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Age of Context: Mobile, Sensors, Data and the Future of Privacy by Robert Scoble, Shel Israel
Albert Einstein, Apple II, augmented reality, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, connected car, Edward Snowden, Edward Thorp, Elon Musk, factory automation, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Internet of things, job automation, John Markoff, Kickstarter, lifelogging, Marc Andreessen, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, New Urbanism, PageRank, pattern recognition, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, sensor fusion, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart grid, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tesla Model S, Tim Cook: Apple, urban planning, Zipcar
From a contextual perspective, we hold Google in particularly high regard, but the real game-changing development is the gadget Scoble is wearing on our back cover—Google Glass. Chapter 2 Through the Glass, Looking Right now, most of us look at the people with Google Glass like the dudes who first walked around with the big brick phones. Amber Naslund, SideraWorks The first of them went to Sergey Brin, Larry Page, and Eric Schmidt. Brin, who runs Project Glass, the company’s much-touted digital eyewear program, has rarely been seen in public again without them. Before anyone outside the company could actually touch the device, or see the world through its perspective, the hoopla had begun and has not stopped. Neither has the controversy. Google Glass is the flagship contextual device. It is the first consumer electronics gadget that uses a new kind of infrared eye sensor that watches your pupil.
We believe something monumental is taking place, something that could change your life and work, your children’s future and the world in which your unborn descendants will live. Not Another Day Scoble was the 107th person to receive a Google Glass prototype. He put them on and immediately started posting short notes on his social networks about his experience. He wore them when he went to Europe, making presentations at tech conferences and letting hundreds of people give his Glass device a quick try. After two weeks, he posted his first review to Google+, the default social network for Google Glass users, declaring “I’m never going to live another day without a wearable computer on my face.” To illustrate his point, his wife Maryam photographed him in the shower wearing his Glass. Some scorned the stunt. “If Google Glass fails, it is Robert Scoble’s fault,” bemoaned author-speaker Peter Shankman in a blog post. Larry Page, Google’s CEO, told Scoble in front of a large audience that he “did not appreciate” the shower photo.
Just as advertisers are catching up on the last generation of devices such as phones and tablets, a new generation is coming in the form of wearable devices such as Google Glass, the Pebble smart watch and even computerized socks. These spell trouble for advertisers because the new devices either have tiny screens or no screens at all. As of this writing, Google has placed temporary advertising bans on Google+, Google Now and Google Glass. But the world’s largest online ad platform is going to have to make money in the Age of Context somehow. We think a new form of Pinpoint Marketing is the answer. We also think it will be popular with users and even more lucrative for Google than ads have been. The solution we envision will be in the form of micro commissions. Google Glass will know not only where you are but whether you are driving, on foot or riding a bicycle.
23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day
Tracking, Monitoring, and Wearable Tech,” Symantec Security Response, July 30, 2014. 5 Google has already: “Google Partners with Ray-Ban, Oakley for New Glass Designs,” NBC News, March 24, 2014; Deloitte, Technology, Media, and Telecommunications Predictions, 2014, 10. 6 The fear of filming: Richard Gray, “The Places Where Google Glass Is Banned,” Telegraph, Dec. 4, 2013. 7 In fact, hackers had already: Andy Greenberg, “Google Glass Has Already Been Hacked by Jailbreakers,” Forbes, April 26, 2013. 8 The GPS features: Mark Prigg, “Google Glass HACKED to Transmit Everything You See and Hear: Experts Warn ‘the Only Thing It Doesn’t Know Are Your Thoughts,’ ” Mail Online, May 2, 2013. 9 While your grandma: John Zorabedian, “Spyware App Turns the Privacy Tables on Google Glass Wearers,” Naked Security, March 25, 2014. 10 Given the pace: Katherine Bourzac, “Contact Lens Computer: Like Google Glass, Without the Glasses,” MIT Technology Review, June 7, 2013. 11 The device is in early stages: Leo King, “Google Smart Contact Lens Focuses on Healthcare Billions,” Forbes, July 15, 2014. 12 Not to be outdone: Bourzac, “Contact Lens Computer.” 13 The historic operation: N.
Even the former head of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Michael Chertoff has raised privacy and public policy concerns about Google Glass. He rightfully asked who owned the users’ video data and whether the entire video database would be mined and analyzed for commercial purposes. One could also legitimately ask about government access to these data, either retrospectively or in real time, for reasons ranging from crime fighting to “national security.” Consider the implications for a moment: By using Google Glass, are you granting the company the right to capture all the live-streaming moments of your daily life, everything you see and hear, so that it can sell these data to advertisers? For example, if, while you were wearing the glasses making your morning coffee in your bathrobe, the Google Glass vision algorithm recognized the object in your field of view as a coffeepot (entirely possible), might you start seeing coupons for Starbucks on your eyeglass screens?
As noted in earlier chapters, with observations by both Mr. Burns of The Simpsons and Mr. Chertoff of Homeland Security, with all of Google Glass’s power and connectivity come a host of privacy and public policy issues. But there are important security threats to be considered as well. The fear of filming has led to Google Glass’s being banned in a number of public venues, including sporting events, concerts, gym locker rooms, bars, restaurants, strip clubs, casinos, hospitals, and U.K. movie theaters. Cited reasons for the prohibitions against the device include everything from card counting to film piracy and industrial espionage. But there is another concern. Google Glass can be hacked to secretly take photographs and record video, silently streaming the data to Crime, Inc. anywhere in the world, all without the knowledge of the device’s owner.
Utopia Is Creepy: And Other Provocations by Nicholas Carr
Air France Flight 447, Airbnb, Airbus A320, AltaVista, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, centralized clearinghouse, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, computer age, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, deskilling, digital map, Donald Trump, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, factory automation, failed state, feminist movement, Frederick Winslow Taylor, friendly fire, game design, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Googley, hive mind, impulse control, indoor plumbing, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Menlo Park, mental accounting, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, SETI@home, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Singularitarianism, Snapchat, social graph, social web, speech recognition, Startup school, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, technoutopianism, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator
Yes, the online is as much a part of “real life” as the offline—civilization and its inhabitants have always been, to borrow Walter Ong’s term, “technologized”; reality has always been mediated—but the fact that the two realms of experience, the two states of being, are blurring, and blurring quickly, should spur us to think critically about the consequences of that blurring, not to conclude that the blurring turns a real distinction into a fiction, as if when you whisk oil and vinegar into a salad dressing, you whisk oil and vinegar out of existence. To exaggerate a distinction seems a lesser crime than to pretend it doesn’t exist. GOOGLE GLASS AND CLAUDE GLASS September 19, 2012 GOOGLE COFOUNDER SERGEY BRIN made a stir earlier this month when he catted about New York Fashion Week with a Google Glass wrapped around his bean. It was something of a coming-out party for Google’s reality-augmentation device, which promises to democratize the head-up display, giving us all a fighter pilot’s view of the world. Diane von Furstenberg got Glassed. So did Sarah Jessica Parker. Wendi Murdoch seemed impressed by the cyborgian adornment, as did her husband, Rupert, who promptly tweeted, “Genius!” Google Glass is shaping up to be the biggest thing to hit the human brow since Olivia Newton-John’s headband. Let’s get post-physical.
As Leo Marx explained in The Machine in the Garden, “When a viewer used the Claude Glass the landscape was transformed into a provisional work of art, framed and suffused by a golden tone like that of the master’s paintings.” The glass “helped create a pastoral illusion.” Where a Claude Glass bathed landscapes in a soft painterly light, a Google Glass bathes them in hard data. It gives its owner the eyes not of an artist but of an analyst. Instead of a pastoral illusion, you get a computational one. But while the perspectives displayed by the two gadgets couldn’t be more different, the Claude Glass and the Google Glass share some important qualities. Both tell us that our senses are insufficient, that manufactured vision is superior to what our own meager eyeballs can reveal to us. And both turn the world into a packaged good—a product to be consumed. A Google Glass is superior to a Claude Glass in this regard. Not only does it present an enhanced version of reality, but it annotates the world with a profusion of descriptive text and other explanatory symbols—and then, with its camera and its uplinks to social networks, it allows us to share the product.
THE MEANS OF CREATIVITY VAMPIRES BEHIND THE HEDGEROW, EATING GARBAGE THE SOCIAL GRAFT SEXBOT ACES TURING TEST LOOKING INTO A SEE-THROUGH WORLD GILLIGAN’S WEB COMPLETE CONTROL EVERYTHING THAT DIGITIZES MUST CONVERGE RESURRECTION ROCK-BY-NUMBER RAISING THE VIRTUAL CHILD THE IPAD LUDDITES NOWNESS CHARLIE BIT MY COGNITIVE SURPLUS MAKING SHARING SAFE FOR CAPITALISTS THE QUALITY OF ALLUSION IS NOT GOOGLE SITUATIONAL OVERLOAD AND AMBIENT OVERLOAD GRAND THEFT ATTENTION MEMORY IS THE GRAVITY OF MIND THE MEDIUM IS McLUHAN FACEBOOK’S BUSINESS MODEL UTOPIA IS CREEPY SPINELESSNESS FUTURE GOTHIC THE HIERARCHY OF INNOVATION RIP. MIX. BURN. READ. LIVE FAST, DIE YOUNG, AND LEAVE A BEAUTIFUL HOLOGRAM ONLINE, OFFLINE, AND THE LINE BETWEEN GOOGLE GLASS AND CLAUDE GLASS BURNING DOWN THE SCHOOLHOUSE THE ENNUI OF THE INTELLIGENT MACHINE REFLECTIONS WILL GUTENBERG LAUGH LAST? THE SEARCHERS ETERNAL SUNSHINE OF THE SPOTLESS AI MAX LEVCHIN HAS PLANS FOR US EVGENY’S LITTLE PROBLEM THE SHORTEST CONVERSATION BETWEEN TWO POINTS HOME AWAY FROM HOME CHARCOAL, SHALE, COTTON, TANGERINE, SKY SLUMMING WITH BUDDHA THE QUANTIFIED SELF AT WORK MY COMPUTER, MY DOPPELTWEETER UNDERWEARABLES THE BUS THE MYTH OF THE ENDLESS LADDER THE LOOM OF THE SELF TECHNOLOGY BELOW AND BEYOND OUTSOURCING DAD TAKING MEASUREMENT’S MEASURE SMARTPHONES ARE HOT DESPERATE SCRAPBOOKERS OUT OF CONTROL OUR ALGORITHMS, OURSELVES TWILIGHT OF THE IDYLLS THE ILLUSION OF KNOWLEDGE WIND-FUCKING THE SECONDS ARE JUST PACKED MUSIC IS THE UNIVERSAL LUBRICANT TOWARD A UNIFIED THEORY OF LOVE <3S AND MINDS IN THE KINGDOM OF THE BORED, THE ONE-ARMED BANDIT IS KING THESES IN TWEETFORM THE EUNUCH’S CHILDREN: ESSAYS AND REVIEWS FLAME AND FILAMENT IS GOOGLE MAKING US STUPID?
The Internet Is Not the Answer by Andrew Keen
3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, Bob Geldof, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, computer age, connected car, creative destruction, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, disintermediation, Donald Davies, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, full employment, future of work, gig economy, global village, Google bus, Google Glasses, Hacker Ethic, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, index card, informal economy, information trail, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, libertarian paternalism, lifelogging, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, Metcalfe’s law, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, nonsequential writing, Norbert Wiener, Norman Mailer, Occupy movement, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer rental, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Potemkin village, precariat, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, social web, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, TaskRabbit, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, the medium is the message, the new new thing, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, urban planning, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, working poor, Y Combinator
Another smart clothing company, Heapsylon, even had a sports bra made of textile electrodes designed to monitor its wearer’s vital statistics.22 While Google wasn’t officially represented in the Augmented Reality Pavilion, there were plenty of early adopters wandering around the Venetian’s fake piazzas and canals wearing demonstration models of Google Glass, Google’s networked electronic eyeglasses. Michael Chertoff, the former US secretary of homeland security, described these glasses, which have been designed to take both continuous video and photos of everything they see, as inaugurating an age of “ubiquitous surveillance.”23 Chertoff is far from alone is being creeped out by Google Glass. Several San Francisco bars have banned Google Glass wearers—known locally as “Glassholes”—from entry. The US Congress has already launched an inquiry into their impact on privacy. And in June 2013, privacy and data officials from seven countries, including Canada, Australia, Mexico, and Switzerland, sent Google CEO Larry Page a letter expressing their discomfort about the impact on privacy of these glasses.
Doing away with the CPM pricing, Google introduced the auction sales model to AdWords, which some of America’s leading academic economists later described as “spectacularly successful” and “the dominant transaction mechanism in a large and rapidly growing industry.”68 Rather than buying online advertising at a set price, advertisers were now able to bid in what Steven Levy calls a real-time “unique auction” that simultaneously made online advertising more effective and profitable.69 Alongside AdWords, Google also developed an increasingly successful product called AdSense, which provided the tools to buy and measure advertising on websites not affiliated with the search engine. Google’s advertising network was becoming as ubiquitous as Google search. AdWords and AdSense together represented what Levy calls a “cash cow” to fund the next decade’s worth of Web projects, which included the acquisition of YouTube and the creation of the Android mobile operating system, Gmail, Google+, Blogger, the Chrome browser, Google self-driving cars, Google Glass, Waze, and its most recent roll-up of artificial intelligence companies including DeepMind, Boston Dynamics, and Nest Labs.70 More than just cracking the code on Internet profits, Google had discovered the holy grail of the information economy. In 2001, revenues were just $86 million. They rose to $347 million in 2002, then to just under a billion dollars in 2003 and to almost $2 billion in 2004, when the six-year-old company went public in a $1.67 billion offering that valued it at $23 billion.
At the Indiegogo-sponsored section of the show, hidden in the bowels of the Venetian, one crowd-financed startup from Berlin named Panono was showing off what it called a “panoramic ball camera,” an 11 cm electronic ball with thirty-six tiny cameras attached to it, that took panoramic photos whenever the ball was thrown in the air and then, of course, distributed them on the network. Another Indiegogo company, an Italian startup called GlassUP, was demonstrating fashionably designed glasses that—like Google Glass—recorded everything they saw and provided what it called a “second screen” to check emails and read online breaking news. There were even “Eyes-On” X-ray style glasses, from a company called Evena Medical, that allowed nurses to see through a patient’s skin and spy the veins underneath. Just about the only thing I didn’t see in the Venetian were cameras hidden inside watering cans. There were electronic eyes everywhere one looked.
3D printing, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, bank run, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, book scanning, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, connected car, crowdsourcing, dark matter, dematerialisation, Downton Abbey, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, game design, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, index card, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, megacity, Minecraft, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, old-boy network, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, placebo effect, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, the scientific method, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, zero-sum game
It becomes a platform for cultural life, in some ways returning book knowledge to the core. Right now, if you mash up Google Maps and monster.com, you get maps of where jobs are located by salary. In the same way, it is easy to see that, in the great networked library, everything that has ever been written about, for example, Trafalgar Square in London could be visible while one stands in Trafalgar Square via a wearable screen like Google Glass. In the same way, every object, event, or location on earth would “know” everything that has ever been written about it in any book, in any language, at any time. From this deep structuring of knowledge comes a new culture of participation. You would be interacting—with your whole body—with the universal book. Soon a book outside the universal Library of All will be like a web page outside the web, gasping for air.
Computer chips are becoming so small, and screens so thin and cheap, that in the next 30 years semitransparent eyeglasses will apply an informational layer to reality. If you pick up an object while peering through these spectacles, the object’s (or place’s) essential information will appear in overlay text. In this way screens will enable us to “read” everything, not just text. Yes, these glasses look dorky, as Google Glass proved. It will take a while before their form factor is worked out and they look fashionable and feel comfortable. But last year alone, five quintillion (10 to the power of 18) transistors were embedded into objects other than computers. Very soon most manufactured items, from shoes to cans of soup, will contain a small sliver of dim intelligence, and screens will be the tool we use to interact with this ubiquitous cognification.
And since what is in front of your eyes is just a small surface area, it is much easier and cheaper to magnify small improvements in quality. This tiny little area can invoke a huge disruptive presence. But while “presence” will sell it, VR’s enduring benefits spring from its interactivity. It is unclear how comfortable, or uncomfortable, we’ll be with the encumbrances of VR gear. Even the streamlined Google Glass (which I also tried), a very mild AR display not much bigger than sunglasses, seemed too much trouble for most people in its first version. Presence will draw users in, but it is the interactivity quotient of VR that will keep it going. Interacting in all degrees will spread out to the rest of the technological world. • • • About 10 years ago, Second Life was a fashionable destination on the internet.
The Stack: On Software and Sovereignty by Benjamin H. Bratton
1960s counterculture, 3D printing, 4chan, Ada Lovelace, additive manufacturing, airport security, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, David Graeber, deglobalization, dematerialisation, disintermediation, distributed generation, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Eratosthenes, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Georg Cantor, gig economy, global supply chain, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, High speed trading, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, McMansion, means of production, megacity, megastructure, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Monroe Doctrine, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, peak oil, peer-to-peer, performance metric, personalized medicine, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, phenotype, Philip Mirowski, Pierre-Simon Laplace, place-making, planetary scale, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, reserve currency, RFID, Robert Bork, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, semantic web, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Slavoj Žižek, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, software studies, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Startup school, statistical arbitrage, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, Superbowl ad, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, the built environment, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, transaction costs, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, urban planning, Vernor Vinge, Washington Consensus, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, working poor, Y Combinator
Andy Greenberg and Ryan Mac, “How a ‘Deviant’ Philosopher Built Palantir, a CIA-Funded Data-Mining Juggernaut,” Forbes, August 14, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2013/08/14/agent-of-intelligence-how-a-deviant-philosopher-built-palantir-a-cia-funded-data-mining-juggernaut/. 71. Hugo De Garis, The Artilect War: Cosmists vs. Terrans: A Bitter Controversy Concerning Whether Humanity Should Build Godlike Massively Intelligent Machines (Palm Springs, CA: ETC Publications, 2005). 72. Gigi Fenomen, “New App Allows Piloting a Drone with Google Glass Using Head Movements,” Android Apps, August 24, 2013, http://android-apps.com/news/new-app-allows-piloting-a-drone-with-google-glass-using-head-movements/. 73. Let me propose that Philip K. Dick's novel A Scanner Darkly (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1977), should be part of the standard high school literature curriculum, if only because the existential psychology of the User will prove to be based on first-person access to third-person experiences of first-person experiences. 74.
See also Earth artificial megastructures, 176–183 constitutional, 111 defined, 371 economic, 199 essential importance of, 149 exceptional or unregularized, 30 informational, 29 Internet, 361 of jurisdiction, 171–176, 283, 308–309, 323 of multiple geographies, 245–246 politico-theological, 242, 248, 320–322 of The Stack, sovereignty over, 33 superimposition of the addressing matrix, 193 telescoping, 16, 101, 178, 197, 220, 229, 235, 266 geolocated augmented reality, 438n60 geolocative advertising, 255 geolocative Apps, 236, 243 geometrics, 90–91, 309 geometry of territory, 25 geophilosophy (Deleuze and Guattari), 372 geopolitical architecture designed, 38 of Earth layer, 98, 300–302 European, 27 new, need for, 3, 300–302 unipolar, future of, 309–310 geopolitical conflict Google-China, 9, 112–115, 143–144, 245, 361 historical, 6 Nicaragua-Costa Rica border, 9, 120, 144 present-day, 6 geopolitical domains, 118–119 geopolitical geography, 4–5, 19, 33, 65, 252 of borders, 6–7, 97, 172–173, 308–310, 323, 409n42 of conflict, 6, 9, 112–115, 120, 143–144, 245, 361 design model, 3–6 energy driving alignments in, 141 European nomos, 25–26 future-antecedent revision of, 14–17 geometry of, 13–17 loop topology of, 84 mapping, 4–5 of planetary-scale computation, 14–17, 143 TBIT controversy, 174–176 geopolitical theory, 328 geopolitics, 19, 39–40, 257–258, 326, 360 of addressability, 193, 207–208 of addresses, 193–194 algorithmic, 449n56 City layer, 155, 160, 444n26 of climate change, 140–141 Cloud layer, 110–112, 114, 454n75 within comparative planetology, 353 compositional, 85 computational, 360 defined, 371–372 design, 119, 141–145 elements of, 246–247 as epidermal, 355 framework, 159 geoscopy and, 85 Google model, 125, 134–136 of interfaciality, 228 modern, basis of, 24 post-Anthropocenic, 285 of postscarcity, 95 projection as territory/territory as projection, 85 spacelessness of contemporary, 30 space of, 6 geoscapes, 243–249, 372, 429n61 geoscopy, 85, 87, 89–90 geotheological innovation, 242–243 Germany, 309 Gershenfeld, Neil, 226 ghost sovereignties, 100–101 gift economy, 429n59 GigaOM, 186 Girard, Rene, 360 global assemblages, 265–266 global citizenship, basis of, 257 global commons, 35–36 global infrastructure, 139–140 globalization fundamentalism and, 143 individual experience of, 270 infrastructure, 45, 110 international system of control in, 443n23 of postal domains, 194 of risk, 321 software-driven, 348 spatial warfare of, 431n70 twentieth-century, Schmitt's view of, 31–32 of urban geography, 151 globally unique identifier (GUI), 168, 207, 254 global society, Anthropocenic, 106 global urban, 177–179 global visualizations, 265–266 Göbekli Tepe, 149, 176, 188 Godard, Jean-Luc, 147, 158 gold, 82, 104, 336 gold standard, 199, 336 goods and services, quality of, 313 Google advertising infrastructure, 137 algorithmic methods, 332 architectural footprint, 184–185 AR game, 241–242 Cloud Polis, 132, 134–141, 184–185, 187–188, 332 conflict with China, 9, 112–115, 143–144, 245, 361 cosmopolitan logic of, 322 economic sovereignty, 122 Facebook compared, 126 future of, 129, 141–142 geographic strategy, 9, 120, 144 geopolitical model, 125, 134–136 Grossraum, 34–40, 134, 295, 318, 372 infrastructure, physical, 10–11, 113 Interface joke, 332 interfacial regime, 247 mission statement, 87, 122, 134, 138, 186, 353, 396n10 as monopoly, 400n41 nation-state functions, 10–11 Nest, purchase of, 134 network architecture, 118–119 Nortel patent bid, 134 oceanic data centers, 140 OpenFlow's advantages to, 437n58 platform universality, 332 political theology of, 425n46 proto-citizenship, 122 revenue stream, 136–138, 159, 444n26 search infrastructure, 136–138 shutting down access to, 403n63 synthetic catallaxy, 331 territorial footprint, 113 US-centricity, 135 Google AdWords, 255 Google AI, 134 Google bashing, 402n62 Google Car, 129, 134, 139, 281–282, 344, 437n55, 437n57. See also cars: driverless Google charter cities, 352 Google City, 444n26 Googledome, 184 Google Earth, 86, 91, 134, 242, 247–248, 322, 391n30, 431n70 Google Earth RealTime, 299–300 Google Energy, 134, 140 Google Fiber, 399n31 Google Glass, 129, 134, 282, 308, 381n30, 438n60 Google Glass App, 288 Google Gosplan, 328, 332, 363–364, 372 Google ID, 295 Google Ideas, 134, 361 Google Island, 315 Google Maps, 9, 120, 144, 242, 265, 431n70 Googleplex, 183–185 Google Public DNS, 136 Google Robotics, 134, 138–139 Google Sovereignty, 134 Google Space, 134 Google Time, 134 Google 2.0, 184–185 Google Wallet, 127 Google: Words Beyond Grammar (Groys), 239 Google World, 134–135 gorilla populations, 82–83 Gosplan Google, 328, 332, 363–364, 372 Soviet, 59, 138, 329 governance of addresses, 198–199 Address layer, 196 algorithmic, 134, 332–334, 337–338, 341–342, 348, 368 apparatus of, 173–174 Cloud layer, 68, 140, 143 of Cloud Polis, 113–114 computational, 90, 97, 112, 327 cybernetic, 341 ecological, 88–90, 97–106 economic, 329–330 geographic, modes of, 27 of interfaces, 325 Internet, 143 intervention versus interfaciality in, 227–228 machine of, 173–174 of the market, 329–330 meaning of, 327 new forms of, 5, 119, 260 new war over, 10–11 Obama-era infrastructuralism, 180–181 object of, 357, 454n75 of platforms, 143 spatial, 163 technologies of, 7–8 training by computation, 90 of urban interfaces, 155–157, 163, 326 of urban platforms, 326 of the User, 49, 159 governmentality, 7–8, 327 government layer, 396n12 Graeber, David, 443n23 Grand Canyon AR overlay, 242 graphical user interface (GUI).
See Thompson, On Growth and Form (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1917). 39. Typical of this perspective is Jean-Luc Nancy, The Creation of the World, or Globalization (Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2002). 40. A particularly egregious example is Franco “Bifo” Berardi's missive, Neuro-Totalitarianism in Technomaya Goog-Colonization of the Experience and Neuro-Plastic Alternative (Los Angeles: Semtiotext(e), and New York: Whitney Museum, 2014). His target is Google Glass, a piece of hardware that takes on black magic powers in his estimation. In the Interfaces chapter, I will discuss the dangers of augmented reality-based interfacial totalities to engender forms of cognitive totalitarianism, but this is not because they train attention on artificial images, negating our natural faculties of reason and experience (see also the Phaedrus, and Socrates’ admonitions against the written word, 370 B.C., or the whole history of experimental cinema).
Radical Technologies: The Design of Everyday Life by Adam Greenfield
3D printing, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, bank run, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cellular automata, centralized clearinghouse, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cloud computing, collective bargaining, combinatorial explosion, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, Conway's Game of Life, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, digital map, distributed ledger, drone strike, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fiat currency, global supply chain, global village, Google Glasses, IBM and the Holocaust, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late capitalism, license plate recognition, lifelogging, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, megacity, megastructure, minimum viable product, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, natural language processing, Network effects, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, Pearl River Delta, performance metric, Peter Eisenman, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, post scarcity, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, rolodex, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, sorting algorithm, special economic zone, speech recognition, stakhanovite, statistical model, stem cell, technoutopianism, Tesla Model S, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Future of Employment, transaction costs, Uber for X, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce
Unsurprisingly, concerns centered more on the device’s data-collection capability than anything else: according to 5 Point owner Dave Meinert, his customers “don’t want to be secretly filmed or videotaped and immediately put on the Internet.” This is, of course, an entirely reasonable expectation, not merely in the liminal space of a dive bar but anywhere in the city. Casey Newton, “Seattle dive bar becomes first to ban Google Glass,” CNET, March 8, 2013. 23.Dan Wasserman, “Google Glass Rolls Out Diane von Furstenberg frames,” Mashable, June 23, 2014. 4Digital fabrication 1.John Von Neumann, Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1966, cba.mit.edu/events/03.11.ASE/docs/VonNeumann.pdf. 2.You may be familiar with cellular automata from John Conway’s 1970 Game of Life, certainly the best-known instance of the class.
Taken together, these two impositions strongly undercut the primary ostensible virtue of an augmented view: its immediacy. The sole genuine justification for AR is the idea that information is simply there, and can be assimilated without thought or effort. And if this sense of effortlessness will never truly be achievable via handset, it is precisely what an emerging class of wearable mediators aims to provide for its users. The first of this class to reach consumers was the ill-fated Google Glass, which mounted a high-definition, forward-facing camera, a head-up reticle and the microphone required by its natural-language speech recognition interface on a lightweight aluminum frame. While Glass posed any number of aesthetic, practical and social concerns—all of which remain to be convincingly addressed, by Google or anyone else—it does at least give us a way to compare hands-free, head-mounted AR with the handset-based approach.
This is of special concern given the prospect that one or another form of wearable AR might become as prominent in the negotiation of everyday life as the smartphone itself. There is, of course, not much in the way of meaningful prognostication that can be made ahead of any mass adoption, but it’s not unreasonable to build our expectations on the few things we do know empirically. Early users of Google Glass reported disorientation upon removing the headset, after as few as fifteen minutes of use. This is a mild disorientation, to be sure, and easily shaken off—from all accounts, the sort of uneasy feeling that attends staring over-long at an optical illusion, and not the more serious nausea and dizziness suffered by a significant percentage of those using VR.12 If this represents the outer limit of discomfort experienced by users, it’s hard to believe that it would have much impact on either the desirability of the product or people’s ability to function after using it.
AltaVista, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Chelsea Manning, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Graeber, Debian, Edward Snowden, Filter Bubble, Firefox, GnuPG, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market design, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, prediction markets, price discrimination, randomized controlled trial, RFID, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, security theater, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart meter, Steven Levy, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero-sum game, Zimmermann PGP
During the sentencing, the judge said, “This was nothing short of a sustained effort to terrorize victims.” Mijangos was sentenced to six years in prison. And widespread camera dragnets are right around the corner. The arrival of wearable computers equipped with cameras, such as Google Glass, means that everything is fair game for filming. The New York Times columnist Nick Bilton was shocked when he attended a Google conference and saw attendees wearing their Google Glass cameras while using the urinals. But Google Glass enthusiasts say that wearing cameras on their heads changes their life. “I will never live a day of my life from now on without it (or a competitor),” wrote the blogger Robert Scoble after trying out the glasses for two weeks. “It freaks some people out,” he conceded, but he said, “It’s new, that will go away once they are in the market.”
Some, like Acxiom, sell primarily to businesses. Others, such as Intelius, sell primarily to individuals. • Data exchanges. Marketers and data brokers increasingly trade information on real-time trading desks that mimic stock exchanges. INDIVIDUALS • Democratized dragnets. Technology has become cheap enough that everyone can do their own tracking, with items such as dashboard cameras, build-it-yourself drones, and Google Glass eyeglasses that contain tiny cameras that can take photos and videos. The trackers are deeply intertwined. Government data are the lifeblood for commercial data brokers. And government dragnets rely on obtaining information from the private sector. Consider just one example: voting. To register to vote, citizens must fill out a government form that usually requires their name, address, and, in all but one state, birth date.
In 2011, a Santa Ana man named Luis Mijangos: Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Orange County Man Who Admitted Hacking into Personal Computers Sentenced to Six Years in Federal Prison for ‘Sextortion’ of Women and Teenage Girls” (press release), September 1, 2011, https://www.fbi.gov/losangeles/press-releases/2011/orange-county-man-who-admitted-hacking-into-personal-computers-sentenced-to-six-years-in-federal-prison-for-sextortion-of-women-and-teenage-girls. The New York Times columnist Nick Bilton: Nick Bilton, “At Google Conference, Cameras Even in the Bathroom,” Bits (blog), New York Times, May 17, 2013, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/05/17/at-google-conference-even-cameras-in-the-bathroom/. “I will never live a day … without it”: Robert Scoble, “My Two-Week Review of Google Glass,” Google+ post, April 27, 2013, https://plus.google.com/+Scobleizer/posts/ZLV9GdmkRzS. Bobbi Duncan, a twenty-two-year-old lesbian student: Geoffrey A. Fowler, “When the Most Personal Secrets Get Outed on Facebook,” Wall Street Journal, October 13, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10000872396390444165804578008740578200224.html. The most notable example is CIA director David Petraeus: Scott Shane and Sheryl Gay Stolberg, “A Brilliant Career with a Meteoric Rise and an Abrupt Fall,” New York Times, November 10, 2012, https://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/11/us/david-petraeus-seen-as-an-invincible-cia-director-self-destructs.html?
The Glass Cage: Automation and Us by Nicholas Carr
Airbnb, Airbus A320, Andy Kessler, Atul Gawande, autonomous vehicles, Bernard Ziegler, business process, call centre, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, cloud computing, computerized trading, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, digital map, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flash crash, Frank Gehry, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, global supply chain, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, High speed trading, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, natural language processing, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Oculus Rift, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, software is eating the world, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, turn-by-turn navigation, US Airways Flight 1549, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, William Langewiesche
Bohbot, “Spatial Navigational Strategies Correlate with Gray Matter in the Hippocampus of Healthy Older Adults Tested in a Virtual Maze,” Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 5 (2013): 1–8. 24.Email from Véronique Bohbot to author, June 4, 2010. 25.Quoted in Alex Hutchinson, “Global Impositioning Systems,” Walrus, November 2009. 26.Kyle VanHemert, “4 Reasons Why Apple’s iBeacon Is About to Disrupt Interaction Design,” Wired, December 11, 2013, www.wired.com/design/2013/12/4-use-cases-for-ibeacon-the-most-exciting-tech-you-havent-heard-of/. 27.Quoted in Fallows, “Places You’ll Go.” 28.Damon Lavrinc, “Mercedes Is Testing Google Glass Integration, and It Actually Works,” Wired, August 15, 2013, wired.com/autopia/2013/08/google-glass-mercedes-benz/. 29.William J. Mitchell, “Foreword,” in Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), xi. 30.Anonymous, “Interviews: Renzo Piano,” Architectural Record, October 2001, archrecord.construction.com/people/interviews/archives/0110piano.asp. 31.Quoted in Gavin Mortimer, The Longest Night (New York: Penguin, 2005), 319. 32.Dino Marcantonio, “Architectural Quackery at Its Finest: Parametricism,” Marcantonio Architects Blog, May 8, 2010, blog.marcantonioarchitects.com/architectural-quackery-at-its-finest-parametricism/. 33.Paul Goldberger, “Digital Dreams,” New Yorker, March 12, 2001. 34.Patrik Schumacher, “Parametricism as Style—Parametricist Manifesto,” Patrik Schumacher’s blog, 2008, patrikschumacher.com/Texts/Parametricism%20as%20Style.htm. 35.Anonymous, “Interviews: Renzo Piano.” 36.Witold Rybczynski, “Think before You Build,” Slate, March 30, 2011, slate.com/articles/arts/architecture/2011/03/think_before_you_build.html. 37.Quoted in Bryan Lawson, Design in Mind (Oxford, U.K.: Architectural Press, 1994), 66. 38.Michael Graves, “Architecture and the Lost Art of Drawing,” New York Times, September 2, 2012. 39.D.
Clarke, Profiles of the Future: An Inquiry into the Limits of the Possible (New York: Harper & Row, 1960), 227. 20.Sergey Brin, “Why Google Glass?,” speech at TED2013, Long Beach, Calif., February 27, 2013, youtube.com/watch?v=rie-hPVJ7Sw. 21.Ibid. 22.See Christopher D. Wickens and Amy L. Alexander, “Attentional Tunneling and Task Management in Synthetic Vision Displays,” International Journal of Aviation Psychology 19, no. 2 (2009): 182–199. 23.Richard F. Haines, “A Breakdown in Simultaneous Information Processing,” in Gerard Obrecht and Lawrence W. Stark, eds., Presbyopia Research: From Molecular Biology to Visual Adaptation (New York: Plenum Press, 1991), 171–176. 24.Daniel J. Simons and Christopher F. Chambris, “Is Google Glass Dangerous?,” New York Times, May 26, 2013. 25.“Amanda Rosenberg: Google Co-Founder Sergey Brin’s New Girlfriend?
Scattered around stores and other spaces, iBeacon transmitters act as artificial place cells, activating whenever a person comes within range. They herald the onset of what Wired magazine calls “microlocation” tracking.26 Indoor mapping promises to ratchet up our dependence on computer navigation and further limit our opportunities for getting around on our own. Should personal head-up displays, such as Google Glass, come into wide use, we would always have easy and immediate access to turn-by-turn instructions. We’d receive, as Google’s Michael Jones puts it, “a continuous stream of guidance,” directing us everywhere we want to go.27 Google and Mercedes-Benz are already collaborating on an app that will link a Glass headset to a driver’s in-dash GPS unit, enabling what the carmaker calls “door-to-door navigation.”28 With the GPS goddess whispering in our ear, or beaming her signals onto our retinas, we’ll rarely, if ever, have to exercise our mental mapping skills.
Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low skilled workers, millennium bug, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, web application, WebRTC, WebSocket, Y2K
These are workers employed to collect individual stock items from a list. It is not very efficient and they have the same problems as the forklift drivers, finding their way around the warehouse and locating the stock. However, help is at hand through augmented reality. The most commonly known augmented reality device is Google Glass; however, other manufacturers produce products with AR capabilities. Where augmented reality or, for the sake of explanation, Google Glass, comes into logistics is that it is extremely beneficial for human stock pickers. Google Glass can show on the heads up and hand free display the pick list, but can also show additional information such as location of the item and give directions on how to get there. Furthermore, it can capture an image of the item to verify it is the correct stock item. Where items are practically identical to the eye, for example a computer chip, or integrated circuit, hands-free, automatic barcode scan ensures correct item identification.
The company recently announced that it was going to open the first AR supermarket chain in the world. Each of these virtual supermarkets has a completely empty floor space and situated near high footfall areas (e.g., train or subway stations, parks, and universities). The interesting thing is that while the naked eye will just see empty floors and walls, people using an AR-capable device, for example Google Glass, will see shelves filled with vegetables, fruit, meat, fish, beer, and all sorts of real-world products. To buy these virtual products, the customer scans each virtual product with their own mobile devices, adding it to their online shopping carts. They subsequently receive delivery of the products to their homes. References http://www.giraffplus.eu/ https://www.rti.com/whitepapers/5_Ways_Oil_Gas.pdf http://www.dhl.com/en/about_us/logistics_insights/dhl_trend_ research/Internet_of_things.html#.Vxbz49R94rg iot6.eu/sites/default/files/IoT6%20-%20D7.3.pdf 31 CHAPTER 3 The Technical and Business Innovators of the Industrial Internet The advances in sensor technologies in recent times have been driven by the advent of high-speed and low-cost electronic circuits, a change in the way we approach signal processing, and corresponding advances in manufacturing technologies.
Gilchrist, Industry 4.0, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4842-2047-4 246 Index Constrained application protocol (CoAP), 128 advanced analytics, 84 queries, 83 storage, persistence, and retrieval serves, 83 Control area network (CAN), 181 Customers’ premise equipment (CPE), 42 Cyber-physical system (CPS), 36 D Data bus, 139 Data distribution service (DDS), 138 Data management, 82 Delay tolerant networks (DTN), 139 Distributed component object model (DCOM), 148 Dynamic name server (DNS), 127 E Epidemic technique, 141 Ethernet, 120, 127 Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP), 137 F Functional domains, 69 asset management, 71 communication function, 70 control domain, 70 executor, 71 modeling data, 71 G Giraff, 15 Google Glass, 25 H Human machine interface (HMI), 20–21, 45 HVAC system, 131 I, J, K Identity access management (IAM), 191 IIoT architecture architectural topology, 75 data management, 82 IIAF application domain, 75 Business domain, 75 Business viewpoint, 68 functional domains (see Functional domains) information domain, 73 operation domain, 72 stakeholder, 67 usage viewpoint, 68 implementation viewpoint, 75 Industrial Internet IIC, 66 IISs, 66 ISs, 66 M2M, 66 key system characteristics, 79 communication layer functions, 81 connectivity functions, 80 data communications, 79 deliver data, 80 M2M, 65 three-tier topology communication transport layer, 78 connectivity, 78 connectivity framework layer, 78 edge tier, 76 enterprise tier, 76 gateway-mediated edge, 77 platform tier, 76 IIoT middleware architecture, 156 commercial platforms, 160 components, 156 conceptual diagram, 154 connectivity platforms, 157 mobile operators, 158 open source solutions, 160 requirements, 159 IIoT WAN technology 3G/4G/LTE, 164 cable modem, 166 DWDM, 165 free space optics, 166 Index FTTX, 165 internet connectivity, 162 M2M Dash7 protocol, 172 LoRaWAN architecture, 171 LTE cellular technology, 175 MAC/PHY layer, 169 millimeter radio, 176 OSI layers, 169 requirements, 167 RPMA LP-WAN, 173 SigFox, 170 Weightless SIG, 175 Wi-Fi, 174 MPLS, 164 SDH/Sonnet, 163 VSAT, 167 WAN channels, 162 WiMax, 166 xDSL, 163 Industrial Internet 3D printing, 60 augmented reality (AR), 59 Big Data, 52 business value, 55 variety, 54 velocity, 54 veracity, 55 visualizing data, 55 volumes of, data, 53 CAN network, 181 Cloud model, 47 CPS, 35 fog network, 51 ICS, 180 IFE, 182 IP Mobility, 40 M2M learning and artificial intelligence, 56 Miniaturization, 34 Network virtualization, 43 NFV, 42 people vs. automation, 62 remote I/O devices, 34 Russian hackers, 180 SDN, 44 SDN vs.
The Internet of Us: Knowing More and Understanding Less in the Age of Big Data by Michael P. Lynch
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bitcoin, Cass Sunstein, Claude Shannon: information theory, crowdsourcing, Edward Snowden, Firefox, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, Internet of things, John von Neumann, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nate Silver, new economy, patient HM, prediction markets, RFID, sharing economy, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, WikiLeaks
Rifkin, The Zero Marginal Cost Society, 179. 2. Zagzebski, On Epistemology, 145. See also “Recovering Under-standing.” 3. Kitcher, Abusing Science. 47–49. I don’t mean to suggest that Kitcher would embrace my views on understanding, however. 4. Lazer et al., “The Parable of Google Flu.” 5. Solzhenitsyn, Cancer Ward, 192. 6. Pete Pachal, “Google Glass Will Have Automatic Picture-Taking Mode,” Mashable, July 25, 2012. Available at http://mashable.com/2012/07/25/google-glass-photo-mode/#SI4XL.9XkOqI. Accessed September 4, 2015 Bibliography Achinstein, Peter. The Nature of Explanation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983. Bilton, Nick. I Live in the Future & Here’s How It Works: Why Your World, Work, and Brain Are Being Creatively Disrupted. New York: Crown, 2010. Bloom, Paul. “How Do Morals Change?”
Let us hope their motivations are pure, or at least neutral, while we stay on guard for the opposite. As Bertrand Russell once remarked in a somewhat different context, advances in technology never seem to bring along with them—at least, all by themselves—a change in humanity’s penchant for greed and power. That is a lesson I hope we heed—even while we look forward to the benefits the Internet of Us will bring. Many of us share the same concerns. After the initial launch of Google Glass, the reaction was more negative than expected. While many were excited about the technology, it seemed that just as many were worried about its potential for invading privacy; others were concerned about its potential for distracting drivers. These practical objections were serious. But I can’t help wondering if the concern went deeper. Before its launch, Google cofounder Sergey Brin was reported to have said, “We started Project Glass believing that, by bringing technology closer, we can get it more out of the way.”6 Brin was meaning to emphasize the fact that Glass allows you to take pictures without fumbling for your camera.
., 102 French Revolution, 58 Freud, Sigmund, 184 Fricker, Miranda, 146–48, 201 Galileo, 34, 68 Galton, Francis, 120 games, gaming, 20, 191 gatekeeping, 128, 134, 146 gender, 162 in marriage, 53–54, 72 in problem solving, 137 Georgetown University, 77–78 Gilbert, Margaret, 117–19, 200 Glass, Ira, 78 Glaucon, 54 Glauconian reasoning, 54–55, 56–58 global economy, 139, 142, 152 global warming, 56, 100, 124, 144, 185, 198 Goldberg, Sandy, 115 Goldman, Alvin, 194 Google, 5, 23, 30, 113, 128, 130, 135, 163, 174, 182, 203 business model of, 9 data collection and tracking by, 90, 155–56, 158, 161 as hypothetical “guy,” 24 monopolization by, 145–46 propaganda disseminated on, 66 in reinforcement of one’s own beliefs, 56 Google Complete, 155 Google Flu Trends, 158, 183 Google Glass, 149, 186 Google-knowing, xvi, 21–40, 25 defined, 23 limitations of, 174, 180 reliance on, 6–7, 23, 25–26, 30–31, 36, 113, 116, 153, 163, 179–80 Google Maps, 116 Google Street View, 23 Gordon, Lewis, 148 gorilla suit experiment, 30 government: autonomy limited by, 109 closed politics of, 144–45 data mining and analysis used by, 9, 90–91, 93, 104, 107 online manipulation used by, 81 purpose of, 38 transparency of, 137–38 Greece, classical philosophy of, 13, 47, 166–67, 171–72 Grimm, Stephen, 164 Guardian, 81 Gulf of Mexico, oil spill in, 118 H1N1 flu outbreak, tracking of, 158 Haidt, Jonathan, 51–54, 56, 57, 60, 196–97 Halpern, Sue, 106 Harvard Law Review, 89 Hazlett, Allan, 49 HBO GO, 145 Heidegger, Martin, 177 Hemingway, Mark, 46 Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS), 61 Hippocrates, 13 hive-mind, 4, 136 HM (patient), 168–69 Hobbes, Thomas, 38, 109 holiness, logical debate over, 166–67 homosexuality, changing attitudes toward, 53–54 Houla massacre, 83 Howe, Jeff, 136 Huffington Post, 43 human dignity: autonomy and, 58, 59–60 information technology as threat to, 187 interconnectedness and, 184–88 privacy and, 101–9 human rights, 54, 60 digital equality as, 142–48 protection of, 145 Hume, David, 48 hyperconnectivity, 184–88 identity: digital reshaping of, 73–74 manufactured online, 80–81 “scrubbing” of, 74 illegal searches, 93 illusion, distinguishing truth from, 67–74 incidental data collection, 95–96, 99 inclusivity, 135–37 income inequality, 142 inference, 29, 60, 172 information: accuracy and reliability of, 14, 27–30, 39–40, 44–45 collected pools of, 95–100, 107–9 distribution vs. creation of, 24 immediate, unlimited access to, 3–4, 23, 30, 42, 56, 113–16, 135–36, 141, 149, 153, 180 as interconnective, 184–88 vs. knowledge, 14 sorting and filtering of, 12, 26–29, 44–45, 127–28 information age, 111 information analysis, techniques of, 8–9 information cascades, 36, 66, 121 defined, 32 information coordination problem, 38–39, 56 information “glut,” 9–10, 44 information privacy, 94–100 and autonomy, 102–7 information sharing, coordination in, 4–5 information technology: costs of, 145 data trail in, 9 democratization through, 133–38, 148 devices and platforms of, xvii–xviii, 3, 7–8, 10, 41–43, 69, 70, 77–78, 90–91, 106–7, 144, 148–49, 156, 180, 185–87 disquieting questions about, 6 in education, 148–54 experience vs., 173–74 hypothetical loss of, 5 paradox of, 6, 12, 179 pool of data in, 95–100 surveillance and, 89–109 typified and dephysicalized objects in, 69 unequal distribution of, 144–45 see also Internet of Things information theory, 12 infosphere: defined, 10 feedback loop of social constructs in, 72–73 network of, 180 pollution of, 148 vastness of, 128 InnoCentive, 136–37, 141 institutions, cooperative, 60–61 intellectual labor, 139–40 International Telecommunications Union, 135 Internet: author’s experiment in circumventing, 21–24, 25, 35 in challenges to reasonableness, 41–63 changes wrought by, xv–xviii, 6–7, 10–11, 23, 180, 184–88 as a construction, 69 cost and profit debate over, 145 as epistemic resource, 143–45 expectations of, 80–83 as force for cohesion and democracy, 55–63 freedom both limited and enhanced by, 92–93 international rates of access to, 135, 144–45 monopolization and hegemony in, 145–46 as network, 111–13 “third wave” of, 7 see also World Wide Web; specific applications Internet of Everything, 184 Internet of Things: blurring of online and offline in, 71 defined, 7–8 integration of, 10 shared economy in, 140–41 threat from, 107, 153, 184–88 Internet of Us, digital form of life as, 10, 39, 73, 83–86, 106, 179–88 interracial marriage, 54 interrogation techniques, 105 In the Plex (Levy), 5–6 Intrade, 122–23, 136 intuition, 15, 51–53 iPhone, production of, 77–78, 80, 139, 144 IQ, 52 Iraq, 83 Iraq War, 137 ISIS, 128 isolation, polarization and, 42–43 I think, I exist, 127 James, William, 11 Jefferson, Thomas, 143 Jeppesen, Lars Bo, 137 joint commitments, defined, 117–18 journalism, truth and, 84 judgment, 51–55, 57 collective vs. individual, 117, 120–25 justice, 54 “just so” stories, 27–28 Kahneman, Daniel, 29, 51 Kant, Immanuel, 34, 58–60, 62, 85 Kitcher, Philip, 182 knowing-which, as term, 171 knowledge: in big data revolution, 87–190 changing structure of, 125–32 common, 117–19 defined and explained, xvii, 12–17 democratization of, 133–38 digital, see digital knowledge; Google-knowing distribution of, 134–35, 138, 141 diverse forms of, 130 economy of, 138–45 hyperconnectivity of, 184–88 individual vs. aggregate, 120–24 information vs., 14 Internet revolution in, xv–xviii minimal definition of, 14–15 as networked, 111–32 new aspects in old problems of, 1–86, 90 personal observation in, 33–35 political economy of, 133–54 as power, 9, 98–99, 133, 185–86 practical vs. theoretical, 169, 172 procedural, 167–74 recording and storage of, 127–28 reliability of sources of, 14, 27–31, 39–40, 44–45, 114–16 as a resource, 38–39 shared cognitive process in attainment of, 114–25 three forms of, 15–17 three simple points about, 14–17 truth and, 19, 126 understanding vs. other forms of, 6, 16–17, 90, 154, 155–73, 181 value and importance of, 12–13 knowledge-based education, 61 Kodak camera, 89 Koran, 48, 61 Kornblith, Hilary, 194 Krakauer, John, 169 Kuhn, Thomas, 159–60 Lakhani, Karim, 137 Larissa, Greece, 13, 15, 182 Leonhardt, David, 122–23 Levy, Steven, 5–6 liberals, 43 libraries, 22, 134, 153–54 of Alexandria, 8 digital form of life compared to, xvi, 17, 20, 44–45, 56, 63, 128 as epistemic resource, 145 Google treated as, 24 “Library of Babel” (Borges), 17 “Lies, Damned Lies, and ‘Fact-Checking’: The Liberal Media’s Latest Attempt to Control the Discourse” (Hemingway), 46 Lifespan of a Fact, The (D’Agata), 79 literacy, 35, 134 literal artifacts: defined, 69 social artifacts and, 71, 72 lobectomy, 168 Locke, John, 33–36, 39, 60, 67–70, 85, 127, 143 “Locke’s command,” 33–34 London Underground, mapping of, 112–13 machines, control by, 116 “mainstream” media, 32 censorship of, 66 majority rule, 120 manipulation: data mining and, 97, 104–6 of expectations, 80–82 persuasion and, 55, 57–58, 81–83, 86 manuals, 22 manufacturing, 138–39 maps, 21–22 marine chronometer, 137 marketing: bots in, 82 Glauconian, 58 targeted, 9, 90, 91, 105 marriage: changing attitudes toward, 53–54 civil vs. religious, 58–59 as social construct, 72 martial arts, 170 mass, as primary quality, 68 Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), 150–53 mathematics, in data analysis, 160, 161 Matrix, The, 18–19, 75 Mayer-Schönberger, Viktor, 8, 158–59 measles vaccine, 7, 124 Mechanical Turk, 136, 141 media, 134 diversity in, 42 opinion affected by, 53 sensationalist, 77 memory: accessing of, 114, 115 in educational models, 152 loss of, 168–69 superceded by information technology, xv–xvi, 3, 4, 6, 94, 149 trust in, 28, 33 Meno, 13 merchandising, online vs. brick and mortar, 70 Mercier, Hugo, 54 metrics, 112 Milner, Brenda, 168–69 mirror drawing experiment, 169 misinformation, 6–7, 31–32 in support of moral truth, 78–80, 82 mob mentality, 32–33 MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses), 150–53 moral dumbfounding, 52 morality, moral values, xvii, 6, 44, 53–54, 195 “Moses Illusion,” 29–30 motor acuity, mastery of, 170–71, 173 motor skills, 167–74 Murray, Charles J., 147 music, as dephysicalized object, 69–70 Nagel, Thomas, 84 naming, identification by, 94 narrative license, truth and falsehood in, 78–79 National Endowment for the Humanities, 61 National Science Foundation, 61 Nature, 158, 161 Netflix, 69, 145 Net neutrality, defined, 145 netography, 112–13 of knowledge, 125–32 networked age, 111 networks, 111–32 collective knowledge of, 116–25, 180 knowledge reshaped and altered by, 125–32, 133, 140 in problem solving, 136 use of term, 111–12 neural system, 26 neural transplants, 3, 5 Neurath, Otto, 128–29 neuromedia, 3–5, 12, 17–19, 113–14, 132, 149, 168, 180–82, 184 limitations of, 174 as threat to education, 153–54 Newton, Isaac, 175 New Yorker, 25, 26 New York Times, 122, 174 Nietzsche, Friedrich, 111 Nobel laureates, 149 noble lie, 83, 86 nonfiction, 79–80 NPR, 78, 80 NSA: alleged privacy abuses by, 98–100, 138 data mining by, 9, 91, 95–96, 108, 167 proposed limitations on, 109 Ntrepid, 81 nuclear weapons technology, xvii nullius in verba (take nobody’s word for it), 34 Obama, Barack, 7, 100 administration, 109 objectivity, objective truth, 45, 74 as anchor for belief, 131 in constructed world, 83–86 as foundation for knowledge, 127 observation, 49, 60 affected by expectations, 159–60 behavior affected by, 91, 97 “oceanic feeling,” 184 “offlife,” 70 OkCupid, 157 “onlife,” 70 online identity creation, 73–74 online ranking, 119–21, 136 open access research sharing sites, 135–36 open society: closed politics vs., 144–45 values of, 41–43, 62 open source software, 135 Operation Earnest Voice, 81 Operation Ivy, ix opinion: knowledge vs., 13, 14, 126 in online ranking, 119–20 persuasion and, 50–51 truth as constructed by, 85–86 optical illusions, 67 Oracle of Delphi, 16–17, 171 Outcome-Based Education (OBE), 61–62 ownership, changing concept of, 73 ox, experiment on weight of, 120 Oxford, 168 Page, Larry, 5–6 Panopticon, 91, 92, 97 perception: acuity of, 173 distinguishing truth in, 67–74 expectations and, 159–60 misleading, 29–30, 67 as relative, 67–68 perceptual incongruity, 159–60 personal freedom, 101 persuasion, 50–51, 54–55, 56–58 by bots, 82 phone books, 22 phone data collection, 95, 108 photography: privacy and, 89, 93 sexually-explicit, 99 photo-sharing, manipulation in, 82–83 Plato, 13–14, 16–17, 54, 59, 83, 126, 165–67 polarization, 7 herd mentality in, 66 isolated tribes in, 43–46 politics, 162, 196 accessibility in, 23 activism in, 66, 67 bias in, 43–46 closed, 144–45 elections in, 120–23 of knowledge, 133–54 opposition to critical thinking in, 61–62 persuasion in, 57–58, 82–83 power in, 86, 133 prediction market in, 122–23 Politifact, 46 Popper, Karl, 41–43 Postman, L.
Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Black Swan, business intelligence, call centre, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, Paul Graham, QR code, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Y Combinator
There are projects under way that will enable features like Google Glass to be packed into a contact lens.30 The implications of such an unobtrusive – and powerful – interface are simply jaw-dropping. If we go back to the beginning of the last technology cycle – that of the smartphone, kicked off by the iPhone in 2007 – we can see how quickly a touchscreen interface, a powerful operating system, integrated sensors and a ubiquitous mobile Internet connection changed our lives. It was just a matter of years. When the next technology cycle begins – and it will undoubtedly be something more wearable – it will begin with huge swathes of the ecosystem already in place. The time to get 1 billion active users of a gizmo like Google Glass will be a lot shorter than the eight years it took the smartphone to smash that milestone. While Google Glass has received a lot of attention because of Google’s profile, another equally fascinating, and potentially even more disruptive, technology company has captured headline.
While the media and blogosphere speculate about a vastly superior ‘iWatch’ in the offing from Apple – one that will incorporate all kinds of clever non-invasive sensors that may measure all kinds of things, including heart rate, oxygen saturation, perspiration and blood sugar levels in addition to the already commonplace step- and calorie-measuring sensors – other companies are already profiting from wearable technology. The fitness-bracelet market – where devices like Fitbit, Nike’s Fuelband and the Jawbone Up lead the market – delivered $2 billion in revenue in 2013. And that number is expected to triple by 2015.29 But all those technologies pale in comparison with one. Say hello (or OK) to Google Glass. Google Glass is 63 grams of hardware – a modern-looking set of glass frames (without lenses) sporting a microdisplay that projects an interface (which appears as a floating 27-inch display) into your field of vision. Think of it as an advanced – and heavily miniaturised – version of the Heads Up Display (HUD) systems that fighter pilots use. The device cleverly integrates a video camera that can record videos or photos and an Internet connection, so you can send those images and videos anywhere you like – and it all runs on a version of Google’s Android operating system.
Companies that don’t have robust business models will not be able to invest in these kinds of activities, which will make it increasingly harder for them to retain the best people, who in turn, once salary is taken care of, will be looking for a job with meaning. And that comes from a company that has a culture of pure innovation and solving meaningful problems. Google X is the division of Google that is home to the company’s moonshots. Since 2010 it has delivered a variety of seemingly impossible fantasies, such as the self-driving car (which has travelled over 500,000 km without a single accident11), Google Glass (a wearable computer with an optical head-mounted display), Project Loon (which provides rural Internet connectivity via high-altitude autonomous balloons12) and more than 100 other projects.13 So, when you think about the future of your app, it’s important to think about how big your ambition and vision are – and how you are going to take people on that journey. It’s not just a journey about earning lots of money and getting lots of perks.
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, AI winter, airport security, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Duvall, bioinformatics, Brewster Kahle, Burning Man, call centre, cellular automata, Chris Urmson, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, deskilling, don't be evil, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Hofstadter, Dynabook, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Grace Hopper, Gunnar Myrdal, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hacker Ethic, haute couture, hive mind, hypertext link, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Conway, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, medical residency, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, natural language processing, new economy, Norbert Wiener, PageRank, pattern recognition, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Stallman, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sand Hill Road, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, skunkworks, Skype, social software, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Ted Nelson, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tenerife airport disaster, The Coming Technological Singularity, the medium is the message, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Catalog, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, zero-sum game
In the late 1980s, anyone wandering through the cavernous Grand Central Station in Manhattan would have noticed that almost a third of the morning commuters were wearing Sony Walkman headsets. Today, of course, the Walkmans have been replaced by Apple’s iconic bright white iPhone headphones, and there are some who believe that technology haute couture will inevitably lead to a future version of Google Glass—the search engine maker’s first effort to augment reality—or perhaps more ambitious and immersive systems. Like the frog in the pot, we have been desensitized to the changes wrought by the rapid increase and proliferation of information technology. The Walkman, the iPhone, and Google Glass all prefigure a world where the line between what is human and who is machine begins to blur. William Gibson’s Neuromancer, the science-fiction novel that popularized the idea of cyberspace, drew a portrait of a new cybernetic territory composed of computers and networks.
William Gibson’s Neuromancer, the science-fiction novel that popularized the idea of cyberspace, drew a portrait of a new cybernetic territory composed of computers and networks. It also painted a future in which computers were not discrete boxes, but would be woven together into a dense fabric that was increasingly wrapped around human beings, “augmenting” their senses. It is not such a big leap to move from the early-morning commuters wearing Sony Walkman headsets, past the iPhone users wrapped in their personal sound bubbles, directly to Google Glass–wearing urban hipsters watching tiny displays that annotate the world around them. They aren’t yet “jacked into the net,” as Gibson foresaw, but it is easy to assume that computing and communication technology is moving rapidly in that direction. Gibson was early to offer a science-fiction vision of what has been called “intelligence augmentation.” He imagined computerized inserts he called “microsofts”—with a lowercase m—that could be snapped into the base of the human skull to instantly add a particular skill—like a new language.
Page offered him the opportunity to do things at “Google scale,” which meant that his work would touch the entire world. He secretly set up a laboratory modeled vaguely on Xerox PARC, the legendary computer science laboratory that was the birthplace of the modern personal computer, early computer networks, and the laser printer, creating projects in autonomous cars and reinventing mobile computing. Among other projects, he helped launch Google Glass, which was an effort to build computing capabilities including vision and speech into ordinary glasses. Unlike laboratories of the previous era that emphasized basic science, such as IBM Research and Bell Labs, Google’s X Lab was closer in style to PARC, which had been established to vault the copier giant, restyled “the Document Company,” into the computer industry—to compete directly with IBM.
Terms of Service: Social Media and the Price of Constant Connection by Jacob Silverman
23andMe, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, basic income, Brian Krebs, California gold rush, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, don't be evil, drone strike, Edward Snowden, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, game design, global village, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, late capitalism, license plate recognition, life extension, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Minecraft, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, national security letter, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, postindustrial economy, prediction markets, pre–internet, price discrimination, price stability, profit motive, quantitative hedge fund, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent control, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social graph, social web, sorting algorithm, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, TaskRabbit, technoutopianism, telemarketer, transportation-network company, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, universal basic income, unpaid internship, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, Zipcar
Vine, Instagram, YouTube, and other video services could automatically analyze the audio content of uploaded material and then compile realtime reports that they sell on to advertising partners. Governments could mine videos for political opinions and create voice samples of troublesome citizens. Security agencies such as the FBI, which has the technical capability to remotely and surreptitiously activate the microphones in many smartphones, as well as the webcams in computers, could see if a surveillance target is lying or anxious. Google Glass could become a kind of roving emotion-meter, providing you with voice analysis of everyone you meet. On a more conceptual level, voice analysis and sentiment analysis are about finding out what you think and feel: your “mood graph.” Social-media companies really would like to know what you are thinking at all times, but they need the data to be machine-readable, which is why we’re prompted to structure our data by tagging emotions, companies, people, and places and why forms of computational analysis promise to automate this process.
The uncanny valley of mutual surveillance appears when we have to face our surveillers, whom we prefer to think of as disembodied and remote. The prospect of a stranger holding a smartphone, its camera pointed in your direction, has become almost routine, but it can also be cause to stop and wonder, Is she photographing me? Why would someone want to photograph me? And do I want to do something to encourage or discourage that? Google Glass is an ostensibly social surveillance device which, in practice, places the medium, a bit too literally, between the wearer and the world. Its red recording light is a vivid signal to onlookers: I’m watching you. Wearing it becomes a desocializing act, as some early adopters found when people asked them to take them off in social interactions or stared at them skeptically. In response, some coffee shops, casinos, and bars banned the devices.
When we rate an Uber driver, who doesn’t technically work for Uber, we are, in essence, rating him as an individual, adjudicating his personal value to us. Robert Moran, head of the Brunswick Group, a communications consultancy, sees what he calls the “rateocracy” as an opportunity for transparency, when good corporations and citizens will be rewarded for acting ethically and in others’ best interests. It will be integrated with augmented reality apps, so that you can activate your Google Glass or pull out your smartphone and see ratings for people, businesses, and places all around you. Facial recognition will likely play a role: imagine being able to access information—social-media profiles, Google searches, biographical information, ratings from friends, colleagues, lovers—on anyone you see, without even talking to them. A universal ratings service might appear, or ratings services will become more deeply intertwined, with shared log-ins and metrics in the manner of some social networks.
Disrupted: My Misadventure in the Start-Up Bubble by Dan Lyons
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, call centre, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate governance, dumpster diving, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Golden Gate Park, Google Glasses, Googley, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, new economy, Paul Graham, pre–internet, quantitative easing, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, tulip mania, Y Combinator, éminence grise
So instead of running the full photograph, I will just show you two of the people in it: The one on the left, with the cone head, is Marc Andreessen of Andreessen Horowitz. The one on the right is John Doerr of Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers. Look how smug they are, how sure of themselves! These two grown men wearing the hideous face computer called Google Glass are two of the most respected investors in Silicon Valley, and they represent two of the most important venture capital firms. The photograph from which these images are taken was released as part of the announcement of the Glass Collective, a special fund created to invest in companies that would develop applications for Google Glass, which Andreessen and Doerr described as a “potentially transformative technology.” Glass had a tiny computer display embedded in a box in front of your right eye and would display information as you walked around. You could check the weather, get directions, take photos, record video.
In 2008, when the iPhone became the cool new thing, he announced the iFund, to invest in app makers. In 2010, when Facebook got hot, he announced the sFund, to invest in social media companies. Doerr even started wearing a T-shirt and hoodie, just like Mark Zuckerberg. Forming the Glass Collective in 2013 was just another attempt to latch on to something trendy. In the end Doerr got nothing out of Google Glass except some publicity, but maybe that was the point all along. In the old days, Silicon Valley venture capitalists embraced a California version of clubby East Coast white-shoe culture. All of the top VC firms literally sit beside one another on the same street, a big boulevard called Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park. For decades these firms resembled snooty private gentlemen’s clubs—in the British upper class sense of the word.
They launch blogs and podcasts, and hire former journalists to run them. Every year only a handful of Silicon Valley companies deliver big paydays. If you’re a VC, you must have money parked in those companies. But getting into those deals is not so easy. Investors actually have to compete to get into hot deals. How do you get that entrepreneur to take your money? How do you stand out? You generate publicity. You have your picture taken wearing Google Glass and call yourself a visionary, someone who can “see around corners,” as they say in Silicon Valley. Even as valuations climb to record levels, you insist that you are not overpaying. “It’s not a bubble; it’s an unprecedented, long boom,” Doerr told Bloomberg in June 2015. Then again, Doerr is in the business of selling companies to the public markets. What do you expect him to say? Asking a venture capitalist if private companies are overvalued is like asking a car salesman if he thinks you’re paying too much for the new Mercedes he’s selling you.
Ada Lovelace, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Black Swan, call centre, capital asset pricing model, commoditize, computer age, corporate governance, creative destruction, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, Freestyle chess, future of work, Google Glasses, Grace Hopper, industrial cluster, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, job automation, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Narrative Science, new economy, rising living standards, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs
Point a video camera at any person’s face, and the company’s Sentiment Analysis software can tell you that person’s overall sentiment (positive, negative, neutral) plus display a continually updating bar chart showing levels of seven primary emotions—joy, surprise, sadness, fear, disgust, contempt, anger—and two advanced emotions, frustration and confusion (advanced because they’re combinations of other emotions). Point the camera at a group of people and it analyzes all their emotions and gives you a composite readout. Incorporate the software into Google Glass, as the company has done, and the emotion readouts for anyone you’re looking at appear before your eyes (and yes, several people quickly noted that the emotion you may very well detect is contempt for you because you’re wearing Google Glass). Emotient’s initial target market for selling the Sentiment Analysis system was retailers, but the possibilities are obviously much broader. Affectiva, a spin-off from MIT’s Media Lab, also uses Ekman’s research to analyze facial expressions, selling its software to marketers and advertisers so they can conduct consumer research online using webcams.
Review of General Psychology, vol. 6, no. 2 (2002), pp. 139–45. Ekman built a successful business . . . Paul Ekman Group has continued for many years—see www.paulekman.com. The possibilities of such technology . . . For the founders and advisers of Emotient, see www.emotient.com. Point a video camera at any person’s face . . . “This Google Glass App Will Detect Your Emotions, Then Relay Them Back to Retailers,” Fast Company, 6 March 2014, http://www.fastcompany.com/3027342/fast-feed/this-google-glass-app-will-detect-your-emotions-then-relay-them-back-to-retailers. Affectiva, a spin-off from MIT’s Media Lab . . . See www.affectiva.com. A separate project within the Media Lab . . . For a description, see http://affect.media.mit.edu/pdfs/14.Hernandez_et_al-DIS.pdf. Researchers led by Dr. Marian Bartlett . . .
23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day
They’re also talking about personalized marketing, and insurance companies may someday buy their data to make business decisions. Perhaps the extreme in the data-generating-self trend is lifelogging: continuously capturing personal data. Already you can install lifelogging apps that record your activities on your smartphone, such as when you talk to friends, play games, watch movies, and so on. But this is just a shadow of what lifelogging will become. In the future, it will include a video record. Google Glass is the first wearable device that has this potential, but others are not far behind. These are examples of the Internet of Things. Environmental sensors will detect pollution levels. Smart inventory and control systems will reduce waste and save money. Internet-connected computers will be in everything—smart cities, smart toothbrushes, smart lightbulbs, smart sidewalk squares, smart pill bottles, smart clothing—because why not?
Expect the same thing to happen with automatic face recognition. Initially, the data from private cameras will most likely be used by bounty hunters tracking down bail jumpers. Eventually, though, it will be sold for other uses and given to the government. Already the FBI has a database of 52 million faces, and facial recognition software that’s pretty good. The Dubai police are integrating custom facial recognition software with Google Glass to automatically identify suspects. With enough cameras in a city, police officers will be able to follow cars and people around without ever leaving their desks. This is mass surveillance, impossible without computers, networks, and automation. It’s not “follow that car”; it’s “follow every car.” Police could always tail a suspect, but with an urban mesh of cameras, license plate scanners, and facial recognition software, they can tail everyone—suspect or not.
They put a camera in a public place, captured images of people walking past, identified them with facial recognition software and Facebook’s public tagged photo database, and correlated the names with other databases. The result was that they were able to display personal information about a person in real time as he or she was walking by. This technology could easily be available to anyone, using smartphone cameras or Google Glass. Sometimes linking identities across data sets is easy; your cell phone is connected to your name, and so is your credit card. Sometimes it’s harder; your e-mail address might not be connected to your name, except for the times people refer to you by name in e-mail. Companies like Initiate Systems sell software that correlates data across multiple data sets; they sell to both governments and corporations.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbus A320, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, asset-backed security, augmented reality, barriers to entry, bitcoin, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, en.wikipedia.org, fixed income, George Gilder, Google Glasses, high net worth, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, Infrastructure as a Service, invention of the printing press, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, London Interbank Offered Rate, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, mass affluent, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, optical character recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Pingit, platform as a service, QR code, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, risk tolerance, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Skype, speech recognition, stem cell, telepresence, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, underbanked, US Airways Flight 1549, web application
The combination of these various technologies leads to the conceptualisation of some very interesting technologies. Google is expected to launch its Google Glasses commercially within the next year or so, but officially launched Google Project Glass to its developer community late June 2012. Some of us might be excited by the idea of an incessant stream of data floating in front of our eyeballs, but there are just as many others who might recoil at the thought. For one thing, how can we interact authentically with the world around us when everywhere we look we’re prompted to check in, reminded that we have a meeting in 30 minutes, or fed instructions about which path is the best walking route to take? Figure 10.4: Would you wear Google Glasses? (Credit: Google) In Google’s concept video the man wearing the glasses meets a friend in a bookstore by following the most direct walking path to where his buddy had checked in.
With Google Related, they’ll also have the option of viewing other content relative to that topic—such as videos, product reviews, or other mentions of the product across the web. Now imagine doing the same with geolocation data—tying in where the consumers physically are or what they’re looking at or for through their mobile devices. Ultimately, Google is trying to find ways of augmenting their view of the world through this data with projects such as Google Glasses, or Project Glass as it is known internally. The development of Siri for the iOS platform is really another example of interfacing with the world of data and giving the consumer more contextual access. Search is going to become less like a search, and more like just helping them with the data they need to make decisions in everyday life. In that way, you need to start thinking very seriously about when and where a customer needs a financial services product, not just what they need and search for.
Glasses could become the next iPhone-type fashion accessory. Right now both iPhone and Google Nexus phones incorporate some AR applications that are very simple to use and very, very cool. Combining this type of technology with digital cameras or camera phones is one thing, but there is an emerging technology that might change the way we see our environment and the things around us in an entirely new manner. Google Glasses At Sony’s 2009 CES (Consumer Electronics Show), Tom Hanks appeared on stage with Sir Howard Stringer, CEO and president of Sony Corporation in the US. Sony was parading its new high-definition video glasses that are currently under development—these HD specs have a widescreen 16:9 HD-quality image projected onto the lens. In the show version, they also had in-built cameras. In 2003 MIT published a paper on the concept of smart glasses they called “The Memory Glasses”.10 These memory glasses used both cameras and FLIR (Forward-Looking Infra-Red) for image recognition and a HUD system for visual cues.
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Google Glasses, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, lifelogging, medical malpractice, medical residency, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, pets.com, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Toyota Production System, Uber for X, US Airways Flight 1549, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Yogi Berra
Augmedix, CellScope, and Lift Labs each have compelling human stories: helping a doctor who is struggling to satisfy both his patients and his EHR; a working mom who is confronting a wailing, febrile toddler; a proud elderly man who is too embarrassed to eat in his favorite restaurant. Each leverages a technology that did not exist a decade ago: Google Glass, the iPhone, and the vibration sensing and dampening device. But none of these technologies can achieve its full impact, nor are the business models likely to be viable over the long haul, unless they are supported by, and embedded in, appropriate work flows, cultures, regulations, and economic models. Take Augmedix—it’s a good idea, and it’s fueled by cool technology. But how do we get the transcript into, and the vital signs out of, the electronic health record? And what about the privacy issues for the doctor walking around the office wearing Google Glass? Will she be hit with a huge HIPAA fine if she inadvertently video records a patient down the hall? For CellScope: Is there a physician available to look at my kid’s eardrum picture at 6 a.m.?
He and his colleagues have even prepared a response, ready in case that awful phone call ever comes. 19 It’s worth noting that this degree of paternalism is still prevalent in many countries outside the United States. 20 Now Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. 21 The term patient portal is now commonly used to describe an Internet-enabled, secure website on which patients can view some portion of their health data. More on this in Chapter 21. 22 The Roman god of wine. 23 A start-up named Augmedix has built such a capacity: the doctor wears Google Glass during the encounter, and a combination of voice recognition and a remote transcriptionist produces the note. I’ll have more to say about this company later. Chapter 21 Personal Health Records and Patient Portals When we try to pick out anything by itself we find that it is bound fast by a thousand invisible cords that cannot be broken, to everything in the universe. —John Muir, in 1869 OpenNotes is just one slice of a broader phenomenon enabled by healthcare IT: the patient portal.
Collectively, they illustrate the breadth and creativity of the start-up side of health IT. The first is called Augmedix. Recall our earlier discussion about how doctors have become slaves to their electronic health records, leading some hospitals and clinics to hire scribes to allow physicians and patients to make eye contact again. With Augmedix, doctors interact with their patients while wearing Google Glass, and the voice and video recordings go off to a distant site, where a combination of human transcriptionists and natural language processing helps create the note. The physician can also call up data from the EHR (“Okay, Glass, show me the vital signs”) without turning away from the patient. Another Rock Health company, CellScope, makes an attachment for your smartphone that can take a picture inside someone’s ear—a replacement for the doctor’s otoscope.
Exponential Organizations: Why New Organizations Are Ten Times Better, Faster, and Cheaper Than Yours (And What to Do About It) by Salim Ismail, Yuri van Geest
23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, Burning Man, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Wanstrath, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive bias, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, dark matter, Dean Kamen, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, ethereum blockchain, Galaxy Zoo, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, hiring and firing, Hyperloop, industrial robot, Innovator's Dilemma, intangible asset, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, lifelogging, loose coupling, loss aversion, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, means of production, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, p-value, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, prediction markets, profit motive, publish or perish, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, social software, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, subscription business, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tony Hsieh, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, urban planning, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game
With more than seven billion mobile phones in use globally, many equipped with a high-resolution camera, anything and everything can be recorded in real time, from a baby’s first words to the events of the Arab Spring. Like it or not, we are hurtling towards a world of radical transparency—and being driven off the privacy cliff by trillions of sensors recording our every move. Beyond Verbal, an Israeli company, can analyze the tonal variations of a 10-second clip of your voice to determine mood and underlying attitude with an 85 percent certainty. Now, toss into this mix Google Glass, the smart eyewear that enables video or images to be recorded or transmitted in real time anywhere as people move throughout their day. Next, add drones, which cost less than $100 and can be flown at a variety of altitudes, their 5-gigapixel cameras capturing everything in the landscape below. And, finally, consider the several nanosatellite companies which are launching mesh configurations of hundreds of satellites into low Earth orbit, and which will provide real-time video and images anywhere on the planet.
Page’s response was cryptic: “What would a Brickhouse for atoms look like?” he asked. We now know what he meant. In launching the Google[X] lab, Google has taken the classic skunkworks approach to new product development further than anyone ever imagined. Google[X] offers two fascinating new extensions to the traditional approach. First, it aims for moonshot-quality ideas (e.g., life extension, autonomous vehicles, Google Glass, smart contact lenses, Project Loon, etc.). Second, unlike traditional corporate labs that focus on existing markets, Google[X] combines breakthrough technologies with Google’s core information competencies to create entirely new markets. We strongly recommend that every big company attempt something similar by creating a lab that is a playground for breakthrough technologies. It should then conduct ongoing experiments with new products and services, with a goal of creating entirely new markets for the company.
AI, data science and analytics Description: Ubiquitous usage of Machine Learning and Deep Learning algorithms to process vast caches of information. Implications: Algorithms driving more and more business decisions; AIs replacing a large percentage of knowledge workers; AIs looking for patterns in organizational data; algorithms embedded into products. Virtual/augmented reality Description: Avatar-quality VR available on desktop in 2-3 years. Oculus Rift, High Fidelity and Google Glass drive new applications. Implications: Remote viewing; centrally located experts serving more areas; new practice areas; remote medicine. Bitcoin and block chain Description: Trustless, ultra-low-cost secure transactions enabled by distributed ledgers that log everything. Implications: The blockchain becomes a trust engine; most third-party validation functions become automated (e.g., multi-signatory contracts, voting systems, audit practices).
Digital Bank: Strategies for Launching or Becoming a Digital Bank by Chris Skinner
algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, bank run, Basel III, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, demand response, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Google Glasses, high net worth, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, margin call, mass affluent, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Pingit, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, reserve currency, RFID, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Stuxnet, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, web application, Y2K
And that means being the bank that mines data to provide predictive, proactive, proximity based payments. This also means that the augmented economy is already a reality. The Augmented Economy “Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.” Arthur C. Clarke, 1917 - 2008 The augmented economy, where everything is connected and communicating and transacting non-stop, became a reality in 2013 when Google launched Google Glass. Google Glass is a pair of wifi glasses that allow you to see enhanced information about all that is around you in real-time. Google and influential commentators such as Robert Scoble believe this technology will change people’s lives forever. This will have a profound impact on society, and therefore customers and consumers for, if we can offer products and services at the customer’s point of existence through an augmented delivery 24*7, then we can change everything.
If you ever get confused, you can just go ask a Genius how it works in the App Store on the main street. The bank designed for humans will not have retail stores that are geared for transactions, but will have retail stores that reinforce a sense of belonging to their brand community online. Their brand community will be the community of people who are fans of their apps and services on mobiles and tablets and laptops. They may be fans who use the brand in augmented services, like Google Glass, to see if they can afford things as they cook, commute, shop, search, work and exercise. These fans see their financial service embedded in their daily lifestyle, not as something that is transacting but as something that is advising them at their point of living. And every now and again, they feel prompted to go and ask: how does this work or what do I do when and it gets them into a human contact at the bank’s Genius Bar in store or on the telephone.
The example I normally use is Google’s ability to understand our search and data usage needs. As we search, it can log our wants and desires, including those that you don’t want anyone else to know about. These wants and desires can then be leveraged through partnerships. For example, if you searched for a Sony Ultra HD TV last night and found it at Best Buy online for $2,499, you might be driving the next day and Google Glass will pop up an alert that the TV is on offer for pickup as you drive by Best Buy for just $1,999 if you go in-store now. This linkup may then be leveraged through extended partnership. So you drive to the store and Glass advises that Citibank will approve a 36-month $2,000 loan at a 1% discount on advertised credit rates. You don’t need to do anything other than say ‘yes’ or ‘no’ or ‘later’, and all of this is stored in your personal cloud.
Only Humans Need Apply: Winners and Losers in the Age of Smart Machines by Thomas H. Davenport, Julia Kirby
AI winter, Andy Kessler, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, business intelligence, business process, call centre, carbon-based life, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, commoditize, conceptual framework, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, deskilling, digital map, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, fixed income, follow your passion, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, game design, general-purpose programming language, Google Glasses, Hans Lippershey, haute cuisine, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, information retrieval, intermodal, Internet of things, inventory management, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, lifelogging, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter Thiel, precariat, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, speech recognition, spinning jenny, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Works Progress Administration, Zipcar
Engelbart, “Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework,” SRI Summary Report AFOSR-3223, prepared for Director of Information Sciences, Air Force, Office of Scientific Research, Washington 25, DC, Contract AF 49(638)-1024, SRI Project No. 3578 (AUGMENT,3906), October 1962, http://insitu.lri.fr/~mbl/ENS/FONDIHM/2012/papers/Englebart-Augmenting62.pdf. 5. Norbert Wiener, The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society (New York: Da Capo Press, 1988), 159. 6. Maddy Myers, “Google Glass: Inspired by Terminator,” Slice of MIT, May 30, 2013, https://slice.mit.edu/2013/05/30/google-glass-inspired-by-terminator/. 7. David Scott, remarks at the opening of the Computer Museum, June 10, 1982, transcript accessed October 29, 2015, http://klabs.org/history/history_docs/ech/agc_scott.pdf. 8. David A. Mindell, Digital Apollo: Human and Machine in Spaceflight (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2008). 9. John Maynard Keynes, Essays in Persuasion (New York: Norton, 1963), 358–73. 10.
When a machine greatly augments your powers of information retrieval, as many information systems do, we would call that gaining a superpower. Indeed, in the Terminator film franchise, out of all the superhuman capabilities Skynet designed into its “cybernetic organisms,” the one filmgoers covet most is the instant pop-up retrieval of biographical information on any humans encountered. It was the inspiration, for example, for Google Glass, according to the technical lead on that product, Thad Starner.6 (And although we had to say Hasta la vista, baby, to that particular product, Google assures us it will be back.) When Tom wrote a book about knowledge workers a decade ago, there were already some examples of how empowering such information retrieval can be for them. He wrote in some detail, for example, about the idea of “computer-aided physician order entry,” particularly focusing on an example of this type of system at Partners HealthCare, a care network in Boston.
See also Vanguard Group ATMs, 14 augmentation in, 86–88 automated decision-making (robo-advisors) and other automated jobs, 11–12, 18, 20, 22, 25, 29, 48, 86, 87, 88, 92, 100, 105, 156–57, 198–99, 213, 214 bank failure, 90 Cathcart and WaMu, 89–91 creating a balance between computer-based and human skills, 105 federal regulatory agencies and, 214 hedge funds, 6, 84, 92–93, 95, 111 “portfolio management” jobs, 92 risk management systems, 146 Stepping Narrowly, Carey and, 172–73 Stepping Up in, 92–93 Finland, 239 Flickr, 125–26 food and food preparation, 122–23, 128 Ford, Martin, 205 Ford Motor Company, 1, 213 Foxconn, 2 Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Gardner), 113 Franks, Bill, 43 Freud, Sigmund, 242 Future of Life Institute, 243–44, 247 open letter by, 247–48 Gardner, Howard, 113 Garland, Alex, 127 Gartner, 4, 43, 196 Gates, Bill, 226 Geist, Edward Moore, 245 General Motors, 213 Georgetown University’s Center on Education and the Workforce, 23 Gervais, Ricky, 109–10 Gibbons, Grinling, 159 Gladwell, Malcolm, 108 Glaser, Robert, 163 Global Drucker Forum, 248 Goldman Sachs, 156, 172–73, 186 Goldsberry, Kirk, 164 Gongos, 62–63 Google, 181, 213 Googlers-to-Googlers (G2G), 233 Google Classroom, 141 Google Glass, 65 Google Translate, 43, 53, 56, 151 Gou, Terry, 2, 224 Granakis, Alfred, 1 Gray, Peter, 118 Great Depression, 238, 239 Green, David, 6 Gretzky, Wayne, 160 guaranteed basic income, 241–43, 246 GW Medical Faculty Associates, 181 Hafez, Alex, 132, 143–44, 145, 146 Hanover Insurance, 102–3, 134 Hanson, David, 123 Hanson Robot, 123–24 Harrington, Brian, 101–2 Hawking, Stephen, 225–26 HCL Technologies, 204 health care and medicine adding new sources of data, 197 anesthesiologists, 19 augmentation in cancer care, 209–10 automated diagnosis and treatment protocols, 46, 54, 55–56, 66, 209 automation in, 14–15, 16–18, 19, 157 cancer research, 46, 60–61, 212 cognitive technologies in, 4–5, 17, 41 computer-aided physician order entry, 66 cost of AI programs, 155–56 cost of U.S., 155–56 Dr.
Ghost Fleet: A Novel of the Next World War by P. W. Singer, August Cole
3D printing, Admiral Zheng, augmented reality, British Empire, digital map, energy security, Firefox, glass ceiling, global reserve currency, Google Earth, Google Glasses, IFF: identification friend or foe, Just-in-time delivery, Maui Hawaii, new economy, old-boy network, RAND corporation, reserve currency, RFID, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, stealth mode startup, trade route, Wall-E, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, zero day, zero-sum game
,” National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, accessed August 19, 2014, http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/eez.html. 7 “as designated by the Mariana Trench”: Dan Vergano, “Bush to Make Pacific’s Mariana Trench a National Monument,” USA Today, January 6, 2009, accessed March 14, 2013, http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/tech/science/environment/2009-01-05-mariana-trench_N.htm. 7 “drop a Remora”: “Remora — Fast Reconnaissance AUV,” L-3 Ocean Systems, accessed August 16, 2014, http://www.l-3mps.com/oceansystems/remora.aspx. 9 viz glasses: Chris Smith, “2020 Vision: The Future of Google Glass,” TechRadar, October 19, 2013, accessed February 22, 2014, http://www.techradar.com/us/news/world-of-tech/2020-vision-the-future-of-google-glass-1190832. 10 “stuck in the Ghost Fleet”: “National Defense Reserve Fleet,” U.S. Department of Transportation Maritime Administration, accessed August 16, 2014, http://www.marad.dot.gov/ships_shipping_landing_page/national_security/ship_operations/national_defense_reserve_fleet/national_defense_reserve_fleet.htm. 10 Aegis cruiser: “The U.S.
Louis Magazine, February 22, 2012, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.stlmag.com/What-its-Like-to-Sip-a-Century-Old-Champagne-From-a-Shipwreck/. 143 “article one, section eight”: “The Constitution of the United States: A Transcription,” National Archives, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_transcript.html. 144 the graffiti: “Patent: Method and Apparatus for Creating Virtual Graffiti in a Mobile Virtual and Augmented Reality System, US 8350871 B2,” Google, January 8, 2013, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.google.com/patents/US8350871. Also see http://grafiti.mobi/dig-graffiti-applications-and-tools-for-smes-and-users/. 146 first-generation Google Glass: “Google Glass: What It Does,” Google, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.google.com/glass/start/what-it-does/. 148 passed the SIG Sauer P226 pistol: “Pistols — P226,” SIG Sauer, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.sigsauer.com/catalogproductlist/pistols-p226.aspx. 151 The Versatrax 300: “Versatrax 300,” Inuktun, accessed July 24, 2014, http://www.inuktun.com/crawler-vehicles/versatrax-300.html. 156 old Defense Production Act: “The Defense Production Act of 1950, As Amended,” Department of Defense, accessed August 20, 2014, http://www.acq.osd.mil/mibp/dpac/final__defense_production_act_091030.pdf. 157 representing a sovereign wealth fund: “Sovereign Wealth Funds — Frequently Asked Questions,” February 27, 2008, European Commission, accessed August 20, 2014, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-08-126_en.htm?
She noticed that his right ear was slightly lower than the left and that his nose had been broken at least once. He stiffened and then relaxed once she backed away. He lost his balance, and she lunged forward to steady him with an awkward hug. “Sweet Jesus,” said Mike. It was so real. He’d heard it was something about the way they projected a data stream onto your retinas that made it so different from the first-generation Google Glass. With these, you weren’t so much looking through the glass at the world; it was more like the world was being brought inside your brain. It gave you the sense of not just seeing, but feeling. And it felt damn weird. Vern led him by the hand to the graffiti. He saw the sticky red that part of his brain said was real, even down to its smell, and that drowned out the other part of his brain whispering that it wasn’t real, that it hadn’t been there just a few seconds ago.
4chan, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Burning Man, Carrington event, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Google Glasses, informal economy, information retrieval, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, Loebner Prize, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, moral panic, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Republic of Letters, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, the medium is the message, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test
At my brother’s wedding, a hundred of us gathered in my parents’ backyard, beneath the glow of trailing paper lanterns strung throughout the trees and white tents. I remember breaking away from the festivities to check my phone, only to find that my friend was posting photos of the very wedding I’d stepped away from: pixelated simulacra of the moment I had left. The most obvious reason a person would ditch the authentic is, of course, to gain access to a heightened version of dull reality. Enter the promise and wonder of Google Glass, released in 2013, which offers just that—augmented reality. The “wearable computer” is a (slightly futuristic, slightly dorky) headset fixed with a miniature display and camera, which responds to voice commands. We can tell it to take a picture of what we’re looking at or simply pull up Google Images’ archive of vintage Hulk Hogan photos because we want to compare the hairdo being sported by that guy on the metro.
“We don’t educate people as others wished”: Max Chafkin, “Udacity’s Sebastian Thrun, Godfather of Free Online Education, Changes Course,” Fast Company, accessed December 2, 2013, http://www.fastcompany.com/3021473/udacity-sebastian-thrun-uphill-climb. “school was an invention of the printing press”: Neil Postman, Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology (New York: Vintage, 1993), 10. Marshall McLuhan argues that whenever we amplify: Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, (Berkeley, Calif.: Ginkgo Press, 2003), 63–70. “Welcome to a world through glass”: “What It Does—Google Glass,” accessed September 5, 2013, http://www.google.com/glass/start/what-it-does/. “the brightness and glory of the Emerald City”: Baum, Wonderful Wizard of Oz, 88. “No more than in any other city”: Ibid., 151–52. “a cathedral quits its site”: Walter Benjamin, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction (London: Penguin, 2008), 6. “The genuineness of a thing”: Ibid., 7.
., 92 Franklin, Benjamin, 192 friends, 30–31 Frind, Markus, 182–83 Furbies, 29–30 Füssel, Stephan, 103 Gaddam, Sai, 173 Gallup, 123 genes, 41–43 Gentile, Douglas, 118–21 German Ideology, The (Marx), 12n Gleick, James, 137 Globe and Mail, 81–82, 89 glossary, 211–16 Google, 3, 8, 18–19, 24, 33, 43, 49, 82, 96, 142, 185 memory and, 143–47 search results on, 85–86, 91 Google AdSense, 85 Google Books, 102–3 Google Glass, 99–100 Google Maps, 91 Google Plus, 31 Gopnik, Alison, 33–34 Gould, Glenn, 200–201, 204 GPS, 35, 59, 68, 171 Greenfield, Susan, 20, 25 Grindr, 165, 167, 171, 173–74, 176 Guardian, 66n Gutenberg, Johannes, 11–13, 14, 16, 21, 34, 98 Gutenberg Bible, 83, 103 Gutenberg Galaxy, The (McLuhan), 179, 201 Gutenberg Revolution, The (Man), 12n, 103 GuySpy, 171, 172, 173 Hangul, 12n Harari, Haim, 141 Harry Potter series, 66n Hazlehurst, Ronnie, 74 Heilman, James, 75–79 Henry, William A., III, 84–85 “He Poos Clouds” (Pallett), 164 History of Reading, A (Manguel), 16, 117, 159 Hollinghurst, Alan, 115 Holmes, Sherlock, 147–48 House at Pooh Corner, The (Milne), 93 Hugo, Victor, 20–21 “Idea of North, The” (Gould), 200–201 In Defense of Elitism (Henry), 84–85 Information, The (Gleick), 137 information retrieval, 141–42 Innis, Harold, 202 In Search of Lost Time (Proust), 160 Instagram, 19, 104, 149 Internet, 19, 20, 21, 23, 26–27, 55, 69, 125, 126, 129, 141, 143, 145, 146, 187, 199, 205 brain and, 37–38, 40, 142, 185 going without, 185, 186, 189–97, 200, 208–9 remembering life before, 7–8, 15–16, 21–22, 48, 55, 203 Internship, The, 89 iPad, 21, 31 children and, 26–27, 45 iPhone, see phones iPotty, 26 iTunes, 89 Jobs, Steve, 134 Jones, Patrick, 152n Justification of Johann Gutenberg, The (Morrison), 12 Kaiser Foundation, 27, 28n Kandel, Eric, 154 Kaufman, Charlie, 155 Keen, Andrew, 88 Kelly, Kevin, 43 Kierkegaard, Søren, 49 Kinsey, Alfred, 173 knowledge, 11–12, 75, 80, 82, 83, 86, 92, 94, 98, 141, 145–46 Google Books and, 102–3 Wikipedia and, 63, 78 Koller, Daphne, 95 Kranzberg, Melvin, 7 Kundera, Milan, 184 Lanier, Jaron, 85, 106–7, 189 latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), 64–65 Leonardo da Vinci, 56 Lewis, R.
3D printing, algorithmic trading, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, computer age, death of newspapers, deferred acceptance, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Flash crash, Florence Nightingale: pie chart, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Google Earth, Google Glasses, High speed trading, Internet Archive, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kodak vs Instagram, lifelogging, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, pattern recognition, price discrimination, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, upwardly mobile, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator
If he doesn’t carry out these steps, he says, “I’m off for the rest of the day.”6 Robo-cize the World While QS’s reliance on cutting-edge technology, social networking and freedom-through-surveillance might seem quintessentially modern—very much a creation of post-9/11 America—the roots of what can be described as “body-hacking” go back a number of years. The 1980s brought about the rise of the “robo-cized” athletes who used Nautilus, Stairmaster and other pieces of high-tech gym equipment to sculpt and hone their bodies to physical perfection. That same decade saw the advent of the portable technology known as the Sony Walkman (a nascent vision of Google Glass to come), which transformed public spaces into a controllable private experience.7 Building on this paradigm, the 1990s was home to MIT’s Wearable Computing Group, who took issue with what they considered to be the premature usage of the term “personal computer” and insisted that: A person’s computer should be worn, much as eyeglasses or clothing are worn, and interact with the user based on the context of the situation.
The first time I spoke with Ming, it was May 2013, and she was sitting in the back of a taxicab on her way to San Francisco International Airport. A tall, striking woman with silver-blue eyes and strawberry-blond hair, Ming is a theoretical neuroscientist with a Carnegie Mellon University pedigree. Effortlessly assured, her geeky engineering side is evidenced by the fact that she wears a prerelease Google Glass headset. In addition to her neuroscience background, Ming’s Twitter profile describes her as an “intrepid entrepreneur, undesirable superhero [and] very sleepy mother.” Ming is deeply invested in Gild’s utopian vision of turning the workplace into the kind of meritocracy she believes it should be. “This is the way things ought to work, right?” she says, rhetorically. “The person making the hiring decisions really should have an accurate picture of who I am—not just a snap judgment made because I look a certain way.
(Winner) 134 Dodds, Peter 172–76 Dominguez, Jade 25 Dostoyevsky, Fyodor 118 Dourish, Paul 231 Dow Jones 219 drunk driving 142–44 Eagle, Nathan 85 Ecker, David 206–7, 219 eHarmony 71, 74–77, 88 see also Internet; love and sex; Warren, Neil Clark Eisenstein, Sergei 178 Electric Dreams 103 Ellul, Jacques 5, 56 EMD Serono 58 emotion sniffing 51–52 Emotional Optimisation 200–201 Enchanted Loom, The (Jastrow) 96 entertainment, see art and entertainment Epagogix 165–68, 170–72, 176, 179, 191, 203, 205 Eric Berne Memorial Scientific Award 23 Essay on the Moral Statistics of France (Guerry) 117 “Experimental Study of Inequality and Unpredictability in an Artificial Cultural Market” 173 Facebook 232, 241 and Facedeals 20 and facial recognition 215 how algorithms work with 2 jobs at 27 profiles, and people’s success 30–31 profiles, traits inferred from 37–38 Timeline feature on 38–39 and YouAreWhatYouLike 37 Facedeals 20 facial recognition and analysis 20, 33, 91, 146, 151, 193, 215 and Internet dating 78 Failing Law Schools (Tamanha) 216 Family Guy 196 Farewell to the Working Class (Gorz) 217–18 Fast Company 3, 35, 128, 220 on Amazon 44–5 Faster Than Thought (Bowden) 184 Faulkner, William 187 Feldman, Konrad 18–19 films, see art and entertainment Filter Bubble, The (Pariser) 47 Fincher, David 189 Find the Love of Your Life (Warren) 73 FindYourFaceMate 78 Fitbit 13 FitnessSingles 78 Flash Crash 219 flexitime 43 Food Stamp Act (US) 154–55 Ford, Henry 44 Foucault, Michel 101 Fourastie, Jean 219 Freud, Sigmund 11 Friedman, Milton 218 Galbraith, Robert 187 Gale, David 62–63, 66 Galton, Francis 31–32 gaming technology 32–33 Gass, John 148 Gates, Bill 182 Geek Logik (Sundem) 67–68 gender reassignment 26 GenePartner 77–78 Generation X (Coupland) 16 Gibson, William 194n Gild 25–26, 29–30 Gillespie, Tarleton 233 Gladwell, Malcolm 211 Goldman, William 161, 173 Good Morning America 67 Google 201–2 and auto-complete 225–27 claimed objectivity of 220–21 differentiated results from 46–48 dynamic-pricing patent granted to 50; see also differential pricing employment practices of 41–42 and facial recognition 215 Flu Trends algorithm of 238–39 how algorithms work with 2 and inadvertent racism 151 and Lake Wobegone Strategy 27–29 Levy’s study of 41 and news-outlet decline 225–27 People Analytics Group within 41–42; see also web analytics and self-driving cars 143, 213 Slate article on 41 and UAL 229 Google Earth 135 Google Glass 14, 26 Google Maps 16, 134–35 Google Street View 227 Google Translate 215, 221 Gorz, André 217 Gottschall, Jonathan 186 Gould, Stephen Jay 33–34 Graf, Daniel 135 graph theory 182 Grindr 89, 152 Guardian 84 Guattari, Félix 48, 54 Guerry, André-Michel 114–18 Gusfield, Joseph 142–43 Halfteck, Guy 32–34 Hansen, Mark 53 Hanson, Curtis 167 Heaven’s Gate 167 Henry VI (Shakespeare) 125–26 Her 103 Hitchcock, Alfred 17 Hogge, Becky 44 Holmes, Katie 68–69 Holmes, Oliver Wendell Jr. 158 Horkheimer, Max 179, 205 House of Cards 188–89 House of Commons, rebuilding of 45 How the Mind Works (Pinker) 80 Human Dynamics (at MIT) 85 Hume, David 199–200 Hunch 37, 234 Hunger Games, The 169 Hutcheson, Joseph C.
3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lifelogging, lump of labour, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional
[cxliii] Perhaps – and this is my favourite - we'll just call them our “Friends”. Wearables, insideables At the moment, the vessel which transports the primitive forebears of these essential guides is the smartphone, but that is merely a temporary embodiment. We will surely progress from portables to wearables (Apple Watch, Google Glass, smart contact lenses...) and eventually to “insideables”: sophisticated chips that we carry around inside our bodies. You doubt that Google Glass will make a comeback? The value of a head-up display, where the information you want is displayed in your normal field of vision, is enormous; that's why the US military is happy to pay half a million dollars for each head-up display helmet used by its fighter aircraft pilots. Apple Watch has been successful because some people will pay good money to simply raise their wrist rather than go to all the bother of pulling their smartphone out of their pocket.
Robots which can handle this unpredictability are still too expensive to replace human construction workers. There are experiments with exoskeletons for construction workers, but these are still expensive. 6. Technology. Firms are fighting to recruit and retain machine learning experts; the salaries and bonuses offered were previously unknown outside financial services and professional sports. Sales of wearables are growing, and the successors to Google Glass are out-selling smart watches. 7. Utilities. Water companies and power generation and transmission firms are building out fleets of tiny robots and drones which patrol pipes and transmission lines, looking for early warning signs of failure. 8. Finance. Retail banking is mostly automated and web-based, and consumer feedback on the quality of service is improving. Wealthy people now get some of their investment advice directly from automated systems, but human investment advisers still serve most of the market.
The New Digital Age: Transforming Nations, Businesses, and Our Lives by Eric Schmidt, Jared Cohen
3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, airport security, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, augmented reality, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, bitcoin, borderless world, call centre, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, clean water, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dean Kamen, drone strike, Elon Musk, failed state, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Google Earth, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, invention of the printing press, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Law of Accelerating Returns, market fundamentalism, means of production, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, Parag Khanna, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Singer: altruism, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Bork, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, The Wisdom of Crowds, upwardly mobile, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day
Project Glass: Babak Parviz, Steve Lee, Sebastian Thrun, “Project Glass,” Google+, April 4, 2012, https://plus.google.com/+projectglass/posts; Nick Bilton, “Google Begins Testing Its Augmented-Reality Glasses,” Bits (blog), New York Times, April 4, 2012, http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/04/google-begins-testing-its-augmented-reality-glasses/. and similar devices from other companies are on the way: Todd Wasserman, “Apple Patent Hints at Google Glass Competitor,” Mashable, July 5, 2012, http://mashable.com/2012/07/05/apple-patent-google-glass/; Molly McHugh, “Google Glasses Are Just the Beginning: Why Wearable Computing Is the Future,” Digital Trends, July 6, 2012, http://www.digitaltrends.com/computing/google-glasses-are-just-the-beginning-why-wearable-computing-is-the-future/#ixzz29PI4PWK4. introducing bills that would force communications services: Declan McCullagh, “FBI: We Need Wiretap-Ready Web Sites—Now,” CNET, May 4, 2012, http://news.cnet.com/8301-1009_3-57428067-83/fbi-we-need-wiretap-ready-web-sites-now/; Charlie Savage, “As Online Communications Stymie Wiretaps, Lawmakers Debate Solutions,” New York Times, February 17, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/18/us/18wiretap.html.
3D printing, 4chan, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, augmented reality, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, butterfly effect, citizen journalism, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of penicillin, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Thorp, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, Freestyle chess, Galaxy Zoo, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gunnar Myrdal, Henri Poincaré, hindsight bias, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, information retrieval, iterative process, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, patent troll, pattern recognition, pre–internet, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, Socratic dialogue, spaced repetition, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, transaction costs, Vannevar Bush, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, X Prize, éminence grise
The first wearable was cocreated in 1960 by Claude Shannon: Edward O. Thorp, “The Invention of the First Wearable Computer,” Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers (1998): 4–8, accessed March 23, 2013, graphics.cs.columbia.edu/courses/mobwear/resources/thorp-iswc98.pdf. Critics have already noted how unsettling it might feel: Mark Hurst, “The Google Glass Feature No One Is Talking About,” Creative Good (blog), February 28, 2013, accessed March 24, 2013, creativegood.com/blog/the-google-glass-feature-no-one-is-talking-about/; Adrian Chen, “If You Wear Google’s New Glasses You Are an Asshole,” Gawker, March 3, 2013, accessed March 24, 2013, http://gawker.com/5990395. Their recall improved, sometimes dramatically: Steve Hodges, Lyndsay Williams, Emma Berry, Shahram Izadi, James Srinivasan, Alex Butler, Gavin Smyth, Narinder Kapur, and Ken Wood, “SenseCam: A Retrospective Memory Aid,” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference of Ubiquitous Computing (2006): 177–93; Georgina Browne, Emma Berry, Narinder Kapur, Steve Hodges, Gavin Smyth, Peter Watson, and Ken Wood, “SenseCam Improves Memory for Recent Events and Quality of Life in a Patient with Memory Retrieval Difficulties,” Memory 19, no. 7 (2011): 713–22; Georgina Browne, Emma Berry, Steve Hodges, Gavin Smyth, Alex Butler, Lyndsay Williams, James Srinivasan, Alban Rrustemi, and Ken Wood, “Stimulating Episodic Memory Using SenseCam,” poster presentation on Microsoft Research Web site (2007), accessed March 24, 2013, research.microsoft.com/pubs/132686/4%20Festival%20of%20Internation%20Conferences%20Poster%20.pdf; and personal interview with Lyndsay Williams and Ken Wood.
The guts of the computer are the size of a small softcover book, strapped to his torso in what amounts to a high-tech man purse. He types into it using a Twiddler, an egg-sized device that lets him write with one hand. And what’s most prominent is the screen—a tiny LCD clipped to his glasses, jutting out just in front of his left eyeball. While you or I have to pull out a phone to look up a fact, he’s got a screen floating in space before him. You might have seen pictures of Google Glass, a wearable computer the company intends to release in 2014. Starner’s helping Google build it, in part because of his long experience: He’s been wearing his for two decades. “This is about creating a higher level of intellect—an augmented intellect,” he tells me when I meet him. Starner has a cheery, surferlike handsomeness, but the tiny black protuberance jutting out of his glasses is at first pretty jarring.
See also mapping ambient awareness of, 242–43 geography, impact on message, 62–63 location-based sharing, 81 gerrymandering, 84–86 Ghonim, Wael, 255–57, 272 Gibson, William, 9 Gilman, Charlotte Perkins, 225 Giovanni, Daniel, 38 Gladwell, Malcolm, 229 Glaeser, Edward, 15 Gleeson, Colleen, 186 Gleick, James, 259 Global Network Initiative, 277 Gmail mail as lifelog, 43–44 mail storage and ads, 28 as transactive memory tool, 131 Goffman, Erving, 238 Gold, Heather, 79–80, 226 Goodreads, 82, 243 Google collaborative projects, 171 collective knowledge as basis, 170–71 mail. See Gmail search method, 33, 37 Google Blogger, 275 Google Chat, 42 Google Docs, 155 Google Earth, 62, 171 Google Glass, 138, 141–42 Gosling, Sam, 215–16 Graham, Steve, 184 Granovetter, Mark, 227–29 Gray, Brenna Clarke, 56 Great Firewall (China), 250, 271, 273 Greeks, ancient, on writing versus debate, 68–69, 75 Grindr, 81 Guardian, 170 Guardian Project, 274 Gurrin, Cathal, 33–35, 41–42 Gutenberg, Johann, 12, 118–19, 121 Haiti earthquake, 63, 265–66 Hajizada, Adnan, 268–69, 274 Haley, Ben, 209–10 Hamilton, Buffy, 207 Hamilton, Filippa, 108 hand waving, 53–54 Harris, Frances, 205–6 hashtag, development of, 65–66 Hayden, Theresa Nielsen, 79 Heath, Christian, 213 Hein, Ethan, 72–73 Henkin, David, 49 Hersman, Erik, 62 Hickey, Lisa, 215 Hinckl, Andy, 285–86 hindsight bias, 27 Historia Naturalis, 40 history, learning through video games, 199–202 hive mind, 172 Holmes, Sherlock, 172–73 homophily, 230–31, 261, 261–63 Horvitz, Eric, 39 Hydra, 5 hyperlinks, early concept, 123 index, origin of, 121 India, and online dissent, 275–76 Innis, Harold, 8 innovation and discovery eureka moments, 131–32 theory of multiples, 58–66 Instagram, 109–10 Instapaper, 136 Internet censorship, global view, 250 early visionaries on, 122–23 human dependence on, 116 as social observation tool, 153 Internet & American Life Project, 187–88 Iran dissidents, identifying online, 270 media bans in, 267 photomanipulation, use of, 107 Ito, Mizuko, 210–11 Jackson, Maggie, 137 Jacobi, Emily, 261 James, William, 237 Jardin, Xeni, 108 Jcham979, 94–95, 98 Jenkins, Henry, 187, 202 Jennings, Ken, 282, 288 Jeopardy!
3D printing, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, anthropic principle, Asperger Syndrome, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, British Empire, business process, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, continuous integration, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Snowden, epigenetics, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, millennium bug, Moravec's paradox, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, off grid, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K
More recently, a host of ‘wearable computing’ products has hit the market. Nike’s Fuel Band helps users to monitor and stimulate their body’s activity, and thus become more active and healthy. In 2013, Google launched ‘Google Glass’ which enhances human communication capabilities by connecting the wearer constantly to the Internet. Google Glass takes our contemporary symbiosis with social networks to the next level; the wearer is always connected, he or she becoming an information node in the global telecommunications network. In 2002, British scientist Kevin Warwick, presaging Google Glass somewhat gruesomely, had a hundred electrodes surgically implanted in the median nerve fibres of his left arm. Using the electrodes, he connected his nervous system to the Internet and thereby controlled a host of electrical devices including a robotic arm, a loudspeaker and an amplifier.
Scott 276–7 Flowers, Tommy 235 Forbidden Planet (1956 film) vii–viii, xvii formal logical systems 200–11 Foxconn 267 FOXP2 gene 13 Frankenstein (Mary Shelley) 40, 60–5, 165 Franklin, Benjamin 37, 38–9 Frege, Gottlob 141, 198–200 Fremont-Smith, Frank 175–6 Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay (play) 35–6, 58 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 158–9, 160, 161 Gaia theory 46–7 Galatea 49, 50 Galen of Pergamus (Claudius Galenus) 31–2 Galileo Galilei 102 Galvani, Luigi 39 galvanism 61 Gazzaniga, Michael 23–4 Geminoid F robots 72 general intelligence 8, 12, 13–15, 16–17 genes, and language evolution 13–15 Genesis, book of 29, 30, 58 genomes 123–4 German gothic writing 61–5, 68 Gibson, William 36 Gilbert, William 38 God, authority of 113–14 Gödel, Kurt 141, 180, 183, 186–7, 198, 206–9, 211–16 Gödel numbering 207 Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von 63 golems 45 Google 147, 233, 255, 264, 270 Google Glass 81 Google Search 250 gothic writing of the 19th century 61–5, 68 governments, watching citizens online 250–1 Great Recession (2007 onwards) 314 Greene, Robert 35 Gulliver’s Travels (Swift) 202–3 HAL 9000 computer 257 Hameroff, Stuart xvi, 106–9, 117, 212 hard choices, inability of AI to cope with 277–8 Hawking, Stephen 91, 119, 146, 270 Hayles, Katherine 146 Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle 208 Hellenistic period 31–3, 135 Helmreich, Stefan 105–6 Hephaestus 33, 49 Herbert, Frank 290 Hero of Alexandria 31 high-level consciousness 12 Hilbert, David viii, 201–11 Hipparchus 31 Hippocrates (460–370 bc) 31 Hobbes, Thomas 36–7 Hoffmann, E.
The Human Age: The World Shaped by Us by Diane Ackerman
23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Earth, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, Internet of things, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microbiome, nuclear winter, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, skunkworks, Skype, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the High Line, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog
We can don a headset that stimulates all five senses simultaneously, and walk along a street in ancient Rome or Egypt, so immersed in the look, smell, and feel of the place that it seems real. I’ve yet to meet anyone sporting Google Glass, the voice-controlled miniature screen in a flexible frame that hovers piratically above one eye, projecting e-mail and maps onto your visual field. But, whether or not it catches on as techno-fashion, it’s already a triumph in operating rooms around the world. The first surgeon who wore it simply videotaped an operation to share with colleagues. Since then, surgeons have been actively consulting Glass during operations to view X-rays or medical data without turning away to look. The cyborg doctor has eyes in the back of his head, and four or more hands. At the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), Dr. Brent Ponce, wearing a Google Glass, began a shoulder replacement surgery while the built-in camera showed the surgical field to Dr.
., 299 geothermal warmth, 95 Germany, 72, 78, 83, 101, 124, 132, 298 solar panels in, 106–7 Gershenfeld, Neil, 202–3 gestures, 26–27 giraffes, 276 global consciousness, 18 global warming, 11, 38–42, 154, 307–8 agriculture and, 56 in Bangladesh, 51–53 and development of seas, 64–65 evidence of, 108 extreme weather and, 36–43, 314 fishermen and, 56–57 gardens affected by, 38–39 habitats rearranged by, 133–40 human rights and, 48 glowworms, 144 glucocorticoids, 283 golden eagles, 132 Golden Lion Tamarin Conservation Program, 123 golden toads, 162 Golding, William, 162 Google, 192, 210 Google Glass, 260–61 gophers, 115 gorgonian, 38 grains, 71 Grand Canyon, 126 granite, 58–59 GraphExeter, 184–85, 317 grasshoppers, 173–74 Grassy Key, 131 great apes, 202 great auks, 151 Great Depression, 108 Greece, 124 Green Apple concept car, 103 Green Belt Corridor, 124 greenhouses, 90 Greenland, 42 green mussels, 131 Green over Grey, 83 growing season, 42 Guam, 139, 157 Guam rail, 139 Guatemala, 88 Gulag Archipelago (Solzhenitsyn), 218 Gurdon, John, 150, 160 Gut Erlasee Solar Park, 106–7 Guthrie, Barton, 261 habitat loss, 154 Haiyan, Typhoon, 46 Hamilton, Clive, 314 Hansen, James, 314 Hansmeyer, Michael, 236 Harvard University, 235 Hastings, Battle of, 190 heart, 150, 239, 248, 249, 250–51, 281 heat, 41 heaters, 87 heat recycling, 95–108 Helm, Barbara, 114 Henri, Pascal, 84 herbs, 89 Hernandez, Isaias, 264–65 herons, 193–94 Heuchera plants, 80–81 High Line, 77 Hitler, Adolf, 273 hockey, 40 Holocene, 9 Homer, 262 Honda, 236 Hong Sun Hye, 102 horse chestnut trees, 153 Horse Island, 58 horses, 137–38, 140, 145–46 hostas, 125 Hudson River, 54–55 hulls, 91 human genome, 13 Human Genome Project, 270, 274, 282, 285, 289, 300 Human Microbiome Project, 289 human rights, global warming and, 48 humans: as eusocial, 288 geographic expansion of, 10 geography changed by, 11 history of, 71 orangutan genes shared by, 3 population growth of, 10 technological changes to bodies of, 13 tools used by, 7, 9 humans, environmental effects of: climate change, see global warming and possibility of nuclear winter, 8–9 hummingbirds, 126 hunter-gatherers, 71 Huntington’s disease, 271 Hurricane Irene, 57 Hurricane Katrina, 46 hurricanes, 31, 41, 43, 55 Hurricane Sandy, see Sandy, Hurricane hybrid cars, 100 Hyde Park, 142 hydroelectronic power, 100, 107 hydroponic gardening, 83, 89, 90 Icarus, 224 icebergs, 195–96, 197 Iceland, 77 ice packs, 41–42 iCub, 218–19 iGlasses, 261 igloos, 86 iguanas, 131 Ike Dike, 50 Iliad (Homer), 262 India, 88, 107, 132, 175 Indian mongoose, 132 Indonesia, 132, 313 induced pluripotent stem cells (IPS), 150–51, 160–63 industrial farming, 60 Industrial Revolution, 34, 106, 185–86, 232, 235, 267 Inheritors, The (Golding), 162 insects, 166 insulin pumps, 253 intelligence of plants, 205–7 International Union for Conservation of Nature, 313 Internet, 199–200, 235 Inuit, 86 invasive species, 132, 154 Iran, 147 Iraq War, 258 Ireland, 132 Irene, Hurricane, 57 irises, 125 iron fertilization, 53 Island of Dr.
Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life by Colin Ellard
augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, megastructure, more computing power than Apollo, Oculus Rift, Peter Eisenman, RFID, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, sentiment analysis, smart cities, the built environment, theory of mind, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen
Though our other senses play a role in helping us to feel immersed in and to connect with place, it is gaze that most powerfully defines the boundaries of built space. What and whom we can see and how we understand our own visibility to others is the most important determinant of our behavior in the built environment. Because of this, a device like Google Glass is not simply a novel form of portable computer interface, but rather the beginning of a kind of technology that invades that most primal connection. In its current form, Google Glass is not much more than a kind of heads-up display that allows us to receive a steady stream of annotation about our surroundings with nothing more than an upward flick of the eyeballs. But this is really only a short step from a device that might present us with a more complete digital overlay in our field of view that keeps track of our movements and updates what we see accordingly.
This same physicality is also the key feature governing how we relate to everything in our environment, including not only built structures, but other human beings as well. What virtual reality technology has shown us is that the design of our minds, by jacking into our predispositions to take mental flight from one time and place to another, is such that the exact form of our embodiment can be shape-shifted. Whether by inverting goggles, immersive VR helmets, or the augmented reality of a device like Google glasses, our understanding of both the shapes of our bodies and where they begin and end are all open to modification. Although we are beginning to understand the science, we have not begun to consider the wider implications of these new discoveries for human existence. I find it hard to achieve the right balance of feelings about these developments, both those already realized and those that lie on the horizon.
The Complacent Class: The Self-Defeating Quest for the American Dream by Tyler Cowen
affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, assortative mating, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, business climate, circulation of elites, clean water, David Graeber, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, drone strike, East Village, Elon Musk, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gig economy, Google Glasses, Hyman Minsky, Hyperloop, income inequality, intangible asset, Internet of things, inventory management, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, low skilled workers, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, medical residency, meta analysis, meta-analysis, obamacare, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, security theater, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Great Moderation, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, working-age population, World Values Survey
In chapter 4, I discussed how more and more of the top talent is being clustered in the largest and most successful firms. America’s productivity problem is coming from small and medium-size enterprises, not the market leaders. Probably not all of Google’s ideas will work out, but still, the company isn’t just search. Gmail is pretty useful, YouTube is running and has been significantly upgraded, driverless cars and trucks seem to be on the horizon, and someday a version of Google Glass may even change our lives, even if Google Glass as we know it remains stillborn. What is happening is that technology has made it easier for better corporations to identify those workers with stronger skills, more demanding work ethics, and higher intelligence, and vice versa. The more successful firms, having more to offer in terms of salary and prestige, are able to attract such workers, now that they can find them.
3D printing, Black Swan, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Clayton Christensen, crowdsourcing, deliberate practice, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, future of work, Google Glasses, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Paul Erdős, Paul Graham, recommendation engine, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Y Combinator
This is permanent acceleration, not a phase through which we must hold tight. As weird becomes normal and normal becomes something for the history books we find ourselves living in a world full of ambiguity, uncertainty and unpredictability. Fortunately, we are naturally well equipped to thrive under such conditions of constant change. As a species we are creative, inventive, adaptable, resourceful, competitive, ambitious and social. But there’s a smear on our Google glass vision of the future. It begins with the simple observation that society in most places on Earth has come to function because it is productive. As a result all human effort (with few exceptions) was invested into productivity. This led to a culture that prized order, conformity, predictability, tradition and normality. Doing what you oughta. Not making mistakes. Working hard on routine tasks.
3D printing, A Pattern Language, additive manufacturing, air freight, Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, c2.com, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, future of work, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Hacker Ethic, Internet of things, Iridium satellite, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Mason jar, means of production, Minecraft, minimum viable product, Network effects, Oculus Rift, patent troll, popular electronics, QR code, Rodney Brooks, Shenzhen was a fishing village, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, software as a service, special economic zone, speech recognition, subscription business, telerobotics, urban planning, web application, Y Combinator
My advisor, Pattie, is focused on this idea that there are other computing experiences that we should have by now. All our experiences are display-centric if you think about it. We have this notion that there’s a computing device and this device would have a screen, and this screen is a way of interacting. This is trivial even though it’s new. We’re still pretty much relying on the keyboard and mouse. Not to say that this is an interface that should go away, but on the other hand, in the day and age of Google glasses and that stuff, the way that we interact with computing by and large changes. And we’re scratching the surface right now of how user experience, and talking to computers and interacting with computers will actually come about in the next forty years to come. One of the big things is how do we integrate what we describe as digital information and the physical world? Now, today, this is all done through devices, right?
Steven: I’m sorry. 225 226 Chapter 16 | Sylvia Todd: Maker, Sylvia’s Super Awesome Maker Show! Sylvia: It’s fine. Steven: So that’s a good example of projects other people are working on that are pretty cool. Can you think of anything that you’ve seen other people are working on that excites you or you’d like to see more about? Sylvia: Hmmm. James: What did we see at Maker Faire? Sylvia: A lot. There was so much. The titles escape me. Oh yeah, Google Glass! Oh and Jeri Ellsworth’s 3D gaming glasses. She had these glasses that you would put on, and one of the demonstrations is that there is this tower of blocks. And when you put the glasses on and it looks like you are knocking over the blocks. They look like they are right in front of you. It was so cool. James: And it takes into account how far away you are from it, so you can simply have the glasses on and walk around and see things in your environment and move your head around.
China manufacturing, 89 Wi-Fi module, 94 Xbox hack, 86 Human vision system, 24 I IEEE1901, 150 Innovation Center, 62 Interactive Telecommunications Program (ITP), 164–165 J Jones, Dave Amp Hour radio, 230 back and reshooting things, 231 big channels, 236 blowing stuff up, 237 brown Noctua, 239 building stuff, 242 “build your own oscilloscope”, 232 comment approved, 237 complex algorithm, 237 constant pressure, 241 EE degree, 241 electronics design engineer, 229 electronics hobbyists, 229 electronics magazines, 231 entertainment, 231 enthusiastic approach, 232 formal study, 243 fundamental principle/circuit building block, 240 “Fundamentals Friday” videos, 241 hacker/maker movement, 234 hardware, 235 high-end video, 238 ironic nature, 237 learn fundamentals, 242 magazine snail mail world, 232 mailbag, 237–238 295 296 Index Jones, Dave (cont.) marketing books, 230 microchip, 241 money and success, 243 niche audience, 238 open-source hardware, 234 passionate people, 239 PCB and screen, 230 photonicinduction, 236 physically holding and playing, 235 podcast, 232 pop-out things, 243 practical aspect, 242 project construction, 232 “Publish and be damned”, 244 redundant/retrenched, 239–240 regular segments, 240 spreading, 231 study electronics, 243 test equipment, 229–230 troubleshooting, 242 video blog-type, 233 video quality, 233 Wireless Weekly, 234 WordPress and text blogs, 233 work pattern, 240 worthwhile producing, 234 YouTube Google search engine, 237 K Kalanithi, Jeevan, 25 Kaplan, Zach Amazon, 64 CAD and CAM package, 69 Chicago Public Library, 69 commercial success, 67 consulting business, 62 content management system, 62 digital fabrication, 69 3D printers, 66–68 Erector sets, 61 hardware store, 65 industrial revolution, 65–66 Innovation Center, 62 internship, 61 LEGOs, 61 Lever Works, 62 mechatronics, 61 personal manufacturing, 65 pilot program, 62 Pumping Station, 69 research subscription, 64 Shapeoko, 68 textiles, 66 third industrial revolution, 67 transaction, 64 Kettenburg, Erik Arduino community, 9 ATtinies, 7 command-line program, 11 Digispark community, 9 forward-reaching approach, 11 full Spectrum 40-watt hobby laser, 12 Kickstarter projects, 14 lightbulb moment, 4 maker community, 5 maker culture, 5 open-source community, 18 parallel computing project, 13 prototype build up, 5 Radio Shack, 3 surface-mount assembly shop, 6 Tesla coil, 3 unexpected challenges, 6 Vacasa Rentals (company), 1 web developer, 1 Wi-Fi modules, 14 WordPress, 18 Kickstarter, 130 Kraftwerk video, 133 L Legal defense fund, 95 Lesnet, Ian Bus Pirate, 264 camera system, 274 community, 278 cost down, 266 crimping tool, 275 dangerous prototypes, 265 DIY Life, 264 electronics life, 271 electronics market, 267 entrepreneur and electrical engineer, 263 Index fapiao, 272 founder, 279 garage manufacturing line, 273 Hack a Day, 265 hardware environment, 269 hardware products, 265 hex standoffs, 276 JTAG debugger, 266 Maker Faire, 267 Mouser order, 276 open-hardware electronics projects, 263 open hardware retailers, 277 open-hardware shop, 265 open-source vision system, 274 PCB manufacturers, 271 pick-and-place machine, 272 pre-crimped wires, 275 Shapeoko CNC mill, 279 Shenzhen, 269 vision system, 273 wireless sensor networks, 263 Linder, Natan Brooks, Rodney (chairman and CTO of iRobot), 101 CNC machine, 102 3D and CAD design, 111 design-for-manufacturing, 111 3D printer projects, 102 3D printing landscape, 107 3D QR code, 109 entrepreneurship, 99 filament-deposition method, 106 flexible-display technology, 104 Fluid Interfaces Group, 102 Form 1, 99, 105 Google glasses, 103 Jerusalem Venture Partners, 100 Kickstarter experience, 110 microfluidics, 110 MIT media lab, 100 one-click print, 106 OpenRC, 108 projector camera systems, 103 prosumers, 105 Samsung people, 100 Sinclair ZX81 PC, 99 SketchUp, 111 stopwatch application, 104 Sun Microsystems, 99 Logo programming language, 22 Luna-Tik, 66 M MakerBot, 64 MakerCAM.com, 69 Maker Faire, 46 Making Wireless Toys, 128 Marine Advanced Technology Education (MATE), 142 MediaLab Prado RepRap team, 166 Merrill, David Arduino-compatible board, 35 BASIC Stamp, 24, 34 computer science, majoring in, 24 digital photos, 27 e-mails, 31 entertainment and photography, 34 exploded-parts diagram, 21 hardware, 24 hardware products, 33 human vision system, 24 implementation, 28 inspiration, 21 interactive art installations, 25 interfaces, 27 Internet, 23 introductory programming, 23 iPhone, 25 LEGOs, 25–26 Logo programming language, 22 miniature steam engine, 22 MIT Media Lab, 25 musical instruments, 21 personal history, 26 physical manufacturing, 31 “physical Photoshop”, 27 physics, 23 programming, 23 prototype product, 34 role model, 22 297 298 Index Merrill, David (cont.) roller coaster, 22 Siftables, 25 sketching and building, 21 software, 23, 31 Symbolic Systems, 24 talk and the demos, 29 TED talk, 25, 28 videogames, 22–23 video segments, 30 Microsoft, 64 Microsoft Xbox, 85 Migicovsky, Eric advice, 260 apps for InPulse, 257 challenges, 258 childhood, 256 economy of hardware company, 259 key successes, 260 Kickstarter experience, 258 learned lessons, 258 profile, 255 SDK for InPulse, 257 smartwatch, 256 software development, 261 Moore, Geoffrey, 63 Mota, Catarina altLab, 171 business models, 174 conductive ink, 168 digital fabrication, 166 3D printer, 166 education, 163 electrical engineering, 167 electronics/programming, 164 Expancel, 166 graduate program, 163 human-level goal, 165 intellectual property, 174 interactive television and audiovisual systems, 164 Internet, 173 ITP, 164–165, 167 media and physical goods, 175 Media Lab, 164 NYC Resistor, 172 object-oriented programming, 164 open-source approach, 165 open-source businesses, 175 open-source hardware, 173 open-source projects, 165 PhD programs, 165 Portuguese hackerspaces, 172 project proposal, 165 scientific theory, 170 social sciences, 166 Tech Crafts, 167 TED conferences, 169 TED Fellows Program, 169 Tisch School, 163 trial-and-error process, 166 video and filmmaking, 163 Motorola, 54 N NASA, 139 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), 145 Neal, James (Laen) Adafruit learning system, 57–58 art project, 59 BatchPCB, 60 board designs, 54 3D printers, 55 education, 54 electricity, 58 electronics education, 52, 58 e-mails, 51, 53 flux capacitor, 54 GPS, 52 Halloween-themed project, 52 Internet, 53 “maker movement”, 55 MAKE videos, 58 Nuvoton, 53 OSH Park PCB Order, 52–53 personal prototyping abilities, 55 production quality, 54 profit margin, 54 smartphone, 57 software, 57 SparkFun library, 52, 60 UNIX system, 52 Nightline, 65 Index O Oomlout company, 276 Open Hardware Summit, 172 OpenMaterials.org.
3D printing, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Arthur Eddington, basic income, Bayesian statistics, Benoit Mandelbrot, bioinformatics, Black Swan, Brownian motion, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, constrained optimization, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Filter Bubble, future of work, global village, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, information retrieval, job automation, John Markoff, John Snow's cholera map, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, mandelbrot fractal, Mark Zuckerberg, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, NP-complete, off grid, P = NP, PageRank, pattern recognition, phenotype, planetary scale, pre–internet, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, zero-sum game
It seems to be Latin, or perhaps math, but the Babel fish in your ear translates it into English: “Turn the crank! Turn the crank!” Just as you enter, the chant dissolves into an “Aaaah!” of satisfaction, and a murmur of “The posterior! The posterior!” You peek through the crowd. A massive stone tablet towers above the altar with a formula engraved on it in ten-foot letters: P(A|B) = P(A) P(B|A) / P(B) As you stare uncomprehendingly at it, your Google Glass helpfully flashes: “Bayes’ theorem.” Now the crowd starts to chant “More data! More data!” A stream of sacrificial victims is being inexorably pushed toward the altar. Suddenly, you realize that you’re in the middle of it—too late. As the crank looms over you, you scream, “No! I don’t want to be a data point! Let me gooooo!” You wake up in a cold sweat. Lying on your lap is a book entitled The Master Algorithm.
The digital mirror Take a moment to consider all the data about you that’s recorded on all the world’s computers: your e-mails, Office docs, texts, tweets, and Facebook and LinkedIn accounts; your web searches, clicks, downloads, and purchases; your credit, tax, phone, and health records; your Fitbit statistics; your driving as recorded by your car’s microprocessors; your wanderings as recorded by your cell phone; all the pictures of you ever taken; brief cameos on security cameras; your Google Glass snippets—and so on and so forth. If a future biographer had access to nothing but this “data exhaust” of yours, what picture of you would he form? Probably a quite accurate and detailed one in many ways, but also one where some essential things would be missing. Why did you, one beautiful day, decide to change careers? Could the biographer have predicted it ahead of time? What about that person you met one day and secretly never forgot?
Sometimes you want to give information to advertisers for free because it’s in your interests, sometimes you don’t want to give it at all, and what to share when is a problem that only a good model of you can solve. The kind of company I’m envisaging would do several things in return for a subscription fee. It would anonymize your online interactions, routing them through its servers and aggregating them with its other users’. It would store all the data from all your life in one place—down to your 24/7 Google Glass video stream, if you ever get one. It would learn a complete model of you and your world and continually update it. And it would use the model on your behalf, always doing exactly what you would, to the best of the model’s ability. The company’s basic commitment to you is that your data and your model will never be used against your interests. Such a guarantee can never be foolproof—you yourself are not guaranteed to never do anything against your interests, after all.
The Innovation Illusion: How So Little Is Created by So Many Working So Hard by Fredrik Erixon, Bjorn Weigel
Airbnb, Albert Einstein, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Basel III, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, BRICs, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, Clayton Christensen, Colonization of Mars, commoditize, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, dark matter, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, discounted cash flows, distributed ledger, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, fear of failure, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Gilder, global supply chain, global value chain, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, index fund, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, lump of labour, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, Martin Wolf, mass affluent, means of production, Mont Pelerin Society, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, pensions crisis, Peter Thiel, Potemkin village, price mechanism, principal–agent problem, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, risk/return, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, technological singularity, telemarketer, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transportation-network company, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, University of East Anglia, unpaid internship, Vanguard fund, Yogi Berra
The way companies and markets work, and the extent to which companies can muster their resources for an innovation, determine its success or failure. Entrepreneurs control their own performance, but they cannot control unpredictable markets; if they could, business failures would be a matter of choice. Innovation based only on its own technological or corporate merits does not have the power to break into markets. Markets are far too complex for that to happen. Take Google Glass as an example. The air over the San Francisco Bay Area vibrated with anticipation when news circulated that this product was due to be released. The optical head-mounted display was like the Ericsson Cordless Web Screen that had been invented 15 years earlier – “the next big thing.” And if you have tried a pair, you will know they are pretty cool. Google went much further than Ericsson ever did when it started to sell the glasses in May 2014.
Yet Google still failed and production was halted less than a year after release for the simple reason that sales were not good enough. In the aftermath of this public mishap, Astro Teller – the head of what was then called the Google X research lab – explained that the company had failed by “not making clear to everyone else that what was out was really just a prototype of the smart glassware, and too much bad publicity was really what killed Google Glass.”13 Failure happens – every day – and premature scaling is a common recipe for disaster. But this was Google, a company with near limitless resources for planning and preparation. It is media savvy and its market reach is second to none, leaving many to question how the company could have allowed such a publicized failure. It was not the first time a Google project went sour for reasons that appeared predictable.
Johnston) (i) globalist worldview (i), (ii) globalization attitudes to globalization survey (IMD Business School) (i) and bureaucracy (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and business investment (i) and capitalism, decline of (i), (ii) and competition (i) and creative destruction (i) and diffusion (i), (ii) and entrepreneurship (i), (ii) and financial institutions (i) horizontal (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) and innovation (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and managerialism (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) and mergers and acquisitions (i) and planning (i) and productivity (i), (ii), (iii) and regulation (i) and specialization (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) and Swedish economy (i) vertical (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) see also corporate globalism; globalization (overview); multinational (global) companies globalization (overview) 1st face/phase (1945–1980s) (i), (ii), (iii) 2nd face/phase (1980s–) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) changing nature of (i) characteristics of multinationals (i), (ii) globalist worldview (i), (ii) “globalize or die” (i) impact on France (i) impact on Germany (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) impact on US and UK (i), (ii), (iii) markets and firm boundaries (i) scale to scope (i) specialization and sunk costs (i), (ii) unbundling of production: first unbundling (i); second unbundling (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) see also corporate globalism; globalization; multinational (global) companies GM (genetically modified) potato, and EU regulation (i) GMOs (genetically modified organisms), and EU regulation (i), (ii), (iii) “Goldilocks and the Three Bears” (story) (i), (ii) Goldilocks principle (i), (ii) Goldman Sachs (i), (ii) Golec, Joseph (i)n28 Google dual share structures (i) and European regulation (i) and globalization (i) Google Glass (i), (ii) and Motorola (i) Project Loon (i), (ii) Gordon, Robert (i), (ii) Gore-Coty, Pierre-Dimitri (i) Gou, Terry (i) governments see political world; politics Graetz, George (i) Grasso, Richard (i) gray capitalism capitalist ownership: case of Harley-Davidson Motor Company (HD) (i); decline/obituary of capitalist ownership (i); dispersed ownership (i); gray ownership (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi); severing gray capital–corporate ownership link (i) “complex by design” and principal–agent problem (i) crowding out of innovations (i) financial capitalism: financialization of real economy (i); intermediaries and asset managers (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi) pensions and retirement savings (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), (vi), (vii) rentier capitalism (i), (ii), (iii), (iv) resource allocation according to rentier formula (i) rich people vs. capitalists (i), (ii) sovereign wealth funds (i), (ii) Graylin, Will Wang (i) Great Recession and aspirations (i) and asset management industry (i) and cash hoarding (corporate savings) (i) and continuing economic decline (i) and firm entry-and-exit rates (i) and global trade (i) and globalist worldview (i) and high-growth firms (i) and investment funds (i) and New Machine Age hype (i) and policy uncertainty (i) and rich people vs. capitalists (i) and stockholding periods (i) and unemployment (i) and US productivity (i) see also financial crisis (2007) Greece, left-wing populism (i) green building codes (US) (i) green/renewable energy and regulation in Europe (i), (ii) and sunk costs (i) Greenspan, Alan (i), (ii), (iii) Greenspan Puts (i) Grey (alias of Ursley Kempe) (i), (ii) gross domestic product see GDP (gross domestic product) Group of Seven (G7) countries, labor productivity (i), (ii) growth see economic growth; GDP (gross domestic product) guilds (i), (ii) see also occupational licenses Gulf states, and sovereign wealth funds (i) Gulfo, Joseph (i) Gyllenhammar, Pehr G.
Bold: How to Go Big, Create Wealth and Impact the World by Peter H. Diamandis, Steven Kotler
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, cloud computing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dematerialisation, deskilling, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Jono Bacon, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, Narrative Science, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Oculus Rift, optical character recognition, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, performance metric, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, rolodex, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart grid, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, telepresence, telepresence robot, Turing test, urban renewal, web application, X Prize, Y Combinator, zero-sum game
Watson in the cloud, tied to an openly available API, is the beginning of one such moment, the potential for a Mosaic-like interface explosion, opening AI to all sorts of new businesses and heralding its transition from deceptive to disruptive growth. Attention, exponential entrepreneurs: What are you waiting for? And everything we’ve just covered is here today. “Soon,” says Ray Kurzweil,40 “we will give an AI permission to listen to every phone conversation you have. Permission to read your emails and blogs, eavesdrop on your meetings, review your genome scan, watch what you eat and how much you exercise, even tap into your Google Glass feed. And by doing all this, your personal AI will be able to provide you with information even before you know you need it.” Imagine, for example, a system that recognizes the faces of people in your visual field and provides you with their names. This shouldn’t be too much of a mental stretch, as these capabilities are already coming online. Now imagine that this same AI also has contextual understanding—meaning the system recognizes that your conversation with your friend is heading in the direction of family life—so the AI reminds you of the names of each of your friend’s family members, as well as any upcoming birthdays they might have.
., 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 structure of, 21 see also entrepreneurs, exponential; specific exponential entrepreneurs and organizations Exponential Organizations (ExO) (Ismail), xiv, 15 extrinsic rewards, 78, 79 Exxon Valdez, 250 FAA (Federal Aviation Administration), 110, 111, 261 Facebook, 14, 16, 88, 128, 173, 182, 185, 190, 195, 196, 202, 212, 213, 217, 218, 224, 233, 234, 236, 241 facial recognition software, 58 Fairchild Semiconductor, 4 Falcon launchers, 97, 119, 122, 123 false wins, 268, 269, 271 Fast Company, 5, 248 Favreau, Jon, 117 feedback, feedback loops, 28, 77, 83, 84, 120, 176, 180 in crowdfunding campaigns, 176, 180, 182, 185, 190, 199, 200, 202, 209–10 triggering flow with, 86, 87, 90–91, 92 Festo, 61 FeverBee (blog), 233 Feynman, Richard, 268, 271 Firefox Web browser, 11 first principles, 116, 120–21, 122, 126 Fiverr, 157 fixed-funding campaigns, 185–86, 206 “flash prizes,” 250 Flickr, 14 flow, 85–94, 109, 278 creative triggers of, 87, 93 definition of, 86 environmental triggers of, 87, 88–89 psychological triggers of, 87, 89–91, 92 social triggers of, 87, 91–93 Flow Genome Project, xiii, 87, 278 Foldit, 145 Forbes, 125 Ford, Henry, 33, 112–13 Fortune, 123 Fossil Wrist Net, 176 Foster, Richard, 14–15 Foundations (Rose), 120 Fowler, Emily, 299n Foxconn, 62 Free (Anderson), 10–11 Freelancer.com, 149–51, 156, 158, 163, 165, 195, 207 Friedman, Thomas, 150–51 Galaxy Zoo, 220–21, 228 Gartner Hype Cycle, 25–26, 25, 26, 29 Gates, Bill, 23, 53 GEICO, 227 General Electric (GE), 43, 225 General Mills, 145 Gengo.com, 145 Genius, 161 genomics, x, 63, 64–65, 66, 227 Georgia Tech, 197 geostationary satellite, 100 Germany, 55 Get a Freelancer (website), 149 Gigwalk, 159 Giovannitti, Fred, 253 Gmail, 77, 138, 163 goals, goal setting, 74–75, 78, 79, 80, 82–83, 84, 85, 87, 137 in crowdfunding campaigns, 185–87, 191 moonshots in, 81–83, 93, 98, 103, 104, 110, 245, 248 subgoals in, 103–4, 112 triggering flow with, 89–90, 92, 93 Godin, Seth, 239–40 Google, 11, 14, 47, 50, 61, 77, 80, 99, 128, 134, 135–39, 167, 195, 208, 251, 286n artificial intelligence development at, 24, 53, 58, 81, 138–39 autonomous cars of, 43–44, 44, 136, 137 eight innovation principles of, 84–85 robotics at, 139 skunk methodology used at, 81–84 thinking-at-scale strategies at, 136–38 Google Docs, 11 Google Glass, 58 Google Hangouts, 193, 202 Google Lunar XPRIZE, 139, 249 Googleplex, 134 Google+, 185, 190, 202 GoogleX, 81, 82, 83, 139 Google Zeitgeist, 136 Gossamer Condor, 263 Gou, Terry, 62 graphic designers, in crowdfunding campaigns, 193 Green, Hank, 180, 200 Grepper, Ryan, 210, 211–13 Grishin, Dmitry, 62 Grishin Robotics, 62 group flow, 91–93 Gulf Coast oil spill (2010), 250, 251, 253 Gulf of Mexico, 250, 251 hackathons, 159 hacker spaces, 62, 64 Hagel, John, III, 86, 106–7 HAL (fictional AI system), 52, 53 Hallowell, Ned, 88 Hariri, Robert, 65, 66 Harrison, John, 245, 247, 267 Hawking, Stephen, 110–12 Hawley, Todd, 100, 103, 104, 107, 114n Hayabusa mission, 97 health care, x, 245 AI’s impact on, 57, 276 behavior tracking in, 47 crowdsourcing projects in, 227, 253 medical manufacturing in, 34–35 robotics in, 62 3–D printing’s impact on, 34–35 Heath, Dan and Chip, 248 Heinlein, Robert, 114n Hendy, Barry, 12 Hendy’s law, 12 HeroX, 257–58, 262, 263, 265, 267, 269, 299n Hessel, Andrew, 63, 64 Hinton, Geoffrey, 58 Hoffman, Reid, 77, 231 Hollywood, 151–52 hosting platforms, 20–21 Howard, Jeremy, 54 Howe, Jeff, 144 Hseih, Tony, 80 Hughes, Jack, 152, 225–27, 254 Hull, Charles, 29–30, 32 Human Longevity, Inc.
3D printing, AI winter, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Automated Insights, Bayesian statistics, Bernie Madoff, Bill Joy: nanobots, brain emulation, cellular automata, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, computer vision, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, don't be evil, drone strike, Extropian, finite state, Flash crash, friendly AI, friendly fire, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Isaac Newton, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, lone genius, mutually assured destruction, natural language processing, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, prisoner's dilemma, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Singularitarianism, Skype, smart grid, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, Thomas Bayes, traveling salesman, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero day
Also onboard at the stealth facility is Andrew Ng, former director of Stanford University’s Artificial Intelligence Lab, and a world-class roboticist. Finally, late in 2012, Google hired esteemed inventor and author Ray Kurzweil to be its director of engineering. As we’ll discuss in chapter 9, Kurzweil has a long track record of achievements in AI, and has promoted brain research as the most direct route to achieving AGI. It doesn’t take Google glasses to see that if Google employs at least two of the world’s preeminent AI scientists, and Ray Kurzweil, AGI likely ranks high among its moon-shot pursuits. Seeking a competitive advantage in the marketplace, Google X and other stealth companies may come up with AGI away from public view. * * * Stealth companies may represent a surprise track to AGI. But according to Vassar the quickest path to AGI will be very public, and cost serious money.
People always make the assumption: Memepunks, “Google A.I. a Twinkle in Larry Page’s Eye,” May 26, 2006, http://memepunks.blogspot.com/2006/05/google-ai-twinkle-in-larry-pages-eye.html (accessed May 3, 2011). Even the Google camera cars: Streitfeld, David, “Google Is Faulted for Impeding U.S. Inquiry on Data Collection,” New York Times, sec. technology, April 14, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/15/technology/google-is-fined-for-impeding-us-inquiry-on-data-collection.html (accessed May 3, 2012). It doesn’t take Google glasses: In December 2012, Ray Kurzweil joined Google as Director of Engineering to work on projects involving machine learning and language processing. In the development of AGI, this is a landmark event, and a sobering one. Kurzweil aims to reverse engineer a brain, and has even written a book about it, 2012’s How to Create a Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed. Now he has Google’s vast resources to spend making this dream come true.
The Future of the Brain: Essays by the World's Leading Neuroscientists by Gary Marcus, Jeremy Freeman
23andMe, Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, bitcoin, brain emulation, cloud computing, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Glasses, iterative process, linked data, mouse model, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, race to the bottom, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, speech recognition, stem cell, Steven Pinker, supply-chain management, Turing machine, web application
This simple observation—that DNA can store any string, not just those used as biological blueprints in the genomes of existing organisms—has startling implications for many areas of science and technology because it provides us with a strategy to extend information technology to the molecular level and to integrate it with biological systems. Meanwhile, sequencing technologies developed in academia and industry have put DNA sequencing on a cost-performance trajectory that outpaces Moore’s law, which governs the improvements in silicon microprocessor technology that have brought us from arm-sized cellular phones to Google Glass in only two decades. Many of the same concepts have been adapted to DNA synthesis, which is now on a similar trajectory. This has resulted in the ability to read and write information into DNA with unprecedented ease, as demonstrated recently by the 2012 DNA encoding and subsequent reading of the text of a complete book (Regenesis, Basic Books). Suppose we have a string of DNA twenty-five letters (deoxyribonucleotides) in length.
., 137, 149–57 flexible coordination: Spaun model, 132–33 Fluorescent In Situ Sequencing (FISSEQ), 58, 58f FMRP (fragile X mental retardation protein), 240–41 force fields, 180 format: percepts and concepts, 171 Forschungszentrum Jülich, 116 FORTRAN, 44 foundation grants: funding for brain map, 199–200 FOXP2 gene: human and chimpanzee differences, 156; mutations of, 151–52, 155; songbirds, 155–56 fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), 240–41 Fragile X syndrome, 240–42 Freeman, Jeremy, 23, 65, 100–107 Freud, Sigmund, 259 Freud’s psychodynamic theory, 206 Fried, Itzhak, 211 functional brain map, 161 functional dissociations, 140 functional localization: concept, 139 functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 4–5, 244, 260 functional modeling: neural responses, 102 fusiform face area, 163; identification of, 163 Fyhn, Marianne, 71 Galen, Claudius, 3 GE, 200 Genbank (public database), 196 genealyzers, 203 gene expression, 6–9, 8f, 54 GenePaint, 9 GENESIS neural simulator, 183 genetic brain, 6–14 genetics: psychiatric patients, 235–37 genome: humans, 149, 152; neuroimaging genomics, 156–57. See also human genome GENSAT project: Rockefeller University, 9 global broadcasting: consciousness, 165, 168, 174 global collaboration: neuroscience, 111, 123–24 global neuronal workspace, 165f, 165–66 Global Science Forum: OECD, 115 Golgi, Camillo, 53 Golgi’s staining method, 256 Google, 42, 103, 200 Google Glass, 56 Gopnik, Alison, 169 Götz, Karl, 18 Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), 208–10 grid cells: cortex, 71–73; generation of, 74; teaching from, 76 grid maps: cortex, 71–73 GRS–SIM, 118 Hadoop, 103 Hafting, Torkel, 71 Hagmann, Patrick, 11 halorhodopsin, 24 Hawrylycz, Mike, 3–16, 25 head direction cells, 75 hearing: restoration, 230 Heintz, Nathanial, 9 Heisenberg, Martin, 18 Herpes virus, 47 Hill, Sean, 109, 111–24 Hinton, Geoff, 206 hippocampus: grid map, 73 Hodgkin, Alan, 182, 257 Hodgkin–Huxley equations, 257 Homo sapiens, 149, 265 Hood, Leroy, 256 Hubble, Edwin, 95 Hubel, David, 68, 105, 211, 257 human brain: mapping language, 150–51, mapping the connectome of, 12–13; understanding, 264–65 Human Brain Project (HBP), 111, 124, 126, 183; global collaboration, 123; goal of, 111–13; nature of, 195; supercomputer facilities of, 263; unifying brain models, 120–21 human cognition: Spaun model, 129 Human Connectome Project (HCP), 12–13 human genome: challenges in mapping, 195–97; deciding whose brain to map, 202–3; defining progress, 200–201; translating new knowledge, 203–4 Human Genome Project, 194, 202–3, 256 humans: cortex of, 26–27 Huxley, Andrew, 182, 257 IBM.
The World Beyond Your Head: On Becoming an Individual in an Age of Distraction by Matthew B. Crawford
airport security, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, David Brooks, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, deskilling, digital Maoism, Google Glasses, hive mind, index card, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, large denomination, new economy, new new economy, Norman Mailer, online collectivism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Richard Thaler, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, the built environment, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Walter Mischel, winner-take-all economy
If you have ever listened to the NPR show Car Talk and heard people mimicking the sounds their cars make when they are misbehaving in some way, then you have some idea of the role played by sound in our ongoing monitoring of our cars, which we become aware of only when there is a new sound, indicating a problem. 11. Then again, it is said that we live at the end of history, so maybe we needn’t fret about any of this. “In the future” (as Conan O’Brien used to say), we will be ferried around by Google’s self-driving cars, wearing Google Glass goggles and who knows what all. The goggles will give us something exciting to watch, like Grand Theft Auto, and we will be given a steering wheel that shakes realistically as we execute brilliant evasive maneuvers. We will make vroom vroom sounds with our mouths to preserve that “sense of involvement,” and arrive at our destination in a mood of triumph. We should have noted earlier that the passive kitten on the carousel has an enviable inner life. 12.
explicit thinking extended mind as challenge to Enlightenment anthropology and cultural deregulation and self-regulation fascism Federal Trade Commission Feeney, Matt felt, in organ making Fichte, Johann Gottlieb financial futures trading pits Finland firefighters five-year plans Fleming, David Florensky, Pavel flow fly balls foreign languages 401(k) plan, opt-out Fox News France Franklin, Benjamin Franzen, Jonathan freedom attention and as choice and expressive power history of jigging and Locke on meaning of metaphysics of as self-responsibility free market free will French Revolution Freud, Sigmund on death instinct friendship Frisbees Galileo Galilei Gallup, George gambling addiction see also machine gambling gay rights gaze gaze-checking Genealogy of Morals, The (Nietzsche) Germany apprenticeship in GI Bill Gibson, James J. glassmaking communication in joint attention in molten glass in team leader (gaffer) in Glenberg, Arthur M. Global Cash Access God golden rule Google Google Glass goggles “Gospel of Relaxation, The” (James) Great Recession GREs Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals (Kant) guilt Guinness Book of World Records, The gym, Muzak provided at gyroscopic precession habit Hanna, Robert Heal, Jane Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Heidegger, Martin heteronomy autonomy vs. escaping of, through abstraction as inflicted by world of objects Kant on will and heuristics hipsters Hobbes, Thomas on “war of all against all” homosexuality Houk, Peter How to Keep Your Volkswagen Alive (Muir) Huffington Post human beings conflicting views on environmental claims on as evaluative creatures potential capabilities of hunches Husserl, Edmund HVAC system hyperpalatable stimuli hypocrisy IBM ice hockey hockey stick intimacy in motorcycling and puck-handling finesse and mastery in rules as jigs in identity theft Igo, Sarah immune system imperfect contingency independence individualism epistemic paradox of in U.S.
Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, backtesting, Black Swan, book scanning, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, call centre, commoditize, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data is the new oil, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Everything should be made as simple as possible, experimental subject, Google Glasses, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, lifelogging, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mass immigration, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, personalized medicine, placebo effect, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steven Levy, text mining, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game
Predictive models determined the medical treatments you have previously received, leaving you healthier today. Tomorrow’s Just a Day Away All the preceding capabilities are available now or have similar incarnations actively under development. Many are delayed more by the (now imminent) integration of your smartphone with your car than by the development of predictive technology itself. The advent of mobile devices built into your glasses, such as Google Glass, will provide yet another multiplicative effect on the moment-to-moment integration of prediction, as well as further accelerating the accumulation of data with which to develop predictive models. Today, PA’s all-encompassing scope already reaches the very heart of a functioning society. Organizations—be they companies, governments, law-enforcement, charities, hospitals, or universities—undertake many millions of operational decisions in order to enact services.
See crime fighting and fraud detection frequency Freud, Sigmund Friedman, Jerome friendships, predicting Fukuman, Audrey Fulcher, Christopher fund-raising, predicting in Furnas, Alexander future, views on human nature and knowing about predictions for 2020 uncertainty of G Galileo generalization paradox Ghani, Rayid Gilbert, Eric Gimpert, Ben Gladwell, Malcolm GlaxoSmithKline (UK) Gmail Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von Goldbloom, Anthony Gondek, David Google ineffective ads, predicting mouse clicks, measuring for predictions privacy policies Schmidt, Eric searches for playing Jeopardy! self-driving cars spam filtering Google Adwords Google Flu Trends Google Glass Google Page Rank government data storage by fraud detection for invoices PA for public access to data GPS data grades, predicting Granger, Clive grant awards, predicting Greenspan, Alan Grockit Groundhog Day (film) Grundhoefer, Michael H hackers, predicting Halder, Gitali HAL (intelligent computer) Hansell, Saul happiness, social effect and Harbor Sweets Harcourt, Bernard Harrah’s Las Vegas Harris, Jeanne Harvard Medical School Harvard University Hastings, Reed healthcare death predictions in health risks, predicting hospital admissions, predicting influenza, predicting medical research, predicting in medical treatments, risks for wrong predictions in medical treatments, testing persuasion in PA for personalized medicine, uplift modeling applications for health insurance companies, PA for Hebrew University Heisenberg, Werner Karl Helle, Eva Helsinki Brain Research Centre Hennessey, Kathleen Heraclitus Heritage Health Prize Heritage Provider Network Hewlett Foundation Hewlett-Packard (HP) employee data used by financial savings and benefits of PA Global Business Services (GBS) quitting and Flight Risks, predicting sales leads, predicting turnover rates at warranty claims and fraud detection High Anxiety (film) HIV progression, predicting HIV treatments, uplift modeling for Hollifield, Stephen Holmes, Sherlock hormone replacement, coronary disease and hospital admissions, predicting Hotmail.com House (TV show) “How Companies Learn Your Secrets” (Duhigg) Howe, Jeff HP.
Hacking Growth: How Today's Fastest-Growing Companies Drive Breakout Success by Sean Ellis, Morgan Brown
Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, DevOps, Elon Musk, game design, Google Glasses, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, minimum viable product, Network effects, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, working poor, Y Combinator, young professional
Of course, building a must-have product isn’t easy, and one result is that too often those launching new businesses or products put the cart before the horse, pouring resources and staff into trying to drive more customers to a product that isn’t actually loved, or sometimes even understood, by its target market. This is one of the most common, and deadly, mistakes start-up founders make, and it’s also a huge problem that often surfaces when established firms, even those known for their innovation prowess, launch new products. Just think of Google Glass and Amazon’s Fire Phone—both innovative products…that nobody wanted. Or the infamous Microsoft Zune media player, launched in November 2006, which Microsoft reportedly spent at least $26 million to promote but which never generated more than a tepid response.1 The Zune was not a bad product; many critics considered it quite well designed. But it added no “wow factor” to make it more appealing than Apple’s already ubiquitous iPods.
Even truly great products that are loved by a core group of early adopters will almost surely fail without a well-focused effort to vigorously drive growth. So much media coverage of failed products is devoted to ones that professed to be “the next big thing” but that, with hindsight, clearly failed to offer a compelling core product value to a large enough market beyond their early adopters, like the aforementioned Google Glass or the much-hyped Segway scooter. There is less coverage about the more perplexing failures: those of products that do offer a very appealing core value and for which there is a large potential market that isn’t yet dominated by incumbents. Here the problem is often the lack of a well-designed and -executed strategy for driving growth. Take the case of Everpix, which was one of the most highly regarded photo apps in recent memory.
Airbnb, bounce rate, business climate, citizen journalism, crowdsourcing, digital map, Google Glasses, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Menlo Park, Network effects, new economy, pull request, revision control, ride hailing / ride sharing, search engine result page, sharing economy, Skype, TaskRabbit, turn-by-turn navigation
They had their first app out of beta and ready for the launch of the iPhone App Store in June 2008. As more app stores followed, they proved to be high-quality distribution channels for Evernote. Regardless of the device or operating system, Evernote was there when the store opened for business, prominently featured and ready for download. This is a policy Evernote continues to follow. They already have an app for the much hyped Google Glass wearable computer. Timing was not the only component of Evernote’s success, however. Their designers have created an impressive cross-platform experience with no file size limitations and no complex rules. Regardless of the device or operating system, all platforms sync up seamlessly. Evernote is totally customizable, allowing users to organize and archive their data into what the company calls their “second brain.”
3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, constrained optimization, corporate personhood, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, dark matter, discrete time, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, endowment effect, epigenetics, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, Flash crash, friendly AI, functional fixedness, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, Internet of things, invention of writing, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, loose coupling, microbiome, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Thaler, Rory Sutherland, Satyajit Das, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, supervolcano, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K
But the police are working on it; which cop wouldn’t want a Google Glass app that highlights those passersby who have a history of violence—perhaps coupled with W-band radar to see which of them is carrying a weapon? The next question is whether only the authorities will have enhanced cognition systems or if they’ll be available to all. In twenty years’ time, will we all be wearing augmented-reality goggles? What will the power relationships be? If a policeman can see my arrest record when he looks at me, can I see whether he’s been the subject of brutality complaints? If a politician can see whether I’m a party supporter or an independent, can I see his voting record on the three issues I care about? Never mind the right to bear arms; what about the right to wear Google Glass? Perception and cognition will no longer be conducted inside an individual’s head.
The Future of the Professions: How Technology Will Transform the Work of Human Experts by Richard Susskind, Daniel Susskind
23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, Atul Gawande, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Bill Joy: nanobots, business process, business process outsourcing, Cass Sunstein, Checklist Manifesto, Clapham omnibus, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer age, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, death of newspapers, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, lifelogging, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, Metcalfe’s law, Narrative Science, natural language processing, Network effects, optical character recognition, Paul Samuelson, personalized medicine, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, Skype, social web, speech recognition, spinning jenny, strong AI, supply-chain management, telepresence, The Future of Employment, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, young professional
Thus, we might have jackets that give their owners small hugs when someone ‘likes’ their Facebook posts,78 or shirts that can measure distance, calories, heart rate, and send data to their wearers’ hand-held devices.79 Internet-enabled watches with graphical user interfaces have been launched, while simpler fitness bracelets with sensors to monitor physical activity are commonplace. For the intrepid, there are ski-goggles that not only protect against the elements but come with a built-in ‘accelerometer, a gyroscope, GPS, and Bluetooth’.80 In the same spirit are optical head-mounted displays, embedded in spectacles, such as Google Glass.81 Why, though, stop at spectacles? Work is afoot on technology that projects directly onto the retina of the eye (the users see objects suspended in the space ahead of them).82 Retinal display hints at yet another kind of embeddedness, one that hit home for us at a recent conference. An octogenarian approached us after a lecture and confided with pleasure, ‘I am now connected to the Internet’.
This suggests that less than 5% of adults are out of reach of the Internet today, which is a smaller percentage than is often presumed. 76 Rose, Enchanted Objects, Adrian McEwen and Hakim Cassimally, Designing the Internet of Things (2014), Daniel Kellmereit and Daniel Obodovski, The Silent Intelligence (2013), and Michael Porter and James Heppelman, ‘How Smart, Connected Products are Transforming Competition’, Harvard Business Review (Nov. 2014), 63–104. 77 Rose, Enchanted Objects, and Porter and Heppelman, ‘How Smart, Connected Products are Transforming Competition’, 76. 78 Rose, Enchanted Objects, 50. 79 Porter and Heppelman, ‘How Smart, Connected Products are Transforming Competition’, Harvard Business Review, 81. 80 Rose, Enchanted Objects, 27. 81 On 15 January 2015 Google announced that it was to stop producing Google Glass as a prototype but that they are still committed to its further development. 82 See e.g. <http://www.magicleap.com>. 83 Marco Iansiti and Karim Lakhani, ‘Digital Ubiquity’, Harvard Business Review (Nov. 2014), 91–9. 84 Gil Press, ‘Internet of Things By The Numbers: Market Estimates and Forecasts’, Forbes, 22 Aug. 2014, and ‘More than 50 Billion Connected Devices’, Ericsson White Paper, Feb. 2011 at <http://www.akos-rs.si/files/Telekomunikacije/Digitalna_agenda/Internetni_protokol_Ipv6/More-than-50-billion-connected-devices.pdf> (accessed 23 March 2015). 85 Discussed in Richard Susskind, The End of Lawyers?
Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products by Nir Eyal
Airbnb, AltaVista, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, en.wikipedia.org, framing effect, game design, Google Glasses, Inbox Zero, invention of the telephone, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Oculus Rift, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, QWERTY keyboard, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, the new new thing, Toyota Production System, Y Combinator
Likewise, the fast ascent of mobile devices, including tablets, has spawned a new revolution in interface changes — and a new generation of startup products and services designed around mobile user needs and behaviors. To uncover where interfaces are changing, Paul Buchheit, Partner at Y-Combinator, encourages entrepreneurs to “live in the future.” [cxxxix] A profusion of interface changes are just a few years away. Wearable technologies like Google Glass, the Oculus Rift virtual reality goggles, and the Pebble watch promise to change how users interact with the real and digital worlds. By looking forward to anticipate where interfaces will change, the enterprising designer can uncover new ways to form user habits. *** Remember and Share - The Hook Model helps the product designer generate an initial prototype for a habit-forming technology.
Science...For Her! by Megan Amram
Albert Einstein, blood diamonds, butterfly effect, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Dmitri Mendeleev, double helix, Google Glasses, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, pez dispenser, Schrödinger's Cat, Steve Jobs, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, Wall-E, wikimedia commons
New Year’s Resolutions for Year 3014 * * * Lose fifteen pounds from your problem areas (hips, space-boobs, vestigial face) Spend more time with your government-rationed .452 of a son or daughter Take the family on a trip to www.nature.com Volunteer at your local chapter of the White People Remembrance League (white people have been extinct since 2021; you are an exotic mixture of brown and Asian and Google Glass) Pray to the Mother Goddess Zooey Deschanel, who first displayed her omnipotent god powers at the 2016 People’s Choice Awards by raising Eleanor Roosevelt from the dead and giving her bangs Learn moon-French Vote for Zooey Deschanel in the 3012 People’s Choice Awards as “Best Deity,” “Only Deity,” and “˜*˜Kewlest˜* Bangs” Buy a new Moon Bounce (here on the moon we just call them “Bounces”) Get promoted from “slave to Zooey Deschanel” to “human sacrifice to Zooey Deschanel” (lateral promotion) Organize your thirty-seven space-boobs by type (normal, brown, formal, or Chicago style) I just want to apologize quickly.
Ego Is the Enemy by Ryan Holiday
activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Burning Man, delayed gratification, Google Glasses, Jeff Bezos, Lao Tzu, Paul Graham, Ponzi scheme, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, side project, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, Upton Sinclair
These labels put you at odds not just with reality, but with the real strategy that made you successful in the first place. From that place, we might think that success in the future is just the natural next part of the story—when really it’s rooted in work, creativity, persistence, and luck. Certainly Google’s alienation from its own roots (confusing vision and potential with scientific and technological prowess) will cause it to stumble soon enough. It fact, the public failures of projects like Google Glass and Google Plus might be evidence of it already. They’re not alone. Too often, artists who think it was “inspiration” or “pain” that fueled their art and create an image around that—instead of hard work and sincere hustle—will eventually find themselves at the bottom of a bottle or on the wrong end of a needle. The same goes for us, whatever we do. Instead of pretending that we are living some great story, we must remain focused on the execution—and on executing with excellence.
The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab
3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar
Positive impacts – Increased transparency – Increased and faster interconnection between individuals and groups – Increase in free speech – Faster information dissemination/exchange – More efficient use of government services Negative impacts – Privacy/potential surveillance – More identity theft – Online bullying/stalking – Groupthink within interest groups and increased polarization – Disseminating inaccurate information (the need for reputation management); echo chambers78 – Lack of transparency where individuals are not privy to information algorithms (for news/information) Unknown, or cuts both ways – Digital legacies/footprints – More targeted advertising – More targeted information and news – Individual profiling – Permanent identity (no anonymity) – Ease of developing online social movement (political groups, interest groups, hobbies, terrorist groups) The shift in action If the three largest popular social media sites were countries, they would have almost a billion more people than China “See Figure I.” Figure I: Active Users of Social Media sites compared with the populations of the world’s largest countries Source: http://mccrindle.com.au/the-mccrindle-blog/social-media-and-narcissism Shift 3: Vision as the New Interface The tipping point: 10% of reading glasses connected to the internet By 2025: 86% of respondents expected this tipping point will have occurred Google Glass is just the first of many potential ways in which glasses, eyewear/headsets and eye-tracking devices can become “intelligent” and lead to eyes and vision being the connection to the internet and connected devices. With direct access to internet applications and data through vision, an individual’s experiences can be enhanced, mediated or completely augmented to provide different, immersive reality.
3D printing, Ada Lovelace, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, barriers to entry, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, discovery of the americas, disintermediation, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Flash crash, friendly AI, Google Glasses, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, life extension, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, mutually assured destruction, Nicholas Carr, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Skype, South Sea Bubble, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, theory of mind, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Wall-E, zero-sum game
Another aspect of the hype around each new invention is that their early incarnations are often disappointing. If you were around for the launch of the first mobile phones you will remember they were a bit of a joke: the size of a brick and the weight of a small suitcase, they were ridiculed as the expensive playthings of pretentious yuppies. Now almost everyone in the developed world has a smartphone. Similar ridicule attended the launch of Siri and Google Glass, but contrary to popular opinion, they are emphatically not failures. They are simply the first, tentative outings of technologies which will soon revolutionise our lives. Less fuss has so far been made about another extraordinary innovation: an app called Crystal trawls the internet for anything written by a person of interest to you and helps you draft your communication with them. It is in beta mode at the time of writing, and many of those who have tried it have criticised it as both creepy and ineffective.
Airbnb, business intelligence, cloud computing, financial independence, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, new economy, nuclear winter, Peter Thiel, Productivity paradox, random walk, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs
In fact, other than the books written by Andy Grove, I don’t know of any management books that teach you how to manage in wartime like Steve Jobs or Andy Grove. BACK TO THE BEGINNING It turned out that a little wartime was just what the doctor ordered for Google. Page’s precise and exacting leadership has led to brilliant execution in integrating identity across Google’s broad product line, from the rise of Android to brilliant new products like Google Glass. Sometimes you need to go to war. MAKING YOURSELF A CEO The other day, a friend of mine asked me whether CEOs were born or made. I said, “That’s kind of like asking if Jolly Ranchers are grown or made. CEO is an unnatural job.” The surprised look on his face made me realize that perhaps it wasn’t as obvious as I’d originally thought. Most people actually assume the opposite—CEOs are born, not made.
3D printing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, call centre, clockwatching, cloud computing, Firefox, future of work, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, place-making, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, white picket fence, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game
Instagram started out as a very derivative copy of foursquare before switching its focus to mobile photos with a social edge. Google continues to fascinate as the search engine expands into areas like online video (YouTube), mobile (Android and the Nexus line of devices), email services (Gmail), Web browsers (Google Chrome), online social networking (Google+), and beyond (self-driving cars and Google Glasses). Amazon continues to squiggle by pushing beyond selling books online into e-readers (Kindle), selling shoes (Zappos), offering cloud computing technology (Amazon Web Services), and beyond. When you actually start digging down deep into how these companies have evolved and stayed relevant, you won’t see business models that look like anything from the playbooks of Kodak or RIM. These organizations are in a constant state of rebooting with teams of people who are actively guiding their own careers as they squiggle.
Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, availability heuristic, bank run, banking crisis, Black-Scholes formula, bonus culture, break the buck, Bretton Woods, call centre, Carmen Reinhart, cloud computing, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, computerized trading, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Edmond Halley, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, family office, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, implied volatility, income inequality, index fund, information asymmetry, Innovator's Dilemma, interest rate swap, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, late fees, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, money market fund, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, Myron Scholes, negative equity, Network effects, Northern Rock, obamacare, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter Thiel, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, quantitative trading / quantitative ﬁnance, railway mania, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, transaction costs, Tunguska event, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, Vanguard fund, web application
Once registered, investors can browse the site looking at all manner of ideas to change the world and scrutinizing the entrepreneurs behind them. The selection of companies is eclectic, though predominantly geared toward consumers. On the occasions I browsed Crowdcube, I came across firms such as Tabbit, which was touting a smartphone app enabling people to order drinks without having to line up at the bar; GlassFit, a fitness app for Google Glass that aimed to make exercise fun by, for example, showing an avatar up ahead that you can try to overtake; and Castle Three Motoring Company, which manufactured three-wheeled sports cars. Investors can see videos of the founders and their products, read descriptions of the companies, request business plans, and conduct Q&A sessions with the entrepreneurs. The quality of questioning and feedback was pretty high.
23andMe, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, bioinformatics, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, computer age, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Danny Hillis, data is the new oil, David Brooks, East Village, Edward Snowden, Emanuel Derman, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, impulse control, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of writing, John Markoff, John von Neumann, lifelogging, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, meta analysis, meta-analysis, money market fund, natural language processing, obamacare, pattern recognition, payday loans, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, skunkworks, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, The Design of Experiments, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!
In an industrial setting, contextual computing means gathering and analyzing data to give a machine’s human minders a view of its health, its history, and its surroundings—the context in which the machine is operating. Predix is intended as an intelligent assistant that sifts through data on a particular machine to, say, alert a plant engineer that a gas turbine needs preventive maintenance—a heads-up prediction that the turbine is heading for a breakdown. It is the industrial machinery equivalent to Google Now, a predictive search service for mobile devices, including Google glasses, that presents driving directions, recommendations for nearby restaurants, sports scores for teams you follow, based on your location, your interests, and what you’ve done in the past—the context of your life. GE wants to push contextual computing in the machine world to another dimension. Most of the current focus has been on gathering data from machines to learn about them—to reduce lost operating time by applying data-driven preventive maintenance.
American Made: Why Making Things Will Return Us to Greatness by Dan Dimicco
2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American energy revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, carbon footprint, clean water, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, fear of failure, full employment, Google Glasses, hydraulic fracturing, invisible hand, job automation, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Loma Prieta earthquake, manufacturing employment, oil shale / tar sands, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, smart meter, sovereign wealth fund, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, Works Progress Administration
But if you want to encourage people to go into business and you think that government’s got all the answers, you risk distorting the system from the get-go. Any business worth getting into—large or small—should be worth getting into without government subsidizing it. Signs of a Renaissance Why are some U.S. companies choosing to come back to America? In March 2013, Google announced it would manufacture its highly anticipated Google Glass in California, though continue to source the device’s parts from Asia. Google didn’t decide to build the wearable computer because of any subsidies the federal or state government may be offering. There are none. Google, like other companies, is coming home because they can better control their intellectual property, and because the revolution in energy is improving America’s comparative advantage.
Bricks & Mortals: Ten Great Buildings and the People They Made by Tom Wilkinson
Berlin Wall, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, double helix, experimental subject, false memory syndrome, financial independence, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Google Glasses, housing crisis, Kitchen Debate, Mahatma Gandhi, mass incarceration, megacity, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Upton Sinclair, urban planning
With the advent of computer games such as Duke Nukem 3D this fantasy kingdom has merged with domestic space and been privatised in the process. But unlike the enfoldment of theatre in the Duke of Ferrara’s palace, this privatisation does not permit consumer control of content, which is ceded instead to the entertainment industry. Furthermore, such privatisation strips away entertainment’s social element, that frisson of sexual possibility that belonged to Coney. Now the invention of autism machines like Google Glass threatens to take this desocialised zone into the public space of the street, degrading and monetising our interactions – and perhaps our sense of reality. 7 Highland Park Car Factory, Detroit (1909–10) Architecture and Work And I saw big squat buildings with great endless windows behind which men were trapped like flies, moving but barely moving, as if they were struggling against I don’t know what impossibility.
Dogfight: How Apple and Google Went to War and Started a Revolution by Fred Vogelstein
Apple II, cloud computing, commoditize, disintermediation, don't be evil, Dynabook, Firefox, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Googley, John Markoff, Jony Ive, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Tim Cook: Apple, web application, zero-sum game
When it’s rolled out, Google says, you’ll be able to ask your laptop, smartphone, or tablet anything—and it will respond accurately. The improvements made Siri, Apple’s voice-command technology in the iPhone, seem quaint. In August 2013 it unveiled its first Motorola smartphone. Even the products Google had no intention of selling immediately were generating enormous buzz. It demonstrated that its driverless-car software actually works. It showed that Google Glass—a computer in a pair of eyeglasses—may indeed fuse man and his machine. It’s tempting to predict that it’s only a matter of time before Apple comes back with its own new revolutionary device. Certainly that’s how the competition between the two has been up until now. What’s unclear is whether Apple can do it without Jobs at the helm. Apple certainly encouraged investors to feel as if this question had been answered when its stock and profits skyrocketed after Jobs’s death.
The 100-Year Life: Living and Working in an Age of Longevity by Lynda Gratton, Andrew Scott
3D printing, Airbnb, assortative mating, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, diversification, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, falling living standards, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, low skilled workers, Lyft, Network effects, New Economic Geography, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, pension reform, Peter Thiel, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, smart cities, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, women in the workforce, young professional
., ‘Who’s Benefiting from MOOCs, and Why’, Harvard Business Review (September 2015). 9Sebastian Thun, a former Stanford University professor, vice president of Google and founder of online educational company Udacity, puts it well: ‘The education system is based on a framework from the 17th and 18th century that says we should play for the first five years of life, then learn, then work, then rest and then die. I believe we should be able to do all those things all the time.’ http://www.theguardian.com/education/2013/sep/05/google-glass-creator-testing-regimes-technology 10Braithwaite, V., ‘Reducing Ageism’, in Nelson, T. D. (ed.), Ageism: Stereotyping and Prejudice Against Older Persons (MIT Press, 2002), 311–37. 11Erickson, T. J. and Gratton, L., ‘What It Means To Work Here’, Harvard Business Review (March 2007). 12We thank Adair Turner for both the reference to The Leopard as well as this specific example. Index The letter f following an entry indicates a figure 3.0 scenarios here–here, here, here, here 3.5 scenarios here–here, here, here 4.0 scenarios here–here, here–here, here, here 5.0 scenarios here–here, here, here, here, here, here–here Acorns here activities of daily living (ADL) here adolescence here–here, here adult equivalence scales here age cognition and here–here corporations and here explorers and here–here government policy and here independent producers and here life stages and here–here, here–here portfolios and here predictability of here segregation and here–here, here–here, here, here–here age process algorithms here, here ageing process here, here ageism here, here agency here, here, here finance and here–here agriculture here–here Amazon here anxiety here appearance here Apple iPhone here reputation here Archer, Margaret here Artificial Intelligence (AI) here, here, here, here education and here human skills and here medical diagnoses and here–here, here skills and knowledge and here–here Asia here assets here, here see also intangible assets; tangible assets; transformational assets assortative mating here–here, here Astor, Brooke here Autor, David here–here, here Baby Boomers here–here beauty here Becker, Gary: ‘Treatise on the Family’ here, here–here, here behavioural nudges here Benartzi, Shlomo here benefits here–here see also welfare Bennis, Warren here birth rates, decline in here–here, here brain, the here–here, here–here cognition here Braithwaite, Valerie here Brontë, Charlotte: Jane Eyre here Buffett, Warren here–here Calico (California Life Company) here Calment, Jeanne here careers breaks and here changes and here–here dual careers here, here, here cell aging here centenarians here, here–here change here–here catalysts for here–here corporations and here–here, here education and here–here government policy and here–here, here identity and here–here inequalities and here–here mastery and here–here planning and experimentation and here–here rate of here–here Cherlin, Andrew here chess here children here, here–here, here Christensen, Clayton here Cloud Robotics here cohort estimate of life expectancy here, here, here companies here, here–here, here–here Amazon here Apple here–here change and here–here, here creative clusters here–here economies of scale and here–here Facebook here flexibility here–here, here–here reputation and here–here research and here small business ecosystems here–here technology and here–here Twitter here value creation here–here WhatsApp here compression of morbidity here–here computing power here–here, here–here see also Moore’s Law connectivity here–here consumerism here, here consumption complementarities here–here consumption levels here, here continuums here corporations here–here, here–here see also companies creative clusters here–here independent producers and here–here creativity here cross-age friendships here crucible experiences here–here Deep Learning here dementia here depreciation here developing countries life expectancy and here–here, here state pensions and here Dickens, Charles: Old Curiosity Shop, The here diet here Dimson, Elroy here disabilities here discounting here discretionary time here diverse networks here, here–here Doctorow, Corey: Makers, The here Downton Abbey effect, the here–here Doyle, Arthur Conan here driverless cars here, here dual career households here, here, here Dweck, Carol here–here dynamic/diverse networks here, here–here Easterlin’s Paradox here economy, the here–here agriculture and here–here gig economy here job creation and here–here leisure industry and here service sector and here sharing economy here, here stability and here education here, here–here, here–here see also mastery experiential learning here–here, here, here human skills and judgement and here ideas and creativity and here institutions here–here learning methods here mental flexibility and agility and here–here multi-stage life and here specialization here–here, here, here technology and here, here, here training here efficacy here, here, here–here elasticity here–here emerging markets life expectancy and here state pensions and here emotional spillover here employers here–here, here employment see also companies; employment changes age and here, here–here, here–here changes and here, here, here–here, here–here city migration and here–here creation here–here demographics and here, here–here diverse networks and here–here elasticity and here–here environmental concerns and here–here, here family structures and here–here, here, here–here, here, here, here–here flexibility and here–here, here, here–here, here–here, here–here, here hollowing out of work here–here, here, here home and here job classification here–here knowledge and skills and here levels here, here matches here–here mobility here multi-stage life and here office-based here paid leave here participation rates here–here, here pay here–here, here psychological contract here satisfaction here–here self-employment here–here specialization and here–here statistics here status and here supply and here–here technology and here, here–here, here–here, here, here, here–here, here unique human skills here–here, here vacancies here–here women and here–here working hours here–here, here working week here–here employment changes here, here, here–here companies and here–here industry sectors and here–here, here entrepreneurship here–here see also independent producers equity release schemes here experiential learning here–here, here, here experimentation here, here–here, here–here explorers here–here, here–here adventurers here age and here–here assets and here crucible experiences and here–here options and here–here searchers here, here exponential discounting here exponential growth here–here Facebook here families here, here, here–here, here children here, here–here, here dual career households here, here, here marriage here–here work and here, here finance here, here–here see also pensions age process algorithms here, here agency and here–here automation and here–here costs here–here efficacy and here–here equity release schemes here flexibility here governments and here–here, here, here–here health and here housing and here–here hyperbolic discounting here–here inheritances here–here investment here, here–here, here–here, here, here old age and here–here pay here–here, here pension replacement rates here–here, here, here–here portfolios here–here psychology and here–here retirement and here–here fitness and health here–here see also health Fleming, Ian here flexibility here, here–here, here, here–here, here–here, here corporations and here–here government policy and here–here working patterns and here flexibility stigma here, here Ford, Henry here Foxconn here Frey, Carl here Friedman, Stewart here–here, here Fries, James here, here Future of Work Consortium here future selves here–here future selves case studies Jane here–here, here–here Jimmy here–here, here galumphing here–here gender here, here see also women inequality here–here, here–here, here, here, here specialization of labour here, here–here, here, here, here–here Generation Y here generational attitudes here gerontology here Giddens, Anthony here, here gig economy here–here globalization here Goldin, Claudia here, here Google here governments here, here–here, here inequalities and here–here pensions and here–here rate of change and here–here Gratton, Lynda here Shift, The here growth mindset here–here Groysberg, Boris here Haffenden, Margaret here Hagestad, Gunhild here–here, here Harvard Grant Study here health here, here–here brain, the here–here chronic diseases here–here, here compression of morbidity here–here dementia here diseases of old age here–here finance and here improvements in here–here inequality here, here–here infectious diseases here public health here stress here–here healthy life expectancy here heterogeneity here hollowing out of work here–here, here, here home, work and here household here–here see also home economies of scale and here–here relationships here, here–here, here, here housing here–here imputed rent here, here ownership here HR policies here–here human skills here–here, here, here, here hyperbolic discounting here–here Ibarra, Herminia here identity here–here, here, here–here, here–here see also self-control; self-knowledge improvisation here–here imputed rent here, here income see also welfare distribution here growth and here inequalities here–here, here–here skills and knowledge and here–here income effect here–here independent producers here–here, here–here assets and here case study here–here creative clusters and here–here learning and here–here prototyping here–here reputation and curating and here–here India here–here Individual, the here Industrial Revolution, the here–here, here, here, here inequalities here–here gender and here–here, here–here, here, here, here government policy and here–here health here, here–here income here–here, here–here life expectancy and here–here, here–here, here infant mortality here intangible assets here–here, here–here, here case studies here–here, here–here, here corporations and here–here endowed individual characteristics here, here independent producers and here marriage and here productive assets see productive assets time and here transformational assets see transformational assets transitions and here–here vitality assets see vitality assets International Labour Organization (ILO) here ‘Women and the Future of Work’ here investment here, here–here, here–here, here Japan centenarians here–here life expectancy here, here–here,here–here, here pensions and here population decline and here job classification here–here job creation here–here job satisfaction here–here juvenescence here, here–here, here Kahneman, Daniel here Kegan, Robert here Keynes, John Maynard: Economic Possibilities of Our Grandchildren here knowledge see skills and knowledge Kurzweil, Ray here labour market see employment Lampedusa, Giuseppe : Leopard, The here law (occupation) here–here leadership here learning methods here leisure class here leisure industry here, here, here–here leisure time here, here, here–here, here–here, here–here Keynes, John Maynard and here life expectancy here–here, here see also long life best practice here, here calculating here–here, here chronic diseases and here–here cohort estimate of here, here, here developing countries and here–here diseases of old age and here–here government plans and here healthy life expectancy here historical here, here, here increase in here–here, here India and here–here inequalities in here–here, here–here, here infant mortality and here Japan and here, here–here, here–here, here limit to here–here period life expectancy measure here, here–here public health innovations and here South Korea here US and here–here Western Europe here life stages here–here, here–here age and here–here experiential learning and here explorers and here–here, here–here independent producers and here–here, here–here juvenescence and here, here–here multi-stage model here, here–here, here, here, here–here, here–here, here new stages here, here see also life stages case studies portfolios and here–here, here–here three-stage model here, here–here, here–here, here–here, here–here, here–here, here–here transitions and here life stages case studies diversity and here Jane here–here Jimmy here–here, here lifetime allowances here–here, here, here liminality here Linde, Charlotte here lockstep of action here–here, here London here–here London Business School here long life see also life expectancy as a curse here, here as a gift here, here Luddites, the here machine learning here marriage here–here Marsh, Paul here Marshall, Anthony here mastery here–here matching here–here Millenials here Mirvas, Philip here Modigliani, Franco here MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) here, here Moore’s Law here–here, here Moravec’s Paradox here, here morbidity here–here compression of here–here Morrissey, Francis here mortality here mortality risk here multiple selves here–here National Commission on Technology, Automation, and Economic Progress here neighbourhoods here neoplasticity here neoteny here, here new experiences here occupations here–here old age dependency ration here–here, here Ondine, curse of here options here, here–here Osborne, Michael here paid leave here Parfit, Derek here participation rates here–here, here peers here–here pension case studies Jack here, here–here, here, here Jane here, here, here–here, here, here, here, here, here–here Jimmy here–here, here, here–here, here, here, here–here, here three-stage life model here–here, here–here, here–here pension replacement rate here–here, here, here–here pensions here, here–here, here see also pension case studies amount required here–here funded schemes here goals and here government policy and here–here investment and here, here occupational pensions here–here Pay As You Go schemes here–here, here, here pension replacement rate here–here, here, here–here reform and here state pensions here–here, here period life expectancy measure here, here–here personal brands here pharmacy (occupation) here planning here plasticity here–here play here–here politics, engagement with here Polyani’s Paradox here–here, here population here–here, here–here portfolios (financial) here–here portfolios (life stage) here–here, here–here switching costs here transitions and here–here posse here–here, here possible selves here, here–here possible selves case studies Jane here–here Jimmy here–here, here Preston, Samuel here production complementarities here, here–here, here productive assets here–here, here case studies here, here, here–here, here, here, here, here–here, here, here marriage and here transitions and here professional social capital here–here prototyping here–here psychology here, here–here see also self-control age process algorithms here, here automation and here–here behavioural nudges here saving and here–here pure relationships here, here pyramid schemes here re-creation and recreation here–here, here–here recruitment here reflexive project, the here regenerative community here, here, here Relation P here relationships here–here, here, here children and here–here divorce and here–here, here dual career households here families and here–here, here–here friendships here, here–here household here, here–here, here, here marriage and here–here, here–here matches and here–here multi-generational living here–here, here options and here–here pure relationship here switching roles here, here, here, here–here reputation here–here, here–here, here–here retirees here–here retirement see also pensions age of here, here, here, here, here–here, here consumption levels and here corporations and here, here government policy and here–here stimulation in here, here risk here risk pooling here robotics here, here, here, here see also Artificial Intelligence role models here routine here routine activities here routine-busting here routine tasks here–here Rule of here here Sabbath, the here sabbaticals here–here Save More Tomorrow (SMarT plan) here–here Scharmer, Otto here second half of the chessboard here–here segregation of the ages here–here, here–here, here, here–here self-control here–here, here–here age process algorithms here, here automation and here behavioural nudges here self-employment here–here self-knowledge here–here, here finance and here–here service sector here sexuality here–here Shakespeare, William King Lear here sharing economy here–here, here, here short-termism here–here skills and knowledge here, here–here, here see also human skills earning potential and here professional social capital and here–here technology and here–here valuable here–here Slim, Carlos here smart cities here–here independent producers and here–here social media here, here–here society here spare time here see also leisure time standardized practices here–here Staunton, Mike here strategic bequest motive, the here–here substitution effect here switching here, here, here, here–here tangible assets here–here, here, here, here, here see also housing; pensions case studies here, here, here, here, here, here transitions and here taxation here, here–here Teachers Insurance and Annuity Assurance scheme here technology here, here see also Artificial Intelligence computing power here–here, here–here see also Moore’s Law driverless cars here–here, here education and here, here, here employment and here, here–here, here–here, here, here, here–here, here human skills and here, here innovation and here matching and here relationships and here teenagers here–here, here–here, here, here Thaler, Richard here thick market effects here–here Thomas, R. here time here, here–here see also sabbaticals discretionary time here flexibility and here–here, here Industrial Revolution, the here–here, here–here, here intangible assets and here leisure and here, here, here–here, here–here, here–here restructuring here, here spare time here working hours here–here, here, here–here working hours paradox here–here, here working week, the here–here, here time poor here–here trade unions here transformational assets here, here–here, here–here, here, here, here case studies here–here, here–here, here–here, here–here, here, here, here, here crucible experiences and here corporations and here transitions here, here–here, here–here, here corporations and here financing here–here government policy and here, here nature of here–here portfolios and here–here re-creating here recharging here–here tribal rituals here Twitter here Uhlenberg, Peter here–here, here UK, occupational pension schemes and here–here Unilever here universities here US here–here compression of morbidity and here occupational pension schemes and here Valliant, George here value creation here vitality assets here, here–here, here case studies here, here–here, here, here, here–here, here, here, here, here transitions and here–here website here week, the here–here weekend, the here, here weight loss here welfare here–here see also benefits Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania here–here, here WhatsApp here Wolfran, Hans-Joachim here women see also gender children and here–here relationships and here, here, here work and here–here Women and Love here work see employment working hours here–here, here, here–here working week, the here–here, here Yahoos here–here youthfulness here–here Bloomsbury Information An imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc 50 Bedford Square 1385 Broadway London New York WC1B 3DP NY 10018 UK USA www.bloomsbury.com BLOOMSBURY and the Diana logo are trademarks of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc First published 2016 © Lynda Gratton and Andrew Scott, 2016 Lynda Gratton and Andrew Scott have asserted their right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as Author of this work.
A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, American Legislative Exchange Council, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Brewster Kahle, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, digital Maoism, disintermediation, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, future of journalism, George Gilder, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, Naomi Klein, Narrative Science, Network effects, new economy, New Journalism, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, oil rush, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, Richard Stallman, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, slashdot, Slavoj Žižek, Snapchat, social graph, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, trade route, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, Works Progress Administration, young professional
This focus ignores the business imperatives that accelerate media consumption and the market forces that encourage compulsive online engagement. Yet there is one point on which the cheerleaders and the naysayers agree: we are living at a time of profound rupture—something utterly unprecedented and incomparable. All connections to the past have been rent asunder by the power of the network, the proliferation of smartphones, tablets, and Google glasses, the rise of big data, and the dawning of digital abundance. Social media and memes will remake reality—for better or for worse. My view, on the other hard, is that there is as much continuity as change in our new world, for good and for ill. Many of the problems that plagued our media system before the Internet was widely adopted have carried over into the digital domain—consolidation, centralization, and commercialism—and will continue to shape it.
23andMe, 3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Anne Wojcicki, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, bioinformatics, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, commoditize, computer vision, conceptual framework, connected car, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, disintermediation, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, global village, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, personalized medicine, phenotype, placebo effect, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, Snapchat, social graph, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Turing test, Uber for X, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize
As you get out on the city streets and public places, there’s now an unprecedented array of sensors, CCTVs, and vast wireless networks that are set up to detect your motion, sense your car, read your license plate, and capture key biometric information such as facial recognition. Then there are all the low-cost satellites from above so that “all of the Earth will be held to a mirror, in near real time, at an increasing granularity of visual infrared and other kinds of data.”33b Wow, are we ever being watched. Not just being watched but also identified. The NameTag app enables users of Google Glass to take a picture of a stranger and identify them in the FacialNetwork company’s database, which includes occupation and social media profiles.34 Similarly, the NEC company is developing tools to enable hotels and businesses to automatically recognize their important visitors.35 These efforts rely on converting each person’s facial data into a “faceprint” of mathematical code along with a large database to find a match.
To Save Everything, Click Here: The Folly of Technological Solutionism by Evgeny Morozov
3D printing, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, Automated Insights, Berlin Wall, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive bias, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, Dava Sobel, disintermediation, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, future of journalism, game design, Gary Taubes, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of the printing press, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, license plate recognition, lifelogging, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, moral panic, Narrative Science, Nicholas Carr, packet switching, PageRank, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, pets.com, placebo effect, pre–internet, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, smart meter, social graph, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the medium is the message, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Vannevar Bush, WikiLeaks
But, promises Kelly, none of this actually matters, because technology wants the same things as evolution, for technology is just evolution by other means. Thus, he notes that “with minor differences, the evolution of the technium—the organism of ideas—mimics the evolution of genetic organisms.” Technology is nature, and nature is technology; resistance is futile—who would want to challenge nature? With this simple insight, Kelly develops a whole theory that can explain literally every development—from malware like Stuxnet to Google glasses—by claiming that this is just what technology wants. All we have to do is to develop the right listening tools—and the rest will follow. Hence, notes Kelly, “only by listening to technology’s story, divining its tendencies and biases, and tracing its current direction can we hope to solve our personal puzzles.” Elsewhere, he writes, “We can choose to modify our legal and political and economic assumptions to meet the ordained [technological] trajectories ahead.
Common Knowledge?: An Ethnography of Wikipedia by Dariusz Jemielniak
Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), citation needed, collaborative consumption, collaborative editing, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, Debian, deskilling, digital Maoism, en.wikipedia.org, Filter Bubble, Google Glasses, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, hive mind, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Menlo Park, moral hazard, online collectivism, pirate software, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social software, Stewart Brand, The Nature of the Firm, The Wisdom of Crowds, transaction costs, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, zero-sum game
Wikimedia projects in general rely on a traditional encyclopedic form of specific articles, sorted by categories and searchable by headwords. This structure does not include social networking for the reader, and it is not efficient. Wikipedia may include a marvelous article on St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome that is useful for art students, for example, but it will not be equally convenient for use with Google Glass or easy to cut into digestible bites. 1 9 2 T h e K n o w l e d g e R e v o l u t i o n a t t h e G a t e s Additionally, currently Wikipedians assume the same general adult level of reading ability (even Simple Wikipedia does so, while using simplified language for nonnative speakers’ convenience). At some point, Wikimedia projects may decide to diversify their articles in this respect and allow readers to decide for themselves which level of difficulty to see, consequently rewriting all articles in such a way that different levels of comprehension are allowed.
How Will Capitalism End? by Wolfgang Streeck
accounting loophole / creative accounting, Airbnb, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, Clayton Christensen, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Graeber, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, en.wikipedia.org, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial deregulation, financial innovation, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, late capitalism, liberal capitalism, market bubble, means of production, moral hazard, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, open borders, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, post-industrial society, private sector deleveraging, profit maximization, profit motive, quantitative easing, reserve currency, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, savings glut, secular stagnation, shareholder value, sharing economy, sovereign wealth fund, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Uber for X, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck
Responding in the New York Times (16 November 2013) to Summers’ ‘secular stagnation’ pronunciamiento (see Footnote 21), he begins by paraphrasing Keynes as having said, ‘spending is good, and while productive spending is best, unproductive spending is better than nothing’ – from which he derives the claim that ‘private spending that is wholly or partially wasteful’ could be ‘a good thing’. For illustration, Krugman continues, ‘suppose that U.S. corporations, which are currently sitting on a huge hoard of cash, were somehow to become convinced that it would be a great idea to fit out all their employees as cyborgs, with Google Glass and smart wristwatches everywhere. And suppose that three years later they realized that there wasn’t really much payoff to all that spending. Nonetheless, the resulting investment boom would have given us several years of much higher employment, with no real waste, since the resources employed would otherwise have been idle.’ Concerning bubbles, ‘we now know that the economic expansion of 2003–2007 was driven by a bubble.
The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload by Daniel J. Levitin
airport security, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anton Chekhov, Bayesian statistics, big-box store, business process, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive bias, complexity theory, computer vision, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Eratosthenes, Exxon Valdez, framing effect, friendly fire, fundamental attribution error, Golden Gate Park, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, impulse control, index card, indoor plumbing, information retrieval, invention of writing, iterative process, jimmy wales, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, life extension, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, phenotype, placebo effect, pre–internet, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, Rubik’s Cube, Skype, Snapchat, statistical model, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, ultimatum game, zero-sum game
But a corollary to that is that the brain habituates to things that don’t change—this is why a friend can walk into your kitchen and notice that the refrigerator has developed an odd humming noise, something you no longer notice. If the umbrella is by the door all the time, rain or shine, it no longer functions as a memory trigger, because you don’t notice it. To help remember where you parked your car, parking lot signs at the San Francisco airport recommend taking a cell phone photo of your spot. Of course this works for bicycle parking as well. (In the new heart of the tech industry, Google cars and Google Glass will probably be doing this for us soon enough.) When organized people find themselves running between the kitchen and the home office all the time to get a pair of scissors, they buy an extra pair. It might seem like cluttering rather than organizing, but buying duplicates of things that you use frequently and in different locations helps to prevent you from losing them. Perhaps you use your reading glasses in the bedroom, the home office, and the kitchen.
The Practice of Cloud System Administration: DevOps and SRE Practices for Web Services, Volume 2 by Thomas A. Limoncelli, Strata R. Chalup, Christina J. Hogan
active measures, Amazon Web Services, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, business process, cloud computing, commoditize, continuous integration, correlation coefficient, database schema, Debian, defense in depth, delayed gratification, DevOps, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, Firefox, Google Glasses, information asymmetry, Infrastructure as a Service, intermodal, Internet of things, job automation, job satisfaction, load shedding, loose coupling, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Marc Andreessen, place-making, platform as a service, premature optimization, recommendation engine, revision control, risk tolerance, side project, Silicon Valley, software as a service, sorting algorithm, statistical model, Steven Levy, supply-chain management, Toyota Production System, web application, Yogi Berra
These changes happened by taking advantage of commoditization and standardization, shifting to open source software, building more reliability through software instead of hardware, and replacing labor-intensive operations with more software. Every order-of-magnitude improvement in the cost of computing enables a new era of applications, each of which was unimaginable just a few years before. Could the person who used an 8-bit computer to balance his or her checkbook in 1983 ever have imagined Facebook or Google Glass? What will follow cloud computing is anyone’s guess. The applications of tomorrow will demand computing resources that are orders-of-magnitude faster, have lower latency, and are less expensive. It will be very exciting to see what develops. Exercises 1. This appendix provides a history of five eras of computing technology: preweb era, first web era, dot-bomb era, second web era, and cloud computing era.