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Fluent Forever: How to Learn Any Language Fast and Never Forget It by Gabriel Wyner
card file, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, index card, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, meta analysis, meta-analysis, pattern recognition, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Skype, spaced repetition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Yogi Berra
By doing this, you’ll spend most of your time successfully recalling words you’ve almost forgotten and building foundations for new words at a rapid, steady clip. Playing with timing in this way is known as spaced repetition, and it’s extraordinarily efficient. In a four-month period, practicing for 30 minutes a day, you can expect to learn and retain 3600 flash cards with 90 to 95 percent accuracy. These flash cards can teach you an alphabet, vocabulary, grammar, and even pronunciation. And they can do it without becoming tedious, because they’re always challenging enough to remain interesting and fun. Spaced repetition is a godsend to memory intensive tasks like language learning. It’s a pity that it wasn’t a subject back in school, when I had a lot more to remember. At its most basic level, a Spaced Repetition System (SRS) is a to-do list that changes according to your performance. If you can remember that pollo means “chicken” after a two-month delay, then your SRS will automatically wait four to six months before putting pollo back on your to-do list.
We like habits; they make the difference between comfortably chatting with the Parisian waitress and awkwardly asking for the English menu. KEY POINTS • Spaced repetition systems (SRSs) are flash cards on steroids. They supercharge memorization by automatically monitoring your progress and using that information to design a daily, customized to-do list of new words to learn and old words to review. DO THIS NOW: LEARN TO USE A SPACED REPETITION SYSTEM (SRS) We have found a way to defeat forgetting. Now we must decide what to remember. In the next four chapters, I’ll show you precisely what to learn and how to learn it. We’ll begin with the sounds and alphabet of your language. This will give you the structure you need to remember new words easily. To accomplish this, I’ll show you old and new tools that can quickly rewire your ears, and we’ll use spaced repetition to rapidly memorize example words for every important letter combination (e.g., gn as in gnocchi).
You have to make those connections for yourself, because no one else can tell you how the current situación económica has affected you. You also need to retain the connections you’ve made, even when you’re busy learning new words. This is a lot to do at once, so you might as well use the best tools for the job. Until someone puts a USB port into the back of our skulls, our most effective weapon against forgetting is spaced repetition. And since we need deep, memorable experiences to get the most out of spaced repetition, we might as well get them in the process of making our flash cards. The card construction process is one of the most fun and satisfying ways to learn a language. Content in the knowledge that every detail will become a permanent memory, you become the architect of your own mind. What breed of dog will you think about when you wish to remember the word dog?
3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Thorp, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, iterative process, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, patent troll, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, spaced repetition, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, Vannevar Bush, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize, éminence grise
If you’ll recall the Ebbinghaus curve of forgetting from the second chapter, Ebbinghaus found that we forget things in a predictable pattern: More than half our facts are gone in an hour, about two thirds are gone within a day, and within a month we’re down to about 20 percent. Ebbinghaus and his followers theorized that this process could work in reverse. If you reviewed a fact one day after you first encountered it, you’d fight the curve of loss. This process is called “spaced repetition,” and experiments and anecdotes suggest it can work. It explains why students who cram for a test never retain much; the material dissolves because they never repeat it. But though spaced repetition is clever and effective, it has never caught on widely, because ironically, the technique relies on our frail human memories. How would you remember to review something the next day? Then a few days later, a week, and three months? Machines, however, are superb at following these rote schedules.
Their recall improved, sometimes dramatically: Steve Hodges, Lyndsay Williams, Emma Berry, Shahram Izadi, James Srinivasan, Alex Butler, Gavin Smyth, Narinder Kapur, and Ken Wood, “SenseCam: A Retrospective Memory Aid,” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of Ubiquitous Computing (2006): 177–93; Georgina Browne, Emma Berry, Narinder Kapur, Steve Hodges, Gavin Smyth, Peter Watson, and Ken Wood, “SenseCam Improves Memory for Recent Events and Quality of Life in a Patient with Memory Retrieval Difficulties,” Memory 19, no. 7 (2011): 713–22; Georgina Browne, Emma Berry, Steve Hodges, Gavin Smyth, Alex Butler, Lyndsay Williams, James Srinivasan, Alban Rrustemi, and Ken Wood, “Stimulating Episodic Memory Using SenseCam,” poster presentation on Microsoft Research Web site (2007), accessed March 24, 2013, research.microsoft.com/pubs/132686/4%20Festival%20of%20Internation%20Conferences%20Poster%20.pdf; and personal interview with Lyndsay Williams and Ken Wood. this process could work in reverse: Ebbinghaus, Memory, Kindle edition. “spaced repetition”: John J. Donovan and David J. Radosevich, “A Meta-Analytic Review of the Distribution of Practice Effect: Now You See It, Now You Don’t,” Journal of Applied Psychology 84, no. 5 (October 1999): 795–805. in an Ebbinghausian fashion: “Frequently Asked Questions,” Amazon Kindle Web site, accessed March 24, 2013, kindle.amazon.com/faq. Chapter 6: The Puzzle-Hungry World “I’ve poured over a hundred hours into the game”: Paul Tassi, “Why Skyrim Is Not My Game of the Year,” Forbes, December 22, 2011, accessed March 24, 2103, www.forbes.com/sites/insertcoin/2011/12/22/why-skyrim-is-not-my-game-of-the-year/.
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The equations are described as deterministic, yet they are extremely sensitive to their initial conditions. This means that it is impossible to predict any single solution at any extended period of time. Pendulums or pistons have relatively simple attractors. More complex systems (like weather, the stock market, or human culture) rely on a huge number of attractors and can be better thought of as “phase spaces.” In phase spaces, repetitions and differences lead to constantly shifting equilibriums. A minor change in the original condition can effect a hugely different outcome—better known as the “butterﬂy effect”—and can also create a different attractor, collapsing it into a ﬁxed solution or tumbling it back into apparent chaos before a new strange attractor establishes itself. This effect is readily visible when you watch an animation of the strange attractor, many of which are now available on the World Wide Web.
Haskell Programming from first principles by Christopher Allen, Julie Moronuki
If you do get to a later chapter and ﬁnd you did not understand a concept or structure well enough, you can always return to an earlier chapter CONTENTS 23 and do more exercises until you understand it. The Freenode IRC channel #haskell-beginners has teachers who will be glad to help you as well, and they especially welcome questions regarding speciﬁc problems that you are trying to solve.1 We believe that spaced repetition and iterative deepening are eﬀective strategies for learning, and the structure of the book reﬂects this. You may notice we mention something only brieﬂy at ﬁrst, then return to it over and over. As your experience with Haskell deepens, you have a base from which to move to a deeper level of understanding. Try not to worry that you don’t understand something completely the ﬁrst time we mention it.
. • We ask you to write and then rewrite (using diﬀerent syntax) a lot of functions. Few problems have only one possible solution, and solving the same problem in diﬀerent ways increases your ﬂuency and comfort with the way Haskell works (its syntax, its semantics, and in some cases, its evaluation order). • Do not feel obligated to do all the exercises in a single sitting or even in a ﬁrst pass through the chapter. In fact, spaced repetition is generally a more eﬀective strategy. • Some exercises, particularly in the earlier chapters, may seem very contrived. Well, they are. But they are contrived to pinpoint certain lessons. As the book goes on and you have more Haskell under your belt, the exercises become less contrived and more like “real Haskell.” • We recommend you move away from typing code examples and exercises directly into GHCi sooner rather than later and develop the habit of working in source ﬁles.
Come as You Are: The Surprising New Science That Will Transform Your Sex Life by Emily Nagoski Ph.d.
Pavlov’s dogs salivated when a bell rang because their expecting system connected the bell with food. The rats in chapter 2 linked lemons or jackets with sex, and baby Frankie and baby Frannie’s brains coupled genital response, internal sensations, and external environment because of the expecting system. This is implicit learning—a different experience from explicit learning. Explicit learning is memorizing a poem with spaced repetition and conscious effort. Implicit learning is (in part) the expecting system linking stimuli across time and space. We don’t have to study or memorize anything to learn which foods taste delicious and which people are mean. We learn these kinds of emotional things implicitly. Eagerness, the third system, is the generic gas pedal of the emotional brain. Eagerness fuels the desire to move toward something or away from it.