumption 85, 101–6, 115, 124, 193 continuous processing 44–5, 47, 50 Cook, Scott 19 core, focusing on 68–9 Cornillon, Paul 37 Corporate Home Exchange 175 corporate leaders 122–4, 180–1, 203–5 corporate social responsibility see CSR Cortese, Amy 138 cost effectiveness 12, 34, 149, 164, 172, 188, 190, 191 consumer energy use 53 customisation 67 health care 202 innovation 21, 173 micro-factories 52 Costco 18 costs 3D printers 48 capital costs 45 development costs 22, 36 distribution costs 54, 55, 96 electricity generation 104 energy costs 161, 190 environmental costs 11 fuel costs 121 of good-enough approach 27 health-care costs 13, 109 innovation costs 168, 171 inventory costs 54 life-cycle costs 12, 24, 196 maintenance costs 48–9, 66 manufacturing costs 47, 48, 52 operating costs 45, 215 production costs 9, 83 raw materials 153, 161, 190 reducing 11, 46, 47, 60, 84, 89, 160, 167, 200 resource costs 78, 203 shipping costs 55, 59 supply chain 58, 84 transaction costs 133 wage costs 48 Coughlin, Bill 167 Coursera 61, 112 Coye, Molly 202 cradle-to-cradle see C2C design creativity 88, 94, 128, 130, 135, 163–4, 199 in organisations 63–4, 70, 71 credit culture 115–16 CRM (customer relationship management) systems 59, 157 cross-functional collaboration 36–8, 39, 71–2 crowdfunding 17, 48, 132, 137–9, 152 crowdsourcing 28–9, 50–1, 126, 140, 143, 152, 202 platforms 142, 150–1, 151, 152 CSCP (Collaborating Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Production) 193–4 CSR (corporate social responsibility) 77, 82, 94, 161 culture, organisational see organisational culture “culture of simplification” 170 curiosity 153–4 customer behaviour see consumer behaviour customer experience, enhancing 75 customer feedback 31–2, 33, 72, 152, 170, 192 customer immersion labs 31–2 customer loyalty 28, 68, 77, 80, 124, 129, 131–2, 215 customer needs 37, 58, 90, 139–40, 170, 192, 206 changing 28, 38, 51, 127, 150, 168, 205 diversity 38, 46, 51 R&D disconnect from 26, 38 customer preferences 58, 67, 75 customer relationship management see CRM customer satisfaction 65, 128, 130–1 customer service 25–6, 127–8, 147 customer visits 18, 20, 128 customers 19, 27, 46, 76, 148, 205 alienating 24–6 behaviour see consumer behaviour bottom-of-pyramid 12–13, 161, 203, 207 communities of 129, 131, 132–3 cost-conscious 3, 6, 7, 22, 26, 156, 189, 215 dreams 140–1 eco-awareness 22, 26, 54, 75, 78, 93, 156, 195–6, 215 in emerging markets 200 engaging with 20–1, 24–6, 27–33, 34, 35, 38–9, 42–3, 115, 128, 170 as experts 146 focus on 19–21, 43, 62, 157–8, 204 goodwill of 84 motivation for change 117 multiple roles 143–6 needs see customer needs outsourcing to 143 participation 128–9 profligate 115–16 R&D and 27–8, 31–2, 38, 43 rewards for 147–8 shared 156–8 used to motivate employees 205–7 young 16, 85, 86, 122, 124, 131 see also consumers; prosumers customisation 9, 46, 47, 48, 51–2, 57–8, 67, 72 CVS Health 7 D D2D Fund 162 Dacia 2–4, 156, 179 Dannon 141 Danone 66, 141, 184, 186 Darchis, François 205–6, 207 DARPA (Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency) 49 Darukhanavala, P.P.
Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low skilled workers, millennium bug, pattern recognition, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, web application, WebRTC, WebSocket, Y2K
The Cloud The large data sets involved in Industry 4.0 means data sharing will be not only desirable but imperative to leverage the full possibilities within the value chain. However, few manufacturing plants will have the storage capacity to store and analyze the vast amounts of data collected. Fortunately, cloud service providers do have the capacity and can create private clouds suitable for manufacturing data storage and processing. Additive Manufacturing Additive manufacturing such as 3D printing enables manufacturers to come up with prototypes and proof of concept designs, which greatly reduces design time and effort. Additive manufacturing also enables production of small batches of customized products that offer more value to customers or end users, while reducing cost and time inefficiencies for the manufacturer. Augmented Reality Businesses are increasingly looking to reduce the maintenance and training overheads associated with production, marketing, and after-sales support.
It is important to differentiate between the media-hyped consumer market for 3D printing and the industrial reality. Components created using 3D printing in industry are not models or gimmicks as they are used by NASA, and in the aviation industry in jet engines. Similarly, they are commonly utilized in cars, with at least one manufacturer making their entire vehicle via 3D printing. 3D printing goes beyond just manipulating polymers, ceramics, paper, and metal—it also can be used in health care. Additive manufacturing is used in prosthetics and medical components such as medical sensors and actuators implanted within the body, such as heart pace-makers for example. However, the latest research is being driven by bio-medical requirements such as creating 3D printed skin, and other body tissue, and perhaps soon even complete organs. The goal here is to reproduce a patient’s failing organs using 3D printing to create a replacement without the requirement of a donor transplant. 61 62 Chapter 3 |TheTechnical and Business Innovators of the Industrial Internet The way this works is that layers of living cells harvested from the patient are deposited via the 3D printer onto a culture plate to build up each layer of the three-dimensional organic structure.
IOT6 Smart Office, 21 IT sectors, 5 key opportunities and benefits, 8 logistics adopting sensor technologies, 24 advanced telemetric sensors, 26 augmented reality glasses, 25 automating stock control task, 24 barcode technology, 23 Big Data, 26–27 document scanning and verification, 26 forklift, 24–25 Google Glass, 25 multiple sensors, 26 pick-by-paper, 25 RFID, 23–24 SmartLIFT technology, 24–25 temperature and humidity sensors, 24 track and trace, 26 M2M, 3 manufacturers, 10 Oil and Gas industry automated remote control topology, 18 automation, 18 Big Data analytics, 19 cloud computing, 17 data analytics, 16 data collection and analysis, 18 data distribution system, 17 DDS bus, 18 down-hole sensors, 16 drilling and exploration, 16 industry regulations, 16 intelligent real-time reservoir management, 19 interconnectivity, 17 MQPP and XMPP, 17 remote node's status, 17 6LoWLAN and CoAP, 17 technological advances, 16 wireless technologies and protocols, 17 outcome economy, 10 power of 1%, 4 retailer innovations, 29 IT costs, 27 POS, 27–28 real-time reporting and visibility, 28 stock control, 28 sensor technology, 4 smartphone, 20 WSN, 21 WWAN, 5 Industrial Internet system communication protocols Ethernet protocol, 100 industrial Ethernet, 98 TCP/UDP containers, 100 concept of, IIoT, 88 diverse technology, 116 gateways, 115 heterogeneous networks, 116 industrial gateway, 118 industrial protocols current loop, 97 field bus technology, 98 RS232 serial communications, 96 proximity and access network address types, 114 IIoT context, 115 IPv4, 109 IPv6, 112 IPv6 Subnets, 114 NAT, 111 proximity network, 89 wireless communication technology, 102 bluetooth low energy, 103 IEEE 802.15.4, 102 NFC, 107 RFID, 106 RPL, 108 6LoWPAN, 107 Thread, 107 Wi-Fi backscatter, 105 ZigBee, 103 ZigBee IP, 104 Z-Wave, 105 WSN edge node, 90 functional layers, 93 IP layers vs. IIoT layers, 95 Index low-power technology, 91 network protocols, 91 OSI table, 93 web 2.0 layers, 94 Industrial Internet systems (IISs), 66 Industrial systems (ISs), 66 Industry 4.0 advantages, 199 big data and analytics, 208 additive manufacturing, 210 architecture, 211 augmented-reality-based systems, 210 business processes, 213 cloud data, 210 customer acceptance, 215 customer evaluation, 214 cyber-security, 210 equipment, 212 horizontal and vertical system integration, 209 IOT, 209 products, 213 simulation, 209 smart manufacturing, 211 supply chains, 213 use of, robots, 209 workforce, 212 characteristics, 199 cyber-physical systems, 196 definitions, 197 design principles decentralization, 207 interoperability, 207 modularity, 208 real time capability, 208 services, 208 virtualization, 207 dynamic process control, 196 global networks, 195 manufacturing processes, 196 value chain, 201 business benefits, 205 Cost-cutting, 203 creation, 203 horizontal activities, 201 quality, features, 203 support function, 202 In-flight entertainment (IFE), 182 Internet of Things (IOT), 1–2, 29 IOT6 Smart Office, 21 IP, 126 IPv6, 21, 23 L Late-binding, 133 M M2M learning and artificial intelligence, 56 Machine-to-machine (M2M), 3, 6 Message bus, 132 Message queue telemetry transport (MQTT), 136 Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMs), 53 Microservices, 151 Mobile device management (MDM), 158 Multiprotocol label switching (MPLS), 122 N, O Near field communication (NFC), 20, 107 Network address translation (NAT), 111 Network functionality virtualization (NFV), 42 P Point of sales (POS) machines, 27–28 Profinet, 123–124 Programmable logic controls (PLCs), 183, 224 Proof-of-concept (PoC), 35 Prophet, 141 Publish/subscribe protocol, 133 Q Quality of service (QoS), 122, 138 249 250 Index support modules and options, 148 vs.
Thank You for Being Late: An Optimist's Guide to Thriving in the Age of Accelerations by Thomas L. Friedman
3D printing, additive manufacturing, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, centre right, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, demand response, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Flash crash, game design, gig economy, global supply chain, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, land tenure, linear programming, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pattern recognition, planetary scale, pull request, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, Transnistria, urban decay, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, Y2K, Yogi Berra
Kurniawan, who, GE tells us, “runs a small engineering and design firm called DTECH-ENGINEERING with his brother,” added: “That’s why I want to be familiar with additive manufacturing as soon as possible.” GE ended up offering the Hungarian intern a job. Although he clearly had enormous talent, that Hungarian student had failed his engineering structural analysis class, said Bill Carter, a senior mechanical engineer in GE’s Additive Manufacturing Lab: “So it shows that if you get young people excited about something, they feel and can relate to, they get excited—and instead of being in class and studying, he went out and [entered our contest]. And he went and learned from people he never would have talked to.” Discussing this whole project two years later, Prabhjot Singh, manager of the Additive Manufacturing Lab, explained to me just how much these global flows are being leveraged by a company such as GE today: “When you are looking for new ideas, you can now bring in a diversity of responses worldwide, and you engage the community to drive speed.
GE offered a reward to anyone in the world who could design that component with less weight, using 3-D printing. They advertised it in June 2013. As I wrote in a column, within weeks they had received 697 entries from all over the world—from companies, individuals, graduate students, and designers. According to the GE website: In September , the partners picked 10 finalists who received $1,000 each. Aviation 3D printed the 10 shortlisted designs at its additive manufacturing plant in Cincinnati, Ohio. GE workers made the brackets from a titanium alloy on a direct metal laser melting (DMLM) machine, which uses a laser beam to fuse layers of metal powder into the final shape. The team then sent the finished brackets to GE Global Research (GRC) in Niskayuna, New York, for destruction testing. GRC engineers strapped each bracket to an MTS servo-hydraulic testing machine and exposed it to axial loads ranging from 8,000 to 9,500 pounds.
Ferrucci, David fertility rates fertilizers, overuse of fiber optics FICO scores financial crashes financial flows financial reform financial services: big data and; democratization of Financial Times Fitbit 5G wireless networks Florida, Richard flows: of knowledge; power of; see also financial flows; global flows Fofana, Mohamed Foldit food labeling food prices Foreign Affairs foreign aid; gender equality and; military vs. educational and social Foreign Policy “40 Developmental Assets for Adolescents” fossil fuels fossil record 4G wireless networks Francis I, Pope Franken, Al Franken, Owen Fraser, Don Fredericks, Frank Freedman, Andrew freedom: advances toward; in cyberspace; ethics and; inequality of Freeman, Orville Free Syrian Army free trade agreements Frenzel, Bill freshwater use Friedman, George Friedman, Harold Friedman, Jane Friedman, Margaret Friedman, Shelley Fujitsu Fukuyama, Francis Funda, Ndumie F. W. Olin Foundation Gaffney, Owen Gallup Galor, Oded Galston, Bill Galván, Arturo Gambia Garber, Jake Garten, Jeffrey Gates, Bill Gates Foundation gays, gay rights; violence against Gaznay, Karwan GDP (gross domestic product); Internet penetration and Gebbia, Joe gender equality gene drives gene editing, as weapon General Electric (GE); Additive Manufacturing Lab of; engineering-design contests of; Niskayuna research center of General Mills generative design genetic engineering genetics, human manipulation of Genome.gov GeopoliticalFutures.com geopolitics: climate change and; Cold War in, see Cold War; foreign aid in; innovation in; interdependence in; post–Cold War; post–World War I; post–World War II; U.S. hegemony in geopolitics, post–post–Cold War era in: accelerated pace of; ADD (amplify, deter, degrade) policy in; breakers in, see breakers, super-empowered; climate change and; great-power competition in; innovation in; interdependence in; low-wage jobs in; weak states in, see weak states Georgia Tech gerrymandering Get Smart (TV series) Ghana Ghonim, Wael ghost apps GI Bill gig economy Gil, Dario Gilhousen, Klein GitHub Global Change and the Earth System (Steffen, et al.)
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, borderless world, carbon footprint, centre right, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, decarbonisation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, energy transition, global supply chain, hydrogen economy, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, manufacturing employment, marginal employment, Martin Wolf, Masdar, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, post-oil, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban planning, urban renewal, Yom Kippur War, Zipcar
The 3-D printer can produce multiple copies just like a photocopy machine. All sorts of goods, from jewelry to mobile phones, auto and aircraft parts, medical implants, and batteries, are being “printed out” in what is being termed “additive manufacturing,” distinguishing it from the “subtractive manufacturing,” which involves cutting down and pairing off materials and then attaching them together.20 Industry analysts forecast that millions of customers will routinely download digitally manufactured, customized products and “print them out” at their business or residence. 3-D entrepreneurs are particularly bullish about additive manufacturing, because the process requires as little as 10 percent of the raw material expended in traditional manufacturing and uses less energy than conventional factory production, thus greatly reducing the cost.
The energy saved at every step of the digital manufacturing process, from reduction in materials used, to less energy expended in making the product, and the elimination of energy in transporting it, when applied across the global economy, adds up to a qualitative increase in energy efficiency beyond anything imaginable in the First and Second Industrial Revolutions. When the energy used in the process is renewable and also generated on site, the full impact of a lateral Third Industrial Revolution becomes strikingly apparent. In the same way that the Internet radically reduced entry costs in generating and disseminating information, giving rise to new businesses like Google and Facebook, additive manufacturing has the potential to greatly reduce the cost of producing hard goods, making entry costs sufficiently low to encourage hundreds of thousands of mini manufacturers—Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs)—to challenge and potentially out-compete the giant manufacturing companies that were at the center of the First and Second Industrial Revolution economies. Already, a spate of new start-up companies are entering the 3-D printing market with names like Within Technologies, Digital Forming, Shape Ways, Rapid Quality Manufacturing, and Stratasys, and are determined to reinvent the very idea of manufacturing in the Third Industrial era.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, Zipcar
Wald, “Shale’s Effect on Oil Supply Is Forecast to Be Brief,” The New York Times, November 12, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/13/business/energy-environment/shales -effect-on-oil-supply-is-not-expected-to-last.html?_r=0, (accessed November 13, 2013). Chapter 6 1. Mark Richardson and Bradley Haylock, “Designer/Maker: The Rise of Additive Manufacturing, Domestic-Scale: Production and the Possible Implications for the Automotive Industry,” Computer Aided Design and Applications (2012): 35. 2. Ashlee Vance, “3-D Printers: Make Whatever You Want,” Bloomberg Businessweek, April 26, 2012, http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2012-04-26/3d-printers-make-whatever-you-want (accessed August 23, 2013). 3. “Wohlers Associates Publishes 2012 Report on Additive Manufacturing and 3-D Printing: Industry Study Shows Annual Growth of Nearly 30%,” Wohlers Associates, May 15, 2012, http://wohlersassociates.com/press56.htm (accessed August 16, 2013). 4.
In the process, a significant amount of the material is wasted and never finds its way into the end product. Three-dimensional printing, by contrast, is additive infofacturing. The software is directing the molten material to add layer upon layer, creating the product as a whole piece. Additive infofacturing uses one-tenth of the material of subtractive manufacturing, giving the 3D printer a substantial leg up in efficiency and productivity. In 2011, additive manufacturing enjoyed a blistering 29.4 percent growth, besting the 26.4 percent collective historical growth of the industry in just one year.3 Fourth, 3D printers can print their own spare parts without having to invest in expensive retooling and the time delays that go with it. With 3D printers, products can also be customized to create a single product or small batches designed to order, at minimum cost.
additive manufacturing, Atul Gawande, backtesting, Benoit Mandelbrot, buy low sell high, Checklist Manifesto, deliberate practice, diversification, Elliott wave, endowment effect, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, offshore financial centre, paper trading, Ponzi scheme, price stability, psychological pricing, quantitative easing, random walk, risk tolerance, short selling, South Sea Bubble, systematic trading, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, transfer pricing, traveling salesman, tulip mania
Figure 40.2 SSYS weekly with 13- and 26-week EMAs, 12-26-9 MACD-Histogram and the Impulse system. (Chart by Stockcharts.com) The Impulse System The Impulse system can sharpen any method of finding trades, whether technical or fundamental. Let's review an example, using the stock of Stratasys, Inc. (SSYS)—one of the two leading stocks in the additive manufacturing industry. In 2012, I published the world's first popular e-book on additive manufacturing in which I called for a boom in its stocks. Vertical green arrows mark bars immediately following red bars. Red prohibits you from buying. The best time to buy is immediately following red's disappearance. You can see how those green arrows pick one intermediate bottom after another, including the buy signal at the right edge of the chart. Having an objective method gives you the confidence to buy as soon as a decline screeches to a halt.
When it rises above zero, the bulls are stronger, and when it falls below zero, the bears are in charge. Its divergences from prices identify intermediate and even major turning points (Figure 30.2). Its spikes, especially near the bottoms, mark approaching trend reversals. Figure 30.2 SSYS daily, 26-day EMA, 13-day Force Index. (Chart by Stockcharts.com) Long-Term Force Index Stratasys, Inc. (SSYS) is one of the two leading companies in the rapidly emerging additive manufacturing (AM) market. In the two years since I wrote the world's first popular e-book on investing in this technology, AM stocks have become investors' favorites. A technical pattern has emerged, with rallies driven by amateurs piling in and sharp declines as they panic and bail out. The 13-day Force Index does a good job of catching those waves. When the 13-day Force Index crosses above its zero line (marked by vertical green arrows), it shows that buying volume is coming in.
The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton
1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, phenotype, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator
But as object fashioning also moves from far-flung extraction-design-factory-distribution chains to scenarios associated with networked 3D printing, then the public constitution of the thing as a traceable data shell is perhaps both more apparent and more salient for end Users. Every time that the schematic instructions of physical object are downloaded and rendered into atoms, that transformation and the relevant information about who, what, where, when, how, and why that took place might be added to the cumulative “objectivity” of an object that is itself already a networked entity. Given the disruptive potential of a tectonic shift toward the economies of additive manufacturing, including the decentralization of the “industrial Internet,” the related control and governance issues are uncertain. They might range from the dangerously annoying (such as digital-rights management schemes for tangible objects crippled by remote rentier platforms attempting to collect royalties and fees on forks, lamps, and chairs)17 to the annoyingly dangerous (the widespread distribution of tools of mayhem, and new forms of virus spread through distributed object networks, either a real biological virus18 or physical malware or combinations thereof19).
We can imagine them mapping and acting on a specific culinary-agricultural assemblage that has been Addressed according to Bronze Age dietary conventions, located in multiple, even hostile, City-states, accessing a mix of several public Cloud applications as well as locally encrypted databases, sucking up an all-of-the-above stew of utility electrons. Or, an unnamed kid at a quasi-public 3D printing works in Lagos using two different open source additive manufacturing APIs, downloaded CAD scripts, and YouTube Uploader to spoof the Addresses of pirated bicycle cranks that will now phone home and report that they are actually licensed and operational in Cape Town, but which are really being used to haul bags of cement to the fourth floor of a building that shows up having only two floors on Google Earth RealTime (at least when queried from South African IPs) all running on the AfriNIC version of Google's “no carrier fee” Continent Cloud, sucking energy from a Franco-Chinese nuclear plant on the shores of Lake Chad, and chewing up circuitry minerals recycled from e-waste drone lifts from Bossangoa, Central African Republic, courtesy of All-African Defense Forces.
An (only somewhat) unlikely consensus has formed around the structural importance of robotics and automation and their impact on the macroeconomics of labor and markets. Bets are placed from both the right and the left that a “zero-marginal cost society” or “fully automated luxury communism” is built into the future of software-driven globalization. A party line that crosses parties emerges in different versions, blending nanotechnology, industrial robotics, additive manufacturing (3D printing), Internet of Things, digital replication, biotechnology, and open networks to draw a scenario in which many physical commodities are rationalized into downloadable streams, and much of the heavy lifting (and flying) will be done by intelligent quasi- or fully autonomous machines. We shall have to wait and see, but algorithms and algorithmically intelligent hardware are already active Users in our world, and we need to give them their due.
The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, call centre, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, payday loans, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K
Analysts project revenue to fall 0.3 percent year-over-year to $2.84 billion for the quarter, after being $2.85 billion a year ago. For the year, revenue is projected to roll in at $11.82 billion.39 Even computer peripherals like printers are getting in on the act, demonstrating useful capabilities that seem straight out of science fiction. Instead of just putting ink on paper, they are making complicated three-dimensional parts out of plastic, metal, and other materials. 3D printing, also sometimes called “additive manufacturing,” takes advantage of the way computer printers work: they deposit a very thin layer of material (ink, traditionally) on a base (paper) in a pattern determined by the computer. Innovators reasoned that there is nothing stopping printers from depositing layers one on top of the other. And instead of ink, printers can also deposit materials like liquid plastic that gets cured into a solid by ultraviolet light.
And because of the way it is built up, this shape can be quite complicated—it can have voids and tunnels in it, and even parts that move independently of one another. At the San Francisco headquarters of Autodesk, a leading design software company, we handled a working adjustable wrench that was printed as a single part, no assembly required.40 This wrench was a demonstration product made out of plastic, but 3D printing has expanded into metals as well. Autodesk CEO Carl Bass is part of the large and growing community of additive manufacturing hobbyists and tinkerers. During our tour of his company’s gallery, a showcase of all the products and projects enabled by Autodesk software, he showed us a beautiful metal bowl he designed on a computer and had printed out. The bowl had an elaborate lattice pattern on its sides. Bass said that he’d asked friends of his who were experienced in working with metal—sculptors, ironworkers, welders, and so on—how the bowl was made.
The Human Age: The World Shaped by Us by Diane Ackerman
23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Earth, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, Internet of things, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Masdar, megacity, microbiome, nuclear winter, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, skunkworks, Skype, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the High Line, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog
As a technology, it’s been both mind-blowing and life-changing, launching the Industrial Revolution, spawning the rise of great cities, spreading the market for farm-raised goods, and wowing us with everything from ballpoint pens to moonwalkers. It’s still a wildly useful method, if sloppy; it creates heaps of waste and leftovers, which means extracting even more raw materials from the earth. Also, mass-produced items, whether clothing or electronics, require a predicament of cheap labor to add the final touches. In contrast, there’s “additive manufacturing,” also known as 3D printing, a new way of making objects in which a special printer, given the digital blueprint for a physical item, can produce it in three dimensions. Solidly, in precise detail, many times, and with minimal overhead. The stuff of Star Trek “replicators” or wish-granting genies. 3D printing doesn’t cut or remove anything. Following an electronic blueprint as if it were a musical score, a nozzle glides back and forth over a platform, depositing one microscopic drop after another in a molten fugue, layer upon layer until the desired object rises like a sphinx from the sands of disbelief.
New York: Harcourt, 2007. INDEX Page numbers listed correspond to the print edition of this book. You can use your device’s search function to locate particular terms in the text. Page numbers beginning with 313 refer to notes. Absolicon, 99 acetylation, 281 acidification, 65, 66, 154 Adam (robot), 221 Adams, Ansel, 25 Adams, Lytle S. “Doc,” 145 adaptive radiation, 29 addiction, 176 additive manufacturing, see 3D printing Adélie penguins, 134–35 Aesop, 115 Afghanistan War, 258 African bees, 132 agriculture, 10, 11, 34, 71 big, 154 global warming and, 56 local, 88 as seen from air, 21 urban, 90 see also mariculture Alaska, 47–48, 132 algae, 10, 53, 61 Alien (film), 228 allergies, 301 alligators, 117, 134, 164 alliums, 125 Alps, 132 ALS, 285 alumroots, 80–81 Alzheimer’s, 271, 295 Amazon, 210 Amenhotep II, 257 amino acids, 179–80 Anatomage, 197 animals, in war, 141–48 Antarctic, 22 ice cores in, 9 Antarctica, 237 anteaters, 132 Anthropocene, 9 beginning of, 32–33 antibiotics, 300, 301 ants, 273 Apollo 17, 17–18 Appalachian Trail, 123–24 Apple, 210 Apps for Apes, 5–6, 28, 204 aquatic plants, 79 Arabian oryx, 132 archaea, 300 Archimedes, 220 architecture, 91–94 Archives of General Psychiatry, 300–1 Argentina, 72, 123, 132 Argus butterfly, 136 Arizona, 77 Arlanda, 99 Armstrong, Neil, 306 Army Corps of Engineers, 48 aromas, 294 artificial intelligence (AI), 210 artificial life (AL), 210 artificial limbs, 253 aseptic meningitis, 130 Ashton, Kevin, 230 Asia, 192 Assateague, 137–38 assembly line, 235 Assisted Human Reproduction Act, 266 asthma, 301 Atelier DNA, 103 Athaeneum Hotel, 84 Atlantic City, N.J., 46–47 atom bomb tests, 34 attention disorders, 196 Audi, 236 Audubon Society, 137 Australia, 43, 46, 77, 164–65, 175, 298–99 Australian Outback, 54 Austria, 124 autism, 176, 285, 302 autobiographical memory, 217 azacitidine, 285 Aztecs, 112 babies, 259 Backhouse, David, 144 bacteria, 181–83, 187, 289, 291, 300 Bacteroides fragilis, 302 baiji dolphins, 162 Ballard, J.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computer age, debt deflation, deskilling, diversified portfolio, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, Freestyle chess, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, High speed trading, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Lyft, manufacturing employment, McJob, moral hazard, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, optical character recognition, passive income, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post scarcity, precision agriculture, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, rent-seeking, reshoring, RFID, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, strong AI, Stuxnet, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Coming Technological Singularity, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, union organizing, Vernor Vinge, very high income, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce
To illustrate how a similar phenomenon is likely to unfold on a much broader front, let’s look in a bit more depth at two specific technologies that have the potential to loom large in the future: 3D printing and autonomous cars. Both are poised to have a significant impact within the next decade or so, and could eventually unleash a dramatic transformation in both the job market and the overall economy. 3D Printing Three-dimensional printing, also known as additive manufacturing, employs a computer-controlled print head that fabricates solid objects by repeatedly depositing thin layers of material. This layer-by-layer construction method enables 3D printers to easily create objects with curves and hollows that might be difficult, or even impossible, to produce using traditional manufacturing techniques. Plastic is the most common construction material, but some machines can also print metal, as well as hundreds of other materials, including high-strength composites, flexible rubber-like substances, and even wood.
Farhad Manjoo, “My Father the Pharmacist vs. a Gigantic Pill-Packing Machine,” Slate, http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/robot_invasion/2011/09/will_robots_steal_your_job_2.html. 38. Daniel L. Brown, “A Looming Joblessness Crisis for New Pharmacy Graduates and the Implications It Holds for the Academy,” American Journal of Pharmacy Education 77, no. 5 (June 13, 2012): 90, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3687123/. CHAPTER 7 1. GE’s corporate website, https://www.ge.com/stories/additive-manufacturing. 2. American Airlines News Release: “American Becomes the First Major Commercial Carrier to Deploy Electronic Flight Bags Throughout Fleet and Discontinue Paper Revisions,” June 24, 2013, http://hub.aa.com/en/nr/pressrelease/american-airlines-completes-electronic-flight-bag-implementation. 3. Tim Catts, “GE Turns to 3D Printers for Plane Parts,” Bloomberg Businessweek, November 27, 2013, http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013–11–27/general-electric-turns-to-3d-printers-for-plane-parts. 4.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Bill Joy: nanobots, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, dark matter, double helix, failed state, global supply chain, industrial robot, iterative process, Mars Rover, means of production, Menlo Park, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, performance metric, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas Malthus, V2 rocket, Vannevar Bush
It is telling that semiconductor fabrication facilities are huge, housing arrays of machines that can cost billions of dollars, while molecular fabrication today—with full atomic precision, beyond the reach of even high-resolution photolithography—is often done by university students using tools like pipettes and glass beakers. A Special Manufacturing Method: 3D Printing Another emerging method for manufacturing also breaks the pattern of making and then assembling parts: 3D printing, sometimes known as additive manufacturing. 3D printing differs from the traditional ways of shaping materials. Some traditional methods make a shape all at once using a costly, specialized tool, like a mold to shape plastic, a die to stamp steel, or an optical mask in semiconductor lithography. Other traditional methods carve shapes by removing small bits of material using general-purpose equipment like lathes, drills, and milling machines. 3D printing, by contrast, makes shapes by adding small bits of material using general-purpose machines guided by digital data files. 3D printing can make shapes beyond the reach of casting or carving.
Chapter 18: Changing Our Conversation About the Future 283the first response . . . often sets the direction for the next: This is an example of a “social cascade,” discussed (together with a range of other successes and pathologies of group decision-making) in Cass Sunstein’s brief and readable book, Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2006). INDEX Actin, 69 Additive manufacturing, 76–77 Agriculturalists, hunter-gatherers vs., 41–42 Agricultural Revolution, 39, 40–42 APM Revolution and, 50, 54 Industrial Revolution and, 44 nature and human impacts of, 54 Agriculture, atomically precise manufacturing and, 231–232, 248, 250 American Chemical Society, 181 Angewandte Chemie (journal), 20n APM. See Atomically precise manufacturing (APM) APM Revolution, 39, 40, 50–53, 54 Agricultural Revolution and, 50, 54 consequences, potential, 240, 286 competitive, 243 Information Revolution compared, xii, 256 nanotechnology research and, 202 nature and human impacts of, 54 personal concerns and, 282 threshold of, 193 Apollo program, 18, 20, 111–112 Applications, atomically precise manufacturing, 166–167, 174, 223–239, 281 consumer products, 224–225, 253 security, 263–266 medical, 167, 236–238, 256 military, 35, 236, 259–263, 284 Approximations, exploiting, 123–124 Arms race, military applications of atomically precise manufacturing and, 259, 261–262, 268–269, 284 Armstrong, Neil, 112 Arrhenius equation, 292 Assemblers, 329 Assembly methods, molecular, 190–193 Asteroid mining, 15n Astronautics, 133 Atomically precise fabrication, 177–193 biological examples of, 80–82 biomolecular engineering as, 182–184 chemical synthesis as, 82–84, 179–181, 182 history of, 22–25, 46, 178 materials science and, 184–185 nanotechnology as, 28, 195–196 National Nanotechnology Initiative and, 32, 205, 207 pathway to atomically precise manufacturing, 9, 25–27, 32–33, 84–86, 144, 280–281 scanning probe methods, 185–186 Atomic precision, x, xiii, 7, 10, 22–24, 50 called the essence of nanotechnology, 205 definition of, 7 digital systems compared to, 7, 77–80 feedstock molecules and, 152–153 from small to large scale, 154–155 long history of, 22 nanolithography compared to, 76 nanotechnology and, x, xiii, 32 Richard Feynman and, 24 See also Atomically precise fabrication, Atomically precise manufacturing, Chemistry Atomically precise manufacturing (APM), x–xii agriculture and, 231–232, 248, 250 aligning national interests and, 266–269 applications (see Applications) assembly methods and, 190–192 automated manufacturing as template for, 73–77, 84 biomolecular engineering and, 187–188 biotechnology and, 73, 80–82, 85 carbon dioxide and, 234, 246, 250–252, 255 chemical synthesis and, 73, 82–84, 85 chemistry and, 179–181 civil society and, 262–263, 265–266 collaboration in, 271–272, 312 consumer products from, 224–225, 253 costs and, 52, 224, 227 digital information systems and, 73, 77–80, 84 digital media as cost model for, 172–173 digital revolution/digital technology and, 7–8, 50–51, 53, 277–278 domestic security applications, 263–266 economic implications of, 34–35, 256–257 energy and, 226, 229–230 environmental restoration and, 33–34, 233–234, 250–252, 255 exploratory engineering and, 143–144, 279–280 framework for thinking about, 274–287 fundamental principles of, 10, 24, 289–293 improvement in product performance and, 162–166 information technology and, 226–227 materials processing and, 184–185 medicine and, 236–238, 256 military applications, 35, 236, 259–263, 284 molecular biology and, 24–27 pace and direction of development, 241–245, 309–311 pathways to (see Pathways to atomically precise manufacturing) potential solutions/disruptions created by, 34–35, 240–241, 245–255 precursors, 279, 303–306 productivity of, 276–277 progress towards, 32–33, 177–179, 278 raw materials and, 230–231 relationship to nanotechnology, 32, 196–199, 205–207 reducing complexity of, 303–304 resource scarcity and, 33–34, 169, 230–231, 248 roadmapping for progress in, 216–220 scanning-probe methods and, 185–186 security technologies and, 235–236 supply chains and, 34–35, 51, 225–226, 244–245 surveillance networks and, 263, 264–266 transformation of infrastructure and, 228–229 uncertainties and, 258, 269–272 See also Atomically precise manufacturing systems, Pathways to atomically precise manufacturing Atomically precise manufacturing (APM) research carbon-based supermaterials and, 158 fostering collaborative strategies for, 271–272, 312 government funding and, 32, 194–195, 198–199, 204–207, 208, 243 repression of, 209–210 Atomically precise manufacturing (APM) systems energy requirements of, 155–156 as factories, 276 microblocks, 152–155 ordinariness of, 70–71 process of, 148–151 products of, 147–149, 159–174, 224–225, 253 (see also Applications) radical cost reduction and, 168–173 Automated manufacturing, APM and, 72–77, 84 Avco Everett Research Laboratory, 17–18 Battelle Memorial Institute, 211 Becquerel, Henri, 134 Bell Telephone/Bell Labs, 46–47 Biomolecular engineering, 9, 187–188 machine engineering, 24–25 systems, atomically precise manufacturing and, 73, 80–82, 85 Boltzmann factor, 292n Brownian motion, 23, 50 Bush, Vannevar, 5 CAD (computer-aided design) software, 189 CAMD (computer-aided molecular design) software, 189–190 Cancer, atomically precise manufacturing and attack on, 237–238 Carbon-based materials, 137, 153, 158, 162–163 Carbon dioxide emission reduction, 171, 250–252, 255 problem, 246, 250–252 removal from atmosphere, 234, 252, 255 See also Greenhouse gases Carbon nanotubes, 161, 164, 185, 188 Carroll, Sean, 96, 100 Carson, Rachel, 12 Casimir forces, 64 Catalysts (as products), 302 Cells, molecular machinery of, 25, 50, 61–62, 182 CERN, 95 Chemical synthesis atomically precise manufacturing and, 73, 82–84, 85 organic synthesis, 23–24, 32, 179–181, 187 Chemical reactions click chemistry/click reaction, 180n equilibria of, 292 free energy change, 291–292 in chemical synthesis, 23, 83, 84, 180, 293 kinetics of, 277, 292 machine-guided motion, 73, 292 methods for blocking, 84, 281, 290–292, 300 stereotactic, 290–293 thermal motion and, 68 thermal motion timescale, 68 thermodynamic control of, 277, 292 transition states of, 291, 292 yield, 84, 113, 292 See also Chemical synthesis, Chemistry Chemistry atomically precision and, 7, 22–23, 82–84 computational, 33, 56, 98–100, 179, 189–190, 218 discovery of atoms and, 23, 29 organic synthesis and, 179–181 as pathway technology, 32, 84–85, 179–181, 188, 242 as a production method, 92–84 research scope, 178–181 thermal motion and, 68–70 China conflict with United States, 268–269 economic rise of, 246 government funding of nanotechnology research, 194, 210, 243 Churchill, Winston, 40 Civil society, atomically precise manufacturing and, 262–263, 265–266 Clausewitz, Carl von, 262 Climate change, atomically precise manufacturing and, 234, 246, 250–252, 255.
The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization by Richard Baldwin
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, buy low sell high, call centre, Columbian Exchange, Commodity Super-Cycle, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, domestication of the camel, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial intermediation, George Gilder, global supply chain, global value chain, Henri Poincaré, imperial preference, industrial robot, invention of agriculture, invention of the telegraph, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Dyson, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lao Tzu, low skilled workers, market fragmentation, New Economic Geography, out of africa, paper trading, Pax Mongolica, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, Simon Kuznets, Skype, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus
Other aspects of ICT, by contrast, make it easier for individual workers to master more tasks—call them information technologies (IT). Since IT basically means automation, better IT disfavors specialization by reducing the cost of grouping many tasks into a single occupation. This happens in several ways. Today, many factories can be thought of as computer systems where the peripherals are industrial robots, computerized machine tools, and guided vehicles. Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) is the extreme where IT allows a single worker to perform all tasks simply by operating one machine. Perhaps this type of advanced manufacturing should be called “compufacturing” since rather than machines helping workers make things, the workers are helping machines make things. To sum up, coordination technologies and information technologies cut in opposite directions when it comes to fractionalization.
In short, CT is pro-fractionalization, whereas IT is anti-fractionalization. Mobile, always-on, virtual presence would be an extreme example of better communication technology that pushes firms toward an ever finer division of labor. A fascinating special report by The Economist in 2012 extrapolates these trends even further.2 It notes that manufacturing may be going through a new industrial revolution due to the advent of “3D printing” (also called additive manufacturing), which bundles virtually all stages of manufacturing into a single machine. Combined with the virtual designing made possible by computer-aided design systems, 3D printing would take manufacturing very close to the Star Trek replicators. While it seems more than a few years away, we are clearly moving toward a reality where “if I can imagine it, the computer can make it for me.” Supply chain unbundling would be seriously undermined by radical advances in the direction of mass customization and 3D printing by sophisticated machines.
The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen
3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
And the developing world will not be left out of the advances in gadgetry and other high-tech machinery. Even if the prices for sophisticated smart phones and robots to perform household tasks like vacuuming remain high, illicit markets like China’s expansive “shanzhai” network for knock-off consumer electronics will produce and distribute imitations that bridge the gap. And technologies that emerged in first-world contexts will find renewed purpose in developing countries. In “additive manufacturing,” or 3-D printing, machines can actually “print” physical objects by taking three-dimensional data about an object and tracing the contours of its shape, ultra-thin layer by ultra-thin layer, with liquid plastic or other material, until the whole object materializes. Such printers have produced a huge range of objects, including customized mobile phones, machine parts and a full-sized replica motorcycle.
only two billion people: “The World in 2010: ICT Facts and Figures,” ITU News, December 2010, http://www.itu.int/net/itunews/issues/2010/10/04.aspx. seven billion online: “U.S. & World Population Clocks,” U.S. Cesus Bureau, accessed October 26, 2012, http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html. INDEX Aadhaar Abbottabad, Pakistan, 2.1, 5.1 Abkhaz nationalists Abuja, Nigeria Academi, LLC accountability, 2.1, 4.1, 6.1, 7.1 activist groups additive manufacturing Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), n Afghanistan, 1.1, 4.1, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6.1, 6.2, 7.1 reconstruction of, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 Africa, 3.1, 4.1, 4.2 African Americans African National Congress (ANC) African Sahel African Union Age of Spiritual Machines, The: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence (Kurzweil), con.1 Agha-Soltan, Neda Agie, Mullah Akbar Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (1994) Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades al-Assad, Bashar Alcatel-Lucent AlertNet Algeria, 3.1, 4.1 alienation Al Jazeera al-Qaeda, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5, con.1 al-Shabaab, 2.1, 5.1, 7.1, 7.2 Amazon, itr.1, 1.1, 1.2 data safeguarded by Amazon Web Services American Sentinel drone Android anonymity, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1 Anonymous, 5.1, 5.2 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty antiradicalization antiterrorism units, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4 Apple, itr.1, 5.1 data safeguarded by apps, 2.1, 5.1 Arab Spring, itr.1, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5 AR.Drone quadricopter Argentina Armenia arms-for-minerals trade arrests artificial intelligence (AI), itr.1, 1.1 artificial pacemakers Asia Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Assange, Julian, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 5.1 Astroturfing Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal, 3.1, 3.2 Athar, Sohaib, n, 269 ATMs augmented reality (AR), itr.1, 2.1 autocracies, 2.1, 3.1, 3.2 data revolution in dissent in information shared by online discussions in Ayalon, Danny Baghdad Baghdad Museum Bahrain Baidu.com, n Bamiyan Buddhas Bangladesh bank loans Basque separatists Batbold, Sukhbaatar battery life Bechtel Belarus Belgium Ben Ali, Zine el-Abidine, 4.1, 4.2 Berezovsky, Boris Better Angels of Our Nature, The (Pinker), 6.1 big data challenge Bill of Guarantees bin Laden, Osama, 2.1, 5.1, 5.2, 6.1, nts.1 biometric information, 2.1, 2.2, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 Bitcoin, 2.1, nts.1 BlackBerry Messenger (BBM), 2.1, 2.2, 4.1, 5.1 Black Hat Blackwater Blockbuster, n Bloomberg News Bluetooth, 2.1, 2.2, 6.1 body scan body temperatures Boko Haram Bosnia brand Brand, Stewart, n Brazil, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 Bush, George H.
Democratizing innovation by Eric von Hippel
additive manufacturing, correlation coefficient, Debian, hacker house, informal economy, inventory management, iterative process, James Watt: steam engine, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Network effects, placebo effect, principal–agent problem, Richard Stallman, software patent, transaction costs, Vickrey auction
Pyramiding was made into a practical industrial process by Mary Sonnack, a Division Scientist at 3M, and Joan Churchill, a psychologist specializing in the development of industrial training programs. 136 Chapter 10 Identifying Lead Users in Target Markets In general it is easier to identify users at the leading edge of target markets than it is to identify users in advanced analog fields. Screening for users with lead user characteristics can be used. When the desired type of lead user is so rare as to make screening impractical—often the case—pyramiding can be applied. In addition, manufacturers can take advantage of the fact that users at the leading edge of a target market often congregate at specialized sites or events that manufacturers can readily identify. At such sites, users may freely reveal what they have done and may learn from others about how to improve their own practices still further. Manufacturers interested in learning from these lead users can easily visit the sites and listen in.
You Are Not a Gadget by Jaron Lanier
1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, digital Maoism, Douglas Hofstadter, Extropian, follow your passion, hive mind, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Conway, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Long Term Capital Management, Network effects, new economy, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, social graph, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, trickle-down economics, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog
For instance, a well-heeled opera fan pays about the same for a CD or a download as does a teenager listening to a teen idol of the moment. Songles for opera or fine jazz would be made by craftsmen from fine materials in much more limited editions. They would be expensive. Low-end songles would be manufactured by the same channel that provides toys. An increasing number of consumer items that might become songles these days have radio-frequency identification anyway, so there would be no additional manufacturing expense. Expensive limited-edition songles would probably accompany the introduction of new forms of pop music—in parallel with cheap large-volume editions—because there would be a fabulous market for them. Formal Financial Expression* Unlike the previous two sections, this one addresses the problems of the lords of the clouds, not the peasants. One of the toughest problems we’ll face as we emerge from the financial crisis that beset us in 2008 is that financiers ought to continue to innovate in creating new financial instruments, even though some of them recently failed catastrophically doing just that.
The Great Fragmentation: And Why the Future of All Business Is Small by Steve Sammartino
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, bitcoin, BRICs, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, collaborative consumption, cryptocurrency, Elon Musk, fiat currency, Frederick Winslow Taylor, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, haute couture, helicopter parent, illegal immigration, index fund, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market design, Metcalfe's law, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, new economy, post scarcity, prediction markets, pre–internet, profit motive, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, too big to fail, web application
What is fragmenting Retail is no longer just the end of the supply chain; it’s something every business and person can do now. What it means for business If you make, you must sell. The power lies with those who have a direct connection with their buyers or audience. CHAPTER 10 Bigger than the internet: 3D printing I’ve been mildly obsessed with 3D printing since I first learned about it. Also referred to as ‘additive manufacturing’ or ‘digital fabrication’, it’s a process where a three-dimensional, solid object is created by placing down successive layers of material fused together by laser (digital light processing) and a multitude of other methods that are evolving rapidly, almost daily. Most people have now seen some footage of one of these printers in action, probably printing a useless plastic widget or a gun.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lump of labour, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional
None of the robots completed all the tasks, and there was a great deal of hesitation and falling over. Many jobs involving manual dexterity or the ability to traverse un-mapped territory are currently hard to automate. But as we will see in the next section, that is changing fast. Tipping points and exponentials New technologies sometimes lurk for years or even decades before they are widely adopted. 3D printing (also known as additive manufacturing[cxxxi]) has been around since the early 1980s but is only now coming to general attention. Fax machines, surprisingly, were first patented in 1843, some 33 years before the invention of the telephone.[cxxxii] Sometimes the delay happens because there is at first no obvious application for the inventions or discoveries. Sometimes it is because they are initially too expensive, and engineers have to work on reducing their cost before they can become popular.
3D printing, A Pattern Language, additive manufacturing, air freight, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, c2.com, computer vision, crowdsourcing, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mason jar, means of production, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, Oculus Rift, patent troll, popular electronics, Rodney Brooks, Shenzhen was a fishing village, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software as a service, special economic zone, speech recognition, subscription business, telerobotics, urban planning, web application, Y Combinator
You can only extrude this filament so fast, and it will never compare to the speed at which you’re able to project light. I think by using a different chemistry, you’ll be able to improve over time—to the point where it will be much faster and a higher resolution, where the machines that are using filament will never be able to compete. With stereolithography, I assume the big factor is how fast the material cures under the light? Fused Deposition Method, an additive manufacturing method used in hobbyist 3D printers that utilize ABS or PLA filament. 7 Makers at Work Linder: So there are many different processes, and they all have pros and cons. I agree on your analysis of the FDM. So just so you know, in full disclosure, I’m not a 3D printing process expert. It’s not my key contribution. I’m a product guy who cares about user experience. I’m a software system person who brings that perspective.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, asset-backed security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, George Gilder, Google Glasses, high net worth, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Infrastructure as a Service, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, microcredit, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, performance metric, platform as a service, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, telepresence, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, underbanked, web application
What we now consider physical products will eventually become information files—email attachments. In the past, manufacturing something made out of a plastic was generally done through a technique called injection moulding. For metal forms, components were either cut from a block of raw material, cast via a mould, or cut from steel plate. Often these methods required a very expensive mould or die that was used for that one single component. 3D printing allows new techniques such as additive manufacturing, where raw materials are used to build up the form gradually, printing one layer at a time. Figure 9.3: 3D printers are a reality today 3D printers are advancing in capability rapidly. Already 3D printers today can print wearable fabrics, integrated circuits, blood vessels, cells and organs (a kidney, a bladder and an ear have recently been printed, for example9), engine components, model aircraft, etc.
additive manufacturing, air freight, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, ghettoisation, Isaac Newton, Kibera, megacity, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, profit motive, race to the bottom, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
The circuit board also probably contains brominated flame retardants, which prevent your phone bursting into flames, but may produce dioxins if the phone is one day incinerated. The phone screen is made of glass and ceramics. Then there are cobalt, lithium and carbon in the battery, silver in the keyboard and tantalum in the capacitors. A typical mobile phone today weighs only around 75 grams, but taking its many ingredients from the Earth requires the mining of 30 kilograms of rock. In addition, manufacturing the chips requires several hundred litres of water, and the energy that probably comes from burning several tens of kilograms of fossil fuels. And making the batteries and keeping them charged through a phone’s typical two-year life raises the weight of a phone’s overall rucksack to about 75 kilograms – a thousand times the weight you carry in your pocket. Not including the water. But what of the phone’s footprint in human lives?
The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind
23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional
Rather than being operated by hand, they are directed by a computer system that follows a digital design—known as ‘digital fabrication’, or ‘computer numerical control’ (CNC). Traditionally, these machines were subtractive—the final object was milled out of a larger object, or cut from a large sheet of material. New 3-D printing techniques, a widely discussed technology, instead are additive—they print multiple thin layers of material on top of one another, gradually building up final objects (hence its other name, ‘additive manufacturing’). Their significance is that they can, as a result, create more sophisticated or more one-off objects on demand (sometimes referred to as ‘mass customization’). 3-D printers were first used to create small models and ‘rapidly prototype’ initial concepts. Now they are put to service in the fabrication and construction of the final buildings themselves. At the start of 2014 a Dutch firm, DUS Architects, began to assemble a house made entirely of printed parts, using a machine that is able to print objects 3.5 metres tall.300 A few weeks later a Chinese firm, the WinSun Decoration Design Engineering Co., announced that over the course of a day they had printed ten houses, using a machine that was 32 metres long, 10 metres wide, and 7 metres tall.301 At the end of 2014, NASA sent a 3-D printer to the International Space Station to test whether tools and spare parts (and even food) could be customized and printed on demand.302 As the cost of these tools falls, they spring up in some unconventional settings.
Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, megacity, Mercator projection, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
In early 2015, the trading house Itochu made the largest Japanese foreign investment ever in China, buying (together with Thailand’s CP Group) a 10 percent stake in CITIC, one of China’s oldest and most respected conglomerates. CHAPTER 7: THE GREAT SUPPLY CHAIN WAR 1. Interview with author, July 18, 2015. 2. Enrico Moretti, The New Geography of Jobs (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2012). 3. Josh Tyrangiel, “Tim Cook’s Freshman Year: The Apple CEO Speaks,” Bloomberg Businessweek, Dec. 6, 2012. 4. However, additive manufacturing and the sharing economy together do cause tremendous domestic dislocation. The construction sector is not tradable, but it can increasingly be automated as entire homes are designed, printed, and assembled out of 3-D printing kits, displacing contractors and builders across America and Europe. 5. “Bits, Bytes, and Diplomacy,” Foreign Affairs, Sept./Oct. 1997. 6. Allison Schrager, “The US Needs to Retire Daylight Savings and Just Have Two Time Zones—One Hour Apart,” Quartz, Nov. 1, 2013. 7.
3D printing, accounting loophole / creative accounting, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, bank run, Basel III, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, centralized clearinghouse, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, deskilling, Detroit bankruptcy, diversification, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Emanuel Derman, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, gig economy, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, High speed trading, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Howard Rheingold, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, interest rate derivative, interest rate swap, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, passive investing, pensions crisis, Ponzi scheme, principal–agent problem, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Rana Plaza, RAND corporation, random walk, rent control, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vanguard fund
(One recent design for a bracket on a jet engine came from a twenty-two-year-old in Indonesia.) GE is also partnering with a number of high-tech start-ups to jump-start new ideas. And it’s using more local small and midsize suppliers, thanks to new technologies that let start-ups achieve more speed and scale. The once-disparate steps of designing a product, making or buying the parts, and putting everything together are beginning to blend, because of such technologies as additive manufacturing and 3-D printing. As a result, manufacturing operations now want to be physically closer to engineering and design. This dynamic will likely benefit the United States, which still rules those high-end job categories, and allow small and midsize American firms to get back into manufacturing. Add in the ability to include sensors in every part and process and you’ve got a whole new manufacturing ecosystem that allows companies to accelerate product development and deliver more variety and value more quickly to consumers.
additive manufacturing, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deskilling, disintermediation, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, job-hopping, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Martin Wolf, megacity, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, price stability, private military company, profit maximization, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey
Under perfect competition, many different firms make perfectly interchangeable goods and customers are interested in purchasing all the products they make. There are no transaction costs, just the costs of inputs, and all firms have access to the same information. Perfect competition describes an environment in which no single firm can influence on its own the price of goods in its marketplace. The reality is very different, of course. Two companies, Airbus and Boeing, command the market for big long-haul planes, and a small number of additional manufacturers make smaller jets. But innumerable companies manufacture shirts or socks. It is exceedingly difficult for a new aircraft maker to enter the market. Assemble a few tailors or seamstresses in a workshop, however, and you can produce shirts. A small new shirtmaker may be able to compete with the big names, or at least find a niche in which it can prosper. A brand-new aircraft manufacturer faces less attractive odds.
The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology by Ray Kurzweil
additive manufacturing, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, brain emulation, Brewster Kahle, Brownian motion, business intelligence, c2.com, call centre, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, conceptual framework, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, David Brooks, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, factory automation, friendly AI, George Gilder, Gödel, Escher, Bach, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of the telephone, invention of the telescope, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, linked data, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, mandelbrot fractal, Mikhail Gorbachev, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, premature optimization, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, remote working, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Coming Technological Singularity, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Y2K, Yogi Berra
Of particular importance is the fact that an assembler can create copies of itself, unless its design specifically prohibits this (to avoid potentially dangerous self-replication), The incremental cost of creating any physical product, including the assemblers themselves, would be pennies per pound—basically the cost of the raw materials. Drexler estimates total manufacturing cost for a molecular-manufacturing process in the range of ten cents to fifty cents per kilogram, regardless of whether the manufactured product were clothing, massively parallel supercomputers, or additional manufacturing systems.80 The real cost, of course, would be the value of the information describing each type of product—that is, the software that controls the assembly process. In other words, the value of everything in the world, including physical objects, would be based essentially on information. We are not that far from this situation today, since the information content of products is rapidly increasing, gradually approaching an asymptote of 100 percent of their value.
The omnivore's dilemma: a natural history of four meals by Michael Pollan
additive manufacturing, back-to-the-land, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Community Supported Agriculture, double entry bookkeeping, Gary Taubes, Haber-Bosch Process, index card, informal economy, invention of agriculture, means of production, new economy, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, transaction costs, Upton Sinclair, Whole Earth Catalog
I had thought fruits and vegetables were already foods, and so didn't need to be gotten into them, but I guess that just shows I'm stuck in the food past. Evidently we're moving into the fourth age of food processing, in which the processed food will be infinitely better (i.e., contain more of whatever science has determined to be the good stuff) than the whole foods on which they're based. The food industry has gazed upon nature and found it wanting—and has gotten to work improving it. Back in the seventies, a New York food additive manufacturer called International Flavors & Fragrances used its annual report to defend itself against the rising threat of "natural foods" and explain why we were better off eating synthetics. Natural ingredients, the company pointed out rather scarily, are a "wild mixture of substances created by plants and animals for completely non-food purposes—their survival and reproduction." These dubious substances "came to be consumed by humans at their own risk."
23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day
They may well be a tremendous force for good, but as we have seen throughout this chapter, robots are also being used by street thugs, Peeping Toms, narco-cartels, and terrorists, a trend that will surely accelerate as their functionality improves and their prices drop, particularly in response to incredible new and complementary technologies such as 3-D printing. Printing Crime: When Gutenberg Meets Gotti Restrictions are difficult to enforce in a world where anybody can make anything. HOD LIPSON 3-D printing, or, as it is sometimes called, additive manufacturing, promises to bring the Star Trek replicator to life. At the push of a button, a magical machine can make physical objects before your very eyes using a wide array of materials, including plastic, metal, wood, concrete, ceramics, and even chocolate. Just as you can send a photograph to your 2-D ink-jet printer, so too can you download or create a design on your laptop and send it to a 3-D printer, which, using a variety of techniques, can build objects in three dimensions, layer by layer, with incredible precision.