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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bolshevik threat, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, kremlinology, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, nuremberg principles, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, trickle-down economics, union organizing
., at the same time taking care to warn of "the Bolshevik threat" to all that is decent from the likes of Nicaraguan rebel Augusto Sandino. By the end of the Second World War, every American past the age of 40 had been subjected to some 25 years of anti-communist radiation, the average incubation period needed to produce a malignancy. Anti-communism had developed a life of its own, independent of its capitalist father. Increasingly, in the post-war period, middle-aged 9 Washington policy makers and diplomats saw the world out there as one composed of "communists" and "anti-communists", whether of nations, movements or individuals. This comic-strip vision of the world, with righteous American supermen fighting communist evil everywhere, had graduated from a cynical propaganda exercise to a moral imperative of US foreign policy.
I was puzzled why the good professor had bothered to respond at all. Clearly, if my thesis could receive such a non-response from such a person, I and my thesis faced an extremely steep uphill struggle. In the 1930s, and again after the war in the 1940s and '50s, anti-communists of various stripes in the United States tried their best to expose the crimes of the Soviet Union, such as the purge trials and the mass murders. But a strange thing happened. The truth did not seem to matter. American Communists and fellow travelers continued to support the Kremlin. Even allowing for the exaggeration and disinformation regularly disbursed by the anti-communists which damaged their credibility, the continued ignorance and/or denial by the American leftists is remarkable. At the close of the Second World War, when the victorious Allies discovered the German concentration camps, in some cases German citizens from nearby towns were brought to the camp to come face-to-face with the institution, the piles of corpses, and the still-living skeletal people; some of the respectable burghers were even forced to bury the dead.
Costa Rica was a haven for hundreds of exiles fleeing from various Latin American right-wing dictatorships, such as in the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and Venezuela, and Figueres was providing groups of them with material and moral support in their plans to overthrow these regimes.6 To Figueres, this was entirely in keeping with his antitotalitarian beliefs, directed against the left as well as the right. The problem was that the dictators targeted for overthrow were all members in good standing of the United States' anti-Communist, "Free-World" club. (The American attitude toward Trujillo was later modified-) Moreover, Figueres had on occasion expressed criticism of the American policy of supporting such dictatorships while neglecting the economic and social problems of the hemisphere. These considerations could easily outweigh the fact that Figueres had established his anti-Communist credentials, albeit not of the "ultra" variety, and was no more a "socialist" than US Senator Hubert Humphrey. Although Figueres spoke out strongly at times against foreign investment, as president he was eminently accommodating to Central America's bêtes noires, the multinational fruit companies.7 In addition to providing support to Figueres's political opponents,8 the CIA, reported The Invisible Government, tried: to stir up embarrassing trouble within the Communist Party in Costa Rica, and to attempt to link Figueres with the Communists.
After the Cataclysm by Noam Chomsky
The media favorite, Barron-Paul, is based largely on visits to refugee camps arranged in part by a representative of the Thai Ministry of the Interior, whose “knowledge and advice additionally provided us with invaluable guidance.”22 In the camps to which they gained access with the help of this Thai official, who is responsible for internal security matters including anti-Communist police and propaganda operations, they “approached the camp leader elected by the Cambodians and from his knowledge of his people compiled a list of refugees who seemed to be promising subjects”23—one can easily imagine which “subjects” would seem “promising” to these earnest seekers after truth, to whom we return. Citing this comment,24 Porter points out that “the Khmer camp chief works closely with and in subordination to Thai officials who run the camps and with the Thai government-supported anti-Communist Cambodian organization carrying out harassment and intelligence operations in Cambodia.” The camps and their leaders are effectively under Thai control and the refugees who eke out a miserable existence there are subject to the whims of the passionately anti-Communist Thai authorities, a point that should be obvious to journalists and should suggest some caution, but is entirely ignored by Barron-Paul, as well as by many others.
The United States was deeply concerned to prevent any negotiated political settlement because, as is easily documented, its planners and leaders assumed that the groups that they backed could not possibly survive peaceful competition. Once again the United States succeeded in preventing a peaceful settlement. In South Vietnam, it stood in opposition to all significant political forces, however anti-Communist, imposing the rule of a military clique that was willing to serve U.S. interests. By January 1965, the United States was compelled to undermine its own puppet, General Khanh; he was attempting to form what Ambassador Taylor called a “dangerous” coalition with the Buddhists, who were not acting “in the interests of the Nation,” as General Westmoreland explained. What is more, Khanh was apparently trying to make peace with the NLF, quite possibly a factor that lay behind the elimination of his predecessors.
A complete captive of the assumptions of the war propagandists, Peters is unable to comprehend that opponents of the war were insisting that Vietnam should be left to the Vietnamese, not to whatever fate is determined for them by the likes of Walt Rostow, Henry Kissinger, or the myriad sycophants of the Peters variety. To regard that commitment as “racist” reveals moral standards that are quite on a par with the intellectual level indicated by Peters’ belief that opponents of the war must now “concede” that there were many anti-Communists in Vietnam, a great insight, no doubt. His implication that the United States was fighting for “democracy” for the yellow people in South Vietnam is ideological claptrap, refuted by the consistent U.S. support for terror regimes in South Vietnam (and indeed throughout the subfascist empire, as illustrated throughout Volume I). We may compare Peters’ plea for healing the wounds of war with that of William Colby, as illustrated in this item which we quote in toto from the Boston Globe (15 January 1977): Former CIA Director William Colby, who directed the ‘pacification’ program during the Vietnam war, said the United States and the Communist government of Vietnam should forget past animosities and build a relationship of respect and friendship.
The Berlin Wall: A World Divided, 1961-1989 by Frederick Taylor
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, German hyperinflation, land reform, mutually assured destruction, oil shock, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine, the market place, young professional, éminence grise
‘DISSOLVE THE PEOPLE AND ELECT ANOTHER’ / 71 Extremes were utterly foreign to him. He had little time for the absolutist Right. On the other hand, he was also a firm Catholic anti-Communist. He looked at central and eastern Germany and saw an ‘unreliable’ electorate that was not only predominantly Protestant but had tended to support radicalism, of the brown-shirted or red-flagged persuasion. Adenauer was a patriot, but was not prepared to sacrifice his vision of a Western-orientated, Christian Germany on the altar of unity. It was the firebrand Social Democrat leader Kurt Schumacher who, though also fiercely anti-Communist, yearned to restore German unity. Schumacher was a Prussian from the east, born in what had become Poland. His savage attacks against Adenauer, and his tireless campaigning for German reunification (despite a war wound that would send him to an early grave), established the courageous Schumacher as a legend in the SPD.
This last aspect of the Kennedy patriarch’s world-view found an echo in the career paths of his clever, ambitious surviving sons (his eldest, Joe Jr, having been killed on active service in 1944). As a junior congressman, Jack publicly praised McCarthy for his antiCommunist vigilance. Robert actually worked as a counsel on the Wisconsin senator’s then all-powerful Permanent Sub-Committee on Investigations. A senator since 1952, Jack was the only Democrat to abstain in the Senate’s vote of condemnation against McCarthy, passed by a majority of 67 to 22, which broke the demagogue’s power in December 1954.1 WAG THE DOG / 113 Moreover, Senator Kennedy, was not above playing the ‘Red scare’ card. Looking to place himself for a presidential run in 1960, he began loudly complaining that the Soviets were pulling ahead of the United States in the arms race. In a way that, for all its anti-Communist thrust, oddly colluded with Khrushchev’s self-serving post-Sputnik braggadocio, Kennedy made the alleged ‘missile gap’ one of the main themes in his presidential campaign.
He was once more elected to the city council and awarded his old job in charge of transport. Then, in May 1947, the existing Mayor was forced to resign, and Reuter was offered the top post. The Communists hated no one more than an apostate. The Soviet commandant refused to recognise Reuter’s election. He had to stand down in favour of the SPD veteran Louise Schröder, but remained the key figure around whom Berlin’s anti-Communists rallied. Reuter’s understanding, as an ex-KPD insider, of the mentality of apparatchiks such as Ulbricht, proved invaluable. Frustrated by their inability to run Berlin as they wished, the Communists started arresting their opponents, not just in the Soviet Zone but also in the West. Paul Markgraf, a former Wehrmacht captain, captured at Stalingrad and transformed into a keen Communist, was appointed Police President of Berlin by the Soviets in May 1945.
Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America by Peter Dale Scott, Jonathan Marshall
Summarizing the research o f a former CIA and DEA agent, he wrote: American authorities were instrumental in the revival o f the Sicilian mafia [although] they persuaded the Italian government to mount a successful crackdown on the heroin smugglers [into the United States]. This left the Corsicans, who had also been buttressed by the CIA as an anti-Communist force, as the major providers o f illicit heroin to the United States. The Corsicans had two powerful advantages: their connections to the Southeast heroin market through the French colonial presence in Indochina and their influence on the French secret services through the Corsicans’ involvement in official anti-Communist agitation.17 Introduction / 5 It would be foolish to assume that these connections are a matter o f past history, even if the CIA has severed its Mafia links. Blumenthal demonstrates that the Pizza Connection was the “successor to the French Connection, the postwar heroin pipeline from Marseilles that at its peak in 1971 was pouring an estimated ten tons o f heroin a year into the United States.” 18 Unlike the French Connection, however, this Sicilian ring got much o f its heroin from Afghanistan, the single largest exporter o f opium in the world by the mid-1980s and the source o f half the heroin consumed in the United States.19 The chief smugglers o f Afghan opium were (and as o f this writing still are) CIA-backed, anti-Soviet guerrillas working together with Pakistan's military intelligence service.
This left the Corsicans, who had also been buttressed by the CIA 86 / Narcoterrorism, the CIA, and the Contras as an anti-Communist force, as the major providers o f illegal heroin to the United States.27״ And when, in the 1970s, the United States mounted a successful crackdown on the Corsicans, it appears to have been iCIA-trained Cubans like Frank Castro and Jose Medardo Alvero Cruz in Latin America who were the initial beneficiaries. Like the Ricord network before it, the new International Connection performed arms-smuggling and assassination favors for right-wing dietatorships. In Mexico, for example, Sicilia began to negotiate a $250 million arms deal with the chief o f the Portuguese secret service “ for an anti-Communist coup d’etat in Portugal, ״which ultimately failed to happen.28 The deal was apparently sanctioned by the CIA and negotiated for Sicilia by a Cuban Bay o f Pigs veteran (Jose Egozi Bejar) who maintained his CIA contacts while working for Sicilia (see Chapter 2).
Thus it was easy for Frank Castro’s Cuban CORU group (see Chapter 2) to pick up Ricord’s right-wing intelligence connections in Latin America, such as Paraguay’s intelligence chief Pastor Coronel.31 In the second half o f the 1970s, especially after the Carter administration distanced itself from both right-wing Latin American dictatorships The Cali Connection and the United States / 87 and ex-CIA Cuban terrorists, these rejected U.S. allies moved into closer association with each other. By 1980, as we saw in Chapter 2, they were meeting annually at the conferences o f the Argentinian-backed Latin American Anti-communist Confederation (CAL), the regional section o f the World Anti-Communist League (WACL). The Argentinians were mounting a continental WACL-CAL strategy o f right-wing hegemony based on drug alliances. The most noted example was the 1980 Cocaine Coup o f Luis Garcia Meza in Bolivia; but WACL also supported the new ARENA party o f Col. Roberto d ’Aubuisson in El Salvador, and it is suspected that drug money did so as well.32 In 1980, as part o f this continental strategy, WACL-CAL connections played a key role in forming the initial core Contra group, which later became the main FDN Contra faction o f Enrique Bermudez.
1946: The Making of the Modern World by Victor Sebestyen
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, illegal immigration, imperial preference, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, operation paperclip
His hands were the rough hands of the peasant and the fingernails were dirty.’2 Western diplomats agreed that the real power in the new state belonged to the diminutive, smartly dressed Mohammed Biriya, a sinister figure in his mid-forties who had done much to foment revolution as head of the Society of Friends of the USSR. Formerly, Biriya had been a talented professional flautist and leader of the Tabriz street cleaners’ union. Officially, his title was Minister of Propaganda but, more importantly, he ran the secret police, whose members were trained by Russian advisors from the NKVD. They had been arresting opponents for the last few days, roughing up well-known anti-communists and other potential opponents. Three days earlier, members of Pishevari’s ragbag People’s Army had taken over the police stations in Tabriz and the surrounding area, the central post office and the radio station, the classic revolutionary targets, and blocked all principal roads into the city. But the coup could not have succeeded without help from outside. There were between thirty and fifty thousand Soviet troops in or near Tabriz.
He was summoned to appear before Barraclough and two other British officers and told gruffly that he could not sit in their presence. The Brigadier read out a letter dismissing him and banning him from all political activity. He was ordered to leave Cologne and return to his home village, Rhöndorf. Not long afterwards the British, on advice from the Americans, realised how much they needed him as a reliable, anti-communist voice, and encouraged him to set up the Christian Democratic Union, which presided over the German ‘economic miracle’ of the 1950s and has been in power for most of the period since the war. Despite his treatment, Adenauer nonetheless preferred the British to the Americans, who had originally appointed him mayor before they handed over the responsibility to the UK. At first he was flattered and delighted to accept – until he was told by a US officer, with no humour intended, that it may have had something to do with his name beginning with an A
Even private companies were firing staff on political grounds.3 In Britain the fear of communist incursions never reached American levels of frenzy and hysteria, but Attlee chaired a Cabinet Committee on Subversion, a few score civil servants were investigated by MI5, some academics lost their posts at Oxbridge colleges, and employees at the John Lewis Partnership department store had to sign an anti-communist pledge. But the British were, as usual, fairly relaxed about ideology. Most people were ‘simply too preoccupied to worry,’ as the novelist Pamela Hansford Johnson recalled: ‘The ordinary person was too busy coping with the daily problems . . . he sees the ruins of the War all around him – along the railway lines as he goes to work, on the bus routes. He sees the place where the pub was and the children’s play area on the cleared site.
The Washington Connection and Third World Fascism by Noam Chomsky
anti-communist, business climate, colonial rule, declining real wages, deliberate practice, European colonialism, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, income inequality, income per capita, land reform, land tenure, new economy, RAND corporation, strikebreaker, union organizing
Many people were denounced as “Communists” in personal disputes, and “on the basis of one word or the pointing of a finger, people were taken away to be killed.”12 The killing was on such a huge scale as to raise a sanitation problem in East Java and Northern Sumatra, where the smell of decaying flesh was pervasive and rivers were impassable because of the clogging by human bodies.13 This slaughter was described by the anti-Communist Indonesia expert Justus M. van der Kroef as “a frightful anti-Communist pogrom” where, “it is to be feared, innocent victims of mere hearsay were killed” (as opposed, presumably, to the guilty Communist men, women and children who fully deserved their fate).14 In 1968 there was a renewal of mass executions, and in one single case in early 1969 army and local civic guards in Central Java “were said to have killed some 3,500 alleged followers of the PKI by means of blows of iron staves in the neck.”15 According to van der Kroef, it was a period of “endless and often arbitrary arrests, brutalization of prisoners, and an atmosphere of distrust in which exhibitions of violent anti-communism are believed to be the best way to convince suspicious local military of one’s bona fides.”16 The number killed in the Indonesian bloodbath has always been uncertain, but an authoritative minimum was established in October 1976 when Admiral Sudomo, the head of the Indonesian state security system, in an interview over a Dutch television station, estimated that more than 500,000 had been slaughtered.17 He “explained” to Henry Kamm of the New York Times that these deaths had been a result of an “unhealthy competition between the parties” who were causing “chaos”.18 Other authorities have given estimates running from 700,00019 to “many more than one million.”20 For the period of the massacres, the official figures for people arrested, exclusive of the 500,000 or more “Communists” killed, is 750,000.21 AI estimated in 1977 that there were still between 55,000 and 100,000 political prisoners.
Only on the assumption that Arabs intrinsically lack human rights, so that even the slightest attention to their fate is excessive, whereas the principles of Western ideology are so sacrosanct that even a vast chorus of condemnation of an enemy still does not reach some approved standard—that is, only by a combination of chauvinist and racist assumptions that are quite remarkable when spelled out clearly, though standard among the Western intelligentsia. 1.8 Cambodia: Why the Media Find It More Newsworthy Than Indonesia and East Timor The way in which the media have latched on to Cambodian violence, as a drowning man seizes a lifebuoy, is an object lesson as to how the U.S. media serve first and foremost to mobilize opinion in the service of state ideology. When somewhere between 500,000 and a million people were butchered in the anti-Communist counterrevolution of 1965-1966 in Indonesia, almost total silence prevailed in Congress and in editorials in the U.S. press—a few tut-tuts, many more “objective” statements of how this is beneficially affecting the structure of power in Southeast Asia, how it shows the effectiveness of our Vietnam strategy, which is providing a “shield” for “democracy in Asia,” and some suggestions that the “Communists” got what they deserved in a spontaneous uprising of “the people.”58 This bloodbath involved approved victims and a political change consistent with U.S. business and strategic interests—what we refer to as a “constructive bloodbath” in the text below.
The explanation was always simple—the Vietnamese willing to serve the United States were “denationalized,” that is, they had lost touch with their own culture, and were essentially rootless mercenaries. The Vietnamese elite had a deep contempt for their own people and were quite prepared to cooperate with a “superior” culture and power in destroying their own society. The world-view of this elite was formed out of its own institutional interests, increasingly tied to the largesse of the external power and to the anti-Communist and counterrevolutionary ideology of the Godfather. There is a close similarity of ideology among the predominantly military leaders of the U.S. client states, based on an incredibly simple Manichean view of the forces of evil (Communism) versus the forces of good (the United States, military officers, and free enterprise), all of it about on a John Birch Society level of sophistication. There is a regular pattern of identifying reform and any criticism of the status quo with Communism, and seeing in any such outcroppings external and subversive evils that must be extirpated.65 There is solid evidence that this fascistic ideology has flowed in good part from the training and viewpoints of the U.S. military and civil establishment.66 The denationalized client fascist elites of such countries as pre-1975 South Vietnam and post-1964 Brazil have had a usually weak internal minority base of comprador and conservative business interests and a dominant external support base in a foreign economic and military establishment.
Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower by William Blum
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, collective bargaining, Columbine, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, union organizing
Twenty former South Vietnamese officers who have admitted to committing torture and other human-rights violations during the Vietnam War are residing legally in California.8 Throughout the 1980s and into the 1990s, numerous other Vietnamese in California carried out a violent terrorist campaign against their countrymen who were deemed not sufficiently anti-communist, sometimes merely for calling for resumption of contacts with Hanoi; others were attacked simply for questioning the terrorists' actions. Under names such as "Anti-Communist Viets Organization" and "Vietnamese Organization to Exterminate Communists and Restore the Nation", on hundreds of occasions they assaulted and murdered, burned down businesses and vehicles, forced Vietnamese newspapers to cease publishing, issued death threats, engaged in extortion and many other aspects of organized crime... all with virtual impunity, even with numerous witnesses to some murders.
"They returned desperate and destructive," he said, "and adopted killing and explosives as their profession, according to the training they received from the American intelligence."23 And there has been more of the same in other places, from the men Ronald Reagan fancied as "freedom fighters". "This is an insane instance of the chickens coming home to roost," said a US diplomat in Pakistan in 1996. "You can't plug billions of dollars into an anti-Communist jihad, accept participation from all over the world and ignore the consequences. But we did. Our objectives weren't peace and grooviness in Afghanistan. Our objective was killing Commies and getting the Russians out."24 CHAPTER 3 : Assassinations I don't want to wipe out everyone...Just my enemies. Michael Corleone, The Godfather, Part II On June 26, 1993, President Clinton went before the American people and announced that the United States had fired several missiles against Iraq that day.
The students have also been taught to hate and fear something called "communism", later something called "terrorism", with little, if any, distinction made between the two, thus establishing the ideological justification to suppress their own people, to stifle dissent, to cut off at the knees anything bearing a likeness to a movement for social change which—although the military men might not think in such terms—might interfere with Washington's global agenda. Those on the receiving end of anti-communist punishment would have a difficult time recognizing themselves from this piece of philosophy from an SOA class: "Democracy and communism clash with the firm determination of the Western countries to conserve their own traditional way of life."2 This reads as if dissidents came from some faraway land, with alien values and no grievances that could be comprehended as legitimate by the "Western" mind.
Ayn Rand and the World She Made by Anne C. Heller
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, conceptual framework, greed is good, laissez-faire capitalism, Milgram experiment, Mont Pelerin Society, New Journalism, open borders, price stability, profit motive, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, wage slave, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration, young professional
As Lenin was consolidating power in 1917, he invoked not only Karl Marx but also, more tellingly, the works of Ivan Turgenev (Fathers and Sons), Fyodor Dostoyevsky (Poor Folk), Maxim Gorky (The Mother), and especially Nikolai Chernyshevsky (What Is to Be Done?) as inspiration and grounds for action. Lenin said that Chernyshevsky’s novel, a nineteenth-century tale of superhuman sacrifice in the service of a coming revolution, converted him to Communism at age fourteen, and he named his own seminal revolutionary tract What Is to Be Done? in tribute. It’s little wonder, then, that Rand once referred to her own novels as anti-Communist propaganda, or that she henceforth viewed national politics as a morality play whose theme is individual freedom in contest with overt or hidden mob force. She continued to write stories, though no copies and few accounts of these exist. She would have needed the company of her heroes that fall and winter, because she was losing her only friend. In late November, Olga’s father, who was plotting a final legislative challenge to the Bolshevik usurpers, sent his wife and children south, to the Crimea, near Yalta, an area that was still free of Communist control.
She had been introduced to Wick by her Hollywood admirer Gouverneur Morris, who, like Ivan Lebedeff and a few others who took the time to read her work and talk to her, was deeply impressed by her personal history, the quality of her mind, and her passionate intellectual commitment to individual achievement. After reading a draft of We the Living (“the Uncle Tom’s Cabin of Soviet Russia,” he called it), he sent sections to the famous libertarian newspaperman H. L. Mencken. Mencken, an avid defender of American civil liberties, pronounced the work “excellent” but warned that its anti-Communist message might hurt it with publishers. Whatever the demand for Russian stories such as Red Pawn, Mencken’s letter implied, receptivity might not extend to open criticism of the Soviet state. This was Rand’s second explicit warning that the Depression was beginning to produce political monsters of a kind she thought she had left behind in Russia. The first warning had come in the form of a casual remark by a White Russian acquaintance in Hollywood, who offhandedly suggested that certain film-industry Communists might try to prevent the studios from buying Red Pawn.
Kira’s ex-socialite mother quickly joins a Red teachers’ union to achieve better living conditions for her family. Kira’s uncle Vasili—once a prosperous merchant, like Rand’s father and grandfather—proudly goes on strike and lets his capitalist skills dwindle with his spirit. Kira’s cousin Irina Dunaeva, an artist like Rand’s sister Nora, endures arrest and Siberian exile for the crime of hiding her anti-Communist boyfriend in her room. Irina’s brother, a villainous upstart named Victor, gains political power by turning his sister in. Irina’s crime is a clear remembrance of Rand’s Russian flame Lev Bekkerman’s youthful act of courage. In fact, We the Living can be partly seen as her attempt to come to terms with Lev, as well as a meditation on the psychological roots of the Russian Revolution. In most respects, the beautiful, arrogant, sexually talented Leo Kovalensky is the fictional alter ego of the real-life Lev.
Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right by Jennifer Burns
anti-communist, bank run, barriers to entry, centralized clearinghouse, collective bargaining, desegregation, feminist movement, financial independence, George Gilder, invisible hand, jimmy wales, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, lone genius, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, side project, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Wisdom of Crowds, union organizing, urban renewal, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog
Although forbidden to read the newspapers or talk about politics, she had followed the news of the Revolution with great interest. When Zinovy announced his departure for a political meeting one evening, Alisa boldly asked to accompany him. Surprised yet pleased, Zinovy agreed to take her, and afterward the two had their first real conversation. He listened to Alisa respectfully and offered his own opinions. Zinovy was an anti-Communist and, as the mature Rand phrased it, “pro-individualist.” So was she. In her adventure stories heroic resisters struggling against the Soviet regime now replaced knights and princesses. She filled her diary with invective against the Communists, further bolstered by her father’s position. Their new connection was a source of great joy for Alisa, who remembered it was “only after we began to be political allies that I really felt a real love for him. . . . ” She also discovered that her father had an “enormous approval of my intelligence,” which further confirmed her emerging sense of self.9 As in Petrograd, she remained unpopular with her classmates.
She told DeWitt Emery, “When you read it, you’ll see what an indictment of the New Deal it is, what it does to the ‘humanitarians’ and what effect it could have on the next election—although I never mentioned the New Deal by name.”48 Rand’s belief that fiction could have important political consequences sprang from her Russian background and her careful observations of the New York left. As anti-Communists were hustled out of Leningrad State University, Rand had realized that the most innocuous of literary works could have political meaning. She kept this in mind during her first years in the United States, when she sent her family American novels to translate into Russian. These books were an important source of income for the Rosenbaums, but they had to pass the Soviet censors. Rand became an expert in picking out which type of story would gain the approval of the Communists.
For her part, Rand felt betrayed by Read’s failure to understand the principles at stake in their work and wounded by his disregard for their “ghost” agreement.47 Only weeks later Read added insult to injury when he sent Rand a sheaf of anonymous comments on her short article, “Textbook of Americanism.” Rand had written the piece for The Vigil, the official publication of the Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals, the Hollywood anti-Communist group that had recruited her to its board. “Textbook” was a very brief piece that included her first published discussion of rights. Written in the style of a catechism, the piece defined a right as “the sanction of independent action.” Rand offered a secular defense of natural rights, which were “granted to man by the fact of his birth as a man—not by an act of society.” Paramount in the “Textbook” was the noninitiation principle, the idea that “no man has the right to initiate the use of physical force against another man” (she capitalized the entire phrase for emphasis).48 The noninitiation principle, sometimes called the nonaggression principle, can be traced to thinkers as varied as Thomas Aquinas, John Locke, and Herbert Spencer.
The Making of an Atlantic Ruling Class by Kees Van der Pijl
anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, deskilling, diversified portfolio, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, imperial preference, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, North Sea oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit maximization, RAND corporation, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty
In the autumn of that year, the editorial board of the journal Socialist Commentary, which had been the organ of the non-Communist German Left exiles in Britain, welcomed Oxford lecturer Anthony Crosland, Allan Flanders, a former TUC official, and Rita Hinden, who had set up the Fabian Colonial Bureau. While AFL organizer Jay Lovestone recruited many of his agents from the former exiles around Socialist Commentary, the journal in its new set-up became the mouthpiece of the right-wing of the Labour Party and developed a close collaboration with the New Leader, an anti-Communist American magazine which from 1950 on was sponsored by the CIA. Flanders, who was in the United States studying the American trade-union movement, contributed anti-Communist articles to both publications, while Denis Healey, the future Labour minister became London correspondent for the New Leader in 1954.54 The TUC leadership not only played a critical role in splitting the WFTU, but also propagated the American methods of scientific management that its representatives had become fascinated by in the course of Washington-sponsored junkets.55 The ruling Labour Party, apart from playing a major part in shaping the institutional framework of Atlantic integration, complemented TUC activities on the European continent by supporting the pro-American split-offs in European Social Democratic parties.
Discussions with Moscow not only touched upon trade, but in a more general way pertained to the envisaged position of Russia in the open world projected by American post-war planners.75 Penetration and modification of Soviet conduct rather than confrontation was the key aspect of the universalism crystallizing at the peak of the Roosevelt offensive. Pioneer-spirited solidarity like Ambassador Joseph Davies’s proposal in the 1942 postscript to his Mission to Moscow to send American engineers to Russia here paved the way for long-term considerations of an apparently generous, but basically anti-communist nature. Sumner Welles in 1944 put the tremendous possibilities for trade with the Soviet Union in the perspective of a gradual abandoning by the Russians of ‘many of the more radical forms of political organization which time and experience have proved to be inefficient’.76 The Morgenthau Plan which envisioned the deindustrialization of Germany also had the aspect of depriving the USSR of German reparations, and thus driving it to seek American credits.
Displaying considerable boldness in this respect, CDU propaganda even claimed that its social doctrine went beyond Marxism.7 Meanwhile, the SPD, the most powerful party on the Left, allowed itself be incorporated in the Western occupation policy without claiming a share of power. Schumacher, its leader, was obstinate to both the Americans and the Russians. According to McCloy, he was ‘one of the most effective anti-Communists in Germany’, but in international affairs, his attitude according to Acheson was ‘just the same as if he were a Communist’.8 In the US zone, in line with the prevailing attitude in the United States, no Socialists were allowed in the government bodies created by the military authorities. Only in the British zone were German administrative organs allowed, and in 1946, the Socialist, Victor Agartz, was made the head of the economic council of the British zone after protests over the background of the initial incumbent, rayon magnate and International Chamber of Commerce stalwart, Abraham Frowein.9 Very much in the same vein as the German Christian Democrats, the Italian DC, which had been one among several parties of comparable strength in the Badoglio coalition, tried to outflank the Communists in terms of proposed social reforms.
The Cold War: A New History by John Lewis Gaddis
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, full employment, land reform, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine
Sensing the rising tide of nationalism in Asia, he had already associated himself by then with two leaders from that part of the world, Jawaharlal Nehru of India, and Zhou Enlai of China—each of whom had his own reasons for resisting superpower hegemony. Nehru’s had to do with the United States and Pakistan. The British had granted India and Pakistan independence in 1947, and Nehru had hoped to keep the subcontinent they shared out of the Cold War. The Pakistanis, however—concerned about Indian ambitions—had sought support from the Americans by portraying themselves as tough anti-communists with a British-trained military who could provide bases along the sensitive southern border of the U.S.S.R. The contrast with Nehru—also British-trained, but socialist, pacifist, and determined not to take sides in the Cold War—could hardly have been greater. By the end of 1954, Pakistan had maneuvered its way into the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) and the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO), both designed by Secretary of State Dulles to surround the Soviet Union with American-sponsored military alliances.
The very compulsiveness with which the Soviet Union and the United States sought to bring such states within their orbits wound up giving those states the means of escape. Autonomy, in what might have seemed to be inhospitable circumstances, was becoming attainable. Tails were beginning to wag dogs. III. “NON-ALIGNMENT” was not the only weapon available to small powers seeking to expand their autonomy while living in the shadow of superpowers: so too was the possibility of collapse. There was no way that staunch anti-communists like Syngman Rhee in South Korea, Chiang Kai-shek on Taiwan, or Ngo Dinh Diem in South Vietnam could plausibly threaten to defect to the other side (although Diem, desperate to hang on to power as the Americans were abandoning him in 1963, did implausibly attempt to open negotiations with the North Vietnamese).19 Nor could such dedicated anti-capitalists as Kim Il-sung in North Korea or Ho Chi Minh in North Vietnam credibly raise the prospect of alignment with the United States.
Much the same thing happened, with far more devastating results, in yet another East Asian country the Cold War had left divided, Vietnam. After Ho Chi Minh’s victory over the French in 1954, they, together with the Americans, the British, the Russians, and the Chinese Communists, had agreed at Geneva that the country should be partitioned at the 17th parallel. Ho then established a communist state in the north, while the Americans took over the search for an anti-communist alternative in the south. They finally settled, in 1955, on Ngo Dinh Diem, an exile untainted by cooperation with France whose Catholicism, they expected, would make him a reliable ally. But Diem, like Rhee, was also an authoritarian, and by the beginning of the 1960s his South Vietnamese government had become an embarrassment to the Americans—and a target for renewed insurgency from North Vietnam.
Culture of Terrorism by Noam Chomsky
Arms were sent to the contras through a shadowy network of CIA subsidiaries and “private” organizations controlled by U.S. ex-generals in close coordination with the White House.2 Notorious international terrorists were enlisted in the cause, for example, Luis Posada Carriles, a CIA-trained Cuban exile sprung from a Venezuelan prison where he was charged with planning the 1976 bombing of a Cubana airliner with 73 civilians killed, then taken to El Salvador to help organize the contra supply network from the U.S.-controlled Ilopango Air Base.3 The Reagan administration took over the World Anti-Communist League, a collection of Nazis who had been recruited by the U.S. as part of its global campaign against the anti-fascist resistance in the immediate post-World War II period, fanatic anti-Semites, death squad assassins, torturers and killers from around the world, backed by U.S. client states such as South Korea and Taiwan. This organization was converted into an instrument of international terrorism from Mozambique to Nicaragua.4 Profits from U.S. arms sales to Iran via Israel with Saudi Arabian funding, undertaken for entirely different purposes to which we return, were diverted to the contras through Swiss banks, along with tens of millions of dollars from long-term clients such as Taiwan and Saudi Arabia, and targets of opportunity such as the Sultan of Brunei.
This organization was converted into an instrument of international terrorism from Mozambique to Nicaragua.4 Profits from U.S. arms sales to Iran via Israel with Saudi Arabian funding, undertaken for entirely different purposes to which we return, were diverted to the contras through Swiss banks, along with tens of millions of dollars from long-term clients such as Taiwan and Saudi Arabia, and targets of opportunity such as the Sultan of Brunei. In what the Far Eastern Economic Review describes as a particularly “remarkable case of arms diplomacy,” the U.S. succeeded in arranging a cooperative effort of China and Taiwan “to help the anti-Communist Nicaraguan resistance [sic],” in a November 1984 deal arranged by Oliver North whereby China shipped arms to the contras through Canadian arms dealers and Portugal, funded by Taiwan.5 The level of support developed through these state-private networks was so large that when $10 million solicited by the State Department from the Sultan was misplaced, the loss was not even noticed. Such machinations provided the contra armies with an air force and military equipment in violation of explicit congressional legislation and U.S. laws going back to the 18th century Neutrality Act, enabling them to maintain some forces within Nicaragua and to continue the terrorist activities that are generally ignored by the U.S. media and dismissed by apologists as “Sandinista atrocity allegations.”6 In such ways, the Reagan administration constructed an international terrorist network of impressive sophistication, without parallel in history to my knowledge, and used it for a variety of purposes in conformity with the Reagan Doctrine, as already discussed.
It may also be recalled that the previous state of grim suffering and death in Nicaragua, to which we must again reduce them, elicited scarcely a flicker of interest among the educated classes in the United States, just as the perpetuation of these circumstances in Honduras and elsewhere evokes no concern today. Rather, it was the effort to overcome the grim consequences of a century of U.S. dominance that aroused horror and indignation (concealed in the usual “anti-Communist” disguise), along with a dedicated commitment to restore Nicaragua to the “Central American mode,” in the approving words of the editors of the Washington Post, to which we return. Terrorist attacks on “soft targets” such as health clinics and schools serve obvious purposes. The perceived threat of the Sandinistas was that despite their meager resources and the horrifying conditions left by the final phase of the U.S.
Under the Loving Care of the Fatherly Leader: North Korea and the Kim Dynasty by Bradley K. Martin
anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, four colour theorem, illegal immigration, informal economy, kremlinology, land reform, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Potemkin village, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, special economic zone, stakhanovite, UNCLOS, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce
“We still had our color TV We were the only family in the area who had one. After four months someone set fire to our house. Everything was lost except the underwear we had on. Probably it was a villager, one of those people who were calling us anti-communists. After our property was set on fire, Mother kept demanding an investigation. The Central Party said she was crazy and put her in a mental hospital when I was seven, in 1976. For three years she stayed there while my brother and I dined only on small rations. I had eyesight problems. I couldn’t see. I couldn’t attend the elementary school because schoolmates would call me anti-communist and teachers would hit me. My brother taught me a little. But if anyone had offered us help, that person would have gotten in trouble. No one helped. “My uncle on my mother’s side was vice-commander of the Second Army Corps.
I believed that liberating the country would repay my benefactors’ kindness, relieve them of their suffering and break the people’s shackles.”80 And he ended the preface to his memoirs with the following words: “Praying for the souls of the departed revolutionaries.” As the decade of the 1920s neared its end, Kim was a junior founding member of a communist youth group. He wrote later that the league’s charter members, meeting secretly in the cellar of a shrine in Jilin’s Beishan Park, “sang the Internationale side by side.”81 During that period he directly involved himself in pro-Soviet activity. Anti-communist Chinese warlords angered Moscow by seizing Manchurian rail-ways that had been under joint Chinese and Soviet management. Kim and his friends distributed handbills supporting the Soviet position. “Some politically ignorant young Chinese gave us a wide berth, vilifying us as evil people who were helping the ‘trespassers,’” Kim recalled. For him, though, it seemed only natural that he and his friends viewed the world’s first socialist system as a “beacon of hope” and “considered it our solemn internationalist obligation as communists to fight in its defense.”
Collaborating with the Americans this time, they had reduced the South Korean people to a ragged and hungry population of slaves, he charged in a June 1946 speech.65 In another speech in August 1946, he referred to right-wing Southern leaders as pro-Japanese, reactionary country-sellers who put patriots in prison while kisaeng houses increased in number daily66 Often during this period Kim spoke of the need to expand his provisional government into a Korea-wide “democratic people’s republic,” which he defined as a leftist regime, different from the capitalist-parliamentary model seen in the South.67 Once rid of the anti-communist, and to his mind unpatriotic, leaders in the South and their American protectors, Korea must be reunited. Expanding his rule to cover the entire peninsula was to remain Kim’s unchanging goal, second only to consolidating and maintaining power in the North, until the final days of the long life and career of this supremely determined and stubborn man. Communist and other leftist efforts to take over South Korea from within seemed to make head-way in 1946 but the U.S. occupation authorities soon clamped down, arresting key figures.
Rethinking Camelot by Noam Chomsky
To select an example at random, after Indonesia committed the error of carrying out a massacre in front of TV cameras and brutally beating two US journalists in Dili, East Timor, in November 1991, the editors of the Washington Post, to their credit, suggested that the US “should be able to bring its influence to bear on this issue,” noting that for 16 years Washington had been supporting an Indonesian invasion and forced annexation that had killed “up to a third of the population.” The reasons, the Post explained, is that “the American government was in the throes of its Vietnam agony, unprepared to exert itself for a cause” that could harm relations “with its sturdy anti-Communist ally in Jakarta. But that was then. Today, with the East-West conflict gone, almost everyone is readier to consider legitimate calls for self-determination.”18 The relation of Indonesia’s invasion to the East-West conflict was a flat zero. Unexplained is why, in the throes of its Vietnam agony, the US found it necessary to increase the flow of weapons to its Indonesian client at the time of the 1975 invasion, and to render the UN “utterly ineffective in whatever measures it undertook” to counter the aggression, as UN Ambassador Daniel Patrick Moynihan proudly described his success in following State Department orders.
The assault that followed left three countries utterly devastated with millions dead, untold numbers of maimed, widows and orphans, children being killed to this day by unexploded bombs, deformed fetuses in hospitals in the South—not the North, spared the particular atrocity of chemical warfare—and a record of criminal savagery that would fill many a docket, by the standards of Nuremberg. By 1967, the bitterly anti-Communist French military historian and Indochina specialist Bernard Fall warned that “Vietnam as a cultural and historic entity...is threatened with extinction...[as]...the countryside literally dies under the blows of the largest military machine ever unleashed on an area of this size.” After the January 1968 Tet Offensive, the onslaught became even more violent, along with “secret bombing” of Laos and later Cambodia that added hundreds of thousands of additional casualties—“secret,” because the media refused to find out what was happening, or to make public what they knew.
In May 1965, three months after the bombing of South Vietnam had been vastly intensified along with the first regular bombing of the North and after US combat forces had landed, RFK condemned withdrawal as “a repudiation of commitments undertaken and confirmed by three administrations” which would “gravely—perhaps irreparably—weaken the democratic position in Asia.” Theodore Sorenson traces RFK’s first break with Johnson policy to February 1966, when RFK called for a negotiated settlement (but not withdrawal, never an option).16 The basic reasoning behind the war was indicated years later by McGeorge Bundy. In retrospect, he felt that “our effort” in Vietnam was “excessive” after October 1965, when “a new anti-communist government took power in Indonesia and destroyed the communist party,” incidentally, slaughtering several hundred thousand peasants and securing Indonesia’s riches for foreign corporations. As Bundy now recognized, with Vietnam already in ruins and Indonesia protected against infection, it may have been “excessive” to continue to demolish Indochina at inordinate cost to ourselves. US-supported military coups in Thailand and the Philippines, the virtual demolition of most of Indochina, and the subsequent policies of economic strangulation and isolation brought the US at least a partial victory, ensuring that the region will continue to “fulfill its main function,” free from any threat of “radical nationalism.”
The Chomsky Reader by Noam Chomsky
anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, British Empire, business climate, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, interchangeable parts, land reform, land tenure, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, theory of mind, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, War on Poverty, éminence grise
It justifies a highly covert, at times overt, interventionist policy, conveniently setting aside such principles as nonintervention in the internal affairs of another country. And it practically sorts out friends and foes by their role in maintaining an integrated global economy in which American capital can operate with relative freedom. Any nation’s attempt to extricate itself from the global marketplace is anathema and is labeled “Communist.” No fate is worse for the anti-Communist than a nation opting out of such a “Free World” market. Should a nation try to opt out, or take significant steps to control its own resources for the native population, the U.S. reaction is swift and savage. Chomsky shows the remarkably consistent means the United States uses to undercut such revolutionary regimes—or even a potential for them. The goal is to create such harsh conditions—as in Vietnam during and after the war or in Nicaragua today—that by the time the conflict is over there will be little left of what is needed to build a better society.
.… What the Russian autocrats and their supporters fear most is that the success of libertarian Socialism in Spain might prove to their blind followers that the much vaunted “necessity of a dictatorship” is nothing but one vast fraud which in Russia has led to the despotism of Stalin and is to serve today in Spain to help the counterrevolution to a victory over the revolution of the workers and peasants. After decades of anti-Communist indoctrination, it is difficult to achieve a perspective that makes possible a serious evaluation of the extent to which Bolshevism and Western liberalism have been united in their opposition to popular revolution. However, I do not think that one can comprehend the events in Spain without attaining this perspective. With this brief sketch—partisan, but I think accurate—for background, I would like to turn to Jackson’s account of this aspect of the Spanish Civil War (see note 8).
Furthermore, these markets and sources of raw materials should be developed for United States purposes. “Some kind of regional association … among the non-Communist countries of Asia might become an important means of developing a favorable atmosphere for such trade among themselves and with other parts of the world.” As John Dower, among others, has emphasized, “The United States has never intended to carry the burden of anti-Communist and anti-Chinese consolidation alone. It has always seen the end goal as a quasi-dependent Asian regionalism.” The Pentagon Papers enrich the available documentation on this matter in a rather interesting way. Continuing with NSC 48/1, it is recommended that under certain restrictions trade with Communist China should be permitted, for the health of the Japanese and American economies. The industrial plant of Japan and such strategic materials as Indonesian oil must be denied to the Soviet Union and kept in the Western orbit.
Turning the Tide by Noam Chomsky
anti-communist, Bolshevik threat, British Empire, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, land reform, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, union organizing
It is familiar to students of US policy that “while paying lip-service to the encouragement of representative democracy in Latin America, the United States has a strong interest in just the reverse,” apart from “procedural democracy, especially the holding of elections—which only too often have proved farcical.” The reason is that democracies may tend to be responsive to popular needs, while “the United States has been concerned with fostering the most favourable conditions for her private overseas investment”:95 ...United States concern for representative democracy in Latin America is a facet of her anti-communist policy. There has been no serious question of her intervening in the case of the many right-wing military coups, from which, of course, this policy generally has benefited. It is only when her own concept of democracy, closely identified with private, capitalistic enterprise, is threatened by communism [or to be more accurate, by independent development, whether capitalist, socialist, or whatever] that she has felt impelled to demand collective action to defend it.
Furthermore, polio and malaria have been eliminated, and the causes of death have shifted from those associated with underdevelopment (diseases of early infancy, etc.) to those of the developed world (congenital abnormalities, diabetes, etc.).98 These are the crimes for which Cuba must pay dearly; the real ones are of little interest to policy makers, except for their propaganda effect. As for the NLF in South Vietnam, its crime was explained ruefully by the bitterly anti-Communist journalist Denis Warner: “in hundreds of villages all over South-East Asia the only people working at the grass roots for an uplift in people’s living standards are the Communists,”99 the reason for the popular support that forced the US to resort to violence and to undermine any political settlement. Those who set their priorities in this way are evidently deficient in their understanding of US needs and priorities.
Here, as elsewhere, the US “wanted stability, benefited from the on-going system, and was therefore content to work with the military-oligarchy complex that ruled most of Central America from the 1820s to the 1980s.”27 Historian Thomas Anderson comments that “the whole political labyrinth of El Salvador can be explained only in reference to the traumatic experience of the uprising and the matanza,” while Jeane Kirkpatrick assures us that “To many Salvadorans the violence of this repression seems less important than the fact of restored order and the thirteen years of civil peace that ensued,” an accurate rendition of the views of those Salvadorans who count.28 No problems arose in one of the world’s most miserable countries until 1960, when a junior officer’s coup established a “moderately leftist government [that] lasted for only a few weeks before other officers, responding to pressures from the oligarchy and the United States, staged a countercoup,” a foretaste of what was to come 20 years later. The US Embassy urged support for the military regime, stating that the internal security forces “are behind the present government, are strongly anti-Communist, and constitute major force for stability and orderly political and economic development.” Their rule was necessitated by “subversive anti-government activities” such as “underground propaganda,” the Embassy explained, offering an insight into the concept of “subversion” as understood by the Kennedy liberals. Dr. Fabio Castillo, a former president of the National University, testified before Congress that the US had openly participated in the countercoup and had opposed the holding of free elections.29 The conservative junta was quickly recognized by President Kennedy, whose preference for civil-military regimes was noted earlier (p. 79), after they had “pledged to take tough actions against the students [who had protested against the outlawing of political parties, the main proof offered of a Communist plot], cut relations with Castro, and warmly welcomed foreign investment.”
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, double helix, European colonialism, John von Neumann, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, operation paperclip, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, uranium enrichment
Copies were sent to U.S. diplomatic missions around the world and distributed among the leadership in Washington. James Forrestal, the fiercely anti-Communist secretary of the Navy, soon to become the nation’s first secretary of defense with the creation of the Defense Department under the National Security Act of 1947, had hundreds of copies made for circulation within the Navy and, according to an acquaintance, “sent it all over town.” It was also leaked to the press to prepare the public for a change, the American people having heard little during the war years except praise for their gallant Soviet ally. Time, the magazine of another fervent anti-Communist, Henry Luce, carried a full-page article illustrated by a map entitled “Communist Contagion.” The map labeled Iran, Turkey, and Manchuria as “infected” and Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Afghanistan, and India as “exposed.”
By the end of January 1945 the Red Army had driven Hitler’s Wehrmacht from almost all of Eastern Europe and had broken into Germany for the advance on Berlin, which fell on May 2. Short of now going to war with the Soviet Union to wrest Eastern Europe from Stalin, the most that could be done was to try to mitigate his treatment of its peoples. Roosevelt believed that reason and restraint worked best with Stalin. His scrappy successor had a different attitude. Truman was, to begin with, much more militantly anti-Communist. The day after Hitler invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, Truman, then a senator from Missouri, had advocated keeping both German and Russian blood flowing: “If we see that Germany is winning we ought to help Russia, and if Russia is winning we ought to help Germany, and that way let them kill as many as possible, although I don’t want to see Hitler victorious under any circumstances.
The news films of the transports coming in over the rooftops in the falling snow, as these men held steady course for a runway they could not see, spoke for them. Then there were the grateful Berliners, men and women, unloading the sacks of coal and crates of foodstuffs alongside the American and British and French soldiers who had not long ago been their enemies, and the films of the children cheering and waving at the pilots who tossed them candy. It was heady and emotional and more powerful anti-Communist propaganda than anyone in Washington could have imagined. The blockade and the airlift turned many who were undecided among the peoples of Europe against the Soviets and propelled the nations of Western Europe and Britain and the United States toward closer cooperation. The Russians were laying siege to a city and attempting to conquer it with the weapons of starvation and cold, but the American and British airmen were defeating them by keeping the people of this beleaguered Berlin warm and well fed.
The Atlantic and Its Enemies: A History of the Cold War by Norman Stone
affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, British Empire, central bank independence, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, illegal immigration, income per capita, interchangeable parts, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, North Sea oil, oil shock, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, V2 rocket, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Yom Kippur War, éminence grise
Poland, in her strategic position, was then taken over by Stalin. It was important to discredit the non-Communists in Western eyes, and of course old Poland could be caricatured as a place of great estates and downtrodden peasants. There was some truth in this, but not much: the country had made considerable but unsung progress between the wars. Anti-semitism could also be used to discredit the antiCommunists, and there were indeed murderous clashes as Jews returned, trying to recover their property. The Cardinal Prince Sapieha himself was tactless, saying after an incident in the summer of 1946 that there were too many Jews in a government ‘the nation does not wish’. In saying this he was only echoing a widespread peasant opinion that rząd jest zażydzony - ‘the government is judaized’ - and at a time when almost all of Western opinion sympathized with the Jews, such lines were not helpful.
In Hungary, the preceding September, there had been a sort of parade ground version of a fraudulent election, complete with dummy parties, useful idiots and double voting; the unlovely Rákosi had taken over, and the Socialists were forced into union with the Communists. This, and the Berlin blockade, caused blood at last to flow through the bureaucratic arteries of western Europe, and ideas of unity began to take shape. The British had even supported a Western Union, complete with a Council of Europe and a Court of Human Rights at Strasbourg. The motive was essentially antiCommunist, to lay down guidelines that would prevent governments from putting citizens into camps. There was a grand meeting of a ‘Congress of Europe’ in May 1948, with over 700 delegates from thirteen countries, graced with the presence of anti-Fascist warhorses and of course the lionized Churchill. Parliaments sent delegates to the Council of Europe which then emerged. However, there was no economic content to this.
Now, the old Second World War associations came alive again: Eisenhower, Montgomery, the French all knew each other well, and they co-operated again. Here was the start of NATO, and of much else, as Atlantic ties multiplied and thickened. Trade unions co-operated in a free association. The American trade unions (the AFL, or American Federation of Labor, had merged in 1946 with the CIO, or Congress of Industrial Organizations) were now strongly antiCommunist (their leader, Walter Reuther, having worked for two years at a Ford plant in Nizhny Novgorod, and thus knowing his Soviet circumstances) and the Western trade unions set up an organization of their own, challenging the older international one, which the Communists had taken over. There were generous provisions for cross-Atlantic student exchanges and scholarships, particularly with Britain, so that the elites could get to know each other, or even that foreign students in the United States would go back to their own countries and teach the natives how to do things.
Year 501 by Noam Chomsky
anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, Bolshevik threat, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, land reform, land tenure, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, union organizing, War on Poverty, working poor
The regular channel for the State Department, Reston admonished Americans not to let the bad news in Vietnam displace “the more hopeful developments in Asia,” primary among them being “the savage transformation of Indonesia from a pro-Chinese policy under Sukarno to a defiantly anti-Communist policy under General Suharto”: Washington is being careful not to claim any credit for this change in the sixth most populous and one of the richest nations in the world, but this does not mean that Washington had nothing to do with it. There was a great deal more contact between the anti-Communist forces in that country and at least one very high official in Washington before and during the Indonesian massacre than is generally realized. General Suharto’s forces, at times severely short of food and munitions, have been getting aid from here through various third countries, and it is doubtful if the coup would ever have been attempted without the American show of strength in Vietnam or been sustained without the clandestine aid it has received indirectly from here.
But he leaves no doubt about Washington’s enthusiasm about the turn “for the better” as the slaughter proceeded. According to Brands’s reconstruction of events, by early 1964 the US was engaged in “quiet efforts to encourage action by the army against the PKI,” ensuring that when the expected conflict broke out, “the army [would know] it had friends in Washington.” The goal of the continuing civic action and military training programs, Secretary of State Dean Rusk commented, was “strengthening anti-Communist elements in Indonesia in the continuing and coming struggle with the PKI.” Chief of Staff Nasution, regarded by US Ambassador Howard Jones as “the strongest man in the country,” informed Jones in March 1964 that “Madiun would be mild compared with an army crackdown today,” referring to the bloody repression of 1948. Through 1965, the main question in Washington was how to encourage army action against the PKI.
A congressional report also held that training and continued communication with military officers paid “enormous dividends.” The same reasoning has long been standard with regard to Latin America, with similar results.9 Across a broad spectrum, commentators credited the US intervention in Vietnam with having encouraged these welcome developments, providing a sign of American commitment to the anti-Communist cause and a “shield” behind which the generals could act without undue concern about Sukarno’s Chinese ally. A Freedom House statement in November 1966 signed by “145 distinguished Americans” justified the US war in Vietnam for having “provided a shield for the sharp reversal of Indonesia’s shift toward Communism,” with no reservations concerning the means employed. Speaking to US troops in November 1966, President Johnson told them that their exploits in Indochina were the reason why “In Indonesia there are 100 million people that enjoy a measure of freedom today that they didn’t enjoy yesterday.”
A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn
affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, death of newspapers, desegregation, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, friendly fire, full employment, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, land reform, Mercator projection, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, very high income, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration
When he began attacking generals for not being hard enough on suspected Communists, he antagonized Republicans as well as Democrats, and in December 1954, the Senate voted overwhelmingly to censure him for “conduct . . . unbecoming a Member of the United States Senate.” The censure resolution avoided criticizing McCarthy’s anti-Communist lies and exaggerations; it concentrated on minor matters—on his refusal to appear before a Senate Subcommittee on Privileges and Elections, and his abuse of an army general at his hearings. At the very time the Senate was censuring McCarthy, Congress was putting through a whole series of anti-Communist bills. Liberal Hubert Humphrey introduced an amendment to one of them to make the Communist party illegal, saying: “I do not intend to be a half patriot. . . . Either Senators are for recognizing the Communist Party for what it is, or they will continue to trip over the niceties of legal technicalities and details.”
Such a coalition could best be created by a liberal Democratic President, whose aggressive policy abroad would be supported by conservatives, and whose welfare programs at home (Truman’s “Fair Deal”) would be attractive to liberals. If, in addition, liberals and traditional Democrats could—the memory of the war was still fresh—support a foreign policy against “aggression,” the radical-liberal bloc created by World War II would be broken up. And perhaps, if the anti-Communist mood became strong enough, liberals could support repressive moves at home which in ordinary times would be seen as violating the liberal tradition of tolerance. In 1950, there came an event that speeded the formation of the liberal-conservative consensus—Truman’s undeclared war in Korea. Korea, occupied by Japan for thirty-five years, was liberated from Japan after World War II and divided into North Korea, a socialist dictatorship, part of the Soviet sphere of influence, and South Korea, a right-wing dictatorship, in the American sphere.
Despite the failure to find subversion, the broad scope of the official Red hunt gave popular credence to the notion that the government was riddled with spies. A conservative and fearful reaction coursed the country. Americans became convinced of the need for absolute security and the preservation of the established order. World events right after the war made it easier to build up public support for the anti-Communist crusade at home. In 1948, the Communist party in Czechoslovakia ousted non-Communists from the government and established their own rule. The Soviet Union that year blockaded Berlin, which was a jointly occupied city isolated inside the Soviet sphere of East Germany, forcing the United States to airlift supplies into Berlin. In 1949, there was the Communist victory in China, and in that year also, the Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb.
Culture Shock! Costa Rica 30th Anniversary Edition by Claire Wallerstein
Historically poor, rural, and lacking in mineral riches, it has a tradition of self-reliance and individualism, an enormous middle class (ostentatious displays of wealth are frowned upon) and a hatred of violence: the army was abolished in 1948, former president Oscar Arias Sánchez won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1987, and the country is the seat of the United Nations’ University for Peace. Costa Rica is also a country of paradoxes. It is socialist yet ﬁercely anti-Communist, it is a ‘green idyll’ yet with one of the region’s highest rates of deforestation, it is urbanised but with a rural mindset. Paul Theroux, in The Old Patagonian Express: By Train Through the Americas, noted how Costa Ricans ‘go to bed early and rise at dawn; everyone—student, labourer, businessman, estate manager, politician—keeps farmer’s hours’. Ticos—who earned their nickname because of their habit of turning words into cute diminutives (making, for example, a momento a momentico for example)—are also almost unnervingly friendly and polite.
What Calderón had not bargained for, however, was a group of disaffected young middle-class men, who formed the Social Democratic Party, led by an extraordinary coffee farmer called José ‘Don Pepe’ Figueres Ferrer. Figueres had gained notoriety as the ﬁrst political exile since the Tinoco years, after he had attacked Calderón on a radio programme in 1942. Other political groups—from oligarchs to idealists— joined Figueres’ party in the single hope of toppling Calderón, Overview of the Land and History 23 and the by now staunchly anti-communist United States lent its support. One of Figueres’ main gripes with communism, according to political scientist Olivier Dabene and quoted by the Biesanz family in The Ticos, is that it was a ‘subversive, imported ideology’, that couldn’t meet the needs of the Tico idiosincracia. While Figueres’ aims might not have seemed so very different from those of Calderón’s, Ticos have always been wary of foreign ideas and inﬂuences that don’t take Costa Rica’s unique characteristics into account.
Depending on whom you believe, up to one million Nicaraguans have come to Costa Rica in the past two decades, driven by poverty, conﬂict, natural disasters and chronic unemployment. The ofﬁcial ﬁgures are around 400,000, but this number doesn’t include the huge numbers of illegal indocumentados who easily slip over the border. What is certain is that Costa Rica has become to Nicaragua what the United States is to Mexico. The staunchly antiCommunist Ticos worry at every mention of a return to power of the Sandinista regime or severe droughts in Nicaragua, which could spark another huge wave of immigration. If anything, the anti-Nica feeling has intensiﬁed in recent years, with 81 per cent of respondents in a 2004 University of Costa Rica survey saying ‘something had to be done’ to put the brakes on Nicaraguan immigration. Feelings ran extremely high in November 2005 after a Nicaraguan thief was attacked by guard dogs at a property he was attempting to burgle.
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Brownian motion, correlation does not imply causation, Dmitri Mendeleev, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, Gary Taubes, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Mikhail Gorbachev, Project Plowshare, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, the scientific method, Yom Kippur War
He was refused his rightful position as head of theory at Los Alamos, and the Super was mothballed all because of one man: J. Robert Oppenheimer. Oppenheimer and Teller would soon become bitter enemies. The two were very different. Oppenheimer, gaunt and aristocratic, was quite unlike the limping, bushy-browed Teller.7 The most striking difference was their politics. Oppenheimer, a leftist who flirted with Communism, was bound to clash eventually with Teller, the rabid anti-Communist. However, in July 1945 the Teller-Oppenheimer feud was yet to ignite. It was a triumphant time for both physicists. The Los Alamos scientists had nearly overcome all the technical problems that faced them; they had manufactured and machined enough plutonium to build a “gadget” named Jumbo and had built an intricate cage of explosives that would force all the metal to assemble into a critical mass and explode.
“Now I began to see a distorted human being, petty, perhaps nearly paranoid in his hatred of the Russians, and jealous in personal relationships,” wrote the Los Alamos physicist John Manley. The scientists battled about whether or not to pursue fusion weapons, and the fight worked its way up to the president. Truman deliberated. Would he back the Super project or not? The pressures were building. Anti-Communist hysteria was sweeping the country, and the populace would clamor for a fusion bomb if they knew it existed. They soon knew. On November 18, 1949, the Washington Post carried an alarming story on page 1. “[Scientists] are working and ‘have made considerable progress’ on ‘what is known as a super-bomb’ with ‘1000 times’ the effect of the Nagasaki weapon,” the article read. Soon, Truman was fielding questions at press conferences about the hydrogen bomb.
In the 1952 short A is for Atom, a giant glowing golem, arms crossed, represented “the answer to a dream as old as man himself, a giant of limitless power at man’s command.” And Eisenhower, for all his talk of nuclear annihilation, envisioned an earthly utopia if we put the power of the atom “into the hands of those who will know how to strip its military casing and adapt it to the arts of peace.” The paranoid, anti-Communist Edward Teller was the man who most desperately tried to bring us to the promised land. He and his allies lobbied for more and more money to figure out how to harness the immense power of fusion. Lewis Strauss, the AEC chairman and Teller backer, promised the world a future where the energy of the atom would power cities, cure diseases, and grow foods. Nuclear power would reshape the planet.
Pirates and Emperors, Old and New by Chomsky, Noam
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, union organizing, urban planning
These are important facts to bear in mind in connection with the Middle East as well. One element of the U.S.-organized international terror network is the World Anti-Communist League, a collection of Nazis, anti-Semites, death squad assassins, and some of the worst killers and thugs around the world, mobilized by the Reagan Administration into an effective network of murderers and torturers, worldwide in scope. Last month, the League attracted some attention in the course of the Hasenfus affair in Nicaragua. The New York Times, as usual reporting government propaganda as fact, claimed that the League had been purged of its more nefarious elements when General Singlaub took it over in the 1980s. The World Anti-Communist League had just then completed its annual conference in Europe (not reported in the media here to my knowledge). The leading Nazis were present, given respectful applause when their leaders—Nazi killers from the days of Hitler—mounted the podium to address the audience.
In the introduction to their recent book on the League, Scott Anderson and John Anderson comment that the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai Brith, a leading component of the domestic Israeli lobby, refused to provide them with information on this notorious collection of anti-Semites, who now serve a useful purpose within the Reaganite international terror network that they generally support.13 All of this, and much more, reveals a sophisticated understanding of how to conduct international terrorism, on a scale with few historical precedents. The sordid record of the World Anti-Communist League should remind us that while Reaganite thuggery is unusual, it is not unique in U.S. history. Immediately after World War II, the U.S. turned to the task of suppressing the anti-fascist resistance throughout much of the world, often in favor of fascists and collaborators. One component of this global program was the recruitment of Nazi gangsters such as Klaus Barbie, “the Butcher of Lyons,” who had been responsible for horrendous atrocities in France and was duly placed in charge of spying on the French for American intelligence.
One indication is the immediate sharp reduction in foreign aid, most radically in the U.S., where the category virtually disappeared, even if we count the largest component, which goes to a rich country for strategic reasons, and to Egypt because of its collaboration in the same enterprise. The decline of options was fully recognized. President Mahathir of Malaysia spoke for many when he said that: Paradoxically, the greatest catastrophe for us, who had always been anti-communist, is the defeat of communism. The end of the Cold War has deprived us of the only leverage we had—the option to defect. Now we can turn to no one.20 Not really a paradox, but the natural course of real-world history. Similar fears were widely expressed. The Gulf war was bitterly condemned throughout the South as a needless show of force, evading diplomatic options; there was considerable evidence for such an interpretation at the time, more since.
The Wrecking Crew: How Conservatives Rule by Thomas Frank
affirmative action, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, David Brooks, edge city, financial deregulation, full employment, George Gilder, guest worker program, income inequality, invisible hand, job satisfaction, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, new economy, P = NP, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, rent control, Richard Florida, road to serfdom, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Telecommunications Act of 1996, the scientific method, too big to fail, union organizing, War on Poverty
Poser’s participation in “Youth for Freedom” gives us a hint of the shadowy world of extremism which the IFF brushed up against. For example, in 1987 the group sent a delegation to the annual meeting of the World Anti-Communist League (WACL), a body comprising three main groups: representatives of Asian dictatorships, death-squad organizers from Latin America, and surviving remnants of the Nazi empire in eastern Europe. (Scott Anderson and Jon Lee Anderson, Inside the League: The Shocking Exposé of How Terrorists, Nazis, and Latin American Death Squads Have Infiltrated the World Anti-Communist League [New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1986].) Another example: Dr. Myron Kuropas, a Ukrainian nationalist who sat on the advisory board of International Freedom Review, and who later turned out to be something of an anti-Semite.
RENAMO’s “brutal holocaust”: This was the 1988 assessment of Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Roy Stacey, as reported by (among many other outlets) the Associated Press, “Mozambique Blames Its Civil War on South Africa,” April 27, 1988. 37. “What makes UNITA [Savimbi’s guerrilla group] unique in a world replete with resistance movements is that this one vehemently espouses its belief in free enterprise, balanced budgets, self-reliance, regular free and secret elections, and decentralization of power and private property.” Peter Worthington, “Anti-Communist Guerrillas on the Verge of Success,” Wall Street Journal, August 20, 1985. 38. Kirkpatrick, wingers: Phil McCombs, “The Salute to Savimbi: Bush, Kirkpatrick Join a Conservative Chorus,” Washington Post, February 1, 1986. Norquist: As described in Easton, Gang of Five, p. 171. Abramoff: The movie was Red Scorpion. 39. “Jonas Savimbi: The Real Leader of the Free World”: Phillips reprinted this article four times that I know of.
An editorial in National Review for March 7 of that year speculated in its highfalutin way that, “granted the propriety of this field of activity, it might still have seemed to the public and to Congress, if the facts had been openly before them, that some other campus organizations should have shared in the largesse, and that among the young Lochinvars sent to do battle in the international conclaves a few hard anti-Communists and even an occasional enthusiastic pro-American might have been included.” The explanation for the CIA’s blundering, the wingers decided, was liberal bias. As Howard Phillips himself put it in the Washington Post for July 3, 1974, the NSA incident revealed the CIA to be “an instrument of establishment liberalism.” In addition to Phillips, two other figures who would later play a role in Abramoff’s own clandestinely funded youth organization—Donald (“Buz”) Lukens and Charles Lichenstein—made similar points.
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Haight Ashbury, kremlinology, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, Sinatra Doctrine, War on Poverty, Yogi Berra
Having run the Institute for U.S. and Canadian Studies in Moscow since founding it in 1967, this wily survivor had advised a succession of general secretaries, Gorbachev being his fifth. Arbatov, with excellent English and considerable media savvy, had become the go-to Soviet spokesman for American news operations. Well informed and always available, he became a familiar face on Nightline and even managed to charm no less an anti-Communist than the Reverend Billy Graham. Arbatov called himself a scholar and journalist, and could win over an audience with an appearance of academic balance. But that was only an appearance. In actuality, he was an unyielding party propagandist and a powerful traditionalist on the Communist Party’s Central Committee. He had previously accused the Reagan administration of engaging in “a campaign of demonization” of the Soviet Union.
That constituted a big win for the Reagan doctrine, which supported the rollback of Communist regimes anywhere, and represented a big loss for the Brezhnev doctrine, which supported the permanency of Communist regimes everywhere, if need be by the dispatch of Soviet troops. In the spring of 1988 Reagan and Gorbachev began anticipating their third summit in three years. This too was gearing up to be some show, with the world’s foremost anti-Communist entering the Communist epicenter, the man who had dubbed the Soviet Union an “evil empire” and the “center of evil in the modern world” being its welcomed guest. THE PRESIDENT LEFT THE White House on May 25, weeks after a military dustup with Iran and days after endorsing Vice President George H. W. Bush as his successor. The White House staff wisely scheduled three days in Helsinki for Reagan to shake off jet lag before he would arrive in Moscow for the five-day summit.
It was inspired by the new, and first Polish, pope, John Paul II—whose motto became “Have no fear!”—and led by an adept organizer, Lech Wałęsa. Boxed in by heavenly and earthly resistance, onetime-strongman General Wojciech Jaruzselski staged the freest elections held anywhere behind the Iron Curtain. The results were as lopsided as they had always been, but this time in the opposite direction. The anti-Communists of Solidarity won 99 of the 100 contested seats in the upper chamber, and 160 of the 161 in the Sejm, the lower chamber. Ideas have consequences. The idea that Communist domination could be successfully challenged spread like wildfire. If it could happen in Poland, people across the region began asking each other, why couldn’t it happen here? They soon found that it could. From East Berlin to Bucharest and Budapest to Sofia and Prague, the masses began to echo the sentiments of Oliver Cromwell toward the entrenched power of the Rump Parliament he confronted in 1653: “You have sat too long here for any good.
How Asia Works by Joe Studwell
affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, failed state, financial deregulation, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, land tenure, large denomination, market fragmentation, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, passive investing, purchasing power parity, rent control, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, working-age population
What is different in some states in east Asia is that after the Second World War they made radical changes to land distribution and structured a different kind of agricultural market. It was a rural arrangement in which market forces tended to maximise output. There has been no equivalent policy change of such magnitude and effect anywhere else. The vehicle for the change was a series of land reform programmes undertaken in China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. Although the first was orchestrated by communists, and the second, third and fourth by anti-communists, the objective was the same in all cases. It was, roughly speaking, to take available agricultural land and to divide it up on an equal basis (once variation in land quality was allowed for) among the farming population. This, backed by government support for rural credit and marketing institutions, agronomic training and other support services, created a new type of market. It was a market in which owners of small household farms were incentivised to invest their labour and the surplus they generated towards maximising production.
Pakistan is perhaps the outstanding case in point. In the US domestic politics of the 1950s, the pro-market ideas of Ladejinsky and his ilk were represented by the country’s insular right-wing politicians as socialism by the back door. After the victory of the Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower in November 1952, the political atmosphere in Washington swung decisively against those supporting forced land redistribution. Joe McCarthy’s ‘anti-communist’ cabal had been growing in strength since 1950 and Eisenhower’s election lent it support. In November 1954, Ladejinsky was turned down for a routine job reassignment at the Department of Agriculture on ‘security’ grounds. The reasons cited for this by the Secretary of Agriculture, Ezra Taft Benson, were that Ladejinsky had three sisters in the Soviet Union (making him, it was argued, a potential subject of coercion), that he had visited there in 1939, and that he had worked briefly as a translator for the American office of a Soviet trading firm after he first arrived in the US.
Benson also made clear to journalists that he did not like the idea of land reform, though he conceded that he understood little of the details of its implementation in north-east Asia.126 Ladejinsky refused to resign and was fired, although he was defended by some more thoughtful Republicans, who stood up for him against Benson and Eisenhower. For instance, Walter Judd, a Republican congressman, described Ladejinsky’s work as ‘about the only successful anti-communist step we have taken in Asia’.127 Ladejinsky went on to take up a job resettling refugees in south Vietnam, and later to positions at the Ford Foundation and the World Bank. He died in 1975. Poor excuses Two main excuses are used by those countries in south-east Asia which have failed to institute effective land reform. Neither bears close scrutiny. The first is that the cash crops grown in south-east Asia are unsuited to household production.
Great American Hypocrites: Toppling the Big Myths of Republican Politics by Glenn Greenwald
In one interview, he complained: “High Noon was the most un-American thing I have ever seen in my whole life. The last thing in the picture is ol’ Coop [Gary Cooper] putting the United States Marshal’s badge under his foot and stepping on it. I’ll never regret having run [screenwriter and accused Communist] Carl Foreman out of this country.” Wayne’s boast that he ran Foreman “out of this country” referenced the fact that, in the 1950s, Wayne became a fervent and paranoid anti-Communist McCarthyite. He actively assisted the House Un-American Activities Committee in its effort to ferret out suspected Communist sympathizers in Hollywood. He made a practice of accusing Hollywood figures of being Communists based on the flimsiest of evidence, proclaiming in one interview: The only guy that ever fooled me was the director Edward Dmytryk. I made a picture with him called Back to Bataan.
I made a picture with him called Back to Bataan. He started talking about the masses, and as soon as he started using that word—which is from their book, not ours—I knew he was a Commie. In 1960, Frank Sinatra—at the request of his political ally, then-senator and presidential candidate John Kennedy—hired a Hollywood writer, Albert Maltz, one of the “Hollywood Ten” who had been blacklisted during the height of the anti-Communist hysteria. Wayne led the charge in attacking Sinatra: “I wonder how Sinatra’s crony Senator John Kennedy feels about him hiring such a man.” Wayne became even more extremist later in life, and his delusions of grandeur as a Warrior for Freedom grew steadily. He told a Time reporter in 1969: “I think those blacklisted people should have been sent over to Russia. They’d have been taken care of over there, and if the Commies ever won over here, why hell, those guys would be the first ones they’d take care of—after me.”
He stressed that he wanted to “tell the story of our fighting men in Vietnam…in a manner that will inspire a patriotic attitude on the part of fellow-Americans—a feeling which we have always had in this country in the past during times of stress and trouble.” According to his 1979 Newsweek obituary, Wayne’s initial script for The Green Berets was such a transparent and inaccurate piece of pro-war propaganda that even the U.S. military was uncomfortable with it: “The Army rejected the initial script because Wayne’s Green Berets were too gung-ho in their anti-Communist enthusiasm.” After much controversy, The Green Berets was finally made, one of the very few films about the Vietnam War that Hollywood produced during the time the war lasted. The film glorified the war in every way. Wayne played a swaggering, courageous colonel assigned to the dangerous mission of kidnapping a North Vietnamese general, and uttered tough-guy lines such as “Out here, due process is a bullet.”
Strange Rebels: 1979 and the Birth of the 21st Century by Christian Caryl
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, colonial rule, Deng Xiaoping, financial deregulation, financial independence, friendly fire, full employment, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet Archive, land reform, land tenure, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Winter of Discontent, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, Yom Kippur War
When the doddering Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev and his Politburo colleagues decided to send their troops across the border on Christmas Day 1979 to quash a revolt against the country’s recently installed communist regime, Western observers instinctively recalled earlier episodes of the Cold War. Moscow’s grab for Kabul, they said, was simply a repetition of earlier interventions in Hungary in 1956 or Czechoslovakia in 1968, when Russian tanks had crushed local anti-Communist rebellions. The powers that be in Washington immediately assumed that the Russians were seizing an opportunity to make an aggressive thrust toward the strategically vital Persian Gulf. The old men in the Kremlin actually had more modest motives: they were desperate to shore up the crumbling twenty-month-old Communist regime, which had succeeded in the course of its brief life in alienating just about everyone in the country.
Lines of ships formed outside Iranian port facilities that did not have the capacity to unload all the goods that had been purchased. Nineteen seventy-five was also the year that the shah decided to complete his country’s political transformation. Though he was ostensibly an ally of the United States, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi often expressed his contempt for what he saw as the indiscipline and moral laxity of the liberal democracies. Though a staunch anti-Communist, he believed in central planning and the Soviet Union’s apparent success in mobilizing resources for the common good. Having spent decades curtailing the opportunities for political expression of his subjects, he now moved to bring that process to its logical culmination by declaring Iran to be a one-party state. From now on, everyone had to be a dues-paying member of his Rastakhiz (Resurgence) Party.
As good students of history, they knew how religion had served in the past as a force for the mobilization of Polish national feeling, and they understood that a revival of such sentiments could easily direct itself against the Kremlin. The KGB station chief in Warsaw quickly dispatched a character study of the new pontiff to his masters in Moscow. The contents of the memo had been supplied by the SB, the KGB’s Polish sister service: Wojtyła holds extreme anti-communist views. Without openly opposing the Socialist system, he has criticized the way in which the state agencies of the Polish People’s Republic have functioned, making the following accusations: that the basic human rights of Polish citizens are restricted; that there is an unacceptable exploitation of the workers, whom “the Catholic Church must protect against the workers’ government”; that the activities of the Catholic Church are restricted and Catholics treated as second-class citizens; that an extensive campaign is being conducted to convert society to atheism and impose an alien ideology on the people; that the Catholic Church is denied its proper cultural role, thereby depriving Polish culture of its national treasures.4 Yuri Andropov, the head of the KGB, immediately dispatched a cable to his rezident in Warsaw that berated the man for allowing this debacle to happen.
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Bakken shale, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, centre right, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, collective bargaining, crony capitalism, David Brooks, desegregation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, energy security, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, George Gilder, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, invisible hand, job automation, low skilled workers, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, More Guns, Less Crime, Nate Silver, New Journalism, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, Renaissance Technologies, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, Unsafe at Any Speed, War on Poverty, working poor
LeFevre, who looked like a jolly, white-haired Santa, had reportedly been indicted earlier for mail fraud in connection with his role in a cultlike right-wing self-actualization movement called the Mighty “I AM” that worked audiences into frenzies as they chanted in response to Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt’s names, “Annihilate them!” As the journalist Mark Ames recounts, LeFevre escaped prosecution by becoming a witness for the state, but he continued on a wayward path, claiming to have supernatural powers and struggling through bankruptcy and an infatuation with a fourteen-year-old girl. Later, at the height of Senator Joe McCarthy’s anti-Communist crusades, LeFevre became an FBI informant, accusing Hollywood figures of Communist sympathies and leading a drive to purge the Girl Scouts of Reds. A stint writing editorials for the archconservative Gazette-Telegraph in Colorado Springs enabled him to drum up funds to launch the Freedom School on a rustic, five-hundred-acre campus nearby. There, he assumed the title of dean. The school taught a revisionist version of American history in which the robber barons were heroes, not villains, and the Gilded Age was the country’s golden era.
But while his tailor-made uniforms made a memorable impression, this was less true of his job performance. Richard Helms, who later became director of the CIA, recalled Scaife, who had been a colleague, as “a lightweight.” The family brush with the spy service, however, ignited Richard Scaife’s lifelong infatuation with intelligence intrigue, conspiracy theories, and international affairs. Scaife writes that it also gave rise to his strongly anti-Communist views. In his memoir, he recalls his father admonishing the family while on furlough from the war that the scourge of Communism loomed large, not just abroad, but at home in America. “My political conservatism which eventually unmasked me as the villain behind the ‘vast right-wing conspiracy’ of Hillary Clinton’s imagination—but only her imagination,” he writes, began “before I had reached my twelfth birthday” over a lunch with his father at New York’s Colony Club in 1944.
Chamber of Commerce, who shared Powell’s political upset, commissioned Powell to write a special memorandum for the business league. In August, Powell delivered a seething memo that was nothing less than a counterrevolutionary call to arms for corporate America, warning the business community that its very survival was at stake if it didn’t get politically organized and fight back. The five-thousand-word memo was marked “confidential” and titled “Attack on American Free Enterprise System.” A virtual anti–Communist Manifesto, it laid out a blueprint for a conservative takeover. As Kim Phillips-Fein describes it in her history, Invisible Hands, Powell’s memo transformed corporate America into a “vanguard.” Also heeding the battle cry were the heirs to some of America’s greatest corporate fortunes, including Scaife, who were poised to enlist their private foundations as the conservative movement’s banks.
No Such Thing as Society by Andy McSmith
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, call centre, cuban missile crisis, Etonian, F. W. de Klerk, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, full employment, glass ceiling, greed is good, illegal immigration, index card, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, strikebreaker, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban decay, Winter of Discontent, young professional
The UN appealed to the developed world to help, and asked Britain to take in 10,000 of the ‘boat people’ in 1979. Politically, there was no reason for a Conservative government to object. These were mostly ethnic Chinese families who had formed Vietnam’s entrepreneurial class, which was why a communist regime was driving them out. Once settled, they could be expected to look after themselves, contribute to the economy and be staunchly anti-communist. Foreign Secretary Lord Carrington was keen to comply, partly for the sake of the UK’s international reputation, but principally because refugees were pouring into Hong Kong, which was then a British colony, and whose government was pleading for help. Home Secretary William Whitelaw was conscious that public opinion had been aroused by the television pictures of desperate families in overcrowded boats.
This grisly operation seems to have begun with the tacit approval of Washington, where the Republican administration certainly believed that a military takeover was preferable to a Marxist revolution; but Democrat President Jimmy Carter, who took office in 1977, was more particular about human rights. By 1979, the junta felt the need to try to improve its international image by releasing some prisoners and reducing the rate at which new victims disappeared. It also supplied bookshops across Europe with complimentary copies of a book called The Strategists of Fear, by a well-known French historian and anti-communist, Pierre de Villemarest, which attributed Argentina’s bad reputation to poison being spread by rich Jews living in Buenos Aires, aided by their co-religionists in Europe and their contacts in the White House.7 In 1981, this much criticized regime suddenly found itself back in the sunlight because Ronald Reagan had taken office in Washington. His foreign policy adviser during the election had been Jeane Kirkpatrick, author of a theory that differentiated between ‘totalitarian’ and ‘authoritarian’ dictatorships according to whether they interfered with or permitted free enterprise.
When he refused to give way to any more, John Biggs-Davison, the MP for Epping Forest, rose to demand of the Speaker: ‘If defeatism of this kind is to be spoken, should it not be done in secret session?’ Struggling to be heard above the commotion, Whitney replied: ‘It’s not a question of defeatism – it is a question of realism.’22 Whitney, incidentally, was also on the right of the Tory party; he thought that CND was run by Communists and believed in good relations with anti-Communist regimes. After that lead from the Commons, it was no surprise that the first opinion poll, broadcast by ITV on the Monday night, 5 April, showed that 70 per cent of the public thought the distant islands worth fighting for, even if that meant sinking Argentine ships and putting British lives at risk. Only 5 per cent thought they were no concern of Britain.23 A quarter thought that Margaret Thatcher should have resigned, but that was hardly surprising, given her general unpopularity.
1960s counterculture, affirmative action, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, desegregation, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial deregulation, floating exchange rates, full employment, income inequality, income per capita, intermodal, invisible hand, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, Martin Wolf, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, payday loans, post-industrial society, post-oil, price mechanism, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, union organizing, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, working poor, Yom Kippur War
Richard Scammon and Ben Wattenberg hectored their party to attend to a new conservative majority anxious about crime, militant activism, and permissive values.1 But the king of right wing Republicans, National Review editor William Buckley, believed that it was not the moment for conservatives. Nixon himself thought that members of the right wing Young Americans for Freedom were “nuts and second-raters.”2 The president did not want the “hard right-wing, Bircher, or anti-Communist” in the new majority he was trying to build.3 Howard K. Smith, a principal commentator for ABC news, remarked in 1971, “No matter how often we reporters pronounce the old FDR Coalition dead—the blacks, the poor, labor, and so on—every election it seems to pull together enough to keep the Democrats the majority party.”4 One way to cut through this dispute is to separate notions of social and economic liberalism.
In November 1973, Sheik Yamani, sounding a little like Qaddafi, boasted that Saudi Arabia could blow up its wells or cut production by 80 percent and still do very well.37 The sheik demanded the withdrawal of Israeli troops from all of the lands taken after the 1967 war, including Jerusalem, before his country would return to the production levels of September. The kingdom had reduced its oil production from 8.3 million to 6.2 million barrels a day.38 To underscore his point, anti-Communist King Faisal sent a congratulatory message to Leonid Brezhnev on the anniversary of the Bolshevik revolution.39 (Saudi Arabia did not even have diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union.) But Kissinger would not link the specifics of the Arab-Israeli settlement with the oil question. “If we once begin to let ourselves be blackmailed, this weapon will be used time and time again at every stage of the negotiations.”40 King Faisal discovered that his oil would not get him Jerusalem, but the United States did begin negotiating.
In defending Helsinki as well as his record, the president stated that “there is no Soviet domination of Eastern Europe, and there never will be under a Ford administration.” Upon further questioning, Ford dug himself in deeper, claiming that “I don’t believe that the Poles consider themselves dominated by the Soviet Union.” He simply meant that the Poles retained the hope of freedom, and, given Ford’s anti-Communist credentials, few outside the media took note of it. But overnight the press magnified the misstatement; Ford refused to modify it and the president seemed, at the very least, a bumbler. The controversy stopped his momentum, but even before the press worked over his remarks, Carter was generally considered to have won the debate, if by a small margin. Carter then attacked Ford on the issue to a degree that the public turned on the governor for being too strident.48 Did Ford lose because of the Helsinki blunder?
Hegemony or Survival: America's Quest for Global Dominance by Noam Chomsky
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, Doomsday Clock, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, market fundamentalism, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment
Abrams is joined by Otto Reich, who was charged with running an illegal covert domestic propaganda campaign against Nicaragua, appointed temporary assistant secretary for Latin American affairs under Bush II, then designated special envoy for Western Hemisphere affairs. To replace Reich as assistant secretary, the administration nominated Roger Noriega, who “served in the State Department during the Reagan administration, helping forge fiercely anti-Communist policies toward Latin America”; in translation, terrorist atrocities.75 Secretary of State Powell, now cast as administration moderate, served as national security adviser during the final stage of the terror, atrocities, and undermining of diplomacy in the 1980s in Central America, and the support for the apartheid regime in South Africa. His predecessor, John Poindexter, was in charge of the Iran-contra crimes and was convicted in 1990 of five felony counts (overturned mostly on technicalities).
At mid-twentieth century, the main threat to US security—then only a potential threat—was Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs). Russia might have accepted a treaty banning these delivery systems, knowing that it was far behind. In his authoritative history of the arms race, McGeorge Bundy reports that he could find no record of any interest in pursuing this possibility.16 Recently released Russian archives yield some new understanding of these matters, though also leaving “unresolved mysteries,” the bitterly anti-Communist Soviet scholar Adam Ulam observed. One such mystery is whether Stalin was serious in a March 1952 proposal that appeared to allow unification of Germany, as long as Germany did not join a military alliance directed against the Soviet Union—hardly an extreme condition a few years after Germany had, once again, virtually destroyed Russia. Washington “wasted little effort in flatly rejecting Moscow’s initiative,” Ulam commented, on grounds that “were embarrassingly unconvincing,” leaving open “the basic question”: “Was Stalin genuinely ready to sacrifice the newly created German Democratic Republic (GDR) on the altar of real democracy,” with consequences for world peace that could have been enormous?
Pollack, “Faith and Terrorism in the Muslim World,” review of The Crisis of Islam, by Bernard Lewis, New York Times, Sunday, 6 April 2003, sec. 7 (Book Review), p. 11. 74 News Services, “Iran-Contra Figure Named to Senior Post in White House,” Washington Post, 3 December 2002, sec. A, p. 2. 75 Abrams: see Steven R. Weisman, “Abrams Back in Capital Fray at Center of Mideast Battle,” New York Times, 7 December 2002, sec. A, p. 1. Reich and Noriega: see James Dao, “Bush Names Veteran Anti-Communist to Latin America Post,” New York Times, 10 January 2002, sec. A, p. 6. 76 Laura W. Murphy, Director of the ACLU’s Washington National Office, in ACLU press release, “ACLU Calls on President Bush to Disavow New Cyber-Spying Scheme That Seeks to Put Every American Under Scrutiny,” 14 November 2002. Online at: http://www.aclu.org/SafeandFree/SafeandFree.cfm?ID=11309&c=206 . 77 “The Armageddon Effect,” op. cit. 78 Ricardo Stevens, 19 October 2001, on Radio La Voz del Tropico (Panama); cited in North American Congress on Latin America (NACLA), Report on the Americas 35, no. 3 (November-December 2001). 79 Carlos Salinas, interview, Institute for Public Accuracy, San Francisco, Calif., 22 March 2002.
Globish: How the English Language Became the World's Language by Robert McCrum
Alistair Cooke, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, invention of movable type, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, jimmy wales, knowledge economy, Livingstone, I presume, Martin Wolf, Naomi Klein, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile
More impressive still was the roster of top Hollywood executives lining up to support this iniative of ‘soft power’: Darryl Zanuck (from Twentieth Century Fox), Nicholas Schenk (MGM), Harry and Jack Warner (Warner Bros.), Barney Balaban (Paramount), James Grainger (RKO), Milton Rackmil (Universal), Harry Cohn (Columbia), Walt and Roy Disney. Motivated by anti-Communist zeal, this powerful group would play a crucial role in the dissemination of American cultural values, and language, across the world. It was the beginning of postwar Globish. The drive to insert the idea of ‘freedom’ into American movies acquired a new momentum in December 1955 when a secret meeting, convened by the joint chiefs of staff, placed the idea of ‘Militant Liberty’ at the top of a covert Hollywood agenda supported by a posse of anti-Communist directors and stars led by John Ford and John Wayne, no less. To demonstrate how to insert the Militant Liberty programme into the movies, Wayne invited the meeting to his house.
At first, the opposition of the United States and NATO to the threat of the USSR and the Soviet bloc divided the international community into two halves, anglophone and non-anglophone. Of course at the local level language and culture continued to flourish but now, with the spread of television, radio and the movies, there was an alternative cultural narrative available. In this ‘hot’ phase of the Cold War, the American mobilisation of an anti-Communist campaign, led by the CIA, inspired a full-scale culture war that pushed the English language, in all its varieties, into the front line. ‘By 1953,’ writes Tony Judt, ‘at the height of the Cold War, US foreign cultural programmes employed 13,000 people worldwide and cost $129m.’ This struggle for hearts and minds sowed the seeds of the world’s English in parts of the world previously unreceptive to British or American cultural colonialism.
anti-communist, battle of ideas, business climate, corporate governance, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, income inequality, invisible hand, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Nader, rent control, risk/return, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, shareholder value, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Torches of Freedom, trade liberalization, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus, young professional
By 1950, most people, particularly the middle classes, had come to accept big business as an essential part of American life. A 1951 poll found that 76 per cent of those asked approved of big business compared with 10 per cent who disapproved.72 A million-dollar public relations campaign by organized labour in 1953 failed to counter the pro-free enterprise public relations effort. Anti-communist sentiment, fed by the revolution in China and developments in the Soviet Union, as well as McCarthy’s anti-communist campaign in the US, tainted the unions in the public eye and caused division within the labour movement, weakening the power of the unions.73 By 1955, studies found that the community was much more supportive of industry. A majority of those surveyed agreed that the interests of employers and workers were the same, and the vast majority of Americans said they approved of large corporations.
Moon Company 50 Cadbury Schweppes 211 Campaign for Economic Literacy 215 Canada economic education 81, 209, 220, 223–224 political appointments 158 Washington consensus 149 Canadian Bankers Association 218, 224 Canadian Broadcasting 80 Canadian Foundation for Economic Education (CFEE) 81, 218, 221, 223–224 Capital Ownership Group (COG) 184 capitalism terminology 58 employee share ownership 177–181 free market gospel 7, 8 people’s capitalism 171–186 and Protestantism 231 wider share ownership 173–177, 184–186 see also business values; free market Car Owners’ Association 133 Carter, Jimmy 121 Cato Institute 118, 119, 121, 129, 130, 131, 175, 223 Caygill, David 153 INDEX 253 Center for Economic Education and Entrepreneurship 220 Center for Education and Research in Free Enterprise 73 Center for Strategic and International Studies 223 Center for the Study of Private Enterprise 73–74 Centre 2000 85, 132, 137, 161 Centre for Commercial Freedom 135 Centre for Economic Development in Australia (CEDA) 84, 161 Centre for Economic Education 224 Centre for Independent Studies (CIS) 85, 127–130, 137, 156, 161, 214 see also Lindsay, Greg Centre for International Economics 138 Centre for Policy Studies (CPS) 111–112, 113, 114 Centre for Policy Studies (CPS) (Australia) 127, 132, 161 Centre for Strategic and International Studies 135 Chase Manhattan 146 Chicago Boys 145, 146 Chicago School 96, 102–103, 134, 147–148, 149, 154 see also University of Chicago children economic literacy programs 218–224 enterprise education 209–218 games 87, 203–204, 211 share ownership 194–195, 202–204 see also education Chile 97, 100, 134, 145–146, 148 China, revolution 59 Chipman, Lauchlan 127 Chrysler 45, 94, 209 churches 25, 35, 36, 88, 129 CIG 85 CIO 33–34 civil service Australia 89, 130, 131, 135, 138, 158–160, 163 New Zealand 154–155, 163 United Kingdom 89, 163 United States 118 see also bureaucracy Citigroup Foundation 223 Citizens for a Sound Economy 171 Clark, Fred G. 47 Clinton, Bill 172, 177 Clorox Company 69 Coca-Cola/ Coca-Cola Amatil 50, 73, 135, 181 Colgate-Palmolive-Peet 15 comic books 15, 35, 38, 42, 51, 204 Committee for Constitutional Government 48–49 Committee for Corporate Support of American Universities 72 Committee for Economic Development 46, 75 Committee for Economic Development in Australia (CEDA) 136 communism 25, 57, 59, 71, 195 see also socialism Compass 172 competition Advertising Council campaign 33 anti-competitive behaviour 21–22 contestability theory 102 in educational materials 55, 56, 203, 217, 222, 223, 224 ideology 3, 7–8, 46, 54, 55, 95, 109, 138, 151, 264 monopolies 40, 102 National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) campaign 35 Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) 223 Compton Advertising 65–68 see also Cummins, Barton Confederation of Australian Industry (CAI) 132 Confederation of British Industry (CBI) 79, 81, 178, 179, 195, 214 conferences 35, 36, 50, 54, 72, 84, 85, 86, 89, 110, 111, 117, 119, 129, 131, 133, 134, 136, 221, 223, 224 Connecticut Light & Power Company 58 consultants economic see economic advisers management 138, 158 public relations 3–4, 15, 25, 26, 30, 58, 79 see also pollster’s role consumers 20, 63, 65, 67, 74, 110, 222 choice/democracy 8, 20, 31, 54, 55, 67, 103, 104, 194, 216, 217, 229 education 51–52, 70, 211 consumerism 74 contestability theory 102–103 Continental Group 69 Continental Institute 69 Conzinc Riotinto Australia (CRA) 127, 129, 130, 133, 135 Coolidge, Calvin 4 Coors, Joseph 109 corporate power, growth 1, 229–230 Costello, Peter 133, 135 Council for Financial Aid to Education 50 Council on Foreign Relations 75 Crane, Jasper 94 Crane Metals 213 Crossroads 132–133, 137, 161 Cruden Investments 201 Cummins, Barton 65–66, 86 Deane, Roderick 134, 155, 156 Deloitte 210 democracy v corporate public relations 1, 2–4 decline in voter participation 79 and free market missionaries 7 NAM message 20–21 polling as democracy 32 shareholder democracy 8, 191–204 shift to corporate rule 229–230 voting franchise 2 see also consumers, choice Deustche Bank 146 254 FREE MARKET MISSIONARIES Deustche Telekom 196 deregulation 74, 95, 102, 103, 105, 117, 118, 128, 131, 132, 135, 136, 138, 145, 149, 158, 164 labour market 95, 96, 150, 151, 154, 158 ﬁnancial markets 155, 157 developing countries, and Washington consensus 150–152 development banks 150 direct mailing 16–17 Dollars at Work 42 Douglas, Roger 132, 133, 134, 152–153, 163 Dow Chemical 70, 73, 119 Drexel Burnham Lambert 197 DuPont 3, 15, 26, 31, 38, 45, 50, 54, 56, 58, 94, 193 Eastman Kodak 15, 85, 119 economic advisers 145–165 Australia 138, 155–165 Chile 145–148 New Zealand 152–155, 156 outcomes 163–165 Washington Consensus 148–152 Economic Discussion Groups 36 economic literacy programs 214–218 see also education Economic Literacy Project 214 economics economic education see education classical theory 6–9, 102, 103 see also economics, neo-classical model contestability theory 102–103 economic literacy 39–42, 214–218 economic rationalism (Australia) 130–131, 162 see also neoliberalism employee education 54–59 Great Nebraskan National Economics Test 218 Keynesianism 95–96, 99, 100, 103, 146 liberalism 95 neo-classical model 94–95, 105, 159, 220 neoconservatism see economics, neoliberalism neoliberalism 93–105 see also economics, economic rationalism; ideology, free market outcomes of economics education 59, 74–75 planning 96, 103 post-war free market campaigns 45–59 public choice theory 103–105, 128, 223 as religion 6–9, 230–231 standards in teaching 218–223 supply-side economics 100–102, 110 ‘Ten Pillars of Economic Wisdom’ 47–48 Washington Consensus 148–152 Economics Education Review 85 Economics International 210 Economics Quotient (EQ) 68 EconomicsCanada 220 education 1970s economic education 63–75 Australian economic education 81–89 children and enterprise 209–218 consumer education 51–52 economic literacy 39–42, 214–218 economics in schools 49–54, 209–224 employee economics education 54–59 international free market education 79–89 outcomes of economics education 59, 74–75 post-war free market education 45–59 proliferating associations 47–49 share ownership 202–204 standards in economics 218–223 Test of Economic Literacy (TEL) 216–217 Eisenhower, Dwight 34, 59 Elders IXL 130 see also Elliott, John electricity companies 194, 196 Electricity Corporation of New Zealand (ECNZ) 133, 155 Eli Lilly 70, 119 Elliott, John 130, 133, 137 Employee Share Alliance (ESA) 179 employees and Advertising Council campaign 34 economics education 54–59, 70 employee share ownership 177–181 and NAM campaign 17 see also Trade Unions Empower America 171 Enterprise America 71 Enterprise Australia 79, 85–89 Enterprise Insight 213–214 Enterprise Week 87, 214 environmental pollution 8 environmentalists 64 Epstein, Richard 129–130 Ernst & Young 212 Esso 85, 133 E*Trade 191 European Policy Forum 135 European Union 185–186 Evans, Ray 133 Exxon 70, 119, 209 Facts about Business 80 Falklands War 99, 113 Federal Reserve (US) 98, 100 Federation of Small Businesses 214 Fernyhough, John 134 Feulner, Edward 109–110, 116 Fighters for Freedom 48 ﬁlms 1970s campaigns 67, 70, 71, 72 1980s critique of capitalism 175 anti-communist messages 71 Australian free market education 82, 85, 87 NAM campaigns 16, 17, 18, 19, 35 post-war campaigns 36–37, 38, 42 for schools 47, 51, 52, 54, 57 Finance Canada 224 Financial Services Forum 172 Firestone Tire and Rubber 50 INDEX 255 Fisher, Anthony 111, 114, 127 Fletcher Challenge 156 Flynn, John 48–49 Forbes Magazine 101, 174 Forbes, Steve 171 Ford, Gerald 121 Ford Foundation 132, 184 Ford Motor Company 3, 19, 26, 31, 37, 50, 73, 85, 118, 119 Foreign & Colonial 202 foreign languages, NAM campaign 17 Fortune Magazine 31 174 Foundation for Economic Education (Brisbane) 85, 128 Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) 26, 45–49, 50, 53, 93–94, 111, 130, 158 Foundation for Enterprise Development 180 Foundation for Teaching Economics (FTE) 218–219, 222–223 France 138, 153, 177, 186, 196–197 Fraser, Malcolm 83, 87, 127, 134 free enterprise see free market free market 1970s economic education 63–75 Advertising Council campaigns 32–35, 64, 65–69, 74–75 economic freedom 8, 9, 21, 29, 35, 36, 37, 42, 45, 48, 50, 56, 65, 86, 96, 105, 122, 171, 221 education programmes 45–59, 209–218 see also education vs. government 8, 14, 21, 23–6 ideology 1–2, 6–9, 14, 22, 46, 49, 53–4, 56, 59, 65, 75, 93–105, 110, 112, 115–6, 130–1, 176, 217, 229 see also economics, economic rationalism; economics, neoliberalism inﬂuence mechanisms 119–122 international message 79–89 and mergers 21 mystique 145 National Association of Manufacturers campaigns see National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) orthodoxy 109 policies 93–105 policy dissemination 109–122 post-war campaigns 29–42 post-war education programmes 45–59 pre-war business promotion 13–26 and public opinion 24–25 scriptures 6–9 and social justice 151–152, 153, 154, 163–164, 165, 192 vs. unions 23–26 see also individual freedom, and free market; political freedom, and free market Freedom Forum 34, 71 Freedom Works 171 Freedoms Foundation 54 The Freeman 53 Friedman, Milton 70, 94, 96–98, 99, 100, 110, 111, 112, 113, 116, 127, 129, 131, 132, 145 Friedman, Rose 94 Funston, George Keith 195 games 70, 87, 202, 203–204, 211 Garnaut, Ross 157 Gates, Jeff 185 GATT 154, 159 General Electric (GE) 3, 31, 33, 37, 38, 51, 55, 73, 116, 119, 193, 222, 223 General Foods 15, 33 General Mills 51 General Motors 14, 18–19, 22, 23, 30, 31, 33, 37, 45, 50, 51, 70, 119, 193–194 Georgia-Paciﬁc 209 Georgia State University 74 Germany 81, 138, 196 Gibbs, Alan 156 Gilbert, Wayne 156 Gillette 222, 223 Goldman Sachs 212 Goldsmith, Walter 113 Goodrich 33, 45 Goodrich, David 45 Goodyear 3, 73 government see also deregulation; regulation; taxation capture by business 3, 5 during the Depression 14, 222 and economic advisers/ consultants 138, 145–163 and ﬁnancial markets 149 Hayek on 93, 94 intervention, opposition to 4, 8, 9, 14, 21, 23–26, 34, 36, 37, 38, 65, 83, 84, 85, 89, 93, 95, 96, 98, 114, 118, 128, 130, 131, 132 Keynesianism 95 and Monetarism 97–100 post-war period 23–26 privatization see privatization and public choice theory 104, 105 Reagan era 116 role 7, 8, 23, 33, 41, 96, 103 and supply-side economics 100 and think tanks 111–114, 120–122, 127, 131–135 and unions 24 and Washington Consensus 149 Great Depression 5, 13, 14, 29, 46, 49, 97, 98, 195, 222 Great Nebraskan National Economics Test 218 Greenpeace 153 Greiner, Nick 130, 132, 159, 160 Gulf Oil 50 H.
Powers and Prospects by Noam Chomsky
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, colonial rule, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deskilling, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, Jacques de Vaucanson, John von Neumann, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, theory of mind, Tobin tax, Turing test
The same methods were tried in Iran after the fall of the Shah, but failed. The technique is an understandable one; it is not easy to think of an alternative, given the acknowledged inability to ‘appeal directly to the masses’ and ‘get control of mass movements’ as the ‘Communists’ can do, using the unfair advantages they gain from ‘defending the interests of the poor’—‘Communist’ here used in the technical sense that covers also militant anti-Communists with the wrong priorities. The Problem Solved By the early 1960s, US experts were urging their contacts in the Indonesian military to ‘strike, sweep their house clean’ (Guy Pauker of the Pentagon-sponsored RAND Corporation in a study published by Princeton University Press); ‘if the officer corps appreciated its historic role, it could be the nation’s salvation’, he wrote in a University of California study.
US forces in Vietnam provided a ‘shield’ that encouraged the Indonesian Generals to do their necessary work, Freedom House and its ‘distinguished Americans’ argued, agreeing with James Reston and others. Years later, top planners spelled out their delayed reaction to the ‘dramatic events’. McGeorge Bundy, National Security Adviser under Kennedy and Johnson and former Harvard dean, finally came to realise, he said, that ‘our effort’ in Vietnam should perhaps have been brought to an end after October 1965, when ‘a new anti-communist government took power in Indonesia and destroyed the communist party’. With Indonesia now protected from infection, it may have been ‘excessive’, he felt, to continue to demolish Indochina at inordinate cost to ourselves. The rest of the region was being immunised in a similar if not quite so spectacular way, while the virus of independent nationalism in Indochina was destroyed so completely that by the early 1970s, the business press recognised that the US had basically won the war.
In 1977, one old Asia hand, George McArthur, wrote that the PKI had ‘subjected the country to a bloodbath’, placing their necks under the knife in a major Communist atrocity. As for the ‘quietly determined’ leader Suharto with his ‘almost innocent face’ and ‘scrupulously constitutional’ reliance on ‘law not on mere power’ (Time), the ‘Indonesian moderate’ admired by the New York Times who was presiding over the massacres and ‘encouraging as wide as possible participation . . . as a way of committing fence-sitters to the victory of the anti-communist cause’ (Cribb), he retained his moderate status as he proceeded to compile one of the world’s worst human rights records in Indonesia, not to speak of some exploits beyond. ‘Many in the West were keen to cultivate Jakarta’s new moderate leader, Suharto’, after the dramatic events of 1965–6, the Christian Science Monitor reported years later, though some recognised that his human rights record is ‘checkered’ (Times Southeast Asia correspondent Philip Shenon).
The Making of Global Capitalism by Leo Panitch, Sam Gindin
accounting loophole / creative accounting, airline deregulation, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Basel III, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, continuous integration, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, dark matter, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, ending welfare as we know it, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, full employment, Gini coefficient, global value chain, guest worker program, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, inflation targeting, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, land reform, late capitalism, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, non-tariff barriers, Northern Rock, oil shock, precariat, price stability, quantitative easing, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, union organizing, very high income, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration, zero-coupon bond
The 1946 rail strike was ended by President Truman threatening to send in the army to run the railroads. The 1947 Taft-Hartley Act constrained union solidarity by banning secondary picketing and reinforcing state right-to-work laws. Moreover, the anti-Communist “witch-hunt” was already well in train by this time, especially in relation to the labor movement. Taft-Hartley included a provision that required officers of local, national, and international unions to file an affidavit swearing they were not members of the Communist Party. By 1949 Communist-led unions were being expelled from the AFL and CIO, while anti-Communist rhetoric was used to repress or at least marginalize rank-and-file militancy in the trade unions generally. Alongside the stick came the carrot. Although wage incomes had decreased significantly in the first year after the war, by 1950 they had increased on average by 25 percent, despite the brief recession of 1949.
Also essential to the success of the project was marginalizing the most radical impulses in the labor movement and channeling the expectations and demands of workers and farmers towards making gains within the boundaries of a growing capitalism. A great deal has been written on the isolation of Communist unions and parties, including the role played by the the AFL and CIO in establishing, with CIA funding, non-Communist—and anti-Communist—unions.40 But no less crucial was the consolidation of the “politics of productivism” among the majority of European workers, “superseding class conflict with economic growth.”41 This was in fact the crucial condition both for the distinctive development of the European welfare states and for the regional integration of their economies, which culminated in the European Common Market. The productivity councils that emerged during the Marshall Plan were especially important in identifying productivity with “modernization.”
It was no accident that a legislative hurdle (the D’Amato Amendment), adopted after the Mexican crisis to prevent the Treasury from making large-scale use of the Exchange Stabilization Fund without Congressional authorization, was quietly not renewed when it expired in September 1997. When the IMF came up with an $18 billion rescue package for Indonesia at the end of October, the Treasury now directly committed a further $3 billion from the ESF as a “second line of defense,” while insisting (over the misgivings of the State and Defense departments not to undermine such an old anti-Communist ally in the region) that the usual IMF conditionality of severe austerity be supplemented with a host of micro–structural adjustment requirements, including the closure of the banks closely linked to Suharto’s inner circle. The contagion had by then already spread to South Korea, as European as well as Japanese banks stopped turning over the massive short-term loans they had provided to Korean banks—and through them to the heavily indebted Korean chaebols.
Progress: Ten Reasons to Look Forward to the Future by Johan Norberg
agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, availability heuristic, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, clean water, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, Flynn Effect, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Island, Hans Rosling, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, more computing power than Apollo, moveable type in China, Naomi Klein, open economy, place-making, Rosa Parks, special economic zone, Steven Pinker, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, very high income, working poor, Xiaogang Anhui farmers
The moment people realized that Soviet tanks would not crush them if they protested, they dismantled communism themselves. The exception was Romania, where crowds booed the dictator Nicolae Ceau?escu at a mass rally he had ordered, and security forces fired on the protesters, until the morning after, when the military switched sides and sent its tanks against the Central Committee. Ceausescu was executed days later. Many anti-communist dictatorships supported by the United States also realized that patience with authoritarianism was growing thin. In 1989 Brazil saw the first election for president by popular vote since the military coup of 1964. After a fraudulent presidential election in Mexico in 1988, when the computers ‘broke down’ as the opposition candidate was about to win, political and electoral reforms set the country on the path to democracy.
The authorities would show them gay pornography and give them electric shocks to condition them against it. In some instances they were referred to medical institutions, where they could be sterilized and sometimes castrated and lobotomized. During the Cold War, homosexuals were often seen as security risks, either because their behaviour made them more susceptible to political radicalism generally or because it made them vulnerable to blackmail, which might make them help the enemy. The rabid anti-communist Senator Joseph McCarthy was among those making a connection between communists and so-called ‘cocksuckers’ – even though homosexuality was of course illegal in the Soviet Union. Under President Eisenhower hundreds of homosexuals were dismissed from federal employment. Similar purges took place in the British government. Undercover policemen would pose as gay men in public places, and arrested those who took the bait.
9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Hans Island, LNG terminal, market fragmentation, megacity, Mercator projection distort size, especially Greenland and Africa, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, trade route, transcontinental railway, Transnistria, UNCLOS, UNCLOS
Late in the last century overstretch, spending more money than was available, the economics of the madhouse in a land not designed for people, and defeat in the mountains of Afghanistan led to the fall of the USSR and saw the Russian Empire shrink back to the shape of more or less the pre–Communist era with its European borders ending at Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, and Azerbaijan. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, in support of the Communist Afghan government against anti-Communist Muslim guerrillas, had never been about bringing the joys of Marxist-Leninism to the Afghan people. It was always about ensuring that Moscow controlled that space in order to prevent anyone else from doing so. Crucially, the invasion of Afghanistan also gave hope to the great Russian dream of its army being able to “wash their boots in the warm waters of the Indian Ocean,” in the words of the ultra-nationalistic Russian politician Vladimir Zhirinovsky, and thus achieve what it never had: a warm-water port where the water does not freeze in winter, with free access to the world’s major trading routes.
Most of the socialists of the MPLA (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola) were from the Mbundu tribe, while the opposition rebel fighters were mostly from two other main tribes, the Bakongo and the Ovimbundu. Their political disguise was as the FNLA (National Front for the Liberation of Angola) and UNITA (National Union for the Total Independence of Angola). Many of the civil wars of the 1960s and 1970s followed this template: if Russia backed a particular side, that side would suddenly remember that it had socialist principles, while its opponents would become anti-Communist. The Mbundu had the geographical but not the numerical advantage. They held the capital, Luanda; had access to the oil fields and the main river, the Cuanza; and were backed by countries that could supply them with Russian arms and Cuban soldiers. They prevailed in 2002, and their top echelons immediately undermined their own somewhat questionable socialist credentials by joining the long list of colonial and African leaders who enriched themselves at the expense of the people.
The Collapse of Western Civilization: A View From the Future by Naomi Oreskes, Erik M. Conway
anti-communist, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, means of production, oil shale / tar sands, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, stochastic process, the built environment, the market place
This would be funny if it weren’t (mostly) true. The supporters of the Sea Level Rise Denial Bill don’t call it that, of course, but that’s what it is. We figured future historians would call a spade a spade. I N t e r v I e w w I t h t h e A u t h O r s 69 5. Why did you decide to situate the narrator in China in the Second (or Neocommunist) People’s Republic? NO: The doubt-mongers we wrote about in Merchants of Doubt were anti-communists who opposed environmental regulations for fear that government encroachment in the marketplace would become a backdoor to communism. They believed that political freedom was tied to economic freedom, so restrictions on economic freedom threatened political freedom. Their views came out of the Cold War—particularly the writings of Milton Friedman and Friedrich von Hayek—but the essential idea remains a tenet for many people on the right wing of the American political spectrum today.
Sitting with those magazines, it was as if he were studying the chess equivalent of Plutarch’s lives of the Roman generals or Vasari’s lives of the artists. Quite simply, they inspired. Then, in the summer of 1954, Bobby had an opportunity to see in action some of the greats he’d been reading about. It turned out that the Soviet team would be playing for the first time on United States soil. In that era of anti-Communist hysteria, when anyone in America who read Karl Marx’s Das Kapital or wore a red tie was thought to be a Communist, the president of the U.S. Chess Federation, Harold M. Phillips, a lawyer who’d defended Morton Sobell in the Rosenberg espionage case, confided almost with relish that he expected to be called in front of Senator McCarthy’s House Un-American Activities Committee hearings and accused of being a Communist simply because he’d tendered the chess invitation to the Russians.
She was shaking, not because she was concealing anything, but because of the scenario that had just taken place: two law enforcement agents, men who towered over her relatively tiny frame of five feet, four inches, coming at her in a confrontational way in the street. Regina’s political activities—any or all of which could be considered “subversive,” taking into account the near hysterical anti-Communist climate of the day—were fodder for the FBI: her six years in Moscow, her mercurial ex-husband in Chile, her work at defense plants, her association with rabble-rousers, her affiliation with left-wing political organizations, and her active participation in protests—such as a vigil she joined on the night of the execution of the convicted spies Ethel and Julius Rosenberg. Had she done anything illegal?
Though Bobby had always pushed for Belgrade as the site of the championship match, a tentative understanding seemed to have been worked out to at least split the match between Belgrade and Reykjavik. Thorbergsson clearly favored the idea of all the games being staged in Iceland. Going back to Bobby’s chalet, the two analyzed some games, and Thorbergsson continued his volley of subtle arguments for why Bobby should play exclusively in Iceland. A gentle man, Thorbergsson had lived in Russia and was a rabid anti-Communist. He saw Bobby’s playing for the World Championship as a political act as much as a cultural one; and he used that line of reasoning with Bobby, maintaining that it would be morally wrong to allow the championship to be played within the Soviets’ sphere of influence. In an essay, he’d later write: “The Russians have for decades enslaved other nations and their own nationals. They use their victories in various sports, chess and in other fields to fool people and make them believe their system is the best.”
Cocaine Nation: How the White Trade Took Over the World by Thomas Feiling
anti-communist, barriers to entry, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, illegal immigration, informal economy, inventory management, land reform, Lao Tzu, offshore financial centre, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, trade route, upwardly mobile
What is beyond doubt is that it put cocaine within the reach of many more Americans, and paved the way for the crack epidemic that swept through the inner cities of the United States in the 1980s. The cocaine-Contra scandal might have undermined the United States’ determination to scupper the cocaine trade, but it also brings to mind earlier cases in which the US government has allowed drug traffickers to sell drugs in the United States, usually in pursuit of the same anti-communist goals that animated their strategy in Nicaragua. The Italian-American Mafioso Lucky Luciano was the first beneficiary of collusion between the US government’s spies and its gangsters, as the government turned to the Italian Mafia for help in invading Sicily in 1943. United States intelligence agencies not only arranged for Luciano, then the world’s pre-eminent heroin dealer, to be released from prison; they also allowed him to rebuild his drug-smuggling business, watched as heroin flowed into New York and Washington DC, and then lied about what they had done.
Because the Colombian government shares the paramilitaries’ hatred of the FARC, it turned a blind eye to the AUC’s second motive, which was to get rich quick. AUC leader Carlos Castaño revealed that three quarters of the AUC’s funds came from the production and trafficking of cocaine. Like the guerrillas, the paramilitaries went through bitter internal struggles over their relationship to the cocaine business. Castaño made his fortune working with the Norte del Valle cartel, but he was first and foremost an anti-communist, who saw the cocaine business as a means to a political end. When the AUC struck a deal with the government, by which the paramilitaries would leave the fighting to the regular armed forces, its political task was complete, and Castaño’s card was marked. He was killed shortly afterwards by his brother Vicente. The AUC was ready to demobilize. The battle to wrest control of the north of the country from the guerrillas had been won.
As a result, three quarters of the cocaine consumed in the United States is said to pass through Guatemala.8 The US government has shown itself to be happy to facilitate drugs traffickers when they share the Americans’ broader foreign policy goals. Former DEA agent Celerino Castillo III has written that ‘we spent billions trying to beat down an ideology in Central America, while the cartels rented nations as transit routes’.9 Of course, there are limits to American indulgence of drug trafficking: the case of Manuel Noriega, the military dictator who ruled Panama between 1983 and 1989, shows what US agencies are prepared to do when anti-communist allies in Central America overstep the mark. Noriega had been trafficking drugs, and working for the CIA, since the late 1960s. The United States’ security agencies had long overlooked Noriega’s cocaine trafficking for the Medellín cartel because of the strategic role the Panamanian played in supporting the Contras in Nicaragua. But when Noriega took a hard line in negotiations with the Americans over the future of the Panama Canal, the CIA dropped him as an asset, and the White House decided to depose him.
How to Change the World: Reflections on Marx and Marxism by Eric Hobsbawm
anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, discovery of the americas, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, labour market flexibility, market fundamentalism, means of production, new economy, Simon Kuznets, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile
Perhaps this did not greatly affect the bulk of the continent’s intellectuals, but it should warn us against too facile an application of the European political alignments in Latin America. Moreover, that continent was not effectively involved in World War Two. The situation was more complex in Asia and (insofar as it was politically mobilised), Africa, where there was no local fascism15 – though Japan, a militantly anti-communist power, was allied with Germany and Italy – and where Britain, France and the Netherlands were the obvious main adversaries for anti-imperialists. The bulk of secular intellectuals were certainly opposed to European fascism, given its racialist attitude to peoples of yellow, brown and black skins. Moreover, movements in these countries were often strongly influenced by those of the metropoles, i.e. by the liberal and democratic traditions of Western Europe, as notably in the Indian National Congress.
It is therefore likely that Gramsci will continue to be read mainly for the light his writings throw on politics, in his own words, the ‘body of practical rules for research and of detailed observations useful for awakening an interest in effective reality and for stimulating more rigorous and more vigorous political insights’. I do not believe that those looking for such insights will only be found on the left, although for evident reasons those who share Gramsci’s objectives are most likely to look to him for guidance. As Joseph Buttigieg notes, American anti-communists are worried because Gramsci can still inspire the post-Soviet left, even when Lenin, Stalin, Trotsky and Mao no longer can. Yet, while one hopes that Gramsci may still be a guide to successful political action for the left, it is already clear that his international influence has penetrated beyond the left, and indeed beyond the sphere of instrumental politics. 2 338 The Reception of Gramsci It may seem trivial that an Anglo-Saxon reference work can – I quote the entry in its entirety – reduce him to a single word: ‘Antonio Gramsci (Italian political thinker, 1891–1937), see under HEGEMONY’.3 It may be absurd that an American journalist quoted by Buttigieg believes that the concept of ‘civil society’ was introduced into modern political discourse by Gramsci alone.4 Yet the acceptance of a thinker as a permanent classic is often indicated by just such superficial references to him by people who patently know little more about him than that he is ‘important’.
But even when both stood on the left, the focus of their political interests tended to be different. Thus it was very much easier to rouse passionate concern for environmental and ecological questions on the intellectual left than in purely proletarian organisations. The combination of both groups was politically most powerful –where it still occurred: under left-wing auspices in Brazil, under anti-communist ones in Poland, both in the 1980s. The gap, or the lack of coordination between them, whether permanent or not, was therefore likely to affect the practical prospects of transforming society by the action of Marxist movements. At the same time experience suggested that political movements based primarily on intellectuals were unlikely to produce mass parties like the traditional socialist or communist parties of labour, held together by the solid bonds of class consciousness and class loyalty; or indeed any mass parties.
The Forgotten Man by Amity Shlaes
anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, collective bargaining, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Frederick Winslow Taylor, invisible hand, Mahatma Gandhi, Plutocrats, plutocrats, short selling, Upton Sinclair, wage slave, Works Progress Administration
Coda Roger Baldwin, the ACLU cofounder, worked hard for the peace movement in the 1930s. His change of heart at the news of the Soviet-Nazi Pact changed the course of both the ACLU and American history. Baldwin now brought strong anti-Communists onto his board. In 1940 the ACLU expelled a board member, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, who was a Communist; Baldwin concluded that “an organization devoted to civil liberties should be directed only by consistent supporters of civil liberty.” At the end of 1959, Baldwin told scholar Lewis Feuer, “We went wrong, we were starry-eyed. We didn’t see the potentiality of totalitarianism.” Some have called Baldwin’s anti-Communist shift early McCarthyism, but it gave the ACLU a legitimacy that would enable it to play an important role in civil rights battles after World War II. Stuart Chase went on to write in a number of other areas.
The transcript of these questions, published within a week in Pravda, give as clear a snapshot as any document of the tactical and strategic goals of Soviet foreign policy. Stalin wanted to make the point that he had a genuine labor following in the United States, and he wanted to sideline those organizations that had sidelined him—with the aid of his interlocutors. He had already skewered the anti-Communist American Federation of Labor. Now he set about doing so again: “How do you explain the fact that on the question of recognizing the USSR, the leaders of the American Federation of Labor are more reactionary than many bourgeois?” Brophy allowed that the AFL had a “peculiar philosophy.” Dunn took time to point out that the AFL was too close to capitalists—especially Matthew Woll, AFL vice president.
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, central bank independence, centre right, collective bargaining, falling living standards, fiat currency, full employment, German hyperinflation, housing crisis, Internet Archive, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, mittelstand, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, quantitative easing, rent control, risk/return, strikebreaker, trade route
He wore a tie in the fashion of Oscar Wilde, organised champagne parties, and provided for his embarrassed father.3 Elsewhere in the country, young bank workers, like the ‘high-rollers’ of Wall Street and the City of London in the early 2000s, were able to use their access to foreign currency to live the high life. In Hamburg, the bank clerk Hermann Zander, after completing his brief post-war service with the anti-Communist Freikorps, settled into a career as a foreign exchange dealer with the Commerzbank. He described his privileged situation during the hyperinflation in jaunty terms: This is the time when we had the ever quicker developing inflation, during which I had the opportunity to make diversions into Valuta (foreign currency). Any paper marks that were still left over at close of business would be spent on fun or used to buy goods.
On the same day that President Ebert and Stresemann’s government jointly announced the end of support for the resistance struggle in the Ruhr, the Bavarian government responded to the new emergency by transferring presidential powers within the state away from Ebert in Berlin to Gustav von Kahr, currently District President of Upper Bavaria (which included Munich), former Premier of the state (1920-21), and champion of anti-Communist order. Under paragraph 48 of the Weimar constitution, the President in Berlin could assume semi-dictatorial powers. Now, according to the Bavarians’ peculiar interpretation of their own legal rights, Kahr as ‘General State Commissioner’ superseded the national President and could exercise these powers in his place without consulting anyone. Sure enough, Kahr proclaimed martial law in Bavaria immediately on taking office.
At a secret meeting of the Politburo on 23 August 1923, the green light was given for a Communist revolution in Germany, to be spearheaded by the ‘proletarian hundreds’. A successful uprising in the world’s second largest industrial country would bolster the Trotskyite cause within the Bolshevik leadership. It would also, incidentally, ensure that the new ‘bourgeois’ Stresemann government, which was clearly attempting to find a modus vivendi with the arch-capitalist British, would not abandon the Rapallo Treaty and become part of a possible anti-Communist block. Hence the Moscow leadership’s authorisation of a secret fund, to be controlled by the Soviet ambassador in Berlin, for the promotion of the so-called ‘German October’ – or, rather, in Trotsky’s case, a ‘German November’, for he argued that the Communist coup should take place on the ninth of that month, the fifth anniversary of the revolution that overthrew the Kaiser in 1918. It is one of the special curiosities of this most strange of German autumns that Adolf Hitler had the very same fateful date in mind – 9 November 1923 – for his planned ‘march on Berlin’.
War Without Mercy: PACIFIC WAR by John Dower
anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, ghettoisation, labour mobility, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Scientific racism, South China Sea, Torches of Freedom, transcontinental railway
The demonic Westerners could suddenly become transformed into their tutelary guise, extirpating evil feudalistic and militaristic influences from Japan, and leading the folk procession along the road to democracy. The Japanese, on the other hand, retained in Western eyes characteristics of the herd, the undifferentiated mass. Formerly “all bad,” they now became all (or almost all)—what? Diligent, peace-loving, pro-American–and anti-Communist. With the “anti-Communist” allure of postwar Japan, one moves on to a fuller appreciation of the true resilience of code words concerning the Other. Not only are such concepts capable of evoking constructive as well as destructive responses; they are also free-floating and easily transferred from one target to another, depending on the exigencies and apprehensions of the moment. The war hates and race hates of World War Two, that is, proved very adaptable to the cold war.
The total number of Chinese killed is controversial, but a middle-range estimate puts the combined deaths from both the shelling and subsequent atrocities at two hundred thousand.26 Much smaller killings occurred in other Chinese cities that fell into Japanese hands, including Hankow and Canton. In attempting to consolidate their control over northern China, the Japanese subsequently turned to “rural pacification” campaigns that amounted to indiscriminate terror against the peasantry. And by 1941–42, this fundamentally anti-Communist “pacification” campaign had evolved into the devastating “three-all” policy (sankō seisaku: “kill all, burn all, destroy all”), during which it is estimated that the population in the areas dominated by the Chinese Communists was reduced, through flight and death, from 44 million to 25 million persons.27 Outside of China, massacres small and large by Japanese ground forces were reported from every country that fell within the Co-Prosperity Sphere.28 After the British surrendered Singapore in February 1942, the overseas Chinese there became an immediate target of Japanese oppression, and upwards of five thousand were summarily executed in the course of a few days.
The Cold War by Robert Cowley
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doomsday Clock, friendly fire, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, transcontinental railway
Their ideological activity was shouted out in slogans and posters, including drawings of the Soviet and North Korean dictators, Joseph Stalin and Kim Il Sung. They demonstrated for better conditions, drilled with homemade rifles, and forcibly resisted United Nations screening, to the point of murdering those who wavered. In the compounds they controlled, riots on command slowed down the U.N. process of screening out anti-Communist prisoners from the hard core. When the leader of Compound 62 declared that screening was unnecessary because all 5,600 prisoners demanded to be returned to North Korea, the 3rd Battalion of the American 27th Infantry Regiment was sent to subdue them on February 18, 1952. As more than a thousand prisoners in Compound 62 ran yelling from their tents brandishing improvised weapons and throwing rocks, the men of the 27th hurled grenades and finally opened fire.
The U.S.S.R. was all but impenetrable to Western espionage, as were its satellites. (As has been pointed out, that impenetrability explained the need for overflights.) What was the Soviet capability for offensive action, not only against Berlin and West Germany but also against Western Europe itself? How much was the GDR contributing to the Soviet nuclear program? After the anti-government riots that had spread across East Germany in June 1953, how strong did anti-Communist sentiment remain? Could it still be exploited? The spy game became even more risky thanks to moles in the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) and the West German Foreign Intelligence Service. Between 1953 and 1955, they betrayed the West's spy network in the Soviet bloc and for a time almost eliminated it. Several hundred Allied agents were rounded up, not a few of whom were executed.
Harvey himself might have written the report's appeal for more espionage to “subvert, sabotage, and destroy our enemies.” As it was, ranking American visitors to BOB headquarters were buoyed by a rousing delivery of his signature speech about “protecting the United States against its enemies.” Startled Europeans tended to see the passionate lover of pearl handles and battle hyperbole as dangerously half-cocked himself: the archetypal anti-Communist cowboy. John Kennedy approved. The young president and Ian Fleming fan would speak of the pear-shaped Harvey, with his bulging eyes and froglike voice, as a kind of American James Bond. Actually, the “memorably bizarre figure”—as described by Evan Thomas's account of CIA all-stars, The Very Best Men— occupied the opposite end of the manly-beauty spectrum from braw Bond. That aside, the comparison was not outrageous.
Necessary Illusions by Noam Chomsky
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, full employment, Howard Zinn, Khyber Pass, land reform, New Journalism, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, union organizing
As accurately observed by Gordon Connell-Smith in his study of the inter-American system for the Royal Institute of International Affairs,19 the U.S. “concept of democracy” is “closely identified with private, capitalistic enterprise,” and it is only when this is threatened by what is regularly called “Communism” that action is taken to “restore democracy”; the “United States concern for representative democracy in Latin America [as elsewhere] is a facet of her anti-communist policy,” or more accurately, the policy of opposing any threat to U.S. economic penetration and political control. And when these interests are safeguarded, democratic forms are not only tolerated, but approved, if only for public relations reasons. Costa Rica fits the model closely, and provides interesting insight into the “yearning for democracy” that is alleged to guide U.S. foreign policy.
No censorship was required in Guatemala while the United States was supporting the terror at its height; the murder of dozens of journalists sufficed. There was little notice in the United States. With the “democratic renewal” that we proudly hail, there were some halting efforts to explore the “political space” that perhaps had opened. In February 1988, two journalists who had returned from exile opened the center-left weekly La Epoca, testing Guatemalan “democracy.” A communique of the Secret Anti-Communist Army (ESA) had warned returning journalists: “We will make sure they either leave the country or die inside it.”44 No notice was taken in the United States. In April great indignation was aroused when La Prensa could not publish during a newsprint shortage. For the Washington Post, this was another “pointed lesson in arbitrary power … by denying La Prensa the newsprint.” There were renewed cries of outrage when La Prensa was suspended for two weeks in July after what the government alleged to be fabricated and inflammatory accounts of violence that had erupted at demonstrations.45 Meanwhile, on June 10, fifteen heavily armed men broke into the offices of La Epoca, stole valuable equipment, and firebombed the offices, destroying them.
While the media “make extensive use of news and special articles” from the U.S. propaganda services, more can be done in this regard to “encourage confidence in democracy and free enterprise”—the two being operationally equivalent—and to overcome the current “lackadaisical… attitude of the government toward [the] suppression” of communists. The State Department recommended convincing the government to take measures to “Limit the international movement of communists, Increase penalties for communist activities, Eliminate communists from union leadership, Restrict communist propaganda,” while continuing U.S. propaganda programs “to increase public support for anti-communist measures.” In short, the United States should foster democracy. It should not be assumed that these are only the thoughts of the Republican Eisenhower administration. If anything, the Kennedy liberals were even more concerned to ensure that democratic forms remain within appropriate bounds.6 In later years, Don Pepe continued to serve the cause of the United States, as standard bearer of the Free World, while advocating probity in government, class collaboration, and economic development sensitive to the needs of business and foreign investors.
affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, energy security, full employment, illegal immigration, immigration reform, low skilled workers, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, North Sea oil, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, World Values Survey
At the same time, the Russian Federation could not be allowed to gain politically from western Europe’s willingness to be more conciliatory towards it. The tension between new Europe and Russia had to be relaxed if CFSP was to take hold. But it was to persist for years, as eastern Europeans could not comprehend why the west did not seem very Russophobic. CONFLICT OVER A CONSTITUTION EU enlargement was set for May 1, 2004. Some of new Europe’s more radical Eurosceptics and anti-communists—the two often were the same people, nationalists hostile to any type of external interference in their countries—pounced on the May Day accession. Eastern Europe, they claimed, was trading in domination by Moscow for domination by Brussels. Their suspicions were further raised by the start of discussions about an EU constitution. These talks began even before the EU was formally enlarged. In 2002–2003 the European Convention, headed by former French president Valéry Giscard d’Éstaing, began to review a number of different constitutional drafts.
In a speech in the European Parliament, a politician from one of the coalition parties praised the dictatorships of António Salazar of Portugal and Francisco Franco of Spain; he also published an openly anti-Semitic booklet. During a dry summer, a group of coalition legislators called upon the Parliament to pray for rain. A similar group proposed that the Parliament vote to declare Jesus Christ the King of Poland.” Michnik attacked the anti-communist witch hunt launched under the Kaczyńskis: “The latest idea of the Polish governing coalition is ‘lustration,’ which means looking for and eventually barring from public life all people found to have been secret collaborators with the security services between 1944 and 1990. The search will last as long as 17 years and will affect approximately 700,000 people.”90 For Michnik, then, Poland’s “governing coalition employs a peculiar mix of the conservative rhetoric of George W.
The Enigma of Capital: And the Crises of Capitalism by David Harvey
accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, call centre, capital controls, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, failed state, financial innovation, Frank Gehry, full employment, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Guggenheim Bilbao, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, land reform, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, market bubble, means of production, megacity, microcredit, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, place-making, Ponzi scheme, precariat, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, statistical arbitrage, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, women in the workforce
These policies were hardly great success stories, precipitating great tragedies such as the grand famine caused by Mao’s Great Leap Forward in China (which temporarily halted the otherwise rapid increase in life expectancies) and sparking political resistance that was in some instances ruthlessly crushed. Insurgent movements against dispossession other than in the labour process have therefore in recent times generally taken an anti-communist path. This has sometimes been ideological but in other instances simply for pragmatic and organisational reasons, deriving from the very nature of what such struggles were and are about. The variety of struggles against the capitalist forms of dispossession was and is simply stunning. It is hard to even imagine connections between them. The struggles of the Ogoni people in the Niger delta against what they see as the degradation of their lands by Shell Oil; peasant movements against biopiracy and land grabbing; struggles against genetically modified foods and for the authenticity of local production systems; fights to preserve access for indigenous populations to forest reserves, while curbing the activities of timber companies; political struggles against privatisation; movements to procure labour rights or women’s rights in developing countries; campaigns to protect biodiversity and to prevent habitat destruction; hundreds of protests against IMF-imposed austerity programmes and long-drawn-out struggles against World Bank-backed dam construction projects in India and Latin America: these have all been part of a volatile mix of protest movements that have swept the world and increasingly grabbed the headlines since the 1980s.
Index Numbers in italics indicate Figures; those in bold indicate a Table. 11 September 2001 attacks 38, 41–2 subject to perpetual renewal and transformation 128 A Abu Dhabi 222 Académie Française 91 accumulation by dispossession 48–9, 244 acid deposition 75, 187 activity spheres 121–4, 128, 130 deindustrialised working-class area 151 and ‘green revolution’ 185–6 institutional and administrative arrangements 123 ‘mental conceptions of the world’ 123 patterns of relations between 196 production and labour processes 123 relations to nature 123 the reproduction of daily life and of the species 123 slums 152 social relations 123 subject to perpetual renewal and transformation 128 suburbs 150 technologies and organisational forms 123 uneven development between and among them 128–9 Adelphia 100 advertising industry 106 affective bonds 194 Afghanistan: US interventionism 210 Africa civil wars 148 land bought up in 220 neocolonialism 208 population growth 146 agribusiness 50 agriculture collectivisation of 250 diminishing returns in 72 ‘green revolution’ 185–6 ‘high farming’ 82 itinerant labourers 147 subsidies 79 AIG 5 alcoholism 151 Allen, Paul 98 Allende, Salvador 203 Amazonia 161, 188 American Bankers Association 8 American Revolution 61 anarchists 253, 254 anti-capitalist revolutionary movement 228 anti-racism 258 anti-Semitism 62 après moi le déluge 64, 71 Argentina Debt Crisis (2000–2002) 6, 243, 246, 261 Arizona, foreclosure wave in 1 Arrighi, Giovanni: The Long Twentieth Century 35, 204 asbestos 74 Asia Asian Currency Crisis (1997–98) 141, 261 collapse of export markets 141 growth 218 population growth 146 asset stripping 49, 50, 245 asset traders 40 asset values 1, 6, 21, 23, 26, 29, 46, 223, 261 Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) 200 Athabaska tar sands, Canada 83 austerity programmes 246, 251 automobile industry 14, 15, 23, 56, 67, 68, 77, 121, 160–61 Detroit 5, 15, 16, 91, 108, 195, 216 autonomista movement 233, 234, 254 B Baader-Meinhof Gang 254 Bakunin, Michael 225 Balzac, Honoré 156 Bangalore, software development in 195 Bangkok 243 Bank of England 53, 54 massive liquidity injections in stock markets 261 Bank of International Settlements, Basel 51, 55, 200 Bank of New England 261 Bankers Trust 25 banking bail-outs 5, 218 bank shares become almost worthless 5 bankers’ pay and bonuses 12, 56, 218 ‘boutique investment banks’ 12 de-leveraging 30 debt-deposit ratio 30 deposit banks 20 French banks nationalised 198 international networks of finance houses 163 investment banks 2, 19, 20, 28, 219 irresponsible behaviour 10–11 lending 51 liquidity injections by central banks vii, 261 mysterious workings of central banks 54 ‘national bail-out’ 30–31 property market-led Nordic and Japanese bank crises 261 regional European banks 4 regular banks stash away cash 12, 220 rising tide of ‘moral hazard’ in international bank lending practices 19 ‘shadow banking’ system 8, 21, 24 sympathy with ‘Bonnie and Clyde’ bank robbers 56 Baran, Paul and Sweezey, Paul: Monopoly Capital 52, 113 Barings Bank 37, 100, 190 Baucus, Max 220 Bavaria, automotive engineering in 195 Beijing declaration (1995) 258 Berlin: cross-border leasing 14 Bernanke, Ben 236 ‘Big Bang’ (1986) 20, 37 Big Bang unification of global stock, options and currency trading markets 262 billionaire class 29, 110, 223 biodiversity 74, 251 biomass 78 biomedical engineering 98 biopiracy 245, 251 Birmingham 27 Bismarck, Prince Otto von 168 Black, Fischer 100 Blackstone 50 Blair, Tony 255 Blair government 197 blockbusting neighbourhoods 248 Bloomberg, Mayor Michael 20, 98, 174 Bolivarian movement 226, 256 bonuses, Wall Street 2, 12 Borlaug, Norman 186 bourgeoisie 48, 89, 95, 167, 176 ‘boutique investment banks’ 12 Brazil automobile industry 16 capital flight crisis (1999) 261 containerisation 16 an export-dominated economy 6 follows Japanese model 92 landless movement 257 lending to 19 the right to the city movement 257 workers’ party 256 Bretton Woods Agreement (1944) 31, 32, 51, 55, 171 British Academy 235 British empire 14 Brown, Gordon 27, 45 Budd, Alan 15 Buenos Aires 243 Buffett, Warren 173 building booms 173–4 Bush, George W. 5, 42, 45 business associations 195 C California, foreclosure wave in 1, 2 Canada, tightly regulated banks in 141 ‘cap and trade’ markets in pollution rights 221 capital bank 30 centralisation of 95, 110, 113 circulation of 90, 93, 108, 114, 116, 122, 124, 128, 158, 159, 182, 183, 191 cultural 21 devalued 46 embedded in the land 191 expansion of 58, 67, 68 exploitations of 102 export 19, 158 fixed 191, 213 industrial 40–41, 56 insufficient initial money capital 47 investment 93, 203 and labour 56, 88, 169–70 liquid money 20 mobility 59, 63, 64, 161–2, 191, 213 and nature 88 as a process 40 reproduction of 58 scarcity 50 surplus 16, 28, 29, 50–51, 84, 88, 100, 158, 166, 167, 172, 173, 174, 206, 215, 216, 217 capital accumulation 107, 108, 123, 182, 183, 191, 211 and the activity spheres 128 barriers to 12, 16, 47, 65–6, 69–70, 159 compound rate 28, 74, 75, 97, 126, 135, 215 continuity of endless 74 at the core of human evolutionary dynamics 121 dynamics of 188, 197 geographic landscape of 185 geographical dynamics of 67, 143 and governance 201 lagging 130 laws of 113, 154, 160 main centres of 192 market-based 180 Mumbai redevelopment 178 ‘nature’ affected by 122 and population growth 144–7 and social struggles 105 start of 159 capital circulation barriers to 45 continuity of 68 industrial/production capital 40–41 inherently risky 52 interruption in the process 41–2, 50 spatial movement 42 speculative 52, 53 capital controls 198 capital flow continuity 41, 47, 67, 117 defined vi global 20 importance of understanding vi, vii-viii interrupted, slowed down or suspended vi systematic misallocation of 70 taxation of vi wealth creation vi capital gains 112 capital strike 60 capital surplus absorption 31–2, 94, 97, 98, 101, 163 capital-labour relation 77 capitalism and communism 224–5 corporate 1691 ‘creative-destructive’ tendencies in 46 crisis of vi, 40, 42, 117, 130 end of 72 evolution of 117, 118, 120 expansion at a compound rate 45 first contradiction of 77 geographical development of 143 geographical mobility 161 global 36, 110 historical geography of 76, 117, 118, 121, 174, 180, 200, 202, 204 industrial 58, 109, 242 internal contradictions 115 irrationality of 11, 215, 246 market-led 203 positive and negative aspects 120 and poverty 72 relies on the beneficence of nature 71 removal of 260 rise of 135, 192, 194, 204, 228, 248–9, 258 ‘second contradiction of’ 77, 78 social relations in 101 and socialism 224 speculative 160 survival of 46, 57, 66, 86, 107, 112, 113, 116, 130, 144, 229, 246 uneven geographical development of 211, 213 volatile 145 Capitalism, Nature, Socialism journal 77 capitalist creed 103 capitalist development considered over time 121–4 ‘eras’ of 97 capitalist exploitation 104 capitalist logic 205 capitalist reinvestment 110–11 capitalists, types of 40 Carnegie, Andrew 98 Carnegie foundation 44 Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 195 Carson, Rachel: Silent Spring 187 Case Shiller Composite Indices SA 3 Catholic Church 194, 254 cell phones 131, 150, 152 Central American Free Trade Association (CAFTA) 200 centralisation 10, 11, 165, 201 Certificates of Deposit 262 chambers of commerce 195, 203 Channel Tunnel 50 Chiapas, Mexico 207, 226 Chicago Board Options Exchange 262 Chicago Currency Futures Market 262 ‘Chicago School’ 246 Chile, lending to 19 China ‘barefoot doctors’ 137 bilateral trade with Latin America 173 capital accumulation issue 70 cheap retail goods 64 collapse of communism 16 collapse of export markets 141 Cultural Revolution 137 Deng’s announcement 159 falling exports 6 follows Japanese model 92 ‘Great Leap Forward’ 137, 138 growth 35, 59, 137, 144–5, 213, 218, 222 health care 137 huge foreign exchange reserves 141, 206 infant mortality 59 infrastructural investment 222 labour income and household consumption (1980–2005) 14 market closed after communists took power (1949) 108 market forcibly opened 108 and oil market 83 one child per family policy 137, 146 one-party rule 199 opening-up of 58 plundering of wealth from 109, 113 proletarianisation 60 protests in 38 and rare earth metals 188 recession (1997) 172 ‘silk road’ 163 trading networks 163 unemployment 6 unrest in 66 urbanisation 172–3 and US consumerism 109 Chinese Central Bank 4, 173 Chinese Communist Party 180, 200, 256 chlorofluoral carbons (CFCs) 74, 76, 187 chronometer 91, 156 Church, the 249 CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) 169 circular and cumulative causation 196 Citibank 19 City Bank 261 city centres, Disneyfication of 131 City of London 20, 35, 45, 162, 219 class consciousness 232, 242, 244 class inequalities 240–41 class organisation 62 class politics 62 class power 10, 11, 12, 61, 130, 180 class relations, radical reconstitution of 98 class struggle 56, 63, 65, 96, 102, 127, 134, 193, 242, 258 Clausewitz, Carl von 213 Cleveland, foreclosure crisis in 2 Cleveland, foreclosures on housing in 1 Clinton, Bill 11, 12, 17, 44, 45 co-evolution 132, 136, 138, 168, 185, 186, 195, 197, 228, 232 in three cases 149–53 coal reserves 79, 188 coercive laws of competition see under competition Cold War 31, 34, 92 Collateralised Bond Obligations (CBOs) 262 Collateralised Debt Obligations (CDOs) 36, 142, 261, 262 Collateralised Mortgage Obligations (CMOs) 262 colonialism 212 communications, innovations in 42, 93 communism 228, 233, 242, 249 collapse of 16, 58, 63 compared with socialism 224 as a loaded term 259–60 orthodox communists 253 revolutionary 136 traditional institutionalised 259 companies joint stock 49 limited 49 comparative advantage 92 competition 15, 26, 43, 70 between financial centres 20 coercive laws of 43, 71, 90, 95, 158, 159, 161 and expansion of production 113 and falling prices 29, 116 fostering 52 global economic 92, 131 and innovation 90, 91 inter-capitalist 31 inter-state 209, 256 internalised 210 interterritorial 202 spatial 164 and the workforce 61 competitive advantage 109 computerised trading 262 computers 41, 99, 158–9 consortia 50, 220 consumerism 95, 109, 168, 175, 240 consumerist excess 176 credit-fuelled 118 niche 131 suburban 171 containerisation 16 Continental Illinois Bank 261 cooperatives 234, 242 corporate fraud 245 corruption 43, 69 cotton industry 67, 144, 162 credit cards fees vii, 245 rise of the industry 17 credit crunch 140 Credit Default swaps 262 Crédit Immobilièr 54 Crédit Mobilier 54 Crédit Mobilier and Immobilier 168 credit swaps 21 credit system and austerity programmes 246 crisis within 52 and the current crisis 118 and effective demand problem 112 an inadequate configuration of 52 predatory practices 245 role of 115 social and economic power in 115 crises crises of disproportionality 70 crisis of underconsumption 107, 111 east Asia (1997–8) 6, 8, 35, 49, 246 financial crisis of 1997–8 198, 206 financial crisis of 2008 34, 108, 114, 115 general 45–6 inevitable 71 language of crisis 27 legitimation 217 necessary 71 property market 8 role of 246–7 savings and loan crisis (US, 1984–92) 8 short sharp 8, 10 south-east Asia (1997–8) 6, 8, 35, 49, 246 cross-border leasing 142–3 cultural choice 238 ‘cultural industries’ 21 cultural preferences 73–4 Cultural Revolution 137 currency currency swaps 262 futures market 24, 32 global 32–3, 34 options markets on 262 customs barriers 42, 43 cyberspace 190 D Darwin, Charles 120 DDT 74, 187 de-leveraging 30 debt-financing 17, 131, 141, 169 decentralisation 165, 201 decolonisation 31, 208, 212 deficit financing 35, 111 deforestation 74, 143 deindustrialisation 33, 43, 88, 131, 150, 157, 243 Deleuze, Gilles 128 demand consumer 107, 109 effective 107, 110–14, 116, 118, 221, 222 lack of 47 worker 108 Democratic Party (US) 11 Deng Xiaoping 159 deregulation 11, 16, 54, 131 derivatives 8 currency 21 heavy losses in (US) 261 derivatives markets creation of 29, 85 unregulated 99, 100, 219 Descartes, René 156 desertification 74 Detroit auto industry 5, 15, 16, 91, 108, 195, 216 foreclosures on housing in 1 Deutsches Bank 20 devaluation 32, 47, 116 of bank capital 30 of prior investments 93 developing countries: transformation of daily lives 94–5 Developing Countries Debt Crisis 19, 261 development path building alliances 230 common objectives 230–31 development not the same as growth 229–30 impacts and feedbacks from other spaces in the global economy 230 Diamond, Jared: Guns, Germs and Steel 132–3, 154 diasporas 147, 155, 163 Dickens, Charles: Bleak House 90 disease 75, 85 dispossession anti-communist insurgent movements against 250–51 of arbitrary feudal institutions 249 of the capital class 260 China 179–80 first category 242–4 India 178–9, 180 movements against 247–52 second category 242, 244–5 Seoul 179 types of 247 under socialism and communism 250 Domar, Evsey 71 Dongguan, China 36 dot-com bubble 29, 261 Dow 35,000 prediction 21 drug trade 45, 49 Dubai: over-investment 10 Dubai World 174, 222 Durban conference on anti-racism (2009) 258 E ‘earth days’ 72, 171 east Asia crash of 1997–8 6, 8, 35, 49, 246 labour reserves 64 movement of production to 43 proletarianisation 62 state-centric economies 226 wage rates 62 eastern European countries 37 eBay 190 economic crisis (1848) 167 economists, and the current financial crisis 235–6 ecosystems 74, 75, 76 Ecuador, and remittances 38 education 59, 63, 127, 128, 221, 224, 257 electronics industry 68 Elizabeth II, Queen vi-vii, 235, 236, 238–9 employment casual part-time low-paid female 150 chronic job insecurity 93 culture of the workplace 104 deskilling 93 reskilling 93 services 149 Engels, Friedrich 89, 98, 115, 157, 237 The Housing Question 176–7, 178 Enron 8, 24, 52, 53, 100, 261 entertainment industries 41 environment: modified by human action 84–5 environmental movement 78 environmental sciences 186–7 equipment 58, 66–7 equity futures 262 equity index swaps 262 equity values 262 ethanol plants 80 ethnic cleansings 247 ethnicity issues 104 Eurodollars 262 Europe negative population growth in western Europe 146 reconstruction of economy after Second World War 202 rsouevolutions of 1848 243 European Union 200, 226 eastern European countries 37 elections (June 2009) 143 unemployment 140 evolution punctuated equilibrium theory of natural evolution 130 social 133 theory of 120, 129 exchange rates 24, 32, 198 exports, falling 141 external economies 162 F Factory Act (1848) 127 factory inspectors 127 ‘failed states’ 69 Fannie Mae (US government-chartered mortgage institution) 4, 17, 173, 223 fascism 169, 203, 233 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) 8 rescue of Continental Illinois Bank 261 Federal Reserve System (the Fed) 2, 17, 54, 116, 219, 236, 248 and asset values 6 cuts interest rates 5, 261 massive liquidity injections in stock markets 261 rescue of Continental Illinois Bank 261 feminists, and colonisation of urban neighbourhoods 248 fertilisers 186 feudalism 135, 138, 228 finance capitalists 40 financial institutions awash with credit 17 bankruptcies 261 control of supply and demand for housing 17 nationalisations 261 financial services 99 Financial Times 12 financialisation 30, 35, 98, 245 Finland: Nordic cris (1992) 8 Flint strike, Michigan (1936–7) 243 Florida, foreclosure wave in 1, 2 Forbes magazine 29, 223 Ford, Henry 64, 98, 160, 161, 188, 189 Ford foundation 44, 186 Fordism 136 Fordlandia 188, 189 foreclosed businesses 245 foreclosed properties 220 fossil fuels 78 Foucault, Michel 134 Fourierists 168 France acceptance of state interventions 200 financial crisis (1868) 168 French banks nationalised 198 immigration 14 Paris Commune 168 pro-natal policies 59 strikes in 38 train network 28 Franco-Prussian War (1870) 168 fraud 43, 49 Freddie Mac (US government-chartered mortgage institution) 4, 17, 173, 223 free trade 10, 33, 90, 131 agreements 42 French Communist Party 52 French Revolution 61 Friedman, Thomas L.: The World is Flat 132 futures, energy 24 futures markets 21 Certificates of Deposit 262 currency 24 Eurodollars 262 Treasury instruments 262 G G7/G8/G20 51, 200 Galileo Galilei 89 Gates, Bill 98, 173, 221 Gates foundation 44 gays, and colonisation of urban neighbourhoods 247, 248 GDP growth (1950–2030) 27 Gehry, Frank 203 Geithner, Tim 11 gender issues 104, 151 General Motors 5 General Motors Acceptance Corporation 23 genetic engineering 84, 98 genetic modification 186 genetically modified organisms (GMOs) 186 gentrification 131, 256, 257 geographical determinism 210 geopolitics 209, 210, 213, 256 Germany acceptance of state interventions 199–200 cross-border leasing 142–3 an export-dominated economy 6 falling exports 141 invasion of US auto market 15 Nazi expansionism 209 neoliberal orthodoxies 141 Turkish immigrants 14 Weimar inflation 141 Glass-Steagall act (1933) 20 Global Crossing 100 global warming 73, 77, 121, 122, 187 globalisation 157 Glyn, Andrew et al: ‘British Capitalism, Workers and the Profits Squeeze’ 65 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 156 gold reserves 108, 112, 116 Goldman Sachs 5, 11, 20, 163, 173, 219 Google Earth 156 Gould, Stephen Jay 98, 130 governance 151, 197, 198, 199, 201, 208, 220 governmentality 134 GPS systems 156 Gramsci, Antonio 257 Grandin, Greg: Fordlandia 188, 189 grassroots organisations (GROS) 254 Great Depression (1920s) 46, 170 ‘Great Leap Forward’ 137, 138, 250 ‘Great Society’ anti-poverty programmes 32 Greater London Council 197 Greece sovereign debt 222 student unrest in 38 ‘green communes’ 130 Green Party (Germany) 256 ‘green revolution’ 185–6 Greenspan, Alan 44 Greider, William: Secrets of the Temple 54 growth balanced 71 compound 27, 28, 48, 50, 54, 70, 75, 78, 86 economic 70–71, 83, 138 negative 6 stop in 45 Guggenheim Museu, Bilbao 203 Gulf States collapse of oil-revenue based building boom 38 oil production 6 surplus petrodollars 19, 28 Gulf wars 210 gun trade 44 H habitat loss 74, 251 Haiti, and remittances 38 Hanseatic League 163 Harrison, John 91 Harrod, Roy 70–71 Harvey, David: A Brief History of Neoliberalism 130 Harvey, William vii Haushofer, Karl 209 Haussmann, Baron 49, 167–8, 169, 171, 176 Hawken, Paul: Blessed Unrest 133 Hayek, Friedrich 233 health care 28–9, 59, 63, 220, 221, 224 reneging on obligations 49 Health Care Bill 220 hedge funds 8, 21, 49, 261 managers 44 hedging 24, 36 Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich 133 hegemony 35–6, 212, 213, 216 Heidegger, Martin 234 Helú, Carlos Slim 29 heterogeneity 214 Hitler, Adolf 141 HIV/AIDS pandemic 1 Holloway, John: Change the World without Taking Power 133 homogeneity 214 Hong Kong excessive urban development 8 rise of (1970s) 35 sweatshops 16 horizontal networking 254 household debt 17 housing 146–7, 149, 150, 221, 224 asset value crisis 1, 174 foreclosure crises 1–2, 166 mortgage finance 170 values 1–2 HSBC 20, 163 Hubbert, M.
You Are What You Speak: Grammar Grouches, Language Laws, and the Politics of Identity by Robert Lane Greene
anti-communist, British Empire, centre right, discovery of DNA, European colonialism, facts on the ground, haute couture, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ronald Reagan, Steven Pinker, Yogi Berra
There are two versions of pop Whorfianism out there, both misguided and both political. The first is, alas, represented best by one of the finest writers in twentieth-century English letters, George Orwell. Orwell, born Eric Blair, called himself a “democratic Socialist” (always capitalized thus in his writing). Though a man of the left who volunteered with the Republicans in Spain, he was stridently anti-Soviet and anti-Communist, modeling his most famous character, Big Brother, after Stalin. Left or right, he hated any kind of totalitarianism. At the end of his 1948 novel Nineteen Eighty-four, Orwell added an appendix on “Newspeak,” the propaganda-laced language designed by the totalitarian state of Oceania. Newspeak was to gradually replace English (Oldspeak), and it was described as the only language that shrank in vocabulary and expressiveness every year.
After all, if nationalism has caused so many wars, and if language has been a touchstone of nationalism, shouldn’t we get rid of the idea of standard languages so that this bloody thing called nationalism can stop plaguing the planet? This is one question where I have more sympathy with traditionalists and less with linguists, who tend toward the antinationalist Left. Writers such as Eric Hobsbawm, the Marxist historian famous for coining the “invention of tradition,” and Ernest Gellner (an anti-communist, incidentally), whose industrialist theories of nationalism we saw earlier, may have come up with utilitarian explanations of nationalism. (In Hobsbawm’s case, conscious manipulation by the ruling classes; in Gellner’s case, the demands of industrial society.) They may even have found some kernel of truth. But they, like other social scientists and many linguists as well, are too quick to dismiss nationalism (and the language-building that is part of it) as a cynical tool of manipulative leaders.
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Haight Ashbury, impulse control, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, life extension, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, packet switching, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Stanislav Petrov, Stewart Brand, too big to fail, uranium enrichment
“A far better protection,” Arnold concluded, “lies in developing controls and safeguards that are strong enough to prevent their use on all sides.” General Carl A. Spaatz, who replaced Arnold as the Army Air Forces commander, was an outspoken supporter of world government. General George C. Kenney, the head of the recently created Strategic Air Command, spent most of his time working on the military staff of the United Nations. General Leslie Groves—the military director of the Manhattan Project, who was staunchly anti-Communist and anti-Soviet—argued that the atomic bomb’s “very existence should make war unthinkable.” He favored international control of nuclear weapons and tough punishments for nations that tried to make them. Without such a system, he saw only one alternative for the United States. “If there are to be atomic bombs in the world,” Groves argued, “we must have the best, the biggest, and the most.” • • • AT A CABINET MEETING on September 21, 1945, members of the Truman administration had debated what to do with this powerful new weapon.
In February 1948 the Communist overthrow of Czechoslovakia’s freely elected government shocked the American public. The Soviet-backed coup revived memories of the Nazi assault on the Czechs in 1938, the timidity of the European response, and the world war that soon followed. President Truman’s tough words were not backed, however, by a military strategy that could defend Western Europe. During the early months of 1947, as Truman formulated his anti-Communist doctrine, the Pentagon did not have a war plan for fighting the Soviet Union. And the rapid demobilization of the American military seemed to have given the Soviets a tremendous advantage on the ground. The U.S. Army had only one division stationed in Germany, along with ten police regiments, for a total of perhaps 100,000 troops. The British army had one division there, as well. According to U.S. intelligence reports, the Soviet army had about one hundred divisions, with about 1.2 million troops, capable of invading Western Europe—and could mobilize more than 150 additional divisions within a month.
Amid the deepening Watergate scandal, Secretary of Defense Schlesinger told the head of the Joint Chiefs to seek his approval before acting on “any emergency order coming from the president.” Although Schlesinger’s order raised questions about who was actually in command, it seemed like a good idea at the time. The Wrong Tape One month after the inauguration of President Jimmy Carter, a member of his national security staff, General William E. Odom, attended briefings on the SIOP at the headquarters of the Strategic Air Command in Omaha. Odom was considered a staunch anti-Communist, one of the hard-liners in the new administration. He was a Soviet expert, fluent in Russian, who’d attended West Point and trained as a tactical nuclear targeting officer for the Army. His visit to SAC headquarters occurred in February 1977. Eight years had passed since Henry Kissinger began to push for more flexibility in the SIOP. Secretary of Defense Schlesinger had announced in 1974 that America’s war plans were being revised, that they would soon include “Limited Nuclear Options” and “Regional Nuclear Options” using fewer weapons.
Although the invitation to the congress had been phrased in the communist language of world revolution, Zinoviev, once at the congress, seemed to be calling on the assembled delegates for aid in a national struggle between Russia and Britain. In his opening address he cried out "Brothers, we summon you to a holy war, in the first place against English imperialism!"7 Since many of those who were called upon to join in the crusade were non-communist or even anti-communist, the Comintern felt obliged to defend itself against the accusation that it was cynically using them as instruments of Soviet foreign policy. Karl Radek told the congress that "The eastern policy of the Soviet Government is thus no diplomatic manoeuvre, no pushing forward of the peoples of the east into the firing-line in order, by betraying them, to win advantages for the Soviet republic . . .
The working arrangement that the Kremlin arrived at with Mustapha Kemal's Turkish Nationalist government allowed Soviet Russia to crush Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. Kemal's overt anti-communism—on 28 January 1921 Kemalists killed seventeen Turkish communist leaders by drowning them in the Black Sea—was not allowed by Lenin or Stalin to stand in the way of agreement. In entering into a series of interlocking pacts with the anti-communist nationalist Moslem leaders of Turkey, Persia, and Afghanistan, Moscow seemed to be traveling along the path marked out at the Baku congress: abandoning revolutionary goals in favor of pursuing traditional Russian objectives in the Great Game. The Soviets encouraged revolutionary Kemalist Turkey to enter into a pact of her own, in Moscow, with traditionalist Afghanistan, the purpose of which (as indicated in Article Two) was to join hands in opposing aggression and exploitation by the British Empire.
Enver's mission was contrary to everything for which he had stood in politics: his goal had been to liberate the Turkish-speaking peoples from Russian rule. The mission also ran contrary to what the Bolsheviks had preached before coming to power: they had claimed that they were in favor of allowing the non-Russian peoples of the Russian Empire freely to go their own way. Coming after the Russian reconquest of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, and after the un-veiling of Moscow's alliance with anti-communist leaders of Islam, the Soviet instructions to Enver raised the question of whether the Bolsheviks had subordinated, postponed, or even abandoned altogether the revolutionary ideals they had once espoused. Enver undoubtedly had his own views about this, but he hid them from his Bolshevik hosts as he set out for Bukhara in Central Asia. iii By the summer of 1920—a year before Enver was sent there— Bukhara was the last remaining bastion of Turkic independence in Central Asia.
The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 by Lawrence Wright
airport security, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Fall of the Berlin Wall, invisible hand, Khyber Pass, lone genius, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, rolodex, Silicon Valley, uranium enrichment, urban planning, Y2K, Yom Kippur War
His literary and social criticism had made him one of his country’s most popular writers. It had also earned the fury of King Farouk, Egypt’s dissolute monarch, who had signed an order for his arrest. Powerful and sympathetic friends hastily arranged his departure. At the time, Qutb (his name is pronounced kuh-tub) held a comfortable post as a supervisor in the Ministry of Education. Politically, he was a fervent Egyptian nationalist and anti-communist, a stance that placed him in the mainstream of the vast bureaucratic middle class. The ideas that would give birth to what would be called Islamic fundamentalism were not yet completely formed in his mind; indeed, he would later say that he was not even a very religious man before he began this journey, although he had memorized the Quran by the age of ten, and his writing had recently taken a turn toward more conservative themes.
“Godlessness” was an essential feature of the communist menace, and the country reacted viscerally to the sense that Christianity was under attack. “Either Communism must die, or Christianity must die, because it is actually a battle between Christ and the anti-Christ,” Billy Graham would write a few years later—a sentiment that was very much a part of the mainstream Christian American consensus at the time. Qutb took note of the obsession that was beginning to dominate American politics. He was himself a resolute anti-communist for similar reasons; indeed, the communists were far more active and influential in Egypt than in America. “Either we shall walk the path of Islam or we shall walk the path of Communism,” Qutb wrote the year before he came to America, anticipating the same stark formulation as Billy Graham. At the same time, he saw in the party of Lenin a template for the Islamic politics of the future—the politics that he would invent.
There were remarkably few among the members of al-Qaeda who had any extensive religious training. Despite their zealotry, they were essentially theological amateurs. Abu Hajer had the greatest spiritual authority, by virtue of having memorized the Quran, but he was an electrical engineer, not a cleric. Nonetheless, bin Laden made him head of al-Qaeda’s fatwa committee—a fateful choice. It was on Abu Hajer’s authority that al-Qaeda turned from being the anti-communist Islamic army that bin Laden originally envisioned into a terrorist organization bent on attacking the United States, the last remaining superpower and the force that bin Laden and Abu Hajer believed represented the greatest threat to Islam. Why did these men turn against America, a highly religious country that so recently had been their ally in Afghanistan? In large part, it was because they saw America as the locus of Christian power.
The Making of Modern Britain by Andrew Marr
anti-communist, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, business climate, Corn Laws, Etonian, garden city movement, illegal immigration, imperial preference, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Red Clydeside, rent control, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, V2 rocket, wage slave, women in the workforce
The rise of the Nazis, and the rise of anti-Jewish right-wing parties in France and other continental countries, has put inter-war Britain in a benign light. This was the country to which persecuted or worried Jews fled, after all. But the picture is too simple. For Britain had some ferociously anti-Semitic groups too. The British fascist groups were mostly small and inclined to fight one another. They emerged out of the Great War alongside anti-communist organizations – the Middle Classes Union, for instance, and the British Empire Union – and angry groups such as the Silver Badge Party of ex-servicemen, run by the eccentric aviator Pemberton Billings, who during the Great War had caused a sensation by claiming the Germans had a ‘Black Book’ containing the names of 47,000 highly placed perverts, and that the Kaiser’s men were undermining Britain by luring her men into homosexual acts.
When the main church leaders signed a joint letter to The Times in 1940, top of their list of demands for a better future was that ‘extreme inequality in wealth and possessions should be abolished’. A few months later a large gathering of clergy and Christian intellectuals at Malvern concluded that private ownership of industry might itself be wrong. Left-wing Penguin books sold spectacularly well. As soon as the Soviet Union was drawn into the war, Churchill elegantly pirouetting from his famous anti-communist beliefs to a gracious welcome for the new ally, the wind of change started to feel like a hurricane. The Asiatic monster Stalin was lauded as an efficient tough-guy who got things done. At Earls Court a celebration of the new alliance, organized by communists, featured the Bishop of Chelmsford and the band of the Coldstream Guards. A few months later, in February 1943, another event in the Albert Hall included music by composers such as William Walton, a poem by Louis MacNeice called ‘Salute to the Red Army’ and fanfares for Stalin by the Brigade of Guards.
Index abdication crisis (1936) ref1, ref2 Abyssinia ref1 Addison Act (1919) ref1 Addison, Christopher ref1 adultery ref1 advertising ref1 air races ref1 air travel ref1 arguments over airspace ref1, ref2 early passenger services ref1 establishment of Imperial Airways and routes ref1 and flying boats ref1 air-raid protection (ARP) wardens ref1 aircraft production ref1 and Second World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Aitken, Sir Max see Beaverbrook, Lord Alexander, Sir Harold ref1, ref2 Alexandra, Queen ref1, ref2 Allenby, General ref1, ref2 Amritsar massacre (1919) ref1 Anglo-Persian Oil Company ref1 anti-communist organizations ref1 anti-Semitism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Anti-Slavery Society ref1 appeasement ref1, ref2 arguments for ref1 Chamberlain’s meeting with Hitler ref1 and Halifax’s visit to Germany ref1 and Munich ref1 public support for ref1, ref2 Arab revolt (1917) ref1, ref2 architecture ref1, ref2, ref3 aristocracy ref1, ref2 defending of position against House of Lords reform ref1 in economic retreat ref1 and far-right politics ref1 Lloyd George’s attacks on ref1, ref2 post-war ref1 selling of estates ref1, ref2 Armistice Day ref1 Armour, G.D. ref1 Arnim, Elizabeth von ref1 art: Edwardian ref1 inter-war ref1, ref2 Artists’ Rifles ref1 Asquith, Helen (first wife) ref1 Asquith, Herbert ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 downfall ref1, ref2 and First World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and Home Rule ref1 and House of Lords reform ref1, ref2 loses seat in 1918 election ref1 and loss of son ref1 marriages ref1, ref2 and press ref1 relationship with Venetia Stanley ref1 succession as prime minister ref1 and tariff reform ref1, ref2 and women’s suffrage ref1, ref2 Asquith, Margot (second wife) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Asquith, Raymond (son) ref1 Asquith, Violet (daughter) ref1 Ataturk, Kemal ref1 Atlantic Charter ref1 Attlee, Clement ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Auchinleck, General Claude ref1, ref2 Audemars, Edmond ref1 Australia and First World War ref1 Automobile Association ref1 Automobile Club ref1 Aveling, Edward ref1 back-to-nature movement ref1 Baden-Powell, Sir Robert ref1, ref2 Balcon, Michael ref1 Baldwin, Stanley ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and abdication crisis ref1, ref2, ref3 and broadcasting ref1 characteristics ref1 and Churchill ref1 conflict with Rothermere and Beaverbrook ref1, ref2 and General Strike ref1, ref2 and India ref1 and Lloyd George ref1 and protectionism ref1 resignation ref1 succession as prime minister ref1 Balfour, A.J. ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Balfour, Betty ref1 Balfour Declaration (1917) ref1 Bank of England ref1, ref2, ref3 banks ref1 Barnes, Fred ref1 Barry, Sir John Wolfe ref1 Basset Hound Club Rules and Studbook ref1, ref2 Battle of the Atlantic ref1, ref2 Battle of Britain ref1 Battle of the Somme (film) ref1 battleships ref1 see also Dreadnoughts Bauhaus movement ref1 Bax, Arnold ref1 BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) ref1, ref2 and abdication crisis ref1 creation ref1 development under Reith ref1, ref2 early announcers and tone of voice ref1 and General Strike (1926) ref1 receives first Royal Charter (1927) ref1 and Second World War ref1 ‘BBC English’ ref1 beach holidays ref1 Beamish, Henry Hamilton ref1 Beatty, Admiral David ref1, ref2, ref3 Beaufort, Duke of ref1 Beaverbrook, Lord (Max Aitken) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 Beck, Harry ref1 Beckwith-Smith, Brigadier ref1 BEF (British Expeditionary Force) and First World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and Second World War ref1, ref2, ref3 Belgian Congo ref1 Bell, Bishop ref1 Belloc, Hilaire ref1 Benn, Tony ref1 Bennett, Arnold ref1 Whom God Hath Joined ref1 Benz, Karl ref1 Beresford, Lord Charles ref1 Besant, Annie ref1 Bethmann-Hollweg, Chancellor ref1, ref2 Bevan, Nye ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Beveridge, William ref1, ref2 Bevin, Ernie ref1, ref2 Billings, Pemberton ref1 ‘bird flu’ ref1 birth control see contraception Bismarck ref1 black Americans arrival in Britain during Second World War ref1 Black and Tans ref1 Blackshirts ref1, ref2, ref3 Blake, Robert ref1 Bland, Hubert ref1, ref2 Bland, Rosamund ref1 Blast (magazine) ref1 Blatchford, Robert ref1, ref2 Bletchley Park ref1 Bluebird Garage ref1 Blunt, Wilfred Scawen ref1, ref2 ‘Bob’s your uncle’ phrase ref1 Boer War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Boggart Hole riot (Manchester) (1906) ref1, ref2 Bolsheviks ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Bomber Command ref1, ref2 ‘Bomber Harris’ see Harris, Sir Arthur Bonar Law, Andrew ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 Booth, Charles ref1, ref2 Boothby, Bob ref1 Bottomley, Horatio ref1 Bowser, Charlie ref1 Boy Scouts see scouting movement Boys Brigade ref1 Bradlaugh, Charles ref1 Braithwaite, W.J. ref1 Brest-Litovsk, Treaty of (1918) ref1 Bristol Hippodrome ref1 British Broadcasting Corporation see BBC British Empire ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 British Empire Exhibition (1924) ref1 British Empire Union ref1 British Eugenics Education Society ref1 British Expeditionary Force see BEF British Gazette ref1, ref1 British Grand Prix ref1 British Legion ref1 British Union of Fascists see BUF Britons, The ref1 Brittain, Vera ref1 Britten, Benjamin ref1 broadcasting ref1 see also BBC Brooke, Sir Alan ref1, ref2, ref3 Brooke, Raymond ref1 Brooke, Rupert ref1 Brown, Gordon ref1 Brownshirts ref1 Buchan, John Prestor John ref1 BUF (British Union of Fascists) ref1, ref2, ref3 Burma ref1 Butler, R.A. ref1, ref2 Cable Street, Battle of (1936) ref1, ref2 Cadogan, Sir Alexander ref1 Cambrai, Battle of (1917) ref1 Campbell, Donald ref1 Campbell, Malcolm ref1 Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry ref1, ref2 camping and caravanning ref1 Camping Club of Great Britain and Ireland ref1 Canterbury, Archbishop of ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Carnarvon, Lord ref1 cars ref1, ref2, ref3 benefits of ref1 developments in ref1, ref2 first accident involving a pedestrian and ref1 Fordist mass-production ref1 motorists’ clothing ref1 rise in number of during Edwardian era ref1 Carson, Edward ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 Casement, Sir Roger ref1, ref2 Cat and Mouse Act ref1 cavity magnetron ref1 Cecil, Hugh ref1 CEMA ref1 censorship Second World War ref1, ref2 Chamberlain, Arthur ref1 Chamberlain, Joe ref1 background and early political career ref1 and Boer War ref1 breaks away from Liberals ref1 characteristics ref1 fame of ref1 sets up Liberal Unionist organization ref1 stroke ref1, ref2 and tariff reform debate ref1, ref2, ref3 Chamberlain, Neville ref1, ref2, ref3 and appeasement ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 as Chancellor ref1 and Churchill ref1 downfall and resignation ref1, ref2 failure of diplomacy towards Hitler ref1 and Munich ref1 and Second World War ref1, ref2 Channel Islands ref1 Channon, Sir Henry (‘Chips’) ref1 Chaplin, Charlie ref1, ref2 Chatsworth ref1 Chequers ref1 Cherwell, Lord (Frederick Lindemann) ref1 Cheshire, Leonard ref1 Chesterton, G.K. ref1, ref2 Childers, Erskine execution of by IRA ref1 The Riddle of the Sands ref1 Chindits ref1 Christie, Agatha ref1, ref2 Churchill, Clementine ref1 Churchill, Randolph ref1, ref2 Churchill, Winston ref1, ref2 and abdication crisis ref1 as air minister ref1 anti-aristocracy rhetoric ref1 at Board of Trade ref1 and Boer War ref1 and Bolsheviks ref1 and bombing of German cities during Second World War ref1 and Chamberlain ref1 as Chancellor of the Exchequer under Baldwin ref1 and Empire theatre protest ref1 and eugenics ref1, ref2 as First Lord of the Admiralty and build-up of navy ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and First World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and Gallipoli campaign ref1 and General Strike ref1, ref2 and George V ref1 and German invasion threat prior to First World War ref1 and Hitler ref1, ref2 and Home Rule ref1, ref2, ref3 and India ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and Lloyd George ref1, ref2, ref3 loses seat in 1922 election ref1 political views and belief in social reform ref1 public calls for return to government ref1 rejoins Tory Party ref1 relationship with Fisher ref1 relationship with United States during Second World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 resignation over India (1931) ref1 and return to gold standard ref1, ref2 and Rowntree’s book on poverty ref1 and Second World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13 and Sidney Street siege ref1 speeches during Second World War ref1, ref2 steps to becoming Prime Minister ref1 suffragette attack on ref1 and tariff reform ref1, ref2 threatening of European peace by Hitler warning and calls for rearmament ref1, ref2, ref3 and Tonypandy miners’ strike (1910) ref1 cinema ref1 Citizens’ Army ref1 City of London Imperial Volunteers ref1 civil service ref1 Clark, Alan The Donkeys ref1 Clark, Sir Kenneth ref1, ref2 Clarke, Tom ref1 class distinctions in Edwardian Britain ref1 divisions within army during First World War ref1 impact of Second World War on ref1, ref2 and politics in twenties ref1 clothing motorists’ ref1 and Second World War ref1 and status in Edwardian Britain ref1 in twenties ref1 Clydebank, bombing of ref1 Clydeside ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 coal miners strike (1912) ref1 Coliseum (London) ref1 Collins, Michael ref1, ref2, ref3 Colville, Jock ref1, ref2, ref3 Common Wealth ref1, ref2 Communist Party of Great Britain ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 communist revolution, fear of ref1 communists ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Conan Doyle, Arthur ref1, ref2 The Hound of the Baskervilles ref1 Concorde ref1, ref2, ref3 Congo Reform Association ref1 Connolly, James ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Connor, William (‘Cassandra’) ref1 Conrad, Joseph ref1, ref2 Heart of Darkness ref1 The Secret Agent ref1 conscientious objectors First World War ref1 Second World War ref1 Conservatives ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12 contraception ref1, ref2, ref3 Coolidge, President Calvin ref1, ref2 Cooper, Duff ref1, ref2, ref3 Corrigan, Gordon ref1 Coventry, bombing of ref1, ref2 Coward, Nöel ref1 crash (1929) ref1, ref2 Cripps, Sir Stafford ref1, ref2 Crookes, Sir William ref1 Crooks, Will ref1 Crystal Palace fire (1936) ref1 Curzon, Lord ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Czechoslovakia ref1, ref2 Dacre, Harry ref1 Daily Express ref1, ref2, ref3 Daily Mail ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Ideal Home Exhibition ref1 Northcliffe’s article on shells crisis during war ref1 Daily Mirror ref1, ref2 Daimler, Gottfried ref1 ‘Daisy, Daisy, Give Me Your Answer Do’ ref1, ref2 Darwin, Charles ref1 Darwin, Erasmus ref1 Darwin, Major Leonard ref1 Davidson, J.C.C. ref1, ref2 Davison, Emily Wilding ref1 Davos Ski Club ref1 De Havilland ref1 De La Warr Seaside Pavilion (Bexhill) ref1 de Nyevelt, Baron de Zuylen ref1 de Valera, Eamon ref1, ref2, ref3 Debrett’s Peerage ref1 Defence of the Realm Act see DORA Dickens, Charles ref1 Dimond, Phyllis ref1 distributism ref1 Distributist League ref1 ditchers ref1, ref2 divorce ref1 Divorce Law Reform Association ref1 Dock, Wharf, Riverside and General Labourers’ Union ref1 dockers’ strikes ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Doenitz, Admiral ref1 DORA (Defence of the Realm Act) ref1, ref2, ref3 Douglas, Clifford ref1 Dowding, Sir Hugh ‘Stuffy’ ref1, ref2 Dreadnoughts ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Dresden, bombing of (1945) ref1 drug taking, in twenties ref1 Dunkirk ref1, ref2, ref3 Dunlop, John Boyd ref1 Dyer, General ref1 Easter Rising (1916) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Eckersley, Peter ref1, ref2, ref3 economy and gold standard ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 impact of crash (1929) ref1 post-First World War ref1, ref2 Eden, Anthony ref1, ref2, ref3 Edinburgh Castle pub (London) ref1 Edmunds, Henry ref1 education Edwardian era ref1 inter-war years ref1, ref2 Education Act (1902) ref1 Edward VII, King ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Edward VIII, King ref1 abdication ref1, ref2 affair with Mrs Dudley Ward ref1 enthusiasm for Nazi Germany ref1 love for Wallis Simpson ref1, ref2 and social reform ref1 Egypt ref1, ref2, ref3 Eighth Army ref1, ref2 Eisenhower, General ref1 El-Alamein, Battle of ref1, ref2 elections (1906) ref1 (1910) ref1, ref2 (1918) ref1 (1922) ref1, ref2 (1923) ref1 (1924) ref1 (1931) ref1 (1935) ref1 Elgar, Sir Edward ref1 Eliot, T.S. ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 ‘Burnt Norton’ ref1 The Wasteland ref1 Ellis, Havelock ref1 emigration Edwardian era ref1 inter-war years ref1 Empire Day ref1 Empire theatre (London) ref1 Enigma ref1, ref2 ENSA (Entertainments National Service Association) ref1 eugenics ref1 evolution ref1 explorers ref1 Fabian Society ref1, ref2, ref3 Fairey Battle bombers ref1, ref2 fascism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 see also BUF Fawcett, Millicent Garrett ref1, ref2 Feisal, Emir ref1, ref2 Fenians ref1 film industry see cinema Film Society ref1 finger prints ref1 Finland ref1 First World War (1914) ref1, ref2 aftermath ref1 and alcohol ref1 Balkans campaign ref1 Baltic plan ref1 and Battle of Jutland ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and BEF ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 British blockade of Germany ref1, ref2, ref3 and burial of the Unknown Soldier ref1 class divisions in army ref1 collapse of German army ref1 comparison with Second World War ref1 conscription ref1; criticism of by UDC ref2 Dardanelles campaign ref1, ref2, ref3 death toll and casualties ref1, ref2, ref3 early military failures ref1 and film industry ref1 and Fisher ref1 food shortages and rationing ref1 formation of coalition government ref1, ref2 French campaign ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Gallipoli campaign ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 German raids ref1 and Haig ref1 impact of on British people ref1 and Middle East ref1 munitions factories ref1 Orpen’s paintings of ref1 and Passchendaele ref1 post-war attack on military chiefs ref1 post-war impact of ref1 preparations for ref1 and press/journalists ref1 public support for ref1 recruitment ref1, ref2 revisionists and ref1 Sassoon’s protest at ref1 scenario if Germany had won ref1 at sea ref1 seeking alternative strategies to Flanders campaign ref1 shells crisis and Daily Mail article ref1 sinking of German battleships by Germany at end of ref1 sinking of Lusitania ref1 slaughter in ref1 steps leading to and reasons for Britain’s declaration of war on Germany ref1 struggle to comprehend meaning of ref1 surrender of Germany ref1; trench warfare ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 U-boat campaign ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 and United States ref1, ref2, ref3 use of convoys ref1 use of horses ref1 and women ref1, ref2 Fisher, First Sea Lord ‘Jackie’ ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Fleming, Sir Alexander ref1 Fleury ref1 flying boats ref1 flying circuses ref1 folk dancing ref1 food imports ref1 Foot, Michael ref1 Ford, Ford Madox ref1 Ford, Henry ref1, ref2 Forde, Florrie ref1 Formby, George ref1 ref2 43 (nightclub) ref1, ref2 France and First World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and Second World War ref1, ref2, ref3 franchise ref1 and women ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 free trade ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 French, Sir John ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8 Fyfe, Hamilton ref1, ref2 gaiety, in twenties ref1 Gallacher, William ref1 Gallipoli crisis ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Galsworthy, John ref1 Galton, Francis ref1, ref2 gambling ref1 Gandhi, Mohandas ref1, ref2 garages ref1 garden cities ref1, ref2 Gardiner, Rolf ref1 Garnett, Theresa ref1 Garsington Manor ref1 Gaumont Palaces ref1 Gawthorpe, Nellie ref1 General Strike (1926) ref1, ref2, ref3 and BBC ref1 gentlemen’s clubs ref1 George III, King ref1 George IV, King ref1, ref2 George V, King ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10 George VI, King ref1 German Naval Law (1912) ref1 Germany ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 of (1914) ref1 building of battleships ref1 early state-welfare system ref1 and eugenics ref1 fear of invasion by in Edwardian Britain ref1 and First World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 national welfare system ref1 navy ref1 and planned Irish uprising ref1 and Versailles Treaty ref1 Wandervogel youth groups ref1 see also Second World War ‘GI brides’ ref1 Gibbon, Lewis Grassic ref1, ref2 Gibbs, Philip ref1, ref2, ref3 Gibson, Guy ref1 Gifford, Grace ref1 Gill, Eric ref1 GIs ref1 Gladstone, William ref1, ref2 Glasgow ‘forty hours strike’ (1919) ref1 Goering, Hermann Wilhelm ref1, ref2 gold standard ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Gort, Field Marshal ref1 Gough, General Hubert ref1, ref2 Graf Spee ref1 Graves, Robert ref1 Goodbye to All That ref1 Grayson, Victor ref1, ref2 Great Depression ref1, ref2 Great War see First World War Greece and Second World War ref1 Greenshirts (Social Credit) ref1, ref2, ref3 Gregory, Maundy ref1, ref2, ref3 Gresley, Sir Nigel ref1 Grey, Sir Edward ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Grieve, Christopher Murray see McDiarmid, Hugh Grigg, John ref1 Guest, Freddy ref1, ref2 Guilty Men ref1 Gunn, Neil ref1 guns and Edwardian Britain ref1 Haggard, Sir Rider ref1 Haig, Sir Douglas ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Halifax, Lord (Irwin) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Handley Page, Frederick ref1, ref2 Hanfstaengel, Ernst ‘Putzi’ ref1 Hankey, Maurice ref1 Hannington, Wal ref1 Hardie, Keir ref1, ref2, ref3 Hardy, Thomas ref1 Hargrave, John ref1, ref2, ref3 Harmsworth, Alfred see Northcliffe, Lord Harmsworth, Harold see Rothermere, Lord Harris, Sir Arthur (‘Bomber Harris’) ref1, ref2 Harrisson, Tom ref1 Hart, Basil Liddell ref1 Hastings, Max ref1 headwear ref1 hedgers ref1, ref2 Henderson, Arthur ref1 Henderson, Sir Nevile ref1 Hepworth, Cecil ref1 Hindenburg, General ref1 Hipper, Admiral ref1, ref2 Hippodrome (London) ref1 Hitchcock, Alfred ref1 Hitler, Adolf ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 appeasement towards ref1 and Churchill ref1, ref2 and Edward VIII ref1 and Halifax visit ref1 and Lloyd George ref1 and Munich meeting ref1 and Second World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 suicide of ref1 support of by ‘Cliveden set’ ref1 and Unity Mitford ref1, ref2 Ho Chi Minh ref1 Hobhouse, Emily ref1 Hoesch, Leopold von ref1 Holden, Charles ref1 Hollywood ref1 Holtzendorff, Admiral Henning von ref1 Home Guard ref1, ref2, ref3 Home Rule (Ireland) ref1, ref2 honours selling for cash by Lloyd George ref1 Honours (Prevention of Abuses) Act (1925) ref1 Hood (battleship) ref1 Hoover Building ref1 Hore-Belisha, Leslie ref1 Houdini, Harry ref1 House of Lords ref1 reform of by Liberals ref1, ref2 housing ref1, ref2, ref3 Housing Manual (1919) ref1 Howard, Ebenezer ref1 Howard, Peter ref1 Hughes, Billy ref1 hunger marches ref1 Hurricanes ref1, ref2 ‘Hymn of Hate’ ref1 Hyndman, Henry ref1 Ibn Saud ref1 illegitimacy ref1 Illustrated London News ref1, ref2, ref3 immigration Edwardian Britain ref1 inter-war years ref1 Immigration Act (1924) (US) ref1 Imperial Airways ref1 income tax ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Independent Labour Party (ILP) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 India ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Indian National Congress ref1 industry Second World War ref1 Victorian Britain ref1 Inskip, Sir Thomas ref1 Instone ref1 International Brigade ref1 International Congress of Eugenics ref1 International Fascist League ref1 ‘ Invasion of 1910, The’ ref1 invasion fear of in Edwardian Britain ref1 IRA (Irish Republican Army) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Iraq ref1, ref2, ref3 Ireland ref1 civil war (1922) ref1 a nd Easter Rising (1916) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and First World War ref1 formation of independent Da´il in southern ref1 and Home Rule ref1, ref2 and Second World War ref1 war against British and negotiation of peace treaty (1921) ref1 Irish nationalists ref1, ref2, ref3 Irish Republican Army see IRA Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Irish Volunteers ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Ironside, Lord ref1 Irwin, Lord see Halifax, Lord Islam ref1 Ismay, General ref1 Italian futurists ref1 Italians interment of during Second World War ref1 ‘ It’s a Long Way to Tipperary’ ref1 Jackson, Derek ref1 James, Henry ref1, ref2 Japanese and Second World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Jarrow Crusade (1936) ref1 jazz ref1 Jellicoe, John ref1, ref2, ref3 Jerusalem ref1 Jewish People’s Council Against Fascism ref1 Jews ref1, ref2 see also anti-Semitism ‘ jingo’ ref1 Johnston, Edward ref1 Johnston, Tom ref1 journalism ref1 see also press Joyce, James ref1 Joynson-Hicks, Sir William ref1, ref2 Jutland, Battle of ref1, ref2, ref3 Kandahar Ski Club ref1 Karno, Fred ref1 Keating, Sean ref1 Kemal, Mustapha ref1 Kendall, Mary ref1 Kennedy, Joseph ref1 Kenney, Annie ref1 Kent, Duke of ref1 Keppel, Alice ref1 Key, Edith ref1 Keynes, John Maynard ref1, ref2, ref3 Kibbo Kift ref1, ref2, ref3 Kinship in Husbandry ref1 Kipling, Rudyard ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Kitchener, Lord ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11 Knight, John ref1 Krupskaya, Nadezhda ref1 Labour Party ref1, ref1, ref1, ref1, ref1, ref1, ref1, ref1 Labour Representation Committee ref1, ref2 Lancastria, bombing of ref1 Land Army girls ref1 land speed records ref1 Landsdowne House ref1 Landsdowne, Lord ref1, ref2 Lane, Allen ref1 Lansbury, George ref1 Larkin, James ref1 Laszlo, Philip de ref1 Lauder, Harry ref1, ref2, ref3 Lawrence, D.H. ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Lawrence, Katie ref1 Lawrence, T.E. ref1, ref2, ref3 Le Queux, William ref1 League of Isis ref1 League of Nations ref1, ref2 Lebanon ref1 Lee, Arthur ref1 Leeper, Reginald ref1 Leese, Arnold ref1 Left Book Club ref1 Leigh-Mallory, Air Vice Marshal ref1 Lenin, Vladimir ref1, ref2, ref3 Lenton, Lilian ref1 Leopold, King of Belgium ref1 Letchworth ref1, ref2 Lewis, Rosa ref1 Liberal Party ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Liberal Unionist organization ref1 Liddell-Hart, Basil ref1 Lissauer, Ernst ref1 literature ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Little Tich ref1 Liverpool strikes ref1 Liverpool Mersey Tunnel ref1 Llanfrothen Burial Case ref1 Lloyd George, David ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 anti-landlord rhetoric ref1, ref2 and Boer War ref1, ref2 as Chancellor of the Exchequer ref1 in charge of munitions ref1, ref2 and Churchill ref1, ref2, ref3 downfall ref1, ref2 and First World War ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 and Hitler ref1 hostility towards Haig ref1 and Ireland ref1 Orange Book ref1 and People’s Budget ref1, ref2 personal life ref1 political career ref1 as prime minister and wartime regime under ref1, ref2, ref3 rise to power ref1, ref2 and Second World War ref1 selling of honours for cash ref1 share dealing ref1 and tariff reform debate ref1 vision of welfare system ref1 visit to Germany ref1 wins 1918 election ref1, ref2 and women’s vote ref1 Lloyd, Marie ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Lockyer, Sir Norman ref1 London ref1 fog in Edwardian era ref1 music halls ref1 as refuge for revolutionaries abroad in Edwardian era ref1 London Blitz ref1 London Pavilion theatre ref1 London Transport ref1 London Underground map ref1 Loos, Battle of ref1 Lubetkin, Berthold ref1 Ludendorff ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Luftwaffe ref1, ref2, ref3 Lunn, Arnold ref1, ref2 Lunn, Sir Henry ref1 Lusitania ref1 Lynn, Vera ref1 MacColl, Ewan ref1 MacCormick, John ref1, ref2 McDiarmid, Hugh (Grieve) ref1 MacDonagh, Michael ref1 MacDonald, Ramsay ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 background ref1 and formation of National Government ref1, ref2 and Mosley ref1 vilification of ref1, ref2 MacInnes, Colin ref1 McKenna, Reginald ref1 Mackenzie, Compton ref1, ref2 Maclean, John ref1, ref2 Macmillan, Harold ref1 McNabb, Father Vincent ref1 McShane, Harry ref1 Madoff, Bernard ref1 ‘mafficking’ ref1 Major, John ref1 Malins, Geoffrey ref1 Mallard locomotive ref1 ‘Manchester Rambler, The’ ref1 Manners, Lady Diana ref1, ref2 marching ref1 Marconi, Guglielmo ref1 Marconi scandal (1911) ref1 Markiewicz, Countess ref1, ref2 Marlborough, Duke of ref1 Martin, Captain D.L. ref1 Marx, Eleanor ref1 Marx, Karl ref1 Mass Observation system ref1, ref2 Matcham, Frank ref1 Maude, Aylmer ref1 Maurice, Sir Frederick ref1 Maxse, Leo ref1, ref2 Maxton, Jimmy ref1, ref2 May, Phil ref1 medical science ref1 Melba, Dame Nellie ref1 Melbourne, Lord ref1 memorials ref1 Mendelsohn, Erich ref1 metro-land ref1 Meyrick, Kate ref1, ref2, ref3 Middle Classes Union ref1 Middle East ref1, ref2 Mill, John Stuart ref1 Millais, Sir John Everett ref1 Milner, Lord ref1, ref2, ref3 miners dispute (1926) ref1, ref2 Mitchell, Hannah ref1 The Hard Way Up ref1 Mitchell, Reginald ref1, ref2, ref3 Mitford, Deborah ref1 Mitford, Diana see Mosley, Diana Mitford girls ref1 Mitford, Jessica ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Mitford, Nancy ref1, ref2 Wigs on the Green ref1 Mitford, Pamela ref1 Mitford, Tom ref1 Mitford, Unity ref1, ref2, ref3 modernism ref1, ref2, ref3 Montacute House (Somerset) ref1 Montagu, Edwin ref1, ref2, ref3 Montgomery, General Bernard ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Morel, Edmund ref1, ref2 Morrel, Ottoline ref1, ref2 Morris, William (car maker) ref1, ref2 Morris, William (craftsman) ref1 Morrison, Herbert ref1, ref2 Morton, Desmond ref1 Morton, E.V. ref1 Mosley, Cimmie (first wife) ref1, ref2 Mosley, Diana (née Mitford) (second wife) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Mosley, Oswald ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9 and anti-Semitism ref1 background and early life ref1 and Battle of Cable Street ref1 and fascism ref1 funding from Mussolini ref1 imprisonment ref1 launching of British Union of Fascists ref1 and MacDonald ref1 marriage to Diana Mitford ref1 and New Party ref1 and Olympia riot (1934) ref1 plans and ideas ref1 resignation from Labour ref1 and Rothermere ref1 Muir, Edwin ref1, ref2 Munich ref1 Munnings, Alfred ref1 Murdoch, Rupert ref1 Murray, Lord ref1 music ref1, ref2 music hall ref1 Mussolini, Benito ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 national debt, post-war ref1 National Government ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 National Insurance Bill (1911) ref1 National Party of Scotland ref1 National Unemployed Workers Movement (NUWM) ref1 National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS) ref1 navy see Royal Navy Navy League ref1 Nazi Germany ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7 see also Hitler, Adolf Nehru, Jawaharlal ref1 Nesbit, Edith (Daisy) ref1, ref2, ref3 The Amulet ref1 Five Children and It ref1 The Railway Children ref1 Nevill, Captain ref1 New Party ref1, ref2 newspapers see press Nicholson, William ref1, ref2 nightclubs ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 1922 committee ref1 Nivelle, General ref1, ref2 No-Conscription Fellowship ref1 Nordics ref1 Norman, Sir Montagu ref1, ref2, ref3 Northcliffe, Lord (Alfred Harmsworth) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 background ref1 and Daily Mail ref1 Daily Mail article on shells shortage ref1 and downfall of Asquith ref1 last days and death ref1 Motor Cars and Driving ref1 northern industrial cities, decline of ref1 Northern Ireland ref1 see also Ireland Norway and Second World War ref1, ref2 nostalgia ref1 nuclear bomb ref1, ref2 nudism ref1 O’Connor, General ref1, ref2 Ogilvie-Grant, Mark ref1 Olympia Garage ref1 organic food movement ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Orpen, William ref1, ref2 Orwell, George ref1, ref2, ref3 Homage to Catalonia ref1 The Road to Wigan Pier ref1 Ottoman Empire ref1, ref2, ref3 outdoors ref1 Owen, Frank ref1 Owen, Wilfred ref1, ref2, ref3 Oxford Automobile Company ref1 Oxford Union debate (1933) ref1, ref2 Paget, Lieutenant-General Sir Arthur ref1, ref2 Palace Theatre (London) ref1 Palestine ref1 Panahards ref1, ref2 Pankhurst, Adela ref1 Pankhurst, Christabel ref1, ref2, ref3 Pankhurst, Emmeline ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Pankhurst, Sylvia ref1 paperbacks ref1 Paris peace conference ref1, ref2 Park, Keith ref1 Parliament during Second World War ref1 Passchendaele ref1 Patton, General ref1, ref2 Peace Pledge Union ref1, ref2 Pearl Harbor ref1, ref2, ref3 Pearse, Padraig ref1, ref2 Pearson, George ref1 peerages ref1 selling for cash ref1 peers ref1 Penguin Books ref1 pensions ref1 People’s Budget (1909) ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Pétain, Marshal ref1 pianos ref1 Pick, Frank ref1 Piper, John ref1 Pistols Act (1903) ref1 Plunkett, Joseph ref1, ref2 Plymouth, bombing of ref1 political extremism ref1 Ponzi, Charles ref1 Poor Law Guardians ref1, ref2 poor/poverty ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Rowntree’s investigation and book on conditions in York ref1 Pound, Ezra ref1, ref2, ref3 Cantos ref1 Powell, Enoch ref1 Powys, John Cowper ref1, ref2 Preece, Sir W.H. ref1 press ref1, ref2 and abdication crisis ref1 and Daily Mail ref1 destruction of Liberal government by ref1 and First World War ref1 see also Beaverbrook, Lord; Northcliffe, Lord; Rothermere, Lord Price, G.
Understanding Power by Noam Chomsky
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Burning Man, business climate, cognitive dissonance, continuous integration, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global reserve currency, Howard Zinn, labour market flexibility, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, mortgage tax deduction, Ralph Nader, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, wage slave, women in the workforce
This was never talked about in the press, but if you look at the records, you’ll see the funding was still going through until that time. 9 The Reagan administration had to stop sending it altogether—and in fact, what they did was turn to mercenary states. See, one of the interesting features of the 1980s is that to a large extent the United States had to carry out its foreign interventions through the medium of mercenary states. There’s a whole network of U.S. mercenary states. Israel is the major one, but it also includes Taiwan, South Africa, South Korea, the states that are involved in the World Anti-Communist League and the various military groups that unite the Western Hemisphere, Saudi Arabia to fund it, Panama—Noriega was right in the center of the thing. We caught a glimpse of it in things like the Oliver North trial and the Iran-contra hearings [Oliver North was tried in 1989 for his role in “Iran-contra,” the U.S. government’s illegal scheme to fund the Nicaraguan “contra” militias in their war against Nicaragua’s left-wing government by covertly selling weapons to Iran]—they’re international terrorist networks of mercenary states.
At the time the British navy was in the way, and they were a real deterrent, so the plan, in Adams’s words, was to wait until Cuba falls into our hands like a ripe fruit, by the laws of political gravitation. 28 Well, finally it did, and the U.S. ran it—with the usual effects—all the way up until 1959. In January 1959, Cuba had a popular nationalist revolution. We now know from declassified U.S. government documents that the formal decision to overthrow Castro was made by the American government in March 1960—that’s very important, because at that point there were no Russians around, and Castro was in fact considered anti-Communist by the U.S. [Castro did not align with the Soviet Union until May 1961, after the U.S. had severed diplomatic relations with Cuba in January and had sponsored an invasion attempt in April.] 29 So the reason for deciding to overthrow the Castro government can’t have had anything to do with Cuba being a Russian outpost in the Cold War—Cuba was just taking an independent path, which has always been unacceptable to powerful interests in the United States.
They in fact said in their publications things like, “We have about five or six years to save the private enterprise system.” 74 Well, one thing they did was to launch a huge propaganda program in the United States, aimed at reversing these attitudes. 75 It was actually called at the time part of “the everlasting battle for the minds of men,” who have to be “indoctrinated in the capitalist story”; that’s a standard straight quote from the P.R. literature. 76 So in the early 1950s, the Advertising Council [an organization begun during World War II and funded by the business community to assist the government with propaganda services at home] was spending huge amounts of money to propagandize for what they called “the American way.” 77 The public relations budget for the National Association of Manufacturers I think went up by about a factor of twenty. 78 About a third of the textbooks in schools were simply provided by business. 79 They had 20 million people a week watching propaganda films about worker-management unity, after the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 allowed propaganda to be shown to basically captive audiences in companies. 80 They continued on with the “scientific methods of strikebreaking” that had been developed in the late 1930s: devoting huge resources into propaganda instead of goon-squads and breaking knees. 81 And it was all tied up with the “anti-Communist” crusade at the time—that’s the true meaning of what’s referred to as “McCarthyism,” which started well before Joseph McCarthy got involved and was really launched by business and liberal members of the Democratic Party and so on. 82 It was a way of using fear and jingoism to try to undermine labor rights and functioning democracy. And the point is, the leadership of the U.S. labor movement was right in the center of the whole post-war destruction of unions, internationally.
To Serve God and Wal-Mart: The Making of Christian Free Enterprise by Bethany Moreton
affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, collective bargaining, corporate personhood, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, global village, informal economy, invisible hand, market fundamentalism, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, price anchoring, Ralph Nader, RFID, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, walkable city, Washington Consensus, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog, Works Progress Administration
.; Appendix A, “List of Speakers,” pp.Â€20, 22, 24. 83. Harding University, “The Dream Continues,” promotional pamphlet, file “Publicity—Harding,” HU (1992). 84. Duke, Jr., “American Studies,” 22–23. 85. Gazette Press Services, “Harding Program Called Big Factory of Radical Right Propaganda in U.S,” AG, September 20, 1964, 1A–2A. 86. Newsweek, December 4, 1961, 20; quoted in Donald P. Garner, “George S. Benson: Conservative, Anti-Communist, Pro-Americanism Speaker” (Ph.D. diss., Wayne State University, 1963), 5 n2. 87. NYT, May 9, 1961; quoted in Garner, “George S. Benson,” 23 n. 88. This is a principal argument of both Royce Money, “Church-State Relations in the Churches of Christ since 1945: A Study in Religion and Politics” (Ph.D. diss., Baylor University, 1975) and Richard T. Hughes, Reviving the Ancient Faith: The Story of Churches of Christ in America (Grand Rapids, MI: William B.
See Clerks Catholics, 3, 11, 22, 107, 119, 222, 229, 232–235 Center for Entrepreneurship, 157–158, 160 Central Intelligence Agency, 152, 224, 227, 249 Chain stores, 125, 137, 187–188; characteristics of, 18, 22, 26, 52–53, 56, 78; antichain movement, 16, 18–26, 29–30, 51–52, 143, 160; Wal-Mart as, 19, 23–25, 27–28, 47; voluntary, 26–29 Chemical industry, 182, 193, 202, 205–208, 213–214, 232, 331n60 China, 6, 65, 164, 249, 251, 253, 343n21 Christ for the Cities, 229 Christian American Heritage Seminar, 162 Christian Anti-Communist Crusade, 166 Christian Booksellers Association, 87, 91 Christian broadcasting, 7, 20, 87, 95, 101, 131, 215, 235, 237–238, 331n58 Christian Broadcasting Network, 121, 224, 250 Christian Businessmen’s Association (Guatemala), 244 Christian Business Men’s Committee, 87, 110 Christian capÂ�italism, 86, 110 Christian conservatism, 1, 3, 32, 87, 90, 92, 95, 111–116, 119–121, 131, 215, 223, 239 Christian consumerism, 89–90, 107 Christian Coalition, 1, 90 Christian education, 131–132, 136, 154–155, 163, 171, 187, 222, 225, 234–235 Christian entrepreneurship, 179, 250, 262 Christian Financial Concepts, 331n58 Christian free enterprise, 5, 33, 110, 125, 153, 161, 174, 224, 269–271 Christianity: and commerce, 86–92, 99, 112, 165, 211, 223, 232, 250, 262, 270–271, 331n58; and Wal-Mart stores, 89–94, 99, 101–106, 117–1 18; attack on communism, 162, 164, 166–167, 223–224 Christianity Today, 87, 119, 121, 233 Christian managers, 33, 47 Christian publishing, 90–91 Christian serÂ�vice, 85, 89, 93, 101, 103, 106, 110–111, 113, 122, 125, 251, 270 Church of Christ, 92, 101, 163, 171, 228, 235, 338n50 Cities.
Capitalism: the unknown ideal by Ayn Rand
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, East Village, Ford paid five dollars a day, full employment, Isaac Newton, laissez-faire capitalism, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, profit motive, the market place, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban renewal, War on Poverty
If a man hears the term “isolationists” applied to a number of individuals, he will observe that the essential characteristic distinguishing them from other individuals is patriotism—and he will conclude that “isolationism” means “patriotism” and that patriotism is evil. Thus the real meaning of the term will automatically replace the alleged meaning. If a man hears the term “McCarthyism,” he will observe that the best-known characteristic distinguishing Senator McCarthy from other public figures is an anti-communist stand, and he will conclude that anti-communism is evil. If a man hears the term “extremism” and is offered the innocuous figure of the John Birch Society as an example, he will observe that its best-known characteristic is “conservatism,” and he will conclude that “conservatism” is evil—as evil as the Communist Party and the Ku Klux Klan. (“Conservatism” is itself a loose, undefined, badly misleading term—but in today’s popular usage it is taken to mean “pro-capitalism.”)
None of us knows why we are in that war, how we got in, or what will take us out. Whenever our public leaders attempt to explain it to us, they make the mystery greater. They tell us simultaneously that we are fighting for the interests of the United States—and that the United States has no “selfish” interests in that war. They tell us that communism is the enemy—and they attack, denounce, and smear any anti-communists in this country. They tell us that the spread of communism must be contained in Asia—but not in Africa. They tell us that communist aggression must be resisted in Vietnam—but not in Europe. They tell us that we must defend the freedom of South Vietnam—but not the freedom of East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Latvia, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Katanga, etc. They tell us that North Vietnam is a threat to our national security—but Cuba is not.
The Rough Guide to Prague by Humphreys, Rob
active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, clean water, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Peace of Westphalia, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile
The trickle of East Germans ﬂeeing to the West turned into a mass exodus, with thousands besieging the The pink tank Until 1991, Tank 23 sat proudly on its plinth in Prague’s náměstí Sovětských tankistů (Soviet Tank Drivers’ Square), one of a number of obsolete tanks generously donated by the Soviets after World War II to serve as monuments to the 1945 liberation. Tank 23 was special, however, as it was supposedly the ﬁrst tank to arrive to liberate Prague, on May 9, hotfoot from Berlin. The real story of the liberation of Prague was rather different, however. When the Prague uprising began on May 5, the ﬁrst offer of assistance actually came from a division of the anti-Communist Russian National Liberation Army (KONR), under the overall command of Andrei Vlasov, a high-ranking former Red Army ofﬁcer who was instrumental in pushing the Germans back from the gates of Moscow, but who switched sides after being captured by the Nazis in 1942. The Germans were (rightly, as it turned out) highly suspicious of the KONR, and, for the most part, the renegade Russians were kept well away from the real action.
The author is not to be confused with the Chilean Pablo Neruda (who took his name from the Czech writer). Karel Poláček What Ownership’s All About. A darkly comic novel set in a Prague tenement block, dealing with Fascism and appeasement, by a JewishCzech Praguer who died in the camps in 1944. Peter Sís The Three Golden Keys. Short, hauntingly illustrated children’s book set in Prague, by Czech-born American Sís. Josef Škvorecký A relentless anti-Communist, Škvorecký is typically Bohemian in his bawdy sense of humour and irreverence for all high moralizing. The Cowards (which brieﬂy saw the light of day in 1958) is the tale of a group of irresponsible young men in the last days of the war, an antidote to the lofty prose from official authors at the time, but hampered by its dated Americanized translation. The Miracle Game enjoys a better translation and is set against the two ”miracles” of 1948 and 1968.
Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism by Stephen Graham
airport security, anti-communist, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, credit crunch, DARPA: Urban Challenge, defense in depth, deindustrialization, edge city, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, Food sovereignty, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Google Earth, illegal immigration, income inequality, knowledge economy, late capitalism, loose coupling, market fundamentalism, McMansion, megacity, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, peak oil, planetary scale, private military company, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, smart transportation, surplus humans, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, white flight
Johnson administrations.26 Rostow’s incessant lobbying in that latter role was crucial to the gradually extension and increase of the systematic bombing of North Vietnamese civilian infrastructure, in the campaign called Rolling Thunder. As well as ‘bombing … countries back through several “stages of growth”’27 within his development model, this was seen as a means of undermining the Communist challenge to US power.28 Rostow, a rabid anti-Communist, regarded the eradication of Communism as necessary because he saw it as a repellent form of modernization. Rostow argued that ‘communism is best understood as a disease of the transition to modernization’.29 This wider notion–that bombing, as a form of punitive demodernization, can inaugurate a straightforward reversal of conventional, liberal economic models of linear economic and technological progress–is now so wide-spread as to be a cliché.
See urban warfare, training cities urban warfare, xvi, xxv-xxvi, 11–12, 18–19, 23, 58, 85–86, 125, 140, 153–54, 156, 239, 244, 246–47, 249; civil unrest as, 78, 218; conference on, 227; and domestic urban space, 23, 98; economy of, 252–54; great challenge of century, 19; Israel’s lessons on, 228–30, 233–34; training cities, 183–200 passim: Baladia, 191, 192, 193–95, 246, Baumholder, 186–87, early examples of, 185–86, mock cities needed, 184–85, new purpose of, 186, Playas, 196, 197, 198, RAND on, 187, 195–98, Urban Terrain Module, 199–200, Wired on, 190–91, Yodaville, 187, 188, 189, Zussman, 189–90; and urban culture, 33; video games for, 200–225 passim: Urban Resolve, 201–3. See also city, and war urbicide, 83–88 passim, 227, 267 US: airport security, 136, 137; anti-communist efforts, 13; army advert, 34; army bases as gated communities, 211–14; army recruits, 206, 207, 208; banned images of war dead, 72; and Canada border, 139–40, 250, 330; car culture, 302; CCTV in, 114 n.102; citizen soldiers of, xxv; city-destruction, 153; city as double target, 52; city-driven economy, 47, 49–50; cultural awareness, 34; data mining centres, 127; defense budget, 65, 75; defense industry flourishes, 196; defense overhauled by video game, 202; and de-modernization, xxiv; Department of Homeland Security, 80, 135, 196, 250, 258, 299; detainees worldwide, 112; energy policy, 311, 334; Enhanced Border Security and Visa Act, 136; ethnic cleansing of Iraq, 35; financial meltdown, 312; foreign-domestic convergence, 22, 24, 45, 52–53, 82; gated communities, xix, 106–7, 129, 144, 315; ‘giver’ vs ‘taker’ states, 49 n.60; grain production, 341; health care, 142; hegemony, 29, 59; undermined by urban warfare, 154, 157, 159, 163; waning of, 35; highway construction, 327 n.116; highway system, 14; Identity dominance, 126; info-psych-military concern, 71; infrastructural war champ, 271, 274, 276–78, 280, 286, 297; intolerance of, 178; vs Iraqi civilians, 30; Iraq war, 275–84, ‘bomb now die later’, 279–80; and Israel, 184, 193–95, 228–62 passim, 285: assassination raids, 248–50, catalyze Islamic extremism, 262, different threats to, 262, economic aid to, 230–31, helps invade Iraq, 229–30, 232, 238–41, 243, 248, new geometry of occupation, 251–52, non-lethal weapons, 244–46, urban warfare lessons, 228–30, 233–34, 246; Israel Homeland Security Foundation Act, 256; and Mexico border, xxiii, 22, 217 n.109, 250, 258, 372; military and Hollywood, 69; military police, 98–99; national identity threats, xx; NSA, 141–42; policing of protest, 123; Posse Comitas act, 21 n.88; prison population, 7, 109–10, 111; RESTORE Act, 141; rural soldiers of, 61; security precedent of, 134; social polarization, 7; suburban nation, 79–80; superpower no longer, 313; SUV and imperialism, 304, 306, 318; SUV popularity, 315; SWAT, 23; trade vs security, 134–35; urban archipelago, 50, 51, 52; urban military focus, 20–22; urban warfare training, xvi.
Red Moon Rising by Matthew Brzezinski
The reality check, Korolev well knew, was not likely to sit well with the impatient Presidium. Fortunately for the Chief Designer, Khrushchev and the Central Committee were preoccupied with other, far more urgent matters. • • • On the morning of June 28, 1956, workers in the western Polish city of Poznan declared a general strike. It was the first labor unrest in the Soviet bloc, and by early afternoon the walkout had turned into the largest anti-Communist rally since the war. One hundred thousand people, a third of Poznan’s population, crammed Adam Mickiewicz Square, waving banners that read DOWN WITH DICTATORSHIP and, in a play on Lenin’s most famous revolutionary slogan, WE WANT BREAD, FREEDOM, AND TRUTH. As Kaganovich and Molotov had feared, the ill winds of liberalization let loose by Khrushchev’s de-Stalinization decree had blown westward from the snowcapped Caucasus to the plains of Poland.
Behind the scenes, however, theirs was a strained relationship. (AP/Wide World Photos) Walt Disney (far left) visits Wernher von Braun at the Redstone Arsenal before hiring him as a scientific adviser and host for the Tomorrowland segments of his new Disneyland television program. In these broadcasts, many Americans learned about satellite technology for the first time. (NASA Marshall Space Flight Center) The powerful and staunchly anti-Communist Dulles brothers. Allen Dulles (left), the director of Central Intelligence, and John Foster Dulles, the secretary of state, set the tone for the Eisenhower administration’s aggressive containment policies toward Moscow. (© Bettmann/CORBIS) Richard Bissell was the man behind the CIA’s top-secret U-2 and satellite reconnaissance programs. (Central Intelligence Agency) The U-2 was used in reconnaissance missions over the Soviet Union, taking aerial photographs from as high as 70,000 feet.
Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend
1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Khan Academy, Kibera, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, openstreetmap, packet switching, patent troll, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar
After the Communists narrowly won the April 2009 election in a suspiciously strong showing, outrage turned to violence in the streets. Rallied by investigative journalist Natalia Morar and a handful of social-media mavens, Moldova’s “Twitter Revolution” followed the SMS-powered one in neighboring Ukraine a few years earlier.1 Protestors lit bonfires and waged angry demonstrations in the city center. That June, unable to elect a president, the parliament was dissolved. In the ensuing snap election a coalition of anti-Communist parties snatched a close victory. Within months, they had reached out to the West for help reforming and reinvigorating the economy. At the invitation of the World Bank, I was there to help the new government kick off “e-Transformation,” a project intent on leveraging smart technology to modernize the country’s archaic bureaucracy. With their uprising, its flames fanned by social media, the Moldovans had already launched their own digital transformation.
South Korea, Taiwan, China, and India have all created home-grown tech bubbles by turning the brain drain into “brain circulation,” according to AnnaLee Saxenian, who studies immigrant engineers in Silicon Valley.3 Moldova needs its expats to come home and plug themselves and their social networks back into the local economy. It also doesn’t hurt that overseas Moldovans are the country’s most strident anti-Communists, and participate actively in the civic life of the country on social sites like Facebook. While they are permitted to vote, they have to go to the embassy in their country of residence to do it. If e-Transformation can bring the polling booth to them directly, the revolution will be secured forever. And, as has happened in India, China, and other countries where emigrants have come home to build businesses, it might just set the stage for their eventual, triumphant return.
The Old Patagonian Express by Paul Theroux
'Echeverría was a bandit Paul Theroux The Old Patagonian Express, By Train Through the Americas Page 51 and a hypocrite,' one man told me; 'Lopez Portillo is just the same - give him time.' Guatemalans were more circumspect: they shrugged, they spat, they rolled their eyes; they did not utter their political preferences. But who could blame them? For twelve years the country had been governed by a party of fanatical anti-communists - a party greatly fancied by America's Central Intelligence Agency, which has yet to perceive that fanatical anti-communists are almost invariably fanatical anti-democrats. In the late 1960's and early 1970's there was a wave of guerrilla activity - kidnappings, murders and bombings; but the army proved ineffectual against the guerrillas and in Guatemala due process of law had always been notoriously slow. The answer was simple. Using the advice of the United States Embassy's military attaché (later found murdered), a number of vigilante groups were set up.
Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow by Yuval Noah Harari
23andMe, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, Chris Urmson, cognitive dissonance, Columbian Exchange, computer age, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, European colonialism, experimental subject, falling living standards, Flash crash, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, glass ceiling, global village, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, Kevin Kelly, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, mutually assured destruction, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, too big to fail, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, ultimatum game, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
Ceauşescu and his cronies dominated 20 million Romanians for four decades because they ensured three vital conditions. First, they placed loyal communist apparatchiks in control of all networks of cooperation, such as the army, trade unions and even sports associations. Second, they prevented the creation of any rival organisations – whether political, economic or social – which might serve as a basis for anti-communist cooperation. Third, they relied on the support of sister communist parties in the Soviet Union and eastern Europe. Despite occasional tensions, these parties helped each other in times of need, or at least guaranteed that no outsider poked his nose into the socialist paradise. Under such conditions, despite all the hardship and suffering inflicted on them by the ruling elite, the 20 million Romanians were unable to organise any effective opposition.
And at least in the short term, communism was also the great beneficiary of the war. The Soviet Union entered the war as an isolated communist pariah. It emerged as one of the two global superpowers, and the leader of an expanding international bloc. By 1949 eastern Europe became a Soviet satellite, the Chinese Communist Party won the Chinese Civil War, and the United States was gripped by anti-communist hysteria. Revolutionary and anti-colonial movements throughout the world looked longingly towards Moscow and Beijing, while liberalism became identified with the racist European empires. As these empires collapsed, they were usually replaced by either military dictatorships or socialist regimes, not liberal democracies. In 1956 the Soviet premier, Nikita Khrushchev, confidently told the liberal West that ‘Whether you like it or not, history is on our side.
Being Wrong: Adventures in the Margin of Error by Kathryn Schulz
affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, car-free, Cass Sunstein, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, cosmological constant, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, desegregation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, lake wobegon effect, Ronald Reagan, six sigma, stem cell, Steven Pinker, Tenerife airport disaster, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route
Consider the case of Whittaker Chambers. In 1925, Chambers, then a promising young undergraduate at Columbia University, dropped out of college and joined the Communist Party. For the remainder of his twenties and most of his thirties, Chambers was a committed atheist, an impassioned Communist—and, for five years, a Soviet spy. Then, in 1938, he broke with the party, found God, and turned virulently anti-Communist. Ten years later, he testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee and, subsequently, in one of the most famous trials of the twentieth century: the federal case against Alger Hiss, Chambers’s former friend and alleged fellow spy. If Chambers’s faith in Communism was so profound that it led him to betray his country and risk his life, his break with it was equally absolute. He didn’t turn away from the Party so much as turn on it, denouncing it as “evil, absolute evil.”
Writing about his decision to testify against Alger Hiss, Whittaker Chambers declared that, “it was for this that my whole life had been lived. For this I had been a Communist, for this I had ceased to be a Communist. For this the tranquil strengthening years had been granted to me. This challenge was the terrible meaning of my whole life.” In this narrative, even Chambers’s false self—the devoted Communist—had to exist for a while in order to serve the greater purpose of his true self, the crusading anti-Communist. This narrative is appealing for the same reason that it is problematic: within it, we can do no wrong. Our false beliefs were foreordained, our apparent errors occurred strictly in the service of a larger truth. This idea is made explicit in the religious affirmation that “God makes no mistakes”: even the seeming trials and blunders of our lives are part of a larger plan.* As that implies, stories starring a true self are teleological; we end up exactly where we are meant to be.
The Crying of Lot 49 by Thomas Pynchon
After the confrontation, appalled at what had to be some military alliance between abolitionist Russia (Nicholas having freed the serfs in 1861) and a Union that paid lip-service to abolition while it kept its own industrial laborers in a kind of wage-slavery, Peter Pinguid stayed in his cabin for weeks, brooding. “But that sounds,” objected Metzger, “like he was against industrial capitalism. Wouldn't that disqualify him as any kind of anti-Communist figure?” “You think like a Bircher,” Fallopian said. “Good guys and bad guys. You never get to any of the underlying truth. Sure he was against industrial capitalism. So are we. Didn't it lead, inevitably, to Marxism? Underneath, both are part of the same creeping horror.” “Industrial anything,” hazarded Metzger. “There you go,” nodded Fallopian. “What happened to Peter Pinguid?” Oedipa wanted to know.
Why Orwell Matters by Christopher Hitchens
anti-communist, British Empire, colonial rule, deindustrialization, Etonian, hiring and firing, land reform, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, nuclear winter, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes
The British authorities, Labour and Tory, declined to acknowledge the Soviets’ guilt in the matter until July 1988, for fear of ‘heating up the Cold War’. The Russian Federation officially accepted responsibility in 1990 ... But the essential difference between Orwell and the evolution of the Cold War as a Western political orthodoxy can easily be illustrated by means of his marked disagreement with three leading anti-Communists: T. S. Eliot, James Burnham and — at a posthumous remove — Norman Podhoretz. I personally cannot read the Orwell-Eliot correspondence without experiencing a deep feeling of contempt. On one side — Orwell’s — it consists of a series of friendly and generous invitations: that Eliot should broadcast to India, or read his own work to an Indian audience; that he should join Orwell for lunch in the Fitzroy neighbourhood; that he should come to dinner at Orwell’s new family home and (if blitz conditions made this preferable) stay the night there as well.
War Is a Force That Gives Us Meaning by Chris Hedges
“The first act any new president of this country must do is travel to Sarejevo and beg for forgiveness, just as Willy Brandt did when he traveled to Warsaw,” Zivotić told me, referring to the West German chancellor who pursued a policy of reconciliation with the victims of German Nazism. “This is the only way we can heal ourselves.” Zivotić first came to prominence in 1968, when Yugoslav university students staged anti-Communist protests at the time of the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia. For their support of the students he and seven other philosophy professors were dismissed. He started the Free Belgrade University, which met secretly in houses and whose classes were often broken up by the police. He did not return to his University of Belgrade post until 1987, seven years after the death of Tito. Soon after he regained his old position, he found himself ostracized again because of his condemnation of growing Serbian nationalism.
Utopia or Bust: A Guide to the Present Crisis by Benjamin Kunkel
anti-communist, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, David Graeber, declining real wages, full employment, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, late capitalism, liquidity trap, means of production, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, Occupy movement, peak oil, price stability, profit motive, savings glut, Slavoj Žižek, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration
Groys never discusses Adorno, a striking omission in light of his temper and range: Introduction to Antiphilosophy, Groys’s latest book in English, contains essays on Kierkegaard, Heidegger, Kojève, Derrida, and Walter Benjamin. Groys, like Adorno, possesses firm if abstract radical commitments and is a writer of relentlessly dialectical sentences in German. Otherwise they represent two poles of radical aesthetics. Adorno’s approach was historical materialist or Marxist yet anti-communist (at least where official Communist parties were concerned). Groys, by contrast, is more idealist in his belief that the radical artist can consciously understand and deliberately convey the meaning of his work—one reason, perhaps, why Groys has said he isn’t a Marxist—and yet more philo-communist. His recent Communist Postscript (2009) joins the efforts of other contemporary thinkers, notably Slavoj Žižek and Alain Badiou, to revive communism as the rallying cry of the left.
On Power and Ideology by Chomsky, Noam
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, feminist movement, imperial preference, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Stanislav Petrov, union organizing
A prestigious study group of the Woodrow Wilson Foundation and the National Planning Association in 1955 explained the meaning of the term “Communist” candidly and accurately: the primary threat of “Communism,” the study observed, is the economic transformation of the Communist powers “in ways which reduce their willingness and ability to complement the industrial economies of the West”—where “West” includes Japanese capitalism, and it is understood that these industrial capitalist economies are to remain firmly within the U.S.-managed “overall framework of order,” in Kissinger’s phrase. This is a good definition of the term “Communism” as it is actually used in U.S. political discourse. In brief, the “Communists” are those who attempt to use their resources for their own purposes, thus interfering with the right to rob and to exploit, the central doctrine of foreign policy. Naturally, the U.S. is consistently “anti-Communist,” while only selectively anti-fascist. The first principle of U.S. foreign policy, then, is to ensure a favorable global environment for U.S.-based industry, commerce, agribusiness and finance. In the Third World, its primary concern is the defense of the Fifth Freedom from various enemies, primarily indigenous. What is called “national security policy” is oriented to the same ends. In the fourth lecture, I will turn to the question of just what national security policy is.
On Anarchism by Chomsky, Noam
What the Russian autocrats and their supporters fear most is that the success of libertarian Socialism in Spain might prove to their blind followers that the much vaunted “necessity of a dictatorship” is nothing but one vast fraud which in Russia has led to the despotism of Stalin and is to serve today in Spain to help the counter-revolution to a victory over the revolution of the workers and peasants.27 After decades of anti-Communist indoctrination, it is difficult to achieve a perspective that makes possible a serious evaluation of the extent to which Bolshevism and Western liberalism have been united in their opposition to popular revolution. However, I do not think that one can comprehend the events in Spain without attaining this perspective. With this brief sketch—partisan, but I think accurate—for background, I would like to turn to Jackson’s account of this aspect of the Spanish Civil War (see note 8).
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, means of production, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, Winter of Discontent
Jean-Marie Le Pen, the founder of the National Front, got his start in French bookstore owner Pierre Poujade’s anti-tax movement of the 1950s. The National Front, which Le Pen founded in 1972, combined remnants of Poujade’s shopkeepers’ movement with critics of France’s decolonization, some of whom, like Le Pen, looked back favorably on Vichy France and downplayed the evils of Hitler’s Germany. During the 1970s, the FN, which was militantly anti-communist and anti-tax, barely counted in the polls. The FN got 0.76 percent in the 1974 presidential election. The Danish People’s Party was a spin-off from the Progress Party, which tax lawyer Mogens Glistrup founded in 1973. Glistrup, who eventually went to jail for tax evasion, called for abolishing the income tax. The party did surprisingly well in the 1970s, but less so in the 1980s when the Liberals and Conservatives coopted its anti-tax message.
The Defence of the Realm by Christopher Andrew
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Clive Stafford Smith, collective bargaining, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Desert Island Discs, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, job satisfaction, large denomination, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, Mahatma Gandhi, Mikhail Gorbachev, North Sea oil, Red Clydeside, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, Torches of Freedom, traveling salesman, union organizing, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier, Winter of Discontent
Ewer, Communist and Anti-Communist’, Historical Journal, vol. 49 (2006) Campbell, Alastair, The Blair Years: Extracts from the Alastair Campbell Diaries (London: Hutchinson, 2007) Campbell, John, Edward Heath: A Biography, paperback edn (London: Pimlico, 1994) Carr, E. H., Foundations of a Planned Economy 1926–1929, 3 vols (London: Macmillan, 1982) Carr, E. H., The Twilight of Comintern 1930–1935 (London: Macmillan, 1982) Carsten, F. L., War against War (London: Batsford Academic, 1982) Carter, Miranda, Anthony Blunt: His Lives (London: Macmillan, 2001) Castle, Barbara, The Castle Diaries 1964–70 (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1984) Catterall, Peter (ed.), The Macmillan Diaries: The Cabinet Years 1950–57 (London: Macmillan, 2003) Caute, David, The Great Fear: The Anti-Communist Purge under Truman and Eisenhower (London: Secker & Warburg, 1978) Cecil, Robert, ‘The Cambridge Comintern’, in Christopher Andrew and David Dilks (eds), The Missing Dimension: Governments and Intelligence Communities in the Twentieth Century (London: Macmillan, 1984) Cecil, Robert, A Divided Life: Donald Maclean (London: Bodley Head, 1988) Cesarani, David, Major Farran’s Hat: Murder, Scandal and Britain’s War against Jewish Terrorism 1945–1948 (London: Heinemann, 2009) Chamberlain, Phil, ‘Mr Mills’ Circus’, History Today, vol. 54 (2004) Chapple, Frank, Sparks Fly!
Intelligence on one of its members, Albert Allen, suggested that he ‘may have quarrelled with his former employers, a fact which might be disclosed from his correspondence, and should this be discovered, it is obvious that we might be able, by careful approach, to get valuable information from him’. Allen, whose real name was Arthur Lakey, was a former Special Branch sergeant who had been dismissed after the police strike of 1919. On 25 June 1928 he was approached by John Ottaway of the Observation section who introduced himself as ‘G. Stewart of the Anti-Communist Union’ and claimed that the Union had sent him to ask Allen about his involvement with the FPA. Allen agreed to provide information on the FPA, ARCOS and other Russian ‘intrigues’. Ottaway reported after the meeting that, as Harker had suspected, Allen’s ‘late masters evidently have let him down, and he seems embittered in consequence.’ As evidence of the importance of the information he could provide, he revealed that he knew of leaks from both the Foreign Office and the Special Branch.87 In July 1928 Harker decided to meet Allen himself, introducing himself as someone who ‘came from Colonel Kell’: I very quickly found . . . that we were on quite good terms, and, by treating him rather as my opposite number, found that he was quite ready to talk up to a point.
The main thrust of the Service’s advice was that ‘full-time security officers with authority to follow up security instructions are a necessity in any Government Department which has a substantial amount of classified material to protect.’75 The part of government least interested in Security Service advice was the Houses of Parliament, whose security remained woeful until the beginning of the twenty-first century.76 In November 1954 the Security Service informed the Whitehall Personnel Security Committee that they had ‘moved somewhat from their original position’ on positive vetting and ‘now appreciated more fully the advantage to be derived’ from it.77 ‘At the risk of being smug,’ wrote Sir John Winnifrith in a memorandum on vetting to the Security Conference of Privy Counsellors in 1955, ‘I would like to say in the first place that, particularly given the speed with which it has been evolved, the present system is a pretty good one.’78 Eleven thousand working in the atomic field had so far been positively vetted, with 3,000 PVs still to be completed. In other sensitive posts, 7,000 had been PV’d, with another 6,000 to follow.79 There was no anti-Communist witch-hunt in Britain comparable to that led by Senator Joseph McCarthy in the United States. Two years after his election defeat, Attlee gave a withering response in an American journal to McCarthy’s criticism of the Purge Procedure he had introduced: ‘The Labour Party has had nearly 40 years of fighting Communism in Britain, and despite war and economic depression, the Communists have utterly failed.
Digital Barbarism: A Writer's Manifesto by Mark Helprin
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, carbon footprint, computer age, crowdsourcing, hive mind, invention of writing, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, the scientific method, Yogi Berra
At the time, I was living in New York, where I was born, working in the library of the New-York Historical Society on a novel, Winter’s Tale, that is, if anything, a 748-page tribute to a city with which I was as deeply and immoderately in love as if it were a woman. I bring this up because it bears upon the electronic culture, the machine, and the arguments that surround both. To wit, just as accusing someone of being a communist, or an anti-communist, so as to skate over the substance of his arguments is (or was) a common tactic, so in regard to anything having to do with mechanization the easiest reflex is to brand an opponent a Luddite. That is, someone who, like the early-nineteenth-century craftsmen who destroyed the powered looms threatening their way of life (and were severely repressed for doing so), rashly and irrationally fights the inevitable and the good.
Alfred Russel Wallace, anthropic principle, anti-communist, dematerialisation, laissez-faire capitalism, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Nikolai Kondratiev, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, the scientific method
It is easy to move from a belief in an invisible order in things to the idea that this order can be shaped at will, which is the essence of magic. Like magicians, spies – especially if they are agents of influence – aim to shape how the world is perceived. So it was with Duranty, who progressed from being a kind of occult prankster to covering up the Soviet famine and whitewashing Stalin’s show trials. Duranty first moved to the Soviet Union in 1921. Until then he had been fiercely anti-communist, writing a stream of anti-Soviet articles from the Paris office of the New York Times. On arriving in the Soviet Union he changed his tune, and by 1932, when he was awarded the Pulitzer prize for his reporting from the country, he was installed in a spacious Moscow apartment with a Russian cook, a housemaid and a chauffeur, along with a secretary who was also his lover and with whom he had a child he later refused to recognize.
The Man Who Invented the Computer by Jane Smiley
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, British Empire, c2.com, computer age, Fellow of the Royal Society, Henri Poincaré, IBM and the Holocaust, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Karl Jansky, Norbert Wiener, RAND corporation, Turing machine, V2 rocket, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture
., later said that he wasn’t impressed by Mauchly, but it also turned out that, according to IBM lawyers, antitrust laws forbade IBM from acquiring UNIVAC. In early 1950, Mauchly and Eckert’s company was denied security clearance and therefore banned from accepting top-secret military contracts—a significant portion of those available to private industry. The reasons for the denial of clearance were a mix of anti-Communist paranoia (a member of the engineering team had supported Henry Wallace; Mauchly himself had signed a petition in 1946 supporting civilian control of nuclear energy) and general suspicion—army intelligence asked the FBI to investigate the drowning of Mary Mauchly, which it did, exonerating Mauchly. A few weeks after the denial of security clearance, Remington Rand bought the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation.
Homage to Catalonia by George Orwell
I doubt whether this kind of thing pays, even from a sectarian point of view. And meanwhile there is no possible doubt about the hatred and dissension that the ‘Trotsky-Fascist’ accusation is causing. Rank-and-file Communists everywhere are led away on a senseless witch-hunt after ‘Trotskyists’, and parties of the type of the POUM are driven back into the terribly sterile position of being mere anti-Communist parties. There is already the beginning of a dangerous split in the world working-class movement. A few more libels against life-long Socialists, a few more frame-ups like the charges against the POUM, and the split may become irreconcilable. The only hope is to keep political controversy on a plane where exhaustive discussion is possible. Between the Communists and those who stand or claim to stand to the Left of them there is a real difference.
Peak Everything: Waking Up to the Century of Declines by Richard Heinberg, James Howard (frw) Kunstler
anti-communist, back-to-the-land, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demographic transition, ending welfare as we know it, energy transition, Fractional reserve banking, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, land reform, means of production, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, urban planning
I was living in Canada during the mid-1970s and almost never watched television, but I somehow found myself viewing the live broadcast of a Carter speech in which he told Americans that they would have to change their material way of life in order to keep their freedoms. I was so amazed to hear an American president saying such things that I moved back to the US. But the Carter years were destined to be few. For over three decades the American Right had been searching for ways to overturn the New Deal. Corporate leaders backing the Republicans had managed to make common cause with the burgeoning Christian fundamentalist movement and the anti-Communist fringe; Nixon had perfected the strategy of bringing social conservatives from the old Confederacy into the Republican Party; and the party had found its perfect pitchman — a former movie actor and ex-spokesman for General Electric. Ronald Reagan and the Republican PR machine pushed all of the right buttons, even resorting to an “October surprise” to manipulate the Iranian hostage crisis to their benefit.
In the Devil's Garden: A Sinful History of Forbidden Food by Stewart Lee Allen
The result was predictable (in fact, the peasant farmers had predicted it). Relatively few pigs were actually handed out by the Americans. Those that were failed to survive because no one could afford the water-mist system the animals needed to survive in the heat. When school attendance dropped 25 percent because of the absent pig money, people tried to bring back the old black pigs. But the rabidly anti-Communist Haitian right-wing government had both pigs and their owners executed as Communists. The same officials, who were supposed to control prices for the American pig feed, then created shortages so they could enhance their profits. The peasants were soon locked out of the swine-breeding business, and ten years after the death of the last Haitian pig, almost all of them had been forced to sell their ancestral lands to make ends meet.
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, clean water, cosmic abundance, dark matter, demographic transition, Exxon Valdez, F. W. de Klerk, germ theory of disease, invention of agriculture, invention of radio, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Mikhail Gorbachev, pattern recognition, planetary scale, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, stem cell, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus
Most of these incursions were small-scale efforts to maintain compliant governments or to protect American property and business interests; but some were much larger, more prolonged, and on far deadlier scales. United States armed forces were intervening in Latin America not only before the Bolshevik Revolution but also before the * This list, which occasioned some surprise when published in America, is based on compilations by the House Armed Services Committee. 188 • Billions and Billions Communist Manifesto—which makes the anti-Communist justification for American intervention in Nicaragua a little difficult to rationalize; the deficiencies of the argument would be better understood, however, had the Soviet Union not been in the habit of gobbling up other countries. The American invasion of Southeast Asia—of nations that never had harmed or threatened the United States—killed 58,000 Americans and more than a million Asians; the U.S. dropped 7.5 megatons of high explosives and produced an ecological and economic chaos from which the region still has not recovered.
On Nature and Language by Noam Chomsky
“Highly inadequate reparations” would be a more appropriate term, in the light of a history that is hardly obscure. But victors do not provide reparations, just as they do not face war crimes investigations or even see the need for apologies, beyond the most tepid acknowledgment of past “errors.” The matter is well understood in the South. Prime Minister Mahathir of Malaysia recently commented that paradoxically, the greatest catastrophe for us, who had always been anti-communist, is the defeat of communism. The end of the Cold War has deprived us of the only leverage we had – the option to defect. Now we can turn to no one. No paradox, but a natural expression of the actual “principles and values” that guide policy. The topic is of extreme importance to the vast majority of the people of the world, but it is little discussed in the sectors of privilege and power in the industrial West.
The Snowball: Warren Buffett and the Business of Life by Alice Schroeder
affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Bonfire of the Vanities, Brownian motion, capital asset pricing model, card file, centralized clearinghouse, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, desegregation, Donald Trump, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, global village, Golden Gate Park, Haight Ashbury, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index fund, indoor plumbing, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, medical malpractice, merger arbitrage, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, NetJets, new economy, New Journalism, North Sea oil, paper trading, passive investing, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, shareholder value, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, telemarketer, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, Upton Sinclair, War on Poverty, Works Progress Administration, Y2K, zero-coupon bond
He talks about playing basketball in Omaha with a white team in 1964, traveling to Iowa for games, and hanging out at a bar on North 30th Street. The bartender wouldn’t serve him. 18. Howard Buffett quoted in Paul Williams, “Buffett Tells Why He Joined Birch Society,” Benson Sun, April 6, 1961. 19. The Christian Anti-Communist Crusade was founded in 1953 by “a crisp, energetic, self-confident Austrian,” Fred Schwarz, who was a physician, psychiatrist, and lay preacher. It used media to spread its anti-Communist philosophy. Cabell Phillips, “Physician Leads Anti-Red Drive with ‘Poor Man’s Birch Society,’” New York Times, April 30, 1961. See the CACC website, http://www.schwarzreport.org/. 20. Leila Buffett letter to Dr. Hills, December 10, 1958. 21. Leila Buffett to Mrs. Kray, May 23, 1960. 22. Interview with Susie Buffett Jr. and Howie Buffett.
Doc Thompson, who loved the summer heat, sat outside on the screened porch on the boiling July nights, dressed in his three-piece pastel wool suit, while Susie was secretly out with Milt. Doc Thompson played the mandolin while Warren sweated and sang, accompanying him on the ukulele. Warren felt comfortable with Doc Thompson, whose style reminded him of his father’s way of holding forth on how the world was going to hell because of the Democrats. Whittaker Chambers’s autobiography, Witness, describing his conversion from Communist spy to ardent Cold War anti-Communist, had just been released. Warren had read this book with great interest, in part because of its description of the Alger Hiss case. Chambers had accused Hiss of being a Communist spy, an accusation that had been pooh-poohed by people the Buffetts considered political enemies, the Truman crowd. Only Richard Nixon, a young senator on the House Un-American Activities Committee, had pursued Hiss, leading to Hiss’s conviction for perjury in January 1950.
The rapid advance of Communism over such a broad swath of the world stunned much of the nation. Howard joined a newly formed group, the John Birch Society, which combined paranoia about Communism with what he described as concern for the “moral and spiritual problem of America, which would be with us even if Communism were stopped tomorrow.”18 He covered his office walls with maps showing the menacing red advance of Communism. He and Doris helped bring the Christian Anti-Communist Crusade to Omaha19 and threw themselves behind a movement of ideological conservatives that was coalescing around Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater. Howard was respected as a philosophical purist among the libertarian-leaning wing of the Republican Party, but anyone associated with the Birchers attracted both alarm and ridicule. After he went to the local press to defend his Birch membership, people increasingly wrote him off as an eccentric.
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, colonial rule, David Brooks, European colonialism, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Monroe Doctrine, New Journalism, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, the market place, Thomas L Friedman
Mission set about the task of liquidating the class enemy was a bit too much even for the British, who are not known for their gentlemanly decorum in such procedures; they were also not too happy about being displaced from yet another outpost of British influence and power. With the enthusiastic approval and direct participation of the U.S. Mission, tens of thousands were exiled, tens of thousands more were sent to prison islands where many were tortured or executed (or if lucky, only “re-educated”), the unions were broken, and even mild anti-Communist socialists were suppressed, while the U.S. shamelessly manipulated the electoral process to ensure that the right men won. The social and economic consequences were grim. A decade later, “between 1959 and 1963, Classics in Politics: The Fateful Triangle Noam Chomsky The Origins of the “Special Relationship” 64 almost a third of the Greek labor force emigrated in search of satisfactory employment.”31 The fascist coup of 1967, again with apparent U.S. backing, had its roots in the same events.
Predictably, our insistence that refugee reports be taken seriously and considered with the same caution and concern whatever their origin has repeatedly been interpreted as apologetics for some official enemy, a matter that merits little comment apart from an inquiry, which might be illuminating, into some of the techniques typically adopted by those whom Bakunin aptly called the “state worshipping” intellectuals; in the West, those who pretend to be anti-Communist while mimicking Stalinist practice. London Sunday Times, June 19, 1977. There is considerable further evidence in the testimony of Paul Eddy and Peter Gillman of the Sunday Times before the UN Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories (A/SPC/32/L.12, 11 Nov. 1977), including also interesting analysis of the efforts at rebuttal on the part of David Krivine of the Jerusalem Post and the Israeli government.
As participants made clear, it was undertaken as standard operating procedure for overthrowing a civilian government: deny aid, arm the military. Some recent success stories had been Indonesia (Suharto) and Chile (Pinochet). For more detail, see pp. 457f., and my Culture of Terrorism (South End, 1988). On Israel’s involvement in the early phase of the Nicaraguan operations, in close collaboration with Argentine neo-Nazis, see Ariel Armony, Argentina, the United States, and the Anti-Communist Crusade in Central America, 19771984 (Ohio University Center for International Studies, Latin American Series #26, Athens, Ohio, 1997), 153f. On Israel’s warm relations with the anti-Semitic murderers and torturers who ruled Argentina at the time, specifically targeting Jews, see Towards a New Cold War, p. 292 Ozanne, FT. July 29; Andoni, CSM, July 30; Sciolino, NYT, July 27; Friedman, NYT, Aug. 1.
The Strangest Man: The Hidden Life of Paul Dirac, Mystic of the Atom by Graham Farmelo
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Berlin Wall, cuban missile crisis, double helix, Ernest Rutherford, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, gravity well, Henri Poincaré, invention of radio, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Murray Gell-Mann, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Simon Singh, Solar eclipse in 1919, Stephen Hawking, strikebreaker, University of East Anglia
Dirac had written to tell Manci of the doctors’ assessment: Gabriel had been ‘badly brought up’.12 Soon after he arrived home that night, Dirac would have told his wife of her son’s progress, and they may well have discussed the news that had broken in European newspapers that day: the American Government had withdrawn Oppenheimer’s security clearance. The Oppenheimer case was the climax of the anti-Communist paranoia in 1950s America. It had begun with the start of the Cold War and intensified in the late summer of 1949, when the Soviet Union tested its first nuclear weapon at least two years earlier than the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) expected from its intelligence reports.13 The USA, terrified that its technological primacy would be eclipsed by the Soviet Union, feared that Communists held important positions in public life.
J. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 Tilley, Peter 1 Times, The 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Tkachenko, Vladimir 1, 2n33 Todd, Horace 1n2 Tollast, Robert 1 Tolstoy, Count Leo 1 Anna Karenina 1 War and Peace 1 Tomonaga, Sin-Itiro 1 Tots and Quots dining club 1 Trans-Siberian Railway 1 transformation theory 1, 2, 3 transistors 1 Trieste symposium (1971) 1 Trinity College, Cambridge 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 Trotsky, Leon 1 Troyanovsky, Aleksandr 1, 2 Truman, Harry S. 1, 2, 3 ‘Tube Alloys’ project 1, 2, 3 tuberculosis 1, 2, 3, 4, 5n23 Turin Shroud 1, 2n28 Turing, Alan 1 Tyndall, Arthur 1, 2, 3, 4 uncertainty principle 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Under the Banner of Marxism journal 1 UNESCO 1 United States of America development of quantum mechanics 1 PD’s first visit (1929) 1, 2 PD’s 1931 visit 1, 2 depression in 1 Einstein emigrates to 1 prominent role in the Second World War 1 American-led experiments to build a nuclear bomb 1, 2 funding of theoretical physics 1 anti-Communist paranoia (1950s) 1 space programme 1 Judy settles in 1 PD’s regular visits 1 universe expanding 1, 2 ‘primitive atom’ theory 1, 2 University of Aarhus, Denmark 1 University of Bristol 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 University Engineering Society 1 Dirac Centenary Meeting (2002) 1 Faculty of Engineering 1 mathematics department 1 PD declines an honorary degree 1 PD takes the qualifying examinations early 1n40 PD’s FRS election 1 University of British Columbia 1 University of California at Berkeley 1, 2, 3 University of Cambridge see Cambridge University University of Florida, Gainesville 1 University of Geneva 1 University of Leiden, Netherlands 1 University of Liverpool 1 University of London 1 University of Madison, Wisconsin 1, 2 University of Manchester 1 University of Miami 1, 2, 3, 4n6, 5n47 University of Minnesota 1 University of Nebraska 1 University of Swansea 1 University of Texas at Austin 1, 2n6 Updike, John 1 uranium 1 235 isotope 1, 2, 3, 4 238 isotope 1, 2, 3 Urey, Harold 1 utilitarianism 1, 2, 3n53 vacuum concept 1, 2, 3 vacuum cleaner 1 Valais canton, Switzerland 1 Van Vleck, John 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10n5 Vancouver 1, 2 VE-Day celebrations 1 Veblen, Oswald 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Veltman, Martin 1, 2 Vermont 1, 2 Victoria, Queen 1 Vienna 1 Vietnam war 1, 2 Vieux, Annette (née Giroud; PD’s paternal great-grandmother) 1n10 Viktor Frankl Institute, Vienna 1 virtual states 1 Vladikavkas 1 Vladivostock 1 von Neumann, John 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 VSO (MI5 informant) 1, 2 Wakulla river 1 Waldegrave, William, Baron Waldegrave of North Hill 1, 2n51, 3n1 Wall Street crash (1929) 1 Waller, Ivar 1, 2, 3n5 Walters, Barbara: How to Talk to Practically Anybody about Practically Anything 1 Walton, Ernest 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Walton, Sir William 1 Washington, D.C. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 Watt, Dr Hansell 1, 2, 3 Wattenberg, Al 1 Waugh, Evelyn: Brideshead Revisited 1 wavicle 1 weak interaction 1, 2, 3, 4, 5n7 Wei Chi (a.k.a.
Blackwater: The Rise of the World's Most Powerful Mercenary Army by Jeremy Scahill
air freight, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, business climate, business intelligence, centralized clearinghouse, collective bargaining, Columbine, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Naomi Klein, private military company, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, stem cell, urban planning
Most of the killing and torturing was done by the army and the right-wing death squads affiliated with it. According to an Amnesty International report in 2001, violations committed by the army and its associated paramilitaries included “extrajudicial executions, other unlawful killings, ‘disappearances’ and torture. . . . Whole villages were targeted by the armed forces and their inhabitants massacred.” As part of President Reagan’s policy of supporting anti-Communist forces, hundreds of millions of dollars in United States aid was funneled to the Salvadoran Army, and a team of 55 Special Forces advisers, led for several years by Jim Steele, trained front-line battalions that were accused of significant human rights abuses. There are far more Americans in Iraq today—some 140,000 troops in all—than there were in El Salvador, but U.S. soldiers and officers are increasingly moving to a Salvador-style advisory role.
After winning a Congressional seat as a Republican from Orange County in the early 1970s, he soon “established himself as one of the country’s most right-wing and outspoken congressmen.”21 He ran for President against Richard Nixon in 1972 as the candidate of the American Independent Party, founded in 1968 by segregationist politician George Wallace.22 The elder Schmitz also served as national director of the anti-communist John Birch Society before being kicked out for being too extreme.23 He made comments like, “Jews are like everybody else, only more so,” “Martin Luther King is a notorious liar,” “I may not be Hispanic, but I’m close. I’m Catholic with a mustache”24 and described the Watts riot as “a communist operation.”25 After President Richard Nixon announced he would visit “Red China” in 1971, Schmitz—who represented Nixon’s home district—called Nixon “pro-communist,” saying the visit was “surrendering to international communism.
Troublemaker Samuel Klaus was gone from the State Department, but the JIOA could still not get the visa division to make things happen fast enough. On May 11, 1948, military intelligence chief General Stephen J. Chamberlin, the man who had briefed Eisenhower in 1947, took matters into his own hands. Chamberlin went to meet FBI director J. Edgar Hoover to enlist his help with visas. Cold War paranoia was on the rise, and both men were staunch anti-Communists. The success of Operation Paperclip, said Chamberlin, was essential to national security. The FBI had the Communists to fear, not the Nazis. Hoover agreed. Paperclip recruits needed the promise of American citizenship now more than ever, Chamberlin said, before any more of them were stolen away by the Russians. Chamberlin asked Hoover to put pressure on the State Department. J. Edgar Hoover said he would see what he could do.
Army. In the summer of 1946 a major event occurred that influenced the CIA’s future role in Operation Paperclip and Camp King. Major General Reinhard Gehlen, former head of the Nazis’ intelligence operation against the Soviets, arrived at Camp King. Gehlen had been in the United States under interrogation since 1945. Here at Oberursel, Army Intelligence decided to make Gehlen head of its entire “anti-Communist intelligence organization,” under the code name Operation Rusty. Eventually the organization would become known simply as the Gehlen Organization. A network of former Nazi intelligence agents, the majority of whom were members of the SS, began working out of offices at Camp King side by side with army intelligence officers. Colonel Philp was in charge of overall supervision. By late 1947, the Gehlen Organization had gotten so large it required its own headquarters.
May We Be Forgiven by A. M. Homes
I head into class, prepared to discuss the origins of the moniker “Tricky Dick.” I begin by introducing the figure of Helen Gahagan Douglas, actress and wife of actor Melvyn Douglas, who served Congress for three terms in the 1940s—including while having an affair with then Congressman and future President Lyndon B. Johnson. In 1950, Douglas ran for the United States Senate, against Nixon. Nixon took advantage of anti-communist sentiment, alluding to Gahagan Douglas’s “red” sympathies, and launched a smear campaign, circulating anti-Douglas pamphlets printed on pink paper. Helen Gahagan Douglas lost the election, but coined the nickname that Nixon never lived down, “Tricky Dick.” “Tricky Dick” was later used to refer to various Nixon behaviors, ranging from personal use of campaign funds to the spying, stealing, wiretapping, plotting to overthrow, and likely worse.
“You need me,” she says, giving the goods a hard pump. “I am your future.” Monday’s class was described in my syllabus as “Nixon in China: The Week That Changed the World.” The line is a direct quote from the great man himself, describing his 1972 trip to China. The trip was actually an eight-day, carefully orchestrated, made-for-television view behind the Bamboo Curtain. An incredibly unlikely diplomatic achievement pulled off by a staunch anti-communist—in fact, when Nixon first presented the idea to his own men, they thought he’d lost his chips. In classic Nixon fashion, the President appeared to back off but instead worked through diplomatic back channels via Poland and Yugoslavia, taking advantage of a fissure in Soviet-Sino relations, and mindful that the country with the world’s largest population was “living in angry isolation.” The payoff of his daring détente increased U.S. leverage with Russia, prompting the SALT II talks and the slow unwinding of Cold War tensions.
The Docks by Bill Sharpsteen
affirmative action, anti-communist, big-box store, collective bargaining, Google Earth, intermodal, inventory management, jitney, Just-in-time delivery, new economy, Panamax, place-making, Port of Oakland, post-Panamax, RAND corporation, refrigerator car, strikebreaker, women in the workforce
“The one who had a little actual past union experience was me. One time we were marching, and the attitude of the guys was the cops would never shoot us. I couldn’t convince them otherwise, because they knew all the cops. Then they took all the old cops off the waterfront and sent some new ones down. Suddenly shots rang out. One of our guys falls right down, and he’s squirting blood. And, of course, my partner, who was a real anti-communist guy, said, ‘Hey, he’s been shot!’ I said, ‘Of course he’s been fucking well shot. I’ve been trying to tell you that.’â†œ” The strikers found ways to cope. They scattered dried peas or marbles in front of the mounted cops to knock the horses over or spook them enough so they wouldn’t move. When the cops lobbed tear gas at the strikers, using round glass containers that broke when they hit the pavement, the men tried to whack the balls back at the cops with brooms.
1989 The Berlin Wall: My Part in Its Downfall by Peter Millar
anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, glass ceiling, kremlinology, Marshall McLuhan, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, pre–internet, QWERTY keyboard, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Sinatra Doctrine, urban sprawl, working-age population
They checked out all the tapes for the cassette player, playing a few snatches here and there, not to check for seditious sermons – God knows what they might have made of Cold War Nightlife if they had understood the words – but to hear new songs. They inspected our clothing, our socks, our underwear as if eager to find out whether Westerners had the same anatomy. They pored over our photograph albums. For hours. Honest. Not looking for evidence of anti-communist propaganda but out of genuine, ridiculously enthusiastic, almost childish human interest: ‘So that’s your nan, is it? How old is she then? And is that where you live in England? Does everybody have a house like that? What sort of car is that then? How much does that cost? How fast does it go?’ It was astounding, endearing, amusing, infuriating, downright bloody maddening after five hours of it, before eventually they realised it could not go on for ever and somebody – claiming at last to have had the proper clearance from ‘above’ – finally let us pack up again (no offers to help there) and said, with obviously great reluctance, that we could go.
The Big U by Neal Stephenson
The outcome was predictable, and when the battered progressives returned to the main picket outside the Caf entrance, Yllas Freedperson exhorted them to hang tough, to further peace and freedom in the Plex by finding the violent people who had hurt them and bashing their brains out. Mobs of hungry students broke through the picket lines empty-handed, obviously bent on eating scab food. The unionists were still so pissed off from the earlier fight that more scuffling and debris-throwing ensued. Twenty TUGgies carrying anti-communist signs took advantage of the confusion to set up a barrier around the SUB information table and erect their OM generator, a black box with big speakers used to augment their own personal OMs, which they now OMed through megaphones. A picket-sign duel broke out; it became clear that the SUB had reinforced their picket signs to make them into dangerous weapons. At a sign from their leader, Messiah #645, the TUGgies produced sawed-off pool cues and displayed highly developed kendo abilities.
The Sushi Economy: Globalization and the Making of a Modern Delicacy by Sasha Issenberg
air freight, Akira Okazaki, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, call centre, Deng Xiaoping, global supply chain, haute cuisine, means of production, Nixon shock, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, telemarketer, trade route, urban renewal
The only thing that stopped Gloucester’s fishing community from refocusing entirely on the prospect of catching a giant bluefin may have been the calendar: There wasn’t enough of the three-month tuna season to spread through the year. News of a gold rush in Gloucester traveled so widely that one interloper came to believe that the path to his new world order ran through the town’s harbor. In 1976, Reverend Sun Myung Moon rented a Gloucester summer house and fished for tuna on the Annisquam River in his boat, the New Hope. Moon, a flamboyant Korean anti-Communist, had arrived in the United States in 1965 to launch a version of the Unification Church he had started in Seoul with himself at its messianic center. Under Moon’s “Divine Principle,” an interpretation of the Christian Bible, all economic, social, and religious activities are to be completely integrated—and Moon embarked on an ambitious corporate expansion fueled by missionary zeal. Moon was drawn to Gloucester by the tuna, and not because he had a particular appetite for seafood —Moonies were said to subsist on oatmeal and peanut butter—but as a business opportunity.
Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens
4chan, airport security, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, union organizing, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law
Although it was clear that a terrorist attack had been carried out, the inquiry says no immediate nationwide alert was given, no roadblocks or observation posts were set up, no attempt was made to mobilise helicopters nor did the operation centre take up offers from neighboring police districts. There's a curious thing Breivik said, after he had finished his killing, and called the police to come and arrest him: "My name is Commander Anders Breivik Behring in the Norwegian anti-communist resistance movement." From the translated Dagbladet article, "Breivik claimed that this movement was responsible for about 50 attacks in Europe since World War 2." Crooks and Liars It is becoming acceptable to say, out loud, that our politicians are thoroughly corrupt. That the police exist to protect criminals from us, rather than to protect us from criminals. That conspiracies are real, not mythological, and that theories about crimes are not silly nonsense, they are an essential tool for establishing the truth.
When the Armistice was announced in November 1918 the situation became even more complicated, as Admiral Kolchak, who had been sponsored by the British, was persuaded to support a coup d’état in Omsk, at the western end of the line, 4,000 miles from Vladivostok. Rather strangely, as conspiracy theorists have subsequently pointed out, the takeover was announced by Kolchak just after the Middlesex battalion and General Alfred Knox, the head of the British Military Mission in Russia, arrived in the town. Knox was a Russia expert who had been the military attaché in Petrograd and a fervent anti-Communist who had previously gone to Tokyo to meet Kolchak and enlist him in the Intervention. Knox had form, too, in terms of political interference, having worked to try to overthrow the Kerensky regime, and he had actively supported various White senior figures. The fact that Kolchak’s action took place a week after the Armistice suggests, too, that there was British involvement in the decision. A second battalion of British troops, the 1st/9th Hampshires,22 arrived in Omsk soon after the coup, as did the advance guard of a Canadian force; however, the rest of what was to have been 5,000 men were never sent by Ottawa because the Canadian government was worried about their discipline, which had deteriorated markedly after the Armistice.
After the Berlin Wall by Christopher Hilton
I needed some invitation from abroad. I started my work in the Berlin mission society in 1957 and in 1959 I became responsible for all the missionaries who were working in South Africa. The headquarters still remained in the GDR because, despite all the difficulties, it was easier to leave it there. Five times between 1959 and 1965 I asked for permission to travel to South Africa, which was politically an anti-communist country. I did not get it. I did receive an invitation to another part of Africa for a big ecumenical gathering – a gathering of all African Lutheran churches in Addis Ababa. I applied again and there was a church leader in East Berlin who had a way to the state people. He went to the Stasi and said “you should let him out.” I was away for six weeks and went to Tanzania too. ‘When I came back I got a visit from the Stasi.
Kill Chain: The Rise of the High-Tech Assassins by Andrew Cockburn
airport security, anti-communist, Edward Snowden, friendly fire, Google Earth, license plate recognition, RAND corporation, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, too big to fail
The Guatemalan operation, in particular, was marked by bumbling and misadventure, beginning when plans for the coup mislaid by a CIA agent in a Guatemala City hotel room were splashed across every newspaper in the Western world. Not included among those documents, however, were CIA plans for “low methods” in Guatemala. Starting in 1952, according to internal agency documents, senior officials in the euphemistically named Directorate of Plans were compiling lists of “top flight communists whom the new government would desire to eliminate in event of successful anti-communist coup.” In a later initiative, headquarters ordered the coup-plotters to train two “assassination specialists,” a move encouraged by the State Department, while also demanding that a “list of names be compiled for study by staff officers to determine if they meet the latest criteria for inclusion on the Junta’s disposal list … it is requested that a final list of disposees be approved promptly to permit planning to proceed on schedule.”
CultureShock! Egypt: A Survival Guide to Customs and Etiquette (4th Edition) by Susan L. Wilson
Charges ranged from distributing illegal leaflets, to membership in an illegal organisation and inciting the masses against the government. The Muslim Brotherhood is a political and religious organisation founded in Egypt in 1928. Generally antiWestern, it advocates a society based on Islamic principles of social justice as opposed to secular nationalism. Since the 1950s, the Brotherhood and many of its radical offshoots received funding from Saudi Arabia. Initially, this was due to their anti-Communist stance; later it was due to a need A Tour of Egypt 49 to counterbalance Iranian-backed Shi’ite radicals and the Palestine Liberation Organisation (PLO) and its offshoots. The Islamic Group (Al-Gamaa’a al-Islamiyya) broke from the Brotherhood in the mid-1970s. Al-Gamaa’a al-Islamiyya is the group responsible for the attack that killed 18 Greek tourists in Cairo (April 1996), which was until November 1997 the largest casualty count from a single incident in Egypt’s modern history.
The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt
anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, McMansion, New Urbanism, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional
Given these numbers, it is no surprise that Susan Hardwick, an immigration scholar at the University of Oregon, talks about the United States making a transition to a “suburban immigrant nation.” What is surprising is that all this is happening much faster than demographers predicted a decade ago. MORE AND MORE, Gwinnett County has come to be a magnet for newly arrived Asian immigrants. The first to come in large numbers were Vietnamese, many of them supporters of the fallen anti-Communist regime in Saigon, admitted as refugees under federal laws of asylum. Some had been senior officials of the South Vietnamese government, and had spent much of the previous two decades in jungle detention camps. Many more spoke French than English. Churches all over metropolitan Atlanta sponsored them, but large numbers eventually found their way to Gwinnett. They were not, at least at first, an economically successful immigrant group.
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, asset allocation, Benoit Mandelbrot, Black-Scholes formula, Brownian motion, buy low sell high, capital asset pricing model, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, correlation coefficient, diversified portfolio, en.wikipedia.org, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, high net worth, index fund, interest rate swap, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John von Neumann, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, publish or perish, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, random walk, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, short selling, speech recognition, statistical arbitrage, The Predators' Ball, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, traveling salesman, value at risk, zero-coupon bond
It too had a significance Kelly probably didn’t appreciate. J. Edgar Hoover had long denied the existence of a nationwide organized crime syndicate. This stance changed only modestly with the Kefauver hearings. Hoover biographers have theorized that the FBI head felt the Combination was too well connected to eliminate and he preferred not to pick a fight he couldn’t win; that the virulently anti-Communist Hoover harbored sympathy for self-made mob figures, whom he saw as examples of the American capitalist system; that Meyer Lansky or Frank Costello had a photograph of Hoover in a sexual situation with a male friend and were blackmailing him. The best-supported explanation (it need not exclude the other theories) is this: Hoover and his partner Clyde Tolson would regularly leave the office when the horses were running.
Who Rules the World? by Noam Chomsky
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, corporate governance, corporate personhood, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Malacca Straits, Martin Wolf, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, precariat, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Stanislav Petrov, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, wage slave, WikiLeaks, working-age population
That was hardly an extreme condition in light of the history of the past half century, during which Germany alone had practically destroyed Russia twice, exacting a terrible toll. Stalin’s proposal was taken seriously by the respected political commentator James Warburg, but otherwise mostly ignored or ridiculed at the time. Recent scholarship has begun to take a different view. The bitterly anti-Communist Soviet scholar Adam Ulam has taken the status of Stalin’s proposal to be an “unresolved mystery.” Washington “wasted little effort in flatly rejecting Moscow’s initiative,” he wrote, on grounds that “were embarrassingly unconvincing.” The political, scholarly, and general intellectual failure left open “the basic question,” Ulam added: “Was Stalin genuinely ready to sacrifice the newly created German Democratic Republic (GDR) on the altar of real democracy,” with consequences for world peace and for American security that could have been enormous?
Rogue States by Noam Chomsky
anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, capital controls, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, declining real wages, deskilling, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, oil shock, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, structural adjustment programs, Tobin tax, union organizing, Washington Consensus
In general, “There is little interest in unmasking liberal internationalism as an imperialism that dare not speak its name,” surely not when considering the “specifically American vision of liberal internationalism that the end of the Cold War seemed to anoint.” Moyn points out correctly that it was Eastern European dissidents who “made it possible for ‘human rights’ to be reclaimed by liberals and the anti-Communist left in the 1970s,” leading to “the global radiance of human rights in our time.” Particularly radiant was “the idealism so powerful during Bill Clinton’s presidency,” when “for a moment in the 1990s, it looked as if the American school of thought known as ‘liberal internationalism’ was close to realizing its fondest dreams,” though regrettably the dreams did not outlast the Bush II era. Moyn selects the basic facts.
Merchant of Death: Money, Guns, Planes, and the Man Who Makes War Possible by Stephen Braun, Douglas Farah
air freight, airport security, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, Mikhail Gorbachev, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Plutocrats, plutocrats, private military company
“There are indications these funds could come from apparently illegal activities (weapons trafficking).”27 When the Angolan government discovered in 1998 that Bout had been dealing with the UNITA rebels at the same time, they cut him off, becoming one of the few customers to ever sever ties over his double dealings. Bout had discovered that he could more than double his earnings if he supplied UNITA. The movement’s leader, Jonas Savimbi, had flourished as the charismatic anti-Communist leader during the Reagan administration’s efforts to contest the dominance of Marxist revolutionary movements worldwide. Reagan even invited him to the White House, and hailed him as a hero. In June 1985 Savimbi hosted a secret meeting of the world’s “freedom fighters” at his jungle base in Jamba, including representatives of the Nicaraguan contras and the mujahideen of Afghanistan. The meeting was organized by a then little-known Republican operative named Jack Abramoff, whose code name during the meeting was “Pacman.”
The Post-American World: Release 2.0 by Fareed Zakaria
affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, interest rate derivative, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, new economy, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Washington Consensus, working-age population, young professional
The percentage of people holding a favorable view of the United States has gone up considerably since the election of Barack Obama, but in many countries it is still below the levels seen in 2000. Josef Joffe, one of Germany’s leading international affairs commentators, observes that, during the Cold War, anti-Americanism was a left-wing phenomenon. “In contrast to it, there was always a center-right that was anti-communist and thus pro-American,” he explains. “The numbers waxed and waned, but you always had a solid base of support for the United States.” In short, the Cold War kept Europe pro-American. The year 1968, for example, saw mass protests against American policies in Vietnam, but it was also the year of the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. Europeans (and Asians) could oppose America, but their views were balanced by wariness of the Soviet threat.
The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History Since 1900 by David Edgerton
agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, British Empire, conceptual framework, deglobalization, dematerialisation, desegregation, deskilling, global village, Haber-Bosch Process, interchangeable parts, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, means of production, megacity, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, V2 rocket
Its ambition was not merely to emulate, but to create a new and superior society, more innovative and more capable of using new technologies than crisis ridden, uncoordinated capitalism. The planned economies, with no significant private ownership, and no competition from capitalist enterprises for very long periods, would prove superior, it was claimed. From 1957, following the launch of Sputnik, many non-communists, indeed anti-communists in the West, came to believe that the Soviet Union had indeed cracked the problem of innovation and use of new technology. Khrushchev’s famous declaration in the early 1960s that the Soviet Union would overtake capitalism was not a personal exaggeration but an expression of a long-standing and deeply felt interpretation of the likely course of history. Yet despite vast investments in R&D the Soviet Union and its satellites did not lead the world into a new technological era.
God's Bankers: A History of Money and Power at the Vatican by Gerald Posner
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, central bank independence, centralized clearinghouse, credit crunch, dividend-yielding stocks, European colonialism, forensic accounting, Index librorum prohibitorum, medical malpractice, Murano, Venice glass, offshore financial centre, oil shock, operation paperclip, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War
Preeminent among the U.S. prelates was New York’s Cardinal Spellman. Friendly with almost every key U.S. political power broker, Spellman was anticommunist and worked hard to arrange support among U.S. institutions for the church’s covert role in the first postwar Italian balloting. Upon returning from a visit to Rome, Spellman shared with friends that Pius was “extremely worried about the election results, and in fact had little hope of a success for anti-Communist parties.”105 The Curia dreaded a “disastrous failure at the polls which will put Italy behind the Iron Curtain,” noted a Vatican emissary, Bishop James Griffiths.106 In the year leading up to Italy’s elections, Pius and President Harry Truman exchanged a series of letters, some of which leaked to the press before the election. Those letters cemented the Washington-Vatican alliance. Over domestic Protestant protests, Truman dispatched Myron Taylor back to the Vatican as the President’s personal representative.
Another German intelligence officer, Reinhard Karl Wilhelm Reme, disclosed the network of Third Reich agents he had recruited in Italy. That list included the name Nogara. That revelation, reported in this book for the first time, raises the question of whether the Vatican’s chief moneyman was a Nazi wartime spy. (21) A Croatian priest based in Rome, Krunoslav Draganović, was a member of the Ustaša, an anti-Semitic, anti-Serb, and anti-communist party in power in wartime Croatia. Draganović ran one of several postwar escape networks—sanctioned by high-ranking Vatican clerics and ultimately U.S. and British intelligence—through which hundreds of criminals found safe haven in South America and the Middle East. (22) The Vatican used gold as its chief hard asset. Since the Nazis looted the gold reserves of the countries they conquered, the church’s accumulation of the metal proved as morally problematic as did many of its business stakes.
See generally Dermot Keogh, “Ireland, The Vatican and the Cold War: The Case of Italy, 1948,” The Historical Journal 34, no. 4 (December 1991): 931–52. 117 John Tagliabue, “Giulio Andreotti, Premier of Italy 7 Times, Dies at 94,” The New York Times, May 6, 2013, 1. Mussolini had imprisoned De Gasperi in 1927, but released him two years later to the “custody” of Pope Pius XI. See Berry, Render Unto Rome, 25. 118 Cardinal Francis Spellman, “The Pope’s War on Communism,” Look, May 24, 1949. 119 “Vatican Decree in Scots Churches: Anti-Communist Move,” The Glasgow Herald, August 9, 1949, 5; “Catholic Communists to Be Excommunicated,” The Advocate, July 15, 1949, 3. Chapter 13: “He’s No Pope” 1 Simpson, Blowback, 67. 2 Martha Hopkins, “For European Recovery,” Library of Congress, Information Bulletin, Vol. 56, No. 11, June 23, 1997. 3 Article 37 in the armistice with Italy, on September 29, 1943, established the Allied Control Commission for Italy.
Dirty Wars: The World Is a Battlefield by Jeremy Scahill
air freight, anti-communist, blood diamonds, business climate, citizen journalism, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, failed state, friendly fire, Google Hangouts, indoor plumbing, Islamic Golden Age, land reform, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, private military company, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, WikiLeaks
In the beginning, President Bush wanted the CIA to take the lead. He had just the man for the job. COFER BLACK spent much of his career in the shadows in Africa. He cut his CIA teeth in Zambia during the Rhodesian War and then in Somalia and South Africa during the apartheid regime’s brutal war against the black majority. During his time in Zaire, Black worked on the Reagan administration’s covert weapons program to arm anti-Communist forces in Angola. In the early 1990s, long before most in the counterterrorism community, Black became obsessed with bin Laden and declared him a major threat who needed to be neutralized. From 1993 to 1995, Black worked, under diplomatic cover, at the US Embassy in Khartoum, Sudan, where he served as CIA station chief. Bin Laden was also in Sudan, building up his international network into what the CIA would describe at the end of Black’s tour as “the Ford Foundation of Sunni Islamic terrorism.”
Tenet also arranged for the United States to provide Yemen with helicopters and eavesdropping equipment. Crucially, Saleh also gave Tenet permission for the CIA to fly drones over his territory. “Saleh knew how to survive,” said Dr. Emile Nakhleh, a former senior CIA intelligence officer. During his decades in power, had Saleh “learned how to speak the language of the Cold War, to endear himself to us and other Western countries by speaking the anti-communist language.” After 9/11, Saleh “learned very quickly” that he had to speak the antiterrorism language, Nakhleh added. “So he came here seeking support, seeking financing. But, Saleh, from day one, years back, never thought that terrorism posed a threat to him. He thought that Yemen was basically a platform for al Qaeda and other terrorist organizations and that the real target was al Saud, the House of Saud.
Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan by Herbert P. Bix
Although he did not trust Nazi Germany, his opposition had never been to a military alliance with the Nazis that countered Soviet pressure on Manchukuo, but only to one that took Britain, France, and the United States as the main enemies.53 Thus, when Konoe was hinting he would resign, at the very end of 1938 and the beginning of 1939, Hirohito reportedly said to his new Chief Aide-de-Camp Hata: “If [the army] doesn’t want Prime Minister Konoe to resign that much, instead of persuading him to remain, go along with the decision of the Five Ministers Conference, made earlier, to strengthen the defense against Communism, and…make this anti-Communist alliance just against the Soviet Union. Go tell this to the General Staff.”54 Hirohito was then clearly not against the Tripartite Pact itself; he was only opposed to including Britain and France among its targets. A year and a half later, at the very moment President Roosevelt had increased his support for the hard-pressed British by making his Lend-Lease destroyers-for-bases deal, Hirohito, despite misgivings, abandoned his opposition and assented to the treaty.
In late August 1955, with Nikita Khrushchev in power and seeking a peace treaty with Japan, Hirohito spoke with Shigemitsu at his mansion in Nasu, Tochigi prefecture, and, according to Shigemitsu, stressed “the need to be friendly with the United States and hostile to communism. He said that [American] troops stationed in Japan must not withdraw.”16 Hatoyama and Shigemitsu soon tired of Hirohito’s uninvited anti-Communist admonitions and stopped consulting. Their effort to negotiate with Moscow over the normalization of relations failed when they insisted that the Soviets return the southern Kurile Islands, seized at the end of World War II. Hirohito, unhappy with their diplomatic line, was probably pleased to see both of them depart. By 1956 more and more Japanese were throwing off old authoritarian political attitudes under the influence of the new constitution and improved economic conditions.
A History of Zionism by Walter Laqueur
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, new economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, strikebreaker, the market place, éminence grise
The Palestine dream will long have receded into history when in Biro Bidzhan there will be motor cars, railways and steamers, huge factories belching forth their smoke. … These settlers are founding a home in the taigas of Siberia not only for themselves but for millions of their people.’† Kalinin, president of the Soviet Union, predicted that in ten years Biro Bidzhan would be the cultural centre of the Jewish masses. Even staunch anti-Communists like Chaim Zhitlovsky, one of the theoreticians of Jewish Socialism, and Lestschinsky, the sociologist, were deeply impressed; Biro Bidzhan would be a Jewish republic, a centre of genuine Jewish Socialist culture. The dream of a Siberian Palestine did not last. Only a few thousand Jews came, and most of them turned back within a few months. Forty years after its foundation, Biro Bidzhan was a drab provincial region with about 25,000 Jewish inhabitants, a small percentage of the total population.
But subsequently in Lithuania, as in Latvia, the tendency towards reducing the part of the Jews in the main branches of the national economy and in cultural life became stronger and caused great hardship. The economic situation of Hungarian and Czechoslovak Jewry was not bad on the whole, with the exception of some major islands of stark poverty (such as the Subcarpathian region). But the political status of Hungarian Jewry was in a state of uneasy balance. Some of them had taken a prominent part in the short-lived Communist régime of 1918-19. After the victory of the anti-Communist forces the community as a whole was made responsible for the actions of Bela Kun, Tibor Szamuely and their comrades. In Austria and Germany there was no official discrimination against Jews after the First World War. Victor Adler and Julius Deutsch became cabinet ministers. In Germany, the republican constitution was written by a Jew (Hugo Preuss) and Jewish social democrats such as Hilferding and Landsberg served as members of the central government.
The Dream Machine: J.C.R. Licklider and the Revolution That Made Computing Personal by M. Mitchell Waldrop
Ada Lovelace, air freight, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Apple II, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bill Duvall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Byte Shop, Claude Shannon: information theory, computer age, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, experimental subject, fault tolerance, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, John von Neumann, Menlo Park, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, pink-collar, popular electronics, RAND corporation, RFC: Request For Comment, Silicon Valley, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, Turing machine, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Von Neumann architecture, Wiener process
In the latter part of that same year, as it happened, John von Neumann's scien- tific work also came to an abrupt end, albeit in a seemingly less drastic fashion. In late 1954 he was offered a seat on the Atomic Energy Commission-at that time the highest official position in the u.s. government available to a scientist. Stanislaw Ulam remembers his friend's agonizing over whether to accept. Like virtually everyone else in the U.S. scientific community, von Neumann had been repulsed by the AEC hearings in April and May of 1954, when the rabidly anti-Communist AEC chairman Lewis Strauss had had J. Robert Oppen- heimer's security clearance revoked to punish him for advocating a go-slow ap- proach to the development of the hydrogen bomb. As von Neumann and many others had vigorously testified at the hearings, a political and technical disagree- ment was hardly the same thing as treason. On a personal level, too, von Neu- mann's loyalty lay with Oppenheimer, who had been director of the Institute for Advanced Study since 1947 and had strongly supported his computer proj- ect.
But the number turned up so consistently that in 1956, when Miller reviewed the evidence for human information-processing limits, he would entitle his article "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two" -and begin it with one of the most memorable laments in the scientific literature: "My problem is that I have been persecuted by an integer. For seven years this number has followed me around, has intruded in my most private data, and has assaulted me from the pages of our most public journals. . . . There is, to quote a famous senator [the rabidly anti-Communist Joseph McCarthy], a de- sign behind [the persistence of this number], some pattern governing its ap- pearances. "20 Or was there? He'd had something of a scare in 1953 or 1954, says Miller. "One of our graduate students, Dick Hayes, who is now at Carnegie Mellon University, was working with Lick to apply information theory to memory. One day he went in to see Lick in total frustration and said, 'Information theory is no damn good!
How the World Works by Noam Chomsky, Arthur Naiman, David Barsamian
affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, capital controls, clean water, corporate governance, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, glass ceiling, Howard Zinn, income inequality, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, labour market flexibility, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, offshore financial centre, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, strikebreaker, Telecommunications Act of 1996, transfer pricing, union organizing, War on Poverty, working poor
This isn’t some remote place like East Timor we’re talking about—this is Europe—and it’s on the news every night. In a certain sense, what’s happening is that the British and American right wings are getting what they asked for. Since the 1940s they’ve been quite bitter about the fact that Western support turned to Tito and the partisans, and against Mikailhovich and his Chetniks, and the Croatian anti-Communists, including the Ustasha, who were outright Nazis. The Chetniks were also playing with the Nazis and were trying to overcome the partisans. The partisan victory imposed a communist dictatorship, but it also federated the country. It suppressed the ethnic violence that had accompanied the hatreds and created the basis of some sort of functioning society in which the parts had their role. We’re now essentially back to the 1940s, but without the partisans.
McMafia: A Journey Through the Global Criminal Underworld by Misha Glenny
anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, BRICs, colonial rule, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Firefox, forensic accounting, friendly fire, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, market bubble, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nick Leeson, offshore financial centre, place-making, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, trade liberalization, trade route, Transnistria, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile
The newly formed Union of Democratic Forces, with unstinting financial and political support from the American embassy, had seized the moral high ground in Bulgarian politics after the 1989 revolution. It was bitterly hostile to the Communists for the destruction they had wrought on the country. Pavlov and his colleagues were all closely associated with the Communist regime, and so they needed to neutralize any opposition attempt to foil their business plans. In 1990, Ilya came up with the solution. A good friend was the deputy head of Podkrepa, Bulgaria’s fiercely anti-Communist independent trades union, which also received strong backing from the American government. Pavlov persuaded Podkrepa’s bosses that the real enemies of ordinary workers were the Communist-appointed directors of the big state-owned factories. “Ilya’s game was simple.” Boyko Borissov speaks with authority. In his mid-forties, the former operations director of the Interior Ministry is a black belt in karate.
Behind the Berlin Wall: East Germany and the Frontiers of Power by Patrick Major
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, falling living standards, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, open borders, Post-materialism, post-materialism, refrigerator car, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Sinatra Doctrine
In the traumatic year of 1953 the party registered 7,370 card-carrying defections or 0.6 per cent of its membership, against 1.6 per cent among the adult population.³⁷ During the 1950s the annual figure hovered around 8,000, but by 1960 was only 4,470, or 0.3 per cent (against 1.2 per cent nationally), indicating an increasingly stable core. For party careerists, western contacts were frowned upon and few would have deluded themselves about employment prospects in an increasingly anti-communist Federal Republic. Among non-party members of any hue, Republikflucht generally rose during periods of heightened class struggle, such as that ushered in by the ‘construction of socialism’ in July 1952 and ended by the abortive insurrection of 17 June 1953. It is quite clear that emigration was part, and not a displacement, of this popular discontent, contrary to Hirschman’s seesaw model. Most flights occurred before the uprising, not after.³⁸ The Volkspolizei recognized that, indeed, as ideological pressure intensified, ‘ Republikflucht has risen substantially ³⁴ Heidemeyer, Flucht, 47. ³⁵ Allinson, Politics, 28–9. ³⁶ van Melis, ‘Republikflucht’, 20–1. ³⁷ Of these, around one-third were former Social Democrats, a tenth former Communists, and the rest ‘newcomers’: Renate Wanstrat, Strukturanalyse der politisch nicht anerkannten Flüchtlinge in West-Berlin (West Berlin: Verwaltungsdruckerei, 1953), i, 14. ³⁸ See also Corey Ross, ‘Before the Wall: East Germans, Communist Authority, and the Mass Exodus to the West’, Historical Journal, 45 (2002), 471–4. 66 Behind the Berlin Wall and become a focus of police activity.’³⁹ Internally, the authorities admitted that their own insensitive policies, ‘lacking any finesse’, were alienating leavers.⁴⁰ This included criminalization of certain sectors.
Engines of War: How Wars Were Won & Lost on the Railways by Christian Wolmar
The Communists established control over much of the west of the country in the immediate aftermath of the October Revolution thanks to the use of the railways. Select bands of armed revolutionaries spread out on the railways from their headquarters in Petrograd to make contact with the 900 soviets – revolutionary groups of local citizens – that had sprung up in towns and cities around the country to put down anti-Communist forces opposed to the October revolution. John Keegan, in his classic work on the war, argues that ‘the Russian railways, during this brief but brilliant revolutionary period, worked for Lenin as the railways had not for Moltke in 1914. Decisive force had been delivered to key points in the nick of time, and a succession of local successes had been achieved that, in sum, brought revolutionary triumph.’10 The Bolsheviks, however, failed to press through their advantage as their peace agreement signed at Brest-Litovsk in March 1918 collapsed, which stimulated counter-revolution by White Russians in Ukraine and in the east, which remained an area in turmoil for several years.
Factory Girls: From Village to City in a Changing China by Leslie T. Chang
And then the names all changed after the Communists took power. Once when Irene was in middle school in Taiwan, her class went on a field trip. They saw an exhibit about a person who had been killed, with descriptions of his murder and photographs of his wounded corpse. “I thought, ‘the poor man,’ ” Irene recalled, “and then I saw the name of my dad.” She fainted. The pictures were part of the government’s anti-Communist propaganda, but Irene had never seen them before. She hadn’t even recognized her father’s face—only his name. Of the siblings who had left China, Irene was the only one who knew her mother as an adult. After her older sister and brothers left for America, she spent time alone with her mother and heard many of her stories. Later after Irene had gone to America too, she returned to Taiwan and spent time with my grandmother the summer of her death.
Armed Humanitarians by Nathan Hodge
Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, colonial rule, European colonialism, failed state, friendly fire, IFF: identification friend or foe, Khyber Pass, kremlinology, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, Potemkin village, private military company, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, walking around money
During the Suez Crisis in 1956, a Marine battalion evacuated U.S. nationals from Alexandria, Egypt; in 1964, Belgian paratroopers parachuted out of U.S. transport planes during a hostage crisis in Stanleyville, Congo; and in 1986, President Ronald Reagan sent U.S. warships to confront Libya. U.S. involvement during the Cold War was not limited to brief military interventions: As part of its proxy war with the Soviet Union the United States provided long-term support to anti-Communist guerrillas such as Angola’s UNITA, and for several decades the Army maintained a large listening post at Kagnew Station, near Asmara, Ethiopia (now part of Eritrea). In the 1990s, U.S. military involvement in Africa saw a steady uptick. In response to widespread disorder in Zaïre in 1991, U.S. aircraft transported Belgian troops and equipment to Kinshasa; in 1992, U.S. forces evacuated Americans from Sierra Leone after the government was overthrown; U.S. aircraft evacuated noncombatants and diplomats during the 1994 Rwanda genocide.
air freight, anti-communist, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, global supply chain, intermodal, Isaac Newton, job automation, knowledge economy, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, oil shock, Panamax, Port of Oakland, post-Panamax, Productivity paradox, refrigerator car, South China Sea, trade route, Works Progress Administration, Yom Kippur War
The union president, a political radical from his Australian youth, made no secret of his socialist sympathies, and the employers labeled him a Communist and declared that they would not deal with Communists. By so doing, they merely enhanced his reputation on the docks. The ILWU walked out when the contract expired, and the union’s leadership was so successful in promoting solidarity that members stayed out through a ninety-five-day strike. Finally, the major ship lines brought the conflict to an end by pushing aside the stevedores’ association and their own rabidly anti-Communist counsel and taking charge of negotiations. The union achieved its greatest desire: it was finally able to negotiate face-to-face with the ship operators that ultimately paid for its services, rather than with the financially tenuous middlemen at the stevedoring companies.12 The largest of the Pacific ship lines, Matson, was facing a financial squeeze, and it persuaded the others that it was time for “a new look” in labor-management relations.
Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies by Nick Bostrom
agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anthropic principle, anti-communist, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, brain emulation, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, cosmological constant, dark matter, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, delayed gratification, demographic transition, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, fear of failure, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, friendly AI, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, iterative process, job automation, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Netflix Prize, new economy, Norbert Wiener, NP-complete, nuclear winter, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, prediction markets, price stability, principal–agent problem, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, reversible computing, social graph, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supervolcano, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, Turing machine, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, World Values Survey
For a few years, Russell seems to have advocated the threat of nuclear war to persuade Russia to accept the Baruch plan; later, he was a strong proponent of mutual nuclear disarmament (Russell and Griffin 2001). John von Neumann is reported to have believed that a war between the United States and Russia was inevitable, and to have said, “If you say why not bomb them [the Russians] tomorrow, I say why not bomb them today? If you say today at five o’clock, I say why not one o’clock?” (It is possible that he made this notorious statement to burnish his anti-communist credentials with US Defense hawks in the McCarthy era. Whether von Neumann, had he been in charge of US policy, would actually have launched a first strike is impossible to ascertain. See Blair , 96.) 35. Baratta (2004). 36. If the AI is controlled by a group of humans, the problem may apply to this human group, though it is possible that new ways of reliably committing to an agreement will be available by this time, in which case even human groups could avoid this problem of potential internal unraveling and overthrow by a sub-coalition.
All the President's Men by Carl Bernstein, Bob Woodward
He argued that the five men should not be released on bond. They had given false names, had not cooperated with the police, possessed “$2300 in cold cash, and had a tendency to travel abroad.” They had been arrested in a “professional burglary” with a “clandestine” purpose. Silbert drew out the word “clandestine.” Judge James A. Belsen asked the men their professions. One spoke up, answering that they were “anti-communists,” and the others nodded their agreement. The Judge, accustomed to hearing unconventional job descriptions, nonetheless appeared perplexed. The tallest of the suspects, who had given his name as James W. McCord, Jr., was asked to step forward. He was balding, with a large, flat nose, a square jaw, perfect teeth and a benign expression that seemed incongruous with his hard-edged features. The Judge asked his occupation.
All the Money in the World by Peter W. Bernstein
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, corporate governance, currency peg, David Brooks, Donald Trump, estate planning, family office, financial innovation, George Gilder, high net worth, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, Maui Hawaii, means of production, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, PageRank, Peter Singer: altruism, pez dispenser, popular electronics, Renaissance Technologies, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, school vouchers, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, traveling salesman, urban planning, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce
Ford owned the Michigan weekly46 the Dearborn Independent, which during the 1920s spread his anti-Semitic views through a series of almost one hundred articles entitled “The International Jew: The World’s Problem.” The Dearborn Independent even republished as fact the fabricated and virulently anti-Semitic The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion. And in the 1950s H. L. Hunt47 spread his anti-Communist message through a radio and television show, Facts Forum, which was carried on 360 radio stations and 22 television channels. More moderate members of the Forbes 400 have found the media, especially newspapers, to be an excellent pulpit from which to preach their political views, whether liberal or conservative. The Sulzberger family, which controls the New York Times, and the Graham family, controlling owners of the Washington Post, have used the editorial pages of both newspapers to shape the liberal left agenda for decades.
How Markets Fail: The Logic of Economic Calamities by John Cassidy
Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, asset allocation, asset-backed security, availability heuristic, bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, centralized clearinghouse, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, diversification, Elliott wave, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Haight Ashbury, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income per capita, incomplete markets, index fund, invisible hand, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, mental accounting, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, Network effects, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, paradox of thrift, Ponzi scheme, price discrimination, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, rent control, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, unorthodox policies, value at risk, Vanguard fund
The work he did in economics he considered a sideline to his other activities, which included formulating game theory and making significant contributions to logic, set theory, statistics, quantum mechanics, hydrodynamics, and computer science. A colleague of Albert Einstein’s at Princeton’s Institute for Advanced Study, von Neumann played an important role in the Manhattan Project, consulted for the CIA, and served on the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Loquacious and virulently anti-Communist, he drank heavily, told off-color jokes, was married twice, and died of cancer in 1957, when he was just fifty-three. Von Neumann didn’t have much time for the economics textbooks, or their authors, regarding them as mathematically challenged. “You know,” he told one collaborator, “if those books are unearthed sometime a few hundred years hence, people will not believe they were written in our time.
air freight, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Basel III, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Black Swan, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, debt deflation, deglobalization, Deng Xiaoping, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, forward guidance, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, global rebalancing, global reserve currency, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, market fragmentation, Martin Wolf, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, open economy, paradox of thrift, price stability, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, Real Time Gross Settlement, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, special drawing rights, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, very high income, winner-take-all economy
He opposed utopians and fanatics of both the left and the right. He believed in enlightenment values, tempered by appreciation of the frailties of humanity. The latter had its roots in his talent (and career) as a playwright and journalist. He accepted people as they are. He opposed those who sought to transform them into what they could not be. These values made him, and later me, staunchly anti-communist during the Cold War. I have remained attached to these values throughout my life. My views on the economy have altered over time, however. As economic turbulence hit the Western world during the 1970s, I became concerned that this might undermine both prosperity and political stability. When UK retail price inflation hit 27 per cent in August 1975, I even wondered whether my country would go the way of Argentina.
The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen
3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
The most compelling (and successful) example of prison activities comes from Afghanistan, a country with one of the lowest rates of connectivity in the world. The Pul-e-Charkhi prison on the outskirts of Kabul is the country’s largest prison and among its most notorious. Commissioned in the 1970s and completed during the Soviet occupation, in its initial years tens of thousands of political prisoners were killed there annually and many more were tortured for anti-Communist sentiments. The prison earned a new distinction during the American occupation as a terrorist nerve center. Following a violent riot in 2008 in the prison’s Cell Block Three, Afghan authorities discovered a fully operational terror cell—in both senses of the word—that had been used by inmates to coordinate deadly attacks outside the prison walls. The back door to the cell block was covered in live electrical wires, woven through the bars like vines and emitting a soft red glow in the corridor, and the walls were painted with swords and verses from the Koran.
In-N-Out Burger by Stacy Perman
For Rich, America was the greatest country on earth in which to live and work, and he felt obligated to do everything he could to support it. In 1980, he backed Republican David Dreier of the San Gabriel Valley during his inaugural congressional campaign with a $1,000 contribution. A staunch conservative, Dreier established his Republican bona fides as a supporter of tax cuts and President Reagan’s anti-Communist foreign policy. Soon Rich began contributing tens of thousands of dollars to Republican candidates and causes. In time, he became a member of the exclusive “Team 100.” The group of Republican donors—also known as “T–100”—all agreed to make an initial $100,000 contribution to the Republican Party in order to join. (A minimum donation of $25,000 for three years was needed to retain membership.)
accounting loophole / creative accounting, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Atahualpa, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, British Empire, California gold rush, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Etonian, eurozone crisis, fiat currency, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, German hyperinflation, hiring and firing, income inequality, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, market bubble, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, new economy, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, quantitative easing, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, South Sea Bubble, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, War on Poverty, Yom Kippur War
In 1946, the volume of industrial production was little more than 30 per cent of what had been the annual average in the period 1934–6. In 1947, the figure reached only 37 per cent.12 This experience of poor economic growth persuaded the Americans to change course. They quickly realized that, if Japan was to develop along the democratic lines they had envisaged, a thriving economy would be the best bulwark against a relapse into militarism and autocracy. The collapse of Chiang Kai-shek and the anti-Communist Kuomintang in China towards the end of the 1940s also caused a shift in strategic goals for the United States.13 With customary efficiency and zeal, the American authorities decided to commit their energies to putting Japan’s economy on a sounder footing. To this end, Joseph Dodge, the same Detroit banker who had been the architect of the western German currency reforms in 1948, arrived in Tokyo on 1 February 1949.
Disaster Capitalism: Making a Killing Out of Catastrophe by Antony Loewenstein
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, Edward Snowden, facts on the ground, failed state, falling living standards, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Julian Assange, market fundamentalism, Naomi Klein, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, private military company, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Slavoj Žižek, stem cell, the medium is the message, trade liberalization, WikiLeaks
He wrote in a cable sent from Port-au-Prince on November 23, 1973, that “repression [had] been markedly and genuinely eased” and that there was a “clear desire to do more for the economic development of the country.” He argued that the Haitian military, which had been accused of plentiful brutality against their own people, should receive training “which will contribute substantially to advancing a number of our important interests in the region.” Decades later, little had changed. The Duvaliers were devoutly anti-communist during the Cold War, and so Washington lavished them with financial support. Thanks to the financial and military support provided by the superpower, Haiti was ruled with an iron fist—dissent was crushed, the press was muzzled, and many thousands of people were killed. Peter Hallward wrote that in the 1970s, after Baby Doc had taken his lead from his father and declared himself “President for Life,” neoliberal policies were ruthlessly implemented, entrenching the state in poverty.
The Establishment: And How They Get Away With It by Owen Jones
anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, housing crisis, inflation targeting, investor state dispute settlement, James Dyson, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, stakhanovite, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transfer pricing, union organizing, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent
The organization attracted huge attention when it published a detailed programme entitled Mandate for Leadership on the eve of Reagan’s first triumph, a programme that was widely seen as the intellectual foundation of the new administration.4 Other outriders included the Hoover Institute and the American Enterprise Institute, helping to create the intellectual basis for the Reagan project. No wonder, therefore, that the relationship between Thatcher and Reagan was so close. But even then, there were tensions and conflicts. Reagan was initially frosty about supporting Britain’s efforts to wrest the Falkland Islands from Argentina in 1982, because it was ruled by a US-backed and murderous anti-communist junta. When, the following year, Reagan ordered the invasion of the Caribbean island of Grenada, it suffered Thatcher’s disapproval. ‘This action will be seen as intervention by a Western country in the internal affairs of a small independent nation, however unattractive its regime,’ she messaged the US President, adding that she was ‘deeply disturbed’ by Reagan’s communications on the issue.5 Despite these hiccups, the 1980s witnessed the development of a new ideological bond between the British Establishment and US elite.
The resulting raid produced an iconic, Pulitzer Prize–winning photo by Associated Press photographer Alan Diaz in which an INS agent points a semi-automatic weapon at the crying, terrified boy while he’s being held by Donato Dalrymple, one of the fishermen who found him. Once again, reactions to the raid and the photo broke down along partisan lines. Conservatives lined up behind the Miami relatives, who were part of the city’s large community of generally conservative, anti-Castro, anti-Communist Cuban immigrants. Liberals tended to line up behind Bill Clinton, Janet Reno, and the Justice Department, who were trying to enforce the Eleventh Circuit ruling. Then-presidential candidate George W. Bush declared that “the chilling picture of a little boy being removed from his home at gunpoint defies the values of America.” Bush would go on to win the presidency, a position from which he would order heavily armed SWAT teams to raid AIDS and cancer patients who used medical marijuana in states that had legalized the drug for medicinal purposes.
Little Failure: A Memoir by Gary Shteyngart
Leave me alone. “I’ll give you otstan’ ot menya!” my father shouts. “I’ll beat your ass!” But he doesn’t. I flop down on my bed with my biology text. How Does the Structure of a Paramecium Enable It to Function in Its Environment? How Is the Heart Adapted for Its Function? I’ve covered one of my walls with a poster of the troop uniforms of the different NATO nations, which I ordered out of an anti-Communist survivalist magazine. Above my new color TV I’ve hung a CIA recruiting poster. On a third wall: an ivy-covered quadrangle of the University of Michigan, my new reach school. My parents have started subscribing to Playboy, and once they’re through with the issues in their bedroom I stack them openly next to my bed. Essays That Worked for Law School will soon lie beneath a Playboy issue featuring topless La Toya Jackson, sister of Michael, wearing a snake around her glistening neck.
anti-communist, back-to-the-land, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, capital controls, centre right, Chelsea Manning, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Donald Trump, energy security, Exxon Valdez, invisible hand, means of production, offshore financial centre, random walk, Ronald Reagan, sensible shoes, transfer pricing, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, Yogi Berra
Esquire gushes, “Azerbaijan’s first lady Mehriban Aliyeva was granted this title because here’s a Goodwill Ambassador that can do her job without saying anything.” What exactly is her “job”? Esquire doesn’t say. Here she is standing next to her husband, Ilham Aliyev. He’s only the third president of this new nation, which won its independence from the USSR in 1991. In its last decade as a Soviet Socialist Republic, Azerbaijan was ruled by a merciless KGB thug, Heydar Aliyev. Aliyev was replaced by a devout Muslim anti-Communist, the merciless President of the Azerbaijan Republic, Heydar Aliyev. Azeris pined for the days when Heydar was merely merciless. I should say, “Baba” Aliyev. Grandpa. Aliyev wanted all Azeris to call him just Grandpa. And everybody did call him President Grandpa because he scared the shit out of them. Azerbaijan is a democracy. That is, they hold elections. Baba didn’t win, but that’s a detail.
The America That Reagan Built by J. David Woodard
affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, friendly fire, glass ceiling, global village, Gordon Gekko, gun show loophole, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, postindustrial economy, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Ted Kaczynski, The Predators' Ball, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, Y2K, young professional
(Courtesy, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library) 20 THE AMERICA THAT REAGAN BUILT Reagan’s term as president of the SAG from 1947 to 1952 was marked by his cooperation with the FBI in the investigation of people in Hollywood who had attended socialist or communist group meetings. The dealings with labor bosses in these years reinforced his beliefs about capitalism, and Reagan emerged from these experiences as a lifelong economic conservative and anti-communist. He began his career as a partisan Democrat, admiring the legacy of Franklin Roosevelt. His divorce from actress Jane Wyman and subsequent marriage to Nancy Davis renewed his confidence in himself and the basic values of his childhood. The success in Hollywood placed him in the 91st percent marginal income-tax bracket, and made Reagan receptive to free-market economic ideas. He grew conservative with time, returning more and more to the political beliefs of his childhood.
Darwin Among the Machines by George Dyson
Ada Lovelace, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, computer age, Danny Hillis, fault tolerance, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, IFF: identification friend or foe, invention of the telescope, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, James Watt: steam engine, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Menlo Park, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, phenotype, RAND corporation, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, spectrum auction, strong AI, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing machine, Von Neumann architecture
“Perhaps the consciousness of animals is more shadowy than ours and perhaps their perceptions are always dreamlike,” wrote Eugene Wigner in 1964. “On the opposite side, whenever I talked with the sharpest intellect whom I have known—with von Neumann—I always had the impression that only he was fully awake, that I was halfway in a dream.”7 Von Neumann saw his homeland disfigured by two world wars and a succession of upheavals in between. “I am violently anti-communist,” he declared on his nomination to membership in the Atomic Energy Commission in 1955, “in particular since I had about a three-months taste of it in Hungary in 1919.”8 During the communist takeover the family retreated to the Italian Adriatic and was never personally at risk. Von Neumann spent the years 1921 to 1926 as a student shuttling between the University of Budapest, the University of Berlin, and the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (Federal Institute of Technology, or ETH) in Zurich, receiving both a degree in chemical engineering (assuring a livelihood) and a Ph.D. in mathematics (a field in which European positions were scarce).
airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, failed state, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, George Akerlof, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, invisible hand, Kenneth Rogoff, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, microcredit, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs, War on Poverty, Xiaogang Anhui farmers
.: Westview Press, 2001, p. 34. 30.Guimaraes, Origins, p. 107. 31.Huband, Skull Beneath the Skin, p. 41. 32.Guimaraes, Origins, p. 190. 33.Ibid., p. 112. 34.Chester A. Crocker, High Noon in Southern Africa: Making Peace in a Rough Neighborhood, New York: Norton, 1992, p. 68. 35.Huband, The Skull Beneath the Skin, p. 42; Elaine Windrich, The Cold War Guerilla: Jonas Sarimbi, the U.S. Media, and the Angolan War; New York: Greenwood Press, 1992, p. 35. 36.Windrich, Cold War Guerilla, p. 35. 37.Ted Galen Carpenter, “U.S. Aid to Anti-Communist Rebels: The ‘Reagan Doctrine’ and Its Pitfalls,” Cato Policy Analysis 74 (June 24, 1986), http://www. cato.org/pubs/pas/pa074.html. 38.Windrich, Cold War Guerilla, p. 84. 39.Maier, Angola, p. 47. 40.BBC News obituary on Savimbi, February 25, 2002. 41.Crocker, High Noon, p. 297. 42.Ibid., p. 488. 43.World Bank, Transitional Support Strategy for the Republic of Angola, 2003, paragraph 9. 44.Hodges, Angola, 45.Data for 2001 from World Bank World Development Indicators. 46.UNAIDS, http://www.unaids.org/en/geographical+area/by+country/angola.asp.
Breakout Nations: In Pursuit of the Next Economic Miracles by Ruchir Sharma
3D printing, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, cloud computing, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, eurozone crisis, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inflation targeting, informal economy, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, land reform, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population
Central European labor costs are only 27 percent of those in Western Europe, and even adjusted for the fact that Central European workers are less well trained and equipped—productivity is 40 percent lower—the labor in Central Europe is still less than half as expensive as in Western Europe. The Hungarian Exception While Poland and the Czech Republic were racing to forget the Communist past, Hungary was lost in it. Hungarian politics became a contest between former Communists and the anti-Communist opposition, which built its appeal around nationalist calls to revive Hungary as the star of the East, a nostalgic vision that harks back to the Austro-Hungarian Empire. No Hungarian party represented the forward-looking pragmatism of the Czech consensus that the first job was to control the budget and build the institutional basis of a free-market economy. Instead, by 2000, Hungary had devolved into the most bitter ideological battleground in the region, with the most liberal Left and the most nationalist Right scrambling to undo each other and vie for the hearts of “the people” through generous public spending.
Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order by Parag Khanna
Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, complexity theory, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, knowledge economy, land reform, low skilled workers, means of production, megacity, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Pax Mongolica, pirate software, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Potemkin village, price stability, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce
The radical path on which Khomenei took the country threw open the most fundamental questions as to whether to honor the country’s pre-Islamic and pre-revolutionary history, with implications for the status of Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and even Muslim Sufism (Rumi attained his enlightenment in Iranian Tabriz in 1244), and the treatment of a shrine venerating the shah, whose debased secularism Khomenei detested.6 His parallel system of dual government, which attempted to reconcile Islamic theocracy and republican statehood, created tensions with which the country continues to struggle: Iranians themselves grasp for terms such as polyarchy, elective oligarchy, semi-democracy, or neo-patrimonialism to describe what is simultaneously an authoritarian regime and perhaps the most democratic country in the region, with elections for president and for its parliament, the Majlis.7 Though Khomenei’s humiliating settlement with Saddam Hussein forced Iranians to reconsider their divinity as “pioneers of Islam,” Iran’s Revolutionary Guards have never ceased to challenge Western liberalism through maintaining the dominance of religion in the public realm and sponsoring Islamist fundamentalism from Palestine to Pakistan. During the Cold War, the United States managed special relations with Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Iran as its anti-Communist bulwark. In 1977, President Carter flew to Tehran and toasted the shah as the leader of an “island of stability.” Two years later, the shah fled the revolution. Since that time, American dealings with Iran can best be described as hostage politics, because the 1979 revolution and taking of hostages at the American embassy has clouded all relations—or rather, nonrelations—ever since. The former embassy became a training compound for the elite Revolutionary Guards, and Iran’s reward for assisting in the ouster of the Taliban in Afghanistan was inclusion in President Bush’s “Axis of Evil.”
Southeast Asia on a Shoestring Travel Guide by Lonely Planet
active transport: walking or cycling, airport security, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwatching, colonial rule, Google Earth, haute cuisine, indoor plumbing, large denomination, low cost carrier, Mason jar, megacity, Skype, South China Sea, spice trade, superstar cities, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban sprawl, women in the workforce
CORAL MONOGAMY Less than an hour away from the capital is a coral coast with more sea critters than scuba creatures. Not even a blip on the global dive radar, the Atauro Islands have healthy reefs mere steps from the shore. Nearby eco-resorts are powered by the sun and strive to lessen the visitors’ load. Click here Vietnam Culture/History Beaches Food SMALL COUNTRY, BIG HISTORY Imperial powers couldn’t keep their hands off Vietnam, be it neighbouring China, colonial France or anti-communist USA. There are epic tales of occupation and resistance coupled with its home-grown history of millennial-old Hanoi, emperors of Hue and the modern marketplace of Ho Chi Minh City. DUNES, DUDES & DUDETTES Vietnam has a voluptuous coastline populated by a young, sociable vibe. If the party places are too loud, travel a few kilometres further for scenic solitude. NUOC MAM TO YOU Vietnam’s cuisine is a global phenomenon thanks to the zesty dishes of the humid south and the hearty soups of the north.
A brief but brutal civil war saw UDT’s rival Fretilin (previously known as the Association of Timorese Social Democrats) come out on top, and it urgently declared the independent existence of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste on 28 November, amidst an undeclared invasion by Indonesia. On 7 December Indonesia finally launched their full-scale attack on Dili after months of incursions (including at Balibo, where five Australia-based journalists were killed). Anti-communist Indonesia feared an independent Timor-Leste governed by a left-leaning Fretilin would bring communism to its door, and commenced its invasion of Timor-Leste just a day after Henry Kissinger and Gerald Ford departed Jakarta, having tacitly given their assent. (Indeed, the Americans urged the Indonesians to conduct a swift campaign so that the world wouldn’t see them using weapons the US had provided).
When WWII ended, Ho Chi Minh – whose Viet Minh forces already controlled large parts of the country – declared Vietnam independent. French efforts to reassert control soon led to violent confrontations and full-scale war. In May 1954, Viet Minh forces overran the French garrison at Dien Bien Phu. The Geneva Accords of mid-1954 provided for a temporary division of Vietnam at the Ben Hai River. When Ngo Dinh Diem, the anti-communist, Catholic leader of the southern zone, refused to hold the 1956 elections, the Ben Hai line became the border between North and South Vietnam. * * * UNCLE OF THE PEOPLE Father of the nation, Ho Chi Minh (Bringer of Light) was the son of a fiercely nationalistic scholar-official. Born Nguyen Tat Thanh near Vinh in 1890, he was educated in Hue and adopted many pseudonyms during his momentous life.
The end of history and the last man by Francis Fukuyama
affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, centre right, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, kremlinology, labour mobility, land reform, Mikhail Gorbachev, nuclear winter, open economy, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions
I have taken note of the thymotic dimensions of greed and lust precisely because the primacy o f desire and reason in the m o d e r n world tends to obscure the role that thymos or recognition plays in day-to-day life. Thymos frequently mani fests itself as an ally of desire—as in the case of the worker's demand f o r "economic justice"—and is thus easily confused with desire. T h e desire f o r recognition has also played a critical role in bringing about the anti-communist e a r t h q u a k e in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China. Certainly, many Eastern Eu ropeans wanted an end to communism f o r less than elevated eco nomic reasons, that is, because they thought that this would pave the way toward West G e r m a n living standards. T h e fundamental impulse f o r the r e f o r m s u n d e r t a k e n in the Soviet Union and China was in a certain sense economic, what we have identified as the inability o f centralized c o m m a n d economies to meet the r e quirements of "post-industrial" society.
Debt: The First 5,000 Years by David Graeber
Admiral Zheng, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, banks create money, Bretton Woods, British Empire, carried interest, cashless society, central bank independence, colonial rule, corporate governance, David Graeber, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, double entry bookkeeping, financial innovation, full employment, George Gilder, informal economy, invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, moral hazard, oil shock, payday loans, place-making, Ponzi scheme, price stability, profit motive, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, tulip mania, upwardly mobile, urban decay, working poor
Then came the Fall, as a result of which we are now cursed with divisions of power and private property. The dream was that someday, with the advance of technology and general prosperity, with social revolution or the guidance of the Party, we would finally be in a position to put things back, to restore common ownership and common management of collective resources. Throughout the last two centuries, Communists and anti-Communists argued over how plausible this picture was and whether it would be a blessing or a nightmare. But they all agreed on the basic framework: communism was about collective property, “primitive communism” did once exist in the distant past, and someday it might return. We might call this “mythic communism”—or even, “epic communism”—a story we like to tell ourselves. Since the days of the French Revolution, it has inspired millions; but it has also done enormous damage to humanity.
anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, crony capitalism, cuban missile crisis, failed state, joint-stock company, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Stanislav Petrov, Thomas L Friedman, uranium enrichment, Vladimir Vetrov: Farewell Dossier
Reagan slowly shook his head and said, "We have spent all that money and have all that equipment, and there is nothing we can do to prevent a nuclear missile from hitting us." At the end of the flight, Reagan reflected on the dilemma that might confront a U.S. president if faced with a nuclear attack. "The only options he would have," Reagan said, "would be to press the button or do nothing. They're both bad. We should have some way of defending ourselves against nuclear missiles."3 Reagan was a staunch anti-Communist and defense hardliner. In the summer of 1979 he was speaking out in his syndicated radio address against the new SALT II treaty, saying it favored the Soviet Union.4 But on the threshold of a new campaign, his advisers felt there was a real chance that Reagan would frighten voters if he spoke openly about nuclear weapons and war. This risk was acknowledged in a memorandum that Anderson wrote in early August, a few weeks after Cheyenne Mountain.
The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby
1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War
In the years that followed, Hyundai manufactured cars from Japanese components and moved onto the world construction stage, building expressways, ports, nuclear power plants, and shipyards. At first the United States had supported democracy in these countries as well as Japan, but the invasion of South Korea led American policy makers to take a sharp turn to the right. They tolerated repressive regimes in Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan in exchange for a firm anti-Communist stance. Still economic benefits followed. In 1960 Singapore became the principal host for the Seventh Fleet of the United States, providing a place of repair, rest, and recreation, rather than a base for its ships. More relevant, the United States never wavered in its support of economic development, sending money and experts to South Korea and Taiwan.39 The Four Little Tigers all had political cores made up of technocrats and market advocates who were able through pressure or repression to insulate their policy preferences from domestic critics.
Lords of Finance: The Bankers Who Broke the World by Liaquat Ahamed
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bank run, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, centre right, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Etonian, full employment, German hyperinflation, index card, invisible hand, Lao Tzu, large denomination, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market bubble, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mobile money, moral hazard, new economy, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, purchasing power parity, pushing on a string, rolodex, the market place
Since the war, Britain had faced an unusual series of fragile coalition and minority governments. The immediate postwar coalition of Conservatives and Lloyd George Liberals was followed in 1922 by a Conservative government, initially led by the dying Bonar Law, and six months later by Stanley Baldwin. In January 1924, a minority Labor government under Ramsay MacDonald took over, but that November, a wave of anti-communist sentiment, fueled by the publication of a fraudulent letter linking the Labor Party to the Soviet Union, led to a Conservative landslide. Norman’s close friend Stanley Baldwin resumed the reins of power. To everyone’s surprise, Winston Churchill was appointed chancellor of the exchequer, the second most powerful position in government. No ONE WAS more taken aback by the appointment than Churchill himself.
Who Stole the American Dream? by Hedrick Smith
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, anti-communist, asset allocation, banking crisis, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, business process, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Brooks, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, family office, full employment, global supply chain, Gordon Gekko, guest worker program, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, Maui Hawaii, mortgage debt, new economy, Occupy movement, Own Your Own Home, Peter Thiel, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Renaissance Technologies, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Jobs, The Chicago School, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Vanguard fund, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, Y2K
He tried to downplay his pet issues like privatizing Social Security, expanding the Vietnam War, and opposing federal enforcement of civil rights, but an image of rampant extremism had been fixed in voters’ minds by the GOP convention. Johnson won in a landslide—61 percent of the popular vote to Goldwater’s 38.5 percent. But to Goldwater crusaders, being right was more important than winning. Staying true to principle trumped victory. The Goldwater legions vowed to fight another day, and with good reason. The finale of the Goldwater campaign was an electrifying half-hour anti-Communist, anti-government speech on national television by Ronald Reagan that immediately established the then fading fifty-three-year-old actor as America’s most compelling new right-wing politician. Paul Weyrich: Building the Right-Wing Network By the time Reagan ran for the presidency in 1980, a New Right apparatus was in place—a core leadership group, a bevy of think tanks, and a formidable network of organizations with their own political action committee and direct-mail fund-raising machine.
Red Rabbit by Tom Clancy, Scott Brick
Hudson nodded. "Indeed they were, and many of them Hungarian Jews. Not too many of those left, though in the big war the Hungarians saved about half of theirs. The Chief of State, Admiral Horthy, was probably killed over that—he died under what are euphemistically called 'mysterious circumstances.' Hard to say what sort of chap he actually was, but there is a school of thought that says he was a rabid anti-Communist, but decidedly not a pro-Nazi. Perhaps just a man who picked a bad place and time to be born. We may never know for sure." Hudson enjoyed being a tour guide for a change. Not a bad change of pace from being a king—well, maybe prince—spook. But it was time to get back to business. "Okay, how are we going to do this?" Jack asked. He was looking around for a tail, but if there was one about, it was invisible to him, unless there was a team of the ubiquitous—dirty—Lada automobiles following them about.
A Life in Secrets by Sarah Helm
When Temple was sacked from the bureau in 1961, for voicing pro-Soviet, anti-American sentiments while on a bureau visit to Poland, Vera had defended him. This may have brought suspicion of “the establishment” upon her, he said. It may even have contributed to her own resignation from the bureau, ostensibly over lack of funding, later the same year. But such “witch-hunts” were all part of the “Anglo-American, anti-Communist conspiracy of the times,” said Temple, who never considered that Vera was particularly left-wing herself, and he thought it “very unlikely” that she was ever a Communist. “Her life was very compartmentalised, but I always had the impression that she was socially rather stuffy and she had a lot of right-wing people around her. On the other hand, Vera was not a conventional person. She was highly intelligent and intelligent enough to be interested in many points of view.
On May 2 Lodge had recommended the establishment of a U.S. naval base at Camh Ranh Bay in South Vietnam to act as a “useful trump card at a diplomatic conference.” Henry Cabot Lodge, Telegram to the Secretary of State, 2 May 1964, Box 1, Kahin Papers. 39. Central Intelligence Agency Memorandum, 15 May 1964, NSF vol. 9, Situation Report File, item #48, LBJ Library. The report characterized the situation in South Vietnam as “extremely fragile” and warned: “If the tide of deterioration has not been arrested by the end of the year, the anti-Communist position … is likely to become untenable.” 40. At the end of April, after Secretary Rusk’s visit to Saigon, Lodge instructed Harkins that he was not permitted to contact General Khanh without the ambassador’s permission. Harkins fired off a letter to the ambassador in which he cited his responsibilities as MACV commander and informed Lodge that he intended simply to “keep Lodge informed” about his contacts with Khanh.
Atlas Obscura: An Explorer's Guide to the World's Hidden Wonders by Joshua Foer, Dylan Thuras, Ella Morton
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, centre right, colonial rule, Colonization of Mars, cosmic microwave background, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, double helix, East Village, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, Google Earth, Haight Ashbury, horn antenna, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, index card, Jacques de Vaucanson, Kowloon Walled City, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mutually assured destruction, phenotype, Pluto: dwarf planet, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Tunguska event, urban sprawl, Vesna Vulović, wikimedia commons, working poor
(A compulsory donation from every Bulgarian citizen provided funding for the project.) When the Bulgarian Communist Party surrendered its political monopoly in 1989, and Bulgaria began the transition toward democracy, the Buzludzha site quickly lost its relevance. Vandals soon attacked the abandoned monument, destroying its interior artwork. The concrete structure remains, but a visit is more likely to inspire anti-communist sentiment than celebrate the wonder of socialism. A message painted in big red letters over the doorway reads: FORGET YOUR PAST. Approximately 7 miles down a side road from the Shipka Pass in the Balkan Mountains. 42.735819 25.393819 Though it looks like a sci-fi movie set, Buzludzha is a homage to the Bulgarian Communist movement. Other Brutalist Monuments of the Former Yugoslavia During the 1960s and 1970s, Yugoslavian president Josip Broz “Tito” ordered the construction of these monuments to honor the Communist Party and commemorate the battle sites of World War II.
The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements, 1967-1977 by Gershom Gorenberg
On his last day in Israel, Kissinger got a tour of the ancient desert fortress of Masada with Yigal Yadin, the archaeologist and ex-military chief of staff who had excavated the site. At Masada nineteen centuries earlier, the Jewish rebellion against Rome ended with the last rebels committing suicide to avoid capture. Kissinger’s memoirs give no hint that Yadin mentioned his own thoughts of political rebellion, nor that Kissinger might have had associations of the reports he was getting from Saigon and Phnom Penh as America’s anti-communist allies in Southeast Asia collapsed. That evening, Kissinger told the Israeli troika that “our strategy was designed to protect you” from international demands for a full withdrawal. “I see pressure building up to force you back to the 1967 borders—compared to that, ten kilometers is trivial. I’m not angry at you…. It’s tragic to see people dooming themselves to a course of unbelievable peril.”10 But he was angry.
Red Plenty by Francis Spufford
affirmative action, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, asset allocation, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, cognitive dissonance, computer age, double helix, Fellow of the Royal Society, John von Neumann, linear programming, market clearing, New Journalism, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, RAND corporation, Simon Kuznets, the scientific method
‘Were you in the war, Mr Lodge?’ he asked. ‘Yes sir, I was.’ ‘May I ask your rank?’ ‘I was a one-star general, sir – what I guess you would call a “lieutenant general” in your army.’ ‘Aha! I was in the war too, and I was a major general. Therefore I outrank you,’ he joked, ‘and you should follow my orders!’ The American smiled and saluted. ‘Lieutenant General Lodge, reporting for duty,’ he said. Lodge was a known anti-communist and ideologue, but it was important to have good relations with him. The train passed through Baltimore, Philadelphia and Jersey City, America turning its back view to him as the carriages slid athwart streets and behind rows of red-brick buildings. He gazed and speculated. It was like looking at a man facing away from you, and trying to guess what was in his pockets. He saw rusted fire-escapes clamped to the back of buildings and bundles of electrical wires in fat festoons looping from wall to wall.
'No,' he said, 'but I did.' He enjoyed his exit lines almost as much as he did his exits. 'SM' ('SOE-mindedness', not sado-masochism, though they might be synonymous) was a cruel dish to set before a starving man. It might explain why SOE was sending missions to Mihailovič and Tito in Yugoslavia when the two leaders were virtually at civil war, why we were backing Communists and anti-Communists in Greece, why there was so little co-operation between the rival French sections that their agents had shot each other up in the dark after mistaking each other for Germans, and why the Dutch weren't concerned about incorrect security checks. It might even explain what a man like Ozanne was doing in SOE. I wondered how to apply 'SM' to the Signals Gauleiter, and decided to make a start by taking his orders literally.
affirmative action, anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, Chelsea Manning, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Snowden, energy security, energy transition, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, experimental subject, F. W. de Klerk, facts on the ground, failed state, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, high net worth, invisible hand, Julian Assange, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monroe Doctrine, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, éminence grise
In every important country of South-East Asia, with the exception of Indonesia, there were major, sustained Communist insurrections, and Indonesia, in the early Sixties, had the largest legal Communist Party in the world outside the socialist bloc. In all these states, except Malaysia, which was still a colony, the Americans intervened politically, economically, militarily and culturally, on a massive scale. The notorious domino theory was invented specifically for South-East Asia. To shore up the line of teetering dominoes, Washington made every effort to create loyal, capitalistically prosperous, authoritarian and anti-Communist regimes—typically, but not invariably, dominated by the military. Many were tied to the US by security arrangements, and in some the Americans had a broad range of military installations. Each disaster only encouraged Washington to put more muscle and money behind its remaining political allies. No world region received more “aid.”17 Driven by Cold War exigencies—that is, an obsession with the containment or rollback of communism at any cost—the US ended up supporting anticommunist Southeast Asian dictators such as Ferdinand Marcos (Philippines) and Suharto (Indonesia), who committed egregious human rights violations and stubbornly blocked any form of genuine democratization at home.18 THE UNIPOLAR MOMENT By the 1980s, a wave of democratization was sweeping across East Asia, toppling authoritarian regimes in the Philippines, South Korea, and Taiwan.
Iron Curtain: The Crushing of Eastern Europe, 1945-1956 by Anne Applebaum
affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, centre right, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Internet Archive, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, land reform, language of flowers, means of production, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, price mechanism, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Slavoj Žižek, stakhanovite, strikebreaker, union organizing, urban planning
GERMAN CDU Christlich Demokratische Union: Christian Democratic Party DDR Deutsche Demokratische Republik: German Democratic Republic, also called GDR or East Germany FDJ Freie Deutsche Jugend: Free German Youth, the communist youth party, activated in 1946 FDP Freie Demokratische Partei: Free Democratic Party, sometimes referred to as the Liberal Party KPD Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands: German Communist Party, founded in 1919, dissolved in the Soviet zone of Germany in 1946 SED Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands: German Socialist Unity Party, the name of the German Communist Party after its unification with the Social Democratic Party in 1946 SMAD Sowjetische Militäradministration in Deutschland: German name for the Soviet Administration in Germany, 1945–49 SPD Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands: German Social Democratic Party, refounded in 1945, dissolved in the Soviet zone of Germany in 1946 SVAG Sovietskaia Voennaia Administratsia v Germanii: Russian name for the Soviet Administration in Germany, 1945–59 HUNGARIAN ÁVH Államvédelmi Hatóság: State Protection Authority, the secret police from 1950 to 1956 ÁVO Államvédelmi Osztály: State Security Agency, the secret police from 1945 to 1950 DISZ Dolgozó Ifjúság Szövetsége: League of Working Youth, the communist youth movement, 1950–56 Kalot Katolikus Agrárifjúsági Legényegyesületek Országos Testülete: National Secretariat of Catholic Agricultural Youth Clubs, Catholic youth organization, 1935–47 Madisz Magyar Demokratikus Ifjúsági Szövetség: Hungarian Democratic Youth Alliance, the communist-backed “umbrella” youth movement, 1944–50 MDP Magyar Dolgozók Pártja: Hungarian Workers’ Party, 1948–56, the Communist Party after unification with the Hungarian Social Democrats Mefesz Magyar Egyetemisták és Főiskolai Egyesületek Szövetsége: League of Hungarian University and College Associations, university youth group in existence from 1945 to 1950, revived briefly in 1956 MKP Magyar Kommunista Párt: Hungarian Communist Party, 1918–48 MSzMP Magyar Szocialista Munkáspárt: Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party, the Communist Party, 1956–89 Nékosz Népi Kollégiumok Országos Szövetsége: National Association of People’s Colleges, 1946–49 SZDP Szociáldemokrata Párt: Hungarian Social Democratic Party, founded in 1890, dissolved into the MPD in 1948 after unification with the communists POLISH KPP Komunistyczna Partia Polski: Polish Communist Party, founded in 1918, dissolved by Stalin in 1938 KRN Krajowa Rada Narodowa: National Council PKWN Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego: Polish Committee of National Liberation PPR Polska Partia Robotnicza: Polish Workers’ Party, the name of the resurrected Polish Communist Party between 1942 and 1948 PPS Polska Partia Socjalistyczna: the Polish Socialist Party, founded in 1892, forcibly dissolved into the Polish United Workers’ Party in 1948 PRL Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa: People’s Republic of Poland, communist Poland PSL Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe: Polish Peasants’ Party, founded in 1918, in opposition to the communists from 1944 to 1946, later part of the regime PZPR Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza: Polish United Workers’ Party, the name of the Polish Communist Party after 1948 SB Służba Bezpieczeństwa: Polish Secret Police, 1956–90 UB Urząd Bezpieczeństwa: Polish Secret Police, 1944–56 WiN Wolność i Niezawisłość: Freedom and Independence, the anti-communist underground from 1945 to about 1950 ZMP Związek Młodzieży Polskiej: Union of Polish Youth, the communist youth group from 1948 to 1957 ZWM Związek Walki Młodych: Union of Fighting Youth, the communist youth group from 1943 to 1948 OTHER OUN Orhanizatsiya Ukrayins’kykh Natsionalistiv: Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists StB Státní bezpečnost: State Security, Czechoslovak secret police UPA Ukrayins’ka Povstans’ka Armiya: Ukrainian Insurgent Army Click here to see a larger image.
Jerusalem: The Biography by Simon Sebag-Montefiore
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, California gold rush, Etonian, facts on the ground, haute couture, Khartoum Gordon, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, spice trade, trade route, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, Yom Kippur War
The Great Powers had always backed their own sects so it was no surprise that the Cold War was waged furtively beneath the robes and behind the altars of Jerusalem 'as ardently as in the back alleys of Berlin', that other divided city. US Vice-Consul Bird advised the CIA to contribute $80,000 to repair the golden onion-domes of Grand Duke Sergei's Church of Mary Magdalene. If the CIA did not pay, the KGB just might. Russian Orthodoxy was divided between the CIA-backed Church based in New York and the KGB-backed Soviet version in Moscow. The Jordanians, staunch American allies, gave their Russian churches to the anti-Communist Church, while the Israelis, remembering that Stalin had been the first to recognize their new state, granted their Russian properties to the Soviets, who set up a mission in west Jerusalem led by a 'priest', actually a KGB colonel who had formerly been an adviser to North Korea. In a backwater still dominated by 'Husseinis, Nashashibis, Islamic scholars and Christian bishops, if you could ignore No-Man's-Land and the refugee camps,' wrote Sari Nusseibeh, 'it was as if nothing had ever happened'.
The London Compendium by Ed Glinert
1960s counterculture, anti-communist, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Corn Laws, Dava Sobel, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Exxon Valdez, hiring and firing, invention of the telegraph, Isaac Newton, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, Khartoum Gordon, Mahatma Gandhi, Nick Leeson, price stability, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, the market place, trade route, union organizing, V2 rocket
(ii) Stamford Hill Stamford Hill, the name of the A10 north of Stoke Newington and of the area around the high ground through which the road runs, is the centre of London’s orthodox Jewish community, with twenty-one schools, fifty-six synagogues, and the largest population of ultra-orthodox (Hassidic) Jews outside New York and Israel. It was first colonized by Jews after the First World War, when those born in the East End of London to refugees who had fled eastern Europe in the late nineteenth century grew up and moved north, attracted by Stamford Hill’s open spaces, spacious houses, greenery and river (Lea). Some of the new arrivals were White Russians (anti-communists), exiled after the Revolution, who brought their wealth with them. Others could trace their ancestry to a number of villages in Poland, such as Lubavitch, and were followers of Israel ben Eliezer, also known as Ba’al Shem Tov, a charismatic figure who founded a mystical, ecstatic movement in the eighteenth century. They are easily recognizable, the men wearing black headwear, beards, ringlets and long black frock coats, even in summer, and the women sporting gruesome ritual wigs.
Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Doomsday Clock, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Flynn Effect, Francisco Pizarro, global village, hiring and firing, indoor plumbing, invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, knowledge economy, market bubble, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, out of africa, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pink-collar, place-making, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, Sinatra Doctrine, South China Sea, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, upwardly mobile, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery
Thousands had died. Millions had had their lives ruined. The Asian Tigers were steadily pulling away from the People’s Republic. Relations with the Soviets were so bad that eight hundred Chinese had been killed in border clashes. Mao belatedly distanced himself from the radicals and looked around for a lifeline. He was thrown one by perhaps the least likely person on earth—the United States’ virulently anti-Communist president Richard Nixon. Nixon saw a deal with China as a way to outflank the Soviets in the Cold War, and in 1972, after much back-channel diplomacy, he flew to Beijing and shook Mao’s hand. “This was the week that changed the world,” Nixon crowed, and in some ways he was right. The prospect of a Washington-Beijing axis terrified Brezhnev so much that within three months of going to China, Nixon was sitting in Moscow making deals.
Vanished Kingdoms: The Rise and Fall of States and Nations by Norman Davies
anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, Corn Laws, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, labour mobility, land tenure, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, Red Clydeside, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, trade route, urban renewal
* The Catalans, because of their former subjection to Frankish overlordship, were still identified here as Franks. * ‘L’Estaca’ is a liberation song from the Franco era, composed in 1968 by the Catalan singer, Lluís Llach. It became popular in many countries, not least in Poland, where an adaptation by Jacek Kaczmarski – ‘Mury’, ‘The Walls’ – caught on as the unofficial anthem of the Solidarity movement; anti-Fascist sentiments inspired anti-Communist lyrics. The key stanza reads: ‘Wyrwij mury żeby krat, / Zerwij kajdany, polam bat. / A mury runa˛, runa˛, runa˛ / i pogrzebia˛ stary świat’ (‘Tear down the bars of the cage, / Snap the chains, and break the lash. / The walls will crumble, crumble, crumble / And hasten the old world’s crash’). Litva A Grand Duchy with Kings (1253–1795) I Belarus does not attract visitors. There are so few of them that the country fails to feature in the published International Tourism Rankings.
affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, distributed generation, friendly fire, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, invisible hand, open borders, Ronald Reagan, Yom Kippur War, young professional
What was I, who was I, to do something that might put them in harm’s way?”131 This argument had also been voiced during the Holocaust. Most of the Nativ files are classified, so there is no way of knowing how exactly this covert organization operated and whether it restricted its activities to advancing the humanitarian, religious, and Zionist interests of Soviet Jews, or whether it also engaged in anti-Soviet activities such as espionage, subversion, and anti-Communist propaganda.* Nahum Goldman, the president of the World Jewish Congress, attacked Israelis for their patronizing attitude toward the Diaspora and reminded them of the unpleasant truth: without the Diaspora, the State of Israel would not exist. Goldman, who also served as president of the World Zionist Organization, frequently angered the Israeli press. “Why doesn’t Goldman keep quiet?” fumed Maariv after he said he supported a revival of Jewish life in Germany.133 Goldman was highly voluble on the “moral and emotional crisis” in Israel, but Eshkol dismissed his comments: since the World Zionist Organization was unable to bring Jews to Israel, the views of its president were of no interest.134 MANY RELIGIOUS ISRAELIS, PARTICULARLY THE BRAND OF ULTRA-ORTHODOXY THAT OPposed the modern Jewish state as sacrilegious, found it difficult to quell the fear of a secular country they had felt since the declaration of independence and Israel’s early years.
Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion by Gareth Stedman Jones
anti-communist, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, deindustrialization, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, means of production, New Journalism, New Urbanism, night-watchman state, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, unemployed young men, wage slave
Although she accepted Karl’s paternity, Yvonne Kapp in her biography of Eleanor Marx launched a strong attack upon the credibility of the Freyburger letter. She claimed it was written in ‘a vein of high fantasy’ and she demonstrated the unlikelihood of several of the claims made in the letter.222 Given the fact that only a typewritten copy of the letter existed and that its discovery provided useful anti-communist ammunition at the height of the Cold War, some like Terrell Carver believed the letter to be a forgery ‘possibly by Nazi agents’.223 In my entry on Engels in The Dictionary of National Biography, I also accepted this interpretation, and more recently this approach has been continued in the study by Paul Thomas.224 I now believe that although the Freyburger letter contained a number of far-fetched claims, these were garbled memories of what she might have heard from Engels rather than deliberate untruths.
Demanding the Impossible: A History of Anarchism by Peter Marshall
agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, David Graeber, feminist movement, garden city movement, hive mind, Howard Zinn, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Naomi Klein, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, the market place, union organizing, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery
Camus at the time came in contact with Spanish anarcho-syndicalists in France, supporting the Spanish Federation of Political Prisoners and associating with the editor of the CNT’s paper Solidaridad Obrera. He also became friendly with the editors of the French syndicalist and anarchist magazine Témoins, Le Libertaire and Le Monde Libertaire. They helped him appreciate the libertarian tradition and showed that it was quite possible to be an anti-communist on the Left. The most substantial expression of his new position appeared in his widely influential study The Rebel (1951). In his Preface to the 1953 English translation of the work, Herbert Read welcomed it enthusiastically: ‘With the publication of this book, a cloud which has oppressed the European mind for more than a century begins to lift. Once again it becomes possible to hope — to have confidence again in man and in the future.’
The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power by Daniel Yergin
anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, energy security, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, fudge factor, informal economy, joint-stock company, land reform, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, postnationalism / post nation state, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Thomas Malthus, Yom Kippur War
"I am so glad that nothing came of these Soviet deals," he wrote to Teagle. "I feel that everybody will regret at some time that he had anything to do with these robbers, whose only aim is the destruction of all civilization and the re-establishment of brute force." Sentiment of a sort had apparently entered into Deterding's business calculations. After his marriage to the White Russian emigre Lydia Pavlova, he seemed to become more staunchly and outspokenly anti-communist. Deterding even telegraphed John D. Rockefeller, Jr., beseeching him to block the various Standard successor companies from buying Russian oil. The Dutchman reported that he had "begged" Rockefeller, "for humanity's sake," that "all decent people" should abstain "from helping the Soviets to get hard cash." The regime, he told Rockefeller, was "anti-Christ." Surely, he added, Rockefeller did not want his companies "to have bloodstained profits. ...
Lonely Planet China (Travel Guide) by Lonely Planet, Shawn Low
Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bike sharing scheme, call centre, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, haute couture, haute cuisine, income inequality, indoor plumbing, land reform, place-making, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, young professional
China splits into areas ruled by rival militarists. 1925 The shooting of striking factory workers on 30 May in Shanghai by foreign-controlled police inflames nationalist passions, giving hope to the Kuomintang party, now regrouping in Guangzhou. 1926 The Northern Expedition: Kuomintang and communists unite under Soviet advice to bring together China by force, then establish a Kuomintang government. 1927 The Kuomintang leader Chiang Kaishek turns on the communists in Shanghai and Guangzhou, having thousands killed and forcing the communists to turn to a rural-based strategy. 1930s Cosmopolitan Shanghai is the world’s fifth-largest city (the largest in the Far East), supporting a polyglot population of four million people. 1930 Chiang’s Kuomintang government achieves ‘tariff autonomy’: for the first time in nearly 90 years, China regains the power to tax imports freely, an essential part of fiscal stability. 1931 Japan invades Manchuria (northeast China), provoking an international crisis and forcing Chiang to consider anti-Japanese, as well as anti-communist, strategies. 1932 War breaks out in the streets of Shanghai in February–March, a sign that conflict between the two great powers of East Asia, China and Japan, may soon be coming. 1935 Mao Zedong begins his rise to paramount power at the conference at Zunyi, held in the middle of the Long March to the northwest, on the run from the Kuomintang. 1937 The Japanese and Chinese clash at Wanping, near Beijing, on 7 July, sparking the conflict that the Chinese call the ‘War of Resistance’, which only ends in 1945. 1938 Former prime minister Wang Jingwei announces he has gone over to Japan.