Columbine

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pages: 240 words: 109,474

Masters of Doom: How Two Guys Created an Empire and Transformed Pop Culture by David Kushner

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Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, book scanning, Columbine, corporate governance, game design, glass ceiling, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, market design, Marshall McLuhan, Saturday Night Live, side project, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software patent, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, X Prize

Stuart Fischoff, founder of the Media Psychology lab at California State University in Los Angeles, said in an address to the American Psychological Association later in 1999, “but because two phenomena are both disturbing and coincident in time does not make them causally connected… There is not, I submit, a single research 211 study which is even remotely predictive of [events like] the Columbine massacre.” Murderers, after all, had proven that they could find inspiration in anything–the White Album, Taxi Driver, Catcher in the Rye. How many acts of violence had the Bible inspired? After Columbine, however, few had the nerve or the knowledge to defend games. Jon Kate, a writer for Rolling Stone and the tech community Slashdot, posted several essays that assailed the media’s stereotypes of geeks and gamers. “This is so crazy and hysterical,” he told the San Francisco Chronicle. “The real issue should be how teenagers get their hands on machine guns and bombs–not about a Web site and video games.”

In fact, it had happened only eight days before the Columbine shootings. On April 12, 1999, the parents of three students killed in a 1997 school shooting in Paducah, Kentucky, had leveled a $130 million lawsuit against entertainment companies, including id Software, whose violent products, they said, had inspired the fourteen-year-old murderer, Michael Carneal–a fan of Doom and Quake. And, of course, it had happened long before that: the Wolfenstein controversies in 1992, the Mortal Kombat hearings in 1993, the Doom bans to follow–not to mention the Death Race arcade outrage in the 1970s, or the Dungeons and Dragons hysteria in the eighties. As long as these guys had played games, there had been the detractors, the lawsuits, the sensationalism, but nothing quite as powerful as the onetwo punch of Paducah and Columbine. Because of the Paducah lawsuit, id’s 213 lawyers strongly advised the owners and employees to remain quiet.

They made games they wanted to play that no one else was making, games that, as fate would have it, would appeal to millions of others. As Carmack returned to his desk, he went back to work on a game that was going to be id’s most gleeful shooter yet: Quake III Arena. But, after Columbine, would people want–would the market allow–his or Romero’s games again? Jonn Schuneman gripped his bowling ball tighter as the talk turned to Doom. Romero’s stepfather, now in his sixties, had been coming to this bowling alley more frequently since retiring, and he could usually count on relaxing with a good game. But not today. The people next to him, like millions across the country, were talking about the horrific events at Columbine High School. Kids today, they’re being corrupted by these violent videogames like Doom. Schuneman’s heart raced again as they spoke. He stepped over to the group, “We can take it outside anytime you want,” he said, curling the ball at his side.

 

pages: 465 words: 134,575

Rise of the Warrior Cop: The Militarization of America's Police Forces by Radley Balko

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anti-communist, call centre, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, desegregation, edge city, Menlo Park, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan

Phillips and Mătăsăreanu committed armed robberies, crimes for which violence is a prerequisite. The other major incident from the late 1990s that proponents of militarization often cite in justifying SWAT teams is the 1999 mass shooting at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado. But if the justification for SWAT teams is to have a team of brave, highly trained, highly professional, well-armed, and well-protected cops to intervene in such tragedies, Columbine is a particularly unfortunate example. Though there were eventually eight hundred police officers and eight SWAT teams on the Columbine campus, the SWAT teams held off from going inside to stop shooters Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris because they deemed the situation too dangerous. A spokesman for the Jefferson County Sheriff’s Department justified the SWAT team’s actions after the shooting.

When the town of Ithaca, New York, reformulated its SWAT team in 2000, for example, Assistant Commander Peter Tyler was asked why a college town with virtually no violent crime needed a SWAT team in the first place. He pointed to Columbine and similar mass shootings. “I think it’s naive for anyone to think it couldn’t happen here in Ithaca,” he said. Perhaps. But in a different context, Ithaca Police Chief Richard Basile later explained that the reformulated SWAT team would save taxpayers money because its smaller size made it more efficient at its primary duty—serving drug warrants.65 A 2002 Miami Herald article on the spread of SWAT teams in Florida noted that “police say they want [SWAT teams] in case of a hostage situation or a Columbine-type incident. But in practice, the teams are used mainly to serve search warrants on suspected drug dealers. Some of these searches yield as little as a few grams of cocaine or marijuana.”66 As recently as July 2012, Portland, Maine, police chief Michael Sauschuck cited both incidents to justify his department’s acquisition of a military-grade armored truck.67 There have, of course, been a number of other school shootings since Columbine, on both high school and college campuses.

University of Virginia psychologist and education professor Dewey Cornell, who studies violence prevention and school safety, has estimated that the typical school campus can expect to see a homicide about once every several thousand years—hardly justification to rush out to get a SWAT team.68 Yet many college campuses now have their own paramilitary police teams, and many cited Columbine and Virginia Tech as the reason they needed one. A recent example is the University of North Carolina–Charlotte Campus Police Department, which started a SWAT team in 2011. Lt. Josh Huffman explained why it was necessary: “The purpose for creating the UNCC SWAT Team is to protect the community and prevent the loss of life. We must be prepared to respond to high risk situations such as those tragedies that occurred at Virginia Tech and Columbine.”69 The number of campuses that will ever host a mass shooting or hostage taking may be vanishingly small, but most campuses produce more than enough pot smokers—and thus dealers to supply them—to keep the SWAT team busy once it’s up and running.

 

pages: 509 words: 147,998

The Geeks Shall Inherit the Earth: Popularity, Quirk Theory, and Why Outsiders Thrive After High School by Alexandra Robbins

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airport security, Albert Einstein, Columbine, game design, hive mind, out of africa, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Wisdom of Crowds, trickle-down economics

Annmarie’s secret, though she never made plans to act on it, combined with her image at school, could have landed her in a great deal of trouble. In the aftermath of the 1999 shootings at Columbine High School, in which the student gunmen killed twelve students and a teacher and wounded more than two dozen others before shooting themselves, campus perception of outcasts shifted from objects of derision to potential murderers. Because Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold wore Goth-like fashion, demonstrated technological sophistication, and were social outcasts, each of those characteristics came to be suspect in other students; the combination became a dreaded stereotype. “We needed to know who was a good guy and who was a bad guy, and nerds and geeks seemed to be mostly in the enemy camp,” psychologist David Anderegg observed. Columbine “changed the world in many ways but one of the most immediate ways was a nationwide persecution of Goths, nerds, geeks, and perceived misfits of all kinds. . . .

But it still crosses my mind when I’m in tears after an unnecessary comment or lying awake unable to sleep because of anxiety regarding school.” Recent studies have called the link between relational aggression and perceived popularity “robust” and “remarkable.” Psychologists point out that high-status cliques teach the exclusionary behavior that may be the foundation for eventual racism, anti-Semitism, sexism, and other forms of bigotry. Eric Harris, one of the two Columbine murderers, had a secret too. He wasn’t raised in Columbine; his family moved there from Plattsburgh, New York, where he played soccer and Little League baseball, earned good grades, and was a boy scout. In Plattsburgh, administrators would not have singled out Harris as a potential school shooter. Harris’s secret? Before he moved to Colorado, he was popular. Chapter 7 MISPERCEPTIONS REGAN, GEORGIA | THE WEIRD GIRL At a Diversity Committee meeting, Regan announced that she wanted to start a Gay-Straight Alliance.

We don’t teach kids about oral health by making them brush their teeth only once a year. There has to be a plan to reduce exclusionary behavior and harassment. Even three years after two alleged bully victims orchestrated the Columbine massacre, the school still did not have an anti-bullying program in place. No matter how ineffective students claim these programs might be—and even if the programs do fall short—it is nevertheless crucial to have an adult whom kids can turn to for help. As the mother of a friend of the shooters said in 2002, “There has to be, in every school, someone these troubled kids can go to . . . Columbine does not have an anti-bullying program. One lady said to me, ‘You can’t expect them to do it this fast.’ Well, yes you can.’ ” And you must. Chapter 14 CAFETERIA FRINGE: LUCKY AND FREE It is natural for people to want to join groups, and to do what they believe they need to do—like exclude—in order to be accepted into those groups.

 

pages: 542 words: 132,010

The Science of Fear: How the Culture of Fear Manipulates Your Brain by Daniel Gardner

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Atul Gawande, availability heuristic, Black Swan, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, Doomsday Clock, feminist movement, haute couture, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, medical residency, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, placebo effect, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Stephen Hawking, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, Tunguska event, uranium enrichment, Y2K, young professional

The result of this one-sided mental debate showed in opinion polls. Shortly after the Jonesboro massacre, an NBC/Wall Street Journal poll found that 71 percent of Americans said it was likely or very likely that a school shooting would happen in their community, while a USA Today poll taken following the Columbine massacre got almost the same result. One month after Columbine, a Gallup poll found that 52 percent of parents feared for their children’s safety at school; five months later, that number was almost unchanged at 47 percent. As hideous as the Columbine massacre was, it didn’t change the fact that most schools, and most students in them, were perfectly safe—a fact that politicians could have hammered home but did not. Instead, there were endless speeches blaming bad parenting, violent movies, or Goth music for leading youth astray.

So the story inside America’s schools was clear when Indicators of School Crime and Safety was first issued in 1998, and it remains clear today: Murdersin schools are so rare that the risk to any one student is effectively zero, and rates of serious violence have dropped steadily and dramatically. Of course this isn’t people’s sense of reality—thanks mainly to the fact that on April 20, 1999, two heavily armed teenagers walked into Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado. They murdered one teacher and twelve students, wounded twenty-four, and stunned hundreds of millions of people around the world. The Columbine massacre got massive news coverage. The Pew Research Center found that almost seven out of ten Americans said they followed the event “very closely,” making it by far the biggest story of 1999 and the third-biggest story of the entire decade. The biggest story the previous year was the Jonesboro massacre.

In part, that’s because of a calculation every political adviser makes in crises like these: The politician who says the event is tragic but doesn’t change the fact that we remain safe will be hit by his opponents with the accusation that he does not understand how serious the situation is, or worse, that he does not care. It’s a huge political risk, with no reward for those who take it. Few do. And so politicians do not struggle to quell the “unreasoning fear” Roosevelt warned against. They embrace and amplify it. The furor after Columbine faded eventually, but in the fall of 2006, the whole terrible scenario—from tragedy to panic—was revisited. On September 13, a former student entered Dawson College in Montreal with a rifle. One student was killed, nineteen injured. On September 27, a fifty-three-year-old man entered a high school in Colorado, took six girls hostage and killed one. Two days later, a ninth grader in Wisconsin shot his principal to death.

 

The America That Reagan Built by J. David Woodard

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, Deng Xiaoping, friendly fire, glass ceiling, global village, Gordon Gekko, gun show loophole, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, new economy, postindustrial economy, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Ted Kaczynski, The Predators' Ball, trickle-down economics, women in the workforce, Y2K, young professional

From their vantage point they could see the first floor cafeteria, just filling with students, and each was covering a main exit from the school.48 Columbine was a school, like hundreds of others in the suburban United States, where athletic prowess was granted a license. An investigative report subsequently found that athletes could bully, haze, and harass other students without fear of reprisal. The homecoming king, a star football player, was on parole for burglary, yet still was permitted to play. The school’s state wrestling champ was allowed to compete, despite being on court-ordered probation.49 The fact that Harris and Klebold were social outcasts probably made them conspicuous targets for taunting. One Columbine student said the ‘‘trench coat mafia’’ ‘‘didn’t look like other people’’ and ‘‘didn’t dress or act like other people.’’

The two murderers committed suicide a little after noon. Columbine was the worst school shooting, and the second deadliest attack on a school, in American history. The astonishing thing was that it could have been so much worse if the bombs had exploded as planned. The boys learned how to make the explosives over the Internet and from readily available books like The Anarchist Cookbook. The ingredients were easily found in hardware stores and made with carbon dioxide canisters, galvanized pipe, and metal propane bottles. The police SWAT team began a thorough check of every room in the high school—a process that took hours. Aside from the unexploded bombs in the cafeteria, the police found twelve other devices throughout the school. 202 THE AMERICA THAT REAGAN BUILT The massacre at Columbine initiated a spate of copycat imitations at other U.S. high schools.

Within the school itself, students congregated in groups, mutually exclusive groups. The ‘‘jocks,’’ the ‘‘preps,’’ the ‘‘rednecks,’’ the ‘‘artists,’’ the ‘‘cheerleaders,’’ the ‘‘non–college prep,’’ and the ‘‘nerds’’ all existed in a kind of tense adolescent association of nonconformity. At 11:10 A.M. on Tuesday, April 20, 1999—Hitler’s 110th birthday—two students who were notorious outsiders arrived at Columbine High School in Littleton, a suburb of Denver, Colorado. The school had 1,800 students; about half were beginning to go to the ‘‘A’’ lunch. Eric Harris, eighteen, and Dylan Klebold, seventeen, found their identity in what was known as the ‘‘trench coat mafia,’’ a group that boasted about owning guns and taking pride in their social alienation. They were pariahs in a high school where athletes, the favored jocks who wore white caps, dominated campus politics and social life.

 

pages: 456 words: 185,658

More Guns, Less Crime: Understanding Crime and Gun-Control Laws by John R. Lott

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affirmative action, Columbine, crack epidemic, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, gun show loophole, income per capita, More Guns, Less Crime, statistical model, the medium is the message, transaction costs

Deaths and injuries from multiple-victim public shootings fell even further, on average by 78 percent, as the remaining incidents tended to involve fewer victims per attack.179 That killers often choose gun-free zones for their attacks is not a new phenomenon. Thirteen were killed in the Columbine High School shooting in 1999; twenty-three were shot dead at Luby’s Cafeteria in Killeen, Texas, in 1991; and twenty-one were slain at a McDonald’s in Southern California in 1984.180 Similar horrible incidents occur in other gun-free zones around the world. The Mumbai massacre left 165 victims dead.181 Since 2001, many European countries—including Finland, France, Germany, and Switzerland—have each suffered at least two major multiple-victim shootings. The worst school shooting in Germany resulted in seventeen killed (four more than were killed at the Columbine High School attack); in Switzerland, one attacker fatally shot fourteen legislators in a regional parliament building; in Finland in 2008, an attack took the lives of ten victims.182 During a period of just a couple of weeks in April 2009, there were multiple-victim public shootings at a college in Athens, a crowded café in Rotterdam, and a supermarket in Moscow.183 Overall, the problem with gun-control laws is not too little regulation, but rather that the regulations disarm law-abiding citizens.

Since that time, two of the eight public school shootings (Pearl, Mississippi, and Edinboro, Pennsylvania) were stopped only when citizens with guns interceded.28 In the Pearl, Mississippi, case, Myrick stopped the killer from proceeding to the nearby junior high school and continuing his attack there. These two cases also involved the fewest people harmed in any of the attacks. The armed citizens managed to stop the attackers well before UPDATING THE RESULTS IN 2000 | 195 the police even had arrived at the scene—4½ minutes before in the Pearl, Mississippi, case and 11 minutes before in Edinboro. In a third instance, at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, an armed guard was able to delay the attackers and allow many students to escape the building, even though he was assigned to the school because he had failed to pass his shooting proficiency test. The use of homemade grenades, however, prevented the guard from fighting longer. There is some irony in Dylan Klebold, one of the two killers, strongly opposing the proposed right-to-carry law that was being considered in Colorado at the time of the massacre.29 In the attack on the Jewish community center in Los Angeles in which five people were wounded, the attacker had apparently “scouted three of the West Coast’s most prominent Jewish institutions— the Museum of Tolerance, the Skirball Cultural Center and the University of Judaism—but found security too tight.”30 It is remarkable how little public discussion there has been on the topic of allowing people to defend themselves.

Another puzzle is the lack of coverage given to cases in which citizens with guns have prevented multiple-victim public shootings from occurring. Given the intense concern generated by these attacks, one would think that people would be interested in knowing how these attacks were stopped. 230 | CHAPTER NINE For a simple comparison, take the justified news coverage accorded the heroic actions of Dave Sanders, the Columbine High School teacher who helped protect some of the students and was killed in the process. By the Sunday morning five days after the incident, a Lexis-Nexis search (a type of on-line computer search that includes news media databases) indicates that over 250 of the slightly over 1,000 news stories around the country on this tragedy had mentioned this hero. Contrast this with other school attacks in which the crimes were stopped well before the police were able to arrive.

 

pages: 924 words: 198,159

Blackwater: The Rise of the World's Most Powerful Mercenary Army by Jeremy Scahill

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air freight, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, business climate, business intelligence, centralized clearinghouse, collective bargaining, Columbine, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Naomi Klein, private military company, Ronald Reagan, school choice, school vouchers, stem cell, urban planning

On April 20, 1999, Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris walked into their high school, Columbine High, in Littleton, Colorado, wearing black trench coats and armed to the teeth with semiautomatic weapons and shotguns. The two proceeded to go on a killing rampage that took the lives of twelve of their fellow students and one teacher. The incident would quickly be dubbed the “Columbine massacre.” Despite the fact that the number of school shootings had dropped from thirty-two during the 1992-1993 school year to nineteen during 1998-1999, the hype around Columbine encouraged a panic about such incidents that spread throughout the country.50 It also caused law enforcement agencies at all levels to review their ability to respond to such incidents. “Nobody thought that Columbine could have happened,” Ron Watson, a spokesman for the National Tactical Officer’s Association (NTOA), said at the time.

“Nobody thought that Columbine could have happened,” Ron Watson, a spokesman for the National Tactical Officer’s Association (NTOA), said at the time. “So Columbine has changed thinking. It has thrown a new wrinkle into training.”51 In September 1999, some four hundred SWAT team officers found their way to Moyock for exercises at Blackwater’s newly constructed “R U Ready High School.”52 The NTOA kicked in $50,000 to construct the fifteen-room, 14,746-square-foot mock school, but the project likely cost Blackwater much more.53 As with future projects, Prince had the means and the motivation to spend if he thought there would eventually be a payoff. “Erik had enough money to pay for whatever they needed up front, so he could get his money back, he had plenty of capital,” said Al Clark. “He probably inherited $500 million, so he had plenty of money to play with.”54 The mock school featured the sound effects of screaming students, blood spatters, gunshot wounds, and simunition (practice ammo).

This is not something that can wait.”55 Blackwater’s quick construction and running of “R U Ready High” convinced the NTOA, an organization that trains four thousand police officers annually, to split its sixteenth annual conference between Virginia Beach and Blackwater’s Moyock compound. The event drew tactical teams and police officers from every state, Canada, Haiti, Belgium, and England. By April 2000, the NTOA had put more than one thousand officers through training at “R U Ready” as police departments across the country started more and more to hear the name Blackwater. At an NTOA soiree at the time, Prince commented that events like Columbine are “a reminder that vigilance is the price of liberty, and we need well-trained law enforcement and military. There is no shortage of evil in the world.”56 On February 1, 2000, with its name spreading across the law enforcement community, Blackwater took a huge leap forward as it landed its first General Services Administration contract, creating a government-approved list of services and goods Blackwater could sell to federal agencies and the prices it could officially charge.

 

And Never Stop Dancing: Thirty More True Things You Need to Know Now by Gordon Livingston

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Columbine, desegregation, follow your passion, Maui Hawaii

Like the famous three lies (“The check is in the mail,” “I love you,” and “The flight will be delayed about an hour”), 11. 0738212494-text.qxd:0738212494-text.qxd 7/10/08 9:34 AM Page 12 And Never Stop Dancing the three questions tell us something about ourselves and about the human condition. We may long to win the lottery or appear on national TV. What would really improve our lives is to laugh more, think about why we’re here, and let each other merge. 12. 0738212494-text.qxd:0738212494-text.qxd 7/10/08 9:34 AM Page 13 3. Forgiveness is a gift we give ourselves. or a time after the massacre in 1999, on a hill overlooking Columbine High School, stood fifteen crosses, memorials to both the victims and the perpetrators. Then the father and stepfather of one of the dead children removed the two crosses bearing the names of the shooters. They questioned the propriety of honoring murderers in the same place as their victims. And so, while we were still struggling with the meaning, if any, of this tragedy, we were confronted with the question F 13. 0738212494-text.qxd:0738212494-text.qxd 7/10/08 9:34 AM Page 14 And Never Stop Dancing of what attitude we should take toward it.

One definition of the word is “giving up a grievance to which you are entitled.” Widely confused with forgetting or reconciliation, it is neither. Forgiveness is an act of letting go, of relinquishment. It is not something we 14. 0738212494-text.qxd:0738212494-text.qxd 7/10/08 9:34 AM Page 15 Forgiveness is a gift we give ourselves. do for others; it is a gift to ourselves. The shooters at Columbine High inflicted the death penalty on themselves. What is left for us to do to them? We do not release them from accountability by forgiving; we free ourselves from the burden of bitterness. In this sense forgiveness is a selfish rather than an altruistic act. People present themselves for psychotherapy burdened by grievances. Abusive childhoods, alcoholic parents, bad marriages—misfortunes of every type—are offered as “explanations” for one’s current mood or behavior.

 

pages: 436 words: 125,809

The Way of the Gun: A Bloody Journey Into the World of Firearms by Iain Overton

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air freight, airport security, back-to-the-land, British Empire, Chelsea Manning, clean water, Columbine, David Attenborough, Etonian, Ferguson, Missouri, gender pay gap, gun show loophole, illegal immigration, interchangeable parts, Julian Assange, knowledge economy, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, More Guns, Less Crime, offshore financial centre, Ronald Reagan, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

The US, quite simply, is the land of the gun. It’s the Gunfight at the OK Corral. It’s Harry Callahan’s ‘Go ahead, make my day’. It’s the sniper bullet that killed JFK. It’s Colt and Smith & Wesson. Custer’s Last Stand and Annie Get Your Gun. Quentin Tarantino, drive-by shootings and SWAT teams. It’s the deaths of John Lennon and Martin Luther King, and the oiled-up swagger of Stallone and Schwarzenegger. It’s Sandy Hook, Columbine, Virginia Tech, Fort Hood, Aurora and school shootings in Oregon. And it’s endless, endless figures about guns and violence that are so disturbing they just blunt you. But perhaps it is best to start with those hard facts. Just take one decade of gun statistics in the US.1 Between 2004 and 2013, according to data from the US Bureau of Justice, over 4.5 million people were the victims of gun crime in the United States.

And I realised what I had first mistaken for rage was actually annoyance. Saari had just filmed himself, and this man was not going to kill me. He was just bothered that I was here, stumbling about in the forest with my video camera. Because my presence, in this remote province of this little-visited country, was a clear signal to him of what was to come: a bloody media spectacle. The modern mass shooter and the modern media are intrinsically linked. Columbine, Dunblane, Sandy Hook: journalists, responding to the final performance of a lone shooter, have ensured that these place names are forever marked. In news ‘if it bleeds, it leads’, so the saying goes, and that evening the news the world over led with the blood Saari had shed and the name of Kauhajoki. Bulletins showed the rows of flickering candles and teddy bears outside the school. Images of the Finnish emergency services standing around awkwardly were transmitted across the world.

We recall how Seung-Hui Cho, the warped killer of thirty-two at Virginia Tech, enjoyed taking photographs up the skirts of fellow students under the desks with his cell phone.23 But these are traits that, while odd, are far from proof of a mass murderer in the making. As one psychologist put it: ‘Although mass murderers often do exhibit bizarre behavior, most people who exhibit bizarre behavior do not commit mass murder.’24 Nonetheless, it is fair to say that mass shooters are often very focused outsiders who plan their actions obsessively. Many massacres have been in the pipeline for months, sometimes years: the Columbine shooting took thirteen months to plan.25 Anders Behring Breivik in Norway claimed he had been plotting his actions for five years. This planning reflects a fixated and resentful view of the world. Mass shooters want to fix their ideas in history: a sort of personal vindication through gunfire. Whereas terrorists use guns and the media to promote political or religious beliefs, mass shooters use guns and the media to highlight their own personal grievances.

 

pages: 257 words: 72,251

Nothing to Hide: The False Tradeoff Between Privacy and Security by Daniel J. Solove

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Albert Einstein, cloud computing, Columbine, hindsight bias, illegal immigration, invention of the telephone, Marshall McLuhan, national security letter, security theater, the medium is the message, traffic fines, urban planning

The legal scholar Stephen Vladeck notes that the concept of national security has a distorting effect on the law: “[O]ne can find national security considerations influencing ordinary judicial decision making across the entire gamut of contemporary civil and criminal litigation.”6 Although claims of national security don’t directly eliminate rights or civil liberties, they severely weaken them. National-security claims are often accompanied by calls for deference (which, as I argued in Chapter 4, are unjustified), as well as demands for secrecy. What Precisely Is “National Security”? In 1999 two high school students, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, went on a rampage at the Columbine High School near Denver. 64 The National-Security Argument They killed thirteen people, injured twenty-one others, and then committed suicide. The crime, though, wasn’t categorized as a national-security matter even though it involved guns, terror, mass murder, bombs, and suicidal perpetrators. In contrast, in 2002, the government suspected José Padilla of plotting to detonate a “dirty bomb” (a bomb with radioactive material) in a major city.

He was designated an “enemy combatant” and detained and tortured for years without being charged with a crime or accorded the right to a hearing. Ultimately, the dirty-bomb allegations were dropped, and he was convicted of conspiracy to provide material support to terrorists and sentenced to seventeen years in prison.7 Padilla was a U.S. citizen. Why was his crime deemed a national-security issue while the Columbine rampage wasn’t? The line between national-security and regular criminal activities is quite blurry. What about the Beltway snipers of 2002, who terrorized people in Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia? What about Timothy McVeigh, the man who bombed the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, killing 168 people? Are these regular crimes? Or matters of national security?

., 107 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 3, 8, 63, 76, 78, 84, 95; El-Masri lawsuit, 67–68; illegal torture, 67–68 Chaplin, Charlie, 7 Chertoff, Michael, 200 Chesney, Robert, 218n17 Church, Frank, 10 Church Committee, 10, 70 civil liberties, 34, 40, 55–61, 78, 80, 208; crime-espionage distinction and, 71–80; pendulum argument, 55–61; post 9/11, 59–60, 67–68, 71, 155; in times of crisis, 55–61, 66, 71–72 civil rights movement, 8 Civil War, 58, 61 Clinton, Bill, 149–50 cloud computing, 105–106, 107 Code of Hammurabi, 4 Cohen, Julie, 178 Cold War, 7–8, 58, 59, 61, 72 Colonial America, 4, 147 Columbine shootings, 64–65 communism, 7–8, 59, 61 computers, 11; cloud computing, 105–106, 107; data mining, 182–98; Internet privacy, 13, 102–110, 156–62, 164–73, 189–90; rise of, 166–67; third party doctrine and, 102–110. See also email; Internet Concurring Opinions (blog), 22–23 confidentiality, 107, 108 Congress, U.S., 5, 7, 9, 11, 40, 62, 70, 76, 129, 165, 166, 200; Church Committee, 10, 70; on national security surveillance, 10–11, 82–90, 176; on new technologies, 166–67, 173, 176; Patriot Act and, 12, 76, 155; TSP authorization, 82–90 Constitution, U.S., 3, 4, 7, 13, 42, 52, 55, 63, 80, 84, 89, 94, 95, 110, 146; privacy protection, 2–3, 6–7, 9, 11, 12–13, 35, 91–152.

 

pages: 542 words: 161,731

Alone Together by Sherry Turkle

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Albert Einstein, Columbine, global village, Hacker Ethic, helicopter parent, Howard Rheingold, industrial robot, information retrieval, Jacques de Vaucanson, Jaron Lanier, Kevin Kelly, Loebner Prize, Marshall McLuhan, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rodney Brooks, Skype, stem cell, technoutopianism, The Great Good Place, the medium is the message, theory of mind, Turing test, Vannevar Bush, Wall-E, women in the workforce

Or if someone came in and had a knife, I’d text my friends.” For all of these imagined possibilities, the phone is comfort. Branscomb High School has metal detectors at its entrance. Uniformed security guards patrol the halls. There have been flare-ups; students have gotten into fights. As she and I speak, Julia’s thoughts turn to Columbine and Virginia Tech: “I’m reading a book right now about a school.... It’s about two kids who brought a gun to a dance and keep everyone hostage, and then killed themselves. And it’s a lot like Columbine.... We had an assembly about Columbine just recently.... At a time like that, I’d need my cell phone.” We read much about “helicopter parents.”5 They hail from a generation that does not want to repeat the mistakes of its parents (permitting too much independence too soon) and so hover over their children’s lives.

.: Artificial Intelligence (film) AIBO aggression toward categorizing gives way to everyday routines care by, fantasies of creature and machine, views of it as caring for companion, role as “feelings” attributed to “growing up,” appearance of playing with projection and teaching it, experience of Alcott, Louisa May Aldiss, Brian “Alive enough,” as milestone for digital creatures Aliveness, children’s theories of Alterity, robots and Alzheimer’s disease, and robotic companions America Online Anger, as way of relating to robots Anthropomorphism, robots and Anxiety, online life, as provoking “of always,” privacy and Apologies confessions and online Appiah, Kwame Anthony Apple Artificial intelligence (AI) limits in understanding Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (MIT) Artificial life Aryananda, Lijin Asperger’s syndrome, robots and Attention, children’s desire for continual partial Authenticity, robotic companionship and illusion of, in social network profiles online life and Autism, robots and “Avatar of me,” Facebook profile as Avatars building relationships among Babysitters consideration of robots as Baird, Freedom Beatles: Rock Band Behaviorism, of robotic moment Bell, Gordon Bentham, Jeremy Bio Bugs (toy), robots and BIT (Baby IT) BlackBerry and sense of control excluding others and turning off Blade Runner (film) Blogs and the loss of the particular Bohr, Niels Boundaries, sense of personal, technology and Breakups face-to-face online Breazeal, Cynthia Brooks, Rodney Buber, Martin Bullying, online Bush, Vannevar Caper, Robert Caretakers, ideas about robots as Caring for a robot performance of substitutes for “Caring machines,” development of Cell phones (smartphones) and autonomy, development of people as “pausable” and avoiding calls and demands of documenting life using sense of emergency and identity (as collaborative) and photographs and private time on, desire for safety (feeling of), and turning off Chat logs “Chat people,” Chat rooms Chatroulette, playing Chess, computers and Churchill, Winston Civilization (game) Coach, robot as Cog seeking “affection” from building demystifying of meeting relationships, range of, with talking to teaching Cold comforts, robots as source of Collaborative self Collection, recollection and Columbine Communication (digital) in abbreviations (emoticons) versus connection choice among genres and nostalgia for letters volume and velocity of and simplification of responses from substitution to preference for hiding as affordance of and “discontents,” Community confessional sites and seeking Companionship, confusions in digital culture Complicity, with robot Computer psychotherapy, attitudes toward Computers as evocative object holding power of as mechanical and spiritual (soul in the) subjective versus instrumental as caring machines and cyborg self Connectivity and global consciousness and new symptoms of connection/disconnection Confessional sites, online apologies and communities, contrast to critical comments about and discussion of abuse reading, experience of as symptoms and venting cruelty of strangers and Connections on backchannels during meetings communication versus constant disconnection and online power of stepping back from, desire to seductions of Connectivity anxiety worries of parents culture discontents of global reach of robots merged with Conversations beginning/ending face-to-face online private robots and text messages as Crocodiles, real and robotic Csíkszentmihalyi, Mihaly Cubism, as metaphor for simultaneous vision of robot as machine and creature Communications culture, digital characteristics of cyborg sensibility and “dumbing down,” (emotional) in “networked” sensibility, characteristics of Walden images in sacred spaces and Damasio, Antonio Darwin, Charles “Darwinian Buttons,” eye contact track motion gesture in encounter with Cog De Vaucanson, Jacques Dean, Howard Death, simulation and Deep Thought (computer program) Democracy, privacy and Dertouzos, Michael Dick, Philip K.

 

pages: 295 words: 89,280

The Narcissist Next Door by Jeffrey Kluger

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Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Bernie Madoff, Columbine, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, impulse control, Jony Ive, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, theory of mind, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Walter Mischel

“how come, If im free I cant deprive a stupid fucking dumbshit from his possessions If he leaves them sitting in the front seat of his fucking van out in plain sight and in the middle of fucking nowhere on a Frifuckingday night. NATURAL SELECTION. fucker should be shot.” As it happened, the van owner wasn’t shot, but a lot of other people were. It happened more than a year later, and the boy himself—Eric Harris—along with his friend, Dylan Klebold, pulled the triggers, killing fifteen people, including themselves, and wounding twenty-one others at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, on April 20, 1999. It was a shooting spree that until the slaughter of first-graders in Newtown, Connecticut, in 2012 was the most savage mass killing Americans had ever experienced. And too few saw it coming. Harris’s first therapist was not the only one gulled by his easy charm and humble mien. The supervisor of the state-sanctioned youth program, who also evaluated him, swallowed the act, too, and predicted good things for him.

“It’s gonna be like fucking Doom,” Harris said, in a nod to his favorite video game. “Tick, tick, tick, tick. Ha!” That Harris and Klebold were inept—that their propane tanks fizzled and their pipe bombs were puny and they wound up doing their murderous work armed with little more than their guns and their hate—changes nothing about their monstrousness. “Peekaboo,” said Harris at one point during the rampage, as he slammed his hand on a table in the Columbine library under which students Emily Wyant and Cassie Bernall were hiding. Then he bent down, thrust the gun under the table and shot Cassie in the head. “Who’s next? Who’s ready to die?” one of the boys asked as they prowled the library; the survivors can’t say which killer said what, because they were hiding as best they could and dared not look up. “All the jocks stand up! We’re going to kill every one of you!”

Harris shouted as he stood at the top of a stairwell firing down at a crowd of students. But it was the library that would forever be remembered as the center of the carnage—where they shot or killed twenty-two of their victims. It was in the library, too, that, their rage finally spent, Harris and Klebold took their own lives, leaving a mountain of evidence—and a mountain of mystery—behind. “The slaughter at Columbine High School opened a sad national conversation about what turned two boys’ souls into poison,” wrote Time’s Nancy Gibbs in the week that followed. “It promises to be a long, hard talk, in public and in private, about why smart, privileged kids rot inside.” That was true then, and it’s true a decade and a half later. It begs the point to say that Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris were psychopaths; there are many such grievously ill people in the world and they don’t commit the kind of crime these boys did.

 

pages: 588 words: 193,087

And Here's the Kicker: Conversations with 21 Top Humor Writers on Their Craft by Mike Sacks

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Albert Einstein, Columbine, Donald Trump, Exxon Valdez, fear of failure, game design, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, index card, out of africa, pre–internet, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, upwardly mobile

And I think that's why people responded so much to that issue. We were getting a lot of fan mail at that time. The same thing sort of happened after we did the issue about the Columbine High School shooting in 1999. I personally was really, really freaked out when Columbine happened. That hit me really close to home, because that's the kind of kid I was in high school. Wearing the black trench coat and getting picked on by other kids and feeling like an outsider. That's who my friends were. What article did you write for the Columbine issue? “Columbine Jocks Safely Resume Bullying.” It was an article about how everything was supposedly great again in Columbine. You know, “We've got metal detectors and it's all safe and we can just go back to everything the way it was before.” Again, it was very sad. I was really afraid of how readers would react.

 

pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

The nearly 3,000 deaths from the 9/11 attacks were literally off the chart—way down in the tail of the power-law distribution into which terrorist attacks fall.181 According to the Global Terrorism Database of the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (the major publicly available dataset on terrorist attacks), between 1970 and 2007 only one other terrorist attack in the entire world has killed as many as 500 people.182 In the United States, Timothy McVeigh’s bombing of a federal office building in Oklahoma City in 1995 killed 165, a shooting spree by two teenagers at Columbine High School in 1999 killed 17, and no other attack has killed as many as a dozen. Other than 9/11, the number of people killed by terrorists on American soil during these thirty-eight years was 340, and the number killed after 9/11—the date that inaugurated the so-called Age of Terror—was 11. While some additional plots were foiled by the Department of Homeland Security, many of their claims have turned out to be the proverbial elephant repellent, with every elephant-free day serving as proof of its effectiveness.183 Compare the American death toll, with or without 9/11, to other preventable causes of death.

Though we can’t interpret every zig or zag in the graphs at face value, because some may represent seams and overlaps between databases with different coding criteria, we can try to get a general sense of whether terrorism really has increased in the so-called Age of Terror.199 The safest records are those for terrorist attacks on American soil, if for no other reason than that there are so few of them that each can be scrutinized. Figure 6–9 shows all of them since 1970, plotted on a logarithmic scale because otherwise the line would be a towering spike for 9/11 poking through a barely wrinkled carpet. With the lower altitudes stretched out by the logarithmic scale, we can discern peaks for Oklahoma City in 1995 and Columbine in 1999 (which is a dubious example of “terrorism,” but with a single exception, noted below, I never second-guess the datasets when plotting the graphs). Apart from this trio of spikes, the trend since 1970 is, if anything, more downward than upward. FIGURE 6–9. Rate of deaths from terrorism, United States, 1970–2007 Source: Global Terrorism Database, START (National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, 2010, http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/), accessed on April 6, 2010.

The victims, for their part, had nowhere to turn, because complaining to a teacher or parent would brand them as snitches and pantywaists and make their lives more hellish than ever. But in another of those historical gestalt shifts in which a category of violence flips from inevitable to intolerable, bullying has been targeted for elimination. The movement emerged from the ball of confusion surrounding the 1999 Columbine High School massacre, as the media amplified one another’s rumors about the causes—Goth culture, jocks, antidepressants, video games, Internet use, violent movies, the rock singer Marilyn Manson—and one of them was bullying. As it turned out, the two assassins were not, as the media endlessly repeated, Goths who had been picked on by jocks.193 But a popular understanding took hold that the massacre was an act of revenge, and childhood professionals parlayed the urban legend into a campaign against bullying.

 

pages: 350 words: 96,803

Our Posthuman Future: Consequences of the Biotechnology Revolution by Francis Fukuyama

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, Columbine, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, impulse control, life extension, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, presumed consent, Ray Kurzweil, Scientific racism, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Turing test

But what we notice in the first instance is that random violence against other members of the community is prohibited in every known human cultural group: while murder is universal, so are laws and/or social norms that seek to prohibit murder. This is no less true among man’s primate cousins: a troop of chimpanzees will occasionally experience violent aggression from a younger male that, like the Columbine High School shooters, is lonely, peripheral, or seeking to make a point.29 But the older members of the community will always take measures to control and neutralize that individual because community order cannot tolerate such violence. Primate violence, including human violence, is legitimated primarily at higher social levels—that is, on the part of in-groups that compete with out-groups. Warriors are treated with respect and honor in a way that school shooters are not.

Planned Parenthood Castro, Fidel Catholic Church Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi Luca Celera Genomics cell division cells, ageing of germ cells CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) characteristics, continuum of Chernobyl children drugging of interests of, safeguarded by parents parents’ desire to maximize the happiness of rights of, limitations on chimeras, creation of chimpanzees genome of, overlap with human genome China Chomsky, Noam Christianity chromosomes, artificial Ciba Seeds class war, biotechnology and Clinton administration cloning of animals biological harm of harm to cloned child legality of moral objections to reproductive, proposed ban on research therapeutic cocaine Codex Alimentarius Commission cognition innate forms of species-typical forms of Colapinto, John Cold War Collins, Francis color, perception of Columbine High School shooters communism failure of communitarian life plans compassion, the word competitiveness and cooperativeness, co-evolution of complex adaptive systems predicting the behavior of computers, consciousness in, possibility of Confucianism consciousness as source of human dignity conservatives. See Right, the “Controllers” Convention on Biological Diversity (Rio Treaty) Convention on Human Rights and Dignity with Regard to Biomedicine cooperativeness Coordinated Framework for Regulation of Biotechnology cosmetic pharmacology Costa Rica cost-benefit analysis cotton gin Council of Europe courts, U.S., regulation by creationism Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease crime and genetics life course theory of as socially constructed category as utilitarian choice crimes against humanity criminals, rights of, limited by society cross-cultural anthropology Cuba, socialist revolutions in cultural anthropology cultural learning cultural relativism Cultural Revolution (China) cultural universals culture of animals human cystic fibrosis Daly, Martin Damasio, Antonio Danish Twin Register Darwin, Charles Darwinism dead bodies, proposed uses for death, as preventable Declaration of Independence Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen Decree by the Council of Europe on Human Cloning defense spending democracies (capitalist, liberal) laws of rights as basis of worldwide success of democracies (generally) failure to abolish social hierarchies history of legitimacy of decisions of tyranny of the majority in demographics of age distribution and international relations Denmark Dennett, Daniel deontological theories of right deregulation movement Descartes, René “designer babies” fads possible in developed world, feminization of developing countries, age demographics of de Waal, Frans diabetes Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) Diamond, Jared diet American low-calorie Diller, Lawrence Dingell, John diseases, disorders, pathologies of ageing genetically linked single-gene as social construct distribution curves, bell shaped DNA damage to human DNA chip (Affymetrix) doctors, relying on advice from Dolly the sheep dominance hierarchies dopamine systems Douglas, William O.

 

pages: 457 words: 128,838

The Age of Cryptocurrency: How Bitcoin and Digital Money Are Challenging the Global Economic Order by Paul Vigna, Michael J. Casey

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3D printing, Airbnb, altcoin, bank run, banking crisis, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, California gold rush, capital controls, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative economy, collapse of Lehman Brothers, Columbine, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, hacker house, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, litecoin, Long Term Capital Management, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, new economy, new new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, pets.com, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, price stability, profit motive, RAND corporation, regulatory arbitrage, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, shareholder value, sharing economy, short selling, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart contracts, special drawing rights, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Ted Nelson, The Great Moderation, the market place, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, Turing complete, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, underbanked, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, Y2K, Zimmermann PGP

At fifteen, Lands had made his first serious money—serious for a teenager, that is—running a large “guild” connected to the video game EverQuest and selling virtual goods for real money. He was already an entrepreneur. He just didn’t know it yet. “I didn’t know anything about business,” Lands said. “I didn’t even know anybody who had a business. My spreadsheet was a notepad.” This was the time of the Columbine shooting, and a gamer with long hair who had a predilection for wearing black soon found himself the focus of authorities at his school, who worried he might have similar inclinations as the two young killers who orchestrated that massacre. Having money in his pocket gave him the courage to simply quit school rather than deal with the harassment. He traveled around the country, got into real estate in Florida, lost everything and more in the crash, got back into gaming, started gaming-related companies, and built himself up again.

Buffett, Warren Buterin, Vitalik Butterfly Labs Jalapeño Buyer’s Best Friend Byrne, Patrick Caban, Glorivee Canada capital, mystery of Caribbean car loan payments Carroll, Lewis Cary, Nicolas Casares, Wences Cassano, Chris CBW Bank CDS contracts centralization CEX.IO Chain chartalists Chase Bank Chaum, David CheapAir.com China cipher Circle Financial Circuit House Citibank Citicorp Citigroup Clear, Michael Clearstone Venture Partners Clinton, Bill cloud mining Coca-Cola Code of Hammurabi coffee Coinbase coincidence of wants CoinDesk Coinfloor Coinist CoinLab CoinMKT coinometrics.com coins CoinsFriendly CoinTerra CoinVox Colas, Nicolas Collins, Reeve Colored Coins Columbine shooting commodities communication technologies community, and currency bitcoin Concern Worldwide Conditional Access for Europe (CAFE) Congress contracts smart ConvergEx corruption Corzine, John Counterparty Cowen, Tyler Craig, Austin and Beccy Craigslist Creandum creation myths credit bad credit and debit cards American Express fraud and MasterCard Visa Credit Suisse First Boston Crook, Colin Cross River Bank Crowd Companies crowdfunding “Crypto-Anarchist Manifesto” (May) cryptocurrencies: future of labeling of ledger and mainstreaming of mining of regulation of roots of trust and value of see also bitcoin cryptographers Cypherpunks political differences among cryptography systems Cryptsy CubeSpawn Cummings, E.

 

pages: 545 words: 137,789

How Markets Fail: The Logic of Economic Calamities by John Cassidy

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Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, asset allocation, asset-backed security, availability heuristic, bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black-Scholes formula, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital asset pricing model, centralized clearinghouse, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, correlation coefficient, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, debt deflation, diversification, Elliott wave, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, Haight Ashbury, hiring and firing, Hyman Minsky, income per capita, incomplete markets, index fund, invisible hand, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Bachelier, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market bubble, market clearing, mental accounting, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Naomi Klein, Network effects, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, paradox of thrift, Ponzi scheme, price discrimination, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, rent control, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, statistical model, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, unorthodox policies, value at risk, Vanguard fund

“Payoffs for accuracy did not reduce the anchoring effect,” Kahneman and Tversky noted drily. Experiments suggest that once a person gets “anchored” on a certain number, or argument, he may well try to cling to it by mistakenly interpreting any evidence that is presented to him as supportive, even if it is actually contradictory. (In the literature, this is known as the “confirmation bias.”) In the aftermath of the latest Columbine-style mass shooting, supporters of gun control invariably say, “I told you so,” but so do supporters of maintaining an armed citizenry. In 1977–1978, Kahneman and Tversky spent the academic year at Stanford, where they became friends and collaborators with Richard Thaler, a young economist who had done his Ph.D. at Rochester, a bastion of mathematical orthodoxy. During his graduate training, Thaler had developed a list of anecdotes that seemed to contradict the theory he’d been taught, such as people’s reluctance to part with minor possessions—mugs, pens, those sorts of things—and their tendency to divide their expenditures into separate mental accounts (one for leisure, another for rent, and so on).

Citigroup Associated First Capital purchased by compensation of CEOs of credit default swaps of dereguation and disaster myopia of Federal Reserve and government safety net for reduction in assets of risk-management system at shadow banking system and suprime mortgage securities issued by Citron, Bob City College classical economics new Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) climate change Clinton, Bill CLSA Emerging Markets CNBC television network Coase, Ronald Coase theorem Cobden, Richard Coca-Cola Corporation Cohen, Jonathan collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) collateralized mortgage obligations (CMOs) Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) Columbia University Earth Institute Columbine massacre Columbus, Christopher Commerce Department, U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) communism collapse of Community Reinvestment Act (1977) Comptroller of the Currency, Office of Congress, U.S. bailouts authorized by deregulation efforts in health care reform in Joint Economic Committee and savings and loan industry collapse tax legislation in Congressional Budget Office Conservative Party, British Constitution of Liberty, The (Hayek) Consumer Financial Protection Agency Consumer Product Safety Commission Contimortgage Corporation Continental Illinois Bank conventional wisdom Corcoran Group Corn Laws Corrigan, E.

 

pages: 251 words: 44,888

The Words You Should Know to Sound Smart: 1200 Essential Words Every Sophisticated Person Should Be Able to Use by Bobbi Bly

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Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Anton Chekhov, British Empire, Columbine, Donald Trump, haute couture, Honoré de Balzac, John Nash: game theory, Network effects, placebo effect, Ralph Waldo Emerson, school vouchers, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs

.” – Freeman Dyson, English-born American physicist and mathematician serendipity (ser-en-DIP-it-ee), noun Attaining success, good fortune, or the object of your desire more through luck and random circumstance than deliberate effort. What made him an Internet billionaire was SERENDIPITY more than brains or talent. serpentine (SUR-pen-teen), adjective Snake-like in shape or movement. “For it is not possible to join SERPENTINE wisdom with columbine innocency, except men know exactly all the conditions of the serpent.” – Francis Bacon, English philosopher, author, and statesman sesquipedalian (ses-kwi-pih-DAL-yin), adjective A writer or speaker who prefers big, complex words and arcane jargon to plain, simple English, or a piece of writing containing such prose. “Recently a strange whimsy has started to creep in among the SESQUIPEDALIAN prose of scientific journals.” – Stephen Hall, American architect sidereal (SIGH-der-eel), adjective Determined by outside forces, particularly the positions of the stars and planets in the evening sky.

 

How to Be Black by Baratunde Thurston

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affirmative action, carbon footprint, Columbine, dark matter, desegregation, housing crisis, phenotype, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, supply-chain management, the scientific method, transatlantic slave trade

Beware of the white man; I’m not saying to be scared of him or to cut off communication, but beware, because when we realize that we should not be fighting each other, the tide will turn. I was thirteen years old when I wrote that and handed it in to my English teacher. If a middle school student turned in such a document today, he would immediately be sent to a counselor or detention facility, but this was pre-Columbine 1991. The number one song on the Billboard charts was the upbeat Someday by Mariah Carey, and the top television show was Cheers. It was a happier time. After class the next day, my teacher pulled me aside to discuss my manifesto. “You would never have written this if I weren’t black, would you?” he asked. I responded, “Absolutely not, and I trust you to keep my secret!” The White Student Union Sometimes white people just like to ask questions.

 

pages: 250 words: 9,029

Everything Bad Is Good for You: How Popular Culture Is Making Us Smarter by Steven Johnson

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Columbine, complexity theory, corporate governance, delayed gratification, edge city, Flynn Effect, game design, Marshall McLuhan, pattern recognition, profit motive, race to the bottom, Steve Jobs, the market place

If the subj ect matter of popular entertainment truly had a significant impact on our behavior (and especially the be­ havior of the younger generations) then logically we should expect to see very different trends in real-world society. Over the last ten years-a period of unprecedented fictional vio­ lence i n the American household, thanks to Quake and Quentin Tarantino films and Tony Soprano-the country simultaneously experienced the most dramatic drop in vio­ lent crime in its history. Yes, the Columbine shooters were most likely infl uenced by playing violent games like Quake, but as tragic as that event was, we don't analyze soci a l trends b y looking at isolated single examples; we l o o k at 1 92 ST E V E N J O H N S O N broad patterns in the society, and the broad pattern of the last decade is less violence, not more. That improvement is most telling among precisely the demographic groups al­ legedly at risk for media-infl uenced violence.

 

pages: 226 words: 71,540

Epic Win for Anonymous: How 4chan's Army Conquered the Web by Cole Stryker

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4chan, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Chelsea Manning, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, crowdsourcing, Firefox, future of journalism, hive mind, informal economy, Internet Archive, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mason jar, pre–internet, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social web, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, wage slave, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks

A few years ago, this sort of collaborative metahumor would have been found only on 4chan (or maybe Something Awful), but the rest of the Internet, with Reddit leading the charge, has caught up. Reddit has also reappropriated 4chan’s Ask Me Anything, or AMA threads, which have attracted some major celebrities in addition to nerd icons like moot. The all-time top verified AMA threads include those of 74-time Jeopardy! champion Ken Jennings, actor Bruce Campbell, Columbine shooting survivor Brooks Brown, and a former Marine One crew chief. Unverified AMA threads, which are often even more interesting, include a military whistleblower, a girl who spent 16 months as a full-time BDSM slave, a person who was caught and tortured during recent rioting in Egypt, a man who only answers questions using MS Paint, a brain cancer victim with 2–6 months to live, and a four-year-old girl (with help from her dad).

 

pages: 252 words: 80,636

Bureaucracy by David Graeber

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, Albert Einstein, banking crisis, barriers to entry, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, David Graeber, George Gilder, High speed trading, hiring and firing, late capitalism, means of production, music of the spheres, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Parkinson's law, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, price mechanism, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, transcontinental railway, union organizing, urban planning

In fact the only reference I could find to the term “postalization” in contemporary literature is an essay on workplace violence called “the postalization of corporate America,” decrying how an epidemic of violent attacks on bosses and co-workers was spreading from the public sector into private corporations, too. In a fascinating book called Going Postal: Rage, Murder, and Rebellion from Reagan’s Workplaces to Clinton’s Columbine and Beyond, Mark Ames carefully picked through journalistic accounts of such events (which did, indeed, quickly spread from the Post Office to private offices and factories, and even to private postal services like UPS, but in the process, became so commonplace that many barely made the national news) and noted that the language they employ, which always described these events as acts of inexplicable individual rage and madness—severed from any consideration of the systematic humiliations that always seem to set them off—bears an uncanny resemblance to the way the nineteenth-century press treated slave revolts.126 Ames notes that there were remarkably few organized slave rebellions in American history.

 

pages: 296 words: 76,284

The End of the Suburbs: Where the American Dream Is Moving by Leigh Gallagher

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Airbnb, big-box store, Burning Man, call centre, car-free, Celebration, Florida, clean water, collaborative consumption, Columbine, crack epidemic, East Village, edge city, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, McMansion, Menlo Park, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, Richard Florida, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Tony Hsieh, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen, walkable city, white flight, young professional, Zipcar

In 2012 federal prosecutors in northern Virginia: Pierre Thomas and Marisa Taylor, “Gang Members Arrested on Charges of Sex Trafficking Suburban Teens,” abcnews.go.com, March 31, 2012. After a tragic gang rape: Aliyah Shahid, “Girl, 11, Lured into Park Bathroom in Moreno Valley, Calif. and Gang Raped by 7 Teens: Cops,” New York Daily News, March 29, 2011. While overall homicides: Cameron McWhirter and Gary Fields, “Crime Migrates to Suburbs,” Wall Street Journal, December 30, 2012. Many of the nation’s highest-profile shootings have occurred in the suburbs as well, from Columbine to Aurora, Colorado, to, of course, the horrific shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, on December 14, 2012. The urban scholar Richard Florida studied data from mass shootings in recent years and found that, while the data does not cover every single episode and the geographic information is limited, the “wide majority” of such shootings, and especially mass school killings, have occurred not in urban centers of large cities but in the “small towns, burgs and villages of our suburban and rural areas.”

 

pages: 536 words: 79,887

A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains by Isabella Lucy Bird, Daniel J. Boorstin

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Columbine, Donner party, Internet Archive

The wild flowers are gorgeous and innumerable, though their beauty, which culminates in July and August, was over before I arrived, and the recent snow flurries have finished them. The time between winter and winter is very short, and the flowery growth and blossom of a whole year are compressed into two months. Here are dandelions, buttercups, larkspurs, harebells, violets, roses, blue gentian, columbine, painter's brush, and fifty others, blue and yellow predominating; and though their blossoms are stiffened by the cold every morning, they are starring the grass and drooping over the brook long before noon, making the most of their brief lives in the sunshine. Of ferns, after many a long hunt, I have only found the Cystopteris fragilis and the Blechnum spicant, but I hear that the Pteris aquilina is also found.

 

pages: 262 words: 78,781

A Guide to the Good Life: The Ancient Art of Stoic Joy by William Braxton Irvine

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Columbine, fear of failure, Lao Tzu

These days, after doing what they can to save lives, authorities are quick to call in grief counselors to help those who survived the disaster, those who lost loved ones in it, and those who witnessed it. When, for example, the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City was bombed in 1995, killing 168, a horde of grief counselors descended on the city to help people work through their grief. Likewise, in 1999, when three dozen people were shot by two rampaging students at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, a team of grief counselors was brought in to help the surviving students, their parents, and members of the community deal with their grief.12 It is instructive to contrast these responses to disaster with the way authorities responded to disasters in the middle of the twentieth century. When, for example, a landslide of coal-mine waste buried a village school in Aberfan, South Wales, in 1966, the parents of the 116 children who died were left to deal with their grief on their own.13 As a result, many of them simply bore the disaster with, as the British say, a stiff upper lip.

 

pages: 998 words: 211,235

A Beautiful Mind by Sylvia Nasar

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Al Roth, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Brownian motion, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, experimental economics, fear of failure, Henri Poincaré, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, John Conway, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Kenneth Rogoff, linear programming, lone genius, market design, medical residency, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, Paul Erdős, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, Ronald Coase, second-price auction, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, spectrum auction, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, upwardly mobile

Even in the three years since the publication of this book, the transformations in Nash’s life have been as remarkable as any that will be portrayed on screen. Princeton Junction, New Jersey, June 1, 2001 Notes Prologue 1. George W. Mackey, professor of mathematics, Harvard University, interview, Cambridge, Mass., 12.14.95. 2. See, for example, David Halberstam, The Fifties (New York: Favycett Columbine, 1993). 3. Mikhail Gromov, professor of mathematics, Institut des Hautes-Etudes, Bures-sur-Yvette, France, and Courant Institute, interview, 12.16.97. The claim that Nash ranks among the greatest mathematicians of the postwar era is based on judgment of fellow mathematicians. The topologist John Milnor expressed a nearly universal opinion among mathematicians when he wrote: “To some, the brief paper, written at age 21, for which he has won a Nobel prize in economics, may seem like the least of his achievements.”

New York: Simon & Schuster, 1959. Glass, James M. Delusion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. Goldstein, Rebecca. The Mind-Body Problem. New York: Penguin, 1993. Gottesman, Irving I. Schizophrenia Genesis: The Origins of Madness. New York: W. H. Freeman & Co., 1991. Grob, Gerald N. The Mad Among Us. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994. Halberstam, David. The Fifties. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1993. Hale, Nathan G., Jr. The Rise and Crisis of Psychoanalysis in the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Halmos, Paul R. “The Legend of John von Neumann.” American Mathematical Monthly, vol. 80 (1973), pp. 382–94. Hardy, G. H. A Mathematician’s Apology, with foreword by C. P. Snow. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1967. Heilbroner, Robert. The Worldly Philosophers.

 

pages: 684 words: 173,622

Going Clear: Scientology, Hollywood, and the Prison of Belief by Lawrence Wright

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Albert Einstein, call centre, Columbine, Naomi Klein, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks

Some drug makers have covered up studies that indicate an increased danger of suicidal or violent thoughts caused by psychotropic medicines. Eli Lilly, for instance, suppressed data showing that patients who were taking the popular drug Prozac—the only antidepressant certified as safe for children—were twelve times more likely to attempt suicide than patients taking similar medications. Antidepressants have been implicated in a number of schoolyard shootings, such as the 1999 Columbine High School massacre, where two students killed twelve of their classmates and a teacher. One of the killers was taking Luvox at the time. Adderall—one of the drugs cited by Cruise—is an amphetamine often prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; it sometimes causes increased aggression in children and adolescents. Ritalin, the most common drug prescribed for ADHD, is similar to cocaine in its potential for addiction.

Child Care Org, 4.1, 4.2 child labor laws Childs, Joe China, 2.1, 4.1 Chinese Communists, 4.1, 4.2 Christensen, Erika Christian Science Christman, Tory Christofferson Titchbourne, Julie Church of American Science Church of Latter Day Saints; see also Mormonism Church of Satan Church of Scientology International Church of Spiritual Engineering Church of Spiritual Technology, itr.1, 7.1 CIA, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4n, 3.5, 4.1 Cine Org Citizens Commission on Human Rights Clarke, Stanley, 5.1, 5.2 Clear Body, Clear Mind Clears, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 7.1, 7.2 qualities of, 1.1, 2.1 Clearwater, Fla., itr.1, 3.1, 4.1 Clearwater Sun Clinton, Bill, 7.1, 8.1 Coale, John Coast Guard, U.S. Cohen, Leonard Collateral Collective Unconscious Colletto, Diane Colletto, John Columbia New Port Richey Hospital Columbia Pictures Columbine High School Commodore’s Messengers Organization, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 6.1, 8.1, 9.1 confabulation confession conscious mind Contact Assist Contagion of Aberration “contra-survival action” Conway, Peggy Cook, Debbie, 8.1, 9.1 Cooley, Earle Cooper, Gary Cooper, Paulette, 3.1, 4.1, 5.1, 7.1 Corea, Chick, 1.1, 4.1, 5.1, 5.2, 7.1, 7.2 Corfu, 3.1, 3.2 “counter-intentions” Covertly Hostile personality Cowboy Stories Crash, 8.1, 9.1, 10.1 Creedance Clearwater Revival Creston ranch, 5.1, 5.2, epl.1 “crew chief” Crowe, Russell Crowley, Aleister, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 7.1 Cruise, Connor, 7.1, 8.1 Cruise, Isabella, 7.1, 8.1 Cruise, Lee Anne Cruise, Tom, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5, 9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6, 9.7, 9.8, 10.1, 10.2, 11.1, epl.1 Cruz, Penélope, 8.1, 9.1, 9.2 Cuba “cult” Cult Awareness Network, 7.1, 7.2n, 7.3 Curaçao Cusack, John Customs, U.S.

 

pages: 577 words: 171,126

Light This Candle: The Life & Times of Alan Shepard--America's First Spaceman by Neal Thompson

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Columbine, cuban missile crisis, Donald Trump, place-making, Silicon Valley, V2 rocket

page 162, “Guys would go there like flies”: Walt Radosevich, oral history interview with Thomas Saylor, Oral History Project of the World War II Years. page 163, “short-arm” inspection: Author interview with Jig Dog Ramage. page 163, Friends called him a . . . “liberty hound”: Author interview with Ralph Stell. page 163, “Shep never revealed . . . who he screwed”: Author interview with John Mitchell. page 164, nearly a million men subscribed to Playboy David Halberstam, The Fifties (New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1994), p. 573. page 164, wondered why she stayed with him: Author interview with Betty Whisler. page 165, still managed to reach Mach .93: Author interview with John Mitchell. page 166, Rooney . . . “a little stinker first class”: Griffin, oral history. page 167, unauthorized happy hour: Author interview with Bill Geiger. page 167, “Shake the hand that held the tit of Ava Gardner”: Ibid.

., Freedom 7: The NASA Mission Reports. Ontario: Apogee Books, 2001. Godwin, Robert, ed., Apollo 14: The NASA Mission Reports. Ontario: Apogee Books, 2001. Grissom, Betty, and Henry Still. Starfall. New York: Ty Crowell Co., 1974. Grossnick, Roy, and William J. Armstrong. United States Naval Aviation: 1910–1995. Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1997. Halberstam, David. The Fifties. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1994. Ivins, Molly. Molly Ivins Can’t Say That, Can She? New York: Random House, 1991. Jacobus, Donald Lines, ed. The Shepard Families of New England. Vol. III. New Haven: The New Haven Colony Historical Society, 1973. Kennedy, John F. Profiles in Courage. New York: HarperCollins, 1956. Kennedy, Paul. Pacific Victory, Vol. 25. New York: Ballantine Books, 1973. Kraft, Chris. Flight: My Life in Mission Control.

 

pages: 330 words: 99,226

Extraterrestrial Civilizations by Isaac Asimov

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Albert Einstein, Cepheid variable, Columbine, Edward Charles Pickering, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, invention of radio, invention of the telescope, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, Magellanic Cloud, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

Also by Isaac Asimov: EARTH: OUR CROWDED SPACESHIP REALM OF NUMBERS EXTRATERRESTRIAL CIVILIZATIONS THIS BOOK CONTAINS THE COMPLETE TEXT OF THE ORIGINAL HARDCOVER EDITION. Published by Fawcett Columbine Books, a unit of CBS Publications, the Consumer Publishing Division of CBS Inc., by arrangement with Crown Publishers, Inc. Copyright ©1979 by Isaac Asimov ALL RIGHTS RESERVED eISBN: 978-0-307-79230-3 v3.1 To the memory of Paul Nadan (1929-1978) for whom I should have started the book sooner. Contents Cover Other Book by This Author Title Page Dedication Copyright 1 ·The Earth Spirits Animals Primates Brains Fire Civilization 2 · The Moon Phases Another World Waterlessness Moon Hoax Airlessness 3 · The Inner Solar System Nearby Worlds Venus Martian Canals Mars Probes 4 · The Outer Solar System Planetary Chemistry Titan Jupiter 5 · The Stars Substars The Milky Way The Galaxy The Other Galaxies 6 · Planetary Systems Nebular Hypothesis Stellar Collisions Nebular Hypothesis Again The Rotating Stars The Wobbling Stars 7 · Sunlike Stars Giant Stars Midget Stars Just Right 8 · Earthlike Planets Binary Stars Star Populations The Ecosphere Habitability 9 · Life Spontaneous Generation Origin of Life?

 

pages: 289 words: 112,697

The new village green: living light, living local, living large by Stephen Morris

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back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, cleantech, collective bargaining, Columbine, Community Supported Agriculture, computer age, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, distributed generation, energy security, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Firefox, index card, Indoor air pollution, invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, McMansion, Menlo Park, Negawatt, peak oil, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review

The NEW VILLAGE GREEN 245 Dan Chiras is an award-winning nonfiction writer who has published two dozen books, including Lessons From Nature: Learning to Live Sustainably on the Earth, The Homeowner’s Guide to Renerwable Energy and EcoKids: Raising Children who Care for the Earth The Bonds That Tie Dan Chiras B esides lifting our spirits, improving our health, and providing inspiration for design and guidance for creating a sustainable future, visits to natural areas provide valuable opportunities to create deep and lasting connections with the life-support system of the planet. The beauty of a grand vista, the gentle curve of the feather-soft petals of a columbine, and the eerie cry of the loon through the misty morning air – these are the things that inspire awe and open young hearts to the world outside cities and suburbs. When our hearts open, our minds quickly follow. We become allies of nature, interested in voting the conservation ticket and living our lives consistently with the love we hold for the living world. As a parent, you can open your children’s hearts and minds to nature, building compassion and love for the planet by introducing them to nature, and giving them opportunities to visit often.

 

pages: 358 words: 95,115

NurtureShock: New Thinking About Children by Po Bronson, Ashley Merryman

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affirmative action, Columbine, delayed gratification, desegregation, impulse control, index card, job satisfaction, lake wobegon effect, meta analysis, meta-analysis, randomized controlled trial, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, theory of mind

However, social scientists didn’t really get around to studying the connection between popularity and aggression until this decade. That’s largely due to the fact that the focus on the archetypal negative results of aggression helped papers get published and research dollars flow: grants were readily available to study the plight of aggressive kids, in the hope the findings might help society prevent aggressive kids from becoming our future prison population. The 1999 Columbine High School massacre opened more floodgates for grant dollars, as the government made it a priority to ensure students would never again open fire on their peers. There was also a tendency, according to Dr. Allen, for social scientists to assume bad behaviors are uniformly associated with bad outcomes; aggression was considered bad behavior, so scientists were really only looking for the negative consequences of it.

 

pages: 339 words: 100,075

Pump Six and Other Stories by Paolo Bacigalupi

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Columbine, hiring and firing, price stability, profit maximization

The guests hurried through the driving snow while the blue search beams of Burson's ski patrols carved across the forests. Lidia sighed and turned from the windows, obedient finally to Nia's anxious hope that she would dress. Stephen and Lidia went on picnics together when Belari was away from the fief. They would leave the great gray construct of Belari's castle and walk carefully across the mountain meadows, Stephen always helping her, guiding her fragile steps through fields of daisies, columbine, and lupine until they peered down over sheer granite cliffs to the town far below. All about them glacier-sculpted peaks ringed the valley like giants squatting in council, their faces adorned with snow even in summer, like beards of wisdom. At the edge of the precipice, they ate a picnic lunch and Stephen told stories of the world before the fiefs, before Revitia made stars immortal. He said the country had been democratic.

 

pages: 329 words: 106,831

All Your Base Are Belong to Us: How Fifty Years of Video Games Conquered Pop Culture by Harold Goldberg

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Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, Apple II, cellular automata, Columbine, Conway's Game of Life, game design, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, Mars Rover, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Oldenburg, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Great Good Place, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning

The Wii would be pitched to the American public not as a luxury, but as something as essential as food. You had to have it. Like the healthiest food, it would help you to live right. The name Wii said, “Forget them, those executives with the high-tech boxes who yearn for the eighteen-to-thirty-four-year-old hard-core gamer.” The Wii, posited Reggie, was about the rest of us, the silent majority who’d left games when they became all about shooting and violence. This wasn’t Doom or Columbine or Grand Theft Auto. This was a gaming experience for us, Nintendo would say. The Wii wasn’t about me-ness. It was about we-ness. Those who bought the Wii would come together in a tight social network that was all-inclusive. Nintendo targeted the blogosphere, particularly the so-called mommy blogs, and the moms loved it and the word spread virally across the Web. The philosophy was as cult-y as anything Mary Kay could have imagined.

 

The Ledge: An Adventure Story of Friendship and Survival on Mount Rainier by Jim Davidson, Kevin Vaughan

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Columbine, index card

Formerly an environmental geologist with his own consulting firm, Jim is now a professional speaker with Speaking of Adventure (www.speakingofadventure.com). Jim lives in Colorado with his two adventurous kids and his very tolerant wife. KEVIN VAUGHAN is a staff writer at The Denver Post. A graduate of Metropolitan State College, he has written extensively on the sports supplement industry, the tragedy at Columbine High School, and the criminal justice system. He has been honored numerous times for his journalism. He lives in Colorado with his wife and their three children.

 

pages: 294 words: 86,601

Mind Wide Open: Your Brain and the Neuroscience of Everyday Life by Steven Johnson

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Columbine, double helix, epigenetics, experimental subject, Gödel, Escher, Bach, James Watt: steam engine, l'esprit de l'escalier, pattern recognition, phenotype, Steven Pinker, theory of mind

I told you so! The few studies of laughter that preceded this one had assumed that laughing and humor were linked inextricably, but Provine’s early research suggested that the connection was only an occasional one. People certainly laughed at jokes, but that was only a small part of the story. “There’s a dark side to laughter that we sometimes are too quick to overlook,” he says. “The kids at Columbine were laughing as they walked through the school shooting their peers.” As his research progressed, Provine began to suspect that laughter was in fact about something else-not humor or gags or incongruity, but social interaction. He found support for this assumption in a study that had already been conducted, analyzing people’s laughter patterns in social and solitary contexts. “You’re thirty times more likely to laugh when you’re with other people than you are when you’re alone-if you don’t count simulated social environments like laugh tracks on television,” Provine says.

 

pages: 387 words: 111,096

Enigma by Robert Harris

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Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, British Empire, Columbine, index card, invention of the printing press, sensible shoes, Turing machine

It was a human voice. A man. Repeating this one word: Akelei' 'Akelei,' murmured Jericho. 'Akelei . . . That's a flower, isn't it?' 'Ha!' Logie clapped his hands. 'You are a bloody marvel, Tom. See how much we miss you? We had to go and ask one of the German swots on Z-watch what it meant. Akelei: a five-petalled flower of the buttercup family, from the Latin Aquilegia. We vulgarians call it columbine.' 'Akelei? repeated Jericho. 'This is a prearranged signal of some sort, presumably?' 'It is.' 'And it means?' 'It means trouble, is what it means, old love. We found out just how much trouble at midnight yesterday.' Logie leaned forwards. The humour had left his voice. His face was lined and grave. 'Akelei means: “Change the Short Weather Code Book.” They've gone over to a new one and we haven't a bloody clue what to do about it.

 

pages: 465 words: 103,303

The Cancer Chronicles: Unlocking Medicine's Deepest Mystery by George Johnson

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Atul Gawande, Cepheid variable, Columbine, dark matter, discovery of DNA, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Gary Taubes, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, Isaac Newton, Magellanic Cloud, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, mouse model, Murray Gell-Mann, phenotype, profit motive, stem cell

Not a zeroscape—those gravel and cactus afterthoughts one sees in Phoenix or Las Vegas—but something akin to a dry highland meadow. We started with one small patch, clearing it of brush and scattering a packet of Beauty Beyond Belief wildflower seeds, a mix recommended for northern New Mexico. There were seeds for Colorado aster, goldfields, arroyo lupine, desert lupine, desert marigold, California poppy, alyssum, baby blue eyes, baby’s breath, bachelor button, black-eyed Susan, candytuft, catchfly, columbine, purple coneflower, yellow coneflower, coreopsis, cosmos, African daisy, Shasta daisy, blue flax, scarlet flax, mountain garland, gaillardia, larkspur, perennial lupine, Mexican hat, Rocky Mountain penstemon, corn poppy, sweet william pinks, and wallflower. We raked them into the dirt and let nature take its course. When the rains came it was clear that all we were going to get was blue flax, coneflower, and Mexican hat.

 

pages: 422 words: 89,770

Death of the Liberal Class by Chris Hedges

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1960s counterculture, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, call centre, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbine, corporate governance, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hive mind, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Lao Tzu, post scarcity, profit motive, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tobin tax, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, WikiLeaks, working poor, Works Progress Administration

But you can’t fully grasp this unless you have been in combat, and combat is something the liberal class has been able to hand off to the working class since World War II. The solitary voices of dissent that condemned the war at its inception were attacked as fiercely by the liberal class as by the right wing. When documentary filmmaker Michael Moore accepted the Oscar for his film Bowling for Columbine on March 23, 2003, he used the occasion to denounce the war, which had begun a few days earlier, as well as the legitimacy of the Bush presidency. “We live in a fictitious time,” Moore, dressed in an ill-fitting tuxedo, told an increasingly hostile audience:We live in a time when we have fictitious election results that elect a fictitious president. We live in a time where we have a man sending us to war for fictitious reasons, whether it is the fiction of duct tape or Orange Alerts.

 

Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower by William Blum

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, collective bargaining, Columbine, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, union organizing

. • In various schools students are being suspended for: bringing a bottle of the nonprescription painkiller Advil to school; dying their hair an "unacceptable" color; giving a classmate a Midol tablet for relief of menstrual cramps; bringing "drugs" to school—lemon drops; bringing a gift-wrapped bottle of wine as a Christmas gift for a teacher; another is punished for carrying a small paring knife to cut her lunch fruit; yet another, a 9-year-old boy, is punished for waving his drawing of a gun in class; a sixyear-old boy is sent home for planting a kiss on a girl's cheek; eight-year-old girls are strip-searched in school, in a search for stolen money (not found); pre-schoolers to 6th grade students are given genital exams as part of their physicals; high schools employ random Breathalyser testing to ferret out students who have imbibed alcohol; a 14-yearold girl is strip-searched and suspended for two weeks because she tells her classmates she understands how the Columbine shooters felt; and high school students are questioned by police who want to know if a chemistry textbook was for bomb-making. This while an eleven-year-old boy is being arrested and accused of incest because a neighbor saw him touching his younger sister "sexually" in their yard. He was held six weeks in a juvenile detention center and shackled in court on at least one occasion. The boy and his parents said he had pulled down his five-year-old sister's underwear to help her urinate.

 

pages: 318 words: 93,502

The Two-Income Trap: Why Middle-Class Parents Are Going Broke by Elizabeth Warren, Amelia Warren Tyagi

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business climate, Columbine, declining real wages, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, financial independence, labor-force participation, late fees, McMansion, mortgage debt, new economy, New Journalism, payday loans, school choice, school vouchers, telemarketer, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

This means living in a community with relatively high housing costs.40 In other words, the only way to ensure that a beloved youngster gets a solid education is to spring for a three-bedroom Colonial with an hour-long commute to a job in the city. Today’s parents must also confront another frightening prospect as they consider where their children will attend school: the threat of school violence. The widely publicized rise in shootings, gangs, and dangerous drugs at public schools sent many parents in search of a safe haven for their sons and daughters. Violent incidents can happen anywhere, as the shootings at lovely suburban Columbine High School in Colorado revealed to a horrified nation. But the statistics show that school violence is not as random as it might seem. According to one study, the incidence of serious violent crime—such as robbery, rape, or attack with a weapon—is more than three times higher in schools characterized by high poverty levels than those with predominantly middle- and upper-income children.41 Similarly, urban children are more than twice as likely as suburban children to fear being attacked on the way to or from school.42 The data expose a harsh reality: Parents who can get their kids into a more economically segregated neighborhood really improve the odds that their sons and daughters will make it through school safely.

 

pages: 441 words: 135,176

The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful--And Their Architects--Shape the World by Deyan Sudjic

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, colonial rule, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, megastructure, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, Ronald Reagan, Socratic dialogue, urban planning, urban renewal, V2 rocket, Victor Gruen

Clinton said, “Will you do one of those napkin sketches, you architects do?”’Polshek told him they are apocryphal. ‘But we do them sometimes, Mr President.’ Polshek wasn’t going to risk letting the job slip out of his hands by limiting himself to just one sketch. He and his partner worked on three different designs, drew them up, and built three detailed models to explain them to an audience unfamiliar with architectural drawings. ‘We presented on the night of the Columbine massacre. He was late, which was unusual. He came in very agitated and red eyed. His first words; “Here as we speak, they are killing our children.” He gave us 45 minutes in the map room.’ Polshek advised against the greenfield site the city had offered. It was too obvious and too easy. ‘We ended up on brownfield railroad land that could act as a catalyst for development.’ It’s a site littered with industrial history: the Union Pacific and the Rock Island lines both crossed the river here.

 

pages: 467 words: 116,902

The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness by Michelle Alexander

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affirmative action, cognitive bias, Columbine, deindustrialization, desegregation, ending welfare as we know it, friendly fire, illegal immigration, land reform, large denomination, low skilled workers, means of production, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, women in the workforce

That changed in the 1980s, when local law enforcement agencies suddenly had access to cash and military equipment specifically for the purpose of conducting drug raids. Today, the most common use of SWAT teams is to serve narcotics warrants, usually with forced, unannounced entry into the home. In fact, in some jurisdictions drug warrants are served only by SWAT teams—regardless of the nature of the alleged drug crime. As the Miami Herald reported in 2002, “Police say they want [SWAT teams] in case of a hostage situation or a Columbine-type incident, but in practice the teams are used mainly to serve search warrants on suspected drug dealers. Some of these searches yield as little as a few grams of cocaine or marijuana.”39 The rate of increase in the use of SWAT teams has been astonishing. In 1972, there were just a few hundred paramilitary drug raids per year in the United States. By the early 1980s, there were three thousand annual SWAT deployments, by 1996 there were thirty thousand, and by 2001 there were forty thousand.40 The escalation of military force was quite dramatic in cities throughout the United States.

 

pages: 538 words: 141,822

The Net Delusion: The Dark Side of Internet Freedom by Evgeny Morozov

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, don't be evil, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Google Earth, illegal immigration, invention of radio, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, John von Neumann, Marshall McLuhan, Naomi Klein, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, pirate software, pre–internet, Productivity paradox, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Sinatra Doctrine, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, social graph, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, The Wisdom of Crowds, urban planning, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce

Global Voices, December 29, 2009. globalvoicesonline.org/2009/12/29/palestine-twitter-accused-of-silencing-gaza-tribute/. Jaeger, P. T., J. Lin, J. M. Grimes, and S. N. Simmons. “Where Is the Cloud? Geography, Economics, Environment, and Jurisdiction in Cloud Computing.” First Monday 14, no. 5 (2009). Jakobsen, P. V. “Focus on the CNN Effect Misses the Point: The Real Media Impact on Conflict Management Is Invisible and Indirect.” Journal of Peace Research 37, no. 2 (2000): 131. Jenkins, Henry. “The Chinese Columbine.” Technology Review, August 2, 2002. www.technologyreview.com/read_article.aspx?id=12913&ch=infotech. Johnson, D. G. “Is the Global Information Infrastructure a Democratic Technology?” Readings in Cyberethics 18 (2004): 121. Katz, J. E., and C. H. Lai. “News Blogging in Cross-Cultural Contexts: A Report on the Struggle for Voice.” Knowledge, Technology & Policy 22, no. 2 (2009): 95-107. Kenner, David.

 

pages: 493 words: 139,845

Women Leaders at Work: Untold Tales of Women Achieving Their Ambitions by Elizabeth Ghaffari

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Albert Einstein, AltaVista, business process, cloud computing, Columbine, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, dark matter, family office, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, follow your passion, glass ceiling, Grace Hopper, high net worth, knowledge worker, Long Term Capital Management, performance metric, pink-collar, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, thinkpad, trickle-down economics, urban planning, women in the workforce, young professional

All six of the states in the Tenth Circuit, plus the federal government, had the death penalty, so we got a fair amount of capital litigation. __________ 3 “Hearing Her Story: Reflections of Women Judges,” see: http://law.pepperdine.edu/newsevents/events/hearing-her-story/ When I was in the circuit, there were a lot of tragedies—horrible things happened. We had the Oklahoma City bombing, the Los Alamos Labs case, and the Columbine case, to name just a few. Even so, it felt as if the time went by in an instant. Ghaffari: When you were on the American Bar Association's Commission on Women in the Profession, what was that experience like? Tacha: That was from 1987 to about 1993 or 1994. Hillary Clinton chaired that commission. That was an unforgettable experience because it was the first time the ABA ever looked at these issues.

 

pages: 497 words: 124,144

Red Moon Rising by Matthew Brzezinski

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, skunkworks, trade route, V2 rocket, Vanguard fund, walking around money

.: Redstone Arsenal, 1958), p. 25, at http://www.redstone.army.mil/history. “We were distrusted aliens”: Bob Ward, Dr. Space: The Life of Wernher von Braun (Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 2005), p. 67. 89 when three hundred thousand sorties were flown: http://www.usafe.af.mil/berlin/quickfax.htm. “when we might have completely destroyed Russia and not even skinned our elbows”: David Halberstam, The Fifties (New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1993), p. 25. “greatest act of stupidity of the McCarthyist period”: Dickson, Sputnik, p. 138. The historic hamlet was home to fifteen thousand genteel southerners: http://www.redstone.army.mil/history/cron2a.html. 90 “We had some concerns here”: Ward, Dr. Space, p. 77. The fledgling ABC network was backing the venture with $4.5 million in loan guarantees: Piszkiewicz, Wernher von Braun, p. 84. 91 whose hourly pay in 1954 had just been increased from seventy cents to a dollar: Ambrose, Eisenhower, p. 386.

 

pages: 470 words: 144,455

Secrets and Lies: Digital Security in a Networked World by Bruce Schneier

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Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, business process, butterfly effect, cashless society, Columbine, defense in depth, double entry bookkeeping, fault tolerance, game design, IFF: identification friend or foe, John von Neumann, knapsack problem, mutually assured destruction, pez dispenser, pirate software, profit motive, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, slashdot, statistical model, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, the payments system, Y2K, Yogi Berra

This type of attack is relatively new in the digital world: A few years ago, computer hacks weren’t considered newsworthy, and I can’t think of any other technology in history that people would try to break simply to get their names in the paper. In the physical world, this attack is ancient:The man who burned down the Temple of Artemis in ancient Greece did so because he wanted his name to be remembered forever. (His name was Herostratus, by the way.) More recently, the kids who shot up Columbine High School wanted infamy. Most attackers of this type are hackers:skilled individuals who know a lot about systems and their security. They often have access to significant resources, either as students of large universities or as employees of large companies. They usually don’t have a lot of money, but sometimes have a lot of time. Furthermore, they are not likely to do anything that will put them in jail; the idea is publicity, not incarceration.

 

pages: 466 words: 146,982

Venice: A New History by Thomas F. Madden

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big-box store, buy low sell high, centre right, colonial rule, Columbine, Costa Concordia, double entry bookkeeping, facts on the ground, financial innovation, indoor plumbing, invention of movable type, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Murano, Venice glass, spice trade, trade route, upwardly mobile, urban planning

Fifteenth-century Venice had seen the invention of the commedia dell’arte, a decidedly lowbrow entertainment in which a troupe of actors performed an improvisational comedy using stock characters that the audience knew well. Most such comedies revolved around a pair of lovers thwarted by an old man who eventually married with the help of a wise and witty servant. The actors wore masks that clearly defined their roles: Harlequin, a clever, humorous rake; Pantalone, a greedy, hook-nosed old miser; Columbine, the beautiful love interest; and so on. The story was, in any case, unimportant. The crowds gathered to see the acrobatic slapstick, hear the music, and laugh at the dirty jokes. And since the entire play was improvised, it was worth attending more than once. Beginning in 1738 the Venetian playwright Carlo Goldoni cleaned up the commedia dell’arte and brought it into the theaters for the amusement of the tourists and Venetian nobles.

 

Poking a Dead Frog: Conversations With Today's Top Comedy Writers by Mike Sacks

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Bernie Madoff, Columbine, hive mind, index card, iterative process, Ponzi scheme, pre–internet, Saturday Night Live, Upton Sinclair

Together or separately? Writing down jokes? Pitching them out loud? It’s frantic. It’s chaos. It makes the fall of Saigon look tame. It’s all happening so, so quickly. My favorite example is from 2003, when Steve was hosting. Now, this goes back to something happening just before the commercial break that you can work off of. Michael Moore had won for Best Documentary Feature for Bowling for Columbine, and he made a speech against the second Gulf war. Some in the audience booed, but we also noticed that some of the stagehands started booing him, too. When we returned from commercial break, Steve came out and said, “It’s so sweet backstage, you should have seen it. The Teamsters are helping Michael Moore into the trunk of his limo.” That was a joke that we came up with in the wings. Who are you writing for?

 

pages: 514 words: 152,903

The Best Business Writing 2013 by Dean Starkman

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Asperger Syndrome, bank run, Basel III, call centre, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, Columbine, computer vision, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, factory automation, full employment, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, hiring and firing, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, jimmy wales, job automation, late fees, London Whale, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, market clearing, Maui Hawaii, Menlo Park, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, price stability, Ray Kurzweil, Silicon Valley, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, the payments system, too big to fail, Vanguard fund, wage slave, Y2K

He has covered the Federal Reserve, fixed-income markets, telecommunications, and antitrust and currently reports on European monetary and economic policy. PATRICIA CALLAHAN is an investigative reporter on the Chicago Tribune’s Watchdog Team and was part of a team that won the 2008 Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting. Before joining the Tribune in 2006, she was a beat reporter at the Wall Street Journal in Chicago. She shared a Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Reporting for coverage of the Columbine High School shootings. She graduated from Northwestern University’s Medill School of Journalism. THOMAS CATAN is a staff reporter in the Washington bureau of the Wall Street Journal covering the Justice Department and legal affairs. He joined the paper in October 2008 as the correspondent in Madrid. Mr. Catan had previously reported for the Times of London and was energy correspondent and an investigative reporter for the Financial Times.

 

pages: 427 words: 30,920

The Autoimmune Connection by Rita Baron-Faust, Jill Buyon

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Columbine, mouse model, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial, stem cell

The Arthritis Bible: A Comprehensive Guide to Alternative Therapies and Conventional Treatments for Arthritic Diseases, Leonid Gordon and Craig Weatherby, 1999, Healing Arts Press, Rochester, VT. The Arthritis Foundation’s Guide to Alternative Therapies, Judith Horstman, 1998, Arthritis Foundation, Atlanta. The Duke University Book of Arthritis, David S. Pisetsky, MD, PhD, and Susan Flamholtz Trien, 1992, Fawcett Columbine, New York. The Rheumatoid Arthritis Handbook, Stephen Paget, MD, Michael Lockshin, MD, and Susanne Loebl, 2002, John Wiley & Sons, New York. Autoimmune Hepatitis Dr. Melissa Palmer’s Guide to Hepatitis and Liver Disease: What You Need to Know, Melissa Palmer, MD, 2000, Avery, New York. Autoimmunity At War Within: The Double-Edged Sword of Immunity, William R. Clark, PhD, 1995, Oxford University Press, Inc., New York.

 

pages: 392 words: 122,282

Generation Kill by Evan Wright

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Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Columbine, friendly fire, oil shale / tar sands, working poor

More than half of the guys in the platoon come from broken homes and were raised by absentee, single, working parents. Many are on more intimate terms with video games, reality TV shows and Internet porn than they are with their own parents. Before the “War on Terrorism” began, not a whole lot was expected of this generation other than the hope that those in it would squeak through high school without pulling too many more mass shootings in the manner of Columbine. But since the 9/11 attacks, the weight of America’s “War on Terrorism” has fallen on their shoulders. For many in the platoon, their war started within hours of the Twin Towers falling, when they were loaded onto ships to begin preparing for missions in Afghanistan. They see the invasion of Iraq as simply another campaign in a war without end, which is pretty much what their commanders and their president have already told them.

 

pages: 692 words: 127,032

Fool Me Twice: Fighting the Assault on Science in America by Shawn Lawrence Otto

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affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Berlin Wall, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cepheid variable, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, cosmological constant, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dean Kamen, desegregation, double helix, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fudge factor, ghettoisation, Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, informal economy, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, mutually assured destruction, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, sharing economy, smart grid, Solar eclipse in 1919, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, War on Poverty, white flight, Winter of Discontent, working poor

In April of 2002, then-House majority whip Tom DeLay (R-TX) quoted the evangelical Christian authors of a 1999 book when he told a Texas church group, “Only Christianity offers a comprehensive worldview that covers all areas of life and thought, every aspect of creation.”†20 DeLay, who would soon become House majority leader, said he wanted to promote “a biblical worldview” in American politics.21 “Our entire system is built on the Judeo-Christian ethic, but it fell apart when we started denying God,” he had said in 2001.22 After the 1999 Columbine school shootings, he gave a speech on the House floor in which he sarcastically suggested the tragedy “couldn’t have been because our school systems teach our children that they are nothing but glorified apes who have evolutionized out of some primordial soup of mud, by teaching evolution as fact.”23 Ironically, DeLay’s bachelor of science degree, from the University of Houston, is in biology.

 

pages: 468 words: 123,823

A People's History of Poverty in America by Stephen Pimpare

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affirmative action, British Empire, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, dumpster diving, East Village, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Gilder, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, impulse control, income inequality, index card, Jane Jacobs, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, payday loans, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, union organizing, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working poor, Works Progress Administration

Alexander, Render Them Submissive: Responses to Poverty in Philadelphia, 1760–1800 (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1980), 94–99, 116–17. 17 Monique Bourque, “Poor Relief ‘Without Violating the Rights of Humanity’: Almshouse Administration in the Philadelphia Region, 1790–1860,” in Down and Out in Early America (see note 3), 197. 18 Mary Roberts Smith, “Almshouse Women: A Study of Two Hundred and Twenty-Eight Women in the City and County Almshouse of San Francisco,” Publications of the American Statistical Association 4, no. 31 (September 1895): 219–62. 19 Ben Reitman, Sisters of the Road: The Autobiography of Boxcar Bertha (Edinburgh: AK Press/Nabat, 1937 [2002]) , 95–96. 20 Edmund Wilson, The American Earthquake: A Chronicle of the Roaring Twenties, the Great Depression, and the Dawn of the New Deal (New York: Da Capo, 1958 [1996]), 461–62. 21 Jonathan Kozol, Rachel and Her Children: Homeless Families in America (New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1988), 27–30. 22 Steven VanderStaay, Street Lives: An Oral History of Homeless Americans (Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1992), 14. 23 Elliot Liebow, Tell Them Who I Am: The Lives of Homeless Women (New York: Penguin, 1993 [1995]), 121, fn 7. 24 Gwendolyn A. Dordick, Something Left to Lose: Personal Relations and Survival Among New York’s Homeless (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997), 162. 25 Ibid., chap. 4. 26 Liebow, Tell Them Who I Am, 123. 27 Ibid., 127. 28 “Flophouses,” said one wag, are a “cheap hotel or relief station where the homeless sleep poorly and the bedbugs live well.”

 

pages: 331 words: 60,536

The Sovereign Individual: How to Survive and Thrive During the Collapse of the Welfare State by James Dale Davidson, Rees Mogg

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affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, compound rate of return, Danny Hillis, debt deflation, ending welfare as we know it, epigenetics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, Kevin Kelly, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, phenotype, price mechanism, profit maximization, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, school vouchers, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, spice trade, statistical model, telepresence, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Turing machine, union organizing, very high income

., pp.140, 142. 27. Billig, op. cit., p.27. 28. Tilly, Coercion, Capital, and European States, p.22. 29. Langins, op. cit., p.143. 30. Ibid., p.139. 31. See Rheal Seguin, "PQ Ready to Harden Laws on Language: English Signs Face Ban in Quebec," Globe and Mail, August 29, 1996, p. Al. 32. Billig, op. cit., p.35. 33. Jack Weatherford, Savages and Civilization.' Who Will Survive? (New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1994), p.143. 34. Geofftey Parker and Lesley M. Smith, The General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985), p.122. 35. Weatherford, op. cit., p.144. 36. Anderson, op. cit., p.90. 37. Ibid., p.91. 38. Ibid. 39. E H. Kantorowicz, quoted by Llobera, op. cit., p.83. 40. Billig, op. cit., p.175. 41. Ibid., p.109. 42. Shaw and Wong, op. cit., pp. 26~27. 43. Pierre Van Den Berghe, "A Socio-Biological Perspective," in Hutchinson and Smith, eds., Nationalism, p.97. 44. ibid. 45.

 

pages: 1,280 words: 384,105

The Mammoth Book of the Best of Best New SF by Gardner Dozois

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back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, call centre, Columbine, congestion charging, dark matter, Doomsday Book, double helix, Extropian, gravity well, Mason jar, offshore financial centre, out of africa, pattern recognition, phenotype, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, Turing machine, Turing test, Winter of Discontent, Y2K

His own proxy, the one he had cast upon arriving at the office that morning, appeared hovering next to Dr. Roth’s. Ben preferred a head shot only for his proxy, slightly larger than actual size to make it subtly imposing. “Why didn’t you inform me of Annie’s change of status?” “Didn’t seem like an emergency,” said his proxy, “at least in the light of our contract talks.” “Yah, yah, okay. Anything else?” said Ben. “Naw, slow day. Appointments with Jackson, Wells, and the Columbine. It’s all on the calendar.” “Fine, delete you.” The projection ceased. “Shall I have the doctor call you in the morning?” said the Roth proxy when Ben reanimated it. “Or perhaps you’d like me to summon her right now?” “Is she at dinner?” “At the moment, yes.” “Naw, don’t bother her. Tomorrow will be soon enough. I suppose.” After he dismissed the proxy, Ben poured himself another drink.

The guests hurried through the driving snow while the blue search beams of Burson’s ski patrols carved across the forests. Lidia sighed and turned from the windows, obedient finally to Nia’s anxious hope that she would dress. Stephen and Lidia went on picnics together when Belari was away from the fief. They would leave the great gray construct of Belari’s castle and walk carefully across the mountain meadows, Stephen always helping her, guiding her fragile steps through fields of daisies, columbine, and lupine until they peered down over sheer granite cliffs to the town far below. All about them glacier-sculpted peaks ringed the valley like giants squatting in council, their faces adorned with snow even in summer, like beards of wisdom. At the edge of the precipice, they ate a picnic lunch and Stephen told stories of the world before the fiefs, before Revitia made stars immortal. He said the country had been democratic.

 

pages: 634 words: 185,116

From eternity to here: the quest for the ultimate theory of time by Sean M. Carroll

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Albert Einstein, Albert Michelson, anthropic principle, Arthur Eddington, Brownian motion, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, Columbine, cosmic microwave background, cosmological constant, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, gravity well, Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, Henri Poincaré, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Lao Tzu, lone genius, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, pets.com, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Schrödinger's Cat, Slavoj Žižek, Stephen Hawking, stochastic process, the scientific method, wikimedia commons

Chaisson, E. J. Cosmic Evolution: The Rise of Complexity in Nature. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001. Christenson, J. H., Cronin, J. W., Fitch, V. L., and Turlay, R. “Evidence for the 2π Decay of the K20 Meson.” Physical Review Letters 13 (1964): 138-40. Coveney, P., and Highfield, R. The Arrow of Time: A Voyage Through Science to Solve Time’s Greatest Mystery. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1990. Crick, F. What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery. New York: Basic Books, 1990. Cutler, C. “Global Structure of Gott’s Two-String Spacetime.” Physical Review D 45 (1992): 487-94. Danielson, D. R., ed. The Book of the Cosmos: Imagining the Universe from Heraclitus to Hawking. Cambridge: Perseus Books, 2000. Darwin, C. On the Origin of Species. London: John Murray, 1859.

 

pages: 571 words: 162,958

Rewired: The Post-Cyberpunk Anthology by James Patrick Kelly, John Kessel

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back-to-the-land, Columbine, dark matter, Extropian, Firefox, gravity well, haute couture, Internet Archive, pattern recognition, phenotype, post-industrial society, price stability, Silicon Valley, slashdot, Stephen Hawking, technological singularity, telepresence, the scientific method, Turing test, urban renewal, Vernor Vinge, wage slave, Y2K, zero day

His own proxy, the one he had cast upon arriving at the office that morning, appeared hovering next to Dr. Roth’s. Ben preferred a head shot only for his proxy, slightly larger than actual size to make it subtly imposing. “Why didn’t you inform me of Annie’s change of status?” “Didn’t seem like an emergency,” said his proxy, “at least in the light of our contract talks.” “Yah, yah, okay. Anything else?” said Ben. “Naw, slow day. Appointments with Jackson, Wells, and the Columbine. It’s all on the calendar.” “Fine, delete you.” The projection ceased. “Shall I have the doctor call you in the morning?” said the Roth proxy when Ben reanimated it. “Or perhaps you’d like me to summon her right now?” “Is she at dinner?” “At the moment, yes.” “Naw, don’t bother her. Tomorrow will be soon enough. I suppose.” After he dismissed the proxy, Ben poured himself another drink.

 

pages: 612 words: 200,406

The Last Spike: The Great Railway, 1881-1885 by Pierre Berton

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banking crisis, business climate, California gold rush, centre right, Columbine, financial independence, Khartoum Gordon, transcontinental railway, unbiased observer, young professional

This was three more miles of railway than Van Horne had counted on; it took nine and a half miles to reach the level of the stream four miles from the summit. But it was necessary to avoid the snowslides. For the future tourists, swaying down this dramatic slope from the vantage point of an observation car in what was shortly to become Glacier National Park, the experience would be electrifying – the awesome cedars rising like great pillars from the thick beds of ferns, the mountainsides sprinkled with wild columbine and pigeonberry, the glittering ice-fields, the sword points of the mountain peaks, the cataracts pouring off the cliffs as airily as wood-smoke, and the shining track coiling through the dark cuts and over the slender bridges on its journey to the Columbia. This was the same trail, bestrewn with devil’s club and skunk cabbage, that Major Rogers and his nephew Albert had toiled up on their voyage of discovery in 1881, that Fleming and Grant, badly lacerated from thorns, had managed to negotiate in 1883, and that a hungry Van Horne had struggled over in 1884.

 

pages: 836 words: 158,284

The 4-Hour Body: An Uncommon Guide to Rapid Fat-Loss, Incredible Sex, and Becoming Superhuman by Timothy Ferriss

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23andMe, airport security, Albert Einstein, Black Swan, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, Dean Kamen, game design, Gary Taubes, index card, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, microbiome, p-value, Parkinson's law, Paul Buchheit, placebo effect, Productivity paradox, publish or perish, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Thorstein Veblen, wage slave, William of Occam

John Romano and Dave Palumbo, on the other hand, have been on the inside of professional bodybuilding and physique enhancement for decades. Both have seen the best and the worst outcomes in athletic chemical warfare. RXMuscle is where you can ask professionals your questions related to AAS and other performance-enhancing drugs (PED). Bigger, Stronger, Faster DVD (www.fourhourbody.com/bigger) From the producers of Bowling for Columbine and Fahrenheit 9/11, this outstanding documentary explores steroid use in the biggest, strongest, fastest country in the world: America. The cast of characters ranges from Carl Lewis and MDs to Louis Simmons of Westside Barbell. It has an astounding 96% positive rating on rottentomatoes.com. Medibolics (www.medibolics.com) This site, published by Michael Mooney, provides a wealth of information on the medical use of anabolic steroids, growth hormone, and unorthodox supplementation for the prevention of lean-tissue loss in persons with muscle-wasting diseases, including HIV.

 

pages: 812 words: 180,057

The Generals: American Military Command From World War II to Today by Thomas E. Ricks

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affirmative action, airport security, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, hiring and firing, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, Yom Kippur War

“firepower became the dominant characteristic”: Doughty, “Evolution of US Army Tactical Doctrine,” 38. when one Vietnamese sniper: Charles Krohn, The Lost Battalion of Tet: Breakout of the 2/12th Cavalry at Hue (Pocket Star, 2008), 149. saw a battalion commander call in air strikes: Michael Lee Lanning and Dan Cragg, Inside the VC and the NVA: The Real Story of North Vietnam’s Armed Forces (Fawcett Columbine, 1992), 221. On one day alone: George MacGarrigle, Taking the Offensive: October 1966 to October 1967 (U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1998), 56. “With one salvo” . . . “they could not control”: Stuart Herrington, e-mail message to author, November 21, 2011; see also Stuart Herrington, Silence Was a Weapon: The Vietnam War in the Villages (Ballantine, 1987), 43. “over 675 sightings”: Harry Maurer, Strange Ground: An Oral History of Americans in Vietnam, 1945–1975 (Avon, 1990), 457.

 

pages: 669 words: 210,153

Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss

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Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, post scarcity, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator

(doc), Planet Earth (doc), Jiro Dreams of Sushi (doc) Palmer, Amanda: Alive Inside: A Story of Music and Memory (doc), Happy (doc), One More Time with Feeling (doc) Patrick, Rhonda: Happy People: A Year in the Taiga (doc), Planet Earth (doc) Paul, Caroline: Maidentrip (doc) Polanco, Martin: The Crash Reel (doc), Waste Land (doc), Lo and Behold: Reveries of the Connected World (doc) Poliquin, Charles: The Last Samurai, Gladiator, The Imitation Game, 22 Bullets. Also: The History Channel and documentaries from National Geographic, and Tarantino movies Potts, Rolf: Grizzly Man (doc) Reece, Gabby: Food Inc. (doc), Roger and Me (doc), Bowling for Columbine (doc), Crumb (doc) Richman, Jessica: The Edge Robbins, Tony: Inside Job (doc) Rogen, Seth: Pulp Fiction, Clerks, Rushmore, Bottle Rocket, Adaptation, The Princess Bride, Fawlty Towers (TV), Kids in the Hall (TV), Monty Python’s Flying Circus (TV), Second City Television (TV) Rose, Kevin: Anchorman: The Legend of Ron Burgundy, Inglourious Basterds, Food Inc. (doc) Rubin, Rick: 20,000 Days on Earth (doc) Sacca, Chris: The Big Lebowski Schwarzenegger, Arnold: Brooklyn Castle (doc) Sethi, Ramit: Jiro Dreams of Sushi (doc) Shinoda, Mike: House of Cards (TV), The Godfather, The Usual Suspects, Fight Club, Seven, Ninja Scroll, WALL-E, Princess Mononoke Silva, Jason: Inception, The Matrix, The Truman Show, Vanilla Sky, eXistenZ, The Beach, Maidentrip (doc) Sivers, Derek: Scott Pilgrim vs. the World Skenes, Joshua: Chef’s Table (TV) Sommer, Christopher: The Legend of Tarzan Spurlock, Morgan: Scanners, An American Werewolf in London, Making a Murderer (TV), Mr.

 

pages: 684 words: 188,584

The Age of Radiance: The Epic Rise and Dramatic Fall of the Atomic Era by Craig Nelson

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Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, dark matter, Doomsday Clock, El Camino Real, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Henri Poincaré, hive mind, Isaac Newton, John von Neumann, Louis Pasteur, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, music of the spheres, mutually assured destruction, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, Project Plowshare, Ralph Nader, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Skype, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, V2 rocket, éminence grise

” Oppenheimer did everything he could to get his friend Isidor Rabi to join, but Rabi, like Meitner, refused, telling Oppenheimer that he did not want to make “the culmination of three centuries of physics” a horrible weapon. He did not believe in bombs, feeling that they killed both the innocent and the guilty, and continued his work on radar at Columbia. He did, however, travel to the Los Alamos sporadically to offer advice as a visiting consultant, as did Einstein. North-central New Mexico is today as green as any artificially irrigated desert in the world, but during World War II it was home to columbines, gentians, ponderosa, aspens, indifferent porcupines, tender marmot, determined badger, and fearless skunk. Ruth Marshak: “Behind us lay the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, at sunset bathed in changing waves of colors—scarlets and lavenders. Below was the desert with its flatness broken by majestic palisades that seemed like the ruined cathedrals and palaces of some old, great, vanished race. Ahead was Los Alamos, and beyond the flat plateau on which it sat was its backdrop, the Jemez Mountain Range.

 

pages: 1,445 words: 469,426

The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power by Daniel Yergin

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, Columbine, cuban missile crisis, energy security, European colonialism, Exxon Valdez, financial independence, fudge factor, informal economy, joint-stock company, land reform, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, postnationalism / post nation state, price stability, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Thomas Malthus, Yom Kippur War

Boone Pickens, "The Restructuring of the Domestic Oil and Gas Industry," in Yergin and Kates-Garnick, Reshaping of the Oil Industry, pp. 60-61. [7] Interviews with Jesus Silva Herzog and Patrick Connolly ("eating our lunch"); Fausto Alzati, "Oil and Debt: Mexico's Double Challenge," Cambridge Energy Research Associates Report, June 1987; Philip L. Zweig, Belly Up: The Collapse of the Penn Square Bank (New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1986), pp. 198-99 (Gucci loafers); William Greider, Secrets of the Temple: How the Federal Reserve Runs the Country (New York: Touchstone, 1989), pp. 518-25 ("bank to beat"), 628-31; Mark Singer, Funny Money (New York: Knopf, 1985). [8] Wall Street Journal, September 15, 1983, p. 1; December 5, 1983, p. 60; April 19, 1984, p. 1; Interviews with Richard Bray and P. I. Walters. [9] Thomas Petzinger, Jr., Oil & Honor: The Texaco-Pennzoil Wars (New York: Putnam, 1987); Steve Coll, The Taking of Getty Oil (London: Unwin Hyman, 1988); Lenzer, Getty, pp. 331-38; Miller, House of Getty, pp. 331-46

The Mossadegh Era: Roots of the Iranian Revolution. Chicago: Lake View Press, 1982. Ziemke, Earl F. Stalingrad to Berlin: The German Defeat in the East. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army, Center of Military History, 1968. Zimmermann, Erich W. Conservation in the Production of Petroleum: A Study in Industrial Control. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1957. Zweig, Philip L. Belly Up: The Collapse of the Penn Square Bank. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1985. Data Sources American Petroleum Institute. Basic Petroleum Data Book. ---------. Petroleum Facts and Figures: Centennial Edition, 1959. New York: API, 1959. Arthur Andersen & Co. and Cambridge Energy Research Associates. World Oil Trends. ---------. Natural Gas Trends. ---------. Electric Power Trends. British Petroleum. Statistical Review of the World Oil Industry. 1955-80. ---------.

 

Great Britain by David Else, Fionn Davenport

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active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Beeching cuts, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Attenborough, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

Old Hall Hotel ( 01298-22841; www.oldhallhotelbuxton.co.uk; the Square; s/d incl breakfast £65/100 wi-fi) There is a tale to go with every creak of the floorboards at this genial, history-soaked establishment, supposedly the oldest hotel in England. Mary, Queen of Scots, was held here from 1576 to 1578, and the wood-panelled corridors and rooms are as well appointed and as elegant as they must have been in her day. Eating & Drinking Columbine Restaurant ( 01298-78752; Hall Bank; mains £11-13; 7-10pm Mon & Wed-Sat) Perched on the slope leading down to the Crescent, this excellent understated restaurant is top choice among Buxtonites in the know. It delivers large portions of excellent local produce including some good vegetarian choices. Place ( 01298-214565; www.theplacebuxton.co.uk; 9-11 Market St; mains £11-14; dinner Tue & Wed, lunch & dinner Thu-Sat, lunch Sun) Lively, trendy modern restaurant serving light lunches and sandwiches as well as more expensive modern European cooking.

 

England by David Else

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active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Mahatma Gandhi, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, place-making, Skype, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

Spring Gardens, an otherwise uninspiring pedestrianised shopping street, has several cheap cafes. Art Cafe ( 01298-23114; sandwiches & snacks £3-7; 9.30am-5pm Apr-Sep, to 3pm Oct-Mar) Housed on the 2nd floor of the Pavilion, with beautiful views over the gardens, this little spot is a great place to enjoy a coffee and some homemade cakes while perusing the works by local artists that are splashed across the walls. Columbine Restaurant ( 01298-78752; Hall Bank; mains £11-13; dinner 7-10pm Mon & Wed-Sat) Perched on the slope leading down to the Crescent, this excellent understated restaurant is top choice among Buxtonites in the know. It delivers large portions of excellent local produce including some good vegetarian choices. The Place ( 01298-214565; www.theplacebuxton.co.uk; 9-11 Market St; mains £11-14; dinner Tue & Wed, lunch & dinner Thu-Sat, lunch Sun) Lively, trendy modern restaurant serving light lunches and sandwiches as well as more expensive modern European cooking.

 

France (Lonely Planet, 8th Edition) by Nicola Williams

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active transport: walking or cycling, back-to-the-land, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, industrial robot, information trail, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, Murano, Venice glass, pension reform, QWERTY keyboard, ride hailing / ride sharing, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

Larch trees, mountain and arolla pines, rhododendrons and junipers stud shrubby subalpine zones between 1500m and 2000m; and a brilliant riot of spring and summertime wildflowers carpet grassy meadows above the tree line in the alpine zone (up to 3000m). Alpine blooms include the single golden-yellow flower of the arnica, which has long been used in herbal and homeopathic bruise-relieving remedies; the flame-coloured fire lily, which flowers from December until May; and the hardy Alpine columbine, with its delicate blue petals. The protected ‘queen of the Alps’ (aka the Alpine eryngo) bears an uncanny resemblance to a purple thistle but is, in fact, a member of the parsley family (to which the carrot also belongs); you will find it on grassy ledges. The rare twinflower only grows in the Parc National de la Vanoise. Of France’s 150 orchids, the black vanilla orchid is one to look out for – its small red-brown flowers exude a sweet vanilla fragrance.

 

Lonely Planet France by Lonely Planet Publications

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banking crisis, bike sharing scheme, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, Columbine, double helix, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, haute couture, haute cuisine, Henri Poincaré, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Louis Blériot, Louis Pasteur, low cost carrier, Mahatma Gandhi, Murano, Venice glass, ride hailing / ride sharing, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, supervolcano, trade route, urban renewal, urban sprawl, V2 rocket

Larch trees, mountain and arolla pines, rhododendrons and junipers stud shrubby subalpine zones between 1500m and 2000m; and a brilliant riot of spring and summertime wildflowers carpets grassy meadows above the treeline in the alpine zone (up to 3000m). Alpine blooms include the single golden-yellow flower of the arnica, which has long been used in herbal and homeopathic bruise-relieving remedies; the flame-coloured fire lily; and the hardy Alpine columbine, with its delicate blue petals. The protected ‘queen of the Alps’ (aka the Alpine eryngo) bears an uncanny resemblance to a purple thistle but is, in fact, a member of the parsley family (to which the carrot also belongs). The rare twinflower only grows in the Parc National de la Vanoise. Of France’s 150 orchids, the black vanilla orchid is one to look out for – its small red-brown flowers exude a sweet vanilla fragrance.