American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card

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pages: 300 words: 78,475

Third World America: How Our Politicians Are Abandoning the Middle Class and Betraying the American Dream by Arianna Huffington


American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, call centre, carried interest, citizen journalism, clean water, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, David Brooks, extreme commuting, Exxon Valdez, full employment, greed is good, housing crisis, immigration reform, invisible hand, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, late fees, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, medical bankruptcy, microcredit, new economy, New Journalism, offshore financial centre, Ponzi scheme, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, single-payer health, smart grid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Works Progress Administration

PART 3: AMERICA THE BEAUTIFUL DILAPIDATED 1 George Washington knew that: Robert Fishman, “Beyond Motor City, 1808–1908–2008: National Planning for America,” 23 Jan. 2010, 2 The nation’s overall infrastructure grade: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2009 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, 3 downward trend since 2005: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2005 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, 4 “It’s the kind of report card you …”: Katherine Harmon, “U.S. Infrastructure Crumbling,” 28 Jan. 2009, 5 According to the ASCE: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2009 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, 6 But we’ve only budgeted $975 billion: Ibid. 7 America’s population is expected to reach: Jeffrey Passel and D’Vera Cohn, “Immigration to Play Lead Role in Future U.S.

Water and Sewer Systems Would Be Costly,” 14 Mar. 2010, 31 As a result of leaking pipes, we lose: American Society of Civil Engineers, “Infrastructure Report Card Fact Sheet: Drinking Water,” 2009, 32 According to a New York Times analysis of data: Charles Duhigg, “Saving U.S. Water and Sewer Systems Would Be Costly,” 14 Mar. 2010, 33 Washington, D.C., averages a water line break: Ibid. 34 “We have about two million miles of pipe …”: “Liquid Assets: The Story of Our Water Infrastructure,” 19 Oct. 2009, 35 Even now, our tap water is becoming: Testimony of Judy Treml, House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, 15 Oct. 2009, 36 “Older systems are plagued by chronic overflows …”: American Society of Civil Engineers, “America’s Infrastructure Report Card Fact Sheet: Wastewater,” 2009, 37 While demand for electricity has risen: Thomas J.

., averages a water line break: Ibid. 34 “We have about two million miles of pipe …”: “Liquid Assets: The Story of Our Water Infrastructure,” 19 Oct. 2009, 35 Even now, our tap water is becoming: Testimony of Judy Treml, House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, 15 Oct. 2009, 36 “Older systems are plagued by chronic overflows …”: American Society of Civil Engineers, “America’s Infrastructure Report Card Fact Sheet: Wastewater,” 2009, 37 While demand for electricity has risen: Thomas J. Donohue, “Rebuilding America—the Time Is Now,” U.S. Chamber of Commerce, 10 Aug. 2007, 38 Since we need all the power: American Society of Civil Engineers, “America’s Infrastructure Report Card Fact Sheet: Energy,” 2009, 39 These ongoing brownouts and blackouts: U.S. Department of Energy, “Smart Grid System Report,” Jul. 2009, 40 The ASCE estimates that it could take: American Society of Civil Engineers, “America’s Infrastructure Report Card Fact Sheet: Energy,” 2009, 41 On August 14, 2003, we got a glimpse: Allan J. DeBlasio et al., “Learning from the 2003 Blackout,” U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Sep.


pages: 219 words: 61,720

American Made: Why Making Things Will Return Us to Greatness by Dan Dimicco


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American energy revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, carbon footprint, clean water, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, fear of failure, full employment, Google Glasses, hydraulic fracturing, invisible hand, job automation, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Loma Prieta earthquake, manufacturing employment, oil shale / tar sands, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration

Ross DeVol and Perry Wong, “Jobs for America: Investment and Policies for Economic Growth and Competitiveness,” Milken Institute, January 2010, 17. “2009 Infrastructure Report Card,” American Society of Civil Engineers, January 28, 2009, 18. Ibid.; “Failure to Act: The Economic Impact of Current Investment Trends in Water and Waste Treatment Infrastructure,” American Society of Civil Engineers, December 15, 2011, 19. “2009 Infrastructure Report Card,” American Society of Civil Engineers; Proprietary Analysis by Garten Rothkopf. 20. FAA NextGen 2012 Implementation Report, 21. “2009 Infrastructure Report Card.” 22. “Connecting California 2014 Business Plan,” California High Speed Rail Authority, April 30, 2014, 23. “2011 Statewide Transportation System Needs Assessment,” Califronia Transportation Commission, October 2011, 24.

Gerry Smith, “Internet Speed in United States Lags behind Many Countries, Highlighting Global Digital Divide,” Huffington Post, September 10, 2012, 14. “2013 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure,” American Society of Civil Engineers, March 19, 2013, 15. “Failure to Act: The Impact of Current Infrastructure Investment on America’s Economic Future,” American Society of Civil Engineers, January 15, 2013, 16. “2013 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure,” American Society of Civil Engineers, March 19, 2013, 17. President Barack Obama, “Barack Obama’s Acceptance Speech,” Democratic National Convention, Denver, Colorado, August 28, 2008, 18.

And by the way, once we do that, the benefits extend to the whole world, not just the United States, because foreign investors will be more likely to put their money into a country that offers an excellent infrastructure and the rule of law, enforceable contracts, robust protections for intellectual and private property, and capitalism rightly understood. But as long as we’re in this funk, we’re not helping the world and we’re sure as hell not helping ourselves. How to Think About Government Spending The American Society of Civil Engineers estimates the United States would need to invest $3.6 trillion in new infrastructure spending by 2020 in order raise the nation’s bridges, roads, dams, waterways, and levees to a “B” grade. Currently, the ASCE gives U.S. infrastructure a “D+” grade overall.14 But there is little movement in Washington, D.C., or in the states to provide additional funding for infrastructure improvements.


pages: 340 words: 92,904

Street Smart: The Rise of Cities and the Fall of Cars by Samuel I. Schwartz


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, car-free, City Beautiful movement, collaborative consumption, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Enrique Peñalosa, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, if you build it, they will come, intermodal, invention of the wheel, lake wobegon effect, Loma Prieta earthquake, Lyft, Masdar, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral hazard, Nate Silver, oil shock, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, skinny streets, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, the built environment, the map is not the territory, transportation-network company, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, Unsafe at Any Speed, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, Wall-E, white flight, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

See Americans for Prosperity African Americans, 214–219 Agenda 21, 226 America Walks, 93 American Association of Highway and Transportation Officials, 119 American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO), 18 American Automobile Association (AAA), 3–4, 73, 106–107, 107–108 American Public Transportation Association (APTA), 193–194 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 16, 228, 229 report card on roads, 206–208 American Transit Association, 9n Americans for Prosperity (AFP), 226 Ameruso, Anthony, 53, 54, 108 Apple, 235n Appleyard, Bruce, 100–101 Appleyard, Donald, 99–100 Apps, mobile transport. See Mobile transport apps and devices APTA. See American Public Transportation Association Aronwold, George, 54 Arroyo Seco Parkway, 15 Articles of Confederation, 14–15 ASCE. See American Society of Civil Engineers Asserson, Arthur, 55 Association of Realtors, 84 ATIS (advanced traveler information systems), 184–185 Atlanta, Georgia, 218–219, 230–231 Attractors, 163–164, 166 Autobahn, 15, 15n, 16 Automobiles.

By definition, therefore, during every time of the day or year when demand was below the peak, the systems had a lot of surplus capacity, what we in the trade call over-engineering. As cities grew, so did peak demand, and, for a long time, the only way to satisfy that demand was by increasing capacity: More (or wider) roads and rails. More over-engineering. Lots of people have heard of the “Report Card” on America’s infrastructure prepared annually by the American Society of Civil Engineers. (Full disclosure: I’m not only a member of the society but have served on the New York Committee on America’s Infrastructure, which is responsible for assigning grades.) The Report Card gives a grade to sixteen different categories of America’s infrastructure, from aviation to ports to schools to inland waterways, and if you’ve heard of it at all, you probably know that our overall GPA is currently a pretty pathetic D+. That same report estimates the investment needed to bring us up to a passing grade by 2020 at $3.635 trillion—that’s trillion, with a “T.”

Given the difficulties most of us have with distinguishing between short-term appetites and long-term good sense, there’s a chance that lower oil prices will lead to some poor decisions on infrastructure investment. Even if the price of oil doesn’t distort investment decisions, it’s not as if we were making the most efficient decisions on infrastructure before. Though there is actually a lot to recommend in the American Society of Civil Engineers’ analysis of the sorry state of all aspects of the country’s infrastructure—we really do need to upgrade our waste-water treatment plants and our internal waterways—the Report Card makes some serious errors in urging greater investment in big parts of the transportation system. Spending hundreds of billions of dollars on expanding and restoring roads when Americans are driving fewer miles each year is a very expensive exercise in nostalgia, one that could easily turn our fifty-year-long mistake into one lasting decades longer.


pages: 692 words: 167,950

The Ripple Effect: The Fate of Fresh Water in the Twenty-First Century by Alex Prud'Homme


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, big-box store, bilateral investment treaty, carbon footprint, Chance favours the prepared mind, clean water, Deep Water Horizon,, Exxon Valdez, hydraulic fracturing, invisible hand, John Snow's cholera map, Louis Pasteur, megacity, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, renewable energy credits, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban sprawl

CHAPTER 20: FORENSIC ENGINEERING 215 Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA): Mark Schlefstein, “Levee statistics point up their importance to nation’s economy,” New Orleans Times-Picayune, January 2, 2010. 215 85 percent of US levees were privately built: “The Report Card on America’s Infrastructure,” American Society of Civil Engineers, 2010. 215 177 of them—about 9 percent of federally inspected levees: Ibid. 216 the residents of Fernley, Nevada: Steve Friess, “Rush of Water Leaves a Nevada Town in Anguish,” New York Times, January 7, 2008. 216 Report Card on American Infrastructure: American Society of Civil Engineers: 216 Congress had committed only $1.13 billion: Ibid. 216 In the 2006 Rapanos case: John M. Broder, “After Lobbying, Wetlands Rules Are Narrowed,” New York Times, July 6, 2007.

New York Times Magazine, August 8, 2008. 112 Bruce Henderson: Sam Hodgson, “Sanders Wants to Flush Water Reclamation Plans,” Voice of San Diego, July 19, 2006. 112 David Spath: Bettina Boxall, “Doubts Still Swirl to Surface,” Los Angeles Times, May 7, 2006. CHAPTER 11: WATER SCARCITY 107 Tunnel No. 3: New York City Department of Environmental Protection: and dep_projects/cp_city_water_tunnel3.shtml. 107 Ted Dowey: Author’s tour of Tunnel No. 3 with Ted Dowey, March 5, 2007. 119 The American Society of Civil Engineers: “Report Card for America’s Infrastructure,” American Society of Civil Engineers: 120 In 2007, 159 leaks: Anthony DePalma, “Mysterious Leak Provides Hint of Lost Manhattan,” New York Times, February 5, 2008. 120 The EPA estimates that 1 trillion gallons: US Environmental Protection Agency, Water Sense, “The Facts on Leaks,” 120 the water pressure inside: From David Grann’s indispensable article on Tunnel No. 3, “City of Water,” New Yorker, September 1, 2003. 122 Standard pay is $35 to $38 an hour: Ibid. 122 Hogs have their own language: Ibid., and Dowey interview.

The city’s drinking supply has had a higher profile under Mayor Michael Bloomberg, but much of the system suffers from years of underinvestment and deferred maintenance, and the DEP faces a growing list of problems: infirm dams and seeping water tunnels, sewage overflows and industrial water pollution, pressure from development and gas drilling in the watershed, tension between rural communities and the city over control of water, competition with neighboring states for future drinking supplies, and worries about the impact of climate change on water quality and quantity. Aging infrastructure is a growing problem nationwide, but the decline has occurred largely out of sight, both literally and figuratively. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), the nation’s oldest engineering society, has reported that much of the nation’s hydro-infrastructure is on the verge of failure. In its 2009 Report Card, ASCE gave the nation’s infrastructure a D, or “Poor,” grade, and waterworks earned some of the worst grades of all: the nation’s dams were given a D, while drinking water, wastewater treatment plants, inland waterways, and levees all received grades of D-minus, meaning they are dangerously compromised.


pages: 532 words: 155,470

One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness


active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War

., electric cars), there is still the none too small matter of the country’s already strained electrical grid, which americans saw falter quite dramatically during massive blackouts in the summer of 2003.13 One does not require a degree in engineering to safely assume that this very infrastructure is totally incapable of supporting an additional 100 to 200 million electric cars’ worth of power on a daily basis. Though it is worth noting that people who do have such credentials, namely, the american Society of Civil Engineers, gave the U.S. energy infrastructure a “D” on its 2005 “national report Card,” downgrading it from its 2001 “D+.”14 My point here is quite simple: the automobile has no long-term future in the city. This is not to say that people are going to stop driving anytime soon, but even if the United States is capable of either (1) maintaining cheap oil prices indefinitely, (2) replacing and/or retrofitting more than 200 million U.S. vehicles with electric engines or biofuel modifications, or (3) revamping the entire energy grid in service of single-occupancy vehicles, there is simply no way to avoid the inevitable spatial limits of urban automobility since the U.S. population is expected to increase from roughly 300 million to 430 million by 2050 (the total urban population worldwide is expected to double from 3.3 billion to 6.4 billion in the same period).15 as norman Bel Geddes astutely pointed out in 1940: “The plain fact is that there is simply not enough room in cities, under present conditions, to accommodate the traffic.”16 Barring the complete evisceration of urban centers for new swaths of traffic-clogged roads, there will necessarily come a time when it will be totally unfeasible, if not impossible, for drivers to avoid hours of daily gridlock in every U.S. city: a virtual Auto Mass.

at present, americans already spend between 38 and 46 hours a year sitting in traffic at a cost of $78 billion to the U.S. economy. according to the Texas Transportation institute, this enormous figure comes in the form of 4.2 billion lost (work) hours and 2.9 billion gallons of wasted fuel (58 supertankers’ worth of oil).17 in addition, the american Society of Civil Engineers estimates that the federal government would have to start spending $9.4 billion per year on bridges (27 percent of all U.S. bridges are currently “structurally deficient”) and between $94 billion and $120 billion per year in order to actually improve—not just maintain—the national road system, to which it also gave a “D” grade on its 2005 infrastructure report card. The U.S. Department of Transportation anticipates a demand for ground transportation in 2050 that is roughly 250 percent larger than today, though the number of roads are expected to increase by only 10 percent in the same period.18 Studies conducted at MiT in 2001 similarly warn of unsustainable levels of gridlock, just as John Fisher, of the los angeles Department of Transportation, anticipates “nearly all day long” congestion in los angeles by 2025—a figure likely to increase dramatically by 2050.19 The World Bank’s 2007 transportation report adds much to the anxiety over U.S. gridlock; it projects unprecedented growth in the worldwide use of automobiles over the next two decades, noting that “more cars may be built than in the 110-year history of the industry.”20 Still, the problem of gridlock is perhaps best illuminated in the work published by the pro-automobile lobby and their right-wing think tank allies.

The author of the study specifically notes that this figure does not take population increases into consideration, nor does it account for infrastructure growth. in short, much more money would be required to accommodate the country’s ever-increasing travel miles (automobile and aviation) or rates of energy use (due to computers, handheld devices, air conditioners, and so on). See american Society of Civil Engineers, Infrastructure Report Card, available at U.S. Census Bureau, “an Older and More Diverse nation by Midcentury” (Washington, DC: Department of Commerce, 2008); United nations Department of Economic and Social affairs, “World Urbanization prospects—the 2007 revision: Highlights,” (new york: United nations, 2008). Geddes, Magic Motorways, 238. Texas Transportation institute, “Urban Mobility report.”


pages: 190 words: 53,409

Success and Luck: Good Fortune and the Myth of Meritocracy by Robert H. Frank


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Amazon Mechanical Turk, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, attribution theory, availability heuristic, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, deliberate practice,, endowment effect, experimental subject, framing effect, full employment, hindsight bias, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, income inequality, invisible hand, labor-force participation, labour mobility, lake wobegon effect, loss aversion, minimum wage unemployment, Network effects, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Thaler, Rod Stewart played at Stephen Schwarzman birthday party, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, side project, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, ultimatum game, Vincenzo Peruggia: Mona Lisa, winner-take-all economy

Thomas Gilovich and Shai Davidai, unpublished ms., 2015. 25. For an excellent survey of how views about luck differ along the political spectrum, see Dean M. Gromet, Kimberly A. Hartson, and David K. Sherman, “The Politics of Luck: Political Ideology and the Perceived Relationship between Luck and Success,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 59 (2015): 40–46. CHAPTER 6: THE BURDEN OF FALSE BELIEFS 1. American Society of Civil Engineers, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, 2013, 2. Donna M. Desrochers and Steven Hurlburt, “Trends in College Spending: 2001–2011; A Delta Data Update,” Delta Cost Project: American Institutes for Research, 2014,–2011_071414_rev.pdf. 3. Robert Hiltonsmith, “Pulling Up the Higher-Ed Ladder: Myth and Reality in the Crisis of College Affordability,” 4.

Of course, individuals can’t choose the environments into which they’re born. But society as a whole can mold those environments in significant ways. Doing so, however, requires intensive levels of investment. We who were born into highly developed countries are thus the lucky beneficiaries of centuries of intensive investment by those who came before us. In recent decades, however, those investments have been depreciating. A 2013 report from the American Society of Civil Engineers estimated that the United States faced a $3.6 trillion backlog in essential maintenance for existing infrastructure.1 Crumbling roads and unsafe bridges are common across the country, as are failing water and sewage systems. Millions live downstream from dams that could collapse at any moment. Countless school buildings are in disrepair. We’ve also done little to expand and improve existing infrastructure.

Viard and Robert Carroll, Progressive Consumption Taxation: The X-Tax Revisited, Washington, DC: AEI Press, 2012. INDEX Abramson, L. Y., 73 According to Jim, 31 adoption, 36, 57, 58 Allen, Paul, 34 Alloy, L. B., 73 Alou brothers, 33 American Dream, the, 4, 145 American Economic Association, 25 American Economic Review, 28, 126, 133, 171 American Enterprise Institute, 127, 171 American Society of Civil Engineers, 87 Anderson, Chris, 47 antlers in bull elk, 116–18, 118 Apotheker, Léo, 53 Apple, 44, 49, 132 Arab Spring, 107 Archilla, Gustavo, 106 artificial intelligence, 70 attention scarcity, 48–49 attribution theory, 77 austerity policies, 134 availability heuristic, 79, 80 baby boomer retirements, 97, 127, 167 Baker Library, 36 Bartlett, Bruce, 90 Bartlett, Monica, 101 Baumeister, Roy, 75 Beatty, Warren, 23 behavioral economics, 69, 70, 96 Bernanke, Ben, 133–35 best seller, xiii, 45 Betamax, 44, 45 birth order effects, 32 birth-date effects: in hockey, 38; in the workplace, 38 Blackstone, 103 Blockbusters, 48 Bloomberg Business, 132 Bonaparte, Napoleon, 7 Boudreaux, Donald, 122 Breaking Bad, 24, 31, 68 British accent, 4 Broderick, Matthew, 24, 68 Brooklyn Dodgers, 142 Brooks, David, 83, 84 Buffett, Warren, 12, 39 Bush, George H.


pages: 391 words: 97,018

Better, Stronger, Faster: The Myth of American Decline . . . And the Rise of a New Economy by Daniel Gross


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset-backed security, Bakken shale, banking crisis, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, demand response, Donald Trump, Frederick Winslow Taylor, high net worth, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, illegal immigration, index fund, intermodal, inventory management, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, LNG terminal, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, mortgage debt, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, risk tolerance, risk/return, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, the High Line, transit-oriented development, Wall-E, Yogi Berra, Zipcar

If the volume of trade continues to rise, if exports are to double, then rail, trucking, intermodal, and shipping infrastructure will have to expand as well. To attract and handle more tourists, American airports need a facelift and major internal surgery; they have to become as efficient as their counterparts overseas. These are signs that the United States is falling behind, especially when countries such as China are making splashy, highly visible infrastructure investment. In its 2009 Infrastructure Report Card, the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) estimated that the United States needed to invest $2.2 trillion in infrastructure over five years, and that only $903 billion of that total had been budgeted. And Larry Summers said, “Compare Kennedy Airport with the airport where you land, and you ask yourself which is the airport of the greatest country, richest, most powerful country in the world?” The comparison can indeed be depressing and can easily send one down the path of decline.

Data on’s revenues can be seen at; information on LivingSocial and HomeAway’s expansion can be found at the companies’ websites; Lynn Cowan, “HomeAway IPO Opens at 34% after Pricing Well,” Wall Street Journal, June 29, 2011, 3. Larry Summers’s remarks can be seen at 4. The American Society of Civil Engineers “Infrastructure Report Card” can be seen at 5. Raul Katz, “Estimating the Economic Impact of the Broadband Stimulus Plan,”; the ITU’s broadband rankings can be seen at; Pando Networks’ download speed rankings can be seen at 6.

Index Abdullah, King of Saudi Arabia, 125 advertising, 7, 50, 136, 143, 201, 202 exports and, 129–30 Aegis Communications, 172 agriculture, 20, 99–101, 206, 227 exports and, 100–101, 104, 122, 154, 160 in North Dakota, 149, 153–58, 162 AIA, 35 AIG, 32–33, 35–36, 133 Airbnb, 194–95 Ally Financial, 40, 42 Altman, Daniel, 141, 22, 203 American Association of Publishers, 193 American Bankers Association, 12–13 American Petroleum Institute, 104 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, 30 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 208 Anheuser-Busch, 95, 158 AOL, 183–84, 195 A123 Systems, 211 Apple, 140–41, 143, 195, 198–201 Areddy, James T., 101 Argentina, 85, 176, 203 arms, exports of, 108–9 Armstrong, Tim, 183 Arvizu, Dan, 210 Asia, 13, 35, 87, 144, 203, 226, 228 employment and, 164, 168 exports and, 103, 105, 120, 123 inports and, 131, 138, 140, 146 North Dakota and, 155, 161 and reshoring and insourcing, 169–70, 173, 176–78 Associated Press, 174, 190, 206 Association of International Educators (NAFSA), 119–20 athletes, 126–27 ATM machines, 124, 174–76 Auletta, Ken, 183 Australia, 14, 48, 74, 103, 203 exports and, 98, 106, 122 autos, automakers, 2, 7, 14–15, 21, 34, 104, 186 bailout of, 33, 40–43, 46, 133, 136 efficiency economy and, 60–61, 69, 75, 77–79, 102, 173, 222–24, 227 efficient consumers and, 182, 190–93, 195–96 electric, 41, 79, 97, 210–11, 222 FDI and, 82, 87, 97 hybrid, 78–80, 211 inports and, 133–37, 227 Japan and, 14, 26, 41, 79, 87, 134–35, 173 and reshoring and insourcing, 167–68, 173–74 restructuring and, 46, 51–52, 78, 136, 173–74 supersizing and, 210–11 Bach Composite, 86 bailouts, 6, 20, 23, 46, 51–52, 133, 136–37 of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, 32, 35, 42–43 TARP and, 36–38, 40–42 timely policy decisions and, 28, 31–43 Bailyn, Bernard, 18 Bain Capital, 50–51 Baker, Akbar Al, 108 Bakken Shale, 151 Banco do Brasil, 95 Bank of America, 37–38, 48 Bank of East Asia, 92 Bank of Hawaii, 124 bankruptcies, 1, 82, 111, 166, 218 of CIT Group, 47–48 efficiency economy and, 78, 80 restructuring and, 44–48, 51, 53, 55, 58, 78, 136 timely policy decisions and, 40–41 banks, bankers, banking, 1–4, 16, 21, 25–26, 65, 81, 208, 217, 219 bailouts and, 6, 20, 32–34, 38–40, 42–43 of China, 20, 82, 92–94 economic decline and, 12, 17 efficient consumers and, 184, 190 exports and, 112, 124, 129 failure of, 1, 39–40, 46, 92 FDI and, 83, 85, 92–95 in history, 13–14, 36 of Japan, 29–30, 37, 47 North Dakota and, 156–58 regulation of, 19, 25 restructuring and, 45–47, 51, 53–55, 58 strengthening recovery and, 216, 220 TARP and, 36–38 timely policy decisions and, 32–34, 36–40, 43 Barboza, David, 141 Batali, Mario, 123 Bear Stearns, 32–33, 53 Beck, Jill, 155–56, 162 beer, beer business, 144, 194, 206 FDI and, 95–96 North Dakota and, 158–59 and reshoring and insourcing, 177–78 Bennett, Jeff, 87 Berger, John, 153 Bernanke, Ben, 32–33 Bernstein, Peter, 206 Berry Petroleum, 80 Better Place, A, 211 BigBelly Solar, 75, 107, 195, 204 efficiency economy and, 64–68, 72 Big Roads, The (Swift), 207 Bison Gear & Engineering, 67 Blinder, Alan, 31, 164 Blonder Home Accents, 111 Bloomberg, 33, 109 BMW, 79, 87, 97 Boehner, John, 5, 222 Boeing, 51, 108, 227 Book of Masters, 137 Bopp, Aric, 88–89 Boskin, Michael, 5 Boston, Mass., 72, 144, 192, 212, 224 BigBelly Solar and, 66–67 restructuring and, 49–51 Boston Community Capital, 225 Boston Consulting Group (BCG), 117, 166–68, 179 Boston Properties, 51 bottled water, 184–85 Bowen, Wally, 209–10 Bowles-Simpson Commission, 221–22 BP Amoco, 153 brands, 46, 159, 183, 206, 215 exports and, 111, 117, 119 FDI and, 87, 93, 96 inports and, 132, 135, 138–41, 143–44, 227 supersizing and, 199, 202 Braskem, 95 Brattle Group, 210 Brazil, 19, 100–101, 175 exports and, 101, 103–4, 109, 122 FDI and, 82, 85, 94–95 inports and, 131, 144–46 BRIC nations, 19–20, 23, 151 Broadway Partners, 49–50 Buffalo Commons theory, 150 Buicks, Buick, 78, 134–36, 227 Bull, 171 Bureau of Labor Statistics, 166, 187, 191 Burger King, 95 Burr, Aaron, 218 Bush, George W., 5, 16, 26, 30, 33, 222 business cycles, 17–18, 82, 231 Business Roundtable, 146–47 Cai Yong, 134 California, 79–80, 149, 161, 211–12 FDI and, 84, 92, 96–97 tourism in, 122–23 Campagna, Michael A., 178 Canada, 4, 48, 74, 202 exports and, 100, 122 FDI and, 92, 95 capitalism, 3, 14, 25, 45 Capital One, 58 Capital Purchase Program (CPP), 36–38 carbon, 170, 186 efficiency economy and, 61, 65, 75 taxes on, 61, 75, 103–4, 217 Card Hub, 55, 58 Cargill Malt, 158–59 Caro, Robert, 206 casinos, 85, 152 Cavendish Farms, 159–60 Census Bureau, 53 Center for Budget and Policy Priorities, 222 Center Rock Inc., 108 Central Park, 85, 94, 212 Chandan, Sam, 94 Chandler, Alfred, 206, 193, 195, 204 Cheniere Energy Partners, 106 Chesapeake Bay Candle, 177 Chevrolets, Chevrolet, 41, 77, 135–36, 199 Chicago, Ill., 8, 67, 90, 193, 212 China, 6–9, 14, 18–21, 25–26, 82, 164–78, 187, 217 comparisons between U.S. and, 7–8, 25, 166–67, 202, 208 economy of, 2, 7–8, 18–20, 25, 141, 148, 165, 178, 222 efficiency economy and, 62, 67–69, 71, 227 employment and, 164–68, 170 FDI and, 85–87, 92–94, 97, 164 incomes in, 20, 164–67 inports and, 134–36, 138–44, 146, 164, 227 and reshoring and insourcing, 169–78, 222 trade and, 94, 98, 100–104, 106–9, 112–14, 116, 118–20, 122–28, 164 China Eastern, 124 China UnionPay, 124 Christie, Chris, 211 Chrysler: bailout of, 40–42 bankruptcy of, 40–41, 46, 51, 136 Fiat’s acquisition of, 40, 78, 87 and reshoring and insourcing, 173–74 Chung, Winston, 97 CIT Group, 47–49 Citi, Citibank, Citigroup, 37, 53, 84–85, 172 Citic Press, 128 Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), 206–7 Civil War, 18, 82 Civil Works Administration, 206 Cleveland Clinic, 126, 145 Clinton, Bill, 26, 31, 70, 217–18, 228 Clooney, George, 129, 227 CNBC, 4, 108 CNG Now, 105 CNOOC, 86 coal, 102–5, 162, 165, 202 Coca-Cola, 83–84, 143, 202, 227 inports and, 133, 137–38, 146 coffee, 139–40, 181 Coleman, 171 collateralized debt obligations, 36 Collinses, 111–14, 116 Colombia, 26, 131, 148 FDI and, 85, 88–91 Commerce Department, U.S., 1, 54, 99–100, 104, 120, 122, 125, 219 Commercial Paper Funding Facility, 34 Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States, 96 competition, 3, 19, 21, 23, 80, 83, 106–7, 167, 194, 204, 228 efficiency economy and, 62, 68, 77 efficient consumers and, 193, 196 inports and, 131–32, 137, 141 North Dakota and, 148, 161 and reshoring and insourcing, 169, 179 Congress, U.S., 14, 19, 23–24, 125, 146 deficits and, 221–22 economic decline and, 3, 10 health care reform and, 5–6 U.S. credit rating and, 1–2 Congressional Budget Office, 31 Connecticut, 50, 86, 105, 140, 146, 151, 161–62, 212 efficient consumers and, 187–88 Conservation and Recreation Department, Mass., 66 construction, 174 efficient consumers and, 190–91 housing crisis and, 219–20 infrastructure and, 205–6, 209, 211, 213 North Dakota and, 152–53, 155–56 Consumer Price Index, 187 consumers, consumerism, consumption, 2, 25, 28, 81, 101, 111, 216, 219 coal and, 102–3 economic pessimism and, 22–23 efficiency economy and, 64–65, 68, 73–75, 78, 223–24 exports and, 98–99, 104–5, 107, 110, 119, 128, 130–31, 147, 154, 164 FDI and, 83, 89–90, 92–93 indebtedness and, 9–10, 53–57 inports and, 131–32, 136–37, 141, 143, 147, 227 North Dakota and, 151, 153–54 and reshoring and insourcing, 169, 172, 175, 177 restructuring and, 44–45, 53–59 supersizing and, 202, 204, 209 see also efficient consumers Cooper, Bill, 105 Cooper, Stephen, 44 CoreLogic, 190 corporations, 1, 9–10, 60, 139–43, 163–67, 169–85, 192–206, 225 comparisons between consumers and, 181, 185, 189, 195 and costs of labor, 164–67 economic optimism and, 23–24 economic pessimism and, 22–23 efficiency economy and, 63–68, 71, 75–76, 80–81, 158, 172, 223 efficient consumers and, 181–85, 192–96 exports and, 98, 103, 108–10, 112–14, 116–17, 131, 177 FDI and, 82–96 global, 22, 24, 71, 95 inports and, 132, 135–37, 139–42, 144, 146–47, 202–3, 227 job growth and, 218–19 North Dakota and, 152–53, 155, 157–60 recoveries and, 17–18, 21, 215 and reshoring and insourcing, 167, 169–79 restructuring and, 44–45, 47–49, 52–53, 57–58, 81, 166 supersizing and, 199–206, 209–10 taxes on, 146–47, 163 timely policy decisions and, 28, 30, 34 U.S. economic importance and, 227–28 Costner, Kevin, 129–30 Coty, 71 Coulomb Technologies, 211 Council of Economic Advisers, 31 Cowan, Lynn, 203 Creation Technologies, 67 credit, 32–36, 94, 194 booms in, 21, 29, 56, 62 crisis in, 2, 4, 23, 26, 48, 53 exports and, 112–13 restructuring and, 49, 51, 53–56, 58 timely policy decisions and, 29, 32–33, 35–36, 42–43 credit cards, 34, 183–85 restructuring and, 54–56 credit ratings, 1–2, 11, 52 Credit Suisse, 137, 223 Davis, Fred, 90–91 debt, 1, 19–20, 23–24, 60, 185 CIT Group and, 48–49 consumers and, 9–10, 53–57 crises and, 6, 29, 216 efficiency economy and, 62–63, 72, 78 efficient consumers and, 181, 189, 193, 196 Erie Canal and, 205–6 FDI and, 82, 94 national, 2, 5, 11, 217 North Dakota and, 155–56 restructuring and, 45–59, 78 strengthening recovery and, 215–16 timely policy decisions and, 32–34, 36, 39, 42 see also loans, lending, lenders debt ceiling extensions, 2, 217 Dedrick, Jason, 140 Defense Department, U.S., 109 deficits: budget, 2, 6, 10, 64–65, 217, 221–22 efficiency economy and, 64–65 trade, 102, 107, 168, 221–22 Delphi, 46 demand, 18, 31, 45, 57, 101, 132, 178, 221 efficiency economy and, 60, 62, 72–74, 223 exports and, 99, 104, 107–10, 116, 119 North Dakota and, 153–54, 159 supersizing and, 206, 208 Deming, W.


pages: 227 words: 62,177

Numbers Rule Your World: The Hidden Influence of Probability and Statistics on Everything You Do by Kaiser Fung


American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andrew Wiles, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, call centre, correlation does not imply causation, cross-subsidies, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, edge city, Emanuel Derman, facts on the ground, Gary Taubes, John Snow's cholera map, moral hazard, p-value, pattern recognition, profit motive, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, statistical model, the scientific method, traveling salesman

His principle of “triple convergence” is a winning argument against adding capacity as the final solution to congestion because new capacity will just induce new demand. Downs put forth the provocative thesis that congestion itself is the market’s solution to a problem of mismatched supply and demand. National statistics on commuting were taken from Elisabeth Eaves’s article “America’s Worst Commutes,” published in Forbes. The American Society of Civil Engineers issues an annual Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, which measures road congestion in all fifty states. The engineering community has only recently recognized the importance of managing the reliability (variability) of trip time; see Richard Margiotta’s presentation to the National Transportation Operations Coalition, available online, for the state of the art. There are many more fascinating statistical problems in public transportation.

.” ~###~ Back in Minnesota, perception trumped reality once more: much to the chagrin of Mn/DOT, the transportation department’s prized ramp-metering strategy was under siege in the fall of 2000. State senator Dick Day led a charge to abolish the nationally recognized program, portraying it as part of the problem, not the solution. In his view, decades of ramp metering had come to naught as the Twin Cities continued to be among the most congested in America. The state came dead last, with 71 percent of its urban freeways declared congested in a report by the American Society of Civil Engineers. Leave it to Senator Day to speak the minds of “average Joes”—the people he meets at coffee shops, county fairs, summer parades, and the stock car races he loves. He saw ramp metering as a symbol of Big Government strangling our liberty: “It’s always bothered me—who stops? Who is the first person to stop at a ramp meter in the morning? Why does he stop? He should just go right through it.


pages: 221 words: 68,880

Bikenomics: How Bicycling Can Save the Economy (Bicycle) by Elly Blue


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active transport: walking or cycling, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, big-box store, car-free, hydraulic fracturing, if you build it, they will come, Jane Jacobs, job automation, Loma Prieta earthquake, medical residency, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, ride hailing / ride sharing, science of happiness, the built environment, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, young professional

The freeway cost is the average cost per mile for a four-lane urban freeway without special restrictions, as reported by a Rails to Trails report on nationally collected figures. The real costs may be much higher when taking into account bridges, tunnels, over and underpasses, and various other factors. Politifact Oregon, March 19, 2011 32 Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission Planning Report No. 47 A Regional Freeway Reconstruction System Plan For Southeastern Wisconsin 2005 33 American Society of Civil Engineers, Infrastructure Report Card, 2013. 34 “Repair Priorities,” a 2011 report by Smart Growth America and Taxpayers for Common Sense found that between 2004 and 2008, $22 billion dollars, or 57% of state costs were sunk into building new roads—23,300 miles in total. That left less than half the available funding, or a total of $16 billion for repair of the remaining 98.7%, nearly 2 million lane miles, of the nation’s state highways.

Starting about ten years ago, freeways and bridges started to age out en masse; we have a couple of interesting decades to come. Because we are running out of money now—and not just federal money, but local money for local roads. In truth, we never had it. As early as 2000, the amount of spending needed for basic, safe maintenance of our national freeways and bridges was 20 percent higher than the $30 billion that was actually spent that year. More recently, according to the American Society of Civil Engineers, we need to make 3.6 trillion dollars in infrastructure investments by 2020, just to keep up with basic maintenance.33 But filling potholes just isn’t sexy. The great spate of road building set off in the 1950s continues quickly, and new highway projects are still political gold.34 Skill at leveraging federal money for road projects in one’s district are a standard metric of Congressional electability.


pages: 128 words: 35,958

Getting Back to Full Employment: A Better Bargain for Working People by Dean Baker, Jared Bernstein


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, collective bargaining, declining real wages, full employment, George Akerlof, income inequality, inflation targeting, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, price stability, quantitative easing, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, War on Poverty

But we will not stop pulling for full employment until we get there and stay there. References Akerlof, George, William Dickens, and William Perry. 1996. “The Macroeconomics of Low Inflation.” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Vol. 1996, No. 1, pp. 1-76. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). 2013. “2013 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure.” Anderson, Palle and David Gruen. 1995. “Macroeconomic Policies and Growth.” Research Discussion Paper 9507. Sydney: Reserve Bank of Australia. Appelbaum, Eileen, Thomas Bailey, Peter Berg, and Arne Kalleberg. 2000.


pages: 481 words: 121,669

The Invisible Web: Uncovering Information Sources Search Engines Can't See by Gary Price, Chris Sherman, Danny Sullivan


AltaVista, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, business intelligence, dark matter, Douglas Engelbart, full text search, HyperCard, hypertext link, information retrieval, Internet Archive, joint-stock company, knowledge worker, natural language processing, pre–internet, profit motive, publish or perish, search engine result page, side project, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Ted Nelson, Vannevar Bush, web application

Since then, PRIS has been continuously updated and improved, and it now constitutes the most complete data bank on nuclear power reactors in Science 355 the world. It has been widely used and today constitutes an essential source of information on nuclear power.” Search Form URL: See Main Page Related Resources: Additional Nuclear Power Related Databases Engineering American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Civil Engineering Database B “The Civil Engineering Database (CEDB) is designed to provide easy bibliographic access to all ASCE publications. The database covers ASCE documents published since 1973. It provides access to all the journals, conference proceedings, books, standards, manuals, magazines, and newsletters.” Over 80,000 entries. Search Form URL: Edinburgh Engineering Virtual Library “EEVL (the Edinburgh Engineering Virtual Library) is a U.K.

., 297, 103 America Online (AOL), 47 American Art Directory, 151 American Association of Health Plans (AAHP), 250 American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) “Who’s Certified” Database, 294 American Booksellers Association Member Directory, 322 American Community Network, 176 American Dental Association Members Directory, 294 American Export Register, 169 American FactFinder, 102 American Hospital Directory, 251–252 American Institute of Architects, 294 American Kennel Club Events Calendar and Awards Search, 329 American Marketing Association, 188–189 American Medical Association (AMA), 250, 294–295 American Memory Collection, The, 87–88, 99, 262 American political prints, LOC, 148 American Psychoanalytic Association, 377 American Psychological Association (APA), 42 American Religion Data Archive, 378 American Sign Language Browser, 325 American Society for Association Executives (ASAE), 196, 320 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Civil Engineering Database, 355 American Society of Composers, Artists and Publishers (ASCAP), 221 American Society of Home Inspectors (ASHI), 320 American Verse Project, 262 Americans and Aquarium Association, 347 America’s Job Bank, 185–186 Amtrak, 316–317, 339–340 amusements, 218 anagrams, 218 analysis, browser agents, 50 annotations, 23, 24, 39 Annual Review of Population Law, 278 Index 405 Anro (Australian Agriculture), 344 Antarctica, 56, 351 Anthropological Index Online, 370 Anthropology Review Database, 370 AnyWho.Com, 97, 187–188, 297 A&P Mechanics Database, 295 APEC tariff database, 195 archaeology information resources, 152, 370–371 Archie, 4–5, 6–7, 58 archINFORM (International Architecture Database), 146 Archisplus (Database of the Historical Archives of the European Commission), 154 Architect Finder, The, 294 architecture information resources, 145–147, 151–152, 181, 265 archive catalog goals, 153 ArchiviaNet (National Archives of Canada), 157 Archon (Historical Manuscripts), 154–155 ArcHSearch (U.K.), 370 armed services information resources.

Search Form URL: fdismenu.htm Related Resources: Historical Campaign Finance Data Vermont Campaign Finance Information System Delaware Campaign Finance Data Kansas Health Data Warehouse Ohio “The Department of Health collects data about more than 100 health topics.” Search Form URL: See Main Page Related Resources: Public Health Databases Georgia Public Records 307 WITHIN Wisconsin Health Facility Report Card Search Iowa “There are over 800 licensed and/or certified healthcare facilities in the State of Iowa. With the Report Card Health Facility Locator you can create a list of facilities to view Report Card information.” Search Form URL: default.asp In-Depth Analysis of Revenues Illinois Compose reports to analyze State of Illinois revenue data. Basic reports available via the State Comptroller homepage. Search Form URL: ERSummary.cfm Land Records Alaska This site offers access to the DNR [Department of Natural Resources] State Status Plats and the Historical Indices.


pages: 441 words: 136,954

That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum


3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks

(China, by contrast, is the People’s Republic of Deferred Gratification.) In the Terrible Twos, our roads got more crowded, our bridges got creakier, our water systems got leakier, and the lines in our airports got longer. In 2009, the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) issued a Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, and gave America an overall grade of D. The report also gave individual grades to fifteen infrastructure categories. None got higher than C+. “Decades of underfunding and inattention have endangered the nation’s infrastructure,” the engineers said, adding that since the ASCE’s last report card in 2005, there has been little change in the condition of America’s roads, bridges, drinking-water systems, and other public works, but the cost of repairing them (when they do get repaired) has risen. ASCE estimated in 2009 that America’s infrastructure needed $2.2 trillion in repairs—up from the $1.6 trillion price tag in 2005.

Alabama, University of; Creative Campus Alibaba Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (Carroll) Alito, Samuel Allegheny College Allen, Woody All in the Family (television show) Alonzo, Amanda Alpoge, Levent al-Qaeda Aman, Peter Amanpour, Christiane Amazon; Web Services (AWS) America COMPETES Act (2007) American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees American Federation of Teachers American Interest, The Americans and the California Dream (Starr) American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) American Solutions American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) Amtrak Acela Anand, Namrata Andersen, Kurt Anderson, Chris Android Angelides, Phil anti-Federalists AOL Apollo space program Apotheker, Léo Apple; iPad; iPhone; iPod; Macintosh computers Applied Materials apps Arab oil embargo Arab world, uprisings in Argonne National Laboratory Arkansas Armey, Dick Army, U.S.; Training and Doctrine Command Asato, Cathy Asia Society, Center on U.S.

In chapter 6, we cited the unimpressive showing of American fifteen-year-olds in the international PISA test, which measures student skills in reading, math, science, and critical thinking. But many other warning signs that America’s education system was underperforming at all levels showed up in the Terrible Twos. In a speech to the Council on Foreign Relations (October 19, 2010), Arne Duncan, the secretary of education, issued his own report card on the status of American education. On a broad set of metrics of educational attainment, we didn’t do well. Just one generation ago, the United States had the highest proportion of college graduates in the world. Today, in eight other nations, including South Korea, young adults are more likely to have college degrees than in the U.S. In South Korea, 58 percent of young adults have earned at least an associate’s degree.


pages: 364 words: 104,697

Were You Born on the Wrong Continent? by Thomas Geoghegan


Albert Einstein, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, collective bargaining, corporate governance, cross-subsidies, dark matter, David Brooks, declining real wages, deindustrialization, ending welfare as we know it, facts on the ground, Gini coefficient, haute cuisine, income inequality, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, McJob, minimum wage unemployment, mittelstand, offshore financial centre, payday loans, pensions crisis, Plutocrats, plutocrats, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, Wolfgang Streeck, women in the workforce

It is thirty-five minutes by bus on Addison Street, and then I’m on the El, the Blue Line, broken down, 10 mph in the slow zones, if it comes at all. To get up to Brussels, I puff along on air. To get to O’Hare, I jolt along by stagecoach. And I’m one of the lucky few: only 5 percent of the country can even use public transport. The rest are sick with road rage when they’re not on Xanax. Here’s the 2009 report card from the American Society of Civil Engineers: aviation D, bridges C (but the bridge that collapsed in Minneapolis would get an F), drinking water D minus (and sinking fast), rail C minus, roads D minus, schools D (they mean the buildings may collapse). Twenty years ago, in 1988, when we thought the infrastructure was collapsing, the grades were higher. I wish the Whig Party—Henry Clay, the young Lincoln— would come back to re-create the nation.

Finally, thanks to André Schiffrin who kept after me to write this book—and did so even when for many years I’d be so lost in my real life as an American that I’d forgotten I’d ever been to Europe at all. Index Adams, Henry Adenauer, Konrad The Affluent Society (Galbraith) AFL-CIO After Tamerlane (Darwin) Agenda 2010 (Germany) and labor courts and wages/unemployment and welfare state America Works (Freeman) American Society of Civil Engineers Animal Farm (Orwell) Arendt, Hannah Bach, Stefan Baker, Dean banks Sparkassen (Germany) U.S. model Barnes & Noble BDA (Bundesvereinigung der Deutschen Arbeitgeberverbände) BDI (Bundesverband der Deutschen Industrie) Beckmann, Max Beer, Sam Bell, Daniel Bell, Linda The Bells (Frankfurt, Germany) Benedict XVI, Pope Benjamin, Walter Berlin, Germany after the financial meltdown cafés and economic recovery under Communism Dussmann’s bookstore East/West economy Humboldt University joblessness/unemployment labor court in labor organizing May Day parade (2001) New Year’s Eve reenactment of a firestorm old GDR parliament building old state swimming pool post-Wall/collapse of Communism Reichstag running in S-Bahn teaching American labor law in unification of Germany and moving of capital Wilmersdorf neighborhood young people in Berliner Orchestra Bernstein, Jared Bezemer, Dirk Bild (magazine) Bismarck, Otto von Blair, Tony Blinder, Alan Böckler Foundation Bonn, Germany bookstores in Europe Dussmann’s in Berlin France histories of German evil Borders Books Bowles, Sally Brandenburg Gate Brandt, Willy Brecht, Bertolt British Labour Party Burckhardt, Jacob Bush, George H.


pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, call centre, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, employer provided health coverage,, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, payday loans, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

Upgrade Infrastructure It’s almost universally agreed among economists that the government should be involved in building and maintaining infrastructure—streets and highways, bridges, ports, dams, airports and air traffic control systems, and so on. This is because, like education and research, infrastructure is subject to positive externalities. Excellent infrastructure makes a country a more pleasant place to live, and also a more productive place in which to do business. Ours, however, is not in good shape. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) gave the United States an overall infrastructure grade of D+ in 2013, and estimated that the country has a backlog of over $3.6 trillion in infrastructure investment.23 However, only a bit more than $2 trillion has been budgeted to be spent by 2020, leaving a large gap. You might think that the ASCE has an obvious bias on the question of infrastructure spending, but the data bear them out.

id=USARGDPH INDEX Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College Campuses (Arum and Roksa) Acemoglu, Daron Affinnova Agarwal, Anant Age of Spiritual Machines, The: When Computers Exceed Human Intelligence (Kurzweil) Agrarian Justice (Paine) agriculture: development of inelastic demand in Ahn, Luis von Aiden, Erez Lieberman Alaska, income guarantee plan in algorithms Allegretto, Sylvia Allstate Amazon Amazon Web Services American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Android animals, domestication of Apple Arthur, Brian artificial intelligence (AI) future of SLAM problem in uses of see also robots Arum, Richard ASCI Red ASIMO Asimov, Isaac Asur, Sitaram Athens, ancient ATMs Audi Australia, immigrant entrepreneurship in Autodesk automation: future of labor market effects of in manufacturing Autor, David Baker, Stephen Barnes & Noble Bartlett, Albert A.

Office of Science and Technology Policy, March 2012, available at (accessed September 18, 2013). 22. For a detailed list, see the appendix of McKinsey and Company, “And the Winner Is . . . ” Research Report, 2009, (accessed September 18, 2013). 23. “2013 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure,” ASCE, 2013, (accessed August 12, 2013). 24. See Matthew Yglesias, “The Collapse of Public Investment,” Moneybox blog, Slate, May 7, 2013, (accessed August 12, 2013); and the underlying data at “Real State & Local Consumption Expenditures & Gross Investment, 3 Decimal,” Economic Research—Federal Reserve Bank of St.


pages: 305 words: 89,103

Scarcity: The True Cost of Not Having Enough by Sendhil Mullainathan


American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andrei Shleifer, Cass Sunstein, clean water, computer vision, delayed gratification, double entry bookkeeping, Exxon Valdez, fault tolerance, happiness index / gross national happiness, impulse control, indoor plumbing, inventory management, knowledge worker, late fees, linear programming, mental accounting, microcredit, p-value, payday loans, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Richard Thaler, Saturday Night Live, Walter Mischel, Yogi Berra

A similar focus on the urgent at the expense of the important has long been observed in the workings of governments that, over decades of tight budgeting, have slashed spending on infrastructure. The upkeep of bridges, for example, is a critical investment. Yet it is one that is all too easy to put off when budgets are tight and cuts are needed. Decaying bridges are important but not urgent, and so, according to a 2009 report issued by the American Society of Civil Engineers, approximately one in four rural bridges and one in three urban bridges in the United States are deficient. FAILING TO PLAN These various behaviors share one obvious feature: people are behaving myopically. This leads to the most basic implication of tunneling. When we focus so intensely on making ends meet now, we plan less effectively for the future. Of course, studies have shown that planning is a problem for all people.

Please use the search function on your eReading device to search for terms of interest. For your reference, the terms that appear in the print index are listed below. abundance problem of slack and accidents of birth vehicle Adelson, Ted ADOPEM affluence behavioral economics and borrowing and slack and Africa air traffic control Alaska alcohol “All I Saw Was the Cake” Alzheimer’s Allen, Woody American Society of Civil Engineers Angry Blueberries antibiotics Aoki, Hiroaki (“Rocky”) appliances, shopping for Army, U.S. arousal, and performance artificial scarcity Asia Atkins diet attention bottom-up processing capture of performance and top-down processing attentional blink Australia automatic bill pay automatic impulse bandwidth building cognitive capacity and comes at a price economizing on executive control and tax terminology timeline Banerjee, Abhijit Bangladesh Bank of America bankruptcy banks bargaining basketball beer bees behavioral economics Benihana restaurants Berra, Yogi Bertrand, Marianne bills automatic payment late payment of Bjorkegren, Dan Bohn, Roger Bolivia borrowing Family Feud and payday loans traps tunneling and See also borrowing; debt Boston bottom-up processing Bowen, Bruce brain development lateralization perception See also mind bridges Bryan, Chris buffer stock cabinet castaways cancer carbohydrates carbon dioxide Carlin, George cars accidents cell phone use and eating in impulse purchases insurance registration repairs repossession shopping for traffic cash transfer programs castaways cell phones Center for Responsible Lending Chapanis, Alphonse checker-shadow illusion chemistry Chennai, India Chevys restaurant child care China choices burden of one-off choking Christmas Churchill, Winston cigarettes taxes clothing packing professional purchase mistakes cockpit errors cocktails cognitive capacity cognitive science Cohen, Amanda college deadlines exams financial aid programs loans tuition communal tables commuters computers shopping for software computer vision syndrome conditional cash transfers consistency Consumer Reports contextual cues control impulses cortisol Covey, Stephen creativity credit cards crop insurance crop yields culture customer service dating, online daycare deadlines benefits of focus dividend and debt in India leveraged buyout payday loans rolled-over traps tunneling and See also borrowing; loans decisions, linking and the timing of declarative memory Dempsey, Christy diabetes dichotic listening task Dickinson, Charlie dieting diminishing marginal utility discretion, lack of disease divorce Dominican Republic DOTS (directly observed therapy) DVD players economics behavioral expertise and in India scarcity and 2008 recession edema education college financial literacy noise and Eisenhower, Dwight Eliot, T.

Jaikumar, Firefighting by Knowledge Workers (Information Storage Industry Center, Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies, University of California, 2000), retrieved from Steven Covey finds it helpful to classify tasks: S. R. Covey, The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People (New York: Free Press, 2004). approximately one in four rural bridges: Bridges—Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, retrieved from scarcity makes this problem a whole lot worse: There are many studies of the planning fallacy. Good reviews are: Roger Buehler, Dale Griffin, and Michael Ross, “Inside the Planning Fallacy: The Causes and Consequences of Optimistic Time Predictions,” in Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment, ed.


pages: 391 words: 99,963

The Weather of the Future by Heidi Cullen


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, air freight, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, availability heuristic, back-to-the-land, bank run, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, megacity, millennium bug, out of africa, Silicon Valley, smart cities, trade route, urban planning, Y2K

The country built an elaborate network of dikes, man-made islands, and a 1.5-mile stretch of sixty-two gates to control the entry and exit of North Sea waters into and out of the low-lying southwestern provinces. The Delta Plan is one of the largest construction efforts in human history and is considered by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) as one of the seven wonders of the modern world. New York—like the rest of the United States—doesn’t get nearly that kind of praise from the ASCE. In fact, in its 2009 Infrastructure Report Card, the ASCE gives America’s total infrastructure a D. In New York State, ASCE’s most serious concern is bridges, roads, and mass transit. The engineers found that 46 percent of New York’s major roads are in poor or mediocre condition, 42 percent of New York’s bridges are structurally deficient or functionally obsolete, and 45 percent of New York’s major urban highways are congested.

acid rain, 23–24 adaptation (adaptation strategies), 58, 235–36 Bangladesh, 214–19 Central Valley, 130–35 Great Barrier Reef, 104–10 Inuit Nunaat, 169–72 New York City, 244–48 Sahel region, 74–80 Adrian Gill Medal, 197–98 Africa. See Sahel region, Africa African monsoon, 68–69, 71, 74 Agassiz, Louis, 16–18 Aggarwala, Rit, 246 agriculture Bangladesh, 210 Central Valley, 137–47 Sahel region, 76–77, 80, 81–82 air pollution, 134–35, 142, 246 Akkadian Empire, 261–64 Alcoa, 176–77, 190 Allen, Myles, 269–70 alliaks, 160–61 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 238–39 Andes Mountains, 159–60 Aqqiaruq, Zacharias, 155 Arctic. See also Greenland; Inuit Nunaat, Canada forty-year forecast, 188–95 Arctic amplification, 166, 167 Arctic Circle, 155–56 Arctic sea ice. See sea ice Arctic shipping routes, 192–93 Army Corps of Engineers, U.S., 4–5, 240, 250–51 Arnatsiaq, N., 156–57, 163 Arrhenius, Svante, 21–23, 25–26, 29, 39, 40, 42 Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), 202–3, 222–24 asthma, 134–35 Atlanta, hot days in, 288 Australia.


pages: 222 words: 50,318

The Option of Urbanism: Investing in a New American Dream by Christopher B. Leinberger


American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, big-box store, centre right, credit crunch, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, drive until you qualify, edge city, full employment, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, postindustrial economy, RAND corporation, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Seaside, Florida, the built environment, transit-oriented development, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight

James Duncan and Associates, The Search for Efficient Urban Growth Patterns: A Study of the Fiscal Impacts of Development in Florida (Report presented to the Governor’s Task Force on Urban Growth and the Florida Department of Community Affairs, Florida, July 1989), 13. 52. Go to for information about the City of Albuquerque impact fee system, which passed in 2003. The author served on the impact fee advisory panel, and the studies backing up the impact fee legislation justified fees that were twice as high as those implemented. 53. American Society of Civil Engineers, “Report Card for America’s Infrastructure,” 54. Congressional Research Service, Report for Congress, “Energy: Selected Facts and Numbers,” November 29, 2006, CRSreports/06Dec/RL31849.pdf. 55. Testimony of Congressman Roscoe Bartlett before Congress on February 8, 2006, 315TextCharts020806Low.pdf.

Because his company is regulated by the state public utility commission, it adds up its costs and divides them evenly across the housing units that it serves, charging all residential users the same per kilowatt. There is no reason for the company 80 | THE OPTION OF URBANISM to even worry about its marginal cost of doing business, something taught in accounting 101 during the first year of business school. In the most recent “report card” on the fifteen categories of infrastructure in 2005, the American Society of Engineers (ASE) gave the country a “D,” down from a “D+” from the last report card in 2001. The ASE’s report, although certainly self-serving because the organization benefits from increased infrastructure investment, concluded, “Congested highways, overflowing sewers, and corroding bridges are constant reminders of the looming crisis that jeopardizes our nation’s prosperity and our quality of life.”53 The society estimated that an additional $1.6 trillion is required over the next five years to minimally improve current conditions.


pages: 432 words: 124,635

Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, Zipcar

$18.9 billion: Safe Routes to School National Partnership, “National Statistics on School Transportation,” (accessed March 3, 2012). broke city governments: Su, Eleanor Yang, “School Bus Service Vanishing Amid Cuts,” California Watch, September 2, 2011, (accessed March 3, 2012). $2 trillion: American Society of Civil Engineers, “Failing Infrastructure Cannot Support a Healthy Economy: Civil Engineers’ New Report Card Assesses Condition of Nation’s Infrastructure,” January 28, 2009, (accessed March 3, 2012). looked at job density: Minicozzi, Joseph, “The Value of Downtown: A Profitable Investment for the Community,” Public Interest Projects, 2011. Walmart depresses average wages: Dube, Arindrajit, T.

The country spent $18.9 billion getting them there—that’s $750 for each bus-riding student, which could have been spent on actual learning. Across the United States, broke city governments have found themselves unable to fund police, fire, and ambulance services, let alone school buses or the maintenance of roads, parks, and community centers. Cities stretched so far, so fast, for so long, at such low densities that the country now faces a massive unfunded liability for infrastructure maintenance. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) has warned that repairing the country’s major infrastructure will cost more than $2 trillion. Save the Planet and Your Bank Account Residents of denser, more connected neighborhoods in central Atlanta are not only saving money by paying less in combined housing and transportation costs (right). They are also fighting climate change by producing less greenhouse gas emissions (left) than residents in Atlanta’s sprawling suburbs.


pages: 346 words: 101,255

The Big Necessity: The Unmentionable World of Human Waste and Why It Matters by Rose George


American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Anton Chekhov, Celtic Tiger, clean water, glass ceiling, indoor plumbing, informal economy, job satisfaction, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, land reform, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Steven Pinker, urban planning

“They used to be farms. By the time they opened up, the city couldn’t catch up. It was always anticipated that the city would be able to catch up, but that was sixty years ago.” Greeley says his sewers are also in quite good condition, as they are regularly sprayed with concrete, which helps prevent wear and tear. That’s not to say that the DEP couldn’t do with more money for upgrades. The American Society of Civil Engineers grades the nation’s infrastructure every few years. In 2000, wastewater infrastructure got a D. By 2005, it was a D-minus. In 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated that a quarter of the nation’s sewer pipes were in poor or very poor condition. By 2020, the proportion of crumbling, dangerous sewer pipes will be 50 percent. This isn’t the only pressing problem. Greeley’s life is more difficult because when the nineteenth-century sewerage commission came back from Europe and made its decision, it was the wrong one.

Thames Water Utilities (Appellants), [2003] UKHL 66, Sewerage undertakers House of Commons Committee of Public Accounts, Out of Sight—Not Out of Mind, Ev. 2. Bonuses totaling £1.26 million Martin Horwood MP, Parliamentary Debates, Westminster Hall, June 27, 2006. One of the most unpleasant events House of Commons Committee of Public Accounts, “Out of Sight—Not Out of Mind,” Ev. 2. D minus American Society for Civil Engineers, “Report Card for America’s Infrastructure 2005,” Crumbling, dangerous sewer pipes NRDC, “Swimming in Sewage,” p. 23. 2,175 Olympic-sized swimming pools David Hsu, “Sustainable New York City” (New York: Design Trust for Public Space and New York City Office for Environmental Coordination, 2006), p. 21. 1.46 trillion gallons U.S. EPA, “Implementation and Enforcement of the Combined Sewer Overflow Control Policy, Report to Congress,” U.S.


pages: 324 words: 92,805

The Impulse Society: America in the Age of Instant Gratification by Paul Roberts


2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, accounting loophole / creative accounting, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, business process, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, David Brooks, delayed gratification, double helix, factory automation, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, game design, greed is good, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop, impulse control, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, low skilled workers, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, performance metric, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Walter Mischel, winner-take-all economy

Liz Kennedy, “Citizens Actually United: The Bi-Partisan Opposition to Corporate Political Spending and Support for Common Sense Reform,” Demos, Oct. 25, 2012, 23. Chris Myers, “Conservatism and Campaign Finance Reform: The Two Aren’t Mutually Exclusive,” RedState, April 24, 2012, 24. David Brooks, “The Opportunity Coalition,” The New York Times, Jan 30, 2014. 25. “2013 Report Card for America’s Infrastructure,” American Society of Civil Engineers, 26. In Robert Frank, The Darmn Economy: Liberty, Competition, and Common Good. 27. Brooks, “The Opportunity Coalition.” Footnotes Chapter 1 * Traffic fatalities in the 1920s were about seventeen times higher, per mile traveled, than today. † Violence that, shamefully, federal and state authorities often contributed to.