A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace

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pages: 465 words: 109,653

Free Ride by Robert Levine

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Anne Wojcicki, book scanning, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, citizen journalism, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Firefox, future of journalism, Googley, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Justin.tv, Kevin Kelly, linear programming, Marc Andreessen, Mitch Kapor, moral panic, offshore financial centre, pets.com, publish or perish, race to the bottom, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, subscription business, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

In a January 1996 Wired article about Lehman’s proposals, the legal scholar Pamela Samuelson wrote, “Lehman aims to be the sheriff who will kick those anarchic digital cowboys off the Net and make the electronic frontier safe for businesses that want to set up shop there.”18 But Samuelson didn’t note that the bill’s opponents also wanted to make the Internet safe for businesses—they just happened to be different businesses. Plenty of activists wanted information to be free so they’d have an easier time selling computers, Internet access, or online advertising. Some of the rhetoric was far more radical. In February 1996, the Grateful Dead lyricist turned digital activist John Perry Barlow published “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.”19 Barlow was reacting to the Telecommunications Act of 1996, which had plenty of faults. But he came up with one of the more overblown manifestos in the history of the Internet, which is no small distinction: Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind. On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone.

Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit to stay Patel’s injunction.26 As Boies shaped Napster’s defense, anticopyright activists weighed in separately to support the service. The free culture activist Lawrence Lessig, then teaching law at Stanford University, submitted an “expert report” to Judge Patel that argued Napster would have legitimate uses, even if they hadn’t emerged yet.27 John Perry Barlow, who had written “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” contributed a manifesto to Wired claiming that Judge Patel’s injunction had turned “millions of politically apathetic youngsters into electronic Hezbollah.”28 Barlow said he thought Napster should have been “Napster.org”—a nonprofit—even though everyone at the company but Shawn Fanning was motivated by monetary gain.29 In Barlow’s view, the future would involve voluntary payments to artists “without the barbaric inconvenience”—italics his—“currently imposed by the entertainment industry.”30 Other pundits simply decided the law didn’t matter.

In this case, the court held a flea market liable for the actions of vendors selling pirated copies of albums on the Latin music label Fonovisa. 18. Pamela Samuelson, “The Copyright Grab,” Wired, January 1996. 19. Barlow wrote songs with Dead guitarist Bob Weir, including “Cassidy,” “Hell in a Bucket,” and “Feel Like a Stranger.” He didn’t perform with the band. 20. John Perry Barlow, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace” (February 8, 1996). Barlow has the same Quirky Approach to Capitalization as the Founding Fathers. 21. Harper & Row Publishers Inc. et al. v. Nation Enterprises et al., 471 U.S. 539 (1985). 22. On July 17, 1997, Howard Coble (R-N.C.) introduced bill H.R. 2180 to limit secondary liability; on July 29, 1997, he also introduced H.R. 2281 to implement the WIPO Copyright Treaty.


pages: 290 words: 73,000

Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism by Safiya Umoja Noble

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Airbnb, borderless world, cloud computing, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Jaron Lanier, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, new economy, PageRank, performance metric, phenotype, profit motive, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, Tim Cook: Apple, union organizing, women in the workforce, yellow journalism

Challenging Cybertopias All of this leads to more discussion about ideologies that serve to stabilize and normalize the notion of commercial search, including the still-popular and ever-persistent dominant narratives about the neutrality and objectivity of the Internet itself—beyond Google and beyond utopian visions of computer software and hardware. The early cybertarian John Perry Barlow’s infamous “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace” argued in part, “We are creating a world that all may enter without privilege or prejudice accorded by race, economic power, military force, or station of birth. We are creating a world where anyone, anywhere may express his or her beliefs, no matter how singular, without fear of being coerced into silence or conformity.”93 Yet the web is not only an intangible space; it is also a physical space made of brick, mortar, metal trailers, electronics containing magnetic and optical media, and fiber infrastructure.

Teacher with Past in Porn Loses Appeal. USA Today. Retrieved from www.usatoday.com. Associated Press v. United States. (1945). 326 U.S. 1, US Supreme Court. Bagdikian, B. (1983). The Media Monopoly. Boston: Beacon. Bar-Ilan, J. (2007). Google Bombing from a Time Perspective. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(3), article 8. Retrieved from http://jcmc.indiana.edu. Barlow, J. P. (1996). A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace. Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved from http://​projects.eff.org/​barlow/​Declaration-Final.html. Barth, F. (1966). Models of Social Organization. London: Royal Anthropological Institute. Barzilai-Nahon, K. (2006). Gatekeepers, Virtual Communities and the Gated: Multidimensional Tensions in Cyberspace. International Journal of Communications, Law and Policy, 11, 1–28.

See also Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) Coalition for Immigration Reform, Equality and DREAMers (CoFired), 135 Cohen, Nicole, 154 commercial influences, 16, 104 commercial interests, 32, 36, 157, 179; gaming the system, 40–41; influence on journalism, 154; transparency, 50, 104 ComputerWorld, 127 comScore Media Metrix consumer panel, 35, 53 ConsumerWatchdog.org, 56 copyright, 50, 120, 129 Crawford, Kate, 26 critical race theory, 6, 61, 136, 138, 143, 150 crowdsourcing, 188n27 Cyber Civil Rights Initiative, 120 Cyber Racism (Daniels), 116 cyberspace, 61–62; #Gamergate comments, 63; mirror of society, 90–91; social identity, 104–5 Damore, James, 2 Daniels, Jessie, 84, 108, 116, 172 Darnton, Robert, 157 Dartmouth College Freedom Budget, 134 data storage and archiving, 125–28 Davis, Jessica, 85 “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace” (Barlow), 61 Department of Labor workforce data, 162 DeSantis, John, 134 Dewey Decimal Classification System, 24, 136; biases, 140 Diaz, Alejandro, 26, 42 Dickinson, Gregory M., 158–59 digital divide, 34, 56, 86, 160–61, 164, 188n21 digital footprint, 11, 187n9 digital media platforms, 5–6, 12–13, 30, 56, 148, 188n31 Dines, Gail, 101–2 distributed denial of service (DDOS), 112 Doctor, DePayne Middleton, 110 Dorsey, Joseph C., 93 Edelman, Benjamin, 44 Eisenhower, Dwight D., 190n64 employment practices: college engineering curricula, 70, 163; “pipeline issues,” 64–66; underemployment of Blacks, 80; underemployment of Black women, 69 Epstein, Robert, 52 European Commission, 157 European Court of Justice, 121 Everett, Anna, 107 Facebook, 3, 156, 158, 181; commercial content moderation, 58; content screening, 56; “diversity problems,” 65, 177; personal information, 120–21; search engine optimization, 54; underemployment of Black women, 69.


pages: 302 words: 85,877

Cult of the Dead Cow: How the Original Hacking Supergroup Might Just Save the World by Joseph Menn

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple II, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, commoditize, corporate governance, Donald Trump, dumpster diving, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Chrome, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Peter Thiel, pirate software, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, ransomware, Richard Stallman, Robert Mercer, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, zero day

“Laird said he was working for a not-for-profit”: He later told me he had been volunteering at the Toronto group Web Networks, which built websites for progressive groups, native tribes, and government agencies, and supported himself with other jobs on the side. “Laird came by his sense of ethics”: I feel obliged to remind readers that, as with Mudge and the others, I am relying on Laird’s own word for this account of his pre-cDc life. “Laird memorialized the event in classic cDc style”: This was in an email circulated to the group. “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace”: John Perry Barlow, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, February 8, 1996, www.eff.org/cyberspace-independence. “Barlow said that the innocence”: I interviewed him in a San Francisco nursing home near the end of his life. “a short piece in Wired magazine about the Blondes”:Arik Hesseldahl, “Hacking the Great Firewall,” Wired, December 1997, 120, www.scribd.com/doc/237686960/Hacking-the-Great-Firewall.

He was building on the politicization that had been expressed most dramatically earlier in 1996 by the Electronic Frontier Foundation’s John Perry Barlow, a libertarian Republican. While a party had raged on around him during the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, Barlow had read that an over-the-top attempt to ban web porn had just been signed into law in America as part of telecom legislation. “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace” was Barlow’s over-the-top response. A deliberate echo of Thomas Jefferson, it began with a hint of Karl Marx: “Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind. On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone. You are not welcome among us. You have no sovereignty where we gather.” The sixteen-paragraph war whoop would soon be posted on tens of thousands of websites.


pages: 245 words: 83,272

Artificial Unintelligence: How Computers Misunderstand the World by Meredith Broussard

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, availability heuristic, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Buckminster Fuller, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cognitive bias, complexity theory, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, digital map, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, easy for humans, difficult for computers, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, Firefox, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, natural language processing, PageRank, payday loans, paypal mafia, performance metric, Peter Thiel, price discrimination, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ross Ulbricht, Saturday Night Live, school choice, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Tesla Model S, the High Line, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, theory of mind, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, women in the workforce

It’s an inability to reconcile the demands of being individual with the demands of participating in society, which coincides beautifully with a preference for, and glorification of, being the solo commander of one’s computer in lieu of any other economically viable behavior. Computers are so much more rule-based, controllable, fixable, and comprehensible than any human will ever be.”20 This is Turing’s social awkwardness, politicized and magnified. The transition from hippie ideology to the antigovernment ideology of cyberspace activists is visible in “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” published in 1996 by former Grateful Dead lyricist John Perry Barlow. “Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind,” Barlow writes. “On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone … You have no sovereignty where we gather. We have no elected government, nor are we likely to have one.”21 Barlow started the libertarian Electronic Frontier Foundation, which today defends hackers, because of debates he had on the WELL.

Kroeger, The Suffragents; Shetterly, Hidden Figures; Grier, When Computers Were Human. 14. Wolfram, “Farewell, Marvin Minsky (1927–2016).” 15. Alcor Life Extension Foundation, “Official Alcor Statement Concerning Marvin Minsky.” 16. Brand, “We Are As Gods.” 17. Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture. 18. Brand, “We Are As Gods.” 19. Hafner, The Well. 20. Borsook, Cyberselfish, 15. 21. Barlow, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.” 22. Thiel, “The Education of a Libertarian.” 23. Taplin, Move Fast and Break Things. 24. Slovic, The Perception of Risk; Slovic and Slovic, Numbers and Nerves; Kahan et al., “Culture and Identity-Protective Cognition.” 25. Leslie et al., “Expectations of Brilliance Underlie Gender Distributions across Academic Disciplines,” 262. 26. Bench et al., “Gender Gaps in Overestimation of Math Performance,” 158.

“Test Prep Is More Expensive—for Asian Students.” Atlantic, September 3, 2015. https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/09/princeton-review-expensive-asian-students/403510/. Arthur, Charles. “Analysing Data Is the Future for Journalists, Says Tim Berners-Lee.” Guardian (US edition), November 22, 2010. https://www.theguardian.com/media/2010/nov/22/data-analysis-tim-berners-lee. Barlow, John Perry. “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.” Electronic Frontier Foundation, February 8, 1996. https://www.eff.org/cyberspace-independence. Been, Eric Allen. “Jaron Lanier Wants to Build a New Middle Class on Micropayments.” Nieman Lab, May 22, 2013. http://www.niemanlab.org/2013/05/jaron-lanier-wants-to-build-a-new-middle-class-on-micropayments/. Bench, Shane W., Heather C. Lench, Jeffrey Liew, Kathi Miner, and Sarah A.


pages: 453 words: 114,250

The Great Firewall of China by James Griffiths;

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, gig economy, jimmy wales, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mitch Kapor, mobile money, Occupy movement, pets.com, profit motive, QR code, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, undersea cable, WikiLeaks, zero day

EFF lawyers went on to fight and win several key early court cases involving the internet, including a suit filed by Steve Jackson Games against the Secret Service in which the judge found that “electronic mail deserves at least as much protection as telephone calls”, establishing the right for people to encrypt their communications. In 1996, furious at the Communications Decency Act (CDA), an attempt to criminalise the publication of ‘indecent’ materials online where children under the age of eighteen could see them (i.e. nearly everywhere), Barlow wrote his landmark work: “A declaration of the independence of cyberspace”.26 It was an absurdly self-important document, but one reflective of the utopian thought of the time. Ironically, despite Barlow’s assertion that “legal concepts … do not apply to us”, it was in court that EFF had its greatest impact, joining the American Civil Liberties Union in a successful suit to overturn parts of the CDA. In a major win for internet freedom, Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens, writing for the majority, ruled in favour of extremely broad speech protections with regard to the internet, “a unique medium … located in no particular geographical location but available to anyone, anywhere in the world”.27 Writing years later, EFF senior counsel David Sobel said the case “established the fundamental principles that govern free speech issues in the electronic age”.28 But while the win did much to establish the US as a world leader in internet freedom, the prediction by Barlow and others that the internet would be a place without borders, without nations, was proven to be wildly incorrect.

Smith, ‘We are under attack’, GreatFire.org, 19 March 2015, https://en.greatfire.org/blog/2015/mar/we-are-under-attack 8The developer spoke to me on condition that I identify him only by a pseudonym. 9D. O’Brien, ‘Speech that enables speech: China takes aim at its coders’, Electronic Frontier Foundation, 28 August 2015, https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2015/08/speech-enables-speech-china-takes-aim-its-coders 10J. Barlow, ‘A declaration of the independence of cyberspace’, Electronic Frontier Foundation, 8 February 1996, https://www.eff.org/cyberspace-independence 11B. Schneier, ‘Someone is learning how to take down the internet’, Schneier on Security, 13 September 2016, https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2016/09/someone_is_lear.html Part 1 Chapter 1 1‘How Civic Square has become less than friendly’, The Standard, 29 September 2014, http://www.thestandard.com.hk/section-news.php?

Barlow, ‘Decrypting the puzzle palace’, Communications of the ACM, July 1992, http://groups.csail.mit.edu/mac/classes/6.805/articles/digital-telephony/Barlow_decrypting_puzzle_palace.html 24Goldsmith and Wu, Who Controls the Internet?, p. 18. 25‘A history of protecting freedom where law and technology collide’, Electronic Frontier Foundation, https://www.eff.org/about/history 26J. Barlow, ‘A declaration of the independence of cyberspace’, Electronic Frontier Foundation, 8 February 1996, https://www.eff.org/cyberspace-independence 27Reno v. ACLU [1997] 96-511 (Supreme Court of the United States), https://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-supreme-court/521/844.html 28EFFector, ‘Ten years after ACLU v. Reno: free speech still needs defending: action alert’, Electronic Frontier Foundation, 25 June 2007, https://www.eff.org/effector/20/25 29A.


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Smarter Than You Think: How Technology Is Changing Our Minds for the Better by Clive Thompson

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, disruptive innovation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Thorp, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, iterative process, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, patent troll, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, spaced repetition, superconnector, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, Vannevar Bush, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize, éminence grise

the FBI violated the law thousands of times: “Patterns of Misconduct: FBI Intelligence Violations from 2001–2008,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, February 23, 2011, accessed March 26, 2013, www.eff.org/wp/patterns-misconduct-fbi-intelligence-violations. Amazon and Paypal cut off Wikileaks: Rebecca MacKinnon, “WikiLeaks, Amazon and the New Threat to Internet Speech,” CNN, December 3, 2010, accessed March 26, 2013, www.cnn.com/2010/OPINION/12/02/mackinnon.wikileaks.amazon/. “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace”: John Perry Barlow, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” February 8, 1996, accessed March 26, 2013, projects.eff.org/~barlow/Declaration-Final.html. The free, open-source Tor: The Tor Project is online here: www.torproject.org/ (ac-cessed March 26, 2013); other modes of encrypted communications are detailed in “Learn to Encrypt Your Internet Communications,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, accessed March 26, 2013, ssd.eff.org/wire/protect/encrypt.

Though the U.S. government loves to talk about the free flow of information, when the Web site Wikileaks released internal diplomatic documents and footage of the military killing civilians, politicians and pundits fulminated so ferociously that major U.S. firms like Amazon and Paypal cut off Wikileaks, probably worried about being on the wrong side of a political fight. In 1996, writer and electronic activist John Perry Barlow proclaimed “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.” Addressing old-school governments—“you weary giants of flesh and steel”—he proclaimed, “You are not welcome among us. You have no sovereignty where we gather.” As it turns out, nothing of the sort was true. So is there any way to conduct civic speech in the corporate digital sphere without running afoul of corporate rules or putting activists in danger? It’s certainly possible to make speech safer from prying eyes.


pages: 270 words: 79,992

The End of Big: How the Internet Makes David the New Goliath by Nicco Mele

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, bitcoin, business climate, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centralized clearinghouse, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, commoditize, creative destruction, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, death of newspapers, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, global supply chain, Google Chrome, Gordon Gekko, Hacker Ethic, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Mitch Kapor, Mohammed Bouazizi, Mother of all demos, Narrative Science, new economy, Occupy movement, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, period drama, Peter Thiel, pirate software, publication bias, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, uranium enrichment, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

In 1989, the first private company selling access to everyday customers in the United States opened its doors—a move that concerned scientists, who feared that the Internet would lose its research focus and become co-opted for other activities (online poker, anyone? porn?). In 1992, Congress got involved, passing a law encouraging the NSF to open the Internet to “additional users” beyond “research and education activities.” A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace Here’s where the story gets really interesting, from an End of Big perspective. By 1995, the NSF had relinquished control of the Internet’s essential infrastructure to the Department of Commerce, removing the last restrictions on the Internet’s ability to carry commercial traffic. When I asked people who participated how and why this happened, the overwhelming point of view was that legislators and regulators in Washington, D.C., simply weren’t paying attention.

The following year, Congress passed the Telecommunications Act of 1996, which deregulated the radio spectrum, allowing, among other things, the rise of huge media conglomerates like Clear Channel (paradoxical, I know). The underlying philosophy received memorable expression in a piece written by the technologist, cattle rancher, and Grateful Dead lyricist John Perry Barlow called “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.” The piece begins, “Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind. On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone. You are not welcome among us. You have no sovereignty where we gather.”24 Around the same time, Kapor published a front-page piece in the third issue of Wired magazine arguing that the Internet’s architecture realized Thomas Jefferson’s ideal of decentralization.


pages: 239 words: 80,319

Lurking: How a Person Became a User by Joanne McNeil

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Burning Man, Chelsea Manning, Chris Wanstrath, citation needed, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, feminist movement, Firefox, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, helicopter parent, Internet Archive, invention of the telephone, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, l'esprit de l'escalier, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, moral panic, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, packet switching, PageRank, pre–internet, profit motive, QAnon, recommendation engine, Saturday Night Live, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Turing complete, We are the 99%, web application, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog

Fred Turner, in his classic From Counterculture to Cyberculture, recounts a revealing exchange that happened in an online conference on The WELL in 1989, in collaboration with 2600 and Harper’s magazines. One of the panelists, John Perry Barlow—a founding member of the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) and, before that, a lyricist for the Grateful Dead—had the best intentions but a hopelessly optimistic idea of the internet. It was a communal town square, the Wild West, a democratizing change agent, notions that he would synthesize in his influential text from 1996, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” which claims freedom as a central and untrammeled tenet of the internet experience. (“We are creating a world where anyone, anywhere may express his or her beliefs, no matter how singular, without fear of being coerced into silence or conformity. Your legal concepts of property, expression, identity, movement, and context do not apply to us. They are all based on matter, and there is no matter here.”)

* * * Long one of the top ten most-visited websites, Wikipedia differs widely from all other major internet players because its content is collectively vetted and not monetized. Founded in 2001, its business model and editorial strategy seem like nineties cyberspace holdovers, inheriting that generation’s optimism along with its blind spots. It carries the torch of John Perry Barlow’s principles in “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” and in addition to what it is not, Wikipedia isn’t anticapitalist. The founder, Jimmy Wales, like many cyber-utopians, was a libertarian (albeit his Twitter feed now suggests that, like a lot of libertarians in the Clinton years, he’s since moved to the left). In the nineties, he organized a forum on Ayn Rand’s philosophy of objectivism, and he was interested in Austrian economics.


pages: 87 words: 25,823

The Politics of Bitcoin: Software as Right-Wing Extremism by David Golumbia

3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, bitcoin, blockchain, Burning Man, crony capitalism, cryptocurrency, currency peg, distributed ledger, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, Extropian, fiat currency, Fractional reserve banking, George Gilder, jimmy wales, litecoin, Marc Andreessen, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Mont Pelerin Society, new economy, obamacare, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, smart contracts, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, Travis Kalanick, WikiLeaks

.: O’Reilly Media. Aziz, John. 2013. “Is Inflation Always and Everywhere a Monetary Phenomenon?” Azizonomics (March 10). http://azizonomics.com/. —. 2014. “Why Won’t Inflation Conspiracy Theories Just Die Already?” The Week (August 14). http://theweek.com/. Barbrook, Richard, and Andy Cameron. 1996. “The Californian Ideology.” Science as Culture 6, no. 1: 44–72. Barlow, John Perry. 1996. “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.” Electronic Frontier Foundation. http://projects.eff.org/. Bauwens, Michel. 2014. “A Political Evaluation of Bitcoin.” P2P Foundation (September 9). https://blog.p2pfoundation.net/. Beigel, Ofir. 2015. “On Mixers, Tumblers, and Bitcoin Pseudonymity.” Bytecoin (June 10). http://bytecoin.org/. Berlet, Chip. 2009. Toxic to Democracy: Conspiracy Theories, Demonization, and Scapegoating.


pages: 390 words: 96,624

Consent of the Networked: The Worldwide Struggle for Internet Freedom by Rebecca MacKinnon

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, business cycle, business intelligence, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, digital Maoism, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Firefox, future of journalism, illegal immigration, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, online collectivism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, pre–internet, race to the bottom, Richard Stallman, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Crocker, Steven Levy, WikiLeaks

These extraordinary summer hack-fests are complemented by yearly winter conferences the CCC website describes as a “diverse audience of thousands of hackers, scientists, artists, and utopians from all around the world.” It is at such events that many of the new tools and techniques of digital resistance are first tested and deployed. UTOPIANISM VERSUS REALITY In 1996, John Perry Barlow famously wrote a manifesto titled “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.” It began, “Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind. On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone. You are not welcome among us. You have no sovereignty where we gather.” In the sixteen years since, government has certainly not left “us” alone in cyberspace—not in small part because many of “us” sought government help in defending us from the criminals, pedophiles, bullies, industrial spies, racists, terrorists, and others who have extended their activities into cyberspace.

Disclosure: I served on its board of directors for one year in 2007. 230 Diaspora: See “Taking a Look at Social Network Diaspora,” NY Convergence, March 14, 2011, http://nyconvergence.com/2011/03/taking-a-look-at-social-network-diaspora.html. 230 Crabgrass: http://crabgrass.riseuplabs.org. 230 StatusNet: http://status.net. 230 FreedomBox: https://freedomboxfoundation.org.Also see Jim Dwyer, “Decentralizing the Internet So Big Brother Can’t Find You,” New York Times, February 15, 2011, www.nytimes.com/2011/02/16/nyregion/16about.html; and “Freedom in the Cloud: Software Freedom, Privacy, and Security for Web 2.0 and Cloud Computing—A Speech Given by Eben Moglen at a Meeting of the Internet Society’s New York Branch on Feb. 5, 2010,” Software Freedom Law Center, www.softwarefreedom.org/events/2010/isoc-ny/FreedomInTheCloud-transcript.html. 232 Chaos Computer Club: www.ccc.de/en; for a colorful description of the CCC’s characters and culture, see Becky Hogge, Barefoot into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno—Utopia (London: Rebecca Hogge, 2011). 232 Chaos Communication Camp: http://events.ccc.de/camp/2011. 232 yearly winter conferences: See http://events.ccc.de/congress/2010/wiki/Welcome. 232 “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace”: https://projects.eff.org/~barlow/Declaration-Final.html. 233 Douglas Rushkoff called on the netizens of the world to unite: Douglas Rushkoff, “The Next Net,” Shareable.net, January 3, 2011, http://shareable.net/blog/the-next-net. Also see his most recent book, Program or Be Programmed: Ten Commands for a Digital Age (New York: OR Books, 2010). 233 “The invention of a tool doesn’t create change”: Clay Shirky, Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations (New York: Penguin Press, 2008), 105. 233 “cute-cat theory of digital activism”: Ethan Zuckerman, “The Cute Cat Theory Talk at ETech,” My Heart’s in Accra blog, March 8, 2008, www.ethanzuckerman.com/blog/2008/03/08/the-cute-cat-theory-talk-at-etech. 234 in 2007 WITNESS launched its own Video Hub: http://hub.witness.org; Yvette Alberdingk Thijm, “Update on the Hub and WITNESS’ New Online Strategy,” August 18, 2010, http://blog.witness.org/2010/08/update-on-the-hub-and-witness-new-online-strategy; Ethan Zuckerman, “Public Spaces, Private Infrastructure—Open Video Conference,” My Heart’s in Accra blog, October 1, 2010, www.ethanzuckerman.com/blog/2010/10/01/public-spaces-private-infrastructure-open-video-conference. 234 “Protecting Yourself, Your Subjects and Your Human Rights Videos on YouTube”: http://youtube-global.blogspot.com/2010/06/protecting-yourself-your-subjects-and.html. 234 2010 Global Voices Citizen Media Summit: Sami Ben Gharbia, “GV Summit 2010 Videos: A Discussion of Content Moderation,” Global Voices Advocacy, May 7, 2010, http://advocacy.globalvoicesonline.org/2010/05/07/gv-summit-2010-videos-a-discussion-of-content-moderation; and Rebecca MacKinnon, “Human Rights Implications of Content Moderation and Account Suspension by Companies,” RConversation blog, May 14, 2010, http://rconversation.blogs.com/rconversation/2010/05/human-rights-implications.html; 235 “Digital Maoism”: Jaron Lanier, “Digital Maoism: The Hazards of the New Online Collectivism,” Edge: The Third Culture, May 30, 2006, www.edge.org/3rd_culture/lanier06/lanier06_index.html.


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Kill All Normies: Online Culture Wars From 4Chan and Tumblr to Trump and the Alt-Right by Angela Nagle

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, anti-communist, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, citizen journalism, crony capitalism, death of newspapers, Donald Trump, feminist movement, game design, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, mass immigration, moral panic, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, open borders, post-industrial society, pre–internet, Ronald Reagan, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, The Wisdom of Crowds, WikiLeaks

Hakim Bey’s idea of the temporary autonomous zone was based on what he called ‘pirate utopias’ and he argued that the attempt to form a permanent culture or politics inevitably deteriorates into a structured system that stifles individual creativity. His language and ideas influenced anarchism and later, online cultures that advocated illegal downloading, anonymity, hacking and experiments like bitcoin. Echoes of John Perry Barlow’s manifesto ‘A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace’ can be seen in this earlier period of Anon culture and in analyses that reflect a more radical horizontalist politics, like Gabriella Coleman’s work. Barlow was one of the founders of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, anarchist hackers and defenders of an Internet free of state intervention, capitalist control and monopolizing of the online world. In a similar style to the rhetoric of 4chan and Anonymous (‘we are legion’), it warned: Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the home of Mind.


pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Mitch Kapor, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

A month later, the Russian government announced that it, too, was considering giving every citizen a government-run email account, if only to make it easier to identify them when they deal with the increasingly electronic government. As already noted, Russian politicians have also been seriously considering creating a government-run search engine, to challenge Google’s rapid growth in the country; according to Russian media, $100 million has been disbursed for that purpose. John Perry Barlow, a cyber-utopian former lyricist of the Grateful Dead, who in 1996 wrote “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” a libertarian manifesto for the digital age, likes to point out that “in cyberspace, the First Amendment is a local ordinance.” This, however, may have been just a temporary equilibrium that could soon go away as other foreign governments discover that they would rather not have America own key parts of the infrastructure of the information society. The moment Western—and, in this case, predominantly American—policymakers start talking about embracing the geopolitical potential of the Internet, everyone else reconsiders the wisdom of letting the Americans keep the Internet to themselves, in terms of both Washington’s dominant role in Internet governance and Silicon Valley’s market leadership.

See also Popular culture Cyber walls Cyber-attacks Cybercrime Cyber-dissidents conference, Dallas, Texas. See also Dissidents Cyberdissidents.org Cyber-realism Cyber-utopianism Cyber-vigilantism Cyxymu Czech Republic Czechoslovakia Data Databases Davis, Angela DDoS attack. See Distributed-Denial-of-Service attack De Forest, Lee The Death of Distance (Cairncross) The Decameron (Boccaccio) Decentralization “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace” (Barlow) Dedemocratization Deep packet inspection Defense community Deleuze, Gilles Democracy and authoritarian governments, weak in Eastern Europe, theories of and Facebook and information technology and Internet companies promotion of and technology threats to Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong The Denver Clan (television program) Depoliticization Dewey, Thomas Diamond, Larry Diasporas Dictators.


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Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History by Thomas Rid

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Charles Lindbergh, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, connected car, domain-specific language, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, Extropian, full employment, game design, global village, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kubernetes, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, The Hackers Conference, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

Numerous websites on the still young internet protested by going dark for forty-eight hours. The American Civil Liberties Union argued that the law placed unconstitutional restrictions on free speech online. Barlow was outraged. The law made it “punishable by $250,000 to say ‘shit’ online,” as he saw it. He decided it was time to “dump some tea in the virtual harbor.” With characteristic grandiosity and pomp, as Barlow himself said, he gave the world a “Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.” The text’s opening paragraph has become iconic: Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind. On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone. You are not welcome among us. You have no sovereignty where we gather.134 The wide and free global social space would be “naturally independent” of the tyrannies of government.

130 (June 1991): 30. 126.Kadrey, “Cyberthon 1.0,” 54. 127.Quoted in Orenstein, “Get a Cyberlife,” 64. 128.Quoted in Antonio Lopez, “Networking Meets Authentic Experimental Space,” Santa Fe New Mexican, January 22, 1999, 46. 129.Keizer, “Virtual Reality,” 30. 130.Quoted in Gregg Keizer, “Explorations,” Omni 13, no. 4 (January 1991): 17. 131.Quoted in Jack Boulware, “Mondo 1995,” SF Weekly 14, no. 35 (October 11, 1995): 51. 132.“Virtual Reality,” Cryptologic Quarterly 12, no. 3–4 (Fall/Winter 1993): 47, DOCID 3929132. 133.“The Rather Petite Internet of 1995,” Royal Pingdom, March 31, 2011. 134.John Perry Barlow, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” February 8, 1996, https://projects.eff.org/~barlow/Declaration-Final.html. 135.Ibid. 7. ANARCHY 1.James Ellis, The Story of Non-secret Encryption (Cheltenham, UK: GCHQ/CESG, 1987), para. 4. 2.Walter Koenig, Final Report on Project C-43: Continuation of Decoding Speech Codes, NDRC contract no. OEMsr-435 (New York: Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1944). 3.James Ellis, The Possibility of Secure Non-Secret Digital Encryption, research report no. 3006 (Cheltenham, UK: GCHQ/CESG, 1970). 4.Quoted in Steven Levy, Crypto (New York: Penguin, 2000), 396. 5.Clifford Cocks, quoted in Simon Singh, The Code Book (London: Fourth Estate, 1999), 285. 6.Ellis, Possibility. 7.


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Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, MITM: man-in-the-middle, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

, December 1, Washington DC. http://www.newscorp.com/news/news_435.html. O’Brien, Danny. 2010. Haystack vs How The Internet Works. Oblomovka. September 14. http://www.oblomovka.com/wp/2010/09/14/haystack-vs-how-the-internet-works/. Perry Barlow, John. 1990. “Crime and Puzzlement”, June 8. http://w2.eff.org/Misc/Publications/John_Perry_Barlow/HTML/crime_and_puzzlement_1.html. ———. 1996. A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace. February 8. https://projects.eff.org/~barlow/Declaration-Final.html. PlentyMag.com. 2009. “The Whole Earth Catalog Effect.” PLENTY Magazine, May 19. http://www.mnn.com/lifestyle/arts-culture/stories/the-whole-earth-catalog-effect?page=1. Poulsen, Kevin, and Kim Zetter. 2010. U.S. Intelligence Analyst Arrested in Wikileaks Video Probe. Threat Level. June 6. http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/06/leak/.


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The Future of the Internet: And How to Stop It by Jonathan Zittrain

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andy Kessler, barriers to entry, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, c2.com, call centre, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, commoditize, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Hacker Ethic, Howard Rheingold, Hush-A-Phone, illegal immigration, index card, informal economy, Internet Archive, jimmy wales, John Markoff, license plate recognition, loose coupling, mail merge, national security letter, old-boy network, packet switching, peer-to-peer, post-materialism, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, Richard Stallman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Robert X Cringely, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, software patent, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game

REV. 1715, 1741 (2006); Eyal Zamir, The Efficiency of Paternalism, 84 VA. L. REV. 229, 280 (1998) (“[P]erfect enforcement is rarely the optimal level of enforcement.”). 44. See David R. Johnson & David G. Post, Law and Borders—The Rise of Law in Cyberspace, 48 STAN. L. REV. 1367, 1367, 1383, 1387—88 (1996) (arguing that self-governance can and should be central to cyberspace regulation); John Perry Barlow, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace (Feb. 8, 1996), http://homes.eff.org/~barlow/Declaration-Final.html (“Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind. On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone. You are not welcome among us. You have no sovereignty where we gather.”). 45. See Note, Exploitative Publishers, Untrustworthy Systems, and the Dream of a Digital Revolution for Artists, 114 HARV.

, About.com, http://jobsearch.about.com/od/jobsearch blogs/a/jobsearchblog.htm (last visited June 1, 2007); Ellen Goodman, Editorial, The Perils of Cyberbaggage, TRUTHDiG, Feb. 21, 2007, http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/20070221_the_perils_of_cyberbaggage/; Ellen Goodman, Editorial, Bloggers Get Caught Between the Real and the Cyber, PITTSBURGH POST-GAZETTE, Feb. 23, 2007, at B7; MySpace Is Public Space When It Comes to Job Search: Entry Level Job Seekers—It’s Time to Reconsider the Web, CollegeGrad.com, July 26, 2006, http://www.collegegrad.com/press/myspace.shtml. 157. John Perry Barlow, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace (Feb. 8, 1996), http://homes.eff.org/-barlow/Declaration-Final.html. CONCLUSION 1. The XO organization reports that the United Nations Development Programme will partner with them to assist governments in distribution and support of the machines as they are made available. See United Nations Development Programme, $100 Laptop Project Moves Closer to Narrowing Digital Divide (Jan. 28, 2006), http://content.undp.org/go/newsroom/january-2006/100-dollar-laptop-20060128.en?


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Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman

23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, basic income, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social intelligence, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar

It’s a vision that’s been cultivated over decades and that has a very real effect on the types of products and digital environments these companies create, from the personal chauffeurs of Uber to the parlous world of online influence. Here users are guests of the benevolent technocratic elite, the digital overlords creating our brave new future and allowing us to visit and enjoy the view for the price of privacy and personal data. In an influential manifesto titled “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” John Perry Barlow, the Grateful Dead lyricist-turned-cyber-libertarian activist, told governments that they weren’t welcome in the new online world. This was 1996, the time of the Microsoft-Netscape browser war, the early years of the tech bubble, and the rise of search engines, which helped us unlock the plenitude of the World Wide Web. In this heady period, it might not have seemed out of place—indeed, to many cyber-utopians, it still doesn’t—for Barlow to declare to the world’s governments, “Cyberspace does not lie within your borders.

Oct. 19, 2013. cnet.com/8301-1023_3-57608320-93/a-radical-dream-for-making-techno-utopias-a-reality. 250 “without having to deploy them”: Claire Cain Miller. “Larry Page Gets Personal at Google’s Conference.” Bits, a blog on NYTimes.com. May 15, 2013. bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/15/larry-page-gets-personal-at-googles-conference. 251 “a public construction project”: John Perry Barlow. “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.” Electronic Frontier Foundation. Feb. 8, 1996. projects.eff.org/~barlow/Declaration-Final.html. 254 “at no cost”: ibid. 255 Amazon pulls 1984: Brad Stone. “Amazon Erases Orwell Books from Kindle.” New York Times. July 17, 2009. nytimes.com/2009/07/18/technology/companies/18amazon.html. 256 Zuckerberg’s color-blindness: Jose Antonio Vargas. “The Face of Facebook.” New Yorker.


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The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding From You by Eli Pariser

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, A Pattern Language, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Black Swan, borderless world, Build a better mousetrap, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, fundamental attribution error, global village, Haight Ashbury, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Netflix Prize, new economy, PageRank, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, recommendation engine, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social software, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, statistical model, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, the scientific method, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator

Chapter Four: The You Loop 109 “what a personal computer really is”: Sharon Gaudin, “Total Recall: Storing Every Life Memory in a Surrogate Brain,” ComputerWorld, Aug. 2, 2008, accessed Dec. 15, 2010, www.computerworld.com/s/article/9074439/Total_Recall_Storing_every_life_memory_in_a_surrogate_brain. 109 “You have one identity”: David Kirkpatrick, The Facebook Effect: The Inside Story of the Company That Is Connecting the World (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2010), 199. 109 “I behave a different way”: “Live-Blog: Zuckerberg and David Kirkpatrick on the Facebook Effect,” transcript of interview, Social Beat, accessed Dec. 15, 2010, http://venturebeat.com/2010/07/21/live-blog-zuckerberg-and-david-kirkpatrick-on-the-facebook-effect. 110 “Same awkward self”: Ibid. 110 that would be the norm: Marshall Kirkpatrick, “Facebook Exec: All Media Will Be Personalized in 3 to 5 Years,” ReadWriteWeb, Sept. 29, 2010, accessed Dec. 15, 2010, www.readwriteweb.com/archives/facebook_exec_all_media_will_be_personalized_in_3.php. 110 “a world that all may enter”: John Perry Barlow, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Feb. 8, 1996, accessed Dec. 15, 2010, https://projects.eff.org/~barlow/Declaration-Final.html. 111 pseudonym with the real name: Julia Angwin and Steve Stecklow, “‘Scrapers’ Dig Deep for Data on Web,” Wall Street Journal, Oct. 12, 2010, accessed Dec. 15, 2010, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703358504575544381288117888.html. 111 tied to the individual people who use them: Julia Angwin and Jennifer Valentino-Devries, “Race Is On to ‘Fingerprint’ Phones, PCs,” Wall Street Journal, Nov. 30, 2010, accessed Jan. 30, 2011, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704679204575646704100959546.html?


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Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, activist lawyer, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Nelson Mandela, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

‘Cyberspace’ is a word coined by the science fiction writer William Gibson in a short story published in 1982 (‘Burning Chrome’) and subsequently used in his novel Neuromancer. In the 1990s, as science fiction seemed to be becoming fact, American cyberlibertarian hopes for a global newfoundland of freedom soared to giddy heights. John Perry Barlow, a passionate advocate for internet freedom and former lyricist of the rock band the Grateful Dead, produced in 1996 a Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, with obvious echoes of the 1776 Declaration of Independence. It even denounced ‘hostile and colonial measures’, as if King George III were about to dispatch his redcoats into cyberspace. ‘Governments of the Industrial World’, the declaration began, ‘you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind. On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone.

For TCP/IP see the discussion in Mueller 2004, 5–7 53. this was certainly the case with Paul Baran at the Rand Corporation; see Hafner et al. 2006, 54–64 54. see Zittrain 2008, 31–33, and Wu 2010, 201–2. The cyberlaw expert Tim Wu is credited with coining the term; see Wu 2003. Listen to his discussion of it on ‘Wu on His Phrase “Net Neutrality”’, Free Speech Debate, http://freespeechdebate.com/en/media/net-neutrality-by-the-man-who-coined-the-phrase/, and see the introduction on his website at http://perma.cc/4Z5P-RP4C 55. dated 8 February 1996; John Perry Barlow, ‘A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace’, http://perma.cc/V8VS-XHZD 56. full detail in Mueller 2004 and Mueller 2012 57. a useful account of the history is given on Wikipedia: http://perma.cc/Q36Q-366E 58. see several contributions to Levmore et al., eds. 2010 and Sunstein 2009, 83 59. Mike Godwin, conversation with the author, Wikimedia Foundation, San Francisco, 7 September 2010 60. Kurt Wagner, ‘Kara Swisher Interviews President Barack Obama on Cyber Security, Privacy and His Relationship With Silicon Valley’, re/code, 13 February 2015, http://perma.cc/D8K6-Z2KM?


The Code: Silicon Valley and the Remaking of America by Margaret O'Mara

"side hustle", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, Byte Shop, California gold rush, carried interest, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, computer age, continuous integration, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deindustrialization, different worldview, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Frank Gehry, George Gilder, gig economy, Googley, Hacker Ethic, high net worth, Hush-A-Phone, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, means of production, mega-rich, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, old-boy network, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Paul Terrell, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pirate software, popular electronics, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, social graph, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, supercomputer in your pocket, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, the market place, the new new thing, There's no reason for any individual to have a computer in his home - Ken Olsen, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, transcontinental railway, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Unsafe at Any Speed, upwardly mobile, Vannevar Bush, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, Y Combinator, Y2K

It’s to tape things. I’m an idea man, Chuck, all right? I’ve got ideas all day long, I can’t control them, it’s like, they come charging in, I can’t even fight ’em off if I wanted to. Night Shift (1982)1 On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone. You are not welcome among us. You have no sovereignty where we gather. JOHN PERRY BARLOW, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” 19962 The machine that is everywhere hailed as the very incarnation of the new had revealed itself to be not so new after all, but a series of skins, layer on layer, winding around the messy, evolving idea of the computing machine. ELLEN ULLMAN, Life in Code, 19983 CONTENTS Also by Margaret O’Mara Title Page Copyright Dedication Epigraph List of Abbreviations Introduction: The American Revolution ACT ONE: START UP Arrivals Chapter 1: Endless Frontier Chapter 2: Golden State Chapter 3: Shoot the Moon Chapter 4: Networked Chapter 5: The Money Men Arrivals Chapter 6: Boom and Bust ACT TWO: PRODUCT LAUNCH Arrivals Chapter 7: The Olympics of Capitalism Chapter 8: Power to the People Chapter 9: The Personal Machine Chapter 10: Homebrewed Chapter 11: Unforgettable Chapter 12: Risky Business ACT THREE: GO PUBLIC Arrivals Chapter 13: Storytellers Chapter 14: California Dreaming Chapter 15: Made in Japan Chapter 16: Big Brother Chapter 17: War Games Chapter 18: Built on Sand ACT FOUR: CHANGE THE WORLD Arrivals Chapter 19: Information Means Empowerment Chapter 20: Suits in the Valley Chapter 21: Magna Carta Chapter 22: Don’t Be Evil Arrivals Chapter 23: The Internet Is You Chapter 24: Software Eats the World Chapter 25: Masters of the Universe Departure: Into the Driverless Car Photographs Acknowledgments Note on Sources Notes Image Credits Index About the Author LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ACM: Association for Computing Machinery AEA: American Electronics Association AI: Artificial intelligence AMD: Advanced Micro Devices ARD: American Research and Development ARM: Advanced reduced-instruction-set microprocessor ARPA: Advanced Research Projects Agency, Department of Defense, renamed DARPA AWS: Amazon Web Services BBS: Bulletin Board Services CDA: Communications Decency Act of 1996 CPSR: Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility CPU: Central processing unit EDS: Electronic Data Systems EFF: Electronic Frontier Foundation EIT: Enterprise Integration Technologies ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer ERISA: Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 FASB: Financial Accounting Standards Board FCC: Federal Communications Commission FTC: Federal Trade Commission GUI: Graphical user interface HTML: Hypertext markup language IC: Integrated circuit IPO: Initial public offering MIS: Management information systems MITI: Ministry of International Trade and Industry (of Japan) NACA: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, later superseded by NASA NASA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASD: National Association of Securities Dealers NDEA: National Defense Education Act NII: National Information Infrastructure NSF: National Science Foundation NVCA: National Venture Capital Association OS: Operating system OSRD: U.S.

Miller, February 27, 2015 Becky Morgan, May 13, 2016 David Morgenthaler, February 12, May 19, June 23, November 3, 2015 Gary Morgenthaler, November 24, 2014 Chamath Palihapitiya, December 5, 2017 Paul Saffo, March 24, 2017 Allan Schiffman, March 22, 2018 Charles Simonyi, October 4, 2017 Larry Stone, April 7, 2015 Marty Tenenbaum, February 9, February 21, March 16, 2018 Avie Tevanian, December 13, 2017 Andy Verhalen, November 18, 2014 Ed Zschau, April 9, June 24, 2015, January 19, 2016 NOTES 1. Night Shift, directed by Ron Howard, written by Lowell Ganz and Babaloo Mandel (Burbank, Calif.: Warner Brothers Pictures, 1982). Reproduced with permission. 2. John Perry Barlow, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, February 8, 1996, https://projects.eff.org/~barlow/Declaration-Final.html. 3. Ellen Ullman, Life in Code: A Personal History of Technology (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2017), 47. INTRODUCTION: THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1. Associated Press, “Apple, Amazon, Facebook, Alphabet, and Microsoft Are Collectively Worth More Than the Entire Economy of the United Kingdom,” April 27, 2018, https://www.inc.com/associated-press/mindblowing-facts-tech-industry-money-amazon-apple-microsoft-facebook-alphabet.html, archived at https://perma.cc/HY68-RJYG [inactive]. 2.


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The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Travis Kalanick, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator

., p. 263. 32 Ryan, A History of the Internet and the Digital Future, p. 39. 33 Ibid., p. 249. 34 Janet Abbate, Inventing the Internet (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999), p. 186. 35 Larry Downes and Chunka Mui, Unleashing the Killer App: Digital Strategies for Market Dominance (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998). 36 Ibid. 37 Outlook Team, “The 41-Year History of Email,” Mashable, September 20, 2012. 38 John Perry Barlow, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” February 8, 1996. 39 David A. Kaplan, The Silicon Boys and Their Valley of Dreams (New York: Perennial, 2000), p. 229. 40 Naughton, A Brief History of the Future, p. 218. 41 Bush, “As We May Think.” 42 Gary Wolf, “The Curse of Xanadu,” Wired, June 1995. 43 Tim Berners-Lee, Weaving the Web (New York: HarperCollins, 1999), p. 5. 44 Ibid. 45 Ibid., p. 6. 46 Mariana Mazzucato, The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs.


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The People's Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age by Astra Taylor

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-work, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional

However imprecisely the terms are applied, the dichotomy of open versus closed (sometimes presented as freedom versus control) provides the conceptual framework that increasingly underpins much of the current thinking about technology, media, and culture. The fetish for openness can be traced back to the foundational myths of the Internet as a wild, uncontrollable realm. In 1996 John Perry Barlow, the former Grateful Dead lyricist and cattle ranger turned techno-utopian firebrand, released an influential manifesto, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” from Davos, Switzerland, during the World Economic Forum, the annual meeting of the world’s business elite. (“Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind. On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone.… You have no sovereignty where we gather.”) Almost twenty years later, these sentiments were echoed by Google’s Eric Schmidt and the State Department’s Jared Cohen, who partnered to write The New Digital Age: “The Internet is the largest experiment involving anarchy in history,” they insist.


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How to Fix Copyright by William Patry

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, barriers to entry, big-box store, borderless world, business cycle, business intelligence, citizen journalism, cloud computing, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, informal economy, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lone genius, means of production, moral panic, new economy, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, winner-take-all economy, zero-sum game

Irish Minister for Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation Richard Burton made similar comments in May 2011, in connection with a similar Irish inquiry. 23. Ian Hargreaves, Digital Opportunity: A Review of Intellectual Property and Growth 45 (May 2011). 24. This is pretty much the approach taken by Professor Ian Hargreaves in his report Digital Opportunity: A Review of Intellectual Property and Growth 45 (May 2011). 25. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Declaration_of_the_Independence_of_Cyberspace. Cf. Jack Goldsmith and Tim Wu, Who Controls the Internet?: Illusions of a Borderless World (2008, Oxford University Press. See also Johnny Ryan, A History of the Interent and the Digital Future (2010, Reaktion Books). 26. Francis Gurry,The Future of Copyright, address delivered in Sydney, Australia, February 25, 2011. 27. Joseph Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy 83 (Harper & Brothers 3d ed. 1950, 2006 paperback) (1942). 28.


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You Are Here: From the Compass to GPS, the History and Future of How We Find Ourselves by Hiawatha Bray

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bitcoin, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, crowdsourcing, Dava Sobel, digital map, don't be evil, Edmond Halley, Edward Snowden, Firefox, game design, Google Earth, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Snow's cholera map, license plate recognition, lone genius, openstreetmap, polynesian navigation, popular electronics, RAND corporation, RFID, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Thales of Miletus, trade route, turn-by-turn navigation, uranium enrichment, urban planning, Zipcar

Catherine Shu, “Nav App Waze Says 36M Users Shared 900M Reports, While 65K Users Made 500M Map Edits,” TechCrunch, February 6, 2013, http://techcrunch.com/2013/02/06/nav-app-waze-says-36m-users-shared-900m-reports-while-65k-users-made-500m-map-edits/. 29. Jessica Guynn, “Google Acquisition Keeps Waze Out of Rivals’ Hands,” Los Angeles Times, June 12, 2013. Chapter 9 1. John Perry Barlow, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” February 8, 1996, https://projects.eff.org/~barlow/Declaration-Final.html. 2. Thomas Lowenthal, “IP Address Can Now Pin Down Your Location to Within a Half Mile,” Ars Technica, April 22, 2011, http://arstechnica.com/tech-policy/2011/04/getting-warmer-an-ip-address-can-map-you-within-half-a-mile/. 3. Bobbie Johnson, “Money Can’t Buy You Loyalty,” Guardian, April 30, 2007. 4.


Data and the City by Rob Kitchin,Tracey P. Lauriault,Gavin McArdle

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, bike sharing scheme, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cloud computing, complexity theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, create, read, update, delete, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, fault tolerance, fiat currency, Filter Bubble, floating exchange rates, global value chain, Google Earth, hive mind, Internet of things, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, lifelogging, linked data, loose coupling, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, open economy, openstreetmap, packet switching, pattern recognition, performance metric, place-making, RAND corporation, RFID, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, semantic web, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart contracts, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, statistical model, TaskRabbit, text mining, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, urban planning, urban sprawl, web application

Funding from a European Research Council (ERC) Consolidator Grant (615588) supported the research and writing of this chapter. Where are data citizens? 211 References Austin, J.L. (1962) How to Do Things with Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Balibar, E. (1991) ‘Citizen subject’, in E. Cadava, P. Connor and J.-L. Nancy (eds), Who Comes after the Subject? London: Routledge, pp. 33–57. Barlow, J.P. (1996) ‘A declaration of the independence of cyberspace’, available from: www.eff.org/cyberspace-independence [accessed 11 July 2014]. Blomley, N. (2004) Unsettling the City: Urban Land and the Politics of Property. London: Routledge. Blomley, N. (2011) Rights of Passage: Sidewalks and the Regulation of Public Flow. London: Routledge. Bourdieu, P. (1988) ‘Social space and symbolic power’, Sociological Theory 7(1): 14–25. Braidotti, R. (1996) ‘Cyberfeminism with a difference’, available from: www.let.uu.nl/ womens_studies/rosi/cyberfem.htm [accessed 3 September 2015].


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Is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?: The Net's Impact on Our Minds and Future by John Brockman

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asperger Syndrome, availability heuristic, Benoit Mandelbrot, biofilm, Black Swan, British Empire, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Danny Hillis, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Emanuel Derman, epigenetics, Flynn Effect, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, information retrieval, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, lone genius, loss aversion, mandelbrot fractal, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, out of africa, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, smart grid, social graph, social software, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, telepresence, the medium is the message, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, X Prize

It opened a window for me into an unruly cyberworld that at first seemed to be, to quote computer music researcher and composer John Chowning, a Socratean abode. Over the next decade and a half, I joined the camp of what I have since come to think of as Internet utopians. The Net seemed to offer this shining city on a hill, free from the grit and foulness of the meat world. Ideologically, this was a torch carried by Wired magazine, and the ideal probably reached its zenith in John Perry Barlow’s 1996 essay, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.” Silly me. I should have known better. It would all be spelled out clearly in John Brunner’s The Shockwave Rider, William Gibson’s Neuromancer, Neal Stephenson’s Snowcrash, Vernor Vinge’s True Names, and even less-well-read classics such as John Barnes’s The Mother of Storms. Science fiction writers were always the best social scientists, and in describing the dystopian nature of the Net they were again right on target.


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The Inevitable: Understanding the 12 Technological Forces That Will Shape Our Future by Kevin Kelly

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, Mitch Kapor, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game

But it was even more radical. The shouts from the back of the bus grew loud declaring that finally an author no longer needed editors. No one needed to ask permission to publish. Anyone with an internet connection could post their work and gather an audience; it was the end of publishers controlling the gates. This was a revolution! And since it was a revolution, Wired published “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace” announcing the end of old media. New media was certainly spawning rapidly. Among them were the link aggregators such as Slashdot, Digg, and later Reddit that enabled users to vote up or down items and to work together as a collaborative consensus filter, making mutual recommendations based on “others like you.” Rheingold believed that Wired would get further faster by unleashing people with strong voices, lots of passion, and the willingness to write without any editors to thwart them.


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#Republic: Divided Democracy in the Age of Social Media by Cass R. Sunstein

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, Donald Trump, drone strike, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, friendly fire, global village, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Jane Jacobs, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, obamacare, prediction markets, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, stem cell, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, WikiLeaks

Hirschmann, The Passions and the Interests: Political Arguments for Capitalism before Its Triumph (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967). 13.See Jon Elster, Sour Grapes: Studies in the Subversion of Rationality (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). 14.Verisign, The Domain Name Industry Brief 13, no. 1 (2016), http://www.verisign.com/assets/domain-name-report-april2016.pdf (accessed September 8, 2016). 15.For a good discussion, see Robert H. Frank, Luxury Fever: Weighing the Cost of Excess (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998). 16.See ibid. 17.See ibid. 7. WHAT’S REGULATION? A PLEA 1.John Perry Barlow, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, February 8, 1996, http://homes.eff.org/~barlow/Declaration-Final.html (accessed July 31, 2016). 2.Richard Posner, Catastrophe: Risk and Response (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 85. 3.See Internet Security Threat Report 21 (2016), https://www.symantec.com/content/dam/symantec/docs/reports/istr-21-2016-en.pdf (accessed September 8, 2016). 4.Elinor Ostrom, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990); Robert C.


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Permanent Record by Edward Snowden

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Berlin Wall, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, job-hopping, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Occupy movement, pattern recognition, peak oil, pre–internet, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, trade route, WikiLeaks, zero day

This revolution wasn’t happening in history textbooks, but now, in my generation, and any of us could be part of it solely by dint of our abilities. This was thrilling—to participate in the founding of a new society, one based not on where we were born or how we grew up or our popularity at school but on our knowledge and technological ability. In school, I’d had to memorize the preamble to the U.S. Constitution: now its words were lodged in my memory alongside John Perry Barlow’s “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” which employed the same self-evident, self-elect plural pronoun: “We are creating a world that all may enter without privilege or prejudice accorded by race, economic power, military force, or station of birth. We are creating a world where anyone, anywhere may express his or her beliefs, no matter how singular, without fear of being coerced into silence or conformity.” This technological meritocracy was certainly empowering, but it could also be humbling, as I came to understand when I first went to work in the Intelligence Community.


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The Fifth Domain: Defending Our Country, Our Companies, and Ourselves in the Age of Cyber Threats by Richard A. Clarke, Robert K. Knake

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, business cycle, business intelligence, call centre, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, DevOps, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Exxon Valdez, global village, immigration reform, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kubernetes, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, open borders, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, ransomware, Richard Thaler, Sand Hill Road, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, software as a service, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

While William Gibson coined the word “cyberspace,” it was Barlow who popularized its use to capture a realm separate and apart from the physical world, in which people could be freed from the limitations imposed on them by their bodies and the body politic in what he called “meatspace.” There are not too many people in the world who have had both a backstage pass to every Dead concert and an open invitation to the World Economic Forum, but Barlow did, and in Davos in 1996 he tapped out his now famous “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.” In it he exhorts governments to leave the denizens of cyberspace alone, declaring, “You have no sovereignty where we gather.” Of course, that wasn’t true. As Tim Wu and Jack Goldsmith document in their excellent 2006 book Who Controls the Internet?, it didn’t take long for governments to impose their sovereignty on the internet. Barlow declared, “Your legal concepts of property, expression, identity, movement, and context do not apply to us.


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Machines of Loving Grace: The Quest for Common Ground Between Humans and Robots by John Markoff

"Robert Solow", A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gunnar Myrdal, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, zero-sum game

Was it possible that in the cyber-future, humans, increasingly isolated from each other, would remain in contact with some surrogate computer intelligence? What kind of world did that foretell? Perhaps it was the one described in the movie Her, released in 2013, in which a shy guy connects with a female AI. Today, however, it is still unclear whether the emergence of cyberspace is a huge step forward for humanity as described by cyber-utopians such as Grateful Dead lyricist John Perry Barlow in his 1996 Wired manifesto, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” or the much bleaker world described by Sherry Turkle in her book Alone Together: Why We Expect More from Technology and Less from Each Other. For Barlow, cyberspace would become a utopian world free from crime and degradation of “meatspace.” In contrast, Turkle describes a world in which computer networks increasingly drive a wedge between humans, leaving them lonely and isolated.


pages: 587 words: 117,894

Cybersecurity: What Everyone Needs to Know by P. W. Singer, Allan Friedman

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blood diamonds, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business continuity plan, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, do-ocracy, drone strike, Edward Snowden, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fault tolerance, global supply chain, Google Earth, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, M-Pesa, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mutually assured destruction, Network effects, packet switching, Peace of Westphalia, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, ransomware, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, uranium enrichment, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, WikiLeaks, zero day, zero-sum game

PROTECT WORLD WIDE GOVERNANCE FOR THE WORLD WIDE WEB: WHAT IS THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS? “public order or morals” International Telecommunication Union, “Plenipotentiary Conferences,” http://www.itu.int/en/history/Pages/PlenipotentiaryConferences.aspx?conf=1&dms=S0201000001, accessed January 14, 2013. “Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace” John Perry Barlow, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, https://projects.eff.org/~barlow/Declaration-Final.html, accessed January 14, 2013. “free” part of cyberspace Robert Axelrod, e-mail message to the authors, September 5, 2011. “Nazi memorabilia” Internet Governance Project, “Threat Analysis of the WCIT Part 4: The ITU and Cybersecurity,” June 21, 2012, http://www.internetgovernance.org/2012/06/21/threat-analysis-of-the-wcit-4-cybersecurity/, accessed January 2013.


pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Hackers Conference, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

———. “Being in Nothingness: Virtual Reality and the Pioneers of Cyberspace.” Mondo 2000, no. 2 (Summer 1990): 34 – 43. ———. “Crime and Puzzlement.” Posted to the WELL June 8, 1990. Reprint in Whole Earth Review, no. 68 (Fall 1990): 44 –57, available at http://www.eff.org/Misc/Publications/ John_Perry_Barlow/HTML/crime_and_puzzlement_1.html (accessed September 27, 2005). ———. “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace.” 1996. Available at http://www .eff.org/barlow/Declaration-Final.html (accessed November 15, 2004). B i b l i o g ra p h y [ 293 ] ———. “Jack In, Young Pioneer! Keynote essay for the 1994 Computerworld College Edition.” Available at http://www.eff.org/Misc/Publications/John_Perry_Barlow/ HTML/jack_in_young_pioneer.html (accessed September 27, 2005). Barnes, Susan B. Online Connections: Internet Interpersonal Relationships.


pages: 562 words: 153,825

Dark Mirror: Edward Snowden and the Surveillance State by Barton Gellman

4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, active measures, Anton Chekhov, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Debian, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, financial independence, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Hangouts, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, job automation, Julian Assange, MITM: man-in-the-middle, national security letter, planetary scale, private military company, ransomware, Robert Gordon, Robert Hanssen: Double agent, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, social graph, standardized shipping container, Steven Levy, telepresence, undersea cable, web of trust, WikiLeaks, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

I also sent one of the occasional blog posts I wrote for Time online, “The Case of the Stolen Laptop: How to Encrypt, and Why,” Techland, August 6, 2010, http://ti.me/1Qjdu5f. the cypherpunks of the 1990s: See Steven Levy, Crypto: How the Code Rebels Beat the Government, Saving Privacy in the Digital Age (New York: Viking, 2001). See also Eric Hughes, “A Cypherpunk’s Manifesto” (1993), www.activism.net/cypherpunk/manifesto.html; and John Perry Barlow, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” Electronic Frontier Foundation, February 8, 1996, www.eff.org/cyberspace-independence. invented “onion routing”: Among the seminal papers by Naval Research Laboratory employees was David Goldschlag, Michael Reed, and Paul Syverson, “Onion Routing for Anonymous and Private Internet Connections,” Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery, January 28, 1999, www.onion-router.net/Publications/CACM-1999.pdf.


pages: 467 words: 149,632

If Then: How Simulmatics Corporation Invented the Future by Jill Lepore

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, anti-communist, Buckminster Fuller, computer age, coronavirus, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, game design, George Gilder, Grace Hopper, Hacker Ethic, Howard Zinn, index card, information retrieval, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, Jeffrey Epstein, job automation, land reform, linear programming, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, packet switching, Peter Thiel, profit motive, RAND corporation, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, South China Sea, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Whole Earth Catalog

Stewart Brand, The Media Lab: Inventing the Future at M.I.T. (New York: Viking, 1987), 18, 44, 214–19, 253, 267. Ibid., 33. Ibid., 183–84, 222–32. Stewart Brand, “We Owe It All to the Hippies,” Time, March 1, 1995. Esther Dyson, George Gilder, George Keyworth, and Alvin Toffler, Cyberspace and the American Dream: A Magna Carta for the Knowledge Age (Progress and Freedom Foundation, 1994). John Perry Barlow, “A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace,” February 8, 1996. IP, Questionnaire, undated, Pool Papers, Box 59, Folder “Contact Nets Diary.” John McPhee, “Link with Local History Lost,” Alamogordo [NM] Daily News, April 10, 1998. Wendy McPhee, interview with the author, July 16, 2018. Epilogue: Meta Data Jaron Lanier, “Jaron Lanier Fixes the Internet,” NYT, September 23, 2019. NM to AS, March 25, 1959, Stevenson Papers, Box 38, Folder 7.