software as a service

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pages: 567 words: 122,311

Lean Analytics: Use Data to Build a Better Startup Faster by Alistair Croll, Benjamin Yoskovitz

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Ben Horowitz, bounce rate, business intelligence, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, constrained optimization, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Frederick Winslow Taylor, frictionless, frictionless market, game design, Google X / Alphabet X, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, Lean Startup, lifelogging, longitudinal study, Marshall McLuhan, minimum viable product, Network effects, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, performance metric, place-making, platform as a service, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, sentiment analysis, skunkworks, Skype, social graph, social software, software as a service, Steve Jobs, subscription business, telemarketer, transaction costs, two-sided market, Uber for X, web application, Y Combinator

Rose, Kevin, Measuring the MVP Rubicon Consulting, Content Creation and Interaction The Rules of Work (Pearson), Span of Control and the Railroads Rumsfeld, Donald, Eight Vanity Metrics to Watch Out For Running Lean (Maurya), Running Lean and How to Conduct a Good Interview S SaaS (Software as a Service) model about, Model Two: Software as a Service (SaaS) Backupify case study, Backupify’s Customer Lifecycle Learning ClearFit case study, ClearFit Abandons Monthly Subscriptions for 10x Growth key takeaways, Wrinkles: Freemium, Tiers, and Other Pricing Models measuring metrics in, Model Two: Software as a Service (SaaS), Paid Enrollment OfficeDrop case study, OfficeDrop’s Key Metric: Paid Churn ROI in, The Penny Machine stage comparisons in, Model + Stage Drives the Metric You Track upselling in, Model Two: Software as a Service (SaaS), Content Creation and Interaction, Freemium Versus Paid user flow depicted through, Churn Complications wrinkles in, ClearFit Abandons Monthly Subscriptions for 10x Growth Sack, Andy, Getting Answers at Scale Salesforce, The Minimum Viable Vision Salesforce.com, What DuProprio Watches Scale stage (Lean Analytics) about, What Stage Are You At?

Farina, Massimo, Static Pixels Eliminates a Step in Its Order Process feedback, user (see user feedback) Feld, Brad, Moz Tracks Fewer KPIs to Increase Focus Ferriss, Tim, Measuring the MVP FireClick survey, Conversion Rate FireWire technology, Pricing Metrics Fishkin, Rand, The Discipline of One Metric That Matters Fitbit device, About Those People Flickr site, Correlated Versus Causal Metrics Flurry analytics firm, Model Three: Free Mobile App Flurry mobile analytics firm, Percent Active Mobile Users/Players Followermonk tool, Finding People to Talk To for-sale-by-owner marketplace, What DuProprio Watches force multipliers, The Lean Canvas The Four Steps to the Epiphany (Blank), Customer Development 4SquareAnd7YearsAgo product, Beyond the Viral Coefficient fraud, tracking, What DuProprio Watches, What DuProprio Watches free mobile apps model (see mobile apps model) freemium model about, Model Two: Software as a Service (SaaS) Buffer case study, Buffer Goes from Stickiness to Scale (Through Revenue) key metrics for, Model Two: Software as a Service (SaaS) paid versus, Freemium Versus Paid Revenue stage on, Where Does the Money Come From? sample churn calculations, Churn Socialight case study, Socialight Discovers the Underlying Metrics of Pricing wrinkles in, ClearFit Abandons Monthly Subscriptions for 10x Growth Frito-Lay, Swiffer Gives Up on Chemistry G GAMESbrief.com, Bottom Line Gannett, Allen, Selling into Enterprise Markets Gascoigne, Joel, Is My Business Model Right?

Hoskins, Titus, Click-Through Rates Hotwire site, Model Six: Two-Sided Marketplaces Huffman, Steve, Bottom Line Hyatt, Nabeel, Attacking the Leading Indicator hybrid mode (e-commerce model), What Mode of E-commerce Are You? I IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) model, Model Two: Software as a Service (SaaS) IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), Slower Cycle Time Imagine (Lehrer), Stars, Dogs, Cows, and Question Marks in-game advertising, Model Three: Free Mobile App inactive users, defining, Churn Indiegogo site, Model Six: Two-Sided Marketplaces information, kinds of, Eight Vanity Metrics to Watch Out For Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) model, Model Two: Software as a Service (SaaS) inherent virality, Stage Three: Virality, Virality Instagram site, Static Pixels Eliminates a Step in Its Order Process installation volume metric, Model Three: Free Mobile App Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Slower Cycle Time integration cost metric, Stickiness and Usability intrapreneurs about, Lean from Within: Intrapreneurs BCG box, Changing—or Innovating to Resist Change?


The Art of Scalability: Scalable Web Architecture, Processes, and Organizations for the Modern Enterprise by Martin L. Abbott, Michael T. Fisher

always be closing, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, business climate, business continuity plan, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, commoditize, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, database schema, discounted cash flows, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, friendly fire, hiring and firing, Infrastructure as a Service, inventory management, new economy, packet switching, performance metric, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, RFC: Request For Comment, risk tolerance, Rubik’s Cube, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, software as a service, the scientific method, transaction costs, Vilfredo Pareto, web application, Y2K

H ISTORY AND D EFINITIONS Cloud computing can trace its lineage through the application service providers (ASP) of the 1990s, which were the embodiment of the concept of outsourcing computer services. This later became known as Software as a Service (SaaS). The ASP model is an indirect descendant of the service bureaus of the 1960s and 1970s, which were an attempt at fulfilling the vision established by John McCarthy in his 1961 speech at MIT.1 John McCarthy is the inventor of the programming language Lisp, recipient of the 1971 Turing Award, and credited with coining the term Artificial Intelligence.2 The idea of the modern cloud concept was extended in October 2001 by IBM in its Autonomic Computing Manifesto.3 The essence of the paper was that the information technology infrastructure was becoming too complex and that it could collapse under its own weight if the management was not automated. Around this time, the concept of Software as a Service (SaaS) started to grow. SaaS is a software model whereby people pay for software based on usage and demand rather than upfront and recurring license fees.

With a thorough understanding of their characteristics and uses, they can become effective weapons in your arsenal to fight the scalability war. Key Points • The term cloud has been around for decades and was used primarily in network diagrams. • The idea of the modern cloud concept was put forth by IBM in its Autonomic Computing Manifesto. • Developing alongside the idea of cloud computing was the concept of Software as a Service, Infrastructure as a Service, and many more “as a Service” concepts. • Software as a Service refers to almost any form of software that is offered in a pay as you use model. • Infrastructure as a Service is the idea of offering infrastructure such as storage, servers, network, and bandwidth in a pay as you use model. • Platform as a Service provides all the required components for developing and deploying Web applications and services. • Everything as a Service is the idea of being able to have small components that can be pieced together to provide a new service. • Grid computing as a concept has been around for almost two decades.

In this chapter, we will explain why the people of your organization, the structure of the organization, the management, and the leadership in your organization all have an enormous impact on your ability to scale your product, platform, or services. Introducing AllScale Throughout The Art of Scalability, we will refer to a fictional company, AllScale. AllScale started out as a custom software development company, contracting individual developers out by the hour for projects. Over time, the company started to bid on special custom development projects for both back office IT systems and Web enabled Software as a Service (SaaS) platforms. As the company matured, it started developing tools for its own internal usage and then started selling these tools as a service to other companies using the SaaS model. 9 10 C HAPTER 1 T HE I MPACT OF P EOPLE AND L EADERSHIP ON S CALABILITY The tool with which AllScale has had the most traction is the human resources management (HRM) system. The tool is an employee life cycle management system, covering everything from recruiting to termination.


pages: 307 words: 17,123

Behind the cloud: the untold story of how Salesforce.com went from idea to billion-dollar company--and revolutionized an industry by Marc Benioff, Carlye Adler

Albert Einstein, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, business continuity plan, call centre, carbon footprint, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, iterative process, Maui Hawaii, Nicholas Carr, platform as a service, Silicon Valley, software as a service, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs

., 208–209 Rewarding volunteers, 165 Ridout, Bob, 99 Ries, Al, 37 Risks: developing company persona, 27–28; taking, 18–20 Robinson, Phill, 58 Rosebud Sioux Tribe, 162 Rotating assignments, 248 Rudnitsky, David, 89–95 S SaaS (Software-as-a-Service): developing regulatory environment for, 221–222; inspiration for, 3–4, 135–139; on-demand model vs. hosted choice, 105–106; PaaS as extension of, 122–123; potentials in CRM for online, 6; providing API, 119; public relations for, 23–25; revenue recognition position paper for, 214; selling directly to end users, 52–54; testing product usability, 13–14 SaaS (Software-as-a-Service). See also PaaS Saba, 7, 8, 9 Sabbaticals, 1–3 Index Sales: abandoning unsuccessful strategies, 96–97; building with word-of-mouth, 47–49; call preparation for, 92–93; closing, 93; cooperative effort in, 92; corporate and enterprise models for, 177–178; directing with V2MOM, 232–233; enlisting customers for, 73–76; establishing pricing for, 78–79; facts creating credibility for, 94; free trial strategies, 67–68, 96–97; increasing number of reps for, 79–80; introducing prospects to happy customers, 100–101; landing and expanding, 95, 184–185; leveraging times of change, 82–85; metrics monitoring, 101; negotiating, 94; paperwork for, 94; performance incentives for, 245–246; preparing distribution and growth of, 86–91; pursuing game-changing, 95; recruiting as, 236–239; segmenting markets, 80–81; selling corporate services, 98–100; strategies for trial offers, 96–97; supporting existing customers, 97–98; targeting to higher education and NGOs, 166–168; telesales, 76–78; thinking big, 91–92; treating customers as partners, 69–71; visiting customers, 93; Web sites as reps for, 72–73 Sales force automation (SFA), 5–6 Sales reps: commissions motivating, 85; increasing number of, 79–80; sharing best practices with team, 94; using Web sites as, 72–73 SalesForce Australia, 189–191 Salesforce Foundation: establishment of, 140; 1–1–1 Model of, 142–143, 159–161 Salesforce.com: AppExchange and, 125–126, 196–197; beginnings of, 11–12, 14–21; branding, 28–32; collaborative spirit of, 131–132, 145; creating story about, 40–41; customer success managers at, 97–98; designing limitless system, 103–106; developing Web-based operating system, 120–125; employee-generated disaster relief at, 163–164; ensuring reliability, 110–113; environmental mission statement of, 163; evolving vision statements, 232; focusing, 12–13; free trial subscriptions, 67–68, 96; going after market leaders, 34, 36–38; harnessing customer ideas, 127–130; initial meetings about, 9–11; initiating product market, 60–61; introductory party for, 25–27; keeping on-message, 33–34, 35; listening to customers, 13–14, 85–86; listing on NYSE, 153, 210–211, 212–213; marking success with donations, 167–168; persona of, 27–28; preparing for sales growth, 86–91; product development at, 106–107, 115–118, 132–133; seed-and-grow strategy, 100; selling to end users, 52–54 Salesforce.com.

Salesforce.com changed corporate xiii FOREWORD philanthropy by integrating giving into its business model—and sharing that model so that myriad companies have collectively flooded talent, products, services, and billions of dollars into their communities. Because salesforce.com offers employees an opportunity to make a difference, not just earn a paycheck, it’s known as one of the best places to work. Its original application has become the number-one hosted CRM service, and the company has established itself as the leader in the Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) industry it pioneered. And, through relentless focus, creativity, and passion, salesforce.com inspired an enterprise cloud computing industry. In short, the new and unconventional ideas that salesforce.com has evangelized have changed the way we do business and changed the world. There has been a profound shift toward cloud computing in the past few years. Nearly every major public and private cloud is powered by Dell, and we are ecstatic to be running today’s most exciting companies, including salesforce.com, Facebook, Microsoft, and many others.

Play #2: Have a Big Dream I saw an opportunity to deliver business software applications in a new way. My vision was to make software easier to purchase, simpler to use, and more democratic without the complexities of installation, maintenance, and constant upgrades. Rather than selling multimillion-dollar CD-ROM software packages that took six to eighteen months for companies to install and required hefty investments in hardware and networking, we would sell Software-as-a-Service through a model known as cloud computing. Companies could pay per-user, 3 BEHIND THE CLOUD per-month fees for the services they used, and those services would be delivered to them immediately via the Internet, in the cloud. If we hosted it ourselves and used the Internet as a delivery platform, customers wouldn’t have to shut down their operations as their programs were installed. The software would be on a Web site that they could access from any device anywhere in the world, 24/7.


pages: 244 words: 66,977

Subscribed: Why the Subscription Model Will Be Your Company's Future - and What to Do About It by Tien Tzuo, Gabe Weisert

3D printing, Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, Build a better mousetrap, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, connected car, death of newspapers, digital twin, double entry bookkeeping, Elon Musk, factory automation, fiat currency, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Lean Startup, Lyft, manufacturing employment, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, nuclear winter, pets.com, profit maximization, race to the bottom, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, smart meter, social graph, software as a service, spice trade, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Tim Cook: Apple, transport as a service, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Y2K, Zipcar

We had to reevaluate the whole purpose of a software company, changing the fundamental question from “How many products can I sell?” to “What does my customer want, and how can I deliver that as an intuitive service?” When Salesforce launched, everyone realized that it was different—no more huge installations and piles of hardware. It was software as a service, not a static product. Because of that, we were empowered to come up with new ways to market it, to sell it, and to run a truly subscription-based company. The ideas we came up with—usage-based pricing, multitiered editions, customer success organizations—are now standard operating procedure for software-as-a-service companies, but when we were building Salesforce, none of them existed. We had to invent them. But starting everything from scratch had its downsides, too. We knew, for instance, that to make this new business model work, we had to have a completely different set of back-office systems—something closer to a telco or a publisher, which I was familiar with from my Oracle days.

Because someday, your future customers will be looking very closely at your first set of customers in order to gauge whether you’re really long-term partnership material. As the saying goes, “You become your customers,” so that initial cohort is really important. You really need to take pains to point your sales team toward quality customers at the right price points; otherwise they can wind up like cats who drag back all sorts of strange things to your doorstep. When we started Zuora, the obvious first strategy was to sell to other software-as-a-service companies like us. But we were always wary of becoming too niche. More important, “flexibility” was a really critical benefit of our service, and we could create that flexibility only by having a diverse set of customers. So we went and found a hardware company, a media company, a consumer subscription company, etc. It made our job harder, but the diversity in those initial customers really set the tone for our business.

., 5–6 real estate industry, 120 Recode, 78 recurring costs, 181 recurring profit margin, 182 Rent the Runway, 23 Renzu, 171 retail industry, 22–36 Apple, service revenue growth at, 26–27 customer versus product focus, 26 discovery process, stores as means of fostering, 33 ecommerce, growth of, 23 experience for customer, creating, 33–34 ID for customers, 26–27 knowing your customer, 28 negative option model and, 28–30 online experience, physical stores as extensions of, 32–36 online retailers, physical stores opened by, 23 pickup/delivery service, receipt of goods through, 33, 34 products as means of enabling customer-based services, 32 static products, applying service-oriented mindset to, 30–32 traditional brick and mortar retail, 22–24 ridesharing services, 53–55 Ries, Eric, 48 Roam, 120 Robinhood, 121 Run element, of PADRE operating model, 203–4 Rushton, James, 44 SaaS. See software as a service (SaaS) model Sage, 90 sales, 130–31, 156–73 acquisition of initial customers, 159–61 cross-selling, 164–67 growth through establishing and growing customer relationships, 158–59 guided selling model, 164 hybrid sales model, adopting, 163 international sales, 168–70 launching into new segments, 167–68 pricing and packaging, optimizing, 171–72 sales force expansion, 162–64 segmented sales force, use of, 168 self-service sales model, 163–64 shifting from asset transfer to long-term relationship, 156–57 strategic acquisitions, 170–71 teaching as element of, 158 upselling, 164–67 value of customers, increasing, 164–67 Salesforce, 4–5, 18, 63, 83, 145, 161, 162, 165, 183, 192 SAP, 190 Scalabre, Olivier, 103–4, 111–12 Schneider Electric, 108, 112, 119 Schultz, Howard, 140 Searchers, The (film), 37 Sears, 14, 22 segmented sales force, 168 SEI.


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How to Build a Billion Dollar App: Discover the Secrets of the Most Successful Entrepreneurs of Our Time by George Berkowski

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Black Swan, business intelligence, call centre, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, game design, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, Paul Graham, QR code, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Travis Kalanick, ubercab, Y Combinator

It turns out that five business models underpin so many billions in value – and, interestingly, each model seems to contribute equally in terms of value. The first is gaming, where users pay for a virtual service or good. The second is e-commerce / marketplace, where users pay for a real world good or service. The third is advertising (or consumer audience building in the case where the company has not yet switched on the advertising). The fourth is Software as a Service (SaaS), whereby users pay for cloud-based software (typically via a subscription model). And the last is enterprise, whereby companies pay for larger-scale software (again, via a subscription-type model). So there isn’t a huge amount of reinventing the wheel here. If you want to make it big, it’s pretty clear what business models to stick to. EXPERIENCE MATTERS. Despite all the media hype, most billion-dollar companies are not founded by youngsters in their twenties, but by people of an average age of 34 (that makes my 36-year-old face smile).

Sketch on napkins, sketch ideas in Photoshop, do whatever you need to do to make your idea real and communicable to others. • As you flush out a great design, start prototyping it. Your goal is to get it into user’s hands quickly, so that you can get as much feedback as possible. Your goal is to get to drive towards delivering wow! • No matter what happens, you’ll need to have an app ready for real users’ hands. If your business model is simple (gaming, Software as a Service) expect to be operational, at least in a basic way. • If your model is more complicated (marketplace), then you have a solid proof of concept. Use that to secure investment to build it out. Team • You should not use the excuse of not having a cofounder to slow your progress, but finding a partner in crime who shares the vision and has complementary skills will make the journey more enjoyable

Players using this model are all about getting big, fast – and then being as sticky as possible. Our friends Instagram and Snapchat fall into this group. Flipboard represents the flipside that actively targeted big-ticket advertising from the get-go – and has been able to deliver. These players either develop their own advertising platforms (Flipboard), or seek to be acquired and monetise off the acquirers’ already well-established platform (as Instagram did with Facebook). 4. SOFTWARE AS A SERVICE (SAAS). This is where consumers pay for cloud-based software or services. WhatsApp is the first ‘mobile-first’ company with this model, charging some users $0.99 per year as a subscription via app-store payments, though its business model has evolved a number of times. A number of companies – which are not mobile first, but still have heavily used apps, such as Evernote (a note-taking app), Dropbox and Box (two document storage apps) – have this business model, whereby they charge subscriptions either via app-store payment channels, or bill you directly via your credit card. 5.


pages: 394 words: 110,352

The Art of Community: Building the New Age of Participation by Jono Bacon

barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), collaborative editing, crowdsourcing, Debian, DevOps, do-ocracy, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, Guido van Rossum, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Jono Bacon, Kickstarter, Larry Wall, Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Zuckerberg, openstreetmap, Richard Stallman, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social graph, software as a service, telemarketer, union organizing, VA Linux, web application

., Scheduling signs, using at events, Assets simplicity as foundation of processes, Breaking Up the Puzzle, Simplicity is key, Simplicity is key size of community, The Case for Governance skills, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge, Knowing When It Is Time acquisition of, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge and formation of additional councils, Knowing When It Is Time mapping to teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams required, documenting, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community Skype, Voice over IP (VoIP), Voice over IP (VoIP) slides in presentations, Creating attractive slides, Long versus short presentations Smanis, Konstantinos, Observational Tests social capital, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication building through storytelling, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication defined, Building Belonging into the Social Economy social economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication building belonging into, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy communication in, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication comparison with financial economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy social media, The Art of Community, The Art of Community, The Art of Community, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Being Social, Being Social, Being Social, Being Social, Being Social, Harnessing Social Media, Broadcasting, Broadcasting, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages, Avoiding social media overkill, Avoiding social media overkill, Feedback, Feedback, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, Debates, Debates, Asking for feedback, Asking for feedback, Collaboration, Collaboration, Campaigns and awareness, Events, Events, Controlling the Fire Hose, Controlling the Fire Hose, Optimizing How You Post, Optimizing How You Post, Being Socially Responsible, Being Socially Responsible, Organizing a Community Event, At the event, Running a Campaign, The buildup, Providing Community Updates, Providing Community Updates, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media (see also Facebook) (see also Google+) (see also Twitter) broadcasting with, Being Social, Broadcasting, Broadcasting, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages, Avoiding social media overkill, Avoiding social media overkill balanced use of, Avoiding social media overkill, Avoiding social media overkill content of broadcasts, Broadcasting, Broadcasting overview, Being Social using Twitter, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages collaboration using, Being Social, Collaboration, Collaboration, Campaigns and awareness, Events, Events, Running a Campaign, The buildup coordinating events, Events, Events for campaigns and awareness, Campaigns and awareness, Running a Campaign, The buildup overview of, Being Social party-planning example, Collaboration, Collaboration controlling time using, Harnessing Social Media, Controlling the Fire Hose, Controlling the Fire Hose getting feedback using, Being Social, Feedback, Feedback, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, Debates, Debates, Asking for feedback, Asking for feedback by asking for, Asking for feedback, Asking for feedback overview, Being Social Ubuntu 11.04 release example, Feedback, Feedback using Twitter, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look via debates, Debates, Debates most common networks, Being Social, Being Social optimizing posts to, Optimizing How You Post, Optimizing How You Post organizing community event using, Organizing a Community Event, At the event providing community updates with, Providing Community Updates, Providing Community Updates realistic expectations of, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl responsible use of, Being Socially Responsible, Being Socially Responsible use by community leaders, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media Mike Shinoda (Linkin Park), Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park Tim O'Reilly, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media Software as a Service (SaaS), Software As a Service, Software As a Service software cycles, fixed release, Building a Strategic Plan, Building a Strategic Plan Somerville, Cody, Baking in Openness Sorkin, Aaron, Inspiring your community source control, Source Control, Source Control Southern California Linux Expo (SCALE), Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo Spafford, James, The Second Edition, James Spafford, Media Molecule, James Spafford, Media Molecule spam, Getting It Right by Not Getting It Wrong, Getting It Right by Not Getting It Wrong speaking at events, The Art of Community (see presentations at events) Spencer, Rick, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts sponsored communities, The Case for Governance, Commercial sponsorship, Commercial sponsorship, Barriers to Input, Barriers to Input and governance, The Case for Governance conflict within, Barriers to Input, Barriers to Input councils of, Commercial sponsorship, Commercial sponsorship sponsors, Understanding Your Needs, Understanding Your Needs, Finding and Handling Sponsors, Finding and Handling Sponsors, Setting expectations, Setting expectations, The pitch, The pitch, Handling the Money, Handling the Money, Scheduling, Scheduling determining, Finding and Handling Sponsors, Finding and Handling Sponsors examining needs before approaching, Understanding Your Needs, Understanding Your Needs giving back to, Setting expectations, Setting expectations managing money from, Handling the Money, Handling the Money of Ubuntu Developer Summit, Scheduling, Scheduling pitching to, The pitch, The pitch Spread Firefox campaign, Attracting Contributors, Attracting Contributors, Mary Colvig, Mozilla, Mary Colvig, Mozilla Spreadshirt, Selling sprints, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing a Sprint, Additional notes Stallman, Richard, Dictatorial Charismatic Leadership stories, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, Attracting Contributors, Attracting Contributors, Delivering Presentations as mechanism behind communication, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication as viral marketing assets, Attracting Contributors, Attracting Contributors building social capital through, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication in presentations, Delivering Presentations strategic planning, The Art of Community, Planning Your Community, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Building a Mission Statement, Building a Mission Statement, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Brainstorming Ideas, Technique 3: Let’s make it suck, Pulling Together the Threads, Financially Supporting Your Community, Documenting Your Strategy, Documenting Your Strategy, Financially Supporting Your Community, Financially Supporting Your Community, Revenue Opportunities, Sponsorship, Strategy, Strategy (see also teams) brainstorming, Brainstorming Ideas, Technique 3: Let’s make it suck building positive environment, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View contribute growth, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View difference from business strategic planning, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan documenting, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Building a Mission Statement, Building a Mission Statement, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Pulling Together the Threads, Financially Supporting Your Community, Documenting Your Strategy, Documenting Your Strategy defining objectives, Structuring the plan, Pulling Together the Threads, Financially Supporting Your Community ingredients of, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community mission statement, Designing Your Community, Building a Mission Statement, Building a Mission Statement structure of documentation, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan transparency/openess when, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness finances, Financially Supporting Your Community, Financially Supporting Your Community, Revenue Opportunities, Sponsorship required resources, Financially Supporting Your Community, Financially Supporting Your Community revenue opportunities, Revenue Opportunities, Sponsorship for openess/transparency, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness need for, Planning Your Community of company, conveying to community managers, Strategy, Strategy streaming, live, Videos, Videos stress, The Art of Community (see burnout) subcouncils, Responsibilities success criteria, in strategic plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan summits, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing a Summit, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes surface-level diversity, Diversity, Diversity surveys, Gathering feedback, Gathering Structured Feedback, Gathering Structured Feedback, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Choosing questions, Choosing questions, Showing off your survey reports, Showing off your survey reports, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns choosing questions for, Choosing questions, Choosing questions for finding causes of bottlenecks, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes for gathering feedback, Gathering feedback, Gathering Structured Feedback, Gathering Structured Feedback for learning about community concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns purpose of, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Surveys and Structured Feedback reports from, Showing off your survey reports, Showing off your survey reports Sweet, Adam, Finding Your Place, Finding Your Place syndication of content, Syndication, Syndication T T-shirts, for events, Assets, Assets tales, The Basis of Communication tasks, communication between teams about, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively teams, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Units of Belonging, Units of Belonging, Units of Belonging, Write-centered communities, Write-centered communities, Diversity, Diversity, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals, Setting Up a Community Council, Setting Up a Community Council, Responsibilities and Community Council, Responsibilities as units of belonging, Units of Belonging, Units of Belonging building, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View collaboration between, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams communication between, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively diversity within, Diversity, Diversity dividing community into, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams leaders of, tracking community health through, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals mission statement for, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope of Ubuntu community, Write-centered communities, Write-centered communities scope of, Units of Belonging, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope vs. councils, Setting Up a Community Council, Setting Up a Community Council Technical Board, of Ubuntu community, Technical Board, Technical Board Technorati, The Amateur Press testing usability, Observational Tests, Observational Tests, Observational Tests Texas Linux Fest, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo The Art of Community, community of, Social Media, Social Media The West Wing (TV program), Inspiring your community, Inspiring your community theory versus action, Theory Versus Action: Action Wins, Theory Versus Action: Action Wins Thorp, Ben (mrben), The Essence of Community, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication threats on community, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity effect on sense of belonging, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication LugRadio response to rail strike, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity time zones, and online events, Date/time, Date/time tone, of writing, Avoiding bikeshedding, Setting tone tools, Building Great Infrastructure, Building Great Infrastructure, Software As a Service, Software As a Service, Avoiding Resource Fetishism, Avoiding Resource Fetishism, Tool Access, Tool Access, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Controlling the Fire Hose, Controlling the Fire Hose access to, Tool Access, Tool Access and workflow, Building Great Infrastructure, Building Great Infrastructure debates over, Avoiding Resource Fetishism, Avoiding Resource Fetishism for managing social media, Controlling the Fire Hose, Controlling the Fire Hose social media as tool, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl Software as a Service (SaaS), Software As a Service, Software As a Service top posting, Netiquette, Netiquette Torvalds, Linus, Dictatorial Charismatic Leadership, Linus Torvalds, Linux, Linus Torvalds, Linux Trac (software), Building Great Infrastructure tracking, The Art of Community, Bug Tracking, Bug triage, Bug reporting, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics, Credibility and the Need to Track Progress, Credibility and the Need to Track Progress, The Importance of Tracking Our Work, The Importance of Tracking Our Work, Tracking the Right Things, Tracking the Right Things, Within the Context of a Company, Communicating up and down, Tracking Growth and Decline, Using burndown charts, Tracking Growth and Decline, Tracking Growth and Decline, Visibility Is Key, Visibility Is Key, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes, Tracking Health, Tracking Health, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns (see also projects, tracking) bugs, Bug Tracking, Bug triage, Bug reporting, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics determining what to track, Tracking the Right Things, Tracking the Right Things effect on building credibility, Credibility and the Need to Track Progress, Credibility and the Need to Track Progress growth and decline, Tracking Growth and Decline, Using burndown charts, Tracking Growth and Decline, Tracking Growth and Decline, Visibility Is Key, Visibility Is Key, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes areas of, Tracking Growth and Decline, Tracking Growth and Decline data visibility, Visibility Is Key, Visibility Is Key finding causes of, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes overview, Tracking Growth and Decline, Using burndown charts health of community, Tracking Health, Tracking Health, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns by calls to team leaders, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals overview, Tracking Health, Tracking Health promoting feedback culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture responding to concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns importance of, The Importance of Tracking Our Work, The Importance of Tracking Our Work within a company, Within the Context of a Company, Communicating up and down transparency, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Striving for Clarity, Striving for Clarity, Transparency, Transparency, Bug Tracking, Bug Tracking, Building and Maintaining Transparency, Building and Maintaining Transparency, Communications, Communications, Perception of you, Perception of you, Dictatorial Charismatic Leadership and dictatorial communities, Dictatorial Charismatic Leadership in bug tracking, Bug Tracking, Bug Tracking in communication, Striving for Clarity, Striving for Clarity, Communications, Communications in personal feedback, Perception of you, Perception of you in processes, Transparency, Transparency in strategic plan, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness in workflow, Building and Maintaining Transparency, Building and Maintaining Transparency trend line, Using burndown charts trending topics, Getting more eyeballs triaging, Bug triage, Bug triage, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics Troy, Ryan, Codifying Your Council trust, Trust Is Everything, Trust Is Everything tutorials, online, Organizing Online Events, Organizing Online Tutorials, Event-specific notes Twitter, Reporting, Reporting, Being Social, Being Social, Twitter, Twitter, Getting started with Twitter, Getting started with Twitter, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages, Tuning up your messages, Tuning up your messages, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, The buildup, At the event, At the event, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media broadcasting with, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages, The buildup, At the event, At the event, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media about events, The buildup, At the event, At the event mindcasting, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media getting feedback using, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look getting started with, Getting started with Twitter, Getting started with Twitter history of, Twitter, Twitter overview of, Being Social, Being Social reporting with, Reporting, Reporting searching tweets, Where to look, Where to look use by Tim O'Reilly, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media writing messages, Tuning up your messages, Tuning up your messages U Ubuntu Code of Conduct, Diversity, Diversity Ubuntu community, Write-centered communities, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams, Striving for Clarity, Inspiring your community, Leading by example: Ubuntu, Leading by example: Ubuntu, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge, Process Reassessment, Process Reassessment, An Example: Ubuntu Bug Workflow, Lessons learned, Feedback, Feedback, Providing Community Updates, Providing Community Updates, Videos, Videos, Hooks ’n’ Data, Hooks ’n’ Data, Plugging your stats into graphs, Visibility Is Key, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes, In the Beginning..., In the Beginning..., Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Shuttleworth, Community Council, Community Council, Technical Board, Technical Board, Team councils, Team councils, Membership, Membership, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Developer, Developer, Council or Board Member, Council or Board Member, Escalation, Escalation bug workflow example, An Example: Ubuntu Bug Workflow, Lessons learned bug-squashing parties, Plugging your stats into graphs contributor access to repositories, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Reviewing new developers: In depth developer mentoring campaign, Visibility Is Key history of, In the Beginning..., In the Beginning...

., Building Belonging into the Social Economy hashtags, Getting more eyeballs, Where to look, Asking for feedback, The buildup, At the event Hawthorn, Leslie, Step 4: Make Time, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes health of community, tracking, Tracking Health, Tracking Health, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns by calls to team leaders, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals overview, Tracking Health, Tracking Health promoting feedback culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture responding to concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns hiring community manager, Risk, Risk Holbach, Daniel, Planning, Hooks ’n’ Data, Visibility Is Key, Visibility Is Key hooks and data, Hooks ’n’ Data, Hooks ’n’ Data, Statistics and Automated Data, Plugging your stats into graphs, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Showing off your survey reports, Observational Tests, Observational Tests, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics, Gathering General Perceptions, Perception of you, Part 2: Get the facts, Part 2: Get the facts gathering general perceptions, Gathering General Perceptions, Perception of you in conflict resolution, Part 2: Get the facts, Part 2: Get the facts measuring mechanics, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics observational tests, Observational Tests, Observational Tests overview, Hooks ’n’ Data, Hooks ’n’ Data statistics and automated data, Statistics and Automated Data, Plugging your stats into graphs surveys, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Showing off your survey reports hotels, for event accommodation, Accommodation, Accommodation Hudson, Paul, The Professional Press, The Professional Press Humble Indie Bundle, Richard Esguerra, Humble Indie Bundle, Richard Esguerra, Humble Indie Bundle humor, Setting tone Hybrid Theory (album), Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park I identi.ca, Reporting, Reporting, Getting started with Facebook reporting with, Reporting, Reporting users of, Getting started with Facebook implementation plan, Structuring the plan incentives, for donations, Donations Innovate Developer Conference, Carolyn Mellor, X.commerce, PayPal, and eBay inspiring others, Inspiring your community, Inspiring your community, Inspired Words, Inspired Words, Aspire to Inspire, Aspire to Inspire as goal of governing body, Aspire to Inspire, Aspire to Inspire through writing, Inspiring your community, Inspiring your community, Inspired Words, Inspired Words insurance, for physical events, Insurance/unions, Insurance/unions Internet Relay Chat, The Art of Community (see IRC) interviews, building buzz with, Attracting Contributors IRC (Internet Relay Chat), IRC, IRC, Communications, Observational Tests, Privacy, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), Preparing for a session, Running a session features and benefits of, IRC, IRC logging, Communications privacy issues, Privacy usability testing over, Observational Tests use with online events, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), Preparing for a session, Running a session issues, communication between teams about, The Art of Community, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively (see also conflict) J Johnson & Johnson conflict resolution approach, Part 1: Calm and reassure, The fantastical user group debacle, Part 2: Get the facts, The fantastical user group debacle, Part 3: Discuss, The fantastical user group debacle, Part 4: Document, The fantastical user group debacle, Part 5: Reflect and maintain, The fantastical user group debacle calm and reassure, Part 1: Calm and reassure, The fantastical user group debacle discuss, Part 3: Discuss, The fantastical user group debacle document, Part 4: Document, The fantastical user group debacle get the facts, Part 2: Get the facts, The fantastical user group debacle reflect and maintain, Part 5: Reflect and maintain, The fantastical user group debacle Jokosher project, Planning Your Community, Planning Your Community, Communication fetishism, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Bug reporting, Regular Workflow Assessment, Regular Workflow Assessment bug tracking, Bug reporting communication channels used for, Communication fetishism contributions of Laszlo Pandy, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Reviewing new developers: In depth workflow assessment during, Regular Workflow Assessment, Regular Workflow Assessment justice, lack of, Lack of Justice, Lack of Justice K KDE project, Enlightened Dictatorship, Enlightened Dictatorship, Creating and Running Events, Creating and Running Events keynotes, at events, Opening keynotes, Opening keynotes KGRUBEditor, Observational Tests KHTML technology, Enlightened Dictatorship, Enlightened Dictatorship KickStarter, Donations Kiss, Tom, James Spafford, Media Molecule L Langridge, Stuart (Aq), Planning Your Community Laporte, Leo, Foreword from the First Edition Launchpad (software collaboration platform), An Example: Ubuntu Bug Workflow, Getting to know the problem, Hooks ’n’ Data, Hooks ’n’ Data leadership, The Art of Community, The Art of Community (see community managers) (see governance) Lessig, Lawrence, Untwisting the tail, Announcing Your Community licensing, Untwisting the tail, Untwisting the tail, Videos, Mike Linksvayer, Creative Commons, Mike Linksvayer, Creative Commons Liebling, Alison, Gathering General Perceptions lightning talks, Lightning talks, Lightning talks Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park Linksvayer, Mike, Mike Linksvayer, Creative Commons, Mike Linksvayer, Creative Commons Linspire (formerly Lindows), Blog wars, Blog wars Linux community, The Art of Community, The Art of Community, Write-centered communities, Diversity, Diversity, Linus Torvalds, Linux, Linus Torvalds, Linux (see also Ubuntu community) (see also Xubuntu community) Linux Demo Day, Building Buzz, Building Buzz Linux Format magazine, The Professional Press, The Professional Press listening to others, The Value of Listening, The Value of Listening, Membership, Barriers to Input, Barriers to Input LittleBigPlanet community, James Spafford, Media Molecule, James Spafford, Media Molecule live streaming, Videos, Videos LoCo (Ubuntu Local Community), Observational Tests, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals, Responsibilities, Team councils, Team councils LUGFests, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo LugRadio community, The Essence of Community, The Essence of Community, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Becoming Yourself, Becoming Yourself, Communication fetishism, Communication fetishism, Discussion forums, Podcasts, Podcasts, Location/venue, Cost, Setting expectations, Setting expectations belief in, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity effect of unedited productions, Becoming Yourself, Becoming Yourself events of, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Location/venue, Cost forums of, Communication fetishism, Communication fetishism, Discussion forums origin of, The Essence of Community, The Essence of Community podcast, Podcasts, Podcasts response to rail strike, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity sponsorship of, Setting expectations, Setting expectations stories in, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication M MacQueue bulletion board, Foreword from the First Edition Macromedia Flash plug-in, Videos mailing lists, The Mediums, Mailing lists, Mailing lists, Netiquette, Netiquette, Gathering feedback, Gathering feedback, Privacy, Communicating Between Councils effect on how people behave, The Mediums for communication between councils, Communicating Between Councils for gathering feedback, Gathering feedback, Gathering feedback overview of, Mailing lists, Mailing lists privacy concerns, Privacy top posting to, Netiquette, Netiquette Major, John, Uniting Together managers, The Art of Community, The Art of Community (see community managers) (see governance) marketing, The Art of Community (see buzz, creating) maturing of members, Profiling the polemical, Profiling the polemical McMillan, John, Building Belonging into the Social Economy measuring community, Measuring Community, Community Self-Reflection, The Foundations of Feedback, The Foundations of Feedback, Defining Purpose, Defining Purpose, Hooks ’n’ Data, Hooks ’n’ Data, Statistics and Automated Data, Plugging your stats into graphs, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Showing off your survey reports, Observational Tests, Observational Tests, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics, Gathering General Perceptions, Perception of you, Anonymity, Anonymity, Privacy, Privacy anonymity and, Anonymity, Anonymity establishing goals of, Defining Purpose, Defining Purpose meaning in measurements, The Foundations of Feedback, The Foundations of Feedback overview of, Measuring Community, Community Self-Reflection privacy issues, Privacy, Privacy use of hooks and data, Hooks ’n’ Data, Hooks ’n’ Data, Statistics and Automated Data, Plugging your stats into graphs, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Showing off your survey reports, Observational Tests, Observational Tests, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics, Gathering General Perceptions, Perception of you gathering general perceptions, Gathering General Perceptions, Perception of you measuring mechanics, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics observational tests, Observational Tests, Observational Tests overview, Hooks ’n’ Data, Hooks ’n’ Data statistics and automated data, Statistics and Automated Data, Plugging your stats into graphs surveys, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Showing off your survey reports Measuring the Quality of Prison Life study, Gathering General Perceptions mechanics of collaboration, The Mechanics of Collaboration, The Mechanics of Collaboration, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics Media Molecule, James Spafford, Media Molecule, James Spafford, Media Molecule mediator, of conflict resolution, The Role of a Facilitator, Be clear meetings, The Art of Community, Attracting Contributors, Step 2: Find Help, Step 2: Find Help, Online Discussion Meetings, Running the meeting, Management and Communications, Weekly engagements (see also events) between company and community manager, Management and Communications, Weekly engagements building buzz with, Attracting Contributors for organizing events, Step 2: Find Help, Step 2: Find Help online discussion meetings, Online Discussion Meetings, Running the meeting Mellor, Carolyn, Carolyn Mellor, X.commerce, PayPal, and eBay, Carolyn Mellor, X.commerce, PayPal, and eBay members, The Art of Community, Responsibilities, Membership, Nominating and Electing Council Members, Forming a new council (see also contributers) approval of, Responsibilities of Community Council, Membership, Nominating and Electing Council Members, Forming a new council meritocracy, Meritocracy, Meritocracy, Enlightened Dictatorship Messina, Chris, Attracting Contributors, Organizing an Unconference, Organizing an Unconference, Organizing an Unconference, Organizing an Unconference Mickos, Mårten, The Role of a Community Manager in the Corporation, Mårten Mickos, MySQL and Eucalyptus, Mårten Mickos, MySQL and Eucalyptus microphones, at events, Room Layout mindcasting, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media mindshare, Mindshare, The Mindshare Opportunity, Defining Purpose, Gathering General Perceptions mission statement, Designing Your Community, Building a Mission Statement, Building a Mission Statement, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, The Mission, The Mission and buzz, The Mission, The Mission for each team, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope overview of, Designing Your Community writing, Building a Mission Statement, Building a Mission Statement money from sponsors, The Art of Community, The Art of Community, Handling the Money, Handling the Money (see also costs) (see also finances) Mozilla, Attracting Contributors, Attracting Contributors, Mary Colvig, Mozilla, Mary Colvig, Mozilla mrben (Ben Thorp), The Essence of Community, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication multimedia, use when announcing community, Announcing Your Community music industry, and community, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park N negative energy, Honesty, Honesty netiquette, Netiquette, Netiquette news, on website, Staying Current, Staying Current Nielsen, Jakob, Announce, Announce Nielsen, Michael, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media nominating council members, Nominating and Electing Council Members, Forming a new council North, Gail, Dealing with Burnout notetakers, at summits, Inside a session O O'Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media O'Reilly's Radar site, Staying Current O'Reilly, Tim, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Staying Current, Privacy, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media Obama, Barack, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Aspire to Inspire, Aspire to Inspire as inspirational orator, Aspire to Inspire, Aspire to Inspire election of, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity objectives, in strategic plan, Structuring the plan, Pulling Together the Threads, Financially Supporting Your Community objectivity, in conflict resolution, Be objective, Be objective, Be objective Ogg Theora, Videos Oliver, Jamie, The Mindshare Opportunity, The Mindshare Opportunity On Writing Well (Zinsser), Don’t write like an institution on-ramp, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, Identifying the On-Ramp, Identifying the On-Ramp, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge, Determining Contributions, Determining Contributions, Growing Kudos, Growing Kudos defined, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes determining contributions, Determining Contributions, Determining Contributions identifying, Identifying the On-Ramp, Identifying the On-Ramp showing appreciation, Growing Kudos, Growing Kudos skills acquisition, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge steps in, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes one-on-one discussion, for gathering feedback, Gathering feedback, Gathering feedback online events, Organizing Online Events, Organizing Online Events, Organizing Online Events, Medium, Virtual worlds, Date/time, Date/time, Online Discussion Meetings, Running the meeting, Organizing Online Tutorials, Event-specific notes date and time of, Date/time, Date/time discussion meetings, Online Discussion Meetings, Running the meeting medium for hosting, Medium, Virtual worlds overview of, Organizing Online Events, Organizing Online Events tutorials, Organizing Online Events, Organizing Online Tutorials, Event-specific notes open days, building buzz with, Attracting Contributors Open Source Conference (OSCON), Long versus short presentations, Long versus short presentations open source development, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Planning Your Community, Planning Your Community, Building a Strategic Plan, Building a Strategic Plan, Tool Access, Tool Access, Observational Tests, Observational Tests, Observational Tests, Why Community Building Has Become a Big Business, Why Community Building Has Become a Big Business, Linus Torvalds, Linux, Linus Torvalds, Linux access to tools, Tool Access, Tool Access and community, Why Community Building Has Become a Big Business, Why Community Building Has Become a Big Business differing motives for contributing to, Linus Torvalds, Linux, Linus Torvalds, Linux fixed release cycles, Building a Strategic Plan, Building a Strategic Plan in business, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy Jokosher audio editor example, Planning Your Community, Planning Your Community usability testing, Observational Tests, Observational Tests, Observational Tests OpenAdvantage, Becoming the Advocate, Becoming the Advocate openess, The Art of Community (see also transparency) openness, Barriers to Input, Be open, Be open OpenSuSE Board, Commercial sponsorship opportunities, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community and early days of Linux, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity and Obama election, Unwrapping Opportunity documenting, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community Oram, Andy, Preface, Simplicity is key Organizational Vision, Values and Mission (Scott), Building a Mission Statement OSCON (Open Source Conference), Long versus short presentations, Long versus short presentations outside the box thinking, Technique 2: Think outside the box, Technique 2: Think outside the box owner of goals, Structuring the plan P Packard, Keith, Transparency Pages, in Google+, Getting started with Google+ Pandy, Laszlo, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Reviewing new developers: In depth patience, The Value of Listening patterns, in burndown charts, Observing burndown patterns, Observing burndown patterns Paul, Celeste Lyn, Observational Tests, Observational Tests PayPal, Donations, Carolyn Mellor, X.commerce, PayPal, and eBay, Carolyn Mellor, X.commerce, PayPal, and eBay, Carolyn Mellor, X.commerce, PayPal, and eBay peer review, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Reviewing new developers: In depth performance reviews, Technique 1: Question assumptions personality issues, The Art of Community, Profiling the polemical, Profiling the polemical, Profiling the polemical, Profiling the polemical, Sharing feedback about personality issues, Sharing feedback about personality issues, Poisonous people, Poisonous people (see also conflict) attributes causing conflict, Profiling the polemical, Profiling the polemical maturity, Profiling the polemical, Profiling the polemical poisonous people, Poisonous people, Poisonous people sharing feedback about, Sharing feedback about personality issues, Sharing feedback about personality issues Persse, James, Building Great Processes phone calls, privacy during, Privacy physical events, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing Physical Events, Location/venue, Location/venue, Location/venue, Location/venue, Accommodation, Accommodation, Equipment, Equipment, Date/time, Date/time, Cost, Cost, Registering attendance, Registering attendance, Catering, Catering, Insurance/unions, Insurance/unions, Insurance/unions, Insurance/unions, Organizing a Sprint, Additional notes, Additional notes, Additional notes, Additional notes, Additional notes, Additional notes, Organizing a Summit, Inside a session, Inside a session, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Organizing an Unconference, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes accommodations for, Accommodation, Accommodation catering for, Catering, Catering, Additional notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes conferences, Organizing Physical Events cost of, Cost, Cost, Additional notes, Event-specific notes date and time for, Date/time, Date/time, Additional notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes equipment at, Equipment, Equipment, Additional notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes insurance needs, Insurance/unions, Insurance/unions location of, Location/venue, Location/venue registering attendance, Registering attendance, Registering attendance, Additional notes, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes remote participation in, Inside a session, Inside a session sprints, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing a Sprint, Additional notes summits, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing a Summit, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes types of, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing Physical Events unconferences, Organizing an Unconference, Event-specific notes union requirements, Insurance/unions, Insurance/unions venue, Location/venue, Location/venue piracy, Foreword, Foreword planets, Syndication planning phase, of buzz cycle, Planning, Planning, Planning, Applying the buzz cycle, Applying the buzz cycle plenaries, at events, Plenaries, Plenaries podcasts, Podcasts, Podcasts politics, creating buzz compared to, Uniting Together, Uniting Together Pope, Alan, Social Media, Social Media positiveness, in conflict resolution, Be positive, Be positive postmortems, Review, Review presentations at events, Submitting your paper, Submitting your paper, Promoting your talk, Promoting your talk, Delivering Presentations, Long versus short presentations, Creating attractive slides, Long versus short presentations, Long versus short presentations, Long versus short presentations, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo attracting presenters, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo delivering, Delivering Presentations, Long versus short presentations long vs. short, Long versus short presentations, Long versus short presentations promoting, Promoting your talk, Promoting your talk slides in, Creating attractive slides, Long versus short presentations submitting proposal for, Submitting your paper, Submitting your paper press, as target of buzz campaign, The Professional Press, The Professional Press, The Amateur Press, The Amateur Press amateur, The Amateur Press, The Amateur Press professional, The Professional Press, The Professional Press pride, Avoid Ego, or Others Will Avoid You, Avoid Ego, or Others Will Avoid You privacy, Privacy, Privacy, Privacy, Part 2: Get the facts, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media balancing with visibility, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media during conflict resolution, Part 2: Get the facts during phone calls, Privacy when gathering feedback, Privacy, Privacy Process Improvement Essentials (Persse), Building Great Processes processes, Building Great Processes, Building Great Processes, Breaking Up the Puzzle, Building a process, Building a process, Simplicity is key, Simplicity is key, Avoiding bureaucracy, Avoiding bureaucracy, Transparency, Transparency, Assessing Needs, Assessing Needs, Community Cycles, Leading by example: Ubuntu, The Gates of Your Community, The Gates of Your Community, Assessing Contributors, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Managing Feedback, Gathering feedback, Document Them, Make Them Easy to Find, Make Them Easy to Find, Make Them Easy to Find, Make Them Easy to Find, Using Your Processes, Using Your Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, Growing Kudos, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, Identifying the On-Ramp, Identifying the On-Ramp, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge, Determining Contributions, Determining Contributions, Growing Kudos, Growing Kudos, Process Reassessment, Building Regularity, Responsibilities and community cycles, Community Cycles, Leading by example: Ubuntu announcing, Make Them Easy to Find, Make Them Easy to Find avoiding bureaucracy, Avoiding bureaucracy, Avoiding bureaucracy building, Building a process, Building a process categories of, Assessing Needs, Assessing Needs changes in, Responsibilities documentation of, Document Them, Make Them Easy to Find, Make Them Easy to Find encouraging use of, Using Your Processes, Using Your Processes for assessing contributors, Assessing Contributors, Reviewing new developers: In depth for attracting contributors, The Gates of Your Community, The Gates of Your Community for managing feedback, Managing Feedback, Gathering feedback good vs. bad, Building Great Processes, Building Great Processes in getting participation (the on-ramp), The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, Growing Kudos, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, Identifying the On-Ramp, Identifying the On-Ramp, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge, Determining Contributions, Determining Contributions, Growing Kudos, Growing Kudos defined, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes determining contributions, Determining Contributions, Determining Contributions identifying, Identifying the On-Ramp, Identifying the On-Ramp showing appreciation, Growing Kudos, Growing Kudos skills acquisition, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge steps in, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes, The On-Ramp: Creating Collaborative Processes reassessing, Process Reassessment, Building Regularity simplicity as foundation of, Breaking Up the Puzzle, Simplicity is key, Simplicity is key transparency in, Transparency, Transparency product recalls, Building Great Processes, Building Great Processes professional press, as target of buzz campaign, The Professional Press, The Professional Press Project level, of projects, Tracking Projects projectors, using at events, The Ethos of the UDS, Room Layout, Room Layout, Room Layout projects, tracking, Tracking Projects, Tracking Projects, Structuring Your Projects, Structuring Your Projects, Managing Work Items, Documenting work items, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts, Using burndown charts, Using burndown charts, Using burndown charts, Generating additional information, Using burndown charts, Using burndown charts, Observing burndown patterns, Observing burndown patterns, Building burndown charts into your workflow, Building burndown charts into your workflow managing work items, Managing Work Items, Documenting work items providing different levels of visibility, Tracking Projects, Tracking Projects using blueprints, Structuring Your Projects, Structuring Your Projects using burndown charts, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts, Using burndown charts, Using burndown charts, Using burndown charts, Generating additional information, Using burndown charts, Using burndown charts, Observing burndown patterns, Observing burndown patterns, Building burndown charts into your workflow, Building burndown charts into your workflow benefits of, Using burndown charts, Using burndown charts building into workflow, Building burndown charts into your workflow, Building burndown charts into your workflow generating charts, Using burndown charts, Generating additional information overview, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts patterns in charts, Observing burndown patterns, Observing burndown patterns reading charts, Using burndown charts, Using burndown charts Putnam, Robert, Building Belonging into the Social Economy Q quantity vs. quality, The risks of interpretation R Rabinovitch, Ilan, Location/venue, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo Raymond, Eric, Bug Tracking read-mostly communities, Read-mostly communities, Read-mostly communities Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds, Syndication, Syndication recordMyDesktop, Videos Regional Membership Boards, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member Reinventing Discovery (Nielsen), Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media Reinventing the Bazaar (McMillan), Building Belonging into the Social Economy release cycles, Ubuntu community, Leading by example: Ubuntu, Leading by example: Ubuntu release parties, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing Online Events defined, Organizing Physical Events online, Organizing Online Events remote participation, in Ubuntu Developer Summit, Infrastructure, Infrastructure, Room Layout reporting, Bug reporting, Bug reporting, Reporting, Reporting, Reporting, Reporting, Showing off your survey reports, Showing off your survey reports, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics bugs, Bug reporting, Bug reporting, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics examples of, Reporting, Reporting making easy, Reporting, Reporting survey data, Showing off your survey reports, Showing off your survey reports reputation of community manager, Internal reputation, Community reputation resources, and governance, The Case for Governance respect for others, in Ubuntu Code of Conduct, Diversity responsibility, problems with, Problems with Responsibility, Problems with Responsibility revenue opportunities, Revenue Opportunities, Donations ReverbNation, The preparation review phase, of buzz cycle, Review, Review, Applying the buzz cycle, Applying the buzz cycle roles, Roles, Roles room layout, at events, Room Layout, Room Layout Ross, Blake, Attracting Contributors, Mary Colvig, Mozilla routine, breaking, Events, Events, Events RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds, Syndication, Syndication S SaaS (Software as a Service), Software As a Service, Software As a Service Safari® Books Online, Safari® Books Online salary of community manager, Salary, Salary Saxena, Deepak, Building Buzz, Building Buzz SCALE (Southern California Linux Expo), Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo Schaller, Christian, The Structure of Strife, The Structure of Strife scope of teams, Units of Belonging, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope Scott, Cynthia D., Building a Mission Statement screen-scraping, Plugging your stats into graphs Screencast-O-Matic, Videos search engine optimization (SEO), Syndication, Syndication Second Life, Virtual worlds, Virtual worlds selling items, to generate revenue, Selling, Selling SEO (search engine optimization), Syndication, Syndication seriousness, Setting tone sessions, at events, Sessions, Sessions Severed Fifth project, Donations, Donations Sheen, Martin, Inspiring your community Shigeru Miyamoto, Technique 2: Think outside the box Shinoda, Mike, A Community Manager: Becoming the Community, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park Shuttleworth, Mark, Hooks ’n’ Data, Commercial sponsorship, In the Beginning..., In the Beginning..., Scheduling signs, using at events, Assets simplicity as foundation of processes, Breaking Up the Puzzle, Simplicity is key, Simplicity is key size of community, The Case for Governance skills, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge, Knowing When It Is Time acquisition of, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge and formation of additional councils, Knowing When It Is Time mapping to teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams required, documenting, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community Skype, Voice over IP (VoIP), Voice over IP (VoIP) slides in presentations, Creating attractive slides, Long versus short presentations Smanis, Konstantinos, Observational Tests social capital, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication building through storytelling, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication defined, Building Belonging into the Social Economy social economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication building belonging into, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy communication in, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication comparison with financial economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy social media, The Art of Community, The Art of Community, The Art of Community, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Being Social, Being Social, Being Social, Being Social, Being Social, Harnessing Social Media, Broadcasting, Broadcasting, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages, Avoiding social media overkill, Avoiding social media overkill, Feedback, Feedback, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, Debates, Debates, Asking for feedback, Asking for feedback, Collaboration, Collaboration, Campaigns and awareness, Events, Events, Controlling the Fire Hose, Controlling the Fire Hose, Optimizing How You Post, Optimizing How You Post, Being Socially Responsible, Being Socially Responsible, Organizing a Community Event, At the event, Running a Campaign, The buildup, Providing Community Updates, Providing Community Updates, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media (see also Facebook) (see also Google+) (see also Twitter) broadcasting with, Being Social, Broadcasting, Broadcasting, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages, Avoiding social media overkill, Avoiding social media overkill balanced use of, Avoiding social media overkill, Avoiding social media overkill content of broadcasts, Broadcasting, Broadcasting overview, Being Social using Twitter, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages collaboration using, Being Social, Collaboration, Collaboration, Campaigns and awareness, Events, Events, Running a Campaign, The buildup coordinating events, Events, Events for campaigns and awareness, Campaigns and awareness, Running a Campaign, The buildup overview of, Being Social party-planning example, Collaboration, Collaboration controlling time using, Harnessing Social Media, Controlling the Fire Hose, Controlling the Fire Hose getting feedback using, Being Social, Feedback, Feedback, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, Debates, Debates, Asking for feedback, Asking for feedback by asking for, Asking for feedback, Asking for feedback overview, Being Social Ubuntu 11.04 release example, Feedback, Feedback using Twitter, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look via debates, Debates, Debates most common networks, Being Social, Being Social optimizing posts to, Optimizing How You Post, Optimizing How You Post organizing community event using, Organizing a Community Event, At the event providing community updates with, Providing Community Updates, Providing Community Updates realistic expectations of, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl responsible use of, Being Socially Responsible, Being Socially Responsible use by community leaders, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media Mike Shinoda (Linkin Park), Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park Tim O'Reilly, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media Software as a Service (SaaS), Software As a Service, Software As a Service software cycles, fixed release, Building a Strategic Plan, Building a Strategic Plan Somerville, Cody, Baking in Openness Sorkin, Aaron, Inspiring your community source control, Source Control, Source Control Southern California Linux Expo (SCALE), Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo Spafford, James, The Second Edition, James Spafford, Media Molecule, James Spafford, Media Molecule spam, Getting It Right by Not Getting It Wrong, Getting It Right by Not Getting It Wrong speaking at events, The Art of Community (see presentations at events) Spencer, Rick, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts sponsored communities, The Case for Governance, Commercial sponsorship, Commercial sponsorship, Barriers to Input, Barriers to Input and governance, The Case for Governance conflict within, Barriers to Input, Barriers to Input councils of, Commercial sponsorship, Commercial sponsorship sponsors, Understanding Your Needs, Understanding Your Needs, Finding and Handling Sponsors, Finding and Handling Sponsors, Setting expectations, Setting expectations, The pitch, The pitch, Handling the Money, Handling the Money, Scheduling, Scheduling determining, Finding and Handling Sponsors, Finding and Handling Sponsors examining needs before approaching, Understanding Your Needs, Understanding Your Needs giving back to, Setting expectations, Setting expectations managing money from, Handling the Money, Handling the Money of Ubuntu Developer Summit, Scheduling, Scheduling pitching to, The pitch, The pitch Spread Firefox campaign, Attracting Contributors, Attracting Contributors, Mary Colvig, Mozilla, Mary Colvig, Mozilla Spreadshirt, Selling sprints, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing a Sprint, Additional notes Stallman, Richard, Dictatorial Charismatic Leadership stories, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, Attracting Contributors, Attracting Contributors, Delivering Presentations as mechanism behind communication, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication as viral marketing assets, Attracting Contributors, Attracting Contributors building social capital through, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication in presentations, Delivering Presentations strategic planning, The Art of Community, Planning Your Community, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Building a Mission Statement, Building a Mission Statement, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Brainstorming Ideas, Technique 3: Let’s make it suck, Pulling Together the Threads, Financially Supporting Your Community, Documenting Your Strategy, Documenting Your Strategy, Financially Supporting Your Community, Financially Supporting Your Community, Revenue Opportunities, Sponsorship, Strategy, Strategy (see also teams) brainstorming, Brainstorming Ideas, Technique 3: Let’s make it suck building positive environment, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View contribute growth, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View difference from business strategic planning, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan documenting, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Building a Mission Statement, Building a Mission Statement, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Pulling Together the Threads, Financially Supporting Your Community, Documenting Your Strategy, Documenting Your Strategy defining objectives, Structuring the plan, Pulling Together the Threads, Financially Supporting Your Community ingredients of, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community mission statement, Designing Your Community, Building a Mission Statement, Building a Mission Statement structure of documentation, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan transparency/openess when, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness finances, Financially Supporting Your Community, Financially Supporting Your Community, Revenue Opportunities, Sponsorship required resources, Financially Supporting Your Community, Financially Supporting Your Community revenue opportunities, Revenue Opportunities, Sponsorship for openess/transparency, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness need for, Planning Your Community of company, conveying to community managers, Strategy, Strategy streaming, live, Videos, Videos stress, The Art of Community (see burnout) subcouncils, Responsibilities success criteria, in strategic plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan summits, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing a Summit, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes surface-level diversity, Diversity, Diversity surveys, Gathering feedback, Gathering Structured Feedback, Gathering Structured Feedback, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Choosing questions, Choosing questions, Showing off your survey reports, Showing off your survey reports, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns choosing questions for, Choosing questions, Choosing questions for finding causes of bottlenecks, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes for gathering feedback, Gathering feedback, Gathering Structured Feedback, Gathering Structured Feedback for learning about community concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns purpose of, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Surveys and Structured Feedback reports from, Showing off your survey reports, Showing off your survey reports Sweet, Adam, Finding Your Place, Finding Your Place syndication of content, Syndication, Syndication T T-shirts, for events, Assets, Assets tales, The Basis of Communication tasks, communication between teams about, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively teams, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Units of Belonging, Units of Belonging, Units of Belonging, Write-centered communities, Write-centered communities, Diversity, Diversity, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals, Setting Up a Community Council, Setting Up a Community Council, Responsibilities and Community Council, Responsibilities as units of belonging, Units of Belonging, Units of Belonging building, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View collaboration between, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams communication between, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively diversity within, Diversity, Diversity dividing community into, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams leaders of, tracking community health through, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals mission statement for, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope of Ubuntu community, Write-centered communities, Write-centered communities scope of, Units of Belonging, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope vs. councils, Setting Up a Community Council, Setting Up a Community Council Technical Board, of Ubuntu community, Technical Board, Technical Board Technorati, The Amateur Press testing usability, Observational Tests, Observational Tests, Observational Tests Texas Linux Fest, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo The Art of Community, community of, Social Media, Social Media The West Wing (TV program), Inspiring your community, Inspiring your community theory versus action, Theory Versus Action: Action Wins, Theory Versus Action: Action Wins Thorp, Ben (mrben), The Essence of Community, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication threats on community, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity effect on sense of belonging, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication LugRadio response to rail strike, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity time zones, and online events, Date/time, Date/time tone, of writing, Avoiding bikeshedding, Setting tone tools, Building Great Infrastructure, Building Great Infrastructure, Software As a Service, Software As a Service, Avoiding Resource Fetishism, Avoiding Resource Fetishism, Tool Access, Tool Access, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Controlling the Fire Hose, Controlling the Fire Hose access to, Tool Access, Tool Access and workflow, Building Great Infrastructure, Building Great Infrastructure debates over, Avoiding Resource Fetishism, Avoiding Resource Fetishism for managing social media, Controlling the Fire Hose, Controlling the Fire Hose social media as tool, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl Software as a Service (SaaS), Software As a Service, Software As a Service top posting, Netiquette, Netiquette Torvalds, Linus, Dictatorial Charismatic Leadership, Linus Torvalds, Linux, Linus Torvalds, Linux Trac (software), Building Great Infrastructure tracking, The Art of Community, Bug Tracking, Bug triage, Bug reporting, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics, Credibility and the Need to Track Progress, Credibility and the Need to Track Progress, The Importance of Tracking Our Work, The Importance of Tracking Our Work, Tracking the Right Things, Tracking the Right Things, Within the Context of a Company, Communicating up and down, Tracking Growth and Decline, Using burndown charts, Tracking Growth and Decline, Tracking Growth and Decline, Visibility Is Key, Visibility Is Key, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes, Tracking Health, Tracking Health, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns (see also projects, tracking) bugs, Bug Tracking, Bug triage, Bug reporting, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics determining what to track, Tracking the Right Things, Tracking the Right Things effect on building credibility, Credibility and the Need to Track Progress, Credibility and the Need to Track Progress growth and decline, Tracking Growth and Decline, Using burndown charts, Tracking Growth and Decline, Tracking Growth and Decline, Visibility Is Key, Visibility Is Key, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes areas of, Tracking Growth and Decline, Tracking Growth and Decline data visibility, Visibility Is Key, Visibility Is Key finding causes of, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes overview, Tracking Growth and Decline, Using burndown charts health of community, Tracking Health, Tracking Health, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns by calls to team leaders, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals overview, Tracking Health, Tracking Health promoting feedback culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture responding to concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns importance of, The Importance of Tracking Our Work, The Importance of Tracking Our Work within a company, Within the Context of a Company, Communicating up and down transparency, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Striving for Clarity, Striving for Clarity, Transparency, Transparency, Bug Tracking, Bug Tracking, Building and Maintaining Transparency, Building and Maintaining Transparency, Communications, Communications, Perception of you, Perception of you, Dictatorial Charismatic Leadership and dictatorial communities, Dictatorial Charismatic Leadership in bug tracking, Bug Tracking, Bug Tracking in communication, Striving for Clarity, Striving for Clarity, Communications, Communications in personal feedback, Perception of you, Perception of you in processes, Transparency, Transparency in strategic plan, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness in workflow, Building and Maintaining Transparency, Building and Maintaining Transparency trend line, Using burndown charts trending topics, Getting more eyeballs triaging, Bug triage, Bug triage, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics Troy, Ryan, Codifying Your Council trust, Trust Is Everything, Trust Is Everything tutorials, online, Organizing Online Events, Organizing Online Tutorials, Event-specific notes Twitter, Reporting, Reporting, Being Social, Being Social, Twitter, Twitter, Getting started with Twitter, Getting started with Twitter, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages, Tuning up your messages, Tuning up your messages, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, The buildup, At the event, At the event, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media broadcasting with, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages, The buildup, At the event, At the event, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media about events, The buildup, At the event, At the event mindcasting, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media getting feedback using, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look getting started with, Getting started with Twitter, Getting started with Twitter history of, Twitter, Twitter overview of, Being Social, Being Social reporting with, Reporting, Reporting searching tweets, Where to look, Where to look use by Tim O'Reilly, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media writing messages, Tuning up your messages, Tuning up your messages U Ubuntu Code of Conduct, Diversity, Diversity Ubuntu community, Write-centered communities, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams, Striving for Clarity, Inspiring your community, Leading by example: Ubuntu, Leading by example: Ubuntu, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge, Process Reassessment, Process Reassessment, An Example: Ubuntu Bug Workflow, Lessons learned, Feedback, Feedback, Providing Community Updates, Providing Community Updates, Videos, Videos, Hooks ’n’ Data, Hooks ’n’ Data, Plugging your stats into graphs, Visibility Is Key, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes, In the Beginning..., In the Beginning..., Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Shuttleworth, Community Council, Community Council, Technical Board, Technical Board, Team councils, Team councils, Membership, Membership, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Developer, Developer, Council or Board Member, Council or Board Member, Escalation, Escalation bug workflow example, An Example: Ubuntu Bug Workflow, Lessons learned bug-squashing parties, Plugging your stats into graphs contributor access to repositories, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Reviewing new developers: In depth developer mentoring campaign, Visibility Is Key history of, In the Beginning..., In the Beginning...

., Scheduling signs, using at events, Assets simplicity as foundation of processes, Breaking Up the Puzzle, Simplicity is key, Simplicity is key size of community, The Case for Governance skills, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge, Knowing When It Is Time acquisition of, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge and formation of additional councils, Knowing When It Is Time mapping to teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams required, documenting, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community Skype, Voice over IP (VoIP), Voice over IP (VoIP) slides in presentations, Creating attractive slides, Long versus short presentations Smanis, Konstantinos, Observational Tests social capital, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication building through storytelling, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication defined, Building Belonging into the Social Economy social economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication building belonging into, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy communication in, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication comparison with financial economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy, Building Belonging into the Social Economy social media, The Art of Community, The Art of Community, The Art of Community, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Being Social, Being Social, Being Social, Being Social, Being Social, Harnessing Social Media, Broadcasting, Broadcasting, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages, Avoiding social media overkill, Avoiding social media overkill, Feedback, Feedback, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, Debates, Debates, Asking for feedback, Asking for feedback, Collaboration, Collaboration, Campaigns and awareness, Events, Events, Controlling the Fire Hose, Controlling the Fire Hose, Optimizing How You Post, Optimizing How You Post, Being Socially Responsible, Being Socially Responsible, Organizing a Community Event, At the event, Running a Campaign, The buildup, Providing Community Updates, Providing Community Updates, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media (see also Facebook) (see also Google+) (see also Twitter) broadcasting with, Being Social, Broadcasting, Broadcasting, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages, Avoiding social media overkill, Avoiding social media overkill balanced use of, Avoiding social media overkill, Avoiding social media overkill content of broadcasts, Broadcasting, Broadcasting overview, Being Social using Twitter, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages collaboration using, Being Social, Collaboration, Collaboration, Campaigns and awareness, Events, Events, Running a Campaign, The buildup coordinating events, Events, Events for campaigns and awareness, Campaigns and awareness, Running a Campaign, The buildup overview of, Being Social party-planning example, Collaboration, Collaboration controlling time using, Harnessing Social Media, Controlling the Fire Hose, Controlling the Fire Hose getting feedback using, Being Social, Feedback, Feedback, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, Debates, Debates, Asking for feedback, Asking for feedback by asking for, Asking for feedback, Asking for feedback overview, Being Social Ubuntu 11.04 release example, Feedback, Feedback using Twitter, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look via debates, Debates, Debates most common networks, Being Social, Being Social optimizing posts to, Optimizing How You Post, Optimizing How You Post organizing community event using, Organizing a Community Event, At the event providing community updates with, Providing Community Updates, Providing Community Updates realistic expectations of, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl responsible use of, Being Socially Responsible, Being Socially Responsible use by community leaders, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media Mike Shinoda (Linkin Park), Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park, Mike Shinoda, Linkin Park Tim O'Reilly, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media Software as a Service (SaaS), Software As a Service, Software As a Service software cycles, fixed release, Building a Strategic Plan, Building a Strategic Plan Somerville, Cody, Baking in Openness Sorkin, Aaron, Inspiring your community source control, Source Control, Source Control Southern California Linux Expo (SCALE), Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo Spafford, James, The Second Edition, James Spafford, Media Molecule, James Spafford, Media Molecule spam, Getting It Right by Not Getting It Wrong, Getting It Right by Not Getting It Wrong speaking at events, The Art of Community (see presentations at events) Spencer, Rick, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts, Visualizing Data with Burndown Charts sponsored communities, The Case for Governance, Commercial sponsorship, Commercial sponsorship, Barriers to Input, Barriers to Input and governance, The Case for Governance conflict within, Barriers to Input, Barriers to Input councils of, Commercial sponsorship, Commercial sponsorship sponsors, Understanding Your Needs, Understanding Your Needs, Finding and Handling Sponsors, Finding and Handling Sponsors, Setting expectations, Setting expectations, The pitch, The pitch, Handling the Money, Handling the Money, Scheduling, Scheduling determining, Finding and Handling Sponsors, Finding and Handling Sponsors examining needs before approaching, Understanding Your Needs, Understanding Your Needs giving back to, Setting expectations, Setting expectations managing money from, Handling the Money, Handling the Money of Ubuntu Developer Summit, Scheduling, Scheduling pitching to, The pitch, The pitch Spread Firefox campaign, Attracting Contributors, Attracting Contributors, Mary Colvig, Mozilla, Mary Colvig, Mozilla Spreadshirt, Selling sprints, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing a Sprint, Additional notes Stallman, Richard, Dictatorial Charismatic Leadership stories, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, Attracting Contributors, Attracting Contributors, Delivering Presentations as mechanism behind communication, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication as viral marketing assets, Attracting Contributors, Attracting Contributors building social capital through, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication in presentations, Delivering Presentations strategic planning, The Art of Community, Planning Your Community, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Building a Mission Statement, Building a Mission Statement, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Brainstorming Ideas, Technique 3: Let’s make it suck, Pulling Together the Threads, Financially Supporting Your Community, Documenting Your Strategy, Documenting Your Strategy, Financially Supporting Your Community, Financially Supporting Your Community, Revenue Opportunities, Sponsorship, Strategy, Strategy (see also teams) brainstorming, Brainstorming Ideas, Technique 3: Let’s make it suck building positive environment, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View contribute growth, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View difference from business strategic planning, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan documenting, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Building a Mission Statement, Building a Mission Statement, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Pulling Together the Threads, Financially Supporting Your Community, Documenting Your Strategy, Documenting Your Strategy defining objectives, Structuring the plan, Pulling Together the Threads, Financially Supporting Your Community ingredients of, Designing Your Community, Designing Your Community mission statement, Designing Your Community, Building a Mission Statement, Building a Mission Statement structure of documentation, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan transparency/openess when, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness finances, Financially Supporting Your Community, Financially Supporting Your Community, Revenue Opportunities, Sponsorship required resources, Financially Supporting Your Community, Financially Supporting Your Community revenue opportunities, Revenue Opportunities, Sponsorship for openess/transparency, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness need for, Planning Your Community of company, conveying to community managers, Strategy, Strategy streaming, live, Videos, Videos stress, The Art of Community (see burnout) subcouncils, Responsibilities success criteria, in strategic plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan, Structuring the plan summits, Organizing Physical Events, Organizing a Summit, Event-specific notes, Event-specific notes surface-level diversity, Diversity, Diversity surveys, Gathering feedback, Gathering Structured Feedback, Gathering Structured Feedback, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Choosing questions, Choosing questions, Showing off your survey reports, Showing off your survey reports, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns choosing questions for, Choosing questions, Choosing questions for finding causes of bottlenecks, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes for gathering feedback, Gathering feedback, Gathering Structured Feedback, Gathering Structured Feedback for learning about community concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns purpose of, Surveys and Structured Feedback, Surveys and Structured Feedback reports from, Showing off your survey reports, Showing off your survey reports Sweet, Adam, Finding Your Place, Finding Your Place syndication of content, Syndication, Syndication T T-shirts, for events, Assets, Assets tales, The Basis of Communication tasks, communication between teams about, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively teams, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Units of Belonging, Units of Belonging, Units of Belonging, Write-centered communities, Write-centered communities, Diversity, Diversity, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals, Setting Up a Community Council, Setting Up a Community Council, Responsibilities and Community Council, Responsibilities as units of belonging, Units of Belonging, Units of Belonging building, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View collaboration between, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams communication between, Community: The Bird’s-Eye View, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively, Ensure that teams can communicate clearly and effectively diversity within, Diversity, Diversity dividing community into, Identify how we can divide our community into teams, Identify how we can divide our community into teams leaders of, tracking community health through, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals mission statement for, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope of Ubuntu community, Write-centered communities, Write-centered communities scope of, Units of Belonging, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope, Define the scope of each team, and help team members understand that scope vs. councils, Setting Up a Community Council, Setting Up a Community Council Technical Board, of Ubuntu community, Technical Board, Technical Board Technorati, The Amateur Press testing usability, Observational Tests, Observational Tests, Observational Tests Texas Linux Fest, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo, Ilan Rabinovitch, Southern California Linux Expo The Art of Community, community of, Social Media, Social Media The West Wing (TV program), Inspiring your community, Inspiring your community theory versus action, Theory Versus Action: Action Wins, Theory Versus Action: Action Wins Thorp, Ben (mrben), The Essence of Community, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication threats on community, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity effect on sense of belonging, The Basis of Communication, The Basis of Communication LugRadio response to rail strike, Unwrapping Opportunity, Unwrapping Opportunity time zones, and online events, Date/time, Date/time tone, of writing, Avoiding bikeshedding, Setting tone tools, Building Great Infrastructure, Building Great Infrastructure, Software As a Service, Software As a Service, Avoiding Resource Fetishism, Avoiding Resource Fetishism, Tool Access, Tool Access, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Controlling the Fire Hose, Controlling the Fire Hose access to, Tool Access, Tool Access and workflow, Building Great Infrastructure, Building Great Infrastructure debates over, Avoiding Resource Fetishism, Avoiding Resource Fetishism for managing social media, Controlling the Fire Hose, Controlling the Fire Hose social media as tool, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl, Don’t Be That Guy/Girl Software as a Service (SaaS), Software As a Service, Software As a Service top posting, Netiquette, Netiquette Torvalds, Linus, Dictatorial Charismatic Leadership, Linus Torvalds, Linux, Linus Torvalds, Linux Trac (software), Building Great Infrastructure tracking, The Art of Community, Bug Tracking, Bug triage, Bug reporting, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics, Credibility and the Need to Track Progress, Credibility and the Need to Track Progress, The Importance of Tracking Our Work, The Importance of Tracking Our Work, Tracking the Right Things, Tracking the Right Things, Within the Context of a Company, Communicating up and down, Tracking Growth and Decline, Using burndown charts, Tracking Growth and Decline, Tracking Growth and Decline, Visibility Is Key, Visibility Is Key, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes, Tracking Health, Tracking Health, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns (see also projects, tracking) bugs, Bug Tracking, Bug triage, Bug reporting, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics determining what to track, Tracking the Right Things, Tracking the Right Things effect on building credibility, Credibility and the Need to Track Progress, Credibility and the Need to Track Progress growth and decline, Tracking Growth and Decline, Using burndown charts, Tracking Growth and Decline, Tracking Growth and Decline, Visibility Is Key, Visibility Is Key, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes areas of, Tracking Growth and Decline, Tracking Growth and Decline data visibility, Visibility Is Key, Visibility Is Key finding causes of, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes overview, Tracking Growth and Decline, Using burndown charts health of community, Tracking Health, Tracking Health, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns by calls to team leaders, Building a Set of Generals, Building a Set of Generals overview, Tracking Health, Tracking Health promoting feedback culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture, Promoting a Feedback Culture responding to concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns, Reacting to Community Concerns importance of, The Importance of Tracking Our Work, The Importance of Tracking Our Work within a company, Within the Context of a Company, Communicating up and down transparency, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Striving for Clarity, Striving for Clarity, Transparency, Transparency, Bug Tracking, Bug Tracking, Building and Maintaining Transparency, Building and Maintaining Transparency, Communications, Communications, Perception of you, Perception of you, Dictatorial Charismatic Leadership and dictatorial communities, Dictatorial Charismatic Leadership in bug tracking, Bug Tracking, Bug Tracking in communication, Striving for Clarity, Striving for Clarity, Communications, Communications in personal feedback, Perception of you, Perception of you in processes, Transparency, Transparency in strategic plan, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness in workflow, Building and Maintaining Transparency, Building and Maintaining Transparency trend line, Using burndown charts trending topics, Getting more eyeballs triaging, Bug triage, Bug triage, Measuring Mechanics, Measuring Mechanics Troy, Ryan, Codifying Your Council trust, Trust Is Everything, Trust Is Everything tutorials, online, Organizing Online Events, Organizing Online Tutorials, Event-specific notes Twitter, Reporting, Reporting, Being Social, Being Social, Twitter, Twitter, Getting started with Twitter, Getting started with Twitter, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages, Tuning up your messages, Tuning up your messages, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look, The buildup, At the event, At the event, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media broadcasting with, Broadcasting, Tuning up your messages, The buildup, At the event, At the event, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media about events, The buildup, At the event, At the event mindcasting, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media getting feedback using, Where to look, Where to look, Where to look getting started with, Getting started with Twitter, Getting started with Twitter history of, Twitter, Twitter overview of, Being Social, Being Social reporting with, Reporting, Reporting searching tweets, Where to look, Where to look use by Tim O'Reilly, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media, Tim O’Reilly, O’Reilly Media writing messages, Tuning up your messages, Tuning up your messages U Ubuntu Code of Conduct, Diversity, Diversity Ubuntu community, Write-centered communities, Baking in Openness, Baking in Openness, Understand the extent and range of collaboration among our teams, Striving for Clarity, Inspiring your community, Leading by example: Ubuntu, Leading by example: Ubuntu, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Developing Knowledge, Developing Knowledge, Process Reassessment, Process Reassessment, An Example: Ubuntu Bug Workflow, Lessons learned, Feedback, Feedback, Providing Community Updates, Providing Community Updates, Videos, Videos, Hooks ’n’ Data, Hooks ’n’ Data, Plugging your stats into graphs, Visibility Is Key, Ensuring Effective Processes, Ensuring Effective Processes, In the Beginning..., In the Beginning..., Mark Shuttleworth, Mark Shuttleworth, Community Council, Community Council, Technical Board, Technical Board, Team councils, Team councils, Membership, Membership, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Ubuntu Member, Developer, Developer, Council or Board Member, Council or Board Member, Escalation, Escalation bug workflow example, An Example: Ubuntu Bug Workflow, Lessons learned bug-squashing parties, Plugging your stats into graphs contributor access to repositories, Reviewing new developers: In depth, Reviewing new developers: In depth developer mentoring campaign, Visibility Is Key history of, In the Beginning..., In the Beginning...


pages: 168 words: 50,647

The End of Jobs: Money, Meaning and Freedom Without the 9-To-5 by Taylor Pearson

"side hustle", Airbnb, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, Black Swan, call centre, cloud computing, commoditize, creative destruction, David Heinemeier Hansson, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, future of work, Google Hangouts, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loss aversion, low skilled workers, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, means of production, Oculus Rift, passive income, passive investing, Peter Thiel, remote working, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, software is eating the world, Startup school, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, telemarketer, Thomas Malthus, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, unpaid internship, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog

If you only need a small amount of server space, you don’t have to go buy a server—you can rent or share a section of one. Broadly this has had the same effect for entrepreneurs that CD Baby had for musicians. The cost of the tools needed to invest in entrepreneurship has dropped dramatically because the infrastructure has gotten so much more efficient. Let’s look at a few of the primary tools and how entrepreneurs are using them. Software as a Service (SaaS): Plug and Play Tools and Systems Software as a service has arisen primarily in the last decade and facilitates a large part of the sharing economy. Instead of having to buy expensive equipment or sign long-term contracts, entrepreneurs can buy month-to-month access to different services that they need. Previously, a new company would have had to buy accounting software that would cost hundreds of dollars. Now, instead of buying expensive accounting software, you can use a month-to-month service like Xero, which starts at $9 a month.

Instead of hiring an editor on a full-time salary and hoping the new business worked, you could start working with someone on a part-time basis and pay them for a few hours of work each week. If the business started to take off, great! If it doesn’t, you haven’t started paying health insurance and gone through the expensive process of setting up a full time team member. Again, we see the same pattern as with Software as a Service: Dramatic reduction in cost and risk—less expensive and easier to find, lower risk Dramatic increase in potential—find the best qualified person in the world Previously, finding an editor for a craft beer magazine would have meant posting up job applications locally and hoping to find an expert. Now, it means you can find the most qualified person on the planet. Platforms like UpWork allow previous employers to leave reviews on team members and for people to build portfolios of work.


pages: 220

Startupland: How Three Guys Risked Everything to Turn an Idea Into a Global Business by Mikkel Svane, Carlye Adler

Airbnb, Ben Horowitz, Burning Man, business process, call centre, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, credit crunch, David Heinemeier Hansson, Elon Musk, housing crisis, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Menlo Park, remote working, Ruby on Rails, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Tesla Model S, web application

Page 199 Index day of, 175–177 determining how much you’re worth, 173–175 postponing, 168–169 preparing for, 158–160 road show, 169–171 surviving an IPO road show, 171–173 Zendesk’s IPO experience, 167–178 iterating, 53–55, 187 J Janz, Christoph, 65–67, 106 K Kleha, Amanda, 134–135, 181 L Latkiewicz, Matthew, 100–102, 181 Laughing Squid, 48 Law of Jante, 125 LiveUniverse, 65 logo design, 41–42 Lund, Morten, 34 M Malik, Om, 68 Marooney, Caryn, 170 Materna, 17–20 McDermott, Adrian, 136–138 media companies, 14 Mentor, 42 Mick, 124, 181–182 Musk, Elon, 25 N naming the company, 39–42 No Meeting Wednesdays, 34 Nygaard, Toke, 41–42 O office space, 115–119, 154–158 OneLogin, 180 OpenDNS, 130 P Pageflakes, 65 Pedersen, Thomas, 73–74, 90, 103, 180 personalized emails, 104 Pisoni, Adam, 130 Playdom, 129 pricing, 143–150 Primdahl, Morten, 1–2, 17–18 as chief technology officer, 26 early days at Zendesk, 31, 33 epilogue, 179, 180 fear of complacency, 165 financial struggles, 36–37, 39 handling the growth of the business, 122–123 and the inception of Zendesk, 20 Project Eisenhut, 40 R reaching scale, 74 real estate lessons learned, 118–119 refunds, 139 relationships, 150, 185–188 relocating to America hiring employees, 124–129 hiring first employees, 100–102 legal and tax challenges of relocating to America, 92–93 moving the company to Boston, 87–88, 90–91 personal issues surrounding, 97–99 settling in in Boston’s Leather District, 99–100 relocating to San Francisco finding office space, 115–119 making the decision to move, 112–114 Rigoli, Rick, 99–100, 108, 109, 112–113, 158–160 epilogue, 181 Riviera Partners, 136 Ruby on Rails, 14, 26, 28 199 Svane samind.tex V1 - 10/28/2014 12:18 A.M. Page 200 INDEX S SaaS. See Software-as-a-Service Salesforce.com, 27 Scribd, 53 second chances, 16–19 self-service sales, 45–47 Series A rounds, 83–84 shifting strategy, 152–154 Skype, 35 Software-as-a-Service, 47 Square, 24 Startupland, 3 stereograms, 8–9 strategy shift, 152–154 T Talladega Nights: The Ballad of Ricky Bobby, 46 TechCrunch, 42–45, 53, 68, 129, 144 Capital Summer Party, 69–71 Tesla, 164 Thank You Machine, 40, 73 37signals, 14, 28 3D Magic Eye books, 8 Twitter, 53, 91, 122, 124 U Uber, 124 V value-added resellers, 14 VARs.

Being a part of a technology startup in San Francisco has been the most rewarding professional experience I’ve ever had. I wish for everyone to have that privilege of truly finding and trying what you’re best at and succeeding. 6 Svane c01.tex V3 - 10/24/2014 8:14 P.M. Page 7 1 The Honeymoon Believing that what you’re doing is great and knowing nothing of what’s to come In March 2014, most of the publicly listed high-growth technology and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) companies started to experience large pricing corrections. Some stocks lost 25 percent in value in a matter of weeks. Some lost 50 percent. The media was reporting “Valuations Will Be Cut in Half”1 and calling it the “Twilight Zone of SaaS.” Mad Money and Squawk on the Street host Jim Cramer famously yelled, “The software-as-a-disservice to your portfolio days are upon us.”2 In Silicon Valley, people were drawing parallels to Sequoia Capital’s famous “R.I.P.


pages: 255 words: 55,018

Architecting For Scale by Lee Atchison

Amazon Web Services, business process, cloud computing, continuous integration, DevOps, Internet of things, microservices, platform as a service, risk tolerance, software as a service, web application

Whether your application is growing tenfold or just 10 percent each year, whether the growth is in number of users, number of transactions, amount of data stored, or code complexity, this book can help you build and maintain your application to handle that growth, while maintaining a high level of availability. A Word on Scale Today Cloud-based services are growing and expanding at extremely high speeds. Software as a Service (SaaS) is becoming the norm for application development, primarily because of the need for providing these cloud-based services. SaaS applications are particularly sensitive to scaling issues due to their multitenant nature. As our world changes and we focus more and more on SaaS services, cloud-based services, and high-volume applications, scaling becomes increasingly important. There does not seem to be an end in sight to the size and complexity to which our cloud applications can grow.

Synthetic testing To examine in real time how your application is functioning from the perspective of your users, in order to catch problems customers might see before they actually see them. Alerting To inform appropriate personnel when a problem occurs so that it can be quickly and efficiently resolved, minimizing the impact to your customers. There are many good monitoring systems available, both free and paid services. I personally recommend New Relic. It provides all of the aforementioned monitoring and alerting capabilities. As a Software as a Service (SaaS) offering, it can support the monitoring needs at pretty much any scale your application may require.2 After you have started monitoring your application and services, start looking for trends in your performance. When you have identified the trends, you can look for outliers and treat them as potential availability issues. You can use these outliers by having your monitoring tools send you an alert when they are identified, before your application fails.

external vs. internal, External Versus Internal SLAs latency groups, Latency Groups limit SLAs, Limit SLAs performance measurements for, Performance Measurements for SLAs-Latency Groups problem diagnosis and, SLAs for Problem Diagnosis Top Percentile SLAs, Top Percentile SLAs-Top Percentile SLAs slippage, improving availability after, Improving Your Availability When It Slips-Keeping on Top of Availability slow dependenciesbuckets for detecting, Determining Failures catching responses that never arrive, Determining Failures Software as a Service (SaaS), A Word on Scale Today space shuttle program, The Space Shuttle staging environment, testing recovery plans in, Staging Versus Production Environments startups, cloud and, The Micro Startup stateless services, Stateless Services static content, Focus #2: Always Think About Scaling STOSA-based application, Single Team Owned Service Architecture STOSA-based organization, Single Team Owned Service Architecture support manuals, Focus #5: Respond to Availability Issues in a Predictable and Defined Way T team ownershipmultiple services, Guideline #2: Distinct and Separable Team Ownership security issues, Separate team for security reasons service boundaries and, Guideline #2: Distinct and Separable Team Ownership STOSA organizations, What Does it Mean to Be a Service Owner?


pages: 525 words: 142,027

CIOs at Work by Ed Yourdon

8-hour work day, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, distributed generation, Donald Knuth, Flash crash, Googley, Grace Hopper, Infrastructure as a Service, Innovator's Dilemma, inventory management, Julian Assange, knowledge worker, Mark Zuckerberg, Nicholas Carr, rolodex, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, Skype, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the new new thing, the scientific method, WikiLeaks, Y2K, Zipcar

And, honestly, a lot of what Google Enterprise does is take Google consumer offerings and make them viable inside an enterprise. And it’s hugely successful for that. There are a lot of reasons why. You asked what are the great macro phenomena affecting technology. Yourdon: Yeah. Fried: I think that this is one of them. This is the one that I think is probably the most important. The rise of consumer-driven technology, consumer-driven computing, consumer-driven software-as-a-service offerings. I think that because there’s this motion from consumer to enterprise, I’m very focused on having my organization be in the avant-garde of trying to understand where there are new enterprise uses for previously consumer offerings. As one example, we’ve spent a fair amount of time trying to take Google’s consumer video chat product and turn it into corporate videoconferencing. Yourdon: Okay.

And so this idea of being data-driven, of realizing that the world is changing, you can’t be perfect, and you have to launch and change and change and change—and have an environment where you can do that—is absolutely core to us. __________ 1 Google, “Our philosophy: Ten things we know to be true.” www.google.com/about/corporate/company/tenthings.html. There’s a very deep part of the understanding reflected in the question that you asked, which is that Google is predicated on the notion of software as a service, where we’re running the software on servers that we control and we deploy it on a timeframe of our choosing—whereas all traditional technology companies are predicated on the idea of software that customers installed on their laptop, or on their personal computer, or in their own data center. And the pain of doing software installation, doing upgrades, and the necessity of it, all the difficulties in it lead to a “better get it right” mentality.

Fried: So … thank you for such good questions. Yourdon: Any one of these could keep us going for quite some time. Fried: So the technology trends that I see shaping the next few years. The one that was the most educational to me was understanding the domination of consumer-oriented technology over enterprise technology coupled with the enormous economies of scale only available to enormous software-as-a-service providers like Google. You know, these terms like the “cloud” have been hijacked by everyone. They can mean almost anything. So the … phenomena we’ve already talked about: the fact that personal expectations of technology and the role of technology [are] defined by people’s expectations outside of the workplace, instead of people’s experiences inside the workplace. I think that that’s number one, and there are all kinds of interesting corollaries from that.


pages: 757 words: 193,541

The Practice of Cloud System Administration: DevOps and SRE Practices for Web Services, Volume 2 by Thomas A. Limoncelli, Strata R. Chalup, Christina J. Hogan

active measures, Amazon Web Services, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, business process, cloud computing, commoditize, continuous integration, correlation coefficient, database schema, Debian, defense in depth, delayed gratification, DevOps, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, finite state, Firefox, Google Glasses, information asymmetry, Infrastructure as a Service, intermodal, Internet of things, job automation, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, load shedding, longitudinal study, loose coupling, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Marc Andreessen, place-making, platform as a service, premature optimization, recommendation engine, revision control, risk tolerance, side project, Silicon Valley, software as a service, sorting algorithm, standardized shipping container, statistical model, Steven Levy, supply-chain management, Toyota Production System, web application, Yogi Berra

Platform as a Service (PaaS) provides the OS and application stack or framework for you. Software as a Service (SaaS) is a web-based application. You can create your own cloud with physical or virtual servers, hosting them yourself or using an IaaS provider for the machines. Your specific business needs will guide you in determining the best course of action for your organization. There is a wide palette of choices from which to construct a robust and reliable architecture for any given service or application. In the next chapter we examine the various architectures themselves. Exercises 1. Compare IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS on the basis of cost, configurability, and control. 2. What are the caveats to consider in adopting Software as a Service? 3. List the key advantages of virtual machines. 4. Why might you choose physical over virtual machines?

First printing, September 2014 Contents at a Glance Contents Preface About the Authors Introduction Part I Design: Building It Chapter 1 Designing in a Distributed World Chapter 2 Designing for Operations Chapter 3 Selecting a Service Platform Chapter 4 Application Architectures Chapter 5 Design Patterns for Scaling Chapter 6 Design Patterns for Resiliency Part II Operations: Running It Chapter 7 Operations in a Distributed World Chapter 8 DevOps Culture Chapter 9 Service Delivery: The Build Phase Chapter 10 Service Delivery: The Deployment Phase Chapter 11 Upgrading Live Services Chapter 12 Automation Chapter 13 Design Documents Chapter 14 Oncall Chapter 15 Disaster Preparedness Chapter 16 Monitoring Fundamentals Chapter 17 Monitoring Architecture and Practice Chapter 18 Capacity Planning Chapter 19 Creating KPIs Chapter 20 Operational Excellence Epilogue Part III Appendices Appendix A Assessments Appendix B The Origins and Future of Distributed Computing and Clouds Appendix C Scaling Terminology and Concepts Appendix D Templates and Examples Appendix E Recommended Reading Bibliography Index Contents Preface About the Authors Introduction Part I Design: Building It 1 Designing in a Distributed World 1.1 Visibility at Scale 1.2 The Importance of Simplicity 1.3 Composition 1.3.1 Load Balancer with Multiple Backend Replicas 1.3.2 Server with Multiple Backends 1.3.3 Server Tree 1.4 Distributed State 1.5 The CAP Principle 1.5.1 Consistency 1.5.2 Availability 1.5.3 Partition Tolerance 1.6 Loosely Coupled Systems 1.7 Speed 1.8 Summary Exercises 2 Designing for Operations 2.1 Operational Requirements 2.1.1 Configuration 2.1.2 Startup and Shutdown 2.1.3 Queue Draining 2.1.4 Software Upgrades 2.1.5 Backups and Restores 2.1.6 Redundancy 2.1.7 Replicated Databases 2.1.8 Hot Swaps 2.1.9 Toggles for Individual Features 2.1.10 Graceful Degradation 2.1.11 Access Controls and Rate Limits 2.1.12 Data Import Controls 2.1.13 Monitoring 2.1.14 Auditing 2.1.15 Debug Instrumentation 2.1.16 Exception Collection 2.1.17 Documentation for Operations 2.2 Implementing Design for Operations 2.2.1 Build Features in from the Beginning 2.2.2 Request Features as They Are Identified 2.2.3 Write the Features Yourself 2.2.4 Work with a Third-Party Vendor 2.3 Improving the Model 2.4 Summary Exercises 3 Selecting a Service Platform 3.1 Level of Service Abstraction 3.1.1 Infrastructure as a Service 3.1.2 Platform as a Service 3.1.3 Software as a Service 3.2 Type of Machine 3.2.1 Physical Machines 3.2.2 Virtual Machines 3.2.3 Containers 3.3 Level of Resource Sharing 3.3.1 Compliance 3.3.2 Privacy 3.3.3 Cost 3.3.4 Control 3.4 Colocation 3.5 Selection Strategies 3.6 Summary Exercises 4 Application Architectures 4.1 Single-Machine Web Server 4.2 Three-Tier Web Service 4.2.1 Load Balancer Types 4.2.2 Load Balancing Methods 4.2.3 Load Balancing with Shared State 4.2.4 User Identity 4.2.5 Scaling 4.3 Four-Tier Web Service 4.3.1 Frontends 4.3.2 Application Servers 4.3.3 Configuration Options 4.4 Reverse Proxy Service 4.5 Cloud-Scale Service 4.5.1 Global Load Balancer 4.5.2 Global Load Balancing Methods 4.5.3 Global Load Balancing with User-Specific Data 4.5.4 Internal Backbone 4.6 Message Bus Architectures 4.6.1 Message Bus Designs 4.6.2 Message Bus Reliability 4.6.3 Example 1: Link-Shortening Site 4.6.4 Example 2: Employee Human Resources Data Updates 4.7 Service-Oriented Architecture 4.7.1 Flexibility 4.7.2 Support 4.7.3 Best Practices 4.8 Summary Exercises 5 Design Patterns for Scaling 5.1 General Strategy 5.1.1 Identify Bottlenecks 5.1.2 Reengineer Components 5.1.3 Measure Results 5.1.4 Be Proactive 5.2 Scaling Up 5.3 The AKF Scaling Cube 5.3.1 x: Horizontal Duplication 5.3.2 y: Functional or Service Splits 5.3.3 z: Lookup-Oriented Split 5.3.4 Combinations 5.4 Caching 5.4.1 Cache Effectiveness 5.4.2 Cache Placement 5.4.3 Cache Persistence 5.4.4 Cache Replacement Algorithms 5.4.5 Cache Entry Invalidation 5.4.6 Cache Size 5.5 Data Sharding 5.6 Threading 5.7 Queueing 5.7.1 Benefits 5.7.2 Variations 5.8 Content Delivery Networks 5.9 Summary Exercises 6 Design Patterns for Resiliency 6.1 Software Resiliency Beats Hardware Reliability 6.2 Everything Malfunctions Eventually 6.2.1 MTBF in Distributed Systems 6.2.2 The Traditional Approach 6.2.3 The Distributed Computing Approach 6.3 Resiliency through Spare Capacity 6.3.1 How Much Spare Capacity 6.3.2 Load Sharing versus Hot Spares 6.4 Failure Domains 6.5 Software Failures 6.5.1 Software Crashes 6.5.2 Software Hangs 6.5.3 Query of Death 6.6 Physical Failures 6.6.1 Parts and Components 6.6.2 Machines 6.6.3 Load Balancers 6.6.4 Racks 6.6.5 Datacenters 6.7 Overload Failures 6.7.1 Traffic Surges 6.7.2 DoS and DDoS Attacks 6.7.3 Scraping Attacks 6.8 Human Error 6.9 Summary Exercises Part II Operations: Running It 7 Operations in a Distributed World 7.1 Distributed Systems Operations 7.1.1 SRE versus Traditional Enterprise IT 7.1.2 Change versus Stability 7.1.3 Defining SRE 7.1.4 Operations at Scale 7.2 Service Life Cycle 7.2.1 Service Launches 7.2.2 Service Decommissioning 7.3 Organizing Strategy for Operational Teams 7.3.1 Team Member Day Types 7.3.2 Other Strategies 7.4 Virtual Office 7.4.1 Communication Mechanisms 7.4.2 Communication Policies 7.5 Summary Exercises 8 DevOps Culture 8.1 What Is DevOps?

Strategies for choosing between these different services are summarized at the end of the chapter. The term “cloud” is ambiguous; it means different things to different people and has been made meaningless by marketing hype. Instead, we use the following terms to be specific: • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): Computer and network hardware, real or virtual, ready for you to use. • Platform as a Service (PaaS): Your software running in a vendor-provided framework or stack. • Software as a Service (SaaS): An application provided as a web site. Figure 3.1 depicts the typical consumer of each service. SaaS applications are for end users and fulfill a particular market niche. PaaS provides platforms for developers. IaaS is for operators looking to build their own platforms on which applications will be built, thus providing the most customizability. Figure 3.1: The consumers of SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS In this chapter, we will discuss these services in terms of being provided by a third-party vendor since that is the general case.


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The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing by Lisa Gansky

Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, banking crisis, barriers to entry, carbon footprint, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, diversification, Firefox, fixed income, Google Earth, industrial cluster, Internet of things, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, late fees, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, recommendation engine, RFID, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social web, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, walkable city, yield management, young professional, Zipcar

The enhanced ability to leverage existing platforms, and lower incremental costs, is a big reason that Mesh businesses are starting to thrive. If we were to start Ofoto today, offering the same products and services (reliable network storage, customer order systems, backend systems, printing and shipping facilities), I estimate that it would take 10 percent of the nearly $60 million we raised at the time. Why? The cloud computing networks, tools, talent pool, and software as a service (SaaS) vendors in place today would allow us to go to market faster with far less capital. That reality improves nearly every aspect of getting a venture successfully off the ground and in condition to grow—the number of core staff required, the funding needed, and the time it takes to get to market. the seriously friendly effect. Knowing how to take advantage of social networks is important to Mesh businesses.

In general these businesses have started with a focus in a local urban area. The amount of capital available to you will likely shape how you craft your offer and choose to go to market. For these types of things, the infrastructure—the software and the technology—often exists in a form where you don’t have to pay very much. This is referred to as an application service provider, or ASP, model. (A related term is software as a service, or SaaS; it is also sometimes referred to as “services in the cloud.”) With ASP, instead of laying out a lot of cash to buy software or to buy computers to run it, you pay as you go. If you want software that allows you to track home exchanges, there are Web sites that allow you to use the infrastructure they’ve created. Amazon and other companies offer hosting, Web development, and fulfillment services.

Croix Falls Cinema SAP Schneeveis, Bob School of Everything (SoE) Seely Brown, John Self-storage listings, Mesh companies SellaBand Seventymm Share-based business during holidays mobile networks as foundation and niche markets shareability, compatible services See also The Mesh Shea, Lucy Sinclair, Cameron Sivers, Derek Skinnipopcorn SmartyPig smava Social lending. See Loans/social lending Social networking importance to the Mesh Mesh companies negative events, broadcasting on on Netflix network effect privacy, importance of and product improvement for word-of-mouth advertising See also Facebook Software getting for startup Mesh open development Software as a service (SaaS) Sourcemap SpareFoot Spride Share Standardization of products Starting a Mesh company capital needs customers, identifying define/redefine/scale stages first mover advantage marketing primary questions serendipity as factor shareable assets, identifying software, ASP model Stohr, Kate Supply chain forward and reverse integration reverse supply chain Sustainable design Swishing Taxi Magic TCHO Technology, Mesh-friendly Mesh companies TED Prize thinkspace thredUP adaptability of case study Tool sharing, Mesh companies Toyota, broken trust Transaction fees Transparency and adaptability “age of radical transparency,” and trust building Transportation efficiency communities developed for See also Bike sharing; Car sharing Travel-related services, Mesh companies Trials Tripkick Trust building basics of broken trust, examples of and customer complaints customer misbehavior, dealing with by delighting customers discoverers as trust agents lost trust, rebuilding maintaining trust negative events, impact on and privacy practices proprietary versus open control reviews, keeping perspective social networks, role of starting slow, necessity of and transparency trials/samples for “virtuous circle of trust,” Tryvertising Twitter Tylenol tragedy Upcycling Mesh companies Vacation Rentals by Owner (VRBO) Virgin Corporation, Mesh strategy Volkswagen, idea solicitation on Web Walmart customer data, use of greening of integration with suppliers Mesh possibilities for waste, created by Waste disposal and climate change as resource underutilization Waste management government initiatives for Mesh companies in Mesh ecosystem in natural ecosystem raw materials, sharing recycling and reuse services reverse value chain yield management See also Recycling and reuse services Water Legacy Wattzon.com Westmill Wind Farm Co-operative WhipCar Wilcox, Ronald Wilhelm, Eric Williamson, Oliver Wine cooperatives, Mesh companies Word of mouth, power of Work-space sharing, Mesh companies World of Goods Yelp Yield management Zipcar customer experience with Mesh model for partners Zopa Zynga Table of Contents Title Page Copyright Page Dedication Introduction Chapter 1 - Getting to Know the Mesh Chapter 2 - The Mesh Advantage Chapter 3 - Mesh Design Chapter 4 - In with the Mesh Chapter 5 - In Mesh We Trust Chapter 6 - The Mesh as Ecosystem Chapter 7 - Open to the Mesh Chapter 8 - Mesh Inc.


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Infonomics: How to Monetize, Manage, and Measure Information as an Asset for Competitive Advantage by Douglas B. Laney

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Claude Shannon: information theory, commoditize, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data acquisition, digital twin, discounted cash flows, disintermediation, diversification, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, informal economy, intangible asset, Internet of things, linked data, Lyft, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, performance metric, profit motive, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, smart meter, Snapchat, software as a service, source of truth, supply-chain management, text mining, uber lyft, Y2K, yield curve

This information is monetized also by eliminating the cost of checkers and point-of-sale systems, saving shoppers time during which they’re likely to shop more, and licensing or generating insights from the data. Intuit’s TurboTax is another classic example of a service differentiated by both extracting and inserting information into its product. Intuit compiles data from the millions of tax returns prepared using its software. As more and more U.S. taxpayers migrate to its online software-as-a-service (SaaS) version, Intuit is able to collect more and more data on the usage of its product, but also details of its users’ tax returns. This deinformationalization of the product along with information it compiles on tax audits enables Intuit to informationalize its product further with information and analytics on tax audit risks and probabilities—thereby rendering its product differentiated from others.

As we have seen a growth in “shadow IT” over the past decade, information leaders typically attempt to set in motion a plan to support it or rein it in and consolidate it. Working with business units and IT also to create a reference architecture for information management can also lead to improved maturity. Other parallel approaches may involve growing IT-related skills and/or moving to cloud and software-as-a-service (SaaS) solutions. But reference architectures and static plans can only help so much. As Brendan Smith, director of business development at GasBuddy, conceded to me, “With the way we are grabbing, aggregating, and consuming more and more data, it has required us to continually change the tools we’re using and bring in a lot of folks to handle the technical infrastructure.”11 Applied Asset Management Principles for Improved Infrastructure The information infrastructure includes the technologies used throughout the organization to capture, collect, or generate information; to integrate and transform information; and to move or enable the access to information.

Then Cicero helped its client devise over twenty IT and business initiatives to better leverage those underutilized information assets. As a result the client claims it has added $300 million in market value (over a 15 percent increase).26 Figure 11.5 Using Information Valuations to Spur Innovation and Digitalization Monetization and Analytics Figure 11.6 Using Information Valuations to Identify Monetization and Analytics Opportunities Working with a few software-as-a-service (SaaS) clients, a prominent online retailer, and other companies looking to determine which information assets are most ripe for external monetization, we have concocted a basic approach to mixing three of the models (Figure 11.6). It involves identifying information assets with a low cost to harvest, generate, or otherwise obtain, along with those that have high data quality and high business relevancy (to potential licensees).


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Disrupted: My Misadventure in the Start-Up Bubble by Dan Lyons

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, call centre, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate governance, disruptive innovation, dumpster diving, fear of failure, Filter Bubble, Golden Gate Park, Google Glasses, Googley, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Lean Startup, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, new economy, Paul Graham, pre–internet, quantitative easing, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, tulip mania, uber lyft, Y Combinator, éminence grise

Andreessen Horowitz has invested in some of the Valley’s most highly valued companies, including Pinterest, Airbnb, and Box, and enlists its publicity machine (both its own internal operation and its friends in the tech press) to further its interests. In the spring of 2014, when “software as a service” (SaaS) stocks went into a slump, and when Box was still hoping to go public but had started to look wobbly, Andreessen’s content factory sprang into action. The firm produced blog posts and podcasts explaining that SaaS companies were misunderstood. Investors failed to understand how profitable these companies were going to be. The podcast was loaded up with a dizzying barrage of jargon and acronyms and metrics that SaaS companies have invented to measure their own performance. Software as a service is still something of a new business, and it is difficult if not impossible to compare the performance of any one SaaS company to the others.

My sense is that things will go well. Halligan used to work as a venture capitalist, so he thinks like an investor. Shah, before going to grad school at MIT, built a different software company and sold it. Also, from the perspective of Wall Street, HubSpot ticks all the right boxes. It sells to businesses, rather than to consumers. It’s a cloud computing company and uses a business model called software as a service, or SaaS, which means customers don’t install the software on their own computers but instead connect to it over the Internet and pay a monthly subscription fee. Cloud computing is hot right now. The whole tech industry is moving to this model. Investors love it. Over the years Halligan and Shah have come up with a creation myth about the company, which is that while they were in grad school they had a vision for how companies could transform their marketing departments.

But now it has published its financial results and the numbers are underwhelming. Sales are growing, but Box is spending way too much on sales and marketing, and losing huge amounts of money. To be sure, that’s the case for most of the other cloud software companies. But even by the relaxed standards of the second tech bubble, Box’s results are disappointing. Meanwhile, for some reason, shares in cloud computing and “software as a service” companies are starting to swoon. One index of thirty-seven publicly traded cloud-related companies loses $58 billion in market value over the course of two months. Salesforce.com, our rival and role model, drops 25 percent. Workday, another cloud company that’s comparable to HubSpot, drops 40 percent. On May 1, the Wall Street Journal reports that Box has decided to delay its IPO, since “investors’ love affair with cloud software is waning at the worst possible time.”


Industry 4.0: The Industrial Internet of Things by Alasdair Gilchrist

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, cloud computing, connected car, cyber-physical system, deindustrialization, DevOps, digital twin, fault tolerance, global value chain, Google Glasses, hiring and firing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, inventory management, job automation, low cost airline, low skilled workers, microservices, millennium bug, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, platform as a service, pre–internet, race to the bottom, RFID, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, smart transportation, software as a service, stealth mode startup, supply-chain management, trade route, undersea cable, web application, WebRTC, Y2K

However, at the time little did anyone know the transformative nature of IP mobility and how it would radically change the workplace landscape. With the advent of IP mobility, employees could work anywhere and at any time, always having access to data and company applications and systems through VPNs (virtual private networks). Of course, to IT and security, this was a massive burden, and it logically led to deploying or outsourcing application in the cloud via SaaS (software as a service). Make no mistake, these were radical changes to the business mindset. After years of building security barriers and borders, security processes and procedures to protect their data, businesses were now allowing the free flow of information into the Internet. It proved, as we know now with hindsight, to be a brilliant decision and SaaS and cloud services are now considered the most cost effective ways to provide enterprise class software and to build SME data centers and development platforms.

Setup and configuration is automatic and resources are elastic. What this means is that is you request a level of compute and storage and then find that demand far exceeds this. The cloud will stretch to accommodate the demand without any customer interaction; the cloud will manage the demand dynamically by assigning more resources. There are three categories of service—IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service), and SaaS (Software as a Service). Each category defines a set of services available to the customer, and this is key to the cloud— everything is offered as a service. This is based on the earlier SOA (service orientated architecture), where web services were used to access application functions. Similarly, the cloud operators use web services to expose their features and products as services. • IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service)—AWS’s basic product back in 2005 and it offered their excess infrastructure for lease to companies.

Instead of buying hardware and establishing a server room or data center a SME could rent compute, storage, and network from Amazon, the beauty being they would only pay for what they used. • PaaS (Platform as a Service)—Came about as Microsoft and others realized that developers required not just infrastructure but access to software development languages, libraries, APIs, and microservices in order to build Windows-based applications. Google also supplies PaaS to support its many homegrown applications such as Android and Google Apps. Industry 4.0 • SaaS (Software as a Service)—The precursor to the cloud in the form of web-based applications such as Salesforce. com, which launched in 1999. SaaS was a new way of accessing software, instead of accessing a local private server hosting a copy of the application, users used a web browser to access a web server-based shared application. SaaS was slow to gain acceptance until the mid 2000s, when broadband Internet access accelerated, thus permitting reliable application performance.


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Traction: How Any Startup Can Achieve Explosive Customer Growth by Gabriel Weinberg, Justin Mares

Airbnb, Firefox, if you build it, they will come, jimmy wales, Justin.tv, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, side project, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, the payments system, Uber for X, web application, working poor, Y Combinator

For example, with Bingo Card Creator I pay money to a freelancer to write bingo cards with associated content about them that get slapped up on a page on the Web site. Because those bingo cards are far too niche for any educational publisher to target, I tend to rank very well for them. For ten to twenty dollars per search term, you can pay someone to write an article that you won’t be embarrassed to put on your Web site. For many SaaS [Software as a Service] startups, the lifetime value of a customer at the margin might be hundreds or thousands of dollars. So they [articles and landing pages] don’t need much traffic at all on an individual basis to aggregate into a meaningful number to the business. The reason my business works is fundamentally because this SEO strategy works phenomenally well. In our interview, Patrick told us about his Owls of East Asia bingo cards.

Mike Volpe from HubSpot said something similar: Today we have 30 people in marketing and 120 in sales, all based in Cambridge, MA (no outside sales) and we attract 45–50k new leads per month, 60–80 percent of which are from inbound marketing (not paid). The inbound leads are 50 percent cheaper and close 100 percent more than paid leads. My personal experience and industry knowledge tells me that most other SaaS [Software as a Service] companies get more like 10 percent of their leads from inbound marketing, and generate 2–5k leads per month in total, whereas we get 70–80 percent of our leads from inbound and we generate 45,000+ new leads per month. TARGETS Find search terms that have enough search volume to move the needle for your company. If you can’t find enough search volume, or can’t rank high for those terms, SEO won’t be a great strategy for your business.

Your job, once you have their email, is to answer all of their buying questions and then create a trigger that gives them a strong reason to buy. You can keep track of when prospects are dropping out of your sales funnel. The points in your funnel where many prospects drop off are called “blockages.” Blockages are usually due to sales funnel complexity. You want to make purchasing your product as simple as possible. Some ways you can minimize blockages: Removing the need for IT installs with SaaS (Software as a Service) Free trials (including through open source software) Channel partners (resellers of your products) Demo videos FAQs Reference customers (such as testimonials or case studies) Email campaigns (where you educate prospective customers over time) Webinars or personal demos Easy installation and ease of use Low introductory price (less than $250/month for SMB, $10,000 for enterprises) Eliminating committee decision making CASE STUDY: JBOSS JBoss, an open source provider of middleware software, created a sales funnel that drove $65 million in revenue just two years after founding (Red Hat later acquired it for $350 million).


Demystifying Smart Cities by Anders Lisdorf

3D printing, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, chief data officer, clean water, cloud computing, computer vision, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, digital twin, distributed ledger, don't be evil, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, facts on the ground, Google Glasses, income inequality, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Masdar, microservices, Minecraft, platform as a service, ransomware, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, self-driving car, smart cities, smart meter, software as a service, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

Another important point is that it is not metered, but a lot of up-front investments must be done that are sunk costs. This is why you often hear about a move from capital expenditure to operational expenditure, when it comes to cloud computing. It is not necessary to make capital investments in equipment before starting. Another important point of the NIST definition is the division into three types: Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS).Software as a Service – Is the ability of the consumer to access system features through a standard interface like a web browser. The consumer has no control of the underlying infrastructure except for what can be configured in the application. The vendor provides and maintains all aspects of the product except for application-specific configurations. Well-known consumer-level examples are Gmail, Office 365, Salesforce, and Slack.

Block chain Bluetooth Bus topology C Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) Cities coalition for digital rights Cities, history and future civilizations data usage pack donkey technology urbanization urbanocene period Civilization Confidentiality Connecting devices cables OSI model physical connections Criminal justice data D Data governance Data management Data profiling Data refinery capability domains access data movement discovery implementations map quality storage structure Data services block chain document databases graph key value stores object storage RDBMS Data source online source sensors system of record Data storage Data value, seven dimensions data sphere improve data value metadata sphere optimization solutions Decision trees Deployment, data cloud characteristics IaaS PaaS SaaS types on premise and cloud on-premise infrastructure Device defined integrated system medical devices microcontrollers processing units sensor and actuator Devices, city central technology organization cloud platforms communication IoT platforms IoT solutions management computer systems security protection challenges botnet CISO DDoS attack device vendors difficult to interact Dyn attack low cost scale Distributed computing Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack Domain Name System (DNS) E Employ pragmatic idealism amount of energy architecture principles assemble team artist considerations engineer general idealist grid philosopher politician revolutionary scientist specialist tactician tinkerer compromise count symptoms Energy Engagement models solution spotlights BetaNYC 100 resilient cities Waze connected cities technologies adoption curve development and implementation innovation potential risk-reward working modes work types Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) ETSI Exteros F File transfer protocol (FTP) Food G General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) Genetic algorithms Graphical userinterface Graph theory H Habit loop Hardware vendors Health data HTTP protocol Human civilization I, J IEEE P2413 Independent researchers Information and communication technologies (ICTs) Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Innovation challenges habit loop low-fat yoghurt, avoid Integrity International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Internet of Things (IoT) K Kafka Key value stores K-nearest neighbors algorithm L Legacy systems, modernizing imagination architect real world example Linear regression LinkNYC Local Area Network (LAN) Logistic regression LoRaWAN M Machine learning algorithms advantages and limitations decision trees genetic algorithms K-nearest neighbors linear regression logistic regression naïve Bayes algorithm neural networks reinforcement supervised SVMs unsupervised neural networks Machine-to-machine data access Master data management (MDM) conceptual model data steward deterministic matching logical model physical model Mesh topology Mobility MQTT protocol N Naïve Bayes algorithm Near Field Communication (NFC) Network topologies Neural networks Nongovernmental organizations NYC Mesh NYCWiN network O ODBC Operational data store (ODS) OSI model P, Q Personally identifiable information (PII) Platform as a Service (PaaS) PlowNYC service Point-to-point topology Private research Publish-Subscribe pattern R Raspberry Pi Recycling Reinforcement learning algorithm Relational database management system (RDBMS) S Security standards cryptography device management FIPS 199 identity and access management risks Sensors Simple Storage Service (or S3) Smart city, actors businesses governments individuals organizations researchers vendors Software as a Service (SaaS) Software vendors Star topology features Google doc HTTP protocol point of failure publish-subscribe types Structure of data semi-structured data structured data unstructured data Supervised learning algorithm Support vector machines (SVMs) Supranational organizations Systems integrators T Technology, applications health mobility safety utilities Things Network Tree topology DNS failure vulnerabilities features structure U UDP Universities Unsupervised learning algorithm V Virtual Private Network (VPN) W, X, Y, Z Web services


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Using Open Source Platforms for Business Intelligence: Avoid Pitfalls and Maximize Roi by Lyndsay Wise

barriers to entry, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, commoditize, different worldview, en.wikipedia.org, Just-in-time delivery, knowledge worker, Richard Stallman, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the market place

At the same time, due to the maturity of the market, other organizations do not follow either one of these structures but rely on vendors or consultants to make choices for them. Overall, the right strategy for your company might not be the same for another company. In addition to the types of applications, BI’s delivery and development also differ based on varying models within the industry. These include software as a service (SaaS) or cloud offerings, best of breed deployments, and OS. No matter what type of deployment, tying BI to business value and specific goals helps organizations develop a successful initiative independent of how BI is developed internally. However, the type of deployment also requires consideration because different choices will affect implementation times, development efforts, overall costs, and required resources for ongoing development and support.

The chart below provides a general understanding of various solution types and how they fit within the overall market enables both technical and business decision makers to make the right choices for their company. BI Delivery Type Breakdown. BI Type Definition Solution Parameters Traditional Business intelligence is installed and developed at the customer site, with the general purpose of reporting and analytics using historical data sets. Software as a Service BI offerings or components that are hosted by the solution provider and offered as a service to organizations through online access. Cloud Similar to SaaS based on the fact that solutions/data are hosted externally to the organization. In many cases, organizations develop and maintain their own BI applications. Similar to traditional BI in terms of delivery but focuses on real-time or continuous business visibility.

Unfortunately, even with this new involvement, many solutions are elusive to business users beyond their BI interaction after implementation. Even with all of the resources that exist, it is still difficult for organizations to understand how each product differentiates itself within the broader marketplace. A good example is a company that I worked with about a year ago that was looking specifically for a hosted (or Software as a Service, SaaS) BI solution. After the requirement-gathering phase, I developed a short list, focusing on SaaS BI vendors only. The project sponsor then told me that she was surprised I didn’t mention a specific vendor. She felt that vendor would be a perfect fit. The only problem was that this vendor did not and still does not provide a hosted option and was limited by platform and integration capabilities.


Realtime Web Apps: HTML5 WebSocket, Pusher, and the Web’s Next Big Thing by Jason Lengstorf, Phil Leggetter

Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Google Chrome, MVC pattern, Ruby on Rails, Skype, software as a service, web application, WebSocket

First, let’s get acquainted with Pusher, which will be responsible for the realtime interaction on our site. In this chapter, we’ll explore the origins of Pusher, the underlying technology, some of the tools they provide to help development, and get our hands dirty by building a simple realtime activity tracking app. A Brief History of Pusher Pusher is part of a relatively new trend on the Internet known as software as a service (SAAS). These companies provide a useful tool, utility, service, or other value to other developers for a fee. This allows us to use incredibly powerful new technologies without spending days—or weeks—trying to solve issues such as scalability and cross-browser support. In early 2010, cofounders Max Williams and Damien Tanner were running one of the most successful Ruby On Rails shops in the UK.

This is great for design, but it opens the door for anyone to simply download the font illegally. Type foundries, predictably, were not okay with this. In recent years, however, big steps were made toward increasing the security of fonts on the Web. In addition to new formats for web fonts, such as Embedded Open Type (EOT) and Web Open Font Format (WOFF), companies sprang up that provided web font embedding software as a service (SaaS). There are many benefits to using SaaS, and only one downside (that isn’t really a downside at all). The primary benefits are these: • The font is available to you without having to purchase it. • You no longer have to navigate murky legal waters to protect yourself and your clients. • The finickiness of cross-browser font embedding is handled for you. The only “downside” to using SaaS for font embedding is that it’s not free.

@font-face, 91–92 PHP, 25 application brain, 26 dynamic content insertion, 26–27 need for, 26 preprocessor, 26 PHP Data Objects (PDO), 179 Preprocessor, 26 Pusher auto-reconnect, 36 client libraries, 36 connection, 37 ■ Index connection state, 41 debug, 52 Debug Console, 40 developer tools, 36 documentation, 36 Event Creator, 42 events, 37, 40 fallback support, 36 history of, 35 logging, 53 publishing and subscribing, 44 publish-subscribe messaging pattern, 37 REST API, 36 scalability, 35 send events, 43 server libraries, 36 sign-up, 37 trigger and publish, 37 trigger method, 49 uses of, 35 webSocket, 36 nR Realtime AJAX, 5 definition of, 5 Google Docs and Google Analytics, 12 HTTP hacks, 5 long-polling, 7 problems with, 8 streaming, 8 polling, 5 social media, 3–4 terminology, 9 web sites, 4 websocket protocol, 10 Realtime implementation back end answer event, 249 console, room events, 247 event creation, 245 pusher debug console, 246 question markup, ask event, 248 testing events, 246 trigger() method, 245 voting event, 248 credentials and libraries app view on dashboard, 242 config file, add credentials to, 243 JavaScript API Wrapper, 244 loading jQuery, 244 new app creation, 242 PHP API Wrapper, 243 pusher API, 241 front end binding to events, 250 bind() method, 251 channel subscription, 249 event binding, 251 initialization, JavaScript file, 250 JavaScript, channel subscription, 249 name identification, channel, 249 Room view design attendee view, 104–105 closed room view, 106 presenter view, 106–108 Router execution controller loading, 169–170 rewrite URI, 171 view, output, 170–171 Router setup app initialization absolute path, 158 index.php, 158 session setup, 159–160 URI, 158 variables, 158 variables, configuration app specific data, 156 as constants, 157 nS Save_access_token() method, 276 Setters, 177–178 Smaller screen layouts, 108 Software as a service (SaaS), 35, 112 Stylesheet path variable, 182 nT Tools application design, 15 CSS3 add CSS to page, 19–22 need for, 18 visual layer, 19 working principle, 19 HTML5 application skeleton, 16 file creation, 17–18 need for, 16 working principle, 17 HTML5 WebSocket Technology and Pusher application nervous system, 31 need for, 31 289 ■ Index Tools (cont.) WebSocket API, 30–31 working principle, 32 JavaScript and jQuery application brain, 23 need for, 22–23 simple jQuery addition, 23–25 working principle, 23 MySQL application memory, 28 fun with, 28–29 need for, 27 working principle, 28 OAuth application gatekeeper, 33 need for, 32–33 working principle, 33 PHP, 25 application brain, 26 dynamic content insertion, 26–27 need for, 26 preprocessor, 26 n U, V Uniform resource indicator (URI), 75 Utility functions classes, autoload app initialization, 167 app initialization block, 166 class types, 166 exceptions, 166 functions, 167–168 290 controller name, 162–163 slashes avoidance, unwanted, 163 double slash, 164 expressions, 165 preg_replace(), 165 remove_unwanted_slashes, 165 URI parsing functions, 161–162 script, 160 n W, X, Y, Z Web application design.


pages: 237 words: 64,411

Humans Need Not Apply: A Guide to Wealth and Work in the Age of Artificial Intelligence by Jerry Kaplan

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, bank run, bitcoin, Bob Noyce, Brian Krebs, business cycle, buy low sell high, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, estate planning, Flash crash, Gini coefficient, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, haute couture, hiring and firing, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, information asymmetry, invention of agriculture, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Loebner Prize, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Own Your Own Home, pattern recognition, Satoshi Nakamoto, school choice, Schrödinger's Cat, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration

As they individually run low on supplies, they fly over to a paint barrel to automatically refill and recharge, then return to the most useful open position. A series of cameras sprinkled around the perimeter of the project continuously monitors this flying menagerie and assesses the progress and quality of the job. The actual device directing this mechanical ballet needn’t even be present. It can be what’s called software-as-a-service (SAAS) rented by the manufacturer and running on the Amazon cloud.7 Why bother to put all that computing power out in the field where it may get rained on and be used only a few hours a week? Your licensed painting contractor, who might still be paying off the loan for all this fancy gear, shows up, sets up the cameras, marks the target area on an app running on his tablet, opens the paint barrel, and turns on the drones.

See also Social Security rights, of human vs. artificial person, 199–200 risk, 8, 55, 55–56, 137 government rating of, 178 Robot, Robot, and Hwang (law firm),147–48 robotic arm, 6, 35 robots. See forged laborers Rochester, Nathaniel, 19 Rockefeller, John D., 200 Rocket Fuel, 64–65, 67–71, 136 founding/current worth of, 72 Rolling Stone (magazine), 170 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 170 Rosenblatt, Frank, 24 Rothschild, Nathan Mayer, 58 R202 (mechanical factotum), 40 Rutter, Brad, 150 SAAS (software-as-a-service), 43 safety: autonomous vehicles, 89, 142, 195 commercial pilots, 151 highway, 44–45, 142, 178 traffic, 195 workplace, 37–38, 44–45 salaries, 116, 120, 145, 172 salespeople, 139 S&P 500 E-mini, 62 San Francisco State University, 121, 158 sanitation, 169 savings. See assets ownership Scheinman, Victor, 35 schools. See education system Schrodinger’s cat, 213n9 science, ix, 114 science fiction, ix–x, xii Seattle, 114 SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission), 8, 61–62, 63 segregation, 168, 222n10 self-driving vehicles.

See synthetic intellects “siren servers,” 7 Siri (Apple iPhone app), 198 skills, 119–26, 163 obsolescence of, 132, 134, 136–38, 142–43, 152, 153, 158 training to acquire, 13, 14, 132–33, 153–57 Slave Codes, 86 slave self-purchase, 201 smartphones, 105, 115–16 fast-paced innovation and, 26–27, 28, 31, 46, 198 social behavior, 9, 10, 37, 42, 48 fairness and, 74–75 synthetic intellects as threats to, 72–75, 91–92, 199–200 wealth and, 109–10, 114–15. See also moral agency social class. See class Social Security, 14, 169, 173–75 private investing vs., 182–85 social status, 117 software-as-a-service (SAAS), 43 solar power, 44 song identification, 39 sound recognition, 39, 42–43 Sousa, John Phillip, 208 “The Menace of Mechanical Music,” 192–93 space exploration, ix, 114, 116, 207 sports, 114–15, 161–63 Sputnik, ix SRI International, 27 Standard & Poor’s, 178 standard of living, 165–66 Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab, x–xi, 27, 35, 38, 51, 52–53, 72, 85 Stanford Legal Informatics course, 148–49 Star Trek (TV series), x, 16 stockholders, 14–15, 58, 174–78 family members vs. diverse base of, 177, 178, 181–82 restricted vesting and, 184.


Mastering Structured Data on the Semantic Web: From HTML5 Microdata to Linked Open Data by Leslie Sikos

AGPL, Amazon Web Services, bioinformatics, business process, cloud computing, create, read, update, delete, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, Google Chrome, Google Earth, information retrieval, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, linked data, natural language processing, openstreetmap, optical character recognition, platform as a service, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social graph, software as a service, SPARQL, text mining, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, wikimedia commons

However, the range of service offerings is widening. In the information technology (IT) industry, for example, there is also an endless variety of services. In the more and more popular cloud computing environments, the fundamental service models are Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), such as Amazon EC2 and Google Cloud Storage; Platform as a Service (PaaS), such as WHM, Microsoft Azure, and the Google App Engine; and Software as a Service (SaaS), such as Hosted Exchange, GoogleApps, and NetSuite. Further services in the IT industry contain, but are not limited to, Database as a Service (DBaaS), Graph as a Service (GaaS), Storage as a Service (STaaS), Test Environment as a Service (TEaaS), API as a Service (APIaaS), Network as a Service (NaaS), and Unified Communications as a Service (UCaaS). Web services often have web sites that provide e-commerce, navigation with dynamic maps, remote control of a physical device, and so on.

Once the server is running, the overview page can be accessed in the web browser at http://localhost:port_number/status/, and the SPARQL endpoint at http://localhost:port_number/ sparql/ with an HTML interface at http://localhost:port_number/test/. From the command line, you can query the SPARQL server using the sparql-query tool available at https://github.com/tialaramex/ sparql-query. PublishMyData PublishMyData is a commercial Linked Data publishing platform. Because it is a Software as a Service (SaaS) in the cloud, you don’t have to install anything to use it. Beyond the SPARQL endpoint, PublishMyData provides RDF data hosting, a Linked Data API, and customizable visualizations. It supports SPARQL 1.1. To submit a SPARQL query from your code, issue an HTTP GET request to the SPARQL endpoint, as demonstrated in Listing 7-49. Listing 7-49. SPARQL Query on PublishMyData http://example.com/sparql?

Index „„         A AllegroGraph ACID implementation, 151 client installation, 156 editions, 151 graph algorithms, 152 Gruff, 160 high-performance storage, 213 Java API connection() method, 157 create method, 157 indexing, 158 RDF statement, 159 read only mode, 158 showTriples method, 159 SparqlSelect query, 159 Triplestore information, 159 quintuplestore, 151 server installation RPM package, 152 TAR Archive, 155 virtual machine image file, 155 text indexing, 151 WebView, 152 Apache Jena, 94, 99 Apache Marmotta, 111 Apache Stanbol, 91 Arachnophilia, 80 Atomic process, 221 Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability (ACID), 151, 161 „„         B BBEdit, 80 Big Data applications BBC’s Dynamic Semantic Publishing, 212 Google Knowledge Graph data resources, 200 Google Knowledge Carousel, 201–202 Google Knowledge Panel, 200, 202 JSON-LD annotation, 203 LocalBusiness annotation, 205 SERPs, 200 Google Knowledge Vault, 202 high-performance storage, 214 IBM Watson, 212 Library of Congress Linked Data Service, 213 social media applications (see Social media applications) variety, 199 velocity, 199 veracity, 199 volume, 199 Blazegraph, 171 BlueFish editor, 80 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), 212 Business Process Execution Language (BPEL), 140 „„         C Callimachus, 112 Contexts and Dependency Injection (CDI), 111 createDefaultModel() method, 94 CubicWeb, 109 Cypher Query Language (CQL), 188 „„         D D2R server, 193 DBpedia, 63 DBpedia mobile, 116 query Eisenach query, 225 SPARQL endpoint, 64, 225 resources, 63, 64 Spotlight, 84 DeepQA system, 212 227 ■ index Development tools advanced text editors, 79 application development Apache Jena, 94, 99 Sesame (see Sesame) browsers DBpedia Mobile, 116 facet-based (faceted) browsing, 113 IsaViz, 116 marbles, 114 ODE, 114 pivoting (rotation), 113 RelFinder, 117 Tabulator, 113 IDEs (see Integrated Development Environments (IDEs)) linked data software Apache Marmotta, 111 Callimachus, 112 LODStats, 113 Neologism, 112 sameAs.org, 112 Sindice, 110 ontology editors Apache Stanbol, 91 development stages, 86 Fluent Editor, 91 Protégé (see Protégé) SemanticWorks, 89 SML, 92 TopBraid Composer, 90 ZOOMA, 91 RDFizers Apache Any23, 85 GATE, 86 OpenRefine, 86 reasoners ABOX reasoning, 92 FaCT++, 94 HermiT, 92 OWL API, 92 OWLLink support, 92 Pellet, 93 RACER, 94 semantic annotators and converters DBpedia Spotlight, 84 Google Structured Data Testing Tool, 84 RDFa 1.1 distiller and parser, 82 RDFa Play, 82 RDF distiller, 83 Direct graph, 218 Direct mapping, 218 228 „„         E Eclipse Apache Jena set up, 99 JDK installation, 98, 99 Sesame set up, 103 EditPlus, 80 „„         F Facebook Graph API current state representation, 207 Facebook Module, 210 Graph API Explorer Android, 209 fields of node, 208 FOAF profile augmentation, 210 HTTP GET requests, 208 identifier and user name, 207 iOS, 209 JavaScript, 209 JSON-Turtle conversions, 210 Linked Data, 210 PHP, 209 RDF triples, 209 RDF/Turtle output, 210 Turtle translation, 209 JSON, 207 RESTful JSON API, 207 unique identifier, 207 Facebook Module of Apache Marmotta’s LDClient library, 210 Fast Classification of Terminologies (FaCT++), 94 Fluent Editor, 91 4Store application process, 169 RDF file, 169 rest-client installation, 170 SPARQL query, 170 SPARQL server, 169, 195 Fuseki, 192 „„         G General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE), 86 GeoNames, 65 Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages (GRDDL), 39 Google Knowledge Graph data resources, 200 Google Knowledge Carousel, 201–202 Google Knowledge Panel, 200, 202 ■ Index JSON-LD annotation Band in Markup, 203 product description, 203 product offering, 204 LocalBusiness annotation, 205 SERPs, 200 Google Knowledge Panel, 200 Graph databases 4Store process, 169 RDF file, 169 rest-client installation, 170 SPARQL query, 170 advantages, 146, 149 AllegroGraph (see AllegroGraph) Blazegraph, 171 definition, 145 features, 146 index-free adjacency, 145 named graph, 149–150 Neo4j (see Neo4j) Oracle, 171 processing engine, 145 quadstore, 149 storage, 145 triplestores, 149 Graphical User Interface (GUI), 86–87 Gruff, 160 „„         H Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS), 171 „„         I IBM Watson Developers Cloud, 212 Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) CubicWeb, 109 Eclipse Apache Jena set up, 99 Java Development Kit installation, 99 Sesame set up, 103 NetBeans, 108 Internationalized Domain Names (IDN), 9 International Standard Book Number (ISBN), 16 Internet Reasoning Service (IRS), 141 IsaViz, 116 „„         J Java Development Kit (JDK), 99 Java Runtime Environment (JRE), 99 JavaScript Object Notation for Linked Data (JSON-LD), 37 Java Virtual Machine (JVM), 99 „„         K Knowledge representation standards GRDDL, 39 HTML5 microdata attributes, 35 microdata DOM API, 37 JSON-LD, 37 machine-readable annotation formats, 23 microformats drafts and future, 32 hCalendar, 25 hCard, 26 h-event, 26 rel=“license”, 28 rel=“nofollow”, 29 rel=“tag”, 30 URI profile, 25 vote links, 30 XFN, 30 XMDP, 31 OWL classes, 51 description logic, 46 properties, 50 syntaxes, 49 variants, 48 parsers, 54 R2RML, 40 RDF, 18 RDFa, 32 RDFS classes, 42 domains and ranges, 44 instance, 42 properties, 44 subclasses, 42 reasoning, 54 RIF, 53 SKOS, 53 vocabularies and ontologies books, 16 DOAP, 17 e-commerce, 16 FOAF, 13 licensing, 17 media ontologies, 18 metadata, 15 online communities, 18 person vocabularies, 15 PRISM, 16 publications, 16 schema.org, 14 Komodo Edit, 80 229 ■ index „„         L „„         P LinkedGeoData, 66 Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud diagram, 67 collections, 67 creation interlinking, 72 licenses, 71 RDF statements, 72 RDF structure, 70 your dataset, 74 DBpedia, 63 five-star rating system, 60 GeoNames, 65 LinkedGeoData, 66 principles, 59 RDF crawling, 62 RDF dumps, 62 SPARQL endpoints, 62 visualization, 75 Wikidata, 65 YAGO, 67 LODStats, 113 Pellet, 93 Persistent Uniform Resource Locators (PURLs), 9 Process model, 129 Protégé Active Ontology tab, 88 application, 86 class hierarchies, 88 command line, 86 GUI, 87 HermiT reasoner, 93 Individuals tab, 88 Learning Health System, 86 Object Properties and Data Properties tabs, 88 OntoGraf tab, 88 OWLViz, 88 SPARQL Query tab, 89 URIs, 88 PublishMyData, 195 „„         Q „„         M Quadstores, 149 MAchine-Readable Cataloging (MARC), 213 MicroWSMO, 137 „„         R „„         N Named graph, 149 Natural Language Processing (NLP) methods, 86 Neo4j, 161 Cypher commands, 163 graph style sheet, 163 Java API database installation, 165 Eclipse, 164, 168 node method, 166 main method, 166 RDF statement, 167 shut down method, 167 WEBSITE_OF method, 166 server installation, 161 web interface, 162 Neologism, 112 NetBeans, 108 Notepad++, 80 „„         O OpenLink Data Explorer (ODE), 114 OpenLink Virtuoso, 190 OpenRefine, 86 Oracle, 171 230 RACER, 94 RDB2RML (R2RML), 40 RDB to RDF direct mapping employee database table, 217 employee_project database table, 217 project database table, 218 source code, 218 Red Hat Package Manager (RPM) package, 152 Relational database (RDB), 217 RelFinder, 117 Renamed ABox and Concept Expression Reasoner (Racer), 94 rep.initialize() method, 104 Resource Description Framework (RDF), 217 attributes, 32 crawling, 62 dumps, 62 graph, 20, 145 R2RML, 40 statements, 72 structure creation, 70 triples/statements, 19, 220 turtle, 20 vocabulary, 18 RESTful JSON API, 207 Rule Interchange Format (RIF), 53 ■ Index „„         S sameAs.org, 112 Search engine optimization (SEO), 79 Search Engine Result Pages (SERPs), 84, 200 Semantic Annotations for Web Service Description Language (SAWSDL), 127 Semantic Automated Discovery and Integration (SADI), 142 Semantic Measures Library (SML), 92 Semantic search engines, 189 Semantic Web technology, 1 Big Data (see Big Data applications) components AI, 5 controlled vocabularies, 5 inference, 7 ontologies, 6 taxonomies, 5 features, 8 structured data, 2 web evolution, 2 Semantic Web Services OWL-S (see Web Ontology Language for Services (OWL-S)) process, 121 properties, 122 SOAP fault structure, 124 message structure, 122 software IRS, 141 SADI, 142 WSMT, 141 WSMX, 141 UDDI, 142 WS-BPEL (see Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL)) WSDL (see Web Service Description Language (WSDL)) WSML (see Web Service Modeling Language (WSML)) WSMO (see Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO)) SemanticWorks, 89 Service profile, 129 Sesame Alibaba, 96 Eclipse, 103 empty graph creation, 98 Graph API, 97 local repository, 96 RDF Model API, 97 RDF triplestore, 96 RemoteRepositoryManager, 97 Repository API, 96 SAIL, 97 triple support, 98 default ValueFactory implementation, 97 Sesame RDF Query Language (SeRQL), 186 Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS), 53 Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) binding interface, 127 fault structure, 124 message structure, 122 Sindice, 85, 110 SOAPssage, 123 Social media applications Facebook Social Graph Facebook Graph API (see Facebook Graph API) friends recommendation, 206–207 node and edge, 206 Open Graph Protocol, 211 Twitter Cards, 211 Software as a Service (SaaS), 195 SPARQL endpoint 4store’s HTTP server, 195 callback function, 196 D2R configuration file, 193 D2R server installation, 193 Fuseki, 192 jQuery request data, 195 JSON-P request data, 196 OpenLink Virtuoso process, 190–191 PublishMyData request data, 195–196 URL encoding PublishMyData, 195 SPARQL queries ASK query, 179 CONSTRUCT query, 180 core types, 176 CQL, 188 default namespace, 174 DESCRIBE query, 180 existence checking function, 177 federated query, 181 graph management operations ADD operation, 185–186 COPY DEFAULT TO operation, 184 default graph, 184 MOVE DEFAULT TO operation, 185 graph patterns, 176 graph update operations DELETE DATA operation, 183 INSERT DATA operation, 182–183 language checking function, 177 LOD datasets, 189 multiple variable match, 176 namespace declaration, 173 one variable match, 176 231 ■ index SPARQL queries (cont.) property path, 177 public SPARQL endpoints, 190 query engine remove graph property value, 187 Sesame Graph API, 187 Sesame Repository API, 186 RDF graph, 174 RDF triple matching, 176 REASON query, 181 SELECT query, 178–179 solution modifiers, 178 SPARQL 1.0 core types, 175 SPARQL 1.1 aggregation, 175 entailment regimes, 175 service description, 175 Uniform HTTP Protocol, 175 Update language, 175 SPARQL endpoint (see SPARQL endpoint) structure, 174 triple patterns, 176 URI syntax, 173 Storage And Inference Layer API (SAIL), 97 „„         T TextWrangler, 80 TopBraid Composer, 90 Triples map, 218 Twitter Cards, 211 „„         U, V Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), 9 Uniform Resource Names (URNs), 9 Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI), 142 US Library of Congress, 213 „„         W Web Ontology Language (OWL), 129 classes, 51 description logic, 46 properties, 50 syntaxes, 49 variants, 48 Web Ontology Language for Services (OWL-S) atomic process, 221 output and effect conditions, 132 parameter class, 130 232 precondition process, 131 process agents, 131 properties, 130 service process, 131 situation calculus, 129 SWRL variable, 130 URI value, 131 Web resource identifiers, 8 Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL), 140 Web Services Description Language (WSDL) data types, 126 elements, 124 endpoint element, 127 HTTP binding interface, 126 interface element, 126 namespace declaration, 125 SAWSDL annotation file, 128 modelReference, 127 skeleton document, 125 SOAP binding interface, 127 Web Service Modeling eXecution environment (WSMX), 141 Web Service Modeling Language (WSML) importsOntology, 139 IRI quotes, 139 mediator, 140 namespace declarations, 139 nonfunctional property, 139 syntaxes, 138 XML schema data types, 138 Web Service Modeling Ontology (WSMO) choreography and orchestration expresses, 137 class capability, 137 components, 133 definition, 133 entity set definitions, 135 function, 136 goal class, 137 mediators, 133–134 MicroWSMO, 137 nonfunctional properties, 134 ontology instance, 136 post-condition creditcard service, 224 pre-condition creditcard service, 224 relations definition, 135 service class, 134 service goal definition, 223 travel agency modeling, 223 WSMO-lite, 137 ■ Index Web Services Modeling Toolkit (WSMT), 141 Wikidata, 65 WSMO-Lite, 137 „„         X XHTML Friends Network (XFN), 30 XHTML MetaData Profiles (XMDP), 31 „„         Y Yet Another Great Ontology (YAGO), 67 „„         Z ZOOMA, 91 233 Mastering Structured Data on the Semantic Web From HTML5 Microdata to Linked Open Data Leslie F.


pages: 514 words: 111,012

The Art of Monitoring by James Turnbull

Amazon Web Services, anti-pattern, cloud computing, continuous integration, correlation does not imply causation, Debian, DevOps, domain-specific language, failed state, Kickstarter, Kubernetes, microservices, performance metric, pull request, Ruby on Rails, software as a service, source of truth, web application, WebSocket

Then the Information Technology (IT) industry started to change. Virtualization and Cloud computing were introduced, and the number of hosts that needed to be monitored increased by one or more orders of magnitude. Some of those hosts were run by people who weren't sysadmins, or the hosts were outsourced to third parties. Some of the hosts in her data center were moved into the Cloud, or even replaced with Software-as-a-Service applications. Most importantly, IT became a core channel for businesses to communicate with and sell to their customers. Applications and services that had previously been seen as just technology now became critical to customer satisfaction and providing high-quality customer service. IT was no longer a cost center, but something a company's revenue relied on. As a result, aspects of monitoring began to break down.

Thankfully, IT organizations have started to be viewed in a more positive light. Organizations have recognized that it's not only impossible to do business without high-quality IT services but that they are actually market differentiators. If you do IT better than your competitors then this is a marketable asset. Adding to this is the popularity and flexibility of virtualization, elastic computing like Cloud, and the introduction of Software-as-a-Service (SaaS). Now the perception has started to move IT from a cost center to, if not an actual revenue center, then at least a lever for increasing revenue. This change has consequences though, with the most important being that we now need to measure the quality and performance of IT, not just its availability. This data is crucial to the business and technology both making good decisions. Push-based models also tend to be more focused on measurement.

Note It's also possible to report on NTP's statistics via Riemann or collectd using the NTPd plugin. Alternatives to Graphite and Grafana There are numerous alternatives to Graphite, both commercial and open source. This is not a definitive list but more a sampling of interesting tools you could use if the choices in theis book aren't suitable or to your taste. Commercial tools A number of commercial Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) products exist including: Circonus Geckoboard Leftronic Librato New Relic SignalFx Note Some of these SaaS tools may do more than just metrics and may have monitoring, application performance management, and alerting capabilities. Open-source tools Open-source products. Some tools include collection and storage but others, like D3, only provide visualization and need to be combined with appropriate collection mechanisms.


pages: 138 words: 40,787

The Silent Intelligence: The Internet of Things by Daniel Kellmereit, Daniel Obodovski

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, business intelligence, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, connected car, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Freestyle chess, Google X / Alphabet X, Internet of things, lifelogging, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, Paul Graham, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Robert Metcalfe, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart grid, software as a service, Steve Jobs, web application, Y Combinator, yield management

Why has it taken so long for the world to catch on to what some of us have known for over a decade? It is because in the majority of cases, new technologies that can disrupt business models take much more time to be accepted than anyone in that market wants or expects. In the U.S. market, it took cell phones about twenty years to get to major mass-market penetration. Cloud computing (think Software as a Service, timesharing) can trace its origins back many, many years. With a handful of exceptions, tablets being possibly the best-known outlier, technology adoption takes years. I think we were fooled, like many early market entrants, into thinking we would move right from the visionary customers and early adopters directly into mainstream adoption. The reality, well explained in Geoffrey Moore’s book Crossing the Chasm, is that in order to get across that chasm between the early adopters and the early majority, you need to package that technology into something that is easy for companies to consume.

Now, you put the same SIM in every single device you build and you have one carrier to work with to have coverage in two hundred countries around the world. So the single SIM simplifies device manufacturing, the single SIM allows you to ship that automotive device anywhere you want to go, and when it lands it gets turned on automatically. On the data analysis side of things, one of the major trends is Software as a Service, or SaaS, provided over the cloud. This means that in many cases, M2M solutions don’t have to be integrated into the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system right away. Employees and management can access the data in the cloud from their desktops, laptops, tablets, and smartphones. As we have recently seen, IT departments cannot keep up with the innovation happening in the marketplace that is provided by new SaaS companies and application start-ups.


pages: 400 words: 88,647

Frugal Innovation: How to Do Better With Less by Jaideep Prabhu Navi Radjou

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bretton Woods, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Computer Numeric Control, connected car, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, financial exclusion, financial innovation, global supply chain, IKEA effect, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, low cost airline, low cost carrier, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, precision agriculture, race to the bottom, reshoring, risk tolerance, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, standardized shipping container, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, women in the workforce, X Prize, yield management, Zipcar

“It’s usually good news for the customer because they’re getting their products or services quicker and at a lower price,” she says.9 Levi Strauss & Co, a clothing company, uses advanced technology to manage its supply chain – which includes product development, demand and supply planning, manufacturing and logistics – to ensure real-time visibility of products that move through its complex, multi-tiered supply chain network. In this way, the company can accurately forecast demand and supply, react faster and better to market conditions, maintain lower stock levels and keep costs down. A frugal services revolution GAPPAA.ORG Companies are finding new, highly effective and affordable ways to deliver services or services bundled with products. Such business models include: software as a service (SaaS) in computing; power by the hour in aircraft engines; massive open online courses (MOOCs) in education; hub-and-spoke and yield management models in airlines; online retailing; and cloud computing. By flexing their assets, airlines such as Southwest Airlines, easyJet and Ryanair have created a new, low-cost market segment for flyers within the US and Europe, and have succeeded in challenging long-haul incumbents.

MacArthur Foundation 14 John Deere 67 John Lewis 195 Johnson & Johnson 100, 111 Johnson, Warren 98 Jones, Don 112 jugaad (frugal ingenuity) 199, 202 Jugaad Innovation (Radjou, Prabhu and Ahuja, 2012) xvii, 17 just-in-time design 33–4 K Kaeser, Joe 217 Kalanick, Travis 163 Kalundborg (Denmark) 160 kanju 201 Karkal, Shamir 124 Kaufman, Ben 50–1, 126 Kawai, Daisuke 29–30 Kelly, John 199–200 Kennedy, President John 138 Kenya 57, 200–1 key performance indicators see KPIs Khan Academy 16–17, 113–14, 164 Khan, Salman (Sal) 16–17, 113–14 Kickstarter 17, 48, 137, 138 KieranTimberlake 196 Kimberly-Clark 25, 145 Kingfisher 86–7, 91, 97, 157, 158–9, 185–6, 192–3, 208 KissKissBankBank 17, 137 Knox, Steve 145 Knudstorp, Jørgen Vig 37, 68, 69 Kobori, Michael 83, 100 KPIs (key performance indicators) 38–9, 67, 91–2, 185–6, 208 Kuhndt, Michael 194 Kurniawan, Arie 151–2 L La Chose 108 La Poste 92–3, 157 La Ruche qui dit Oui 137 “labs on a chip” 52 Lacheret, Yves 173–5 Lada 1 laser cutters 134, 166 Laskey, Alex 119 last-mile challenge 57, 146, 156 L’Atelier 168–9 Latin America 161 lattice organisation 63–4 Laury, Véronique 208 Laville, Elisabeth 91 Lawrence, Jamie 185, 192–3, 208 LCA (life-cycle assessment) 196–7 leaders 179, 203–5, 214, 217 lean manufacturing 192 leanness 33–4, 41, 42, 170, 192 Learnbox 114 learning by doing 173, 179 learning organisations 179 leasing 123 Lee, Deishin 159 Lego 51, 126 Lego Group 37, 68, 69, 144 Legrand 157 Lenovo 56 Leroy, Adolphe 127 Leroy Merlin 127–8 Leslie, Garthen 150–1 Lever, William Hesketh 96 Levi Strauss & Co 60, 82–4, 100, 122–3 Lewis, Dijuana 212 life cycle of buildings 196 see also product life cycle life-cycle assessment (LCA) 196–7 life-cycle costs 12, 24, 196 Lifebuoy soap 95, 97 lifespan of companies 154 lighting 32, 56, 123, 201 “lightweighting” 47 linear development cycles 21, 23 linear model of production 80–1 Link 131 littleBits 51 Livi, Daniele 88 Livi, Vittorio 88 local communities 52, 57, 146, 206–7 local markets 183–4 Local Motors 52, 129, 152 local solutions 188, 201–2 local sourcing 51–2, 56, 137, 174, 181 localisation 56, 137 Locavesting (Cortese, 2011) 138 Logan car 2–3, 12, 179, 198–9 logistics 46, 57–8, 161, 191, 207 longevity 121, 124 Lopez, Maribel 65–6 Lopez Research 65–6 L’Oréal 174 Los Alamos National Laboratory 170 low-cost airlines 60, 121 low-cost innovation 11 low-income markets 12–13, 161, 203, 207 Lowry, Adam 81–2 M m-health 109, 111–12 M-KOPA 201 M-Pesa 57, 201 M3D 48, 132 McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry (MBDC) 84 McDonough, William 82 McGregor, Douglas 63 MacGyvers 17–18, 130, 134, 167 McKelvey, Jim 135 McKinsey & Company 81, 87, 209 mainstream, frugal products in 216 maintenance 66, 75, 76, 124, 187 costs 48–9, 66 Mainwaring, Simon 8 Maistre, Christophe de 187–8, 216 Maker Faire 18, 133–4 Maker platform 70 makers 18, 133–4, 145 manufacturing 20th-century model 46, 55, 80–1 additive 47–9 continuous 44–5 costs 47, 48, 52 decentralised 9, 44, 51–2 frugal 44–54 integration with logistics 57–8 new approaches 50–4 social 50–1 subtractive method 48 tools for 47, 47–50 Margarine Unie 96 market 15, 28, 38, 64, 186, 189, 192 R&D and 21, 26, 33, 34 market research 25, 61, 139, 141 market share 100 marketing 21–2, 24, 36, 61–3, 91, 116–20, 131, 139 and R&D 34, 37, 37–8 marketing teams 143, 150 markets 12–13, 42, 62, 215 see also emerging markets Marks & Spencer (M&S) 97, 215 Plan A 90, 156, 179–81, 183–4, 186–7, 214 Marriott 140 Mars 57, 158–9, 161 Martin Marietta 159 Martin, Tod 154 mass customisation 9, 46, 47, 48, 57–8 mass market 189 mass marketing 21–2 mass production 9, 46, 57, 58, 74, 129, 196 Massachusetts Institute of Technology see MIT massive open online courses see MOOCs materials 3, 47, 48, 73, 92, 161 costs 153, 161, 190 recyclable 74, 81, 196 recycled 77, 81–2, 83, 86, 89, 183, 193 renewable 77, 86 repurposing 93 see also C2C; reuse Mayhew, Stephen 35, 36 Mazoyer, Eric 90 Mazzella, Frédéric 163 MBDC (McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry) 84 MDI 16 measurable goals 185–6 Mechanical Engineer Laboratory (MEL) 52 “MEcosystems” 154–5, 156–8 Medicare 110 medication 111–12 Medicity 211 MedStartr 17 MEL (Mechanical Engineer Laboratory) 52 mental models 2, 193–203, 206, 216 Mercure 173 Merlin, Rose 127 Mestrallet, Gérard 53, 54 method (company) 81–2 Mexico 38, 56 Michelin 160 micro-factories 51–2, 52, 66, 129, 152 micro-robots 52 Microsoft 38 Microsoft Kinect 130 Microsoft Word 24 middle classes 197–8, 216 Migicovsky, Eric 137–8 Mikkiche, Karim 199 millennials 7, 14, 17, 131–2, 137, 141, 142 MindCET 165 miniaturisation 52, 53–4 Mint.com 125 MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 44–5, 107, 130, 134, 202 mobile health see m-health mobile phones 24, 32, 61, 129–30, 130, 168, 174 emerging market use 198 infrastructure 56, 198 see also smartphones mobile production units 66–7 mobile technologies 16, 17, 103, 133, 174, 200–1, 207 Mocana 151 Mochon, Daniel 132 modular design 67, 90 modular production units 66–7 Modularer Querbaukasten see MQB “mompreneurs” 145 Mondelez 158–9 Money Dashboard 125 Moneythink 162 monitoring 65–6, 106, 131 Monopoly 144 MOOCs (massive open online courses) 60, 61, 112, 113, 114, 164 Morieux, Yves 64 Morocco 207 Morris, Robert 199–200 motivation, employees 178, 180, 186, 192, 205–8 motivational approaches to shaping consumer behaviour 105–6 Motorola 56 MQB (Modularer Querbaukasten) 44, 45–6 Mulally, Alan 70, 166 Mulcahy, Simon 157 Mulliez family 126–7 Mulliez, Vianney 13, 126 multi-nodal innovation 202–3 Munari, Bruno 93 Murray, Mike 48–9 Musk, Elon 172 N Nano car 119, 156 National Geographic 102 natural capital, loss of 158–9 Natural Capital Leaders Platform 158–9 natural resources 45, 86 depletion 7, 72, 105, 153, 158–9 see also resources NCR 55–6 near-shoring 55 Nelson, Simon 113 Nemo, Sophie-Noëlle 93 Nest Labs 98–100, 103 Nestlé 31, 44, 68, 78, 94, 158–9, 194, 195 NetPositive plan 86, 208 networking 152–3, 153 new materials 47, 92 New Matter 132 new technologies 21, 27 Newtopia 32 next-generation customers 121–2 next-generation manufacturing techniques 44–6, 46–7 see also frugal manufacturing Nigeria 152, 197–8 Nike 84 NineSigma 151 Nissan 4, 4–5, 44, 199 see also Renault-Nissan non-governmental organisations 167 non-profit organisations 161, 162, 202 Nooyi, Indra 217 Norman, Donald 120 Norris, Greg 196 North American companies 216–17 North American market 22 Northrup Grumman 68 Norton, Michael 132 Norway 103 Novartis 44–5, 215 Novotel 173, 174 nudging 100, 108, 111, 117, 162 Nussbaum, Bruce 140 O O2 147 Obama, President Barack 6, 8, 13, 134, 138, 208 obsolescence, planned 24, 121 offshoring 55 Oh, Amy 145 Ohayon, Elie 71–2 Oliver Wyman 22 Olocco, Gregory 206 O’Marah, Kevin 58 on-demand services 39, 124 online communities 31, 50, 61, 134 online marketing 143 online retailing 60, 132 onshoring 55 Opel 4 open innovation 104, 151, 152, 153, 154 open-source approach 48, 129, 134, 135, 172 open-source hardware 51, 52, 89, 130, 135, 139 open-source software 48, 130, 132, 144–5, 167 OpenIDEO 142 operating costs 45, 215 Opower 103, 109, 119 Orange 157 Orbitz 173 organisational change 36–7, 90–1, 176, 177–90, 203–8, 213–14, 216 business models 190–3 mental models 193–203 organisational culture 36–7, 170, 176, 177–9, 213–14, 217 efficacy focus 181–3 entrepreneurial 76, 173 see also organisational change organisational structure 63–5, 69 outsourcing 59, 143, 146 over-engineering 27, 42, 170 Overby, Christine 25 ownership 9 Oxylane Group 127 P P&G (Procter & Gamble) 19, 31, 58, 94, 117, 123, 145, 195 packaging 57, 96, 195 Page, Larry 63 “pain points” 29, 30, 31 Palmer, Michael 212 Palo Alto Junior League 20 ParkatmyHouse 17, 63, 85 Parker, Philip 61 participation, customers 128–9 partner ecosystems 153, 154, 200 partners 65, 72, 148, 153, 156–8 sharing data with 59–60 see also distributors; hyper-collaboration; suppliers Partners in Care Foundation 202 partnerships 41, 42, 152–3, 156–7, 171–2, 174, 191 with SMBs 173, 174, 175 with start-ups 20, 164–5, 175 with suppliers 192–3 see also hyper-collaboration patents 171–2 Payne, Alex 124 PE International 196 Pearson 164–5, 167, 181–3, 186, 215 Pebble 137–8 peer-to-peer economic model 10 peer-to-peer lending 10 peer-to-peer sales 60 peer-to-peer sharing 136–7 Pélisson, Gérard 172–3 PepsiCo 38, 40, 179, 190, 194, 215 performance 47, 73, 77, 80, 95 of employees 69 Pernod Ricard 157 personalisation 9, 45, 46, 48, 62, 129–30, 132, 149 Peters, Tom 21 pharmaceutical industry 13, 22, 23, 33, 58, 171, 181 continuous manufacturing 44–6 see also GSK Philippines 191 Philips 56, 84, 100, 123 Philips Lighting 32 Picaud, Philippe 122 Piggy Mojo 119 piggybacking 57 Piketty, Thomas 6 Plan A (M&S) 90, 156, 179–81, 183–4, 186–7, 214 Planet 21 (Accor) 174–5 planned obsolescence 24, 121 Plastyc 17 Plumridge, Rupert 18 point-of-sale data 58 Poland 103 pollution 74, 78, 87, 116, 187, 200 Polman, Paul 11, 72, 77, 94, 203–5, 217 portfolio management tools 27, 33 Portugal 55, 103 postponement 57–8 Potočnik, Janez 8, 79 Prabhu, Arun 25 Prahalad, C.K. 12 predictive analytics 32–3 predictive maintenance 66, 67–8 Priceline 173 pricing 81, 117 processes digitising 65–6 entrenched 14–16 re-engineering 74 simplifying 169, 173 Procter & Gamble see P&G procurement priorities 67–8 product life cycle 21, 75, 92, 186 costs 12, 24, 196 sustainability 73–5 product-sharing initiatives 87 production costs 9, 83 productivity 49, 59, 65, 79–80, 153 staff 14 profit 14, 105 Progressive 100, 116 Project Ara 130 promotion 61–3 Propeller Health 111 prosumers xix–xx, 17–18, 125, 126–33, 136–7, 148, 154 empowering and engaging 139–46 see also horizontal economy Protomax 159 prototypes 31–2, 50, 144, 152 prototyping 42, 52, 65, 152, 167, 192, 206 public 50–1, 215 public sector, working with 161–2 publishers 17, 61 Pullman 173 Puma 194 purchasing power 5–6, 216 pyramidal model of production 51 pyramidal organisations 69 Q Qarnot Computing 89 Qualcomm 84 Qualcomm Life 112 quality 3, 11–12, 15, 24, 45, 49, 82, 206, 216 high 1, 9, 93, 198, 216 measure of 105 versus quantity 8, 23 quality of life 8, 204 Quicken 19–21 Quirky 50–1, 126, 150–1, 152 R R&D 35, 67, 92, 151 big-ticket programmes 35–6 and business development 37–8 China 40, 188, 206 customer focus 27, 39, 43 frugal approach 12, 26–33, 82 global networks 39–40 incentives 38–9 industrial model 2, 21–6, 33, 36, 42 market-focused, agile model 26–33 and marketing 34, 37, 37–8 recommendations for managers 34–41 speed 23, 27, 34, 149 spending 15, 22, 23, 28, 141, 149, 152, 171, 187 technology culture 14–15, 38–9 see also Air Liquide; Ford; GSK; IBM; immersion; Renault; SNCF; Tarkett; Unilever R&D labs 9, 21–6, 70, 149, 218 in emerging markets 40, 188, 200 R&D teams 26, 34, 38–9, 65, 127, 150, 194–5 hackers as 142 innovation brokering 168 shaping customer behaviour 120–2 Raspberry Pi 135–6, 164 Ratti, Carlo 107 raw materials see materials real-time demand signals 58, 59 Rebours, Christophe 157–8 recession 5–6, 6, 46, 131, 180 Reckitt Benckiser 102 recommendations for managers flexing assets 65–71 R&D 34–41 shaping consumer behaviour 116–24 sustainability 90–3 recruiting 70–1 recyclable materials 74, 81, 196 recyclable products 3, 73, 159, 195–6 recycled materials 77, 81–2, 83, 86, 89, 183, 193 recycling 8, 9, 87, 93, 142, 159 e-waste 87–8 electronic and electrical goods (EU) 8, 79 by Tarkett 73–7 water 83, 175 see also C2C; circular economy Recy’Go 92–3 regional champions 182 regulation 7–8, 13, 78–9, 103, 216 Reich, Joshua 124 RelayRides 17 Renault 1–5, 12, 117, 156–7, 179 Renault-Nissan 4–5, 40, 198–9, 215 renewable energy 8, 53, 74, 86, 91, 136, 142, 196 renewable materials 77, 86 Replicator 132 repurposing 93 Requardt, Hermann 189 reshoring 55–6 resource constraints 4–5, 217 resource efficiency 7–8, 46, 47–9, 79, 190 Resource Revolution (Heck, Rogers and Carroll, 2014) 87–8 resources 40, 42, 73, 86, 197, 199 consumption 9, 26, 73–7, 101–2 costs 78, 203 depletion 7, 72, 105, 153, 158–9 reducing use 45, 52, 65, 73–7, 104, 199, 203 saving 72, 77, 200 scarcity 22, 46, 72, 73, 77–8, 80, 158–9, 190, 203 sharing 56–7, 159–61, 167 substitution 92 wasting 169–70 retailers 56, 129, 214 “big-box” 9, 18, 137 Rethink Robotics 49 return on investment 22, 197 reuse 9, 73, 76–7, 81, 84–5, 92–3, 200 see also C2C revenues, generating 77, 167, 180 reverse innovation 202–3 rewards 37, 178, 208 Riboud, Franck 66, 184, 217 Rifkin, Jeremy 9–10 robots 47, 49–50, 70, 144–5, 150 Rock Health 151 Rogers, Jay 129 Rogers, Matt 87–8 Romania 2–3, 103 rookie mindset 164, 168 Rose, Stuart 179–80, 180 Roulin, Anne 195 Ryan, Eric 81–2 Ryanair 60 S S-Oil 106 SaaS (software as a service) 60 Saatchi & Saatchi 70–1 Saatchi & Saatchi + Duke 71–2, 143 sales function 15, 21, 25–6, 36, 116–18, 146 Salesforce.com 157 Santi, Paolo 108 SAP 59, 186 Saunders, Charles 211 savings 115 Sawa Orchards 29–31 Scandinavian countries 6–7 see also Norway Schmidt, Eric 136 Schneider Electric 150 Schulman, Dan 161–2 Schumacher, E.F. 104–5, 105 Schweitzer, Louis 1, 2, 3, 4, 179 SCM (supply chain management) systems 59 SCOR (supply chain operations reference) model 67 Seattle 107 SEB 157 self-sufficiency 8 selling less 123–4 senior managers 122–4, 199 see also CEOs; organisational change sensors 65–6, 106, 118, 135, 201 services 9, 41–3, 67–8, 124, 149 frugal 60–3, 216 value-added 62–3, 76, 150, 206, 209 Shapeways 51, 132 shareholders 14, 15, 76, 123–4, 180, 204–5 sharing 9–10, 193 assets 159–61, 167 customers 156–8 ideas 63–4 intellectual assets 171–2 knowledge 153 peer-to-peer 136–9 resources 56–7, 159–61, 167 sharing economy 9–10, 17, 57, 77, 80, 84–7, 108, 124 peer-to-peer sharing 136–9 sharing between companies 159–60 shipping costs 55, 59 shopping experience 121–2 SIEH hotel group 172–3 Siemens 117–18, 150, 187–9, 215, 216 Sigismondi, Pier Luigi 100 Silicon Valley 42, 98, 109, 150, 151, 162, 175 silos, breaking out of 36–7 Simple Bank 124–5 simplicity 8, 41, 64–5, 170, 194 Singapore 175 Six Sigma 11 Skillshare 85 SkyPlus 62 Small is Beautiful (Schumacher, 1973) 104–5 “small is beautiful” values 8 small and medium-sized businesses see SMBs Smart + Connected Communities 29 SMART car 119–20 SMART strategy (Siemens) 188–9 smartphones 17, 100, 106, 118, 130, 131, 135, 198 in health care 110, 111 see also apps SmartScan 29 SMBs (small and medium-sized businesses) 173, 174, 175, 176 SMS-based systems 42–3 SnapShot 116 SNCF 41–3, 156–7, 167 SoapBox 28–9 social business model 206–7 social comparison 109 social development 14 social goals 94 social learning 113 social manufacturing 47, 50–1 social media 16, 71, 85, 106, 108, 168, 174 for marketing 61, 62, 143 mining 29, 58 social pressure of 119 tools 109, 141 and transaction costs 133 see also Facebook; social networks; Twitter social networks 29, 71, 72, 132–3, 145, 146 see also Facebook; Twitter social pressure 119 social problems 82, 101–2, 141, 142, 153, 161–2, 204 social responsibility 7, 10, 14, 141, 142, 197, 204 corporate 77, 82, 94, 161 social sector, working with 161–2 “social tinkerers” 134–5 socialising education 112–14 Sofitel 173 software 72 software as a service (SaaS) 60 solar power 136, 201 sourcing, local 51–2, 56 Southwest Airlines 60 Spain 5, 6, 103 Spark 48 speed dating 175, 176 spending, on R&D 15, 22, 23, 28, 141, 149, 152, 171, 187 spiral economy 77, 87–90 SRI International 49, 52 staff see employees Stampanato, Gary 55 standards 78, 196 Starbucks 7, 140 start-ups 16–17, 40–1, 61, 89, 110, 145, 148, 150, 169, 216 investing in 137–8, 157 as partners 42, 72, 153, 175, 191, 206 see also Nest Labs; Silicon Valley Statoil 160 Steelcase 142 Stem 151 Stepner, Diana 165 Stewart, Emma 196–7 Stewart, Osamuyimen 201–2 Sto Corp 84 Stora Enso 195 storytelling 112, 113 Strategy& see Booz & Company Subramanian, Prabhu 114 substitution of resources 92 subtractive manufacturing 48 Sun Tzu 158 suppliers 67–8, 83, 148, 153, 167, 176, 192–3 collaboration with 76, 155–6 sharing with 59–60, 91 visibility 59–60 supply chain management see SCM supply chain operations reference (SCOR) model 67 supply chains 34, 36, 54, 65, 107, 137, 192–3 carbon footprint 156 costs 58, 84 decentralisation 66–7 frugal 54–60 integrating 161 small-circuit 137 sustainability 137 visibility 34, 59–60 support 135, 152 sustainability xix, 9, 12, 72, 77–80, 82, 97, 186 certification 84 as competitive advantage 80 consumers and 95, 97, 101–4 core design principle 82–4, 93, 195–6 and growth 76, 80, 104–5 perceptions of 15–16, 80, 91 recommendations for managers 90–3 regulatory demand for 78–9, 216 standard bearers of 80, 97, 215 see also Accor; circular economy; Kingfisher; Marks & Spencer; Tarkett; Unilever sustainable design 82–4 see also C2C sustainable distribution 57, 161 sustainable growth 72, 76–7 sustainable lifestyles 107–8 Sustainable Living Plan (Unilever) 94–7, 179, 203–4 sustainable manufacturing 9, 52 T “T-shaped” employees 70–1 take-back programmes 9, 75, 77, 78 Tally 196–7 Tarkett 73–7, 80, 84 TaskRabbit 85 Tata Motors 16, 119 Taylor, Frederick 71 technical design 37–8 technical support, by customers 146 technology 2, 14–15, 21–2, 26, 27 TechShop 9, 70, 134–5, 152, 166–7 telecoms sector 53, 56 Telefónica 147 telematic monitoring 116 Ternois, Laurence 42 Tesco 102 Tesla Motors 92, 172 testing 28, 42, 141, 170, 192 Texas Industries 159 Textoris, Vincent 127 TGV Lab 42–3 thermostats 98–100 thinking, entrenched 14–16 Thompson, Gav 147 Timberland 90 time 4, 7, 11, 41, 72, 129, 170, 200 constraints 36, 42 see also development cycle tinkerers 17–18, 133–5, 144, 150, 152, 153, 165–7, 168 TiVo 62 Tohamy, Noha 59–60 top-down change 177–8 top-down management 69 Total 157 total quality management (TQM) 11 total volatile organic compounds see TVOC Toyota 44, 100 Toyota Sweden 106–7 TQM (total quality management) 11 traffic 108, 116, 201 training 76, 93, 152, 167, 170, 189 transaction costs 133 transparency 178, 185 transport 46, 57, 96, 156–7 Transport for London 195 TrashTrack 107 Travelocity 174 trial and error 173, 179 Trout, Bernhardt 45 trust 7, 37, 143 TVOC (total volatile organic compounds) 74, 77 Twitter 29, 62, 135, 143, 147 U Uber 136, 163 Ubuntu 202 Uchiyama, Shunichi 50 UCLA Health 202–3 Udacity 61, 112 UK 194 budget cuts 6 consumer empowerment 103 industrial symbiosis 160 savings 115 sharing 85, 138 “un-management” 63–4, 64 Unboundary 154 Unilever 11, 31, 57, 97, 100, 142, 203–5, 215 and sustainability 94–7, 104, 179, 203–4 University of Cambridge Engineering Design Centre (EDC) 194–5 Inclusive Design team 31 Institute for Sustainability Leadership (CISL) 158–9 upcycling 77, 88–9, 93, 159 upselling 189 Upton, Eben 135–6 US 8, 38, 44, 87, 115, 133, 188 access to financial services 13, 17, 161–2 ageing population 194 ageing workforce 13 commuting 131 consumer spending 5, 6, 103 crowdfunding 137–8, 138 economic pressures 5, 6 energy use 103, 119, 196 environmental awareness 7, 102 frugal innovation in 215–16, 218 health care 13, 110, 208–13, 213 intellectual property 171 onshoring 55 regulation 8, 78, 216 sharing 85, 138–9 shifting production from China to 55, 56 tinkering culture 18, 133–4 user communities 62, 89 user interfaces 98, 99 user-friendliness 194 Utopies 91 V validators 144 value 11, 132, 177, 186, 189–90 aspirational 88–9 to customers 6–7, 21, 77, 87, 131, 203 from employees 217 shareholder value 14 value chains 9, 80, 128–9, 143, 159–60, 190, 215 value engineering 192 “value gap” 54–5 value-added services 62–3, 76, 150, 206, 209 values 6–7, 14, 178, 205 Vandebroek, Sophie 169 Vasanthakumar, Vaithegi 182–3 Vats, Tanmaya 190, 192 vehicle fleets, sharing 57, 161 Verbaken, Joop 118 vertical integration 133, 154 virtual prototyping 65 virtuous cycle 212–13 visibility 34, 59–60 visible learning 112–13 visioning sessions 193–4 visualisation 106–8 Vitality 111 Volac 158–9 Volkswagen 4, 44, 45–6, 129, 144 Volvo 62 W wage costs 48 wages, in emerging markets 55 Waitrose, local suppliers 56 Walker, James 87 walking the walk 122–3 Waller, Sam 195 Walmart 9, 18, 56, 162, 216 Walton, Sam 9 Wan Jia 144 Washington DC 123 waste 24, 87–9, 107, 159–60, 175, 192, 196 beautifying 88–9, 93 e-waste 24, 79, 87–8, 121 of energy 119 post-consumer 9, 75, 77, 78, 83 reducing 47, 74, 85, 96, 180, 209 of resources 169–70 in US health-care system 209 see also C2C; recycling; reuse water 78, 83, 104, 106, 158, 175, 188, 206 water consumption 79, 82–3, 100, 196 reducing 74, 75, 79, 104, 122–3, 174, 183 wealth 105, 218 Wear It Share It (Wishi) 85 Weijmarshausen, Peter 51 well-being 104–5 Wham-O 56 Whirlpool 36 “wicked” problems 153 wireless technologies 65–6 Wiseman, Liz 164 Wishi (Wear It Share It) 85 Witty, Andrew 35, 35–6, 37, 39, 217 W.L.

MacArthur Foundation 14 John Deere 67 John Lewis 195 Johnson & Johnson 100, 111 Johnson, Warren 98 Jones, Don 112 jugaad (frugal ingenuity) 199, 202 Jugaad Innovation (Radjou, Prabhu and Ahuja, 2012) xvii, 17 just-in-time design 33–4 K Kaeser, Joe 217 Kalanick, Travis 163 Kalundborg (Denmark) 160 kanju 201 Karkal, Shamir 124 Kaufman, Ben 50–1, 126 Kawai, Daisuke 29–30 Kelly, John 199–200 Kennedy, President John 138 Kenya 57, 200–1 key performance indicators see KPIs Khan Academy 16–17, 113–14, 164 Khan, Salman (Sal) 16–17, 113–14 Kickstarter 17, 48, 137, 138 KieranTimberlake 196 Kimberly-Clark 25, 145 Kingfisher 86–7, 91, 97, 157, 158–9, 185–6, 192–3, 208 KissKissBankBank 17, 137 Knox, Steve 145 Knudstorp, Jørgen Vig 37, 68, 69 Kobori, Michael 83, 100 KPIs (key performance indicators) 38–9, 67, 91–2, 185–6, 208 Kuhndt, Michael 194 Kurniawan, Arie 151–2 L La Chose 108 La Poste 92–3, 157 La Ruche qui dit Oui 137 “labs on a chip” 52 Lacheret, Yves 173–5 Lada 1 laser cutters 134, 166 Laskey, Alex 119 last-mile challenge 57, 146, 156 L’Atelier 168–9 Latin America 161 lattice organisation 63–4 Laury, Véronique 208 Laville, Elisabeth 91 Lawrence, Jamie 185, 192–3, 208 LCA (life-cycle assessment) 196–7 leaders 179, 203–5, 214, 217 lean manufacturing 192 leanness 33–4, 41, 42, 170, 192 Learnbox 114 learning by doing 173, 179 learning organisations 179 leasing 123 Lee, Deishin 159 Lego 51, 126 Lego Group 37, 68, 69, 144 Legrand 157 Lenovo 56 Leroy, Adolphe 127 Leroy Merlin 127–8 Leslie, Garthen 150–1 Lever, William Hesketh 96 Levi Strauss & Co 60, 82–4, 100, 122–3 Lewis, Dijuana 212 life cycle of buildings 196 see also product life cycle life-cycle assessment (LCA) 196–7 life-cycle costs 12, 24, 196 Lifebuoy soap 95, 97 lifespan of companies 154 lighting 32, 56, 123, 201 “lightweighting” 47 linear development cycles 21, 23 linear model of production 80–1 Link 131 littleBits 51 Livi, Daniele 88 Livi, Vittorio 88 local communities 52, 57, 146, 206–7 local markets 183–4 Local Motors 52, 129, 152 local solutions 188, 201–2 local sourcing 51–2, 56, 137, 174, 181 localisation 56, 137 Locavesting (Cortese, 2011) 138 Logan car 2–3, 12, 179, 198–9 logistics 46, 57–8, 161, 191, 207 longevity 121, 124 Lopez, Maribel 65–6 Lopez Research 65–6 L’Oréal 174 Los Alamos National Laboratory 170 low-cost airlines 60, 121 low-cost innovation 11 low-income markets 12–13, 161, 203, 207 Lowry, Adam 81–2 M m-health 109, 111–12 M-KOPA 201 M-Pesa 57, 201 M3D 48, 132 McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry (MBDC) 84 McDonough, William 82 McGregor, Douglas 63 MacGyvers 17–18, 130, 134, 167 McKelvey, Jim 135 McKinsey & Company 81, 87, 209 mainstream, frugal products in 216 maintenance 66, 75, 76, 124, 187 costs 48–9, 66 Mainwaring, Simon 8 Maistre, Christophe de 187–8, 216 Maker Faire 18, 133–4 Maker platform 70 makers 18, 133–4, 145 manufacturing 20th-century model 46, 55, 80–1 additive 47–9 continuous 44–5 costs 47, 48, 52 decentralised 9, 44, 51–2 frugal 44–54 integration with logistics 57–8 new approaches 50–4 social 50–1 subtractive method 48 tools for 47, 47–50 Margarine Unie 96 market 15, 28, 38, 64, 186, 189, 192 R&D and 21, 26, 33, 34 market research 25, 61, 139, 141 market share 100 marketing 21–2, 24, 36, 61–3, 91, 116–20, 131, 139 and R&D 34, 37, 37–8 marketing teams 143, 150 markets 12–13, 42, 62, 215 see also emerging markets Marks & Spencer (M&S) 97, 215 Plan A 90, 156, 179–81, 183–4, 186–7, 214 Marriott 140 Mars 57, 158–9, 161 Martin Marietta 159 Martin, Tod 154 mass customisation 9, 46, 47, 48, 57–8 mass market 189 mass marketing 21–2 mass production 9, 46, 57, 58, 74, 129, 196 Massachusetts Institute of Technology see MIT massive open online courses see MOOCs materials 3, 47, 48, 73, 92, 161 costs 153, 161, 190 recyclable 74, 81, 196 recycled 77, 81–2, 83, 86, 89, 183, 193 renewable 77, 86 repurposing 93 see also C2C; reuse Mayhew, Stephen 35, 36 Mazoyer, Eric 90 Mazzella, Frédéric 163 MBDC (McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry) 84 MDI 16 measurable goals 185–6 Mechanical Engineer Laboratory (MEL) 52 “MEcosystems” 154–5, 156–8 Medicare 110 medication 111–12 Medicity 211 MedStartr 17 MEL (Mechanical Engineer Laboratory) 52 mental models 2, 193–203, 206, 216 Mercure 173 Merlin, Rose 127 Mestrallet, Gérard 53, 54 method (company) 81–2 Mexico 38, 56 Michelin 160 micro-factories 51–2, 52, 66, 129, 152 micro-robots 52 Microsoft 38 Microsoft Kinect 130 Microsoft Word 24 middle classes 197–8, 216 Migicovsky, Eric 137–8 Mikkiche, Karim 199 millennials 7, 14, 17, 131–2, 137, 141, 142 MindCET 165 miniaturisation 52, 53–4 Mint.com 125 MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) 44–5, 107, 130, 134, 202 mobile health see m-health mobile phones 24, 32, 61, 129–30, 130, 168, 174 emerging market use 198 infrastructure 56, 198 see also smartphones mobile production units 66–7 mobile technologies 16, 17, 103, 133, 174, 200–1, 207 Mocana 151 Mochon, Daniel 132 modular design 67, 90 modular production units 66–7 Modularer Querbaukasten see MQB “mompreneurs” 145 Mondelez 158–9 Money Dashboard 125 Moneythink 162 monitoring 65–6, 106, 131 Monopoly 144 MOOCs (massive open online courses) 60, 61, 112, 113, 114, 164 Morieux, Yves 64 Morocco 207 Morris, Robert 199–200 motivation, employees 178, 180, 186, 192, 205–8 motivational approaches to shaping consumer behaviour 105–6 Motorola 56 MQB (Modularer Querbaukasten) 44, 45–6 Mulally, Alan 70, 166 Mulcahy, Simon 157 Mulliez family 126–7 Mulliez, Vianney 13, 126 multi-nodal innovation 202–3 Munari, Bruno 93 Murray, Mike 48–9 Musk, Elon 172 N Nano car 119, 156 National Geographic 102 natural capital, loss of 158–9 Natural Capital Leaders Platform 158–9 natural resources 45, 86 depletion 7, 72, 105, 153, 158–9 see also resources NCR 55–6 near-shoring 55 Nelson, Simon 113 Nemo, Sophie-Noëlle 93 Nest Labs 98–100, 103 Nestlé 31, 44, 68, 78, 94, 158–9, 194, 195 NetPositive plan 86, 208 networking 152–3, 153 new materials 47, 92 New Matter 132 new technologies 21, 27 Newtopia 32 next-generation customers 121–2 next-generation manufacturing techniques 44–6, 46–7 see also frugal manufacturing Nigeria 152, 197–8 Nike 84 NineSigma 151 Nissan 4, 4–5, 44, 199 see also Renault-Nissan non-governmental organisations 167 non-profit organisations 161, 162, 202 Nooyi, Indra 217 Norman, Donald 120 Norris, Greg 196 North American companies 216–17 North American market 22 Northrup Grumman 68 Norton, Michael 132 Norway 103 Novartis 44–5, 215 Novotel 173, 174 nudging 100, 108, 111, 117, 162 Nussbaum, Bruce 140 O O2 147 Obama, President Barack 6, 8, 13, 134, 138, 208 obsolescence, planned 24, 121 offshoring 55 Oh, Amy 145 Ohayon, Elie 71–2 Oliver Wyman 22 Olocco, Gregory 206 O’Marah, Kevin 58 on-demand services 39, 124 online communities 31, 50, 61, 134 online marketing 143 online retailing 60, 132 onshoring 55 Opel 4 open innovation 104, 151, 152, 153, 154 open-source approach 48, 129, 134, 135, 172 open-source hardware 51, 52, 89, 130, 135, 139 open-source software 48, 130, 132, 144–5, 167 OpenIDEO 142 operating costs 45, 215 Opower 103, 109, 119 Orange 157 Orbitz 173 organisational change 36–7, 90–1, 176, 177–90, 203–8, 213–14, 216 business models 190–3 mental models 193–203 organisational culture 36–7, 170, 176, 177–9, 213–14, 217 efficacy focus 181–3 entrepreneurial 76, 173 see also organisational change organisational structure 63–5, 69 outsourcing 59, 143, 146 over-engineering 27, 42, 170 Overby, Christine 25 ownership 9 Oxylane Group 127 P P&G (Procter & Gamble) 19, 31, 58, 94, 117, 123, 145, 195 packaging 57, 96, 195 Page, Larry 63 “pain points” 29, 30, 31 Palmer, Michael 212 Palo Alto Junior League 20 ParkatmyHouse 17, 63, 85 Parker, Philip 61 participation, customers 128–9 partner ecosystems 153, 154, 200 partners 65, 72, 148, 153, 156–8 sharing data with 59–60 see also distributors; hyper-collaboration; suppliers Partners in Care Foundation 202 partnerships 41, 42, 152–3, 156–7, 171–2, 174, 191 with SMBs 173, 174, 175 with start-ups 20, 164–5, 175 with suppliers 192–3 see also hyper-collaboration patents 171–2 Payne, Alex 124 PE International 196 Pearson 164–5, 167, 181–3, 186, 215 Pebble 137–8 peer-to-peer economic model 10 peer-to-peer lending 10 peer-to-peer sales 60 peer-to-peer sharing 136–7 Pélisson, Gérard 172–3 PepsiCo 38, 40, 179, 190, 194, 215 performance 47, 73, 77, 80, 95 of employees 69 Pernod Ricard 157 personalisation 9, 45, 46, 48, 62, 129–30, 132, 149 Peters, Tom 21 pharmaceutical industry 13, 22, 23, 33, 58, 171, 181 continuous manufacturing 44–6 see also GSK Philippines 191 Philips 56, 84, 100, 123 Philips Lighting 32 Picaud, Philippe 122 Piggy Mojo 119 piggybacking 57 Piketty, Thomas 6 Plan A (M&S) 90, 156, 179–81, 183–4, 186–7, 214 Planet 21 (Accor) 174–5 planned obsolescence 24, 121 Plastyc 17 Plumridge, Rupert 18 point-of-sale data 58 Poland 103 pollution 74, 78, 87, 116, 187, 200 Polman, Paul 11, 72, 77, 94, 203–5, 217 portfolio management tools 27, 33 Portugal 55, 103 postponement 57–8 Potočnik, Janez 8, 79 Prabhu, Arun 25 Prahalad, C.K. 12 predictive analytics 32–3 predictive maintenance 66, 67–8 Priceline 173 pricing 81, 117 processes digitising 65–6 entrenched 14–16 re-engineering 74 simplifying 169, 173 Procter & Gamble see P&G procurement priorities 67–8 product life cycle 21, 75, 92, 186 costs 12, 24, 196 sustainability 73–5 product-sharing initiatives 87 production costs 9, 83 productivity 49, 59, 65, 79–80, 153 staff 14 profit 14, 105 Progressive 100, 116 Project Ara 130 promotion 61–3 Propeller Health 111 prosumers xix–xx, 17–18, 125, 126–33, 136–7, 148, 154 empowering and engaging 139–46 see also horizontal economy Protomax 159 prototypes 31–2, 50, 144, 152 prototyping 42, 52, 65, 152, 167, 192, 206 public 50–1, 215 public sector, working with 161–2 publishers 17, 61 Pullman 173 Puma 194 purchasing power 5–6, 216 pyramidal model of production 51 pyramidal organisations 69 Q Qarnot Computing 89 Qualcomm 84 Qualcomm Life 112 quality 3, 11–12, 15, 24, 45, 49, 82, 206, 216 high 1, 9, 93, 198, 216 measure of 105 versus quantity 8, 23 quality of life 8, 204 Quicken 19–21 Quirky 50–1, 126, 150–1, 152 R R&D 35, 67, 92, 151 big-ticket programmes 35–6 and business development 37–8 China 40, 188, 206 customer focus 27, 39, 43 frugal approach 12, 26–33, 82 global networks 39–40 incentives 38–9 industrial model 2, 21–6, 33, 36, 42 market-focused, agile model 26–33 and marketing 34, 37, 37–8 recommendations for managers 34–41 speed 23, 27, 34, 149 spending 15, 22, 23, 28, 141, 149, 152, 171, 187 technology culture 14–15, 38–9 see also Air Liquide; Ford; GSK; IBM; immersion; Renault; SNCF; Tarkett; Unilever R&D labs 9, 21–6, 70, 149, 218 in emerging markets 40, 188, 200 R&D teams 26, 34, 38–9, 65, 127, 150, 194–5 hackers as 142 innovation brokering 168 shaping customer behaviour 120–2 Raspberry Pi 135–6, 164 Ratti, Carlo 107 raw materials see materials real-time demand signals 58, 59 Rebours, Christophe 157–8 recession 5–6, 6, 46, 131, 180 Reckitt Benckiser 102 recommendations for managers flexing assets 65–71 R&D 34–41 shaping consumer behaviour 116–24 sustainability 90–3 recruiting 70–1 recyclable materials 74, 81, 196 recyclable products 3, 73, 159, 195–6 recycled materials 77, 81–2, 83, 86, 89, 183, 193 recycling 8, 9, 87, 93, 142, 159 e-waste 87–8 electronic and electrical goods (EU) 8, 79 by Tarkett 73–7 water 83, 175 see also C2C; circular economy Recy’Go 92–3 regional champions 182 regulation 7–8, 13, 78–9, 103, 216 Reich, Joshua 124 RelayRides 17 Renault 1–5, 12, 117, 156–7, 179 Renault-Nissan 4–5, 40, 198–9, 215 renewable energy 8, 53, 74, 86, 91, 136, 142, 196 renewable materials 77, 86 Replicator 132 repurposing 93 Requardt, Hermann 189 reshoring 55–6 resource constraints 4–5, 217 resource efficiency 7–8, 46, 47–9, 79, 190 Resource Revolution (Heck, Rogers and Carroll, 2014) 87–8 resources 40, 42, 73, 86, 197, 199 consumption 9, 26, 73–7, 101–2 costs 78, 203 depletion 7, 72, 105, 153, 158–9 reducing use 45, 52, 65, 73–7, 104, 199, 203 saving 72, 77, 200 scarcity 22, 46, 72, 73, 77–8, 80, 158–9, 190, 203 sharing 56–7, 159–61, 167 substitution 92 wasting 169–70 retailers 56, 129, 214 “big-box” 9, 18, 137 Rethink Robotics 49 return on investment 22, 197 reuse 9, 73, 76–7, 81, 84–5, 92–3, 200 see also C2C revenues, generating 77, 167, 180 reverse innovation 202–3 rewards 37, 178, 208 Riboud, Franck 66, 184, 217 Rifkin, Jeremy 9–10 robots 47, 49–50, 70, 144–5, 150 Rock Health 151 Rogers, Jay 129 Rogers, Matt 87–8 Romania 2–3, 103 rookie mindset 164, 168 Rose, Stuart 179–80, 180 Roulin, Anne 195 Ryan, Eric 81–2 Ryanair 60 S S-Oil 106 SaaS (software as a service) 60 Saatchi & Saatchi 70–1 Saatchi & Saatchi + Duke 71–2, 143 sales function 15, 21, 25–6, 36, 116–18, 146 Salesforce.com 157 Santi, Paolo 108 SAP 59, 186 Saunders, Charles 211 savings 115 Sawa Orchards 29–31 Scandinavian countries 6–7 see also Norway Schmidt, Eric 136 Schneider Electric 150 Schulman, Dan 161–2 Schumacher, E.F. 104–5, 105 Schweitzer, Louis 1, 2, 3, 4, 179 SCM (supply chain management) systems 59 SCOR (supply chain operations reference) model 67 Seattle 107 SEB 157 self-sufficiency 8 selling less 123–4 senior managers 122–4, 199 see also CEOs; organisational change sensors 65–6, 106, 118, 135, 201 services 9, 41–3, 67–8, 124, 149 frugal 60–3, 216 value-added 62–3, 76, 150, 206, 209 Shapeways 51, 132 shareholders 14, 15, 76, 123–4, 180, 204–5 sharing 9–10, 193 assets 159–61, 167 customers 156–8 ideas 63–4 intellectual assets 171–2 knowledge 153 peer-to-peer 136–9 resources 56–7, 159–61, 167 sharing economy 9–10, 17, 57, 77, 80, 84–7, 108, 124 peer-to-peer sharing 136–9 sharing between companies 159–60 shipping costs 55, 59 shopping experience 121–2 SIEH hotel group 172–3 Siemens 117–18, 150, 187–9, 215, 216 Sigismondi, Pier Luigi 100 Silicon Valley 42, 98, 109, 150, 151, 162, 175 silos, breaking out of 36–7 Simple Bank 124–5 simplicity 8, 41, 64–5, 170, 194 Singapore 175 Six Sigma 11 Skillshare 85 SkyPlus 62 Small is Beautiful (Schumacher, 1973) 104–5 “small is beautiful” values 8 small and medium-sized businesses see SMBs Smart + Connected Communities 29 SMART car 119–20 SMART strategy (Siemens) 188–9 smartphones 17, 100, 106, 118, 130, 131, 135, 198 in health care 110, 111 see also apps SmartScan 29 SMBs (small and medium-sized businesses) 173, 174, 175, 176 SMS-based systems 42–3 SnapShot 116 SNCF 41–3, 156–7, 167 SoapBox 28–9 social business model 206–7 social comparison 109 social development 14 social goals 94 social learning 113 social manufacturing 47, 50–1 social media 16, 71, 85, 106, 108, 168, 174 for marketing 61, 62, 143 mining 29, 58 social pressure of 119 tools 109, 141 and transaction costs 133 see also Facebook; social networks; Twitter social networks 29, 71, 72, 132–3, 145, 146 see also Facebook; Twitter social pressure 119 social problems 82, 101–2, 141, 142, 153, 161–2, 204 social responsibility 7, 10, 14, 141, 142, 197, 204 corporate 77, 82, 94, 161 social sector, working with 161–2 “social tinkerers” 134–5 socialising education 112–14 Sofitel 173 software 72 software as a service (SaaS) 60 solar power 136, 201 sourcing, local 51–2, 56 Southwest Airlines 60 Spain 5, 6, 103 Spark 48 speed dating 175, 176 spending, on R&D 15, 22, 23, 28, 141, 149, 152, 171, 187 spiral economy 77, 87–90 SRI International 49, 52 staff see employees Stampanato, Gary 55 standards 78, 196 Starbucks 7, 140 start-ups 16–17, 40–1, 61, 89, 110, 145, 148, 150, 169, 216 investing in 137–8, 157 as partners 42, 72, 153, 175, 191, 206 see also Nest Labs; Silicon Valley Statoil 160 Steelcase 142 Stem 151 Stepner, Diana 165 Stewart, Emma 196–7 Stewart, Osamuyimen 201–2 Sto Corp 84 Stora Enso 195 storytelling 112, 113 Strategy& see Booz & Company Subramanian, Prabhu 114 substitution of resources 92 subtractive manufacturing 48 Sun Tzu 158 suppliers 67–8, 83, 148, 153, 167, 176, 192–3 collaboration with 76, 155–6 sharing with 59–60, 91 visibility 59–60 supply chain management see SCM supply chain operations reference (SCOR) model 67 supply chains 34, 36, 54, 65, 107, 137, 192–3 carbon footprint 156 costs 58, 84 decentralisation 66–7 frugal 54–60 integrating 161 small-circuit 137 sustainability 137 visibility 34, 59–60 support 135, 152 sustainability xix, 9, 12, 72, 77–80, 82, 97, 186 certification 84 as competitive advantage 80 consumers and 95, 97, 101–4 core design principle 82–4, 93, 195–6 and growth 76, 80, 104–5 perceptions of 15–16, 80, 91 recommendations for managers 90–3 regulatory demand for 78–9, 216 standard bearers of 80, 97, 215 see also Accor; circular economy; Kingfisher; Marks & Spencer; Tarkett; Unilever sustainable design 82–4 see also C2C sustainable distribution 57, 161 sustainable growth 72, 76–7 sustainable lifestyles 107–8 Sustainable Living Plan (Unilever) 94–7, 179, 203–4 sustainable manufacturing 9, 52 T “T-shaped” employees 70–1 take-back programmes 9, 75, 77, 78 Tally 196–7 Tarkett 73–7, 80, 84 TaskRabbit 85 Tata Motors 16, 119 Taylor, Frederick 71 technical design 37–8 technical support, by customers 146 technology 2, 14–15, 21–2, 26, 27 TechShop 9, 70, 134–5, 152, 166–7 telecoms sector 53, 56 Telefónica 147 telematic monitoring 116 Ternois, Laurence 42 Tesco 102 Tesla Motors 92, 172 testing 28, 42, 141, 170, 192 Texas Industries 159 Textoris, Vincent 127 TGV Lab 42–3 thermostats 98–100 thinking, entrenched 14–16 Thompson, Gav 147 Timberland 90 time 4, 7, 11, 41, 72, 129, 170, 200 constraints 36, 42 see also development cycle tinkerers 17–18, 133–5, 144, 150, 152, 153, 165–7, 168 TiVo 62 Tohamy, Noha 59–60 top-down change 177–8 top-down management 69 Total 157 total quality management (TQM) 11 total volatile organic compounds see TVOC Toyota 44, 100 Toyota Sweden 106–7 TQM (total quality management) 11 traffic 108, 116, 201 training 76, 93, 152, 167, 170, 189 transaction costs 133 transparency 178, 185 transport 46, 57, 96, 156–7 Transport for London 195 TrashTrack 107 Travelocity 174 trial and error 173, 179 Trout, Bernhardt 45 trust 7, 37, 143 TVOC (total volatile organic compounds) 74, 77 Twitter 29, 62, 135, 143, 147 U Uber 136, 163 Ubuntu 202 Uchiyama, Shunichi 50 UCLA Health 202–3 Udacity 61, 112 UK 194 budget cuts 6 consumer empowerment 103 industrial symbiosis 160 savings 115 sharing 85, 138 “un-management” 63–4, 64 Unboundary 154 Unilever 11, 31, 57, 97, 100, 142, 203–5, 215 and sustainability 94–7, 104, 179, 203–4 University of Cambridge Engineering Design Centre (EDC) 194–5 Inclusive Design team 31 Institute for Sustainability Leadership (CISL) 158–9 upcycling 77, 88–9, 93, 159 upselling 189 Upton, Eben 135–6 US 8, 38, 44, 87, 115, 133, 188 access to financial services 13, 17, 161–2 ageing population 194 ageing workforce 13 commuting 131 consumer spending 5, 6, 103 crowdfunding 137–8, 138 economic pressures 5, 6 energy use 103, 119, 196 environmental awareness 7, 102 frugal innovation in 215–16, 218 health care 13, 110, 208–13, 213 intellectual property 171 onshoring 55 regulation 8, 78, 216 sharing 85, 138–9 shifting production from China to 55, 56 tinkering culture 18, 133–4 user communities 62, 89 user interfaces 98, 99 user-friendliness 194 Utopies 91 V validators 144 value 11, 132, 177, 186, 189–90 aspirational 88–9 to customers 6–7, 21, 77, 87, 131, 203 from employees 217 shareholder value 14 value chains 9, 80, 128–9, 143, 159–60, 190, 215 value engineering 192 “value gap” 54–5 value-added services 62–3, 76, 150, 206, 209 values 6–7, 14, 178, 205 Vandebroek, Sophie 169 Vasanthakumar, Vaithegi 182–3 Vats, Tanmaya 190, 192 vehicle fleets, sharing 57, 161 Verbaken, Joop 118 vertical integration 133, 154 virtual prototyping 65 virtuous cycle 212–13 visibility 34, 59–60 visible learning 112–13 visioning sessions 193–4 visualisation 106–8 Vitality 111 Volac 158–9 Volkswagen 4, 44, 45–6, 129, 144 Volvo 62 W wage costs 48 wages, in emerging markets 55 Waitrose, local suppliers 56 Walker, James 87 walking the walk 122–3 Waller, Sam 195 Walmart 9, 18, 56, 162, 216 Walton, Sam 9 Wan Jia 144 Washington DC 123 waste 24, 87–9, 107, 159–60, 175, 192, 196 beautifying 88–9, 93 e-waste 24, 79, 87–8, 121 of energy 119 post-consumer 9, 75, 77, 78, 83 reducing 47, 74, 85, 96, 180, 209 of resources 169–70 in US health-care system 209 see also C2C; recycling; reuse water 78, 83, 104, 106, 158, 175, 188, 206 water consumption 79, 82–3, 100, 196 reducing 74, 75, 79, 104, 122–3, 174, 183 wealth 105, 218 Wear It Share It (Wishi) 85 Weijmarshausen, Peter 51 well-being 104–5 Wham-O 56 Whirlpool 36 “wicked” problems 153 wireless technologies 65–6 Wiseman, Liz 164 Wishi (Wear It Share It) 85 Witty, Andrew 35, 35–6, 37, 39, 217 W.L.


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Start Small, Stay Small: A Developer's Guide to Launching a Startup by Rob Walling

8-hour work day, en.wikipedia.org, inventory management, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Network effects, Paul Graham, rolodex, side project, Silicon Valley, software as a service, Superbowl ad, web application

A Look at the Self-Funded Startup Entrepreneur There are many definitions of entrepreneur, but since we’ll be discussing self-funded tech startups we are going to focus our definition on a few key points: Point 1: An entrepreneur is a technical visionary who creates software for a niche market. Niche markets are critical. If you want to self-fund a startup you have to choose a niche. Building an online invoicing software as a service (SaaS) application? Good luck. Building an online invoicing application targeted at landscape architects? Now you’re talking. The genius of niches is they are too small for large competitors, allowing a nimble entrepreneur the breathing room to focus on an underserved audience. Once you’ve succeeded in that niche, you can leverage your success to establish credibility for your business to move into larger markets.

You can move back to the old pricing a week or two later if sales do not increase. If you receive emails from existing customers, offer to refund the difference for them. Product Types Six major product types are described below, including the typical pricing structure, benefits, downsides and when to use each. Type #1 – Hosted Web Applications These days hosted web applications are called Software as a Service applications (SaaS), but you may know them by their previous name, ASP Applications (for Application Service Provider), or the new name the media seems to be misusing more and more, “Cloud-based Applications.” Most new business or productivity applications are hosted web applications. Examples abound, but here are some of the more popular options: FreshBooks 39 (hosted invoicing) Basecamp 40 (hosted project management software) FogBugz on Demand 41 (hosted bug tracking / project management) Pricing Structure Typically a monthly or annual recurring fee Benefits for the Entrepreneur Steady, recurring revenue Support is much easier than software installed on a user’s machine since you are in control of every aspect of the deployment and are only maintaining a single version of the application Documentation can be updated as you add features Customer feedback can be incorporated immediately into the product, thus providing incremental improvements on a shorter release schedule Benefits for the Customer Customers do not make a large, up-front capital investment to pay for software licenses Customers do not have to maintain their own servers, install or upgrade software, or open a shared hosting account Upgrades are free, seamless, and require no effort on the part of the customer Customers can try your product with little effort The Downside Developing for the web can be challenging and you have to learn a number of technologies to build an application (HTML/CSS/AJAX/JS/Server Side Code) Browser compatibility issues can be cumbersome, especially with browser market share becoming more and more splintered Some customers, typically enterprise clients, will not allow their data to live outside of company walls and thus will not use hosted web applications It requires you to maintain a 24/7 uptime hosting solution, plus security and backups When to Use When thinking about a new application aimed at businesses, start with the position of a hosted web application.


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The Automatic Customer: Creating a Subscription Business in Any Industry by John Warrillow

Airbnb, airport security, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, barriers to entry, call centre, cloud computing, commoditize, David Heinemeier Hansson, discounted cash flows, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, Network effects, passive income, rolodex, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, software as a service, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, subscription business, telemarketer, time value of money, zero-sum game, Zipcar

By 2011, the Wall Street Journal eclipsed 1 million paying online subscribers, and the New York Times—arguably the most influential media outlet in the world—erected a metered paywall, which by 2013 had 700,000 subscribers for the online product.9 Around the same time that the Wall Street Journal put up its paywall, Silicon Valley fell in love with the subscription business model. In the late 1990s, application service providers such as Onvia offered access to computer applications on a subscription basis rather than requiring users to load up their software from a CD. While some of the early players were weeded out during the “tech wreck” of 2001, the business model lived on in software as a service (SaaS) businesses and in “cloud-based” companies such as Salesforce.com and Constant Contact. The Subscription Model Renaissance Basically, while the subscription business model has been around for centuries, over the last two decades it has been revitalized by technology and media companies. Most recently, a confluence of four factors has ushered in a subscription model renaissance across all industries.

It offers small businesses a platform to keep in touch with its customers through e-mail marketing and social media. Constant Contact has been trying to optimize its metrics since its start in 1995. In January 2014, the company announced that its revenue was up to $285.4 million per year. It went from $100,000 MRR in 2002 to almost $24 million in MRR in 2014, but it has been what CEO Gail Goodman calls a “long, slow SaaS [software as a service] ramp of death.” Far from an overnight success, Constant Contact has been tweaking its approach to optimize its numbers for almost two decades. It has tried virtually every marketing tactic there is, from TV and radio advertising to search engine optimization (SEO), direct mail, and sending salespeople out into a community to cold-call by knocking on doors. Constant Contact has tried hundreds of campaigns over the years, and one of the most successful had nothing at all to do with the Internet.


pages: 344 words: 96,020

Hacking Growth: How Today's Fastest-Growing Companies Drive Breakout Success by Sean Ellis, Morgan Brown

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, DevOps, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, game design, Google Glasses, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, minimum viable product, Network effects, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, working poor, Y Combinator, young professional

Different types of businesses or products have different retention rates, so it’s best to see if you can find benchmarks in your industry for successful products that are fairly comparable and, if possible, come up with an average rate in order to determine if you’re doing better or worse. According to data published by mobile intelligence company Quettra, most mobile apps, for example, retain just 10 percent of their audience after one month, while the best mobile apps retain more than 60 percent of their users one month after installation.12 RETENTION CURVES FOR ANDROID APPS User retention for Android apps from Quettra Business products, such as software as a service, fare much better, with annual retention rates north of 90 percent, according to a study of private SaaS companies done by Pacific Crest in 2013.13 And fast-food restaurant chains see month-over-month retention of customers ranging from 50 to 80 percent. For example, McDonald’s saw 78 percent of their customers come in every month to their restaurants in 2012.14 A 2013 study concluded that credit card companies in the US see annual churn rates of roughly 20 percent, while European cellphone carriers see churn of anywhere between 20 and 40 percent.15 GETTING TO MUST-HAVE If your product passes these tests, providing a clear indication that a significant number of customers have experienced the aha moment, it’s time to move into high-tempo experimentation for growth.

Brian Balfour, whom we’ve met earlier, highlights that retention breaks down into three phases: initial, medium, and long-term.6 The initial retention period is the critical time during which a new user either becomes convinced to keep using or buying a product or service, or goes dormant after one or a few visits. Think of the initial retention rate as a measure of the immediate stickiness of the product. There is no fixed definition of the initial retention period; it might be as short as a day for a mobile app, or a week or two for a social network. For a software as a service (SaaS) product, the initial retention period might be more like a month or quarter, whereas for e-commerce companies it is often the first 90 days.7 You should determine this period for your product based on both the data you can get about the standards for products of your type across the sector you’re in and by your own analysis of the behavior of your own customers over time. The good news about this period is that research shows that users who get more value from a product during the initial period of use are more likely to stick around longer term.

We’ve noted that many growth teams fail to capitalize on these tactics, focusing mostly on acquisition and customer activation. But in doing so, they’re leaving considerable growth potential on the table. We hope this chapter changes that. The basic means of increasing revenue per customer vary according to a company’s business model. If you’re a retail company, greater monetization of your customer base is fundamentally achieved by persuading customers to purchase more of whatever it is you sell. If you’re a software as a service (SaaS) company, it is achieved by getting more subscribers to renew their subscriptions, and to do so for more years, as well as by persuading more of them to upgrade to higher-fee levels of service (or in the special case of freemium services, by getting more users to upgrade to paid plans). If your revenue comes from selling advertising space, then driving revenue higher comes essentially from creating more available space to sell and convincing more advertisers to purchase and to pay more for the space they purchase.


pages: 346 words: 97,330

Ghost Work: How to Stop Silicon Valley From Building a New Global Underclass by Mary L. Gray, Siddharth Suri

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, big-box store, bitcoin, blue-collar work, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collective bargaining, computer vision, corporate social responsibility, crowdsourcing, data is the new oil, deindustrialization, deskilling, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, equal pay for equal work, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial independence, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, future of work, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, hiring and firing, ImageNet competition, industrial robot, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, market friction, Mars Rover, natural language processing, new economy, passive income, pattern recognition, post-materialism, post-work, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, sentiment analysis, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, software as a service, speech recognition, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, two-sided market, union organizing, universal basic income, Vilfredo Pareto, women in the workforce, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

But suddenly, and unbeknownst to him, his livelihood hangs in the balance. Meanwhile, overseas in Hyderabad, the Silicon Valley of India, Ayesha sits at her kitchen table, squinting at her laptop. She just accepted a job routed from Uber to CrowdFlower’s software, and now she is an invisible yet integral part of the ride. CrowdFlower and its competitors with similarly hip-techy names, like CloudFactory, Playment, and Clickworker, offer their platform’s software as a service to anyone who needs quick access to a ready crowd of workers. Tens of thousands of people like Ayesha log on to crowdsourcing platforms like CrowdFlower every day, looking for task-based work. Now Ayesha—and any other invisible workers who happen to have responded to CrowdFlower’s request—will determine whether Sam picks up Emily. Uber and CrowdFlower are two links in a growing supply chain of services that use APIs and human computation to put people to work.

They use the platform’s software to make money by offering their time and personal vehicle to respond to rider-customers’ requests, picking them up and dropping them off at a destination plugged into the app. The challenge of the single-bottom-line framing of the worker as another software user is that customers hailing a platform’s software to call ghost work into action rarely, if ever, see themselves as responsible for the work conditions of the human delivering their part of the software-as-a-service. For example, the Pew Research Center found that most customers hold a mixed, often contradictory set of beliefs about what Uber does and does not owe driver-partners.4 Most respondents felt strongly that ride services like Uber should not have to follow the same rules and regulations as taxis. The majority of respondents also viewed ride-hailing services’ drivers as independent contractors rather than employees.

6 Without question, talking with a driver-partner about their work experience makes it easier for the average Uber customer to see the strain that a driver-partner might feel under current employment classification systems. The greater challenge is that Uber is the visible tip of an iceberg. The end customer benefiting from most ghost work will never physically meet—often even know of—the people delivering a service to them. Because, of course, hiding the people in the loop from the end customer is part of the value proposition of software-as-a-service. But treating workers like ghostly figures is not a given or necessary element of on-demand services. Some companies see themselves as not only software providers but also purveyors of human expertise and creativity. They consider it their business to be responsible for workers’ labor conditions because they believe it’s better for their business in the long run. THE DOUBLE BOTTOM LINE Where some companies see only consumers, others see a workforce.


Designing Web APIs: Building APIs That Developers Love by Brenda Jin, Saurabh Sahni, Amir Shevat

active measures, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, blockchain, business process, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, Google Hangouts, if you build it, they will come, Lyft, MITM: man-in-the-middle, premature optimization, pull request, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, software as a service, the market place, uber lyft, web application, WebSocket

APIs might be part of a strategy to incentivize others to build supplemental products in which the developer of the main product is unwilling or unable to invest. APIs might also be a way to generate leads, create new distribution channels for a prod‐ The Business Case for APIs | 3 uct, or upsell products. For more information on these strategies, see John Musser’s presentation on API business models. An API must be aligned with the core business, as is the case with many software as a service (SaaS) companies. Notable examples are GitHub, Salesforce, and Stripe. Sometimes, the products built on these APIs are referred to as “service integrations.” Consumer APIs work well if there is a critical mass of user-generated content, such as with Facebook and Flickr’s photo-sharing capabilities. Although there are many reasons to create an API and launch a developer platform, there is also a clear reason not to create a developer plat‐ form—when the API strategy is not aligned with the core business.

., 19 POST method (HTTP), 10 (see also CRUD operations) problem and impact statement for MyFiles API (example), 63 scenario 2, 73 professional developers, 146 proficiency (developer), 148 proficiency tactics examples, 157 profiling code, 83 programming languages, 148 implementing code snippets in, 174 PUT method (HTTP), 10 (see also CRUD operations) Q quarterly plan for developer relations, 159 R rate-limit response headers, 110 rate-limiting APIs, 102-114 best practices, 112 implementation strategies, 105-110 fixed-window counter, 107 sliding-window counter, 108 token bucket algorithm, 105 rate limits and developers, 110-112 documenting rate limits, 111 rate-limit status API, 111 rate-limiting policy, 103 Slack's rate-limiting, lessons learned from, 113 Stripe's rate-limiting strategies, 104 Read method, 10 (see also CRUD operations) read/write scopes, 32 Real-Time Messaging API, 91 reference apps, 173 reference documentation, 165 refresh tokens, 36 one-time-use, 39 remote procedure calls (RPCs), 13 (see also RPC APIs) removing endpoints or fields from APIs, 132 replay attacks, 43 request logs, providing for develop‐ ers, 55 requests adding request parameters to con‐ trol output, 131 describing and validating, 125 request parameters in version schemes, 136 request–response APIs, 9-19 comparison of different types, 18 GraphQL, 14-17 REST, 10-13 RPC, 13-14 resources (in REST APIs), 10 showing relationships between, 11 responses adding response fields, 131 describing and validating, 123-125 REST APIs, 10-13 comparison to RPC and GraphQL, 18 CRUD operations, HTTP verbs, and REST conventions, 11 general rules for, 10 non-CRUD operations, 12 payload creep, 17 polling as scaling problem, solv‐ ing, 90 pros and cons for MyFiles API (example), 66 showing relationships among resources, 11 retries (WebHooks), 20 rich media, 180-181 rich site summary (RSS) feed, adding to changelog, 170 RPC APIs, 13-14 Index | 213 comparison to REST and GraphQL, 18 general rules for, 13 HTTP request to Slack API, 13 pros and cons for MyFiles API (example), 66 Slack, Conversations APIs, 13 using protocols other than HTTP, 14 RSpec test using JSON Schema speci‐ fication, 125 S sandboxes and API testers, 179 scaling APIs, 81-116 evolving your API design, 90-97 adding new API methods, 92 best practices, 97 introducing new data access patterns, 90 providing new options to filter results, 95 supporting bulk endpoints, 95 providing developer SDKs, 114-116 caching frequently used data, 115 error handling and exponen‐ tial back-off, 115 pagination support, 114 rate-limiting support, 114 SDK best practices, 115 using gzip compression in SDKs, 114 scaling throughput, 82-90 adding computing resources, 85 best practices, 89 caching, 87 database indexes, 86 doing expensive operations asynchronously, 89 finding bottlenecks, 82 using pagination, 97-102 best practices, 102 cursor-based pagination, 99-101 offset-based pagination, 97 214 | Index using rate-limiting, 102-114 best practices, 112 implementation strategies, 105-110 rate limits and developers, 110-112 scopes (OAuth), 32 for sensitive information, 39 for use in MyFiles API (example), 66 in MyFiles API (example) scopes, operations, and resour‐ ces, 67 Slack's move to granular OAuth scopes, lessons learned from, 34 SDKs (see software development kits) search filters, 96 search operations in REST APIs, 12 security, 27-46 authentication and authorization, 27 for WebHooks, 20 OAuth, 28-42 best practices, 38 listing and revoking authoriza‐ tions, 37 scopes, 32 token and scope validation, 34 token expiry and refresh tokens, 35 token generation, 30 WebHooks, 42-45 semantic versioning specification (SemVer), 137 server-sent events (SSE), streaming data via, 24 short-lived authorization codes (OAuth), 39 short-term targets and market poten‐ tial (developer funnel indicators), 155 signatures (WebHook), 43 Slack APIs, 4 adding new API methods, 92 addressing scalability challenges with Events API, 91 API Metadata, 126 app credentials of Slack app with verification token, 42 changelog, 170 Conversations API, 132 supporting bulk operations, 95 developer segmentation for Slack, 149 early access/beta program, 189 Flannel, application-level edge cache, 87 inconsistency in, 118 long-lived tokens, 37 missing field on message pay‐ loads, 127 move to granular OAuth scopes, lessons learned from, 34 rate-limiting, lessons learned from, 113 RPC-style web API, 13 translation layer to maintain backward compatibility, 57 WebSocket-based real-time mes‐ saging API, 22 sliding-window counter (ratelimiting), 108 snippets (code), 174 software as a service (SaaS) compa‐ nies, 4 software development kits (SDKs), 50, 148, 175-177 developer SDKs, 114-116 best practices, 115 caching frequently used data, 115 error handling and exponen‐ tial back-off, 115 pagination support, 114 rate-limiting support, 114 using gzip compression, 114 maintaining, 178 SoundCloud API, value proposition, 151 speaking at developer events, 194 specification (spec), writing for an API, 68-72 MyFiles API WebHooks (exam‐ ple), 74-77 SQL databases, queries based on cur‐ sor values, 99 Stack Overflow, 196 Stackdrivers, 83 stakeholders, reviewing API specifi‐ cation with, 77 state parameter support (OAuth), 38 streaming, 196 Stripe online testing of API by develop‐ ers without signing up, 49 rate-limiting, 104 value proposition, 151 versioning case study, 139 subresources in APIs, 11 success tactics examples, 158 support for developers, 196 T task queues, 89 TCP (Transport Control Protocol), 22 technology architecture, selecting scenario 1 for MyFiles API (exam‐ ple), 65 scenario 2 for MyFiles API (exam‐ ple), 74 terms of service (ToS) violations of Facebook ToS, 41 writing, 171 testing automated, 120-126 describing and validating requests, 125 describing and validating responses, 123-125 sandboxes and API testers, 179 Thrift, 14 throughput, scaling, 82-90 adding computing resources, 85 best practices, 89 caching, 87 database indexes, 86 doing expensive operations asyn‐ chronously, 89 finding bottlenecks, 82 the Time to Hello World (TTHW), 164 Index | 215 timestamps, using as cursors, 101 TLS (Transport Layer Security), 44 token bucket algorithm (ratelimiting), 105 tokens (OAuth) and scope, validation of, 34 expiry and refresh tokens, 35 generation of, 30 Slack's long-lived tokens, 37 top partner program, 187 train-the-trainer and ambassador programs, 195 transformations between versions, 137 Transport Control Protocol (see TCP) transport patterns for MyFiles API (example), 65 troubleshooting, making easy for developers, 52-56 building tooling, 55 meaningful errors, 52-55 providing troubleshooting tools, 179 tutorials for APIs, 49, 167 Twitch, deprecation of an API, 59 Twitter, 90 cursor-based pagination, 99 U Uber developers and rate-limiting, 109 Unix timestamp as cursor, 99 Update method, 10 (see also CRUD operations) URI components, specifying versions in, 135 URIs, specification for MyFiles API (example), 70 usage tactics examples, 157 user interfaces (UIs), 88 user stories (key), outlining scenario 1 for MyFiles API (exam‐ ple), 64 scenario 2 for MyFiles API (exam‐ ple), 73 users, focusing on in API design, 2 216 | Index users.conversations API method (Slack), 94 V value proposition, distilling for your API, 151 verification tokens, 42 versioning APIs, 57, 133-141 additive-change strategy, 133 case study, Google Hangouts, 140 case study, Stripe, 139 explicit-version strategy, 134-138 policies for MAJOR and MINOR changes, 138 process management, 141 vertical scaling, 85 videos creating, 180 online videos and streaming, 196 W WebHooks, 19-22, 90 comparison with WebSockets and HTTP Streaming, 24 considerations for use in MyFiles API (example), 66 MyFiles API Webhooks Spec (example), 74-77 polling vs., 19 pros and cons for MyFiles eventdriven API (example), 74 security, 42-45 best practices, 45 Mutual Transport Layer Secu‐ rity, 44 request signing and WebHook signatures, 43 thin payloads and API retrieval, 44 verification tokens, 42 supporting, additional complexi‐ ties added by, 20 webinars and online training, 182 WebSockets, 22-23, 90 comparison with WebHooks and HTTP Streaming, 24 pros and cons for MyFiles eventdriven API (example), 74 Y YouTube API, value proposition, 151 X XML responses, REST APIs, 11 Index | 217 About the Authors Brenda Jin is an entrepreneur and software engineer.


pages: 409 words: 112,055

The Fifth Domain: Defending Our Country, Our Companies, and Ourselves in the Age of Cyber Threats by Richard A. Clarke, Robert K. Knake

A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, business cycle, business intelligence, call centre, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, cognitive bias, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, DevOps, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Exxon Valdez, global village, immigration reform, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Julian Assange, Kubernetes, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, open borders, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, ransomware, Richard Thaler, Sand Hill Road, Schrödinger's Cat, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, software as a service, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, technoutopianism, Tim Cook: Apple, undersea cable, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day

It has proven the perfect solution for start-ups that need infrastructure on which they can build their own applications. This type of cloud computing is known as infrastructure as a service (IAAS). Amazon and other leaders have also started to sell platform-as-a-service offerings that provide the coding environments on which to build applications. Far and away the best way to rapidly increase security is to move from local computing to software as a service (SaaS). Salesforce, one of the early successful SaaS providers, never sold its customer relationship management platform as a software package you could install on your own computer. In fact, early on, Marc Benioff and his team made up company T-shirts that had a big no-smoking-style circle and slash symbol (think Ghostbusters) over the word “software.” The only way to use Salesforce was (and is) to use a web browser to access it.

Secure Segmented Diverse-Source Microgrid (SSDM): A proposal made in this book to create a system to generate electricity locally, including using alternative energy sources. The SSDM would not be connected to regional or national networks. Security Operations Center (SOC): A physical location in a corporation where computer security specialists monitor the company’s network for signs of intrusion or other threats. Software as a Service (SaaS): A model in which a customer buys a subscription to use a piece of software for a finite period, contrasted with the license model in which the customer buys and then owns a copy of the software. For SaaS software models, the software may reside online rather than on the customers’ own machines. Stuxnet: The popular name of software allegedly designed and utilized by the United States to destroy certain physical objects, specifically nuclear enrichment centrifuges at Natanz, Iran.

., 78, 232 Senior Cyber Service, 173, 178 sensors, 66–67, 83 Shanahan, Patrick, 181 Sharkseer, 95 Shavitt, Yuval, 120 Siemens, 37, 270 Silicon Valley, 5, 7, 63–64, 67, 73, 140 Singer, Peter, 101 smart cards, 129, 130, 133 smartphones, 131, 289–91 iPhones, 36, 68, 124–25, 292 Smith, Brad, 24 Snowden, Edward, 21, 23, 209 Social Security, 133, 134, 136, 138–40, 283 software, 21, 22 coding of, 78–82 security and, 288 software as a service (SaaS), 75, 76, 307 Sophos, 61, 288 South Korea, 27, 120, 188 Soviet Union, 13, 135, 182, 221, 234 Spamhaus, 73 spear phishing, 53–55, 59, 288 Stamos, Alex, 221, 228 State Department, 6, 25, 86, 93, 95, 136, 173, 202, 203, 210, 221–22 state governments, 117–18, 174–75, 177 Stein, Jill, 232 Stempfley, Bobbie, 151 stock transactions, 287 Stratton, Robert, 295 Stuxnet, 20–21, 37–38, 85, 160, 182, 193–94, 270–71, 277, 307 Sulmeyer, Michael, 100 Sunstein, Cass, 111 supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), 163, 270, 273, 307 Symantec, 24, 37, 46, 61, 83, 288 tabletop exercises (TTXs), 185–92, 198, 225–26, 307 Tailored Access Operations (TAO), 73, 148, 307 terrorism, 13, 110, 114–15, 123–25, 137, 156 9/11 attacks, 26, 88, 114, 123, 137, 155, 196, 222, 234 Terrorism Risk Insurance Act, 123 Thaler, Richard, 111 threat actors, 12, 41, 64, 77, 307 tractors, 269–70 Transportation, Department of, 278 Treasury Department, 21, 152 Trump, Donald, 11, 21, 27, 89, 92, 113, 123, 152, 160, 171, 181, 196, 203, 224, 267 TSA (Transportation Security Administration), 137, 140, 177 Twitter, 224, 231, 232, 276 two-factor authentication, 129, 131, 132, 285, 287, 308 Ukraine, 8, 19–20, 25, 29, 37, 157, 222, 269–70, 277 United Health, 40–41 United Kingdom, 17–18, 25, 96, 211–12, 220–21 United Nations (UN), 210 United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement, 213 U.S.


pages: 232 words: 71,024

The Decline and Fall of IBM: End of an American Icon? by Robert X. Cringely

AltaVista, Bernie Madoff, business cycle, business process, cloud computing, commoditize, compound rate of return, corporate raider, full employment, if you build it, they will come, immigration reform, interchangeable parts, invention of the telephone, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, Paul Graham, platform as a service, race to the bottom, remote working, Robert Metcalfe, Robert X Cringely, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, six sigma, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Toyota Production System, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application

Product development needs to understand the needs and directions of the customers; it needs to be empowered to design new products and versions that will increase its value to the market; and it needs to be enabled to produce those products and versions quickly and efficiently. Software companies work best when they have a core set of excellent developers who are dedicated to the business. Randomly picking programmers from an ever-changing pool of talent rarely works well. IBM’s current approach has crushed the life from most of the software companies it has purchased. Another market trend is Software as a Service (SaaS). SaaS could be a big business opportunity for IBM’s Cloud, if IBM had software that customers wanted to use. IBM should invest more in software and make more software acquisitions. The company just needs to be a lot smarter about its investments. IBM needs to reach new customers and new markets. Today most of IBM’s business comes from a small number of really big companies. For every big company IBM serves, there are 50 not-so-big organizations that need software and services to run their business.

Beyond leaving SoftLayer alone, what IBM needs to do to be successful with its Cloud investments is to fix other parts of the company. Cloud by itself is not enough. IBM has a fighting chance to be profitable with Cloud, but the big question is "how much can IBM really make?" IBM needs to provide value-added services to its Cloud platform to increase both revenue and profit. There isn’t enough money in Platform as a Service (PaaS) for IBM to get a good return on its $1.2 billion investment. IBM needs to provide Software as a Service (SaaS), and to do that IBM needs to have software applications that the market needs. This market is not comprised of IBM’s huge legacy customers; it is the other 80 percent of the market, consisting of not-so-big companies that IBM has served poorly (if at all) in recent years. IBM will be selling its Cloud services to this new market, and IBM needs to invest in the software those new customers will want to use.


pages: 56 words: 16,788

The New Kingmakers by Stephen O'Grady

AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, cloud computing, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, David Heinemeier Hansson, DevOps, Jeff Bezos, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Netflix Prize, Paul Graham, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, software is eating the world, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Tim Cook: Apple, Y Combinator

If you’re selling mobile applications, Apple’s App Store has already distributed 25 billion applications. Android developers, meanwhile, can count on an addressable market that’s activating 1.3 million new devices per day. Amazon, Microsoft, and RIM all have their own equivalents as well. Over on the desktop, Apple, Canonical, and Microsoft are or will soon be offering the ability to sell applications to users. The same is true for Software-as-a-Service; platforms like Google or Jive are increasingly offering their own “app stores,” giving developers or third parties the opportunity to sell to their customers. Marketing and selling yourself or the applications you’ve built requires training, obviously. Historically, this has been a challenge. While motivated individuals could learn through texts and manuals or, if they could afford it, computer-based training, none duplicated the experience of being taught by your peers, on the job, in part because few of the available learning mechanisms were interactive.


pages: 293 words: 78,439

Dual Transformation: How to Reposition Today's Business While Creating the Future by Scott D. Anthony, Mark W. Johnson

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, blockchain, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, death of newspapers, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, diversified portfolio, Internet of things, invention of hypertext, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, late fees, Lean Startup, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Minecraft, obamacare, Parag Khanna, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, pez dispenser, recommendation engine, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, software is eating the world, Steve Jobs, the market place, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transfer pricing, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Rather than have a deep roster of full-time journalists to pump out content, HuffPo populated its site with content produced by a skeleton staff and a stable of occasional contributors. It worked. At the time of the acquisition, HuffPo had roughly the same website traffic as the venerable New York Times. The newcomer had fifty journalists. The Times employed twelve hundred. In 1999, Marc Benioff founded Salesforce.com. He was one of the pioneers of a movement that came to be called software as a service, or SaaS. As internet connectivity became increasingly ubiquitous and access speeds spiked, Benioff bet on a shift in the historical means by which companies distributed computer software. Rather than require customers to go to a retail store or order shrink-wrapped software through a mail catalog, Salesforce’s core customer relationship management (CRM) software, which helped companies manage their salesforce, was licensed to users, hosted and maintained by Salesforce, and delivered over the internet.

Partzelg moved to an open floor plan six months ago in an effort to boost collaboration, and people are still figuring out how to do formerly simple things like alerting people when you want their attention. A knock on the door used to be so easy. George looks up to see Andy hovering over him. “How long have you been there?” “About five minutes,” Andy says. “You look really absorbed, so I hate to bother you, but we need to talk.” “Sure—what’s up?” “Well, we’ve got a problem,” Andy says. “The rumor mill says that Carla is going to leave to work at a software-as-a-service supply chain startup called SAASUP.” George groans. Carla is a vital cog in his core business. She manages supplier relations and does it extremely well. Partzelg hasn’t announced the precise details about its new leasing model, but it will require tighter integration with suppliers, and this means Carla’s responsibilities will increase. “And, not to make your Friday worse,” Andy continues, “but SASSUP I called me, too, and as much as I love working here, I have to admit I’m thinking about it.


pages: 273 words: 72,024

Bitcoin for the Befuddled by Conrad Barski

Airbnb, AltaVista, altcoin, bitcoin, blockchain, buttonwood tree, cryptocurrency, Debian, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, Isaac Newton, MITM: man-in-the-middle, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Network effects, node package manager, p-value, peer-to-peer, price discovery process, QR code, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, SETI@home, software as a service, the payments system, Yogi Berra

With a personal wallet, you and only you know the private keys. The company that created the software does not control your bitcoins. Alternatively, with a hosted wallet, a third party knows your private keys and doesn’t reveal them to you, but the company will send, receive, and store bitcoins on your behalf (not unlike a traditional bank, which stores your cash in a vault and won’t give you the keys to open it). Some companies also offer software as a service. In this case, they host the wallet software on their servers but not the private keys. Users can log in, send and receive bitcoins, and monitor Bitcoin transactions using their own private keys (which the company never receives). We refer to such services as online personal wallets because the private keys are not hosted. With both wallet types, the user interfaces may look and function in similar ways, but the ramifications of using one kind of wallet versus the other are quite different.

See also security protocol, for Bitcoin, 112 public information, transactions as, 11 public key, 150 encryption, 91 master, 188 parable of, 141–145 reversing function of, 136 sharing, 156 public key cryptography, 133–135 public/private key pair, creating with ECDSA, 154 pushing, Bitcoin programming, 223 Python, 226 Q quick response (QR) codes, for Bitcoin address, 10 R Race Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest (RIPEMD), 139–141, 188 radical decentralization, 126 random key generation, 187–190 randomness, for generating Bitcoin address, 39 relay node, 170 RelayRides, 67 remote servers, Electrum connection to, 15 retailers, acceptance of Bitcoin, 116 reversible transactions, 55–56 rewards, 170 from Bitcoin-mining lottery, 22 for transaction processing, 26 RIPEMD (Race Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest), 139–141, 188 risks, to Bitcoin, 117–121 Rivest, Ron, 133–134 rounding errors, 235 and cryptography, 151 RSA encryption, 133–134, 137 Ruby, 226 S safety, of storage, 35 satoshi (bitcoin unit), 9 SatoshiLabs, 43 Satoshi Square, 71 savings, Bitcoin for, 121–122 scarcity, of currency, 118 Sean’s Outpost, 18 Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA), 139–141, 188 ASIC optimization to calculate, 174 security, 14, 118–119 of Bitcoin exchanges, 63 confidence in, 216–217 double hash scheme and, 156 SPV wallets vs. full wallets, 193–194 of storage, 35 seed, in Electrum, 14, 15 sending money from Bitcoin address, 236–239 code for, 238 SendRequest object, 238 settlement period, 55, 56 SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm), 139–141, 188 ASIC optimization to calculate, 174 Shamir, Adi, 133–134 Shamir’s Secret Sharing method, 42 shares, of mining reward, 176 side chains, 121 Silk Road website, 124 simplified payment verification (SPV), 191, 233 vs. full wallets, 193–195 single key generation wallet programs, 188 smartphones private keys on, 44 wallets on, 192 software as a service, 34 speed of payments, SPV wallets vs. full wallets, 193 spending bitcoins, 17–19 SPV (simplified payment verification), 191, 233 vs. full wallets, 193–195 SPVBlockStore object, 232, 233 stateless currencies, 2 storage, Bitcoin, 31–47 choosing method, 46–47 hot vs. cold, 33–34 of large amounts of bitcoins, 38–42 private key, 33 safety, security, and convenience, 35 of small amounts of bitcoins, 35–38 SPV wallets vs. full wallets, 194 Trezor, 43–45 summation, pseudocode for, elliptic curve cryptography, 158–159 symmetric key cryptography, 133 synchronization, SPV wallets vs. full wallets, 193 T Takhteyev, Yuri, 112n tangent to curve, elliptic curve cryptography, 150 thick wallets, 191 thin wallets, 192 third-party service provider, as bank, 33 timestamp, for block, 172 Tor, 127 trade volume, of exchange, 63 transaction confirmation, 25 transaction fees.


pages: 302 words: 73,581

Platform Scale: How an Emerging Business Model Helps Startups Build Large Empires With Minimum Investment by Sangeet Paul Choudary

3D printing, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Clayton Christensen, collaborative economy, commoditize, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, frictionless, game design, hive mind, Internet of things, invisible hand, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, multi-sided market, Network effects, new economy, Paul Graham, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, social software, software as a service, software is eating the world, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, TaskRabbit, the payments system, too big to fail, transport as a service, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, Wave and Pay

Our education system often works like a pipe where teachers push “knowledge” to receptive students. There is a linear movement of value from a producer to one or many consumers in all examples of pipe businesses. Early digital business models also followed the pipe design. The first media companies on the Internet worked like pipes. Amazon’s e-commerce store started as a pipe. Single-user software-as-a-service runs like a pipe, where the software is created by the business and delivered to the consumer. Even today, many businesses continue to see the Internet as a pipe, one of many delivery channels. However, three forces today – increasing connectedness, decentralized production, and the rise of artificial intelligence – are driving a whole new design for business. The emerging design of business is that of a platform.

Several startups, providing invoicing, payments, procurement management, and accounting tools to small businesses, are trying to take a similar approach to go beyond the tools and build out a ‘commercial graph’. Much like Facebook’s social graph, which maps out the social relationships between its users, a commercial graph would map out the nature of commercial relationships between businesses. Software as a service (SAAS) providers like Tradeshift, SPS Commerce, and Procurify are powering the first few instances of the commercial graph today. These providers follow a four-step strategy to build out the commercial graph. 1.Provision Of Tools. At the outset, they provide invoicing and procurement software to enable companies to manage their network interactions better. As the companies interact through the software, interaction data is captured.


Buy Then Build: How Acquisition Entrepreneurs Outsmart the Startup Game by Walker Deibel

barriers to entry, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, deliberate practice, discounted cash flows, diversification, Elon Musk, family office, financial independence, high net worth, intangible asset, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Network effects, new economy, Peter Thiel, risk tolerance, risk/return, rolodex, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Y Combinator

By offering landscaping as well, they likely have a way to stay in communication with their customers, as well as invoice year-round. 62 John Warrillow’s book, The Automatic Customer, calls for companies to turn to subscription models in order to increase the dependability of revenue and, in turn, the value of their business. This is the same underlying principal that is behind an eternally profitable business—a sort of “software as a service” subscription model. But it’s not necessarily limited to companies with recurring monthly income either. Plumbing, laundry, electricity, boat docks, FBOs, and preschools are all potential examples of business models holding similar “eternal” characteristics. It’s tougher to have a differentiated value proposition in these markets, and they often heavily compete on price, so you’ll want to consider what the driver of the business is.

Identifying this clearly is the first part of what will become your target statement. 73 SIZE When it comes to buying a company, size matters. Typically, the size of the target is identified by revenue but then valued on a multiple of SDE or cash flow. Now that you know which type of company profile you want to purchase, you’ll need to identify the target SDE. As a result, defining what you are looking for by revenue is just the wrong metric. What if you find a software-as-a-service company with 70 percent net income to revenue? Or a metal-trading company with 1 percent net income? Defining by revenue doesn’t define your target by the thing you are buying in the first place: the cash flow. Instead, define the target by the amount of SDE. To review, the Seller Discretionary Earnings (SDE), is a measure of how much total cash flow the seller of the firm has been enjoying.


pages: 255 words: 76,495

The Facebook era: tapping online social networks to build better products, reach new audiences, and sell more stuff by Clara Shih

business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, glass ceiling, jimmy wales, Mark Zuckerberg, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, pets.com, pre–internet, rolodex, semantic web, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, social graph, social web, software as a service, Tony Hsieh, web application

And last, but certainly not least, my grandmother Lau Kim Ping, who has spent her life breaking glass ceilings, inventing her own rules, and making sure that I do the same. From the Library of Kerri Ross xiv Th e Fa ce b o o k E ra About the Author Clara Shih is the creator of Faceconnector (formerly Faceforce), the first business application on Facebook. In addition, Clara is the product line director of AppExchange, salesforce.com’s online marketplace for business Software-as-a-service applications built by third-party developers and ISVs. (Editor’s note: Upon completing this book, Clara has created a new role and team at salesforce.com focused on enterprise social networking alliances and product strategy.) Previously, Clara worked in strategy and business operations at Google, and before that as a software developer at Microsoft. She is the founder and serves on the board of directors of Camp Amelia Technology Literacy Group, an East Palo Alto, California-based 501(c)(3) nonprofit that develops and distributes technology education software and curriculum.

Web sites, online news, and search engines like Infoseek, Lycos, Yahoo!, Excite, and Google began providing affordable, real-time information for workers as well as a new medium for reaching customers. eBay, PayPal, and commerce sites like Amazon.com proved the feasibility and popularity of self-service transactions. Within the enterprise software space, the Internet paved the way for the open source software and Software-as-a-service, or SaaS, movements, both of which have greatly democratized access to enterprise-grade software and services for small business and From the Library of Kerri Ross 16 Pa r t I A B r i e f H i s to r y o f S o c i a l M e d i a self-employed individuals. The Web made it dramatically easier and cheaper to start and run businesses. According to the U.S. government, thanks to technology, the number of small businesses in the United States alone ballooned to nearly 25 million by 1999.


pages: 286 words: 87,401

Blitzscaling: The Lightning-Fast Path to Building Massively Valuable Companies by Reid Hoffman, Chris Yeh

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, autonomous vehicles, bitcoin, blockchain, Bob Noyce, business intelligence, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, database schema, discounted cash flows, Elon Musk, Firefox, forensic accounting, George Gilder, global pandemic, Google Hangouts, Google X / Alphabet X, hydraulic fracturing, Hyperloop, inventory management, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, late fees, Lean Startup, Lyft, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, margin call, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, Oculus Rift, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Buchheit, Paul Graham, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Saturday Night Live, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Jobs, subscription business, Tesla Model S, thinkpad, transaction costs, transport as a service, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, web application, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, yellow journalism

The higher the gross margin, the more valuable each dollar of sales is to the company because it means that for each dollar of sales, the company has more cash available to fund growth and expansion. Many high-tech businesses have high gross margins by default, which is why this factor is often overlooked. Software businesses have high gross margins because the cost of duplicating software is essentially zero. Software-as-a-service (SaaS) businesses have a slightly higher cost of goods sold because they need to operate a service, but thanks to cloud providers like Amazon, this cost is becoming smaller all the time. In contrast, “old economy” businesses often have low gross margins. Growing wheat is a low-margin business, as is selling goods in a store or serving food in a restaurant. One of the most amazing things about Amazon’s success is that it has been able to build a massive business based on retailing, which is generally a low-margin industry.

And by connecting buyers and sellers instead of holding inventory or managing logistics (and thus dealing in bits rather than atoms), online marketplaces avoid many of the growth limits of human or infrastructure scalability. PROVEN PATTERN #5: SUBSCRIPTIONS When Salesforce.com first launched its on-demand customer relationship management product, there were many legitimate questions about this new software-as-a-service (SaaS) model. Selling software as a subscription, delivered via the Internet, represented a major departure for enterprise software vendors. The previous model of selling permanent licenses for on-premise software and charging for maintenance provided more cash up front than monthly or annual subscriptions. The personnel required to support the model were also different; selling and supporting on-premise software required field salespeople and sales engineers to install pilot deployments, while the new SaaS model required additional staff to provide 24/7 data center coverage and support.


pages: 103 words: 24,033

The Immigrant Exodus: Why America Is Losing the Global Race to Capture Entrepreneurial Talent by Vivek Wadhwa

card file, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, immigration reform, Marc Andreessen, open economy, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, software as a service, the new new thing, Y2K

The early foreign startup participants pulled in $8 million in venture capital financing from venture capital funds in Argentina, Brazil, France, the United States, and Uruguay. The program has sparked a spread of Silicon Valley–style entrepreneurship around Chile. There are now tribes of entrepreneurs and locals to build expertise on diverse topics, from biotech to consumer products to software-as-a-service to social media. The pairing of locals wanting to broaden their horizons with Start-Up Chile participants made such an impression that many of the Chileans I spoke to after the program started became interested in launching their own high-growth startups. In a nod to this development, the government of Chile opened the program to local entrepreneurs in July 2011. In short order they received a flood of 600 applications.


pages: 89 words: 24,277

Designing for Emotion by Aarron Walter

big-box store, en.wikipedia.org, game design, John Gruber, Kickstarter, Skype, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Superbowl ad, Wall-E, web application

To get started with Dropbox you have to install software on at least one computer—more if you’re syncing between machines—plus you must install the mobile app to access files on your phone. The getting started task sequence is disjointed. Though the individual workflow steps are relatively straightforward, you must jump from device to device to complete the setup process, so it’s easy for Dropbox to lose people along the way. As a new customer invests more time into getting started, the costs can start to seem greater than the benefits. Dropbox is also not your typical software as a service. It’s a web app, but it’s also a desktop and mobile app at the same time. That’s new territory for a lot of people, and there’s a learning curve to using the service as well as understanding how it will make your life easier. Getting people in the door is easy for Dropbox. It’s retaining users and getting them invested that’s tricky. Dropbox has a novel approach to getting their audience invested immediately on sign up.


pages: 329 words: 95,309

Digital Bank: Strategies for Launching or Becoming a Digital Bank by Chris Skinner

algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, augmented reality, bank run, Basel III, bitcoin, business cycle, business intelligence, business process, business process outsourcing, buy and hold, call centre, cashless society, clean water, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, demand response, disintermediation, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Google Glasses, high net worth, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, margin call, mass affluent, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, Pingit, platform as a service, Ponzi scheme, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, quantitative easing, ransomware, reserve currency, RFID, Satoshi Nakamoto, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, software as a service, Steve Jobs, strong AI, Stuxnet, trade route, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K

A slightly confusing and technical discussion, so let’s start with the idea of cloud computing in banking. Cloud Computing is a wide and diverse operation that has gained a panacea status of being all things to all people. It’s Salesforce.com, Azure, Exalogic, Amazon and more. Put in “Cloud Computing” to Google, who also provide clouds, and you get sponsored adverts from HP, Intel, Siemens and more all talking about clouds. It’s Software as a Service, Platform as a Service, and Infrastructure as a Service. It’s public clouds, private clouds, hybrid clouds. It’s every and any darned thing you want and, as a result, it’s lost its meaning. As a result, bank CIO’s have heard about Cloud Computing, but have no idea how to articulate what it is to their Board and CEO, how to justify it, how to present it as meaningful and how to get a decision.

The Currency Cloud is, therefore, built as a technology platform that will bring a world of currencies with simplicity and low-cost to a whole range of businesses that did not have it before. We have around a hundred clients accessing our payments platform through our API, and interfacing their business applications directly into the currency markets through our platform. I assume you are a cloud-based service, with a name like Currency Cloud? We are a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) based platform, and make a distinction between online platforms that you might get from your bank, where you are connected through a screen to the banks’ platform, and what we are doing. We are enabling online applications, including payroll, ERP, invoicing, corporate treasury and more, through a connection to ourselves. We are then connected to multiple liquidity providers, banks, who provide us with sources of hedging and currency pools, as well as multiple payment networks.


Service Design Patterns: Fundamental Design Solutions for SOAP/WSDL and RESTful Web Services by Robert Daigneau

Amazon Web Services, business intelligence, business process, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, loose coupling, MITM: man-in-the-middle, MVC pattern, pull request, RFC: Request For Comment, Ruby on Rails, software as a service, web application

Still, as a developer who had struggled with distributed object technologies, I was fascinated by web services. I saw them as a pragmatic way to integrate systems and reuse common business logic. Since then, REST has gained significant momentum, WS* services have established a solid foothold, and SOA was proclaimed dead [Manes]. Through it all, my fascination with web services never waned. As mobile, cloud, and Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) platforms cause software to become increasingly distributed, the importance of web services will only continue to increase. We live in exciting times indeed! What Is This Book About? This book is a catalogue of design solutions for web services that leverage SOAP/WSDL or follow the REST architectural style. The goal was to produce a concise reference that codifies fundamental web service design concepts.

Because of this, clients may not be aware of the potential latencies involved, and may not always implement the necessary logic to handle Service Connector 174 C HAPTER 6 W EB S ERVICE I NFRASTRUCTURES network-related failures like lost connections, server crashes, and busy services. However, many developers have learned that use of a Service Connector typically implies distributed communications, and that one must create exception-handling logic around the connector to handle communication errors. Example: Examples of Popular Service Connectors A number of Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) providers and their developer communities have produced robust Service Connectors. Two notable examples include Amazon Web Services: http://aws.amazon.com/ Twitter: https://dev.twitter.com/docs/twitter-libraries Example: A Typical Client-Service Interaction through a Service Proxy Service Connector The following Java code demonstrates how a client might interact with an RPC API (18).


Alpha Girls: The Women Upstarts Who Took on Silicon Valley's Male Culture and Made the Deals of a Lifetime by Julian Guthrie

Airbnb, Apple II, barriers to entry, blockchain, Bob Noyce, call centre, cloud computing, credit crunch, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, equal pay for equal work, fear of failure, game design, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Louis Pasteur, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, new economy, PageRank, peer-to-peer, pets.com, phenotype, place-making, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, urban decay, web application, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce

Benioff added, “I think the idea—delivering business applications as a service over the Internet—is great and even large companies would prefer it if it did not require millions of dollars and a year to implement.” After a pause, he asked, “What do you think?” “I think it’s a great idea,” Magdalena said without hesitation. “I think enterprise software with its multimillion-dollar price tags for license and implementation will go away over time.” She had long been convinced that “big and clunky” networked software companies would soon be replaced by nimbler pay-as-you-go software-as-a-service, where a business could buy only the software it needed, as it needed it. “We need software that is ‘pay by the drink,’ ” she said. Benioff asked, “So should I do this?” And “Can I do this on my own?” Magdalena smiled seeing the start-up sparkle in his eyes. “Yes, and yes,” she said. “And I’m going to help you in every way I can. I will invest, raise money from VCs, help you hire, and help you sell

As Oracle absorbed Siebel, setting up a fierce competition between former friends Larry Ellison and Marc Benioff, Salesforce continued its astounding growth. In 2005 Salesforce reported $176 million in revenue, an 84 percent increase over the year before, with 227,000 subscribers. In 2006 revenue jumped to $450 million, and the company had nearly 400,000 subscribers. * * * The terms SaaS (Software as a Service), cloud, and cloud computing were entering the national lexicon. In 2006 Google’s CEO, Eric Schmidt—a friend of Magdalena’s from her CyberCash days and from his time at Sun Microsystems—popularized the term cloud at an industry conference. Schmidt said, “What’s interesting is that there is an emergent new model. I don’t think people have really understood how big this opportunity really is.


pages: 407 words: 103,501

The Digital Divide: Arguments for and Against Facebook, Google, Texting, and the Age of Social Netwo Rking by Mark Bauerlein

Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrew Keen, business cycle, centre right, citizen journalism, collaborative editing, computer age, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, disintermediation, Frederick Winslow Taylor, Howard Rheingold, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telephone, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, PageRank, peer-to-peer, pets.com, Results Only Work Environment, Saturday Night Live, search engine result page, semantic web, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, technology bubble, Ted Nelson, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thorstein Veblen, web application

While both Netscape and Google could be described as software companies, it’s clear that Netscape belonged to the same software world as Lotus, Microsoft, Oracle, SAP, and other companies that got their start in the 1980s software revolution, while Google’s fellows are other Internet applications like eBay, Amazon, Napster, and, yes, DoubleClick and Akamai. DoubleClick vs. Overture and AdSense Like Google, DoubleClick is a true child of the Internet era. It harnesses software as a service, has a core competency in data management, and, as noted above, was a pioneer in Web services long before Web services even had a name. However, DoubleClick was ultimately limited by its business model. It bought into the ’90s notion that the Web was about publishing, not participation; that advertisers, not consumers, ought to call the shots; that size mattered; and that the Internet was increasingly being dominated by the top websites as measured by MediaMetrix and other Web ad scoring companies.

In our first program, we asked why some companies survived the dot-com bust while others had failed so miserably. We also studied a burgeoning group of start–ups and asked why they were growing so quickly. The answers helped us understand the rules of business on this new platform. Chief among our insights was that “the network as platform” means far more than just offering old applications via the network (“software as a service”); it means building applications that literally get better the more people use them, harnessing network effects not only to acquire users, but also to learn from them and build on their contributions. From Google and Amazon to Wikipedia, eBay, and craigslist, we saw that the value was facilitated by the software, but was cocreated by and for the community of connected users. Since then, powerful new platforms like YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter have demonstrated that same insight in new ways.


pages: 360 words: 100,991

Heart of the Machine: Our Future in a World of Artificial Emotional Intelligence by Richard Yonck

3D printing, AI winter, artificial general intelligence, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Berlin Wall, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, friendly AI, ghettoisation, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of writing, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Loebner Prize, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, neurotypical, Oculus Rift, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Skype, social intelligence, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing test, twin studies, undersea cable, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, working-age population, zero day

All of that has resulted in the infrastructure needed to launch this new emotion economy. Companies now make it possible to leverage and disseminate their hard-won technological capabilities through a range of different methods. Application programming interfaces (APIs) and software development kits (SDKs) provide the means for other companies, individuals, and even competitors to incorporate these new technologies into their own processes. At the same time, software as a service (SaaS) makes it possible to provide a range of services to everyone from licensees and subscribers to ad-supported websites and apps. All of these (and much more) make it possible to begin building new features and capabilities to fill market needs. As this continues, a new infrastructure is developed that supports still further innovation—innovation that wasn’t possible before all of the other supporting technology existed.

Still in its early stages, affective computing is already used as a market research tool. Over time, as processing power, bandwidth, and algorithms improve, new emotionally aware systems will become available, providing vendors with capabilities they’ll use with greater and greater ease. Eventually, assuming there’s a profit to be made (and there will be), these capabilities will evolve into a system of services, often known today as Software as a Service or SaaS. Companies can use these integrated services to perform various tasks for a reasonable fee, without having to develop the software and databases themselves. Such services could abstract and automate many of the more complex aspects of facial recognition, 3D scanning, affective computing, and augmented reality, allowing businesses to engage consumers on the fly in real time as easily as you or I send an email or spell-check a document.


pages: 102 words: 29,596

The Alliance: Managing Talent in the Networked Age by Reid Hoffman, Ben Casnocha, Chris Yeh

Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, centralized clearinghouse, cloud computing, disruptive innovation, Jeff Bezos, Jony Ive, Marc Andreessen, new economy, pre–internet, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, software as a service, Steve Jobs

Too often, the business world conflates all nonpublic information into a single category. Perhaps this is due to the hard line that the finance world draws between “public” and “insider” information. But outside the world of financial exchanges and markets, nonpublic information comes in two very different flavors. For example, entrepreneurs often contact Chris for his advice on how to price Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) business software. Through his work with PBworks and other start-ups, he has direct operational experience in increasing revenues by introducing new pricing schemes. In the case of PBworks, for example, he was able to increase the size of the company’s largest customer from less than $100 to nearly $1 million over the course of four years. Chris’s pricing advice rests on “hidden” data that is nonpublic information, but he doesn’t reveal any secrets about specific customers or future plans.


pages: 116 words: 31,356

Platform Capitalism by Nick Srnicek

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, deskilling, disintermediation, future of work, gig economy, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, Jean Tirole, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, liquidity trap, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, mittelstand, multi-sided market, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Oculus Rift, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, platform as a service, quantitative easing, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, software as a service, TaskRabbit, the built environment, total factor productivity, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, unconventional monetary instruments, unorthodox policies, Zipcar

Wittel, 2016: 86. 26. Zuboff, 2015: 78. 27. Ibid. 28. For one example of a data value chain, see Dumbill, 2014. 29. Finnegan, 2014. 30. Davidson, 2016. 31. CB Insights, 2016b. 32. Henwood, 2003: 30. 33. Hook, 2016. 34. Clark and Young, 2013. 35. Burrington, 2016. 36. In the industry, these are known respectively as ‘infrastructure as a service’ (IaaS), ‘platform as a service’ (Paas), and ‘software as a service’ (SaaS). 37. Clark, 2016. 38. Miller, 2016. 39. Asay, 2015. 40. McBride and Medhora, 2016. 41. Webb, 2015; Bughin, Chui, and Manyika, 2015. 42. Bughin, Chui, and Manyika, 2015. 43. Alessi, 2014. 44. World Economic Forum, 2015: 4. 45. Zaske, 2015. 46. CB Insights, 2016c. 47. Waters, 2016. 48. Murray, 2016. 49. Miller, 2015b. 50. Waters, 2016. 51. Miller, 2015a. 52. International Federation of the Phonographic Industry, 2015: 6–7. 53.


pages: 461 words: 106,027

Zero to Sold: How to Start, Run, and Sell a Bootstrapped Business by Arvid Kahl

"side hustle", business process, centre right, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, continuous integration, coronavirus, COVID-19, Covid-19, crowdsourcing, domain-specific language, financial independence, Google Chrome, if you build it, they will come, information asymmetry, information retrieval, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kubernetes, minimum viable product, Network effects, performance metric, post-work, premature optimization, risk tolerance, Ruby on Rails, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, software as a service, source of truth, statistical model, subscription business, supply-chain management, trickle-down economics, web application

It will teach you how to fill all the roles required to run a business and what you need to get done in each stage of your bootstrapped company’s evolution. No matter if you are just starting to think about being an entrepreneur, are in the middle of running a bootstrapped company, or are a seasoned founder, you will find useful strategies, thought-provoking anecdotes, and insightful concepts in this guide. Zero to Sold will focus on examples from the Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) ecosystem, as this is my area of expertise. Most advice will be applicable to non-software businesses, too. While this is a guide, a manual, and a compendium, in the end, you are the agent of your own success. Carefully reflect if the advice in this book applies to your business. Read and learn as much as you can, but treat all guidance and direction as anecdotal. You will have to find your own combination of strategies and tactics.

You will have to find your own combination of strategies and tactics. Zero to Sold will help you get there. On Bootstrapping The FeedbackPanda Story I wrote Zero to Sold because I've been through starting multiple bootstrapped businesses, growing a few, and selling one of them. Allow me to share the story of the one I sold. Within two years, I co-founded, ran, grew, and finally sold a Software-as-a-Service business called FeedbackPanda, a productivity tool for online English teachers. What many don’t realize is that this was an overnight success many years in the making. FeedbackPanda wasn't my first rodeo. I've been part of many internet businesses before, and I've had my fair share of failures. I was in businesses where we never finished building the product. I co-founded startups that fizzled out because we didn't know how to market our service.


Robot Futures by Illah Reza Nourbakhsh

3D printing, autonomous vehicles, Burning Man, commoditize, computer vision, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, phenotype, Skype, social intelligence, software as a service, stealth mode startup, strong AI, telepresence, telepresence robot, Therac-25, Turing test, Vernor Vinge

The challenge, as researchers saw it, was to stop depending on external resources as a crutch, and therefore to put all the resources that were required on board the robot. Given power limitations and weight limitations, this required significant electronics engineering to do as much of the perceptual processing as possible, and thanks to these efforts robots began to be entirely self-contained systems at the close of the twentieth century. Then came the age of software-as-a-service, and its natural application to robotics, with the architectural desire to have 36 Chapter 2 the robot use as many Internet-based resources as possible. For instance, ask external resources to do the face recognition so that the robot can have minimal electronics on board yet be able to recognize every person in the robot lab and say good morning to them. The Internet, with its ever-increasing rates of data transfer, was seen as a solution to the problem of miniaturizing robots and yet retaining high IQ in their behavior.


pages: 302 words: 82,233

Beautiful security by Andy Oram, John Viega

Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, corporate governance, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, defense in depth, Donald Davies, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, Firefox, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, market design, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Nick Leeson, Norbert Wiener, optical character recognition, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, pirate software, Robert Bork, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, security theater, SETI@home, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, statistical model, Steven Levy, The Wisdom of Crowds, Upton Sinclair, web application, web of trust, zero day, Zimmermann PGP

Cloud Computing and Web Services: The Single Machine Is Here Civilization advances by extending the number of important operations which we can perform without thinking of them. —Alfred North Whitehead An Introduction to Mathematics (1911) Today, much is being made of “cloud computing” in the press. For at least the past five years, the computer industry has also expressed a lot of excitement about web services, which can range from Software as a Service (SaaS) to various web-based APIs and service-oriented architecture (SOA, pronounced “so-ah”). Cloud computing is really nothing more than the abstraction of computing infrastructure (be it storage, processing power, or application hosting) from the hardware system or users. Just as you don’t know where your photo is stored physically after you upload it to Flickr, you can run an entire business on a service that is free to run it on any system it chooses.

John received his Ph.D. and M.S. in computer science from the College of William and Mary and his B.A. from Randolph-Macon College. 262 CONTRIBUTORS E LIZABETH (B ETSY ) A. N ICHOLS is a serial entrepreneur who has applied mathematics to develop solutions in satellite mission optimization, industrial process control, war gaming, economic modeling, enterprise systems and network management, and most recently, security metrics. In 2007, with her husband, Joseph, she cofounded PlexLogic LLC, a firm that offers metrics on-demand using the Software as a Service delivery model. She is the CTO and VP of engineering. Prior to starting PlexLogic, Betsy cofounded two other software companies in the role of CTO and VP of engineering. The first company, Digital Analysis Corporation (DAC), implemented network and systems management software. DAC was acquired by Legent Corporation, which was in turn acquired by Computer Associates (CA) during the Internet bubble in the mid-1990s when Unix, the Web, and networks were booming.


pages: 619 words: 210,746

Reversing: Secrets of Reverse Engineering by Eldad Eilam

Donald Knuth, software as a service

Case Study: The Generic Table API in NTDLL.DLL RtlInitializeGenericTable RtlNumberGenericTableElements RtlIsGenericTableEmpty RtlGetElementGenericTable Setup and Initialization Logic and Structure Search Loop 1 Search Loop 2 Search Loop 3 Search Loop 4 Reconstructing the Source Code RtlInsertElementGenericTable RtlLocateNodeGenericTable RtlRealInsertElementWorker Splay Trees RtlLookupElementGenericTable RtlDeleteElementGenericTable Putting the Pieces Together Chapter 6 144 145 146 151 152 153 155 159 161 163 164 165 165 168 170 178 187 188 193 194 Conclusion 196 Deciphering File Formats Cryptex Using Cryptex Reversing Cryptex The Password Verification Process 199 200 201 202 207 Catching the “Bad Password” Message The Password Transformation Algorithm Hashing the Password The Directory Layout Analyzing the Directory Processing Code Analyzing a File Entry Dumping the Directory Layout The File Extraction Process Scanning the File List Decrypting the File The Floating-Point Sequence The Decryption Loop Verifying the Hash Value The Big Picture Digging Deeper Conclusion 207 210 213 218 218 223 227 228 234 235 236 238 239 239 241 242 xvii xviii Contents Chapter 7 Auditing Program Binaries Defining the Problem Vulnerabilities Stack Overflows A Simple Stack Vulnerability Intrinsic Implementations Stack Checking Nonexecutable Memory Heap Overflows String Filters Integer Overflows Arithmetic Operations on User-Supplied Integers Type Conversion Errors Case-Study: The IIS Indexing Service Vulnerability CVariableSet::AddExtensionControlBlock DecodeURLEscapes Chapter 8 243 243 245 245 247 249 250 254 255 256 256 258 260 262 263 267 Conclusion 271 Reversing Malware Types of Malware 273 274 Viruses Worms Trojan Horses Backdoors Mobile Code Adware/Spyware 274 274 275 276 276 276 Sticky Software Future Malware Information-Stealing Worms BIOS/Firmware Malware Uses of Malware Malware Vulnerability Polymorphism Metamorphism Establishing a Secure Environment The Backdoor.Hacarmy.D Unpacking the Executable Initial Impressions The Initial Installation Initializing Communications Connecting to the Server Joining the Channel Communicating with the Backdoor Running SOCKS4 Servers Clearing the Crime Scene The Backdoor.Hacarmy.D: A Command Reference Conclusion 277 278 278 279 280 281 282 283 285 285 286 290 291 294 296 298 299 303 303 304 306 Contents Part III Cracking 307 Chapter 9 Piracy and Copy Protection Copyrights in the New World The Social Aspect Software Piracy 309 309 310 310 Defining the Problem Class Breaks Requirements The Theoretically Uncrackable Model Types of Protection Media-Based Protections Serial Numbers Challenge Response and Online Activations Hardware-Based Protections Software as a Service Advanced Protection Concepts Crypto-Processors Digital Rights Management DRM Models The Windows Media Rights Manager Secure Audio Path Watermarking Trusted Computing Attacking Copy Protection Technologies Conclusion Chapter 10 Antireversing Techniques Why Antireversing? Basic Approaches to Antireversing Eliminating Symbolic Information Code Encryption Active Antidebugger Techniques Debugger Basics The IsDebuggerPresent API SystemKernelDebuggerInformation Detecting SoftICE Using the Single-Step Interrupt The Trap Flag Code Checksums Confusing Disassemblers Linear Sweep Disassemblers Recursive Traversal Disassemblers Applications Code Obfuscation Control Flow Transformations Opaque Predicates Confusing Decompilers Table Interpretation 311 312 313 314 314 314 315 315 316 317 318 318 319 320 321 321 321 322 324 324 327 327 328 329 330 331 331 332 333 334 335 335 336 337 338 343 344 346 346 348 348 xix xx Contents Inlining and Outlining Interleaving Code Ordering Transformations Data Transformations Modifying Variable Encoding Restructuring Arrays Conclusion Chapter 11 Breaking Protections Patching Keygenning Ripping Key-Generation Algorithms Advanced Cracking: Defender Reversing Defender’s Initialization Routine Analyzing the Decrypted Code SoftICE’s Disappearance Reversing the Secondary Thread Defeating the “Killer” Thread Loading KERNEL32.DLL Reencrypting the Function Back at the Entry Point Parsing the Program Parameters Processing the Username Validating User Information Unlocking the Code Brute-Forcing Your Way through Defender Protection Technologies in Defender Localized Function-Level Encryption Relatively Strong Cipher Block Chaining Reencrypting Obfuscated Application/Operating System Interface Processor Time-Stamp Verification Thread Runtime Generation of Decryption Keys Interdependent Keys User-Input-Based Decryption Keys Heavy Inlining Conclusion Part IV Beyond Disassembly Chapter 12 Reversing .NET Ground Rules .NET Basics Managed Code .NET Programming Languages Common Type System (CTS) Intermediate Language (IL) The Evaluation Stack Activation Records 353 354 355 355 355 356 356 357 358 364 365 370 377 387 396 396 399 400 401 402 404 406 407 409 409 415 415 415 416 416 417 418 418 419 419 419 421 423 424 426 426 428 428 429 430 430 Contents IL Instructions IL Code Samples Counting Items A Linked List Sample Decompilers Obfuscators Renaming Symbols Control Flow Obfuscation Breaking Decompilation and Disassembly Reversing Obfuscated Code XenoCode Obfuscator DotFuscator by Preemptive Solutions Remotesoft Obfuscator and Linker Remotesoft Protector Precompiled Assemblies Encrypted Assemblies Conclusion Chapter 13 Decompilation Native Code Decompilation: An Unsolvable Problem?

That is not possible without redesigning certain components in the typical PC’s hardware, and significant progress in that direction has been made in recent years (see the section on Trusted Computing). Types of Protection Let us discuss the different approaches to software copy protection technologies and evaluate their effectiveness. The following sections introduce mediabased protections, serial-number-based protections, challenge response and online activations, hardware-based protections, and the concept of using software as a service as a means of defending against software piracy. Media-Based Protections Media-based software copy protections were the primary copy protection approach in the 1980s. The idea was to have a program check the media with which it is shipped and confirm that it is an original. In floppy disks, this was implemented by creating special “bad” sectors in the distribution floppies and verifying that these sectors were present when the program was executed.

When the dongle actually has a microprocessor and is able to internally decrypt data, it becomes possible to hide the keys inside the dongle and there is never a need to expose the encryption keys to the untrusted CPU. Keeping the encryption keys safe inside the dongle makes it effectively impossible to emulate the dongle. At that point the only approach a cracker can take is to rip the decrypted code from memory piece by piece. Remember that smart protection technologies never keep the entire program unencrypted in memory, so this might not be as easy as it sounds. Software as a Service As time moves on, more and more computers are permanently connected to the Internet, and the connections are getting faster and more reliable. This has created a natural transition towards server-based software. Server-based software isn’t a suitable model for every type of software, but certain applications can really benefit from it. This model is mentioned here because it is a highly secure protection model (though it is rarely seen as a protection model at all).


pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, digital twin, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

Figure V: Distribution of US Occupational Employment* over the Probability of Computerization * Distribution based on 2010 job mix. Source: Frey, C.B. and M.A. Osborne, “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation?”, 17 September 2013 Positive impacts – Cost reductions – Efficiency gains – Unlocking innovation, opportunities for small business, start-ups (smaller barriers to entry, “software as a service” for everything) Negative impacts – Job losses – Accountability and liability – Change to legal, financial disclosure, risk – Job automation (refer to the Oxford Martin study) The shift in action Advances in automation were reported on by FORTUNE: “IBM’s Watson, well known for its stellar performance in the TV game show Jeopardy!, has already demonstrated a far more accurate diagnosis rate for lung cancers than humans – 90% versus 50% in some tests.


pages: 169 words: 43,906

The Website Investor: The Guide to Buying an Online Website Business for Passive Income by Jeff Hunt

buy low sell high, Donald Trump, frictionless, frictionless market, intangible asset, medical malpractice, passive income, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Skype, software as a service

Most apps are sold based on their “potential earnings,” which are suspect. Free apps far outnumber purchased apps. There are successful monetization methods for free apps, but free apps need to have a large install base to pay off. I expect to see a merger of the kind of tools and functions offered by current apps and the easy accessibility of websites in the future. An “App as a Service” model similar to the “Software as a Service” model will emerge. Apps have to be independently downloaded. Websites can all be accessed from a single browser. The new model will provide app functionality delivered through a generic, browser-like service. You read it here first. As an example of how unpredictable the ROI with apps is, consider my friend Joel Comm. He created the iFart app that sold over 800,000 copies at $0.99 each.


pages: 492 words: 118,882

The Blockchain Alternative: Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy and Economic Theory by Kariappa Bheemaiah

accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, balance sheet recession, bank run, banks create money, Basel III, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, business cycle, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cashless society, cellular automata, central bank independence, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, constrained optimization, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, deskilling, Diane Coyle, discrete time, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, diversification, double entry bookkeeping, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Flash crash, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, George Akerlof, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, interest rate derivative, inventory management, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, large denomination, liquidity trap, London Whale, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, MITM: man-in-the-middle, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nikolai Kondratiev, offshore financial centre, packet switching, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer lending, Ponzi scheme, precariat, pre–internet, price mechanism, price stability, private sector deleveraging, profit maximization, QR code, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, Ray Kurzweil, Real Time Gross Settlement, rent control, rent-seeking, Satoshi Nakamoto, Satyajit Das, savings glut, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, supply-chain management, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Great Moderation, the market place, The Nature of the Firm, the payments system, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Von Neumann architecture, Washington Consensus

(continued) Company Service Solution SkuChain KYB Skuchain is similar to BlockVerify and is targeting the supply chain industry as well, but with a focus on collaborative commerce. Their BRACKETS25 technology makes smart contracts to govern all phases of a typical trade agreement from order, shipment, and invoice to final payment. CredyCo Identity and Created by Trustatom, CredyCo provides a cryptographic KYC due diligence service built on top of Bitcoin’s blockchain. They provide document verification “software as a service” (SaaS) which uses smart contracts and identity technology built on top of the blockchain to ensure the credibility and irrefutability of all statements. Primarily targeting the venture capital industry, the company seeks to automate KYC practices by allowing their customers to authorize transactions with cryptographic signatures. HYPR Identity HYPR combines Bitcoin biometrics with blockchain security to provide an enterprise-ready multi-signature platform.

See Real Business Cycle (RBC) models Reaganomics, 11 Real Business Cycle (RBC) models, 169 Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS) system, 96 Regular laws, 97 Ripple protocol, 97 „„         S Santa Fe artificial stock market model, 205–207 Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), 106, 153 Scalability, 152 SecureKey Concierge, 78 Seigniorage, 122 Shadow banking and systemic risk commercial banks, 19 definition, 20 dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models, 22 economic flexibility, 19 EMH and RET, 22 financial markets and monetary policy, 21 growth of financial products, 20 macroeconomic theories, 21–22 non-bank channels, 20 securitization, 19, 21 trades, 20 Sharding, 44 Blockchain, 54 FinTech transformation, 45, 48 global Fintech financing activity, 46 private sector, 44 ShoCard, 68 SIGEmodels. See Sticky Information General Equilibrium (SIGE) models Skill-biased technological change (SBTC), 85 SkuChain, 69 Software as a service (SaaS), 69 Sticky Information General Equilibrium (SIGE) models, 170 SWIFT network, 101–102 Systemically important financial institutions (SIFI), 33 System identification number (SIN), 76 „„         T Tax evasion, 121 Tech-led firms, 109 Technology and invention accelerating consilience of technology, 158, 160 blockchain, 160 combinatorial evolution, 157 complexity, 158 EDVAC, 158 equilibrium and rational expectations, 160 Konratiev waves, 159 247 ■ INDEX Technology and invention (cont.)


The Future of Technology by Tom Standage

air freight, barriers to entry, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Clayton Christensen, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, creative destruction, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, double helix, experimental economics, full employment, hydrogen economy, industrial robot, informal economy, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, job satisfaction, labour market flexibility, Marc Andreessen, market design, Menlo Park, millennium bug, moral hazard, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, railway mania, rent-seeking, RFID, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart grid, software as a service, spectrum auction, speech recognition, stem cell, Steve Ballmer, technology bubble, telemarketer, transcontinental railway, Y2K

Fortunately for shareholders, they probably won’t, at least in the foreseeable future – for the simple reason that they will make active efforts to prevent such a calamity. In fact, vendors are already changing their business models, mostly by moving up the technology stack. Sun, which made a killing during the dotcom boom by selling high-end servers, is trying to become more of a software firm and a builder of power plants 37 THE FUTURE OF TECHNOLOGY for computing utilities. And much of Microsoft’s .net effort is about software as a service. Yet it is ibm that is betting most on the prediction that the it industry will follow historic patterns of evolution. Big Blue expects profits to migrate to software and services (see Chart 1.9), and is managing its product portfolio accordingly. For example, it has sold its hard-drive business and acquired the consulting arm of PricewaterhouseCoopers, an accountancy firm. Slowly but surely, ibm is morphing from a technology vendor with a strong it-services arm into a business consulting firm that also sells software and hardware.

This is a fairly new idea in the it industry, although in many established industries it has been around for a long time. People do not put safes into their basements but open bank accounts. Similarly, “most people shouldn’t build their own aeroplanes,” says Sun’s Mr Papadopoulos. “They shouldn’t even own them; in fact, they shouldn’t even rent them; what they should do is rent a seat on one.” In it, the equivalent of renting a seat on an aircraft is to rent software as a service from specialised firms called “application service providers”, or asps. These companies build huge datacentres so that other companies do not have to. The best-known asp today is Salesforce.com, a San Francisco firm that made its debut on the stockmarket in June 2004. As the name suggests, Salesforce.com specialises in software that salespeople use to keep track of their marketing leads and client information.


Seeking SRE: Conversations About Running Production Systems at Scale by David N. Blank-Edelman

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, algorithmic trading, Amazon Web Services, bounce rate, business continuity plan, business process, cloud computing, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, dark matter, database schema, Debian, defense in depth, DevOps, domain-specific language, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, fear of failure, friendly fire, game design, Grace Hopper, information retrieval, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, invisible hand, iterative process, Kubernetes, loose coupling, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, microservices, minimum viable product, MVC pattern, performance metric, platform as a service, pull request, RAND corporation, remote working, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ruby on Rails, search engine result page, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, single page application, Snapchat, software as a service, software is eating the world, source of truth, the scientific method, Toyota Production System, web application, WebSocket, zero day

As we consider buy options, it’s worth expanding on a few of these points to provoke additional thoughts that you might not have considered. Is this a core competency? Always weigh whether a solution/integration under consideration is both your core competency as well as the company’s core competency. Third parties offer specialized solutions and have teams of engineers working to expand their value proposition by building additional features and services. A Software as a Service (SaaS) solution for log aggregation might be more effective in the long run than trying to adopt an open source solution such as Elasticsearch. You have to decide whether Elasticsearch is really something that you, your team, and your company need to focus on. Integration timeline? However long you think it’s going to take to complete an integration, double it. Then add a little more.

When her hands are not on a keyboard, they are usually holding a bass guitar. Johannes Russek, officially former SRE and technical product manager at Spotify, unofficially dropped-ball finder and software systems archeologist. Favorite tool is a whiteboard. Chapter 8. Introducing SRE in Large Enterprises Sriram Gollapalli, Agilent Technologies This chapter describes my story of how an acquired Software as a Service (SaaS) startup (founded in 2006) introduced SRE into a large enterprise (originally founded in the 1930s), including the challenges and opportunities of traditional IT, operations, support/quality teams, and distinct product engineering divisions working in concert with one another. This is intended for managers who understand that SRE is what their organization and products need but they are struggling to determine how to implement these ideas.

While DevOps remains elusive in a manifesto-type definition, reliability engineering assigns a more concrete role and responsibility to the term in many ways. At its core, site reliability engineering embodies and encourages the same exact principles that have been associated with DevOps since the term began entering the web operations lexicon. Building and operating digital services with 24/7 availability expectations has become a necessity for more than just Software as a Service vendors. Businesses, governments, and organizations across nearly every industry are faced with balancing rapid development of new functionality with maintaining the health and availability of the service. Engineering practices, teams, and individuals lumped in to the title of SRE helps businesses assign a concrete effort to these roles. The core reason for the existence of an SRE (team, individual, etc.) is to leverage technical skills in systems architecture, automation, and problem-solving along with social skills of collaboration and communication to seek new ways to know more about the system as a whole.


pages: 192 words: 44,789

Vagrant: Up and Running by Mitchell Hashimoto

Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Debian, DevOps, remote working, software as a service, web application

Foreword Jeff Sussna Founder and Principal, Ingineering.IT Every so often, you encounter software that immediately strikes you with its combination of clarity, simplicity, power, and usefulness. You simultaneously say “wow!” and “why didn’t I think of that?” But you couldn’t have thought of it. It needs an author who can conceive and implement that particular vision, not just appreciate it. Vagrant is that kind of software, and Mitchell Hashimoto is that kind of author. Software as a service dramatically lowers the cost of change for its users. As a result, they come to expect near-instantaneous responsiveness from software vendors. The ability to continuously deliver new features is taking its place alongside the features themselves as a competitive advantage. Service providers face the conundrum of needing to accelerate velocity without sacrificing quality. Vagrant provides a critical contribution to solving that problem.


pages: 161 words: 44,488

The Business Blockchain: Promise, Practice, and Application of the Next Internet Technology by William Mougayar

Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, business process, centralized clearinghouse, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, fixed income, global value chain, Innovator's Dilemma, Internet of things, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, market clearing, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, prediction markets, pull request, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, sharing economy, smart contracts, social web, software as a service, too big to fail, Turing complete, web application

Contractual Law is being sliced off, for example via Ricardian contracts that track the liability of one party to another (for example, OpenBazaar is implementing them in their peer-to-peer e-commerce protocol). Here is a profound implication for large enterprises. Business users will also be able to run their own smart contracts, P2P apps, and other Dapps on open blockchains without seeking permission from IT departments, in the same way that Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) was a Trojan horse that enabled employees to sign up for services on their own without disturbing the company infrastructures (until it was time to perform some integrations). This new form of SaaS will be possible because a new infrastructure layer can emerge by being supported on a peer-to-peer and shared-cost basis. And it is very possible that the costs of this new computing infrastructure will be as cheap as Internet access today, on a relative per-user basis.


pages: 140 words: 91,067

Money, Real Quick: The Story of M-PESA by Tonny K. Omwansa, Nicholas P. Sullivan, The Guardian

BRICs, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, cashless society, cloud computing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, dematerialisation, disruptive innovation, financial exclusion, financial innovation, financial intermediation, income per capita, Kibera, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, microcredit, mobile money, Network effects, new economy, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, software as a service, transaction costs

Flexus Technologies is a Kenyan company that partnered with PayG Solutions from the U.K (several PayG programmers worked on the initial M-PESA software). Kopo Kopo is a U.S.-based Company with East African headquarters at the m:lab incubator in Nairobi, with seed-capital investments from the U.S. ******ebook converter DEMO Watermarks******* (Gray Ghost Ventures and Presumed Abundance), Kopo Kopo builds software-as-a-service (SAAS) platforms to integrate mobile money system with a range of back-office systems used by MFIs and SACCOs, who lease the software for $400 or less per month. Contrast that with paying anywhere from 5 to 10 employees from $20,000 to $50,000 a year. NAIROBI’S SWAHILI SILICON VALLEY The rapid spread of mobile telephony starting in 2000, followed by the rapid spread of mobile money starting in 2007, has clearly spawned a new ICT (Information, and Communications Technology) cluster in Nairobi.


pages: 271 words: 52,814

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy by Melanie Swan

23andMe, Airbnb, altcoin, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, banking crisis, basic income, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, capital controls, cellular automata, central bank independence, clean water, cloud computing, collaborative editing, Conway's Game of Life, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial innovation, Firefox, friendly AI, Hernando de Soto, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, lifelogging, litecoin, Lyft, M-Pesa, microbiome, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, peer-to-peer model, personalized medicine, post scarcity, prediction markets, QR code, ride hailing / ride sharing, Satoshi Nakamoto, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, sharing economy, Skype, smart cities, smart contracts, smart grid, software as a service, technological singularity, Turing complete, uber lyft, unbanked and underbanked, underbanked, web application, WikiLeaks

Looking ahead, reconfiguring all of business and commerce with smart contracts in the Bitcoin 2.0 era could likely be complicated and difficult to implement, with many opportunities for service providers to offer implementation services, customer education, standard setting, and other value-added facilitations. Some of the many types of business models that have developed with enterprise software and cloud computing might be applicable, too, for the Bitcoin economy—for example, the Red Hat model (fee-based services to implement open source software), and SaaS, providing Software as a Service, including with customization. One possible job of the future could be smart contract auditor, to confirm that AI smart contracts running on the blockchain are indeed doing as instructed, and determining and measuring how the smart contracts have self-rewritten to maximize the issuing agent’s utility. Scandals and Public Perception One of the biggest barriers to further Bitcoin adoption is its public perception as a venue for (and possible abettor of) the dark net’s money-laundering, drug-related, and other illicit activity—for example, illegal goods online marketplaces such as Silk Road.


pages: 189 words: 52,741

Lifestyle Entrepreneur: Live Your Dreams, Ignite Your Passions and Run Your Business From Anywhere in the World by Jesse Krieger

Airbnb, always be closing, bounce rate, call centre, carbon footprint, commoditize, Deng Xiaoping, different worldview, financial independence, follow your passion, income inequality, iterative process, Ralph Waldo Emerson, search engine result page, Skype, software as a service, South China Sea, Steve Jobs

You can set up a CRM system in a few ways. Sites like Alibaba.com have vendors in their Software section that have ready-made, easily customizable CRM solutions that are geared specifically for e-commerce of various goods. You can also hire programming firms from sites such as Elance.com or Guru.com to customize free open-source CRM software such as SugarCRM. Perhaps the easiest solution, however, is using off-the-shelf software-as-a-service (SaaS) CRM platforms such as Salesforce.com, crm.zoho.com, or vtiger.com. My recommendation: Use Zoho.com to start with. It’s free for up to three uses and very affordable thereafter. Their CRM setup already includes all the forms and modules you will need for your business (Sales Order, Invoice, Purchase Order, etc.). If you want a full-featured, very robust solution, take a look at www.InfusionSoft.com - this is the top-of-the-line small business solution for e-commerce, CRM and email marketing, but it costs a few hundred dollars per month.


pages: 201 words: 63,192

Graph Databases by Ian Robinson, Jim Webber, Emil Eifrem

Amazon Web Services, anti-pattern, bioinformatics, commoditize, corporate governance, create, read, update, delete, data acquisition, en.wikipedia.org, fault tolerance, linked data, loose coupling, Network effects, recommendation engine, semantic web, sentiment analysis, social graph, software as a service, SPARQL, web application

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complex_event_processing 98 | Chapter 5: Graphs in the Real World • Which resource can an end-user access? • Given a particular resource, who can modify its access settings? (Bottom-up) Graph database access control and authorization solutions are particularly applicable in the areas of content management, federated authorization services, social networking preferences, and software as a service offerings, where they realizing minutes to milli‐ seconds increases in performance over their hand-rolled, relational predecessors. Real-World Examples In this section we describe three example use cases in detail: social and recommenda‐ tions, authorization and access control, and logistics. Each use case is drawn from one or more production applications of a graph database (specifically in these cases, Neo4j).


pages: 285 words: 58,517

The Network Imperative: How to Survive and Grow in the Age of Digital Business Models by Barry Libert, Megan Beck

active measures, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, business intelligence, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, diversification, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, future of work, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Infrastructure as a Service, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of writing, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, late fees, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Oculus Rift, pirate software, ride hailing / ride sharing, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, software as a service, software patent, Steve Jobs, subscription business, TaskRabbit, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, Wall-E, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Bergdorf Goodman, for example, partners with beauty player GlossyBox, and Nordstrom recently acquired Trunk Club, which offers individually styled apparel selections for men. These packages of delight and surprise are only the latest iteration in the ongoing business quest for low-cost, recurring revenue from happy and loyal customers. Subscriptions have been around for a long time, and so have contracts, both of which connect customers and companies over the long term. Software-as-a-service has already swept the software industry, with Microsoft and Adobe moving to the subscription model for key products. But the truth is, our ongoing relationships with the newspapers we subscribe to, the cell phone providers we contract with, and the software makers we rely on don’t bring much joy or intimacy. In fact, it mostly feels as if they just want to make sure we pay on time. Getting your customers to subscribe to you and your product just to get them to open their wallets each month will bring limited success.


pages: 169 words: 56,250

Startup Communities: Building an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in Your City by Brad Feld

barriers to entry, cleantech, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, G4S, Grace Hopper, job satisfaction, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, minimum viable product, Network effects, paypal mafia, Peter Thiel, place-making, pre–internet, Richard Florida, Ruby on Rails, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, software as a service, Steve Jobs, text mining, Y Combinator, zero-sum game, Zipcar

I bumped into Fred Wilson’s blog (http://startuprev.com/l4) and Brad Feld’s blog (http://startuprev.com/o4 and http://startuprev.com/h1) and was amazed at the wealth of knowledge and wisdom that these two individuals were sharing freely on the Internet. I met this small team sitting in the old fishing factory in the Reykjavik Harbor, working on text mining. They were each younger than 25 years old and called their company CLARA. They wanted to build a software-as-a-service company that helped gaming companies understand their communities. I was startled. These kids were not worried about the ISK or the government or the global financial crisis or anything. They were building something and wanted to sell it to create value. I was impressed. I found out that they needed capital to get their minimum viable product onto the market. There was a slight problem, as I had no money, so I reached out to my family and friends, convinced them to invest in Iceland and this young team called CLARA.


pages: 523 words: 61,179

Human + Machine: Reimagining Work in the Age of AI by Paul R. Daugherty, H. James Wilson

3D printing, AI winter, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, digital twin, disintermediation, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, friendly AI, future of work, industrial robot, Internet of things, inventory management, iterative process, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, knowledge worker, Lyft, natural language processing, personalized medicine, precision agriculture, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sentiment analysis, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, software as a service, speech recognition, telepresence, telepresence robot, text mining, the scientific method, uber lyft

James Wilson, Allan Alter, and Sharad Sachdev, “Business Processes Are Learning to Hack Themselves,” Harvard Business Review, June 27, 2016, https://hbr.org/2016/06/business-processes-are-learning-to-hack-themselves; author interview with Andreas Nettsträter, February 8, 2016. 6.Steve Lohr, “G.E., the 124-Year-Old Software Start-Up,” New York Times, August 27, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/28/technology/ge-the-124-year-old-software-start-up.html. 7.Charles Babcock, “GE Doubles Down on ‘Digital Twins’ for Business Knowledge,” Information Week, October 24, 2016, http://www.informationweek.com/cloud/software-as-a-service/ge-doubles-down-on-digital-twins-for-business-knowledge/d/d-id/1327256. 8.Ibid. 9.Tomas Kellner, “Wind in the Cloud? How the Digital Wind Farm Will Make Wind Power 20 Percent More Efficient,” GE Reports, September 27, 2015, http://www.gereports.com/post/119300678660/wind-in-the-cloud-how-the-digital-wind-farm-will/. 10.Author interview with Joe Caracappa, October 13, 2016. 11.Leanna Garfield, “Inside the World’s Largest Vertical Farm, Where Plants Stack 30 Feet High,” Business Insider, March 15, 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com/inside-aerofarms-the-worlds-largest-vertical-farm-2016-3. 12.


pages: 561 words: 157,589

WTF?: What's the Future and Why It's Up to Us by Tim O'Reilly

4chan, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Alvin Roth, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, computer vision, corporate governance, corporate raider, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Danny Hillis, data acquisition, deskilling, DevOps, Donald Davies, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, full employment, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, gravity well, greed is good, Guido van Rossum, High speed trading, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, Hyperloop, income inequality, index fund, informal economy, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invisible hand, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, Lao Tzu, Larry Wall, Lean Startup, Leonard Kleinrock, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, McMansion, microbiome, microservices, minimum viable product, mortgage tax deduction, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Oculus Rift, packet switching, PageRank, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer model, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Coase, Sam Altman, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, SETI@home, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Skype, smart contracts, Snapchat, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, social web, software as a service, software patent, spectrum auction, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Ballmer, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, strong AI, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The Future of Employment, the map is not the territory, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Davenport, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, trickle-down economics, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, universal basic income, US Airways Flight 1549, VA Linux, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, yellow journalism, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The big question for automakers without this edge is whether the sensors used for accident avoidance or automated parking will be sufficient for them to collect enough data to compete. A lot depends not just on how much data you have, of course, but how able you are to make sense of it. There Google, Tesla, and Uber have a big edge on traditional auto companies. THE END OF THE SOFTWARE RELEASE CYCLE In the PC era, we were accustomed to thinking of software as an artifact. Companies had to start thinking of software as a service. This meant we’d see a whole new approach to software development. While I didn’t develop this idea as fully as the previous three, it was clear even in 2005 that what we now call “iterative, user-centered, data-driven development” would be the new normal. Software built in what we now call “the cloud” is constantly updated. But it’s not just updated many times faster than PC-era software.

Its search engine is the pervasive neocortex of the information economy, a critical component of the global brain that the Internet has become, connecting billions of humans with the data and documents we collectively create. The principles that led me to make Google the poster child for Web 2.0 are still unfolding as drivers of the future: big data, algorithms, collective intelligence, software as a service, with the addition of a new focus on machine learning and AI. Understanding how algorithmic systems shape not just new services but also society is a central theme of this book. The Android phone operating system puts Google’s services into the pockets of billions of people. The company kicked off the race for self-driving cars and has been a leader in their development. And it has big ambitions in areas like healthcare, logistics, the design of cities, and robotics.


pages: 245 words: 64,288

Robots Will Steal Your Job, But That's OK: How to Survive the Economic Collapse and Be Happy by Pistono, Federico

3D printing, Albert Einstein, autonomous vehicles, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, Firefox, future of work, George Santayana, global village, Google Chrome, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, illegal immigration, income inequality, information retrieval, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, longitudinal study, means of production, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, patent troll, pattern recognition, peak oil, post scarcity, QR code, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, RFID, Rodney Brooks, selection bias, self-driving car, slashdot, smart cities, software as a service, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, women in the workforce

Sebastian Thrun was so excited that he decided to leave his Professorship at Stanford and dedicate his time to teach to millions of students worldwide, for free (http://udacity.com). Sounds familiar? The approach by Andrew Ng inspired many others, who are now teaching under the umbrella of a non-profit called ‘Coursera’, with high level subjects such as Model Thinking, Natural Language Processing, Game Theory, Probabilistic Graphical Models, Cryptography, Design and Analysis of Algorithms, Software as a Service, Computer Vision, Computer Science, Machine Learning, Human-Computer Interaction, Making Green Buildings, Information Theory, Anatomy, and Computer Security. Needless to say, this is just the beginning. It is the natural evolution of education when combined with technology. Embrace change, or die. So, how does this apply to you? How does this help you? In case you have not noticed, this is your winning ticket.


pages: 253 words: 65,834

Mastering the VC Game: A Venture Capital Insider Reveals How to Get From Start-Up to IPO on Your Terms by Jeffrey Bussgang

business cycle, business process, carried interest, digital map, discounted cash flows, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, moveable type in China, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, performance metric, Peter Thiel, pets.com, risk tolerance, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, selection bias, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Wisdom of Crowds

“I thought there was way more of a cash runway than there actually was. The first week I got there, I was like, ‘We have how many weeks of cash left?’ ” So Gail started fund-raising immediately. “We had a lot of things going against us. We didn’t have a sweet spot in the market. It was still the world of enterprise software with million-dollar deals the norm. We were saying, ‘We’re going to sell our product for thirty dollars a month.’ Plus, the idea of ‘software as a service’ didn’t really exist yet.” Gail pitched forty firms looking for a first round of VC investment. “I was a first-time CEO. It was my first time raising money. First-time everything. What befuddled me was that I was pitching a very practical and reasonable growth trajectory, but everybody kept telling me, ‘Oh no, that’s not aggressive enough. It’s got to be $100 million in three years or we’re not interested.’


pages: 258 words: 74,942

Company of One: Why Staying Small Is the Next Big Thing for Business by Paul Jarvis

Airbnb, big-box store, Cal Newport, call centre, corporate social responsibility, David Heinemeier Hansson, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, follow your passion, gender pay gap, glass ceiling, Inbox Zero, index fund, job automation, Kickstarter, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, Naomi Klein, passive investing, Paul Graham, pets.com, remote working, Results Only Work Environment, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ruby on Rails, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, uber lyft, web application, Y Combinator, Y2K

Early on, I decided that instead of spending time and money on marketing and outbound sales campaigns, I’d invest those resources instead in making sure every client was absolutely happy about having decided to hire me. Happy clients then did sales pitches for me, unasked, by telling everyone they knew that I was the person to hire for design work. For over a decade (until I moved away from services into products), these word-of-mouth referrals created a waiting list a few months long. Even product businesses like Trello—a SaaS (software as a service) that lets you collaborate on projects online—have grown their reach and customer numbers, mostly through word of mouth. Trello has had 100 percent organic growth (i.e., no paid ads) to more than ten million users simply because people talk about its product, often, and in places visible to large groups of people, like social media or blogs. Trello has even developed fun games (that loosely relate to their product, like “Taco Out”) that help create shareable moments.


pages: 326 words: 74,433

Do More Faster: TechStars Lessons to Accelerate Your Startup by Brad Feld, David Cohen

augmented reality, computer vision, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, hiring and firing, Inbox Zero, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lean Startup, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, slashdot, social web, software as a service, Steve Jobs

Appendix: The TechStars Companies AccelGolf (2009)—offers mobile and online apps to golfers that improve their game through personalized content.—accelgolf.com ADstruc (2010)—is an online buying platform for outdoor advertising that enables an auction and listing-based marketplace and makes the process of buying and selling faster and more profitable.—adstruc.com AmpIdea (2009)—is helping new parents by offering services through a web-enabled baby monitor.—ampidea.com AppX (2008)—provides software as a service to parties that invest in venture capital and private equity.—app-x.com Appswell (2010)—is a mobile crowd-sourcing platform that allows people, companies, and brands to harness the wisdom of their crowds.—appswell.com Baydin (2009)—creates e-mail utilities and collaboration catalysts that make e-mail even more valuable.—baydin.com BlipSnips (2010)—makes it easy for users anywhere on the web to tag, share, and collaborate around memorable video moments.


pages: 230 words: 76,655

Choose Yourself! by James Altucher

Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, cashless society, cognitive bias, dark matter, Elon Musk, estate planning, Mark Zuckerberg, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, payday loans, Peter Thiel, Ponzi scheme, Rodney Brooks, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, sharing economy, short selling, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, Steve Jobs, superconnector, Uber for X, Vanguard fund, Y2K, Zipcar

I need to know that there is a small chance I’ll see a hundred-fold return on my money. Catch-22: showing people there are a small chance they’ll see a hundred-fold return on their money. The secret of salesmanship is getting through the Catch-22. Rejecting a cash offer for your company when you have almost no revenues. Hello Friendster and foursquare. What are some signs of a professional? Going from bullshit product to services to software as a service (SaaS) product. (Corollary: the reverse is amateur hour). Cutting costs every day. When you have a billion in revenues, staying focused. When you have zero revenues, staying unfocused and coming up with new ideas every day. Saying no to people who are obvious losers. Saying yes to any meeting at all with someone who is an obvious winner. Knowing how to distinguish between winners and losers (you know in your gut, trust me).


pages: 269 words: 70,543

Tech Titans of China: How China's Tech Sector Is Challenging the World by Innovating Faster, Working Harder, and Going Global by Rebecca Fannin

Airbnb, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blockchain, call centre, cashless society, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, cloud computing, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, El Camino Real, Elon Musk, family office, fear of failure, glass ceiling, global supply chain, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, Menlo Park, money market fund, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, QR code, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, urban planning, winner-take-all economy, Y Combinator, young professional

In 2018, Chen pulled off the masterful feat of selling Renren’s failing social networking business and spinning off 44 of Renren’s portfolio company investments, including well-known social finance business SoFi in a controversial deal to his privately held Oak Pacific Interactive, controlled by Chen and his Renren cofounders. Renren is now left with a used car sales platform in China, a trucking app in the United States, a (software-as-a-service) business for the US real estate market—and a sagging stock price on the NYSE. Similarly, China’s once promising Amazon-like book retailer, Dangdang, and its cofounding wife-and-husband team, Peggy YuYu and Li Guoqing, faltered. Looking to one-up Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos in China, YuYu used her Wall Street smarts to expand Dangdang (sounds like a cash register) into selling apparel, toys, and linens and list the company on NYSE in 2010.


pages: 491 words: 77,650

Humans as a Service: The Promise and Perils of Work in the Gig Economy by Jeremias Prassl

3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Andrei Shleifer, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, call centre, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, full employment, future of work, George Akerlof, gig economy, global supply chain, hiring and firing, income inequality, information asymmetry, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, market friction, means of production, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, pattern recognition, platform as a service, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, remote working, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, Rosa Parks, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Simon Singh, software as a service, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, transaction costs, transportation-network company, Travis Kalanick, two tier labour market, two-sided market, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, union organizing, working-age population

On the one hand, there are those who enthusiastically promote the gig economy as nothing less than a fundamental reinvention of labour markets, weaving ‘a fascinating tapestry of innovation, one that provides an early glimpse of what capitalist societies might evolve into over the coming decades’5—a story of platforms facilitating ‘the exchange of goods, services, or social currency, thereby enabling value creation for all participants’.6 Vociferous critics, on the other hand, castigate gig platforms for extend- ing ‘a harsh and deregulated free market into previously protected areas of our lives’,7 thus: forging an economic system in which those with money will be able to use faceless, anonymous interactions via brokerage websites and mobile apps to hire those without money by forcing an online bidding war to see who will charge the least for their labor.8 Humans as a Service Back in 2006, Jeff Bezos had no such qualms. The CEO of one of the world’s largest tech companies was excited by MTurk’s business promise. In addition to books, groceries, and gadgets, Amazon would henceforth sell work: You’ve heard of software as a service— —Well, this is basically humans as a service.9 Humans have always provided services to their employers and customers, of course. As workers, however, they enjoy significant legal and economic pro- tection in return, from minimum wage and unfair dismissal laws, to social security and pensions. Therein lies the attraction of ‘humans as a service’: like information technology (IT) infrastructure, large workforces are expen- sive to build and maintain.


pages: 1,136 words: 73,489

Working in Public: The Making and Maintenance of Open Source Software by Nadia Eghbal

Amazon Web Services, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), bitcoin, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, commoditize, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Heinemeier Hansson, death of newspapers, Debian, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, Ethereum, Firefox, Guido van Rossum, Hacker Ethic, Induced demand, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Jean Tirole, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kubernetes, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Network effects, node package manager, Norbert Wiener, pirate software, pull request, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, Ronald Coase, Ruby on Rails, side project, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs, two-sided market, urban planning, web application, wikimedia commons, Zimmermann PGP

Projects also tend to attract corporate funding better than individuals do, because companies are more comfortable with paying for code than for talent. In terms of value proposition, projects are attractive to corporate funders because they deliver commensurate benefits: code security and stability, influence, attracting hiring talent. And from an execution standpoint, funding projects is not unlike paying for software: they become a line item in a team’s budget, like expensing a SaaS (software as a service) product. By contrast, funding an individual developer is more like a contractor agreement, in which a company “hires” an individual for their services. These arrangements tend to be harder to pull off, both in terms of execution and making the case for the decision internally. Raising money on the basis of personal reputation is liberating, in that developers like Sindre Sorhus aren’t tied to any one specific project.


pages: 677 words: 206,548

Future Crimes: Everything Is Connected, Everyone Is Vulnerable and What We Can Do About It by Marc Goodman

23andMe, 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, airport security, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bill Joy: nanobots, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Brian Krebs, business process, butterfly effect, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, data acquisition, data is the new oil, Dean Kamen, disintermediation, don't be evil, double helix, Downton Abbey, drone strike, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Firefox, Flash crash, future of work, game design, global pandemic, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, High speed trading, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, illegal immigration, impulse control, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Jony Ive, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, license plate recognition, lifelogging, litecoin, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Metcalfe’s law, MITM: man-in-the-middle, mobile money, more computing power than Apollo, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Nate Silver, national security letter, natural language processing, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, offshore financial centre, optical character recognition, Parag Khanna, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, RAND corporation, ransomware, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rodney Brooks, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, security theater, self-driving car, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, stealth mode startup, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, uranium enrichment, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Wave and Pay, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, web application, Westphalian system, WikiLeaks, Y Combinator, zero day

The cloud refers to the massive network of computing resources available online and the practice of using these remote servers to store, manage, and process the world’s information. The changing paradigm in computing means that less information is stored locally on our machines and is instead being hosted elsewhere on earth. We mostly do not buy software anymore; we just rent it or receive it for free using a new business model known as Software as a Service (SaaS). On the personal front, cloud computing means Google is storing our mail, Instagram our photographs, and Dropbox our documents—not to mention what mobile phones are automatically uploading to the cloud for us. In the corporate world, enterprise customers not only are using Dropbox but also have outsourced primary business functions that would have previously been handled inside the company to SaaS providers such as Salesforce.​com, Zoho.com, and Box.com.

Crime as a Service With an untraceable illicit monetary system in place, crime is no longer something that you just commit; it is something you can buy. Crime as a Service (CaaS) is the new business model and allows all or part of an offense to be carried out by others, while the crime-trepreneur who organized and invested in the scheme is ensured the profit. Just as large corporations are increasingly using Software as a Service to carry out their enterprise operations beyond their core competencies, so too are criminals. One of the most oft-purchased services is that of IT infrastructure—the technological guts and pipes required to run any successful modern enterprise. But Crime, Inc. has special technological infrastructure needs, specifically for what has become an exceeding rare commodity these days: privacy and anonymity.


pages: 315 words: 85,791

Technical Blogging: Turn Your Expertise Into a Remarkable Online Presence by Antonio Cangiano

23andMe, Albert Einstein, anti-pattern, bitcoin, bounce rate, cloud computing, en.wikipedia.org, John Gruber, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Network effects, revision control, Ruby on Rails, search engine result page, slashdot, software as a service, web application

Make your blog ultra-technical, with scores of behind-the-scene details regarding how you develop the software that you sell, and you’ll attract the attention of fellow developers. If your ideal customer base is developers or if you’re trying to hire some new talent, this could be a solid strategy. If that’s not the case, however, the explanation of your fancy continuous deployment setup for your SaaS (software as a service) won’t mean a thing to your customers. Likewise, taking an all-business approach in which you either share the details of how you run your startup or go into business topics at great length will tend to attract fellow entrepreneurs. Again, if they are your potential customers (e.g., your product is B2B), this approach can pay off. The aforementioned 37signals produces web applications that are aimed at helping companies better handle communication and collaboration.


pages: 282 words: 81,873

Live Work Work Work Die: A Journey Into the Savage Heart of Silicon Valley by Corey Pein

23andMe, 4chan, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Anne Wojcicki, artificial general intelligence, bank run, barriers to entry, Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Build a better mousetrap, California gold rush, cashless society, colonial rule, computer age, cryptocurrency, data is the new oil, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Extropian, gig economy, Google bus, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hacker house, hive mind, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, job automation, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, Law of Accelerating Returns, Lean Startup, life extension, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, mutually assured destruction, obamacare, passive income, patent troll, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer lending, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, platform as a service, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, post-work, Ray Kurzweil, regulatory arbitrage, rent control, RFID, Robert Mercer, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Ruby on Rails, Sam Altman, Sand Hill Road, Scientific racism, self-driving car, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Singularitarianism, Skype, Snapchat, social software, software as a service, source of truth, South of Market, San Francisco, Startup school, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, telepresence, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, tulip mania, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, upwardly mobile, Vernor Vinge, X Prize, Y Combinator

“Do you hire union workers?” someone shouted from the back of the room. “No, we create union workers! For the competitor,” I said. That was it. My time was up. The seconds passed like hours as I awaited judgment. Istvan was the first to break the silence. “So, I didn’t actually hear a product. It sounds like a service,” he said. “Yeah,” I said. “Strikes as a service.” “Which is not, you know—it’s not software as a service, but I guess it’s still SAAS. Nevertheless, this is not going to fly with a VC because it’s not scalable. VCs rarely, if ever, invest in service companies that require, you know, humans. That’s the biggest thing I see here.” I didn’t argue, but I knew he was wrong. Uber definitely required humans, for instance. And Uber was then the biggest VC-backed IPO around. Nobody said, “It’s not scalable.”


pages: 291 words: 90,771

Upscale: What It Takes to Scale a Startup. By the People Who've Done It. by James Silver

Airbnb, augmented reality, Ben Horowitz, blockchain, business process, call centre, credit crunch, crowdsourcing, DevOps, family office, future of work, Google Hangouts, high net worth, hiring and firing, Jeff Bezos, Kickstarter, Lean Startup, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, minimum viable product, Network effects, pattern recognition, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, women in the workforce, Y Combinator

Basic things like where you’re sourcing candidates from, how long it’s taking you to fill roles, how much time overall in the business is the whole hiring and/or interview process taking, which team members are the most effective interviewers - or whatever you feel is most helpful. Then you can measure and try to optimise around that. 15. Install an applicant tracking system (ATS) very early The entire hiring process will be much easier to manage if you’ve got an ATS in place. One of the London-based SaaS (software as a service) startups Index backed in 2017, Beamery, has the tagline ‘Treat candidates like customers’ - and that’s exactly the right approach to recruitment. Measure your recruiting process in the same way you measure sales - i.e. building a pipeline to source leads from, how the funnel breaks down, which parts are inefficient, what’s your conversion rate, and so on. That’s what their software does, particularly in combination with an ATS.


pages: 355 words: 81,788

Monolith to Microservices: Evolutionary Patterns to Transform Your Monolith by Sam Newman

Airbnb, business process, continuous integration, database schema, DevOps, fault tolerance, ghettoisation, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, Kubernetes, loose coupling, microservices, MVC pattern, price anchoring, pull request, single page application, software as a service, source of truth, telepresence

Third-Party Black-Box Systems We can also consider some third-party software as monoliths that we may want to “decompose” as part of a migration effort. These might include things like payroll systems, CRM systems, and HR systems. The common factor here is that it’s software developed by other people, and you don’t have the ability to change the code. It could be off-the-shelf software you’ve deployed on your own infrastructure, or could be a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) product you are using. Many of the decomposition techniques we’ll explore in this book can be used even with systems where you cannot change the underlying code. Challenges of Monoliths The monolith, be it a single-process monolith or a distributed monolith, is often more vulnerable to the perils of coupling—specifically, implementation and deployment coupling, topics we’ll explore more shortly.


pages: 319 words: 89,477

The Power of Pull: How Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things in Motion by John Hagel Iii, John Seely Brown

Albert Einstein, Andrew Keen, barriers to entry, Black Swan, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, future of work, game design, George Gilder, intangible asset, Isaac Newton, job satisfaction, Joi Ito, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Louis Pasteur, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, Maui Hawaii, medical residency, Network effects, old-boy network, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pre–internet, profit motive, recommendation engine, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart transportation, software as a service, supply-chain management, The Nature of the Firm, the new new thing, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs

And if you understood that your success in doing this could be enhanced by persuading many other individuals and institutions to follow your lead, how confident would you be that you could prevail? In the business world, it has been exceptional individuals who have managed to reshape the terms of competition in markets, industries, and even entire economic sectors. In Salesforce.com’s early years, for example, founder and CEO Marc Benioff painted a compelling view of how to reshape the software industry around a new form of delivery: software as a service. The Fung brothers revolutionized supply-chain practice in the apparel industry. Malcom McLean led Sea-Land to a preeminent position in the containerized shipping business by driving standardization around his innovative container designs. And Dee Hock helped Visa make an exemplary shaping move in the 1970s at a time when banks had gotten into difficulty by aggressively sending out preapproved credit cards (even to newborns and family pets) without the infrastructure needed to support such large-scale transactions, or to sufficiently guard against fraud.


The Data Revolution: Big Data, Open Data, Data Infrastructures and Their Consequences by Rob Kitchin

Bayesian statistics, business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, Celtic Tiger, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, conceptual framework, congestion charging, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, discrete time, disruptive innovation, George Gilder, Google Earth, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invisible hand, knowledge economy, late capitalism, lifelogging, linked data, longitudinal study, Masdar, means of production, Nate Silver, natural language processing, openstreetmap, pattern recognition, platform as a service, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, sentiment analysis, slashdot, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, smart grid, smart meter, software as a service, statistical model, supply-chain management, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, transaction costs

Cloud computing takes two forms that often work cooperatively: utility clouds and data clouds (Farber et al. 2011). Utility clouds provide IT capabilities as locationindependent, on-demand services accessible via the Internet, including ‘infrastructure as a service’ (IaaS) such as storage, servers and networks, ‘platform as a service’ (PaaS) comprising an execution environment for the development of custom applications and databases, and ‘software as a service’ (SaaS) that enables users to access their applications and to process data remotely (Farber et al. 2011; Hancke et al. 2012). Data clouds enable massive volumes of data, that might be generated across an enterprise, to be linked, stored and processed remotely, drawing on the computational power of hundreds of machines, and analysed via utility services (Farber et al. 2011). Individuals and companies can thus utilise storage and computing capacity without the need to make large capital investments, as well as being able to avail themselves of such resources from anywhere there is network access (Bryant et al. 2008).


pages: 324 words: 93,175

The Upside of Irrationality: The Unexpected Benefits of Defying Logic at Work and at Home by Dan Ariely

Alvin Roth, assortative mating, Burning Man, business process, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, end world poverty, endowment effect, Exxon Valdez, first-price auction, Frederick Winslow Taylor, George Akerlof, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, IKEA effect, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, loss aversion, Peter Singer: altruism, placebo effect, Richard Thaler, Saturday Night Live, second-price auction, software as a service, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, ultimatum game, Upton Sinclair, young professional

.* If we think about organizational culture as an important component of the Not-Invented-Here mentality, one way to track this tendency might be to look at the speed in which acronyms blossom inside companies, industries, and professions. (For example, ICRM stands for Innovative Customer Relationship Management; KPI for Key Performance Indicator; OPR for Other People’s Resources; QSC for Quality, Service, Cleanliness; GAAP for Generally Accepted Accounting Principles; SAAS for Software as a Service; TCO for Total Cost of Ownership; and so on). Acronyms confer a kind of secret insider knowledge; they give people a way to talk about an idea in shorthand. They increase the perceived importance of ideas, and at the same time they also help keep other ideas from entering the inner circle. Acronyms are not particularly harmful, but problems arise when companies become victims of their own mythologies and adopt a narrow internal focus.


pages: 372 words: 89,876

The Connected Company by Dave Gray, Thomas Vander Wal

A Pattern Language, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, Atul Gawande, Berlin Wall, business cycle, business process, call centre, Clayton Christensen, commoditize, complexity theory, creative destruction, David Heinemeier Hansson, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, Googley, index card, industrial cluster, interchangeable parts, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, loose coupling, low cost airline, market design, minimum viable product, more computing power than Apollo, profit maximization, Richard Florida, Ruby on Rails, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tony Hsieh, Toyota Production System, Vanguard fund, web application, WikiLeaks, Zipcar

Maneuver warfare requires that central commanders trust their forces to make tactical decisions in the field, within the context of a larger strategy. Thus, a central tenet of a maneuver strategy is distributed control. You can see maneuver strategies employed today by companies such as Amazon, which operates at a faster strategic pace than traditional booksellers and publishers, and software-as-a-service companies like Salesforce, which can run circles around traditional enterprise software vendors by making their software so easy to buy and start using that their sales cycles move much faster than competitors. Moral: Boyd said “People, not weapons, win wars.” Moral warfare concentrates on the people factor, focusing on winning the hearts and minds of the people while undermining the adversary’s efforts.


pages: 1,237 words: 227,370

Designing Data-Intensive Applications: The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable, and Maintainable Systems by Martin Kleppmann

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Infrastructure as a Service, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, Kubernetes, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, microservices, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, undersea cable, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

This book uses less ambiguous terms, such as single-node versus distributed systems, or online/interactive versus offline/batch processing systems. This book has a bias toward free and open source software (FOSS), because reading, modifying, and executing source code is a great way to understand how something works in detail. Open platforms also reduce the risk of vendor lock-in. However, where appropriate, we also discuss proprietary software (closed-source software, software as a service, or companies’ in-house software that is only described in literature but not released publicly). Outline of This Book This book is arranged into three parts: In Part I, we discuss the fundamental ideas that underpin the design of data-intensive applications. We start in Chapter 1 by discussing what we’re actually trying to achieve: reliability, scalability, and maintainability; how we need to think about them; and how we can achieve them.

As computers became vastly more powerful and networked, they started being used for increasingly diverse purposes. And remarkably, relational databases turned out to generalize very well, beyond their original scope of business data processing, to a broad variety of use cases. Much of what you see on the web today is still powered by relational databases, be it online publishing, discussion, social networking, ecommerce, games, software-as-a-service productivity applications, or much more. The Birth of NoSQL Now, in the 2010s, NoSQL is the latest attempt to overthrow the relational model’s dominance. The name “NoSQL” is unfortunate, since it doesn’t actually refer to any particular technology—it was originally intended simply as a catchy Twitter hashtag for a meetup on open source, distributed, nonrelational databases in 2009 [3].


pages: 374 words: 97,288

The End of Ownership: Personal Property in the Digital Economy by Aaron Perzanowski, Jason Schultz

3D printing, Airbnb, anti-communist, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, carbon footprint, cloud computing, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Firefox, George Akerlof, Hush-A-Phone, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Isaac Newton, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, peer-to-peer, price discrimination, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, software as a service, software patent, software studies, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, subscription business, telemarketer, The Market for Lemons, transaction costs, winner-take-all economy

The computer software industry has been waging its own war on exhaustion practically since its inception. In the next chapter, we will discuss the licensing practices of software companies in greater detail. For now, it’s enough to note that the industry pioneered the widespread use of license agreements as a strategy for undermining end user ownership and exhaustion. Other innovations in the software industry, from digital rights management to the software-as-a-service business model, have helped developers put even greater distance between software transactions and the traditional rules of private property. Legislatively, the industry successfully lobbied Congress to pass the Computer Software Rental Amendments Act, which prevents the rental of most software programs.52 Today, the video game industry is the fiercest opponent of exhaustion. Its relationship with exhaustion has been contentious since at least the 1980s.


pages: 340 words: 100,151

Secrets of Sand Hill Road: Venture Capital and How to Get It by Scott Kupor

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, asset allocation, barriers to entry, Ben Horowitz, carried interest, cloud computing, corporate governance, cryptocurrency, discounted cash flows, diversification, diversified portfolio, estate planning, family office, fixed income, high net worth, index fund, information asymmetry, Lean Startup, low cost airline, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Myron Scholes, Network effects, Paul Graham, pets.com, price stability, ride hailing / ride sharing, rolodex, Sand Hill Road, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, software as a service, sovereign wealth fund, Startup school, Travis Kalanick, uber lyft, VA Linux, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

In that case, your job as an entrepreneur is to fit yourself into that market and explain what macro trends are evolving in that market that create an opportunity for you to own it. An example from our portfolio is Okta, which is a now-public company that we first invested in back in 2009. Okta is an enterprise software company that provides a way for companies to consolidate log-in credentials for their many software-as-a-service (SAAS) applications. For example, many modern companies use Gmail, Salesforce, and a variety of other internet-based SAAS applications, each of which has its own method of logging in and authenticating users into the applications. Okta provides a unified portal whereby a user needs only to log in to Okta once, and then Okta passes those credentials through to all the SAAS applications for which an employee is granted access.


RDF Database Systems: Triples Storage and SPARQL Query Processing by Olivier Cure, Guillaume Blin

Amazon Web Services, bioinformatics, business intelligence, cloud computing, database schema, fault tolerance, full text search, information retrieval, Internet Archive, Internet of things, linked data, NP-complete, peer-to-peer, performance metric, random walk, recommendation engine, RFID, semantic web, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, software as a service, SPARQL, web application

This approach supports direct-range scans on the literals and provides fast importing and querying operations through simple serialization and deserialization of the row IDs. The next two systems are evolving in a cloud infrastructure using the available data stores. They have been implemented in the Amazon Web Service (AWS) cloud but are using different database solutions. Amada is defined by its authors as a Web data repository in the cloud. Its architecture belongs to the software as a service (SaaS) category, which natively provides scalability and elastic resource allocation.The system aims at providing a storage solution for Web data formats of the W3C, namely XML and RDF, and is based on the AWS cloud infrastructure. As such, it uses two of its data storage solutions: Amazon’s Simple Storage Service (S3) is responsible for storing the data (i.e., RDF triples), while the column family SimpleDB, one of Amazon’s proprietary stores, takes care of data indexes.


pages: 364 words: 99,897

The Industries of the Future by Alec Ross

23andMe, 3D printing, Airbnb, algorithmic trading, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, bioinformatics, bitcoin, blockchain, Brian Krebs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, connected car, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, cryptocurrency, David Brooks, disintermediation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, distributed ledger, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, fiat currency, future of work, global supply chain, Google X / Alphabet X, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lifelogging, litecoin, M-Pesa, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mikhail Gorbachev, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Nelson Mandela, new economy, offshore financial centre, open economy, Parag Khanna, paypal mafia, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, pre–internet, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rubik’s Cube, Satoshi Nakamoto, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, social graph, software as a service, special economic zone, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, technoutopianism, The Future of Employment, Travis Kalanick, underbanked, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Y Combinator, young professional

I also think that small farmers are likely to derive as much benefit from precision agriculture as larger farmers with thousands of acres. Precision agriculture is not based on huge enterprise software systems that take up half the barn. That expensive software is in the cloud and accessible on cheap devices like smartphones and the tablets I saw in the tractor’s “cockpit.” The costs on the hardware side, including the sensors, will continue to decline, and the real costs will come from subscriptions to the software as a service—the precision agriculture content. This is the business model the big agribusinesses are already pushing, and it will spread from the highest-tech farmers working huge fields to the small family farm. It will still take years for this kind of technology to mainstream in wealthy parts of the world, but it will happen. Not long thereafter, it will come to the developing and frontier parts of the globe.


pages: 385 words: 111,113

Augmented: Life in the Smart Lane by Brett King

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deskilling, different worldview, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, distributed ledger, double helix, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, fiat currency, financial exclusion, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Leonard Kleinrock, lifelogging, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, mobile money, money market fund, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Turing test, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white picket fence, WikiLeaks

King has been featured on Fast Company, TechCrunch, Wired, Fortune magazine, Fox News, ABC, CNBC, Bloomberg, BBC, Financial Times, the Economist, ABA Journal, Bank Technology News and many more. He contributes regularly as a blogger in Huffington Post. In his spare time, he is an IFR-rated private pilot, scuba diver and gamer. About the Contributors Andy Lark Andy Lark is a globally awarded marketer and business leader. Today, he is the chief marketing and business officer of Xero, the cloud accounting software leader and one of the world’s fastest-growing software as a service (SAAS) companies. Xero was named the world’s most innovative growth company in 2015 by Forbes. For the past two decades, Lark has worked alongside CEOs and their leadership teams to define—and then attain—digital and brand greatness for their institutions. These include Air New Zealand, Brocade, Commonwealth Bank, Coles, Dell, Emirates Team New Zealand, IBM, Simplot, Southwest Airlines, Sun, the New Zealand government, Visa and Xero.


pages: 540 words: 103,101

Building Microservices by Sam Newman

airport security, Amazon Web Services, anti-pattern, business process, call centre, continuous integration, create, read, update, delete, defense in depth, don't repeat yourself, Edward Snowden, fault tolerance, index card, information retrieval, Infrastructure as a Service, inventory management, job automation, Kubernetes, load shedding, loose coupling, microservices, MITM: man-in-the-middle, platform as a service, premature optimization, pull request, recommendation engine, social graph, software as a service, source of truth, the built environment, web application, WebSocket

Avoiding the trap of putting too much behavior into any intermediate layers is a tricky balancing act. Integrating with Third-Party Software We’ve looked at approaches to breaking apart existing systems that are under our control, but what about when we can’t change the things we talk to? For many valid reasons, the organizations we work for buy commercial off-the-shelf software (COTS) or make use of software as a service (SaaS) offerings over which we have little control. So how do we integrate with them sensibly? If you’re reading this book, you probably work at an organization that writes code. You might write software for your own internal purposes or for an external client, or both. Nonetheless, even if you are an organization with the ability to create a significant amount of custom software, you’ll still use software products provided by external parties, be they commercial or open source.


pages: 502 words: 107,657

Predictive Analytics: The Power to Predict Who Will Click, Buy, Lie, or Die by Eric Siegel

Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, backtesting, Black Swan, book scanning, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, butter production in bangladesh, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, commoditize, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data is the new oil, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Everything should be made as simple as possible, experimental subject, Google Glasses, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, lifelogging, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mass immigration, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, personalized medicine, placebo effect, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, Shai Danziger, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steven Levy, text mining, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Thomas Davenport, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

More and more, each move you make, online and offline, is recorded, including transactions conducted, websites visited, movies watched, links clicked, friends called, opinions posted, dental procedures endured, sports games won (if you’re a professional athlete), traffic cameras passed, flights taken, Wikipedia articles edited, and earthquakes experienced. Countless sensors deploy daily. Mobile devices, robots, and shipping containers record movement, interactions, inventory counts, and radiation levels. Personal health monitors watch your vital signs and exercise routine. The mass migration of online applications from your desktop up into the cloud (aka software as a service) makes even more of your computer use recordable by organizations. Free public data is also busting out, so a wealth of knowledge sits at your fingertips. Following the open data movement, often embracing a not-for-profit philosophy, many data sets are available online from fields like biodiversity, business, cartography, chemistry, genomics, and medicine. Look at one central index, www.kdnuggets.com/datasets, and you’ll see what amounts to lists of lists of data resources.


pages: 918 words: 257,605

The Age of Surveillance Capitalism by Shoshana Zuboff

Amazon Web Services, Andrew Keen, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, book scanning, Broken windows theory, California gold rush, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, choice architecture, citizen journalism, cloud computing, collective bargaining, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, connected car, corporate governance, corporate personhood, creative destruction, cryptocurrency, dogs of the Dow, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, Ford paid five dollars a day, future of work, game design, Google Earth, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, impulse control, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jean Tirole, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, linked data, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, means of production, multi-sided market, Naomi Klein, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, off grid, PageRank, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, pattern recognition, Paul Buchheit, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, precision agriculture, price mechanism, profit maximization, profit motive, recommendation engine, refrigerator car, RFID, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Mercer, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, smart cities, Snapchat, social graph, social web, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, structural adjustment programs, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, two-sided market, union organizing, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Wolfgang Streeck

This obfuscation is no longer tenable, as every consumer who pays his or her monthly telecom bill now also purchases the privilege of a remote and abstract but nevertheless rapacious digital strip search.148 New and established companies from every sector—including retail, finance, fitness, insurance, automotive, travel, hospitality, health, and education—are joining the migratory path to surveillance revenues, lured by the magnetism of outsized growth, profit, and the promise of the lavish rewards that only the financial markets can confer. We will explore many examples drawn from these sectors in the coming chapters. In another trend, surveillance in the interest of behavioral surplus capture and sale has become a service in its own right. Such companies are often referred to as “software-as-a-service” or SaaS, but they are more accurately termed “surveillance as a service,” or “SVaaS.” For example, a new app-based approach to lending instantly establishes creditworthiness based on detailed mining of an individual’s smartphone and other online behaviors, including texts, e-mails, GPS coordinates, social media posts, Facebook profiles, retail transactions, and communication patterns.149 Data sources can include intimate details such as the frequency with which you charge your phone battery, the number of incoming messages you receive, if and when you return phone calls, how many contacts you have listed in your phone, how you fill out online forms, or how many miles you travel each day.

See also Facebook social participation: as coextensive with means of behavioral modification, 342; and dependency on digital connection, 4, 11, 174, 339, 342, 446, 449, 455–456 social persuasion: as one reason for success of surveillance capitalism, 343 Social Physics (Pentland), 418, 419, 430 social pressure: experienced by young people on social media, 447–448, 454; Facebook’s use of, 436, 446, 463, 467, 468–469; and instrumentarianism, 444; operating through privatized digital spaces, 456; Pentland’s advocacy of, in social learning, 431, 435–437; social comparison heightening, 463 social proof, 456–457 social relations, instrumentarianism’s principles of, 431–441; applied utopistics, 437–438; behavior for the greater good (collective perspective and values), 431–432; death of individuality, 438–441; as facts of modern life, 469; plans replace politics, 432–435; social pressure for harmony, 435–437 social relations, rendition of, 419–429; instruments for, 419–421, 423–424; Pentland’s essay on, 426–429; and Pentland’s work on sociometrics, 422–425; and reality mining, 420–423 social trust: in China, 389; and contracts, 334; decline of, 383–384; superseded by instrumentarianism, 442; and the uncontract, 336–337 society: instrumentarianism’s control over, 20–21, 399, 400–404 “Society’s Nervous System: Building Effective Government, Energy, and Public Health Systems” (Pentland), 426–429 sociometer, 420, 423–424 Sociometric Solutions (later renamed Humanyze), 424–425 software-as-a-service (SaaS), 172–174 Sonnets from China (Auden), 24; I, 98, 176, 398; II, 27; III, 495; VI, 63, 199; VII, 376; VIII, 445; IX, 329; X, 351, 416; XI, 293 Sontag, Susan, 233 sorcerer’s apprentice, 404, 481 soul, the: as exempt from scientific inquiry, 364–365; totalitarianism’s engineering of, 353, 354–355, 359, 372–373 sovereignty of the individual, 6, 21, 36, 469, 521; and creation of meaning from experience, 290–291; elemental rights of, 54, 332.


pages: 298 words: 43,745

Understanding Sponsored Search: Core Elements of Keyword Advertising by Jim Jansen

AltaVista, barriers to entry, Black Swan, bounce rate, business intelligence, butterfly effect, call centre, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, correlation does not imply causation, en.wikipedia.org, first-price auction, information asymmetry, information retrieval, intangible asset, inventory management, life extension, linear programming, longitudinal study, megacity, Nash equilibrium, Network effects, PageRank, place-making, price mechanism, psychological pricing, random walk, Schrödinger's Cat, sealed-bid auction, search engine result page, second-price auction, second-price sealed-bid, sentiment analysis, social web, software as a service, stochastic process, telemarketer, the market place, The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Vickrey auction, Vilfredo Pareto, yield management

SMEs: subject matter experts (see Chapter 6 BAM!). Social media: a category of sites that is based on user participation and user-generated content. They include social networking sites like LinkedIn or Facebook, social bookmarking sites like Del.icio.us, social news sites like Digg or Reddit, and other sites that are centered on user interaction (Source: Search Engine Watch) (see Chapter 10 future). Software as a service (SaaS): sometimes referred to as “software on demand,” it is software that is deployed over the Internet and/or is deployed to run behind a firewall on a local area network (LAN) or personal computer. With SaaS, a provider licenses an application to customers either as a service on-demand, through a subscription, on a “pay-as-you-go” basis, or (increasingly) at no charge. This approach to application delivery is part of the utility-computing model where all of the technology is in the “cloud” accessed over the Internet as a service (Source: Wikipedia).


pages: 309 words: 114,984

The Digital Doctor: Hope, Hype, and Harm at the Dawn of Medicine’s Computer Age by Robert Wachter

"Robert Solow", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, Airbnb, Atul Gawande, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Checklist Manifesto, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, Clayton Christensen, collapse of Lehman Brothers, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, deskilling, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Google Glasses, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, Internet of things, job satisfaction, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, lifelogging, medical malpractice, medical residency, Menlo Park, minimum viable product, natural language processing, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, personalized medicine, pets.com, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, the payments system, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Toyota Production System, Uber for X, US Airways Flight 1549, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Yogi Berra

Every other American vertical market is migrating away from centralized, client-server, hub-and-spoke architecture toward distributed, SaaS-based applications and open architecture.” This is techno-speak for the difference between using a suite of the old Microsoft Office programs (all of which lived on physical servers in your company’s closets and required lots of training, legions of on-site IT staff, and insertion of new disks for program upgrades) to the modern cloud-based architecture (software as a service, or SaaS) of products like Gmail and Dropbox. After stints as a New Orleans EMT, an army medic, and a Booz Allen consultant (“I was a misfit as a consultant,” he said. “I couldn’t even spell well”), in 1997, Bush and Todd Park,35 a fellow consultant, launched a birthing center in San Diego (“we would be the Starbucks of obstetrics, a no-nonsense moneymaker that’s warm on the outside and knows the customers’ needs, tastes, and phobias,” he wrote in 2014).


pages: 385 words: 123,168

Bullshit Jobs: A Theory by David Graeber

1960s counterculture, active measures, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Bretton Woods, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, David Graeber, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, full employment, global supply chain, High speed trading, hiring and firing, informal economy, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge worker, moral panic, post-work, precariat, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, single-payer health, software as a service, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Travis Kalanick, universal basic income, unpaid internship, wage slave, wages for housework, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional, éminence grise

No moral compass was available. One might consider this a kind of moral scriptlessness. Here is a relatively mild case. Finn works for a company that licenses software on a subscription basis: Finn: From the moment I first read the “Bullshit Jobs” essay a couple of years back, it resonated with me. I continue to pull it out occasionally to read and refer friends to. I’m a manager of technical support for a software-as-a-service company. My job seems to mostly consist of sitting in meetings, emailing, communicating coming changes to my team, serving as an escalation point for client issues, and doing performance reviews. Performance reviews, Finn admits, are bullshit, explaining, “Everyone already knows who the slackers are.” Actually, he acknowledges readily that most of his responsibilities are bullshit. The useful work he performs consists mainly of duct taping: solving problems caused by various unnecessarily convoluted bureaucratic processes within the company.


pages: 351 words: 123,876

Beautiful Testing: Leading Professionals Reveal How They Improve Software (Theory in Practice) by Adam Goucher, Tim Riley

Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Black Swan, call centre, continuous integration, Debian, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, Grace Hopper, index card, Isaac Newton, natural language processing, p-value, performance metric, revision control, six sigma, software as a service, software patent, the scientific method, Therac-25, Valgrind, web application

I found that I could add 250 characters of text with no spaces and cause serious scrollbar and margin issues in the revision history page. After a quick huddle, we decided that a) you don’t see this issue using the largest words in the English dictionary, b) it should probably be fixed, but perhaps not today, and c) I would create a bug report. That tests the story once, but we release out to our Software-as-a-Service production server every two weeks, and a minor change to something else can easily ripple. If we retested every acceptance test on every browser every two weeks, the burden would eventually cripple the team. So we do some test automation using a framework we developed called wikitests. Wikitests‡ A wikitest is a keyword-driven test that drives the browser. With wikitests, each test is expressed as a series of commands in a table, one command per table row.


pages: 420 words: 130,503

Actionable Gamification: Beyond Points, Badges and Leaderboards by Yu-Kai Chou

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, barriers to entry, bitcoin, Burning Man, Cass Sunstein, crowdsourcing, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, don't be evil, en.wikipedia.org, endowment effect, Firefox, functional fixedness, game design, IKEA effect, Internet of things, Kickstarter, late fees, lifelogging, loss aversion, Maui Hawaii, Minecraft, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, performance metric, QR code, recommendation engine, Richard Thaler, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, Stanford prison experiment, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transaction costs

Though these endorsements mean very little from a career standpoint, by allowing users to aimlessly endorse each other, there is finally something to do on Linkedin. Conformity Anchor (Game Technique #58) Earlier we learned about the power of Social Norming. A game design technique I call Conformity Anchors implements this effect into products or experiences by displaying how close users are to the social norm through Feedback Mechanics. The SaaS (Software-as-a-Service) company Opower, which supplies services to public utilities, is a great example of using Conformity Anchors. Opower’s mission is to reduce our collective energy consumption. Their model is inspired by Robert Cialdini whom we have mentioned a few times in this book and is one of the leading experts on Core Drives 4 and 5, as well as the upcoming Core Drive 6: Scarcity & Impatience. Opower has discovered that, the best way to motivate households to consume less energy is to show them a chart comparing them to their neighbors.


pages: 428 words: 138,235

The Billionaire and the Mechanic: How Larry Ellison and a Car Mechanic Teamed Up to Win Sailing's Greatest Race, the Americas Cup, Twice by Julian Guthrie

Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, cloud computing, fear of failure, Ford paid five dollars a day, Loma Prieta earthquake, market bubble, Maui Hawaii, new economy, pets.com, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, software as a service, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, white picket fence, Yogi Berra

The twenty-ninth annual conference attracted a crowd of more than forty thousand people over five days. One of the anticipated topics was cloud computing, and Larry was expected to introduce Oracle’s newest applications for the cloud, something critics said he was late in bringing to the game. Larry responded that he “could not have been late to the cloud” because he “invented the cloud” in 1998, when he founded NetSuite, which offered the cloud-based Software-as-a-Service (SAAS) for business management. NetSuite was started six months before Salesforce.com was founded in 1999 by Marc Benioff, a former Oracle employee. NetSuite was the second-biggest cloud company in the world, trailing Salesforce, but Larry vowed, “In a few years Oracle will be number one in the cloud.” He also noted that “Salesforce.com has been around for more than ten years, but didn’t call themselves a cloud computing company until six months ago.


Producing Open Source Software: How to Run a Successful Free Software Project by Karl Fogel

active measures, AGPL, barriers to entry, Benjamin Mako Hill, collaborative editing, continuous integration, corporate governance, Debian, Donald Knuth, en.wikipedia.org, experimental subject, Firefox, GnuPG, Hacker Ethic, Internet Archive, iterative process, Kickstarter, natural language processing, patent troll, peer-to-peer, pull request, revision control, Richard Stallman, selection bias, slashdot, software as a service, software patent, SpamAssassin, web application, zero-sum game

If you conclude that for business reasons you want to try it anyway, then I hope this section will at least help you mitigate some of those effects.[99] * * * [97] This is sometimes also called dual licensing, but that term is ambiguous, as it has historically also referred to releasing open source software under two or more open source licenses simultaneously. I am grateful to Bradley Kuhn for pointing out this ambiguity and suggesting the more accurate term. [98] In both cases hosted as Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), just to be clear. [99] Sometimes the terms-of-service agreements for online software distribution services — the Apple App Store, for example — effectively force you to use proprietary relicensing if you want to distribute copylefted software. I won't go into detail here, but if you're distributing GPL-licensed or other copylefted code from a place that restricts users from redistributing what they download, you may be in this situation.


pages: 444 words: 127,259

Super Pumped: The Battle for Uber by Mike Isaac

"side hustle", activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, always be closing, Amazon Web Services, Andy Kessler, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, call centre, Chris Urmson, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, family office, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, high net worth, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, money market fund, moral hazard, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, Network effects, new economy, off grid, peer-to-peer, pets.com, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sand Hill Road, self-driving car, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, skunkworks, Snapchat, software as a service, software is eating the world, South China Sea, South of Market, San Francisco, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, Travis Kalanick, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, uber lyft, ubercab, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Y Combinator

Kalanick brought a meticulously composed slide deck, larded with cherry-picked numbers that showed Uber’s enormous “hockey stick potential”—a term that referred to the shape of the growth curve every entrepreneur and venture capitalist wants to see when building a company. And he didn’t have to work hard to get those numbers. Uber had what was called “negative churn”—a term often used to describe software as a service, or SaaS, companies. Having negative churn meant that once customers used the product, they were more likely to keep using it regularly thereafter. “It means that customer accounts are like high-yield savings accounts,” a venture capitalist once wrote of the term. “Every month, more money comes in, without much effort.” Kalanick’s data showed that by the time a customer used Uber an average of 2.7 times, they became a customer for life.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The best translators are artists who are able to live in two different cognitive personas simultaneously. I have long been a skeptic when it comes to the prospect of AI besting world-class translators. Still, recent advances in AI are bringing that day ever closer. Lionbridge is a company that provides real-time translation for online customer support, allowing consumers to speak across languages via instant translation of user-generated content. Its GeoFluent plug-in software-as-a-service solution, which uses Microsoft translation technology, provides translations between 39 languages. While not yet as proficient as the best translators, GeoFluent is good enough to break the language barrier and bring one-third of the human race already online together in the first truly shared global conversation in all of history, speeding the transition into a universal Commons and Collaborative Age.41 Within a decade or so, businesspeople, workers, and travelers will be equipped with mobile apps allowing them to effortlessly have conversations online or face to face with someone who speaks a different language.


pages: 598 words: 134,339

Data and Goliath: The Hidden Battles to Collect Your Data and Control Your World by Bruce Schneier

23andMe, Airbnb, airport security, AltaVista, Anne Wojcicki, augmented reality, Benjamin Mako Hill, Black Swan, Boris Johnson, Brewster Kahle, Brian Krebs, call centre, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, congestion charging, disintermediation, drone strike, Edward Snowden, experimental subject, failed state, fault tolerance, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, Firefox, friendly fire, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, hindsight bias, informal economy, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, lifelogging, linked data, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, moral panic, Nash equilibrium, Nate Silver, national security letter, Network effects, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, payday loans, pre–internet, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, recommendation engine, RFID, Ross Ulbricht, self-driving car, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, South China Sea, stealth mode startup, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, telemarketer, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban planning, WikiLeaks, zero day

You might expect users to respond by favoring secure services over insecure ones— after all, they’re making their own buying decisions on the basis of the same market model. But that’s not generally possible. In some cases, software monopolies limit the available product choice. In other cases, the “lock-in effect” created by proprietary file formats, existing infrastructure, compatibility requirements, or software-as-a-service makes it harder to switch. In many cases, we don’t know who is collecting our data; recall the discussion of hidden surveillance in Chapter 2. In all cases, it’s hard for buyers to assess the security of any data service. And it’s not just nontechnical buyers; even I can’t tell you whether or not to entrust your privacy to any particular service provider. Liabilities change this. By raising the cost of privacy breaches, we can make companies accept the costs of the externality and force them to expend more effort protecting the privacy of those whose data they have acquired.


pages: 615 words: 168,775

Troublemakers: Silicon Valley's Coming of Age by Leslie Berlin

AltaVista, Apple II, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, beat the dealer, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, Bob Noyce, Byte Shop, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, computer age, discovery of DNA, don't be evil, Donald Knuth, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Edward Thorp, El Camino Real, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, game design, Haight Ashbury, hiring and firing, industrial robot, informal economy, Internet of things, inventory management, John Markoff, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, Leonard Kleinrock, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, Minecraft, Mother of all demos, packet switching, Ralph Nader, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Snapchat, software as a service, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Ted Nelson, union organizing, upwardly mobile, William Shockley: the traitorous eight, women in the workforce

The solution she and Lavey devised, called ASKNET, allowed customers that installed terminals (not full computers) at their companies to use MANMAN software, paying a monthly fee for processing (which would be run on computers at ASK), rather than making a large up-front purchase. In some sense, ASKNET was a throwback to the old time-sharing model. It also anticipated what today is called “software as a service,” in which companies—Salesforce.com is among the best known—offer their services as software that a user accesses through a browser over the web, rather than installing a program on a computer’s hard drive. ASKNET was intended as a stepping-stone for companies too small, new, or timid to invest in their own computers, but businesses ended up staying with ASKNET long past the time it made economic sense.


pages: 999 words: 194,942

Clojure Programming by Chas Emerick, Brian Carper, Christophe Grand

Amazon Web Services, Benoit Mandelbrot, cloud computing, continuous integration, database schema, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, finite state, Firefox, game design, general-purpose programming language, Guido van Rossum, Larry Wall, mandelbrot fractal, Paul Graham, platform as a service, premature optimization, random walk, Ruby on Rails, Schrödinger's Cat, semantic web, software as a service, sorting algorithm, Turing complete, type inference, web application

[243] Pure functions are critical to the successful and effective application of functional programming, a cornerstone of designing idiomatic Clojure libraries and applications. Read about functional programming in Chapter 2, and pure functions specifically in Pure Functions. Build “Build” is an umbrella term that has come to encompass more and more of the things we do after we’ve written the code but before the code has been delivered (another loaded term, given the complications of software as a service, cloud computing, and so on). For our purposes here, we’ll consider build to mean: Compilation Dependency management, which allows you to systematically use external libraries Packaging the results of compilation and other project assets into artifacts Distribution of those artifacts within a dependency management context That overly formal description sounds more complicated than the activities it describes.


pages: 1,380 words: 190,710

Building Secure and Reliable Systems: Best Practices for Designing, Implementing, and Maintaining Systems by Heather Adkins, Betsy Beyer, Paul Blankinship, Ana Oprea, Piotr Lewandowski, Adam Stubblefield

anti-pattern, barriers to entry, bash_history, business continuity plan, business process, Cass Sunstein, cloud computing, continuous integration, correlation does not imply causation, create, read, update, delete, cryptocurrency, cyber-physical system, database schema, Debian, defense in depth, DevOps, Edward Snowden, fault tolerance, fear of failure, general-purpose programming language, Google Chrome, Internet of things, Kubernetes, load shedding, margin call, microservices, MITM: man-in-the-middle, performance metric, pull request, ransomware, revision control, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Skype, slashdot, software as a service, source of truth, Stuxnet, Turing test, undersea cable, uranium enrichment, Valgrind, web application, Y2K, zero day

When developing custom applications, collaboration between security specialists and developers can ensure that the applications log security-relevant actions, such as data writes, changes in ownership or state, and account-related activity. As we mention in “Improve observability”, instrumenting your applications for logging can also facilitate debugging for esoteric security and reliability issues that would otherwise be difficult to triage. Cloud logs Increasingly, organizations are moving parts of their business or IT processes to cloud-based services, ranging from data in Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) applications to virtual machines running critical customer-facing workloads. All of these services present unique attack surfaces and generate unique logs. For example, an attacker can compromise the account credentials for a cloud project, deploy new containers to the project’s Kubernetes cluster, and use those containers to steal data from the cluster’s accessible storage buckets.


pages: 669 words: 210,153

Tools of Titans: The Tactics, Routines, and Habits of Billionaires, Icons, and World-Class Performers by Timothy Ferriss

Airbnb, Alexander Shulgin, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, Atul Gawande, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, Ben Horowitz, Bernie Madoff, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, Black Swan, blue-collar work, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cal Newport, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, Columbine, commoditize, correlation does not imply causation, David Brooks, David Graeber, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, fear of failure, Firefox, follow your passion, future of work, Google X / Alphabet X, Howard Zinn, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Jeff Bezos, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Lao Tzu, lateral thinking, life extension, lifelogging, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mason jar, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nelson Mandela, Nicholas Carr, optical character recognition, PageRank, passive income, pattern recognition, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, phenotype, PIHKAL and TIHKAL, post scarcity, post-work, premature optimization, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, rent-seeking, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, sharing economy, side project, Silicon Valley, skunkworks, Skype, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, software is eating the world, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, superintelligent machines, Tesla Model S, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas L Friedman, Wall-E, Washington Consensus, Whole Earth Catalog, Y Combinator, zero-sum game

“That you should prioritize growing your social following (Instagram, FB, Twitter, Snapchat, YouTube). Grow things that you can fully control that directly affect sales, like your email list. ‘Likes’ don’t pay the bills. Sales do.” ✸ Who are three people or sources you’ve learned from—or followed closely—in the last year? Andrew Chen (Growth team at Uber), Tomasz Tunguz (venture capitalist and software as a service [SaaS] expert), Jonathan Siegel (chairman of Earth Class Mail) For Hiring Well—“Who?” Is Often More Important Than “What?” “The Who book [by Geoff Smart, Randy Street] is a condensed version of Topgrading, and I learned of it at Mint, where the founder was using it.” TF: I now recommend this book to all of my startup founders, who have, in turn, recommended it to others. The Classics for Copywriting Noah is known for his copywriting skills, and he recommends two resources: The Gary Halbert Letter (also The Boron Letters) and Ogilvy on Advertising


pages: 496 words: 174,084

Masterminds of Programming: Conversations With the Creators of Major Programming Languages by Federico Biancuzzi, Shane Warden

Benevolent Dictator For Life (BDFL), business intelligence, business process, cellular automata, cloud computing, commoditize, complexity theory, conceptual framework, continuous integration, data acquisition, domain-specific language, Douglas Hofstadter, Fellow of the Royal Society, finite state, Firefox, follow your passion, Frank Gehry, general-purpose programming language, Guido van Rossum, HyperCard, information retrieval, iterative process, John von Neumann, Larry Wall, linear programming, loose coupling, Mars Rover, millennium bug, NP-complete, Paul Graham, performance metric, Perl 6, QWERTY keyboard, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Renaissance Technologies, Ruby on Rails, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Silicon Valley, slashdot, software as a service, software patent, sorting algorithm, Steve Jobs, traveling salesman, Turing complete, type inference, Valgrind, Von Neumann architecture, web application

Robin Milner from ML wants to have lots of very tiny, very stupid machines working in parallel. Is that similar to your goal? Brad: It’s an interesting idea. I’ve spent a lot of time in military simulations and it’s very attractive for that kind of problem. There may be other applicable problems that I haven’t thought about. Quality As an Economic Phenomenon How can we improve the quality of software? Brad: One way is to keep software on servers, as we see in Software as a Service (SaaS). There may be hope for an economic answer there, although that approach also has obvious tradeoffs (privacy, security, performance, etc.). I spent a number of years working on the opposite approach, creating an economic system around components that run locally on the end user’s machine, but I have grown pessimistic about this approach because the discussion ends up in digital rights management fight and that could go on forever.


Martin Kleppmann-Designing Data-Intensive Applications. The Big Ideas Behind Reliable, Scalable and Maintainable Systems-O’Reilly (2017) by Unknown

active measures, Amazon Web Services, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, c2.com, cloud computing, collaborative editing, commoditize, conceptual framework, cryptocurrency, database schema, DevOps, distributed ledger, Donald Knuth, Edward Snowden, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, fault tolerance, finite state, Flash crash, full text search, general-purpose programming language, informal economy, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, John von Neumann, Kubernetes, loose coupling, Marc Andreessen, microservices, natural language processing, Network effects, packet switching, peer-to-peer, performance metric, place-making, premature optimization, recommendation engine, Richard Feynman, self-driving car, semantic web, Shoshana Zuboff, social graph, social web, software as a service, software is eating the world, sorting algorithm, source of truth, SPARQL, speech recognition, statistical model, undersea cable, web application, WebSocket, wikimedia commons

As computers became vastly more powerful and networked, they started being used for increasingly diverse purposes. And remarkably, relational databases turned out to generalize very well, beyond their original scope of business data processing, to a broad variety of use cases. Much of what you see on the web today is still powered by relational databases, be it online publishing, discussion, social networking, ecom‐ merce, games, software-as-a-service productivity applications, or much more. The Birth of NoSQL Now, in the 2010s, NoSQL is the latest attempt to overthrow the relational model’s dominance. The name “NoSQL” is unfortunate, since it doesn’t actually refer to any particular technology—it was originally intended simply as a catchy Twitter hashtag for a meetup on open source, distributed, nonrelational databases in 2009 [3]. Never‐ theless, the term struck a nerve and quickly spread through the web startup commu‐ nity and beyond.


pages: 898 words: 266,274

The Irrational Bundle by Dan Ariely

accounting loophole / creative accounting, air freight, Albert Einstein, Alvin Roth, assortative mating, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, business process, cashless society, Cass Sunstein, clean water, cognitive dissonance, computer vision, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, end world poverty, endowment effect, Exxon Valdez, first-price auction, Frederick Winslow Taylor, fudge factor, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, IKEA effect, Jean Tirole, job satisfaction, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, lake wobegon effect, late fees, loss aversion, Murray Gell-Mann, new economy, Peter Singer: altruism, placebo effect, price anchoring, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, Saturday Night Live, Schrödinger's Cat, second-price auction, Shai Danziger, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Skype, software as a service, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, ultimatum game, Upton Sinclair, Walter Mischel, young professional

.* If we think about organizational culture as an important component of the Not-Invented-Here mentality, one way to track this tendency might be to look at the speed in which acronyms blossom inside companies, industries, and professions. (For example, ICRM stands for Innovative Customer Relationship Management; KPI for Key Performance Indicator; OPR for Other People’s Resources; QSC for Quality, Service, Cleanliness; GAAP for Generally Accepted Accounting Principles; SAAS for Software as a Service; TCO for Total Cost of Ownership; and so on). Acronyms confer a kind of secret insider knowledge; they give people a way to talk about an idea in shorthand. They increase the perceived importance of ideas, and at the same time they also help keep other ideas from entering the inner circle. Acronyms are not particularly harmful, but problems arise when companies become victims of their own mythologies and adopt a narrow internal focus.