agricultural Revolution

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pages: 447 words: 141,811

Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind by Yuval Noah Harari

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atahualpa, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, David Graeber, Edmond Halley, European colonialism, Francisco Pizarro, glass ceiling, global village, greed is good, income per capita, invention of gunpowder, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, life extension, Mahatma Gandhi, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, out of africa, personalized medicine, Ponzi scheme, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, zero-sum game

Map 2. Locations and dates of agricultural revolutions. The data is contentious, and the map is constantly being redrawn to incorporate the latest archaeological discoveries.1 That tale is a fantasy. There is no evidence that people became more intelligent with time. Foragers knew the secrets of nature long before the Agricultural Revolution, since their survival depended on an intimate knowledge of the animals they hunted and the plants they gathered. Rather than heralding a new era of easy living, the Agricultural Revolution left farmers with lives generally more difficult and less satisfying than those of foragers. Hunter-gatherers spent their time in more stimulating and varied ways, and were less in danger of starvation and disease. The Agricultural Revolution certainly enlarged the sum total of food at the disposal of humankind, but the extra food did not translate into a better diet or more leisure.

By the first century AD the vast majority of people throughout most of the world were agriculturists. Why did agricultural revolutions erupt in the Middle East, China and Central America but not in Australia, Alaska or South Africa? The reason is simple: most species of plants and animals can’t be domesticated. Sapiens could dig up delicious truffles and hunt down woolly mammoths, but domesticating either species was out of the question. The fungi were far too elusive, the giant beasts too ferocious. Of the thousands of species that our ancestors hunted and gathered, only a few were suitable candidates for farming and herding. Those few species lived in particular places, and those are the places where agricultural revolutions occurred. Scholars once proclaimed that the agricultural revolution was a great leap forward for humanity. They told a tale of progress fuelled by human brain power.

Even if climate change abetted us, the human contribution was decisive.7 Noah’s Ark If we combine the mass extinctions in Australia and America, and add the smaller-scale extinctions that took place as Homo sapiens spread over Afro-Asia – such as the extinction of all other human species – and the extinctions that occurred when ancient foragers settled remote islands such as Cuba, the inevitable conclusion is that the first wave of Sapiens colonisation was one of the biggest and swiftest ecological disasters to befall the animal kingdom. Hardest hit were the large furry creatures. At the time of the Cognitive Revolution, the planet was home to about 200 genera of large terrestrial mammals weighing over fifty kilograms. At the time of the Agricultural Revolution, only about a hundred remained. Homo sapiens drove to extinction about half of the planet’s big beasts long before humans invented the wheel, writing, or iron tools. This ecological tragedy was restaged in miniature countless times after the Agricultural Revolution. The archaeological record of island after island tells the same sad story. The tragedy opens with a scene showing a rich and varied population of large animals, without any trace of humans. In scene two, Sapiens appear, evidenced by a human bone, a spear point, or perhaps a potsherd.


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The Autonomous Revolution: Reclaiming the Future We’ve Sold to Machines by William Davidow, Michael Malone

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, blue-collar work, Bob Noyce, business process, call centre, cashless society, citizen journalism, Clayton Christensen, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, license plate recognition, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, Network effects, new economy, peer-to-peer lending, QWERTY keyboard, ransomware, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, speech recognition, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, trade route, Turing test, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, urban planning, zero day, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The heavy plow was invented as well, and improved versions of the harness made it possible for draft animals to pull them.12 The Second Agricultural Revolution coincided roughly with the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, around the 1700s. It was powered by new crops like corn and potatoes from the New World; new forms of organization, such as large single-owner holdings; mechanical equipment that replaced muscle power; and, later, railroads, which transported harvests.13 The so-called green revolution that began in the middle of the twentieth century (also called the Third Agricultural Revolution) used genetic science, pesticides, and new methods of cultivation to vastly increase yields. The productivity improvements have been staggering. In the 1800s, agricultural labor made up 83 percent of the American domestic workforce.14 Today, its share is about 1.5 percent.15 To summarize, the Agricultural Revolution changed the rules, tools, and institutions that govern every part of people’s lives.

CHAPTER TWO A BRIEF HISTORY OF SOCIAL PHASE CHANGES Why This Time Things Are Different HUMAN PROGRESS is the product of a host of structural transformations that have culminated in a few big societal phase changes. Once set into motion, those societal phase changes are continual and overlapping. The Agricultural Revolution has been going on for twelve thousand years, the Industrial Revolution for more than two hundred. The Autonomous Revolution has only just begun. This chapter will take a closer look at the dynamics of societal phase change, focusing especially on the onset of the Agricultural Revolution, the Renaissance, and three different epochs of the Industrial Revolution. It is a mistake to assume that structural transformations are synonymous with technological change. While some structural transformations do have a technological component, many others don’t.

But much more typical is the lapse of more than a century that divides the invention of the Babbage Difference Engine and the introduction of ENIAC, the first modern electronic computer, or the almost thousand-year interval between the Chinese invention of block printing and Gutenberg’s printing press.3 Although ingenious and even profound, it wasn’t until much later iterations of these inventions were disseminated that they became revolutionary, rule-changing, and structurally transformative. PAST PATTERNS One is always tempted to declare the most recent wave of new technologies, from atomic power and genomic medicine to powered flight and artificial intelligence, as the most important ever experienced by humankind. But an objective observer would also stand in awe of the technologies that gave rise to and propelled the Agricultural Revolution. The structural transformations that led to the Agricultural Revolution began to accumulate in the Levant around 10,000 BCE, when people first began planting cereals and legumes, and spread throughout the Fertile Crescent over the next two thousand years. Agriculture was also discovered independently in other parts of the world—in China in 6000 BCE, in South America between 7000 and 8000 BCE, in sub-Saharan Africa around 5000 BCE, and so on.


pages: 445 words: 105,255

Radical Abundance: How a Revolution in Nanotechnology Will Change Civilization by K. Eric Drexler

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Bill Joy: nanobots, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, crowdsourcing, dark matter, double helix, failed state, global supply chain, industrial robot, iterative process, Mars Rover, means of production, Menlo Park, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, performance metric, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Thomas Malthus, V2 rocket, Vannevar Bush, zero-sum game

As Winston Churchill once said, “The farther backward you can look, the farther forward you are likely to see.” Here, we can begin with the Neolithic era. THE FIRST AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION The first agricultural revolution—the Agricultural Revolution—defines the dawn of the Neolithic era, more than ten thousand years in our past. The Agricultural Revolution gave human beings a new way to exploit the productive capabilities of the nanoscale machines found in living organisms, the molecular metabolic machinery that makes complex structures out of nothing more than water, soil, air, and sunlight. Agriculture multiplied the food yield of land by a hundredfold, yet the agricultural way of life also marked the beginning of a cascade of change. For example, the Agricultural Revolution dates from prehistory for a simple reason: Writing came later, and made written histories possible.

THE APM REVOLUTION What can we say about the coming APM Revolution, seen from the perspective of the three previous revolutions? A great deal, as it turns out. Both parallels and contrasts offer insights. The biological machinery of the Agricultural Revolution, the digital nanoelectronics of the Information Revolution, and the innermost mechanisms of APM systems all show ways in which nanoscale devices can be harnessed within macroscale systems to deliver useful results. In other words, three of these four revolutions rely on nanoscale devices, the Industrial Revolution being the only exception. However, although the Agricultural Revolution employs atomically-precise nanoscale devices, these are products neither of human action nor human design. Rather, these devices consist of soft structures that perform a Brownian dance, twisting and tumbling in the disorderly environments found inside cells.

Chapter 18: Changing Our Conversation About the Future 283the first response . . . often sets the direction for the next: This is an example of a “social cascade,” discussed (together with a range of other successes and pathologies of group decision-making) in Cass Sunstein’s brief and readable book, Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2006). INDEX Actin, 69 Additive manufacturing, 76–77 Agriculturalists, hunter-gatherers vs., 41–42 Agricultural Revolution, 39, 40–42 APM Revolution and, 50, 54 Industrial Revolution and, 44 nature and human impacts of, 54 Agriculture, atomically precise manufacturing and, 231–232, 248, 250 American Chemical Society, 181 Angewandte Chemie (journal), 20n APM. See Atomically precise manufacturing (APM) APM Revolution, 39, 40, 50–53, 54 Agricultural Revolution and, 50, 54 consequences, potential, 240, 286 competitive, 243 Information Revolution compared, xii, 256 nanotechnology research and, 202 nature and human impacts of, 54 personal concerns and, 282 threshold of, 193 Apollo program, 18, 20, 111–112 Applications, atomically precise manufacturing, 166–167, 174, 223–239, 281 consumer products, 224–225, 253 security, 263–266 medical, 167, 236–238, 256 military, 35, 236, 259–263, 284 Approximations, exploiting, 123–124 Arms race, military applications of atomically precise manufacturing and, 259, 261–262, 268–269, 284 Armstrong, Neil, 112 Arrhenius equation, 292 Assemblers, 329 Assembly methods, molecular, 190–193 Asteroid mining, 15n Astronautics, 133 Atomically precise fabrication, 177–193 biological examples of, 80–82 biomolecular engineering as, 182–184 chemical synthesis as, 82–84, 179–181, 182 history of, 22–25, 46, 178 materials science and, 184–185 nanotechnology as, 28, 195–196 National Nanotechnology Initiative and, 32, 205, 207 pathway to atomically precise manufacturing, 9, 25–27, 32–33, 84–86, 144, 280–281 scanning probe methods, 185–186 Atomic precision, x, xiii, 7, 10, 22–24, 50 called the essence of nanotechnology, 205 definition of, 7 digital systems compared to, 7, 77–80 feedstock molecules and, 152–153 from small to large scale, 154–155 long history of, 22 nanolithography compared to, 76 nanotechnology and, x, xiii, 32 Richard Feynman and, 24 See also Atomically precise fabrication, Atomically precise manufacturing, Chemistry Atomically precise manufacturing (APM), x–xii agriculture and, 231–232, 248, 250 aligning national interests and, 266–269 applications (see Applications) assembly methods and, 190–192 automated manufacturing as template for, 73–77, 84 biomolecular engineering and, 187–188 biotechnology and, 73, 80–82, 85 carbon dioxide and, 234, 246, 250–252, 255 chemical synthesis and, 73, 82–84, 85 chemistry and, 179–181 civil society and, 262–263, 265–266 collaboration in, 271–272, 312 consumer products from, 224–225, 253 costs and, 52, 224, 227 digital information systems and, 73, 77–80, 84 digital media as cost model for, 172–173 digital revolution/digital technology and, 7–8, 50–51, 53, 277–278 domestic security applications, 263–266 economic implications of, 34–35, 256–257 energy and, 226, 229–230 environmental restoration and, 33–34, 233–234, 250–252, 255 exploratory engineering and, 143–144, 279–280 framework for thinking about, 274–287 fundamental principles of, 10, 24, 289–293 improvement in product performance and, 162–166 information technology and, 226–227 materials processing and, 184–185 medicine and, 236–238, 256 military applications, 35, 236, 259–263, 284 molecular biology and, 24–27 pace and direction of development, 241–245, 309–311 pathways to (see Pathways to atomically precise manufacturing) potential solutions/disruptions created by, 34–35, 240–241, 245–255 precursors, 279, 303–306 productivity of, 276–277 progress towards, 32–33, 177–179, 278 raw materials and, 230–231 relationship to nanotechnology, 32, 196–199, 205–207 reducing complexity of, 303–304 resource scarcity and, 33–34, 169, 230–231, 248 roadmapping for progress in, 216–220 scanning-probe methods and, 185–186 security technologies and, 235–236 supply chains and, 34–35, 51, 225–226, 244–245 surveillance networks and, 263, 264–266 transformation of infrastructure and, 228–229 uncertainties and, 258, 269–272 See also Atomically precise manufacturing systems, Pathways to atomically precise manufacturing Atomically precise manufacturing (APM) research carbon-based supermaterials and, 158 fostering collaborative strategies for, 271–272, 312 government funding and, 32, 194–195, 198–199, 204–207, 208, 243 repression of, 209–210 Atomically precise manufacturing (APM) systems energy requirements of, 155–156 as factories, 276 microblocks, 152–155 ordinariness of, 70–71 process of, 148–151 products of, 147–149, 159–174, 224–225, 253 (see also Applications) radical cost reduction and, 168–173 Automated manufacturing, APM and, 72–77, 84 Avco Everett Research Laboratory, 17–18 Battelle Memorial Institute, 211 Becquerel, Henri, 134 Bell Telephone/Bell Labs, 46–47 Biomolecular engineering, 9, 187–188 machine engineering, 24–25 systems, atomically precise manufacturing and, 73, 80–82, 85 Boltzmann factor, 292n Brownian motion, 23, 50 Bush, Vannevar, 5 CAD (computer-aided design) software, 189 CAMD (computer-aided molecular design) software, 189–190 Cancer, atomically precise manufacturing and attack on, 237–238 Carbon-based materials, 137, 153, 158, 162–163 Carbon dioxide emission reduction, 171, 250–252, 255 problem, 246, 250–252 removal from atmosphere, 234, 252, 255 See also Greenhouse gases Carbon nanotubes, 161, 164, 185, 188 Carroll, Sean, 96, 100 Carson, Rachel, 12 Casimir forces, 64 Catalysts (as products), 302 Cells, molecular machinery of, 25, 50, 61–62, 182 CERN, 95 Chemical synthesis atomically precise manufacturing and, 73, 82–84, 85 organic synthesis, 23–24, 32, 179–181, 187 Chemical reactions click chemistry/click reaction, 180n equilibria of, 292 free energy change, 291–292 in chemical synthesis, 23, 83, 84, 180, 293 kinetics of, 277, 292 machine-guided motion, 73, 292 methods for blocking, 84, 281, 290–292, 300 stereotactic, 290–293 thermal motion and, 68 thermal motion timescale, 68 thermodynamic control of, 277, 292 transition states of, 291, 292 yield, 84, 113, 292 See also Chemical synthesis, Chemistry Chemistry atomically precision and, 7, 22–23, 82–84 computational, 33, 56, 98–100, 179, 189–190, 218 discovery of atoms and, 23, 29 organic synthesis and, 179–181 as pathway technology, 32, 84–85, 179–181, 188, 242 as a production method, 92–84 research scope, 178–181 thermal motion and, 68–70 China conflict with United States, 268–269 economic rise of, 246 government funding of nanotechnology research, 194, 210, 243 Churchill, Winston, 40 Civil society, atomically precise manufacturing and, 262–263, 265–266 Clausewitz, Carl von, 262 Climate change, atomically precise manufacturing and, 234, 246, 250–252, 255.


pages: 479 words: 144,453

Homo Deus: A Brief History of Tomorrow by Yuval Noah Harari

23andMe, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, autonomous vehicles, Berlin Wall, call centre, Chris Urmson, cognitive dissonance, Columbian Exchange, computer age, Deng Xiaoping, don't be evil, drone strike, European colonialism, experimental subject, falling living standards, Flash crash, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, glass ceiling, global village, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Markoff, Kevin Kelly, lifelogging, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minecraft, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mutually assured destruction, new economy, pattern recognition, Peter Thiel, placebo effect, Ray Kurzweil, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, stem cell, Steven Pinker, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, ultimatum game, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

Abdallah, Muhammad Ahmad bin (Mahdi) 270, 271 Abe, Shinzō 207 abortion 189, 190, 236 Adee, Sally 288–9, 364 ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) 39 aesthetics: humanist 229–30, 233, 234, 238; Middle Ages 228–9, 228 Afghanistan 19, 40, 100, 171, 351 Africa: AIDS crisis in 2–3; borders in 167–8, 169; climate change and 214–15; conquest of 259, 350; Ebola outbreak in 11, 13, 203; Sapiens evolution in savannah of 338, 388–9 Agricultural Revolution: animal welfare and 77, 78–9, 83, 90–6, 363; Bible and 77, 78–9, 90–6, 98; Dataist interpretation of history and 379; intersubjective networks and 156, 157 AIDS 2–3, 11–12, 13, 19 algorithms: concept defined 83–4; Dataism and 367, 368, 381, 384–97; humanism, threat to 309–97 see also Dataism; individualism, threat to 328–46; organisation of societies in algorithmic fashion 160–3; organisms as 83–90, 106–7, 112–14, 117, 118, 121, 124, 125, 126–7, 140, 150–1, 304–5, 327, 328–9, 367, 368, 381, 388; render humans economically and militarily useless 307–27 Allen, Woody 29 Alzheimer’s disease 24, 336 Amazon Corporation 343–4 Amenemhat III 161, 162, 175 Andersson, Professor Leif 231 animals: Agricultural Revolution and 77, 78–9, 83, 90–6, 363; as algorithms 83–90; evolutionary psychology and 78–83; animist and biblical views of 75–8, 90–6; cognition/intelligence, underestimation of 127–31; consciousness and 106–7, 120–32; cooperation and 137–43; domesticated, numbers of 71–2; global biomass of 72; humanism and 98–9, 231; inequality, reaction to 140–1, 142; intersubjective web of meaning and 150; mass extinction of 71–5; mother–infant bond 88–90; soul and 101–2; suffering of 78–83, 82, 231, 286 animist cultures 75–8, 91, 92, 96–7, 173 Annie (musical composition program) 325 Anthropocene 71–99 antibiotics 10, 12, 13, 23, 27, 99, 179, 266, 275, 348 antidepressants 40, 49, 122–4 Apple Corporation 15, 155, 343, 372 art: medieval and humanist attitudes towards 228–30, 228, 233; technology and 323–5 artificial intelligence 48; animal welfare and 99; consciousness and 119; humanism, threat to 309–97; individualism, threat to 328–46; putting brakes on development of 50, 51; renders humans economically and militarily useless 307–27; timescale for human-level 50 see also algorithms; Dataism and under individual area of AI artificial pancreas 330 Ashurbanipal of Assyria, King 68, 68 Associated Press 313 Auschwitz 257, 376 autonomous cars 114, 114, 163, 312, 322, 341–2, 384–5 Aztec Empire 8–9 Babylon 172–3, 309, 390 Bach, Johann Sebastian 324–5, 358 Bariyapur, Nepal 92 bats: experience of the world 356–7, 358; lending and vampire 204–5 Beane, Billy 321 Bedpost 331 Beethoven, Ludwig van 253, 324; Fifth Symphony and value of experience 257–61, 358, 387–8 Belavezha Accords, 1991 145, 145 Bentham, Jeremy 30, 32, 35 Berlin Conference, 1884 168 Berlin Wall, fall of, 1989 133 Berry, Chuck: ‘Johnny B.

The Bible is a long book, bursting with miracles, wonders and marvels. Yet the only time an animal initiates a conversation with a human is when the serpent tempts Eve to eat the forbidden fruit of knowledge (Bil’am’s donkey also speaks a few words, but she is merely conveying to Bil’am a message from God). In the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve lived as foragers. The expulsion from Eden bears a striking resemblance to the Agricultural Revolution. Instead of allowing Adam to keep gathering wild fruits, an angry God condemns him ‘to eat bread by the sweat of your brow’. It might be no coincidence, then, that biblical animals spoke with humans only in the pre-agricultural era of Eden. What lessons does the Bible draw from the episode? That you shouldn’t listen to snakes, and it is generally best to avoid talking with animals and plants.

While animists saw humans as just another kind of animal, the Bible argues that humans are a unique creation, and any attempt to acknowledge the animal within us denies God’s power and authority. Indeed, when modern humans discovered that they actually evolved from reptiles, they rebelled against God and stopped listening to Him – or even believing in His existence. Ancestral Needs The Bible, along with its belief in human distinctiveness, was one of the by-products of the Agricultural Revolution, which initiated a new phase in human–animal relations. The advent of farming produced new waves of mass extinctions, but more importantly, it created a completely new life form on earth: domesticated animals. Initially this development was of minor importance, since humans managed to domesticate fewer than twenty species of mammals and birds, compared to the countless thousands of species that remained ‘wild’.


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The Sovereign Individual: How to Survive and Thrive During the Collapse of the Welfare State by James Dale Davidson, Rees Mogg

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, California gold rush, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, compound rate of return, creative destruction, Danny Hillis, debt deflation, ending welfare as we know it, epigenetics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Gilder, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Isaac Newton, Kevin Kelly, market clearing, Martin Wolf, Menlo Park, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Macrae, offshore financial centre, Parkinson's law, pattern recognition, phenotype, price mechanism, profit maximization, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Coase, Sam Peltzman, school vouchers, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, spice trade, statistical model, telepresence, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Turing machine, union organizing, very high income, Vilfredo Pareto

It was not always such, however, as a review of the first great megapolitical transformation, the Agricultural Revolution, clearly shows. 43 CHAPTER 3 EAST OF EDEN The Agricultural Revolution and the Sophistication of Violence 'And the Lord said unto Cain, Where is Abel, thy brother? And he said, I know not: Am I my brothers' keeper? And he said, What hast thou done? the voice of thy brothers' blood crieth unto me from the ground." GENESIS 4:9-10 Five hundred generations ago, the first phase change in the organization of human society began.1 Our ancestors in several regions reluctantly picked up crude implements, sharpened stakes and makeshift hoes, and went to work. As they sowed the first crops, they also laid a new foundation for power in the world. The Agricultural Revolution was the first great economic and social revolution. It started with the expulsion from Eden and moved so slowly that farming had not completely displaced hunting and gathering in all suitable areas of the globe when the twentieth century opened.

Megapolitical catalysts for change usually appear well before their consequences manifest themselves. It took five thousand years for the full implications of the Agricultural Revolution to come to the surface. The transition from an agricultural society to an industrial society based on manufacturing and chemical power unfolded more quickly. It took centuries. The transition to the Information Society will happen more rapidly still, probably within a lifetime. Yet even allowing for the foreshortening of history, you can expect decades to pass before the full megapolitical impact of existing information technology is realized. Major and Minor Megapolitical Transitions This chapter analyzes some of the common features of megapolitical transitions. In following chapters we look more closely at the Agricultural Revolution, and the transition from farm to factory, the second of the previous great phase changes.

Our desire is to help you to take advantage of the opportunities of the new age and avoid being destroyed by its impact. If only half of what we expect to see happens, you face change of a magnitude with few precedents in history. The transformation of the year 2000 will not only revolutionize the character of the world economy, it will do so more rapidly than any previous phase change. Unlike the Agricultural Revolution, the Information Revolution will not take millennia to do its work. Unlike the Industrial Revolution. its impact will not be spread over centuries. The Information Revolution will happen within a lifetime. What is more, it will happen almost everywhere at once. Technical and economic innovations will no longer be confined to small portions of the globe. The transformation will be all but universal.


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An Economist Gets Lunch: New Rules for Everyday Foodies by Tyler Cowen

agricultural Revolution, big-box store, business climate, carbon footprint, cognitive bias, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, food miles, guest worker program, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, informal economy, iterative process, mass immigration, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, price discrimination, refrigerator car, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce

See also shipping and transportation infrastructure and the Aztecs, 143 and barbecue, 89 and chili peppers, 207 and cities, 143–44 and cross-subsidies, 65 and French food, 226–27, 229 and Genetically Modified Organisms, 165 historical influences on, 36 and home cooking, 245–46 and immigrants, 28–29 impact on quality of American food, 17–19 and Mexican food, 196, 210 and Nicaraguan food, 5 and poverty, 155–56 and Singaporean foods, 221–22 sushi, 58, 118, 122–23, 216, 218, 258 Susur: A Culinary Life (Lee), 249 Swanson, 35 sweets shops, 224, 240 Switzerland, 222, 235–37 Syngenta, 162 Syria, 157 tacit knowledge, 251 Taco Bell, 188 tacos, 190 Tad’s, 17 Taino culture, 89–90 Taiwanese restaurants, 136 tamales, 7 Tanzania, 129–30 tapas, 20, 239–40 taquerías, 188 Tarahumaras, 251 tariffs, 192 tar sands, 181 Tastee Chinese Food, 52 tastes of consumers, 183–84 taxi drivers, 3–4, 216–17 tax policy, 149, 158, 178–80 teas, 49 technological progress and agricultural revolutions, 146 changing pace of, 13 and home cooking, 258–59 and hunger and malnutrition, 151–52 and kitchen appliances, 35 mechanization of food production, 96, 100–107, 143–44, 154, 203, 205–6 and Mexican food, 209 and modern food market, 154 telegraph, 144 television, 18, 33–37 Teochew food, 221 teosinte, 143 Texas and barbecue, 12, 88, 105–7, 109, 111, 259 and food trucks, 76 and immigration restrictions, 31 and liquor laws, 25–26 and Mexican food, 189, 190, 192, 195, 199, 203, 206 and oil, 181 and perceptions of American food, 19 Texas de Brazil, 111 Texas Monthly, 88 Tex-Mex food, 31, 188 Thai Food (Thompson), 118–19 Thailand and Thai food and agricultural revolutions, 146 described, 116–22 and ethnic supermarkets, 50 and influential cookbooks, 251 in London, 232 and low-rent areas, 75 and seafood, 59 Thai Street Food (Thompson), 119 Thai X-ing, 119–20 Thermomix, 255–56 Thompson, David, 118–19 Ticciati, Laura, 164 Ticciati, Robin, 164 Tijuana, Mexico, 195 Time Out, 237 Tim Hortons, 94 Tlaxcala, Mexico, 98 tofu, 217 Tokyo, Japan, 214–19 tomatoes, 90, 206, 208–10, 246 Tony Roma’s, 96 torta sandwich, 202 tortillas, 141–42, 201–6, 246 tort law, 197 tourism and foods of Istanbul, 241 and foods of London, 231 and French food, 226, 229, 231 and Italian food, 237 and rules for finding good food, 70, 73, 74 traffic patterns, 74 trains, 193 transportation.

Further, the publisher does not have any control over and does not assume any responsibility for author or third-party Web sites or their content. ALWAYS LEARNING PEARSON It is a hard matter to save a city in which a fish sells for more than an ox. —Cato the Elder Contents 1 On the Eve of the Revolution 2 How American Food Got Bad 3 Revolutionizing the Supermarket Experience 4 The Rules for Finding a Good Place to Eat 5 Barbecue: The Greatest Slow Food of All 6 The Asian Elephant in the Room 7 Another Agricultural Revolution, Now 8 Eating Your Way to a Greener Planet 9 Why Does Mexican Food Taste Different in Mexico? 10 The Finding Great Food Anywhere Encyclopedia 11 The Stuff and Values of Cooking at Home Notes Acknowledgments Index 1 On the Eve of the Revolution American food is in crisis, and rarely has more disruption loomed before us. People are rebelling against current food-production methods involving long-distance shipping, fertilizers, and genetically modified organisms.

Rarely is it admitted, much less emphasized, that cheap, quick food—including its embodiment through our sometimes obnoxious agribusiness corporations—is the single most important advance in human history. It is the foundation of modern civilization and the reason why most of us are alive. Before there was an Industrial Revolution, which eventually brought the conveniences of modern life, there was an Agricultural Revolution, which created a large enough social surplus to make further economic development possible. It enabled us to pull people off the farm and employ them as scientists, engineers, inventors, and entrepreneurs. Earlier food worlds were no paradise. If we go back to the middle of the nineteenth century, American consumers were suspicious of the concepts of fresh fruit, vegetables, meat, and milk, unless it came from their farm or a neighbor’s.


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The Precipice: Existential Risk and the Future of Humanity by Toby Ord

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, availability heuristic, Columbian Exchange, computer vision, cosmological constant, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, defense in depth, delayed gratification, demographic transition, Doomsday Clock, Drosophila, effective altruism, Elon Musk, Ernest Rutherford, global pandemic, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Norbert Wiener, nuclear winter, p-value, Peter Singer: altruism, planetary scale, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supervolcano, survivorship bias, the scientific method, uranium enrichment

I will focus on three.8 The first was the Agricultural Revolution.9 Around 10,000 years ago the people of the Fertile Crescent, in the Middle East, began planting wild wheat, barley, lentils and peas to supplement their foraging. By preferentially replanting the seeds from the best plants, they harnessed the power of evolution, creating new domesticated varieties with larger seeds and better yields. This worked with animals too, giving humans easier access to meat and hides, along with milk, wool and manure. And the physical power of draft animals to help plow the fields or transport the harvest was the biggest addition to humanity’s power since fire.10 While the Fertile Crescent is often called “the cradle of civilization,” in truth civilization had many cradles. Entirely independent agricultural revolutions occurred across the world in places where the climate and local species were suitable: in east Asia; sub-Saharan Africa; New Guinea; South, Central and North America; and perhaps elsewhere too.11 The new practices fanned out from each of these cradles, changing the way of life for many from foraging to farming.

Some of this is altruistic (and even unilateral), but it can also be driven by various forms of exchange. For an explanation of just how important social learning was to our success see, for example, Henrich (2015). 8 It is, of course, somewhat arbitrary how many to include and how to individuate each one. If I were to count just two, I’d say the Agricultural Revolution and the Industrial Revolution (perhaps defining the latter more broadly to include the time of the Scientific Revolution). If I were to include four, I’d probably break the Agricultural Revolution into two parts: the beginning of farming and the rise of civilization (which I’d then date to the appearance of cities, about 5,000 years ago). For a rigorous exploration of the big picture of humanity’s development, I recommend Maps of Time by David Christian (2004). 9 In some ways the term “Revolution” is misleading: it was neither rapid nor universal.

McCormick should share the credit with the birth-control activist, Margaret Sanger (who first secured McCormick’s donations), and the scientists Gregory Pincus and John Rock, whose research she funded. 75 Fleishman, Kohler & Schindler (2009), pp. 51–8. See note 97 to Chapter 4. 8 OUR POTENTIAL 1 Wells (1913), p. 60. 2 I use the term “civilization”—as I have done throughout this book—to refer to humanity since the Agricultural Revolution (which I round to 10,000 years, reflecting our imprecise knowledge of its beginning). This is a broader definition than the more commonly used 5,000 years since the time of the first city states. I use this longer time as I believe the Agricultural Revolution was the more important transition and that many of the things we associate with civilization will have been gradually accumulating during this time of villages and towns preceding the first cities. 3 Using the fossil record, estimates of median species lifetime for mammals range from 0.6 million years (Barnosky et al., 2011) to 1.7 million years (Foote & Raup, 1996).


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Meat: A Benign Extravagance by Simon Fairlie

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Boris Johnson, call centre, carbon footprint, Community Supported Agriculture, deindustrialization, en.wikipedia.org, food miles, Food sovereignty, Haber-Bosch Process, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Just-in-time delivery, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, megacity, Northern Rock, Panamax, peak oil, refrigerator car, scientific mainstream, sexual politics, stem cell, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

Tudge, C (2003), So Shall We Reap, Penguin Allen Lane. 7 Ernle (1912), op cit. 8 It has been argued that in some situations phosphorus was the limiting factor, a matter dealt with shortly, see Newman op cit. 13. 9 Allen, R (2008), ‘The Nitrogen Hypothesis and the English Agricultural Revolution: A Biological Analysis’, The Journal of Economic History, Vol 68, No 1, 2008. Allen says 1 to 3 per cent, but for convenience here I call it 2 per cent. 10 Allen (2008), ibid. See also Chorley, G P H (1981), ‘The Agricultural Revolution in Northern Europe, 1750-1880: Nitrogen, Legumes and Crop Productivity’, Economic History Review, Vol 34 pt 1 pp 71-93; and Clark, G, ‘The Economics of Exhaustion: The Postan Thesis and the Agricultural Revolution’, Journal of Economic History, Vol 52 Pt 1, 1992. 11 Marx, K (1894), Das Kapital, Volume 3, ‘The Transformation of Profit into Ground Rent’. 12 Cited in Girardet, H (2000), Cities, People, Planet, Liverpool Schumacher lectures, April 2000.

By championing the virtues of muck, generations of farmers, without realising what they were doing, improved the condition of English farmland by applying green manures. This is a point of view that lends considerable historical support to the case for stockfree agriculture. Allen is suggesting that the agricultural revolution, insofar as it was dependent upon nitrogen fixation, could have been carried out just as successfully, in the long run, by using legumes as a green manure rather than as animal feed. In the light of recent research into stockfree organic rotations entirely reliant upon green manures, it looks as though this could be correct. The Geography of Muck Unfortunately no sooner had one problem been solved by the so called agricultural revolution, than another was caused by the industrial revolution. As land was progressively enclosed for ‘improvement’ by capitalist farmers like Coke (even though many of the improvements just described took place some 200 years earlier on open fields) peasants were squeezed out of their communities and impelled into towns, in a process similar to one now taking place on a far larger scale in developing countries.

A more tempered approach will be to increase research and experimentation into organic agriculture in both the north and in the south, in the hope that the third world, in contrast to Europe, will undergo its biological ‘agricultural revolution’ after having undergone its chemical ‘green revolution’, since it failed to do so before. The world is waiting for an organic answer to Justus von Liebig, Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch. 1 The Ecologist (1976), ‘Must an Ecological Society be a Vegetarian One’, The Ecologist, Vol 6:10, Dceember 1976. 2 Ernle, Lord (1912), English Farming Past and Present, Longmans. 3 Ibid. 4 USDA (1998), ‘Record US Wheat Yields, Large Stocks Pressure Prices’, Agricultural Outlook, Economic Research Service, USDA, August 1998, http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/agoutlook/aug1998/ao253b.pdf 5 Postan, M (1975), The Medieval Economy and Society, Pelican, p 65. 6 Beckett, J V (1990), The Agricultural Revolution, Blackwell. A similar phenomenon may have taken place in the early years of the 20th century in the United States, when corn harvests reliant upon the inherited fertility of virgin grasslands began to decline – the Oklahoma dustbowl being the most graphic example.


pages: 606 words: 87,358

The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization by Richard Baldwin

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, buy low sell high, call centre, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, Commodity Super-Cycle, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, domestication of the camel, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial intermediation, George Gilder, global supply chain, global value chain, Henri Poincaré, imperial preference, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, invention of agriculture, invention of the telegraph, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Dyson, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lao Tzu, low skilled workers, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, New Economic Geography, out of africa, paper trading, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, Simon Kuznets, Skype, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus

The rising world population drove humans to inhabit every inhabitable corner of the planet by about 15,000 years ago. The Agricultural Revolution ended Phase One and opened the door to Phase Two. Phase Two: Agriculture and the First Bundling For scientific reasons that are still unclear, the climate warmed twenty millennia ago and stabilized about 12,000 years ago (Figure 4). Prehistoric population density was limited by food, and food was limited by climate, so this “good” climate change triggered a transformation of human society. This, in turn, transformed globalization. Population density rose in regions with long growing seasons and reliable water sources. With lots of people and lots of food clustered in proximity, humans gradually learned how to reverse the mobility balance. Food production was moved to people rather than people to food. This was the Agriculture Revolution (also called the Neolithic Revolution).

Production and consumption were spatially bundled since prehistoric transportation made it easier to move people to food rather than food to people. Little trade occurred. In Phase One, globalization meant a burgeoning human population traveling to exploit ever-more-distant production sites. Phase Two: Localizing the global economy (10,000 BCE to 1820 CE) In Phase Two, production and consumption were bundled as before, but with one absolutely critical difference. Thanks to the Agricultural Revolution, food production was brought to people rather than vice versa. The world economy was, in other words, “localized” in the sense that production and consumption occurred in fixed locations. Trade was still difficult and thus rare. This phase also saw the rise of cities and the ancient civilizations in today’s Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Egypt, China, India / Pakistan, and Greece Italy. While trade emerged among these production consumption clusters, globalization in the modern sense had not yet begun.

Globalization’s Phase One (humanization of the globe) was triggered when modern humans left Africa around 83,000 BCE following a millennia-long spike in the planet’s average temperature. Phase Two was triggered when the climate warmed and stabilized 12,000 years ago. With the climate warm and relatively stable, humans were able to master food production. Local food production could be expanded to match local population expansions. This change, known as the Agricultural Revolution, enabled the rise of civilization. Modern “global warming” is the upward tick at the far right. SOURCE: J. Jouzel et al., “Orbital and Millennial Antarctic Climate Variability over the Past 800,000 Years,” Science 317, no. 5839 (2007): 793–797; based on Arctic Dome C ice cores. The DNA and archaeological data suggest that about forty millennia ago, humans were continuously present in Africa, Asia, and Australia (Figure 5).


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Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed by James C. Scott

agricultural Revolution, business cycle, clean water, colonial rule, commoditize, deskilling, facts on the ground, germ theory of disease, informal economy, invention of writing, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, land tenure, Louis Pasteur, new economy, New Urbanism, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit maximization, road to serfdom, Silicon Valley, stochastic process, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, Thorstein Veblen, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor

It is worth adding that neither does the record of the industrialized world in soil erosion, pollution or exhaustion of groundwater, and global warming represent an edifying example of foresight. 67. Robert Chambers, Rural Development: Putting the Last First (London: Longman, 1983), quoted in Richards, Indigenous Agricultural Revolution, p. 40. There is a case to be made for Howard's claim that "agricultural revolutions" are always acts of autonomous farmers rather than states. From the agricultural revolution in Britain that laid the groundwork for industrialization to the broad adoption of such new crops as cocoa, tobacco, and maize in Africa, Howard's generalization rings true. It does not hold true, however, for large-scale irrigation projects or for the more recent, research-driven breeding of high-yielding varieties of wheat, rice, and maize.

It goes without saying that the gardens Anderson is describing are so diverse in part because the villagers in question wish to grow many of the foods needed for subsistence rather than paying for them in the market. The point, however, is the plan behind the visual disorder. 38. Richards, Indigenous Agricultural Revolution, p. 63. 39. Ibid., p. 70. 40. Most traditional cropping systems, whether polyculture or crop rotation, combine a grain and a legume in this fashion. 41. Richards, Indigenous Agricultural Revolution, pp. 66-70. 42. H. C. Sampson and E. M. Crowther, "Crop Production and Soil Fertility Problems," West Africa Commission, 1938-1939: Technical Reports, part I (London: Leverhulme Trust, 1943), p. 34, cited in ibid., p. 30. Mixed cropping (polyculture) must not be confused with mixed farming, which indicates a farm producing a variety of crops (each typically on its own plot) and livestock on the European smallholder model. 43.

There is no reason, in principle, why the dependent variable of greatest interest cannot be, say, nutritional value, the timing of tillering, taste, or hardiness. But the research is more manageable when the variable of interest is less subjective and more easily quantifiable. 79. D. S. Ngambeki and G. F. Wilson, "Moving Research to Farmers' Fields," International Institute of Tropical Agriculture Research Briefs, 4:4, 1, 7-8, quoted in Richards, Indigenous Agricultural Revolution, p. 143. 80. Richards, Indigenous Agricultural Revolution, p. 143. 81. Sauer, Agricultural Origins and Dispersals, pp. 62-83. 82. In addition to the difficulties in finding the "active" cause among many possibilities, such a study of polycropping would have to find and justify a formula for comparing different combinations of yields. Assuming the same costs, which is superior: a yield of two hundred bushels of lima beans and three hundred bushels of corn, or a yield of three hundred bushels of lima beans and two hundred bushels of corn?


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Paleo Slow Cooker: 33 Quick Prep, Easy, Healthy and Delicious Smelling Paleo Slow Cooker Meals-Eat Well Even if You Are Tight on Time Through Paleo ... Slow Cooker Meals, Palo Diet) (Volume 6) by Tiffany Scott

agricultural Revolution

Eating like a caveman means eating only foods that can be hunted and gathered. This eliminates grains, dairy products, processed foods, and a host of other food items that were introduced during or after the agricultural revolution from one’s diet. The idea is that the human body has not adapted to the newer grain-based diet we are used to. The large amount of processed foods people consume on a daily basis has also contributed to the health and weight problems plaguing a big number of the world’s population today. These foods contain a lot of chemical additives and sugar which, like grains, dairy, and other post-agricultural revolution food items, are not easily processed by the body. The Paleo Lifestyle Many traditional nutritionists dismiss the paleo diet as a fad diet that won’t last; however, as time passes, more and more people are going paleo.

With this recipe book, you will be able to vary your slow cooker recipes and create your own nutritious and tasty Paleo cuisine. Thanks again for downloading this book; I hope you definitely enjoy it! Chapter 1: Paleo or Paleolithic diet—a basic guide The Paleolithic diet is a way of eating from 10,000 years ago in the Paleolithic era, also known as the caveman diet, Stone Age diet & hunter gathered diet. The Paleo diet consists of foods that were eaten before the agricultural revolution and wheat based diet. These diets consist of meat, seafood, fruits, vegetables and nuts. All foods in their natural form, not processed and wheat free are included. Studies are showing that human bodies are better adapted to this way of eating. The term Paleo diet refers to the healthiest nutritional approach towards meal and eating food that keeps your genetics stay lean, potent and dynamic.


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The Patterning Instinct: A Cultural History of Humanity's Search for Meaning by Jeremy Lent

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, Atahualpa, Benoit Mandelbrot, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, complexity theory, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, demographic transition, different worldview, Doomsday Book, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Georg Cantor, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of gunpowder, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, Lao Tzu, Law of Accelerating Returns, mandelbrot fractal, mass immigration, megacity, Metcalfe's law, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, Pierre-Simon Laplace, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, Scientific racism, scientific worldview, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, social intelligence, South China Sea, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, technological singularity, the scientific method, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, ultimatum game, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, wikimedia commons

Harvey; Nurit Bird-David, “‘Animism’ Revisited: Personhood, Environment, and Relational Epistemology,” in Readings in Indigenous Religions, ed. Harvey, 72–105. 11. Nurit Bird-David, “The Giving Environment: Another Perspective on the Economic System of Gatherer-Hunters,” Current Anthropology 31, no. 2 (1990): 189–96. See also Calvin Luther Martin, cited in Barker, Agricultural Revolution, 409; and Pascal Boyer, Religion Explained: The Evolutionary Origins of Religious Thought (New York: Basic Books, 2001), 69, for a description of the African Ituri pygmies’ perception that the forest “looks after” them. 12. Barker, Agricultural Revolution, 59. 13. Ibid. 14. Reported by ethnologist Knud Rasmussen, quoted in David Abram, The Spell of the Sensuous (New York: Random House, 1996), 87. 15. Hallowell, “Ojibwa Ontology,” 34. 16. Mircea Eliade, Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004), 259–87; Michael James Winkelman, “Shamans and Other ‘Magico-Religious’ Healers: A Cross-Cultural Study of Their Origins, Nature, and Social Transformations,” Ethos 18, no. 3 (1990): 308–52.

Bellwood notes “a possible increase in world population from 10 million to 50 million across the total of world transitions to agriculture.” 12. Bellwood, First Farmers, 61, 65–66, 277–78. 13. Barker, Agricultural Revolution, 325–28; T. Douglas Price, Anne Birgitte Gebauer, and Lawrence H. Keeley, “The Spread of Farming into Europe North of the Alps,” in Last Hunters, First Farmers, ed. Price and Gebauer, 104; Patricia Balaresque et al., “A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for European Paternal Lineages,” PLoS Biology 8, no. 1 (2010): e1000285. 14. Price and Gebauer, “New Perspectives,” 8. 15. Woodburn, “Egalitarian Societies”; Peter Bellwood, “Early Agriculturalist Population Diasporas? Farming, Languages, and Genes,” Annual Review of Anthropology 30 (2001): 181–207. 16. Price, Gebauer, and Keeley, “Spread of Farming,” 123; Barker, Agricultural Revolution, 378–90. 17. Balaresque et al., “A Predominantly Neolithic Origin”; Helena Malmström et al., “Ancient DNA Reveals Lack of Continuity between Neolithic Hunter-Gatherers and Contemporary Scandinavians,” Current Biology 19, no. 20 (2009): 1–5; Price, Gebauer, and Keeley, “Spread of Farming,” 95–103; Michael Balter, “Ancient DNA Says Europe's First Farmers Came from Afar,” Science 325, no. 4 (September 2009): 1189; B.

Coolidge and Thomas Wynn, “Executive Functions of the Frontal Lobes and the Evolutionary Ascendancy of Homo sapiens,” Cambridge Archaeological Journal 11, no. 2 (2001): 255–60. For perspectives on the cognitive shift to agriculture, see Barker, Agricultural Revolution, 144, 385; Wilson, Domestication of the Human Species, 10; Hodder, Domestication of Europe, 18–19, 32, 164, 288; David W. Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel and Language: How Bronze Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007), 155. 19. Cauvin, Birth of the Gods, 3, 220; Ian Hodder et al., “Review Feature: The Birth of the Gods and the Origins of Agriculture,” Cambridge Archaeological Journal 11, no. 1 (2001): 105–21. See also Wilson, Domestication of the Human Species, 65. 20. See Woodburn, “Egalitarian Societies”; Barker, Agricultural Revolution, 306; Colin Renfrew, Prehistory: The Making of the Human Mind (New York: Modern Library, 2007), 135, 141–42; Samuel Bowles and Jung-Kyoo Choi, “Coevolution of Farming and Private Property during the Early Holocene,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, no. 22 (2013): 8830–35. 21.


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The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution by Richard Dawkins

agricultural Revolution, Alfred Russel Wallace, complexity theory, delayed gratification, double helix, Drosophila, Haight Ashbury, invention of writing, lateral thinking, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, nuclear winter, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steven Pinker, the High Line, urban sprawl

But first, while our time machine is still in bottom gear, travelling on the timescale of human history rather than evolutionary history, a pair of tales about two major cultural advances. The Farmer's Tale is the story of the Agricultural Revolution, arguably the human innovation that has had the greatest repercussions for the rest of the world's organisms. And the Cro-Magnon's Tale is about the 'Great Leap Forward', that flowering of the human mind which, in a special sense, provided a new medium for the evolutionary process itself. The Farmer's Tale The Agricultural Revolution began at the wane of the last Ice Age, about 10,000 years ago, in the so-called Fertile Crescent between the Tigris and the Euphrates. This is the cradle of human civilisation whose irreplaceable relics in the Baghdad Museum were vandalised in 2003, under the indifferent eyes of American invaders whose priorities led them to protect the Ministry of Oil instead.

Far from being in balance with nature, pre-agricultural hunter-gatherers were probably responsible for widespread extinctions of many large animals around the globe. Just prior to the Agricultural Revolution, the colonisation of remote areas by hunter-gatherer peoples is suspiciously often followed in the archaeological record by the wiping out of many large (and presumably palatable) birds and mammals. We tend to regard 'urban' as the antithesis of 'agricultural' but, in the longer perspective that this book must adopt, city dwellers should be lumped in with farmers as opposed to hunter-gatherers. Almost all the food of a town comes from owned and cultivated land -- in ancient times from fields round about the town, in modern times from anywhere in the world, transported and sold on through middlemen before being consumed. The Agricultural Revolution soon led to specialisation. Potters, weavers and smiths traded their skills for food which others grew.

Potters, weavers and smiths traded their skills for food which others grew. Before the Agricultural Revolution, food was not cultivated on owned land but captured or gathered on unowned commons. Pastoralism, the herding of animals on common land, may have been an intermediate stage. Whether it was a change for better or worse, the Agricultural Revolution was presumably not a sudden event. Husbandry was not the overnight brainwave of a genius, the neolithic equivalent of Turnip Townsend. To begin with, hunters of wild animals in open and unowned country might have guarded hunting territories against rival hunters, or guarded the herds themselves while following them about. From there it was a natural progression to herding them; then feeding them, and finally corralling and housing them. I dare say none of these changes would have seemed revolutionary when they happened.


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Dreams of Leaving and Remaining by James Meek

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, bank run, Boris Johnson, centre right, Corn Laws, corporate governance, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Etonian, full employment, global supply chain, illegal immigration, Jeff Bezos, low skilled workers, Martin Wolf, mega-rich, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stephen Hawking, working-age population

I remember my school history curriculum bigging up Turnip Townshend and Coke of Norfolk, the great landowner reformers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, who did such clever things, and raised yields, with crop rotation and clover and rationalising peasants off their bitty fragments of the commons. This narrative of the agricultural revolution has come under attack in recent years. The most frequent line of criticism is that the likes of Townshend and Coke weren’t innovators, but brilliant publicists and proselytisers who worked out how to systemise and promote much older ideas. A fiercer attack came from Robert Allen in 1992 in his book Enclosure and the Yeoman. Allen described two English agricultural revolutions, one by small yeoman farmers in the seventeenth century, another by landlords in the eighteenth. The yeomen’s revolution, he maintained, led to a big increase in crop yields, with the same amount of labour; the landlords’ revolution used less labour to grow the same amount of crops.

He was foreign secretary when Britain had two of them, one for Protestant countries and another for Catholic and Muslim ones (Townshend’s was the northern department). Then he fell out with Walpole, retreated to his estate and devoted himself to farming so successfully (hence the nickname: he proselytised for turnips) that in popular history Raynham competes with Coke’s Holkham to be considered the birthplace of the British agricultural revolution. It was an awkward meeting. Lord Townshend agreed to see me after a personal introduction, and I thought I’d explained in advance who I was and what I was writing about, but it turned out he believed I was writing a historical piece about agriculture. He’d hoped he might be able to sell me some time in Raynham’s archive of 2.5 million documents, which he’s trying to catalogue and commercialise.

Lately farmers have been putting increasing amounts of sulphur on their fields to compensate – I know it sounds unlikely – for the essential sulphur they used to receive from acid rain. This kind of mechanised, chemical-intensive, large-scale farming is widespread around the world, wherever farmers can afford fertiliser. Lord Townshend told me how he’d been assured by the Algerian minister of agriculture that ‘Turnip Townshend was where we started learning our agricultural procedures.’ The principles of the aristo-capitalist agricultural revolution – big farms replacing small ones, maximising food production through science – were followed by twentieth-century socialist progressives. David Laborde, of the International Food Policy Research Institute, pointed out to me that this kind of farming rendered absurd notions of food self-sufficiency for Britain, or even Europe. Britain grew three-fifths of its own food but had no phosphate reserves.


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Money: Vintage Minis by Yuval Noah Harari

23andMe, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, Anne Wojcicki, autonomous vehicles, British Empire, call centre, credit crunch, European colonialism, Flash crash, greed is good, job automation, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, lifelogging, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, self-driving car, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

The economic pie of 2014 is far larger than the pie of 1500, but it is distributed so unevenly that many African peasants and Indonesian labourers return home after a hard day’s work with less food than did their ancestors 500 years ago. Much like the Agricultural Revolution, so too the growth of the modern economy might turn out to be a colossal fraud. The human species and the global economy may well keep growing, but many more individuals may live in hunger and want. Capitalism has two answers to this criticism. First, capitalism has created a world that nobody but a capitalist is capable of running. The only serious attempt to manage the world differently – Communism – was so much worse in almost every conceivable way that nobody has the stomach to try again. In 8500 BC one could cry bitter tears over the Agricultural Revolution, but it was too late to give up agriculture. Similarly, we may not like capitalism, but we cannot live without it.

A piece of meat given for free would carry with it the assumption of reciprocity – say, free medical assistance. The band was economically independent; only a few rare items that could not be found locally – seashells, pigments, obsidian and the like – had to be obtained from strangers. This could usually be done by simple barter: ‘We’ll give you pretty seashells, and you’ll give us high-quality flint.’ Little of this changed with the onset of the Agricultural Revolution. Most people continued to live in small, intimate communities. Much like a hunter-gatherer band, each village was a self-sufficient economic unit, maintained by mutual favours and obligations plus a little barter with outsiders. One villager may have been particularly adept at making shoes, another at dispensing medical care, so villagers knew where to turn when barefoot or sick. But villages were small and their economies limited, so there could be no full-time shoemakers and doctors.


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SuperFreakonomics by Steven D. Levitt, Stephen J. Dubner

agricultural Revolution, airport security, Andrei Shleifer, Atul Gawande, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, Boris Johnson, call centre, clean water, cognitive bias, collateralized debt obligation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deliberate practice, Did the Death of Australian Inheritance Taxes Affect Deaths, disintermediation, endowment effect, experimental economics, food miles, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), John Nash: game theory, Joseph Schumpeter, Joshua Gans and Andrew Leigh, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Louis Pasteur, market design, microcredit, Milgram experiment, oil shale / tar sands, patent troll, presumed consent, price discrimination, principal–agent problem, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, selection bias, South China Sea, Stanford prison experiment, Stephen Hawking, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, urban planning, William Langewiesche, women in the workforce, young professional

The population in England had been decreasing—“essentially because,” as one historian wrote, “agriculture could not respond to the pressure of feeding extra people.” Enter the Agricultural Revolution. A variety of innovations, none particularly complex—they included higher-yielding crops, better tools, and a more efficient use of capital—changed farming and, subsequently, the face of the earth. In late eighteenth-century America, “it took 19 out of 20 workers to feed the country’s inhabitants and provide a surplus for export,” wrote the economist Milton Friedman. Two hundred years later, only 1 of 20 American workers was needed to feed a far larger population while also making the United States “the largest single exporter of food in the world.” The Agricultural Revolution freed up millions of hands that went on to power the Industrial Revolution. By 1850, worldwide population had grown to 1.3 billion; by 1900, 1.7 billion; by 1950, 2.6 billion.

FORCEPS HOARDING: See James Hobson Aveling, The Chamberlens and the Midwifery Forceps (J. & A. Churchill, 1882); Atul Gawande, “The Score: How Childbirth Went Industrial,” The New Yorker, October 2, 2006; and Stephen J. Dubner, “Medical Failures, and Successes Too: A Q&A with Atul Gawande,” Freakonomics blog, The New York Times, June 25, 2007. MORE FOOD, MORE PEOPLE: See “The World at Six Billion,” United Nations, 1999; Mark Overton, Agricultural Revolution in England: The Transformation of the Agrarian Economy, 1500–1850 (Cambridge University Press, 1996); and Milton Friedman and Rose Friedman, Free to Choose (Harvest, 1990; originally published 1979). Information from Will Masters, a professor of agricultural economics at Purdue, came from an author interview. For a stunning exhibition of Masters’s mastery at setting theories of agricultural economics to verse, see Stephen J.

SEARCHABLE TERMS Note: Entries in this index, carried over verbatim from the print edition of this title, are unlikely to correspond to the pagination of any given e-book reader. However, entries in this index, and other terms, may be easily located by using the search feature of your e-book reader. Aab, Albert, 59 Abbott, Karen, 24 abortion, 4–5 accidental randomization, 79 Adams, John, 83 adverse selection, 53 Afghanistan, 65, 87 Africa, HIV and AIDS in, 208–9 Agricultural Revolution, 141–42 agriculture, and climate change, 166 air travel, and terrorism, 65–66 air bags, for automobiles, 150 Al-Ahd (The Oath) newsletter, 62 al Qaeda, 63 Allgemeine Krankenhaus (General Hospital), Vienna, 134–38, 203–4 Alliance for Climate Protection, 170 Allie (prostitute), xvi-xvii, 49–56 Almond, Douglas, 57, 58–59 altruism and anonymity, 109, 118 and charitable giving, 106–7 and climate externalities, 173 and economics, 105,106–23 effect of media coverage on, 107 experiments about, 106–23 games about, 108–11,113,115,117, 118–20 and Genovese murder, 97–100, 104–5,106,110,125–31 impure, 124–25 and incentives, 125, 131 List’s experiments about, 113–20, 121, 123, 125 and manipulation, 125 and monkey-monetary exchange experiment, 215 and people as innately altruistic, 110–11, 113 and taxes, 124 warm-glow, 124–25 Amalga program, 73–74 Ambrose, Stanley, 189 American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), 101 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 139 ammonium nitrate, 142, 160 An Inconvenient Truth (documentary), 170, 181 The Andy Griffith Show (TV), 104 aneurysms, repair of, 179–80 animals, emissions of, 166, 167–68 annuities, 82 antimicrobial shield, 207 apathy, and Genovese murder, 99–100, 125–31 Apni Beti, Apna Dhan (“My Daughter, My Pride”) project, 5–6 Arbogast, Jessie, 14, 15 Archimedes, 193 Army Air Forces, U.S., 147 Athabasca Oil Sands (Alberta, Canada), 195 athletes birthdays of, 59–60 women as, 22 automobiles air bags for, 150 and cheap and simple fixes, 146–58 children in, 150–58 crash-test data for, 153–55 as replacement for horse, 10–11 seat belts for, 148,149–58 stolen, 173–75 autopsies, 137–38,140, 203 Auvert, Bertran, 208 Azyxxi program, 73 baby boom, and crime, 102 banks, and terrorism, 90–96 Barres, Ben (aka Barbara Barres), 47–48 baseball, drug testing in, 92 baseball cards, experiment about, 115–17, 121 Baseball Hall of Fame, and life span, 82 Bastiat, Frédéric, 31 Bateson, Melissa, 122 Becker, Gary, 12–13, 105, 106, 113, 124 behavior Becker’s views about, 12 collective, 203 data for describing, 13–14 difficulty of changing, 148–49, 173, 203–9 of doctors, 203–8 influence of films on, 15 irrational, 214 predicting, 17 rational, 122–23, 213–14 for self-welfare, 208–9 typical, 13–14, 15–16 behavioral economics, 12–13, 113–23.


pages: 353 words: 91,211

The Shock of the Old: Technology and Global History Since 1900 by David Edgerton

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, British Empire, Computer Numeric Control, conceptual framework, creative destruction, deglobalization, dematerialisation, desegregation, deskilling, endogenous growth, global village, Haber-Bosch Process, interchangeable parts, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, means of production, megacity, microcredit, new economy, post-industrial society, Productivity paradox, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, Upton Sinclair, urban planning

From 1935 collective-farm households could operate a small plot to produce their own food, and could sell the surpluses. These family plots of approximately one acre would be very important indeed in meat, egg, vegetable and fruit production, right up to the present day. The agricultural revolution in the long boom The phrase ‘green revolution’ is applied to the introduction of new varieties, irrigation and fertiliser to agriculture in the poor world in the 1960s. Partly because agriculture is associated with poverty and the past, and because of the focus on novelty, the even more significant agricultural revolution in the rich world was missed. In the rich world agriculture in the long boom saw much greater rates of labour productivity change than industry or services, and at much greater rates than before.39 In high land-productivity Britain, yields doubled in the post-war years from a very high base.

Brazilian aircraft carrier Minas Gerais (Tom Pietrasik) Index Figures in italics refer to captions; those in bold to Tables. 2,4-D herbicide 162–3 17 of October (ship) 94, 124 A A-bomb see atomic bomb abattoirs 173 abortificients 23 abortion 23 Abu Ghraib prison, Iraq 156 academic science, and invention 185–7 acid rain 121 acupuncture 49 Acyclovir 163 advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs) 21 AEG 193 aeronautical research 186 aeroplanes ix, xiv, 1, 3, 6, 28, 159, 191 appearance as a new technology 31 civil aircraft 117 and civilianised warfare 139 downplaying of military origins 142 hypersonic 38 killing by 146 and nationalism 116 powered aeroplane innovated in the USA 111 primarily a weapon of war 116, 158 R&D 197 supersonic 38 see also aviation; flight Afghanistan 145, 153 Africa death rate per car 27 guerrilla rebellions 152–3 malaria 27 sub-Saharan income per head 207 African National Congress 122 AGA range 57 Agency for International Development (AID) 157 agent orange 163 Agfa 130, 193 Agfacolor 130 agricultural revolution 64–6 agriculture family farms in the USA and USSR 62–4 horsepower xiii, 33–4 output 53 productivity 65, 74 shift to industry 52 Agrigento, Sicily 78 AIDS 25, 27, 49, 164, 207 Air France 21–2 air transport, cheap 115 air-conditioning 170 aircraft see aeroplanes aircraft industry 116, 158 airships 38, 50, 199 Al-Khahira (Cairo) jet trainer 125 Alang Beach, Gujarat, India 208 Albania 118, 131–2 Aliano, Basilicata, Italy 122–3 alkali 190 Allen & Hanbury 196 Almirante Latorre (battleship) 92 alternating current (AC) electrical systems 8–9, 176 alternatives assumption that there are no alternatives 6–7, 8 comparable alternatives 7–8 using a thing marginally better than alternatives 8 American Civil War 146 American Monarch (ship) 167 Amgen 202 AMO factory, Moscow 126 amodiaquine 26 analytical labs 192 animals husbandry 66 hybrids 190 killing 161, 164, 172, 173–6 anti-aircraft guns 14, 15 anti-malarials 164, 199 anti-missile systems 155–6 anti-virals 163 antibiotics 163, 190 antifungal treatments 164 apartheid 122 Apocalypse Now (film) 152 Arab oil embargo (1973) 122 Arab–Israeli wars 146–7 architecture ‘post-modern’ viii vernacular 41 Argentina builds a jet fighter 124–5 meat exports to Britain 172 national industrial development 118 the picana eléctrica 157 Argentina (liner) 124 Armament and History (Fuller) 141 Armenians 178–9 Armour meat packers 171, 172 Armstrong, Neil viii artillery fire 143, 144, 190 asbestos 42, 43, 211 asbestos-cement 42, 43 Asia: rice production 64–5 astronauts viii AT&T 193, 195 Atebrin (mepacrine) 25 atomic bomb xiv, 15–19, 21, 114–15, 117, 123, 138, 139, 158, 159, 185, 198, 199 atomic power 3, 6 Auschwitz–Birkenau extermination camp, Poland 121, 165, 180–81, 182 Australia maintenance and repair 80 meat trade 172 national industrial development 118 autarky 115, 116, 117–19 Autochrome process 193 autogiro 103 automation 2, 3, 85 Aventis 196 aviation 1, 19, 143 choices in aircraft construction 10 civil 6, 116 and empires 132 engine types 10 maintenance 87–91, 89 power of 141 supersonic stratospheric 3 see also aeroplanes; flight Axis Powers 18 AZT 164 B B-29 bombers 13, 15, 16, 123 B-52 bombers viii, ix, 95, 152, 155 ballistic missiles 154 Bangkok, Thailand long-tailed boats 47 Science Museum 28 Bangladesh motorised country-boats 48, 61 rice production 65 shipbreaking 208 barbed wire 146 Barham, HMS 93–4 BASF 119, 120, 121, 193 battleships x, xiv, 92–4, 93, 97, 141, 142, 143, 148–9, 154 Bayer 193, 194 Bayh–Dole Act (1980) 187 Beechams 196 Beef Trust 171 Belgrano (ARA General Belgrano) 94 Bell Labs 195, 196 Bell telephone 132 Belzec extermination camp, Poland 179 Bergius, Friedrich 120 Berlin–Baghdad railway xi bicycles x, 4, 45, 50–51, 58, 61 bidonvilles 41 Billingham plant, Stockton-on-Tees 119, 121 biological warfare 149 biotechnology 1, 185, 188, 192, 196, 202–3 Biro, Ladislao José 103 biro pen 103 birth control 23 Bishop, Billy 114 Bloodhound anti-aircraft missile ix Blue Star Line 172 boats fishing 49 long-tailed 47–8 motor torpedo 68 motorised country-boats 48–9, 61 bomber aircraft viii, ix, x, xiv, 9, 13, 13–16, 18, 95, 97, 123, 143, 147, 148, 150, 152, 155 Bomber Command 14 bombing atomic 15–19 conventional 12–15 ‘dumb’ bombs 155 ‘smart’ bombs 155 targets 12–13, 14, 15, 16 Borges, Jorge Luis 94 boundaries 117, 131, 132 branding 71 Braun, Werner von 18 Brazil (film) 75 Brezhnev, Leonid 102 Bristol Jupiter engine 88 Britain agricultural yields 64 autarchy 118 aviation 104, 111 car production 69 coal consumption ix cotton industry 36–7, 105, 190 economic growth 206 executions 176 horsepower in First World War 35 maintenance and repair 80 meat imports 172 output per head 109 privatisation of railways 87 R&D 109 railway workshops 98 steam power ix, 105 television 131 truck production 69 two-way movements between Britain/France and Britain/India 111–12 British Airways 21–2 British Electrical Development Association 56 British Empire 135 Brunnental, Soviet Union 62–3 Bumper V-2 rocket 2 Burmese army 145 Burney, Commander Sir Charles Dennistoun 167 buses ix, 96, 98, 191 C cable TV x, 49 Calcutta: rickshaws and cycle-rickshaws 45–6 Cambodia 182 Camden Market, London 33 camels 35 caravans 28, 30 cameras, replica 50 Canada: maintenance statistics 79 cap, the 24 Cape Canaveral, Florida 2 capitalism 76, 128 carbon monoxide 121, 179–80 Carrier, Dr Willis H. 170 Carrier Corporation 170 carrier pigeons 43 Carson, Rachel: Silent Spring 163 carving 28 CASA company 125 cavalry units 35 CDs 7 cement ix, 45 ceremonial occasions: use of reserve technologies 11 Césaire, Aimé 133 CFC gases 211 Chamoiseau, Patrick: Texaco 42–3 Cheliabinsk, Soviet Union 126 Chelmno extermination camp, Poland 179 chemical warfare 164 chemicals 1, 105, 188, 191, 192 chemistry 2, 130, 185, 186 organic 185 synthetic 4, 185 Chicago meatpackers 129–30, 171–5 chickens 66, 163, 164, 174–5 China agriculture 73 and Albania 131–2 atomic weapons as ‘paper tigers’ 19 autarchy 118 bicycle production 45 collective farming abolished 73 control of the internet 137 cotton textiles 65 Cultural Revolution 45, 72 economic growth 109, 112, 207 economy 73 executions 177 export of containers 74 foreign enterprise 137 ‘four big belongings’ 58–9 Great Leap Forward 44–5, 73 a hydraulic society 76 imitation of foreign technologies 112 industrialisation 73 links with Soviet Union (1949–60) 131 low-tech exports 137 Maoists 152 nationalism 137 old small scale technologies 72–3 pig production 66 produces Soviet technology 44 promotion of small-scale rural industries 72–3 rural industries 73 second Sino–Japanese War 140, 179 steel production 73 ‘technological dualism’ 44 Chinese Communist party 73 Chinese First Automotive Works 126 chlorinated organic compounds 161–2 chloroquine 26, 164 cholera 25 Ciba 196 Ciba-Geigy 26 Cierva, Juan de la 103 cinema ix, 203 cities of the poor world 39–40 clinical trials 11–12, 201 clothes: trade in old clothes 81 coal consumption ix hydrogenation of 120, 121–2, 186, 199 Cold War 123 ‘cold-chains’ 170 collectivisation 63, 64, 127 colonialism 39, 134 Common Market 119, 175 communications technologies xiv, 2 Communist movement 60 Companhia Energética de Sao Paulo 99 computer-numerically-controlled machine tool 158–9 computerisation 2 computers ix–x, 1, 158 analogue 7, 9 cheap PCs 71 digital 3, 6, 7, 9 initial cost as a percentage of lifetime cost 78 Concorde 21–2, 38, 96–7 condoms 1, 22–3, 24, 25, 49, 190 Congo War, second 146 contraception vii, x, 1, 22–5, 49, 190 cooking ranges 57 copper 73 corn, hybrid 64 corporate research laboratories 192 corrugated iron 41–3, 50–51, 78 cost-benefit analysis 11–12, 21, 142 cotton industry ix, 36–7, 65, 105, 136 Cotton Industry Act (1959) 38 credit agreements xv creole technologies xii, 39, 43–5, 46–7 creolisation of technology 85 Cuba 36, 207 Cudahy meat packers 171 cultural lag viii, 141, 212 Cultural Revolution 45, 72 cultural significance, measurement of 1 cycle-rickshaws 46–7, 48–9, 191 D Daktarin 164 Dalén, Nils Gustav 57 Datong Locomotive Works, China 50 DC-3 airliner 88, 197 DC-4 aircraft 197, 198 DC-6 aircraft 88 DC-8 jet 88, 197 DDT 26–7, 38, 162–3, 162 De Niro, Robert 75 de-globalisation 212 dependence 39 depression 37 Derwent jet engine 123 design 71 Detroit automation 86 Deutsches Museum, Munich 104 development labs 192 Dewoitine, Emile 125 diaphragm 24 diesel engine 3 differential analysers 7 diffusion vii Digital Signal Processing chip 195 direct current (DC) electrical systems 8, 9, 176 division of labour 72 Dnieper complex, Soviet Union 127 dockyards 91 domestic equipment 81 domestic production 56 ‘domestic science’ 56 domestic servants 56 domestic technologies xiv, 4, 56 domestic work, scientific organisation of 56 donkey carts 28, 30, 49 Dornier, Claude 125 douches 23 Dreadnought (battleship) 92 dreadnoughts 92, 148 Dufay process 130 Du Pont 20, 158, 193, 194–5 Durex 25 E East Germany: hydrogenation 121 Eastman Kodak 130, 193 economic growth 5, 52, 108, 109, 110, 206–7 economic history 3 economies of scale 71 ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) 38 Edison, Thomas 176 Edwards Air Force Base, California viii Egypt Ancient 76 aviation 126 Einsatzgruppen 179 ELAS resistance movement 60 electricity x, 1, 3, 6, 76–7, 185, 188, 190, 192 increased usage 5 electrification 2, 6, 32 electrocution/electric chair 165, 176, 177, 178 electronic communication: change in price 6–7 electronics 3, 99, 105, 191 Elizalde 31 Elliot, Gil: The Twentieth Century Book of the Dead 145–6 EMI 130, 131 empires 132, 134 employment in agriculture 53 in industry 53 service industries 53, 70 enclaves for European colonisers 134 engineering 19 masculinity of 101 mass production 67 engineers xiii, 100–102, 192–3 state 101 engines jet 10 petrol 10 Erikson, Gustaf 95 Europe car accidents 27 car production 69, 70 uptake of new technologies 32 European Union (EU) 200, 206 Eva Péron (liner) 124 F Fairchild Semiconductor 195, 203 Fairfree (factory stern trawler) 167 Falklands war 94 Far East growth rates 207 Faust, Mrs Mary 54 fertilisers 44, 45, 50, 64, 65, 67, 119–20 fertility control 23 feudalism 76 Fiat 69, 127 fibre-optic cables 7, 49 firing squads 176 First World War 31, 34, 34–5, 130 battleships x, 148, 149 casualty rates 146 chemical warfare 164 a chemist’s war 138 deaths 143 developments in artillery practice 143 H.

199–203 the most important 4 new inventive institutions 192–8 stage models of invention 188–91 time of maximum use 4–5 inventors: seen as ahead of their time vii, viii investment expenditure 79 Iran 153, 154 Iran–Iraq wars (1980s) 149, 153–4 Iraq, US-led invasion of (2003) 153 IRI (Industrial Reconstruction Institute) 118 iron 2, 19, 44 corrugated 41–3, 50–51, 78 galvanised 41 ironer 38 irrigation 64, 65, 76 Italy aviation 104–5 car ownership 69 economic growth 112 imitation of foreign technologies 112 output per head 109 R&D 109, 110 under fascism 118, 122 IUD 25 J Japan agricultural productivity 65 bicycle industry 98 bombing of in Second World War 15, 16 car industry 136, 194 consumer electronics 105, 136 cotton industry 37, 136 economic growth 108, 109, 110, 112, 206 electrical firms 194 energy use levels 209 imitation of foreign technologies 112, 136 industrialisation 73 inventiveness 200 R&D 108, 110, 136 repair workshops 99 second Sino–Japanese War 140, 179 sewing machine production 58 war production 15 whaling 166 Japanese Navy 92–3, 136 jet engines 88–9, 103 jet fighters 123–5, 135 Jews, and the Holocaust 146, 179, 181 Jiefang (Liberation) trucks 126 Johnson and Johnson 196 Jones, Frederick 170 Jutland, battle of 148 K Kamprad, Ingvar xii KC-135 air-refuelling tanker 95 Kenya: road accidents 27 Kharkov tractor factory 126 Khrushchev, Nikita 128 killing 160–83, 212 executions and other killings 176–8 innovation in killing 160–65 killing animals in the long boom and after 173–6 slaughterhouses 168–73, 171 technologies of genocide 178–83 whaling and fishing 165–8 Kirov plant, Soviet Union 126 Kitty Hawk, North Carolina viii Klystron microwave generator 186 Kodachrome 130 Kokura Arsenal, Japan 16 Koolhaas, Rem 39 Korea 109, 123, 136, 200 Korean War 13, 151, 152 Korn, Arthur 193 Kuwait 155 Kyoto, Japan 16 L Lada car 127 lascars 135–6 lathe 4 Latin American dependency theorists 118–19 Latour, Bruno x Le Corbusier xii League of Nations 129 Leblanc process 190 leisure, technologies of 55 Lenin, Vladimir 128 Lenin Dam, Soviet Union 127 lethal injection 165, 176, 177, 178 Leuchter, Fred A. 181–2 Leuna, Germany 119, 120 Leverkusen, Germany 194 Libertad (liner) 124 Liebig, Justus von 171 Liebig Extract of Meat Company 171, 171, 172 Lindberg, Charles, Jr 104 lobotomy 38 London Red Routemaster buses 96 Science Museum 29, 104, 139 London Underground trains 96 long boom 52, 53, 74, 110, 163 agricultural revolution 64–6 cars 68–70 Eastern European economies 69 spectacular growth in 206 lorries 98 Los Alamos, New Mexico 16, 123 Lubitsch, Ernst 101 Lucent Technologies 195 Luftwaffe 122 Lumière brothers 193 lynchings 178 M MacArthur, General 26 Magnitogorsk steel works, Soviet Union 127, 208–9 Magnox reactors 21 mail order catalogue xiv maintenance 75–102 of ancient ruins 78 aviation 87–91, 89 the battleships and bombers 91–7, 93 downtime 86 engineers and the maintenance of society 100–102 from maintenance to manufacture and innovation 97–9 how important are maintenance and repair?


She Has Her Mother's Laugh by Carl Zimmer

23andMe, agricultural Revolution, clean water, clockwatching, cloud computing, dark matter, discovery of DNA, double helix, Drosophila, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Fellow of the Royal Society, Flynn Effect, friendly fire, Gary Taubes, germ theory of disease, Isaac Newton, longitudinal study, medical bankruptcy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, moral panic, mouse model, New Journalism, out of africa, phenotype, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Scientific racism, statistical model, stem cell, twin studies

The Industrial Revolution, which came about ten thousand years after the Agricultural Revolution, was an acceleration of this feedback. Instead of using animal-drawn plows, farmers could run tractors powered with new fuels like gasoline. Instead of spreading manure from their own livestock, they could spread fertilizers extracted from mines or produced from petroleum. The cotton gathered by New World slaves no longer had to be woven by people; it was now turned over to coal-powered looms. As railroads cut across continents, cattle could be grazed on lands thousands of miles from the people who would ultimately eat them. The influence of human culture now produced a worldwide ecological inheritance. By some measures, this cultural feedback loop has been a great success. Before the Agricultural Revolution, a square kilometer of land could typically feed fewer than ten hunter-gatherers.

De Vries came to Santa Rosa to learn what Burbank had learned about heredity in order to push genetics out of its infancy. * * * — Pottery shards, ancient seeds, and the bones of livestock all indicate that the first breeders started their work in earnest around eleven thousand years ago. Plants and animals, once wild, came under the control of humans, grown for their benefit. The agricultural revolution let the population of our species explode, but it also made us precariously dependent on the heredity of what we raised. When farmers planted a new field of barley seeds, or goatherds delivered a new batch of kids, they needed each new generation of plants and animals to end up like the previous one. If corn kernels randomly became as hard as glass, or if cows were born unable to produce milk, people would starve.

And in some of these same places, wild animals were domesticated into livestock such as cows, goats, and sheep. The same capacity for cumulative culture that had already spread humans to all the continents save Antarctica now allowed them to convert the wild lands around them into farm fields and grazing pastures. Children in these agricultural communities inherited traditions for farming, and they also inherited lands that had been converted from wilderness long before they were born. The Agricultural Revolution lofted our species to a far bigger population than before, leaving some farmers desperate for land. They moved into open territories still inhabited by hunter-gatherers, bringing with them the entire package of agriculture: not just the seeds for crops but also their livestock, their saddles, their hoes, and their inherited wisdom about how to use all of it to harvest food, brew beer, sew leather shoes, and all the rest of their cultural practices.


pages: 280 words: 83,299

Empty Planet: The Shock of Global Population Decline by Darrell Bricker, John Ibbitson

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global reserve currency, Gunnar Myrdal, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, off grid, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban planning, working-age population, young professional, zero-sum game

Islam preserved knowledge lost to the West with the fall of Rome, even as India discovered the zero, which made so much possible. The latest plague produced the latest antibodies to resist it. In Eurasia, at least, immunity became a powerful tool of progress. The planet’s population grew from those few thousands in the wake of the Toba eruption to between five and ten million during the first agricultural revolution. At 1 CE there were perhaps three hundred million. By 1300 CE, with China united, enlightened, and advanced under the Song Dynasty, Islam stretching from India to Spain, and Europe finally emerging from its post-Roman Dark Age, the global population had peaked at around four hundred million.12 And then the most terrible thing happened. Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes the bubonic plague, has long been with us.

(Also in that year, Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations and the United States declared its independence from Great Britain.) Mechanized production accelerated productivity—the factory, the railway, the telegraph, electric light, the internal combustion engine. Those last three inventions were American; the United States was growing in wealth and power and confidence in the wake of its civil war. Thanks to the industrial and agricultural revolutions, people started living longer. Now that famine and pestilence were on the wane, couples married earlier and had more children. And those children were more likely to survive, thanks to improved sanitation and the introduction of the smallpox vaccine, another scientific leap. The Victorian era was the first in human history to witness rapid and sustained population growth, as Europe and the United States raced to catch up with Great Britain.

A century later it would be two billion. Today it is seven billion. And yet almost all of us today live longer, healthier, happier lives than the poor of England in the time of Malthus. This pioneer political economist, who lived much of his life among the green fields of Hertfordshire, literally stood in the middle of the explanation for why his theory was hopelessly flawed. By 1798, the British agricultural revolution was already a century old. It began with the enclosures, in which powerful men banished peasant farmers from communally owned fields. To this day, poets lament the theft, but farmers who controlled their fields could innovate so as to maximize yields and profits. New experiments in selective breeding took the average weight of a cow carcass from 370 pounds in 1710 to 550 pounds in 1795.58 People like Viscount Charles “Turnip” Townsend experimented with turnips, clover, and other crops to improve soil quality and reduce the need for fallow fields.59 And then there were the inventions: Jethro Tull’s seed drill, the threshing machine, the reaping machine, the all-iron plow.


pages: 301 words: 89,076

The Globotics Upheaval: Globalisation, Robotics and the Future of Work by Richard Baldwin

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Cass Sunstein, commoditize, computer vision, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deskilling, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Downton Abbey, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, facts on the ground, future of journalism, future of work, George Gilder, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, impulse control, income inequality, industrial robot, intangible asset, Internet of things, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, knowledge worker, laissez-faire capitalism, low skilled workers, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, mass incarceration, Metcalfe’s law, new economy, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, Ponzi scheme, post-industrial society, post-work, profit motive, remote working, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, side project, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, social intelligence, sovereign wealth fund, standardized shipping container, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, telepresence, telepresence robot, telerobotics, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, universal basic income

It was nothing like the eruptive pace of the digital technology that is driving the Globotics Transformation. There was a century between Newcomen’s engine and the first commercially viable steamships. Revolutions are never just one thing. The steam impulse was matched by a very different but complementary impulse in the agricultural sector. It started with a land ownership shockwave called “enclosure.” British Agricultural Revolution The British agricultural revolution started with the enclosure movement in the 1600s. This involved the fencing (enclosing) of land that used to be open. Enclosing land ended the access that many rural families had to lands formerly held in common (in the sense that any community member could graze animals on the land). The Boston Common—a big park in the middle of Boston—is one remaining example of a common that was established when Massachusetts was a colony of the British crown.

When a common was enclosed, its use often switched to the main “cash cow” of the day—which turned out to be sheep, or more precisely the wool they produced. This drove people out of the agricultural sector since raising and sheering sheep commercially required far fewer workers than raising food for families. But it wasn’t just switches in ownership that put the revolution in the agricultural revolution. Enclosure firmed up property rights and thus encouraged adoption of more efficient farming techniques. One of the agricultural revolution’s red-letter innovations was a switch to the four-crop rotation system that heightened the productivity of land. Improved farm machinery also accelerated productivity. The classic examples include automatic threshing machines for grain; seed drills for planting; and improvements in farming tools, like the switch from wooden to iron ploughs.


pages: 405 words: 117,219

In Our Own Image: Savior or Destroyer? The History and Future of Artificial Intelligence by George Zarkadakis

3D printing, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, animal electricity, anthropic principle, Asperger Syndrome, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, British Empire, business process, carbon-based life, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, combinatorial explosion, complexity theory, continuous integration, Conway's Game of Life, cosmological principle, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Snowden, epigenetics, Flash crash, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John von Neumann, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kickstarter, liberal capitalism, lifelogging, millennium bug, Moravec's paradox, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, off grid, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, packet switching, pattern recognition, Paul Erdős, post-industrial society, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing complete, Turing machine, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

Did they breed with us, or did they simply die off? These questions are still researched and debated. Whatever happened, by 40,000 years ago H. sapiens sapiens is alone on the world stage. The rate of change accelerates. Europe is ablaze with the colour of cave art between 30,000 and 12,000 years ago, although most of the continent remains frozen under the last Ice Age. Rapid global warming returns around 10,000 years ago, and the agricultural revolution takes place. We still live in that ‘long summer’ that began ten millennia ago, in the scientifically termed ‘Holocene period’. It took humans four million years to evolve the hand axe, another two million years to somewhat improve it. And then, within a mere 20,000 years, a geological blink of an eye, they created art, agriculture, the wheel, computers and spaceships. This unbounded creativity kicked in between 65,000 and 40,000 years ago in what scientists call ‘the Middle/Upper Palaeolithic transition’, sometimes referred to as ‘the big bang’ of the modern mind.

To understand the vital significance of totemic thinking for the survival of our forefathers and foremothers, let us revisit Ice Age Europe circa 17,000 years ago. The continent is at its coldest. Never before have humans lived in an environment harsher than the one that these ancient hunter-gatherers endure. This period is called ‘the Magdalenian’3 and lasts until around 10,000 years ago when the last Ice Age ends, and the agricultural revolution begins. Equipped with a general-purpose language and general intelligence, our species applies their evolved minds to surviving the long and ruthless winter of the Ice Age. They innovate. Archaeologists have unearthed evidence of a major shift in hunting techniques from that period. Elaborate tactics, weapons, logistics and strategies are developed and employed. Fishing spears, hooks and nets become increasingly common.

Thinking through metaphor, feeling through narrative As we have seen, because of the way our storytelling brain has evolved it is impossible to think about anything without using metaphor and analogy. Both are linguistic tools for discovering, debating and pushing the boundaries of knowledge. They have served us very well since the Upper Palaeolithic. Thanks to them, we developed our technological civilisation. And we have considered how, as humankind progressed from the agricultural revolution to the Greco-Roman world, Renaissance, Enlightenment and the modern times, our metaphors for life and the mind have evolved and mutated. First came mud, then water or humours, then mechanics, the electric current or spark of life, followed by the telegraph and now the computer. For each of these metaphors, people have imagined automata, artificial artefacts set in motion by technologies that support the metaphors.


pages: 524 words: 155,947

More: The 10,000-Year Rise of the World Economy by Philip Coggan

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airline deregulation, Andrei Shleifer, anti-communist, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bob Noyce, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, Columbine, Corn Laws, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, currency peg, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Donald Trump, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, germ theory of disease, German hyperinflation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, hydraulic fracturing, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Snow's cholera map, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kenneth Arrow, Kula ring, labour market flexibility, land reform, land tenure, Lao Tzu, large denomination, liquidity trap, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Blériot, low cost airline, low skilled workers, lump of labour, M-Pesa, Malcom McLean invented shipping containers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, mittelstand, moral hazard, Murano, Venice glass, Myron Scholes, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Paul Samuelson, popular capitalism, popular electronics, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Nader, regulatory arbitrage, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special drawing rights, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steven Pinker, TaskRabbit, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, universal basic income, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, V2 rocket, Veblen good, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

The Maddison Project, https://www.rug.nl/ggdc/historicaldevelopment/maddison/releases/maddison-project-database-2018 24. Andrew M. Watson, “The Arab agricultural revolution and its diffusion 700–1100”, The Journal of Economic History, vol. 34, no. 1, March 1974 25. Chanda, Bound Together, op. cit. 26. Ibid. 27. McMahon, Feeding Frenzy, op. cit. 28. Powelson, The Story of Land, op. cit. 29. Easterly, The Elusive Quest for Growth, op. cit. 30. The Chinese had already developed a breast-collar harness, which was far superior to European versions but did not arrive in Europe until the eighth century CE. 31. Jerome Blum, “The rise of serfdom in Eastern Europe”, The American Historical Review, vol. 62, no. 4, July 1957 32. The folk rock group led by Ian Anderson was named after him. 33. See Professor Mark Overton, “Agricultural revolution in England 1500–1850” http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/agricultural_revolution_01.shtml 34.

Another way in which crops were spread round the world was when they came under the same political, or religious, authority. The spread of Islam meant that sixteen food crops, like rice, bananas and spinach, as well as cotton fibre, were diffused from India all the way to Spain. Growing many water-hungry crops required the creation of extensive irrigation systems; what has been dubbed an “Arab agricultural revolution” brought more marginal land into cultivation.24 The Mongols were also keen diffusers of new crops and even had a “cotton promotion bureau” to encourage the use of the plant in their possessions.25 Much later, the British, whose empire spanned the globe, were eager to get their hands on sources of rubber. In 1876, Henry Alexander Wickham smuggled 70,000 seeds out of Brazil. Botanists at Kew managed to grow plants that were then shipped to colonies in Sri Lanka and Malaya (modern Malaysia), which by the 1920s was the world’s biggest rubber producer.26 This turned out to be a fortunate shift since Brazilian rubber production was wiped out by a leaf blight from the 1920s onwards.

The political power of the nobility, and the relative lack of cities to which peasants could escape, seems to have contributed to this development. Serfdom would last for several centuries more.31 Perhaps this divide was crucial in economic history, paving the way for improvements in agricultural production and industrialisation in the west of the continent and leaving the east behind. The traditional explanation focused on an “agricultural revolution” in 18th-century Britain, which in turn paved the way for the Industrial Revolution. Tribute was paid to pioneers like “Turnip” Townsend, Jethro Tull and his seed drill,32 and Coke of Holkham Hall. Since then, however, the achievements of such people have been downgraded.33 However, it still seems clear that agricultural productivity in England did improve over the period, and this not only helped the population to grow but allowed workers to move off the farm and into the textile factories.


Blueprint: The Evolutionary Origins of a Good Society by Nicholas A. Christakis

agricultural Revolution, Alfred Russel Wallace, Amazon Mechanical Turk, assortative mating, Cass Sunstein, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, different worldview, disruptive innovation, double helix, epigenetics, experimental economics, experimental subject, invention of agriculture, invention of gunpowder, invention of writing, iterative process, job satisfaction, Joi Ito, joint-stock company, land tenure, Laplace demon, longitudinal study, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, out of africa, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, placebo effect, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, replication crisis, Rubik’s Cube, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, social web, stem cell, Steven Pinker, the scientific method, theory of mind, twin studies, ultimatum game, zero-sum game

We might then unify and examine the societies of various species, or (more narrowly) the societies within our own species—such as the shipwrecks, communes, scientific settlements, online experiments, and many other communities, such as colonial outposts, monasteries, prisons, boarding schools, nuclear submarines, trapped miners, space-habitation experiments, and so on. We could include modern forager societies that resembled the kind of societies our species formed prior to the agricultural revolution ten thousand years ago too. Such an exercise would shed light on just how similar human social organization really is across all these situations. To do this, we would have to define the key axes, just like Raup’s three parameters. One important axis might be the hypothetical size of the society, perhaps defined as the size at which people actually know the others in the group well, even if they are not close friends; this could range from, say, zero (meaning that no one knows anyone in our imagined society) to two thousand (each person knows two thousand other people intimately).

The reasons for this shift are complex but are believed to stem from adaptations to different kinds of environmental pressures, such as changes in food resources, which we will discuss in more detail below. And these shifts in behavior were paralleled by physiological changes, including the lack of outward signs of ovulation, the further extension of childhood, and menopause. Then another shift happened, beginning most likely with the agricultural revolution roughly ten thousand years ago, and continuing through the rise of nation-states about five thousand years ago (along with the large-scale socioeconomic inequality that emerged with such states), such that polygyny once again became more common.11 This shift was due to the pressure of historical and cultural forces, not evolutionary ones. And then, finally, in the more recent past, monogamy returned as a norm, again for cultural reasons, first in the West (beginning two thousand years ago), and then, in the past few hundred years, spreading around the world (although pockets of monogamy had previously existed).

In other words, she’s saying, If you see that I love you, you can be sure these are your children. Mutual attachment solves an evolutionary conundrum. In essence, the Hadza research suggests that the evolutionary psychology of both men and women is to exchange love for support. Polygyny in Turkana Pastoralists How did things change for our ancestors after animals and plants were domesticated and the agricultural revolution laid the groundwork for wealth accumulation and economic inequality? Just five hundred miles to the north of the Hadza, in the Rift Valley of northwestern Kenya, the Turkana, who number about two hundred and fifty thousand, practice polygyny. Unlike the Hadza, the Turkana treat marriage more as a contract between families than a private arrangement undertaken by individuals. Fairly rigid economic strata are respected in the choice of marriage partners, with rich women marrying rich men.


pages: 927 words: 236,812

The Taste of War: World War Two and the Battle for Food by Lizzie Collingham

agricultural Revolution, American ideology, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial exploitation, distributed generation, European colonialism, fixed income, full employment, global village, indoor plumbing, labour mobility, land reform, mass immigration, means of production, profit motive, rising living standards, trade route, V2 rocket, women in the workforce

Farmers had to compete with the arms and explosives industry for labour, fertilizers and machinery, but the United States was virtually the only country in the world which had sufficient resources to spare to divert raw materials into the production of large quantities of farm machinery, fertilizers and other chemical products. The Depression had left farmers with huge surpluses of food which the unemployed urban workers could not afford to buy. By providing American farmers with a market for their food, and with a healthy income, the war pulled agriculture out of the Depression. A process of modernization, which had begun tentatively in the 1930s, was accelerated and a new agricultural revolution occurred which began to transform farming into the industry which it is today. Crucially, modernization allowed fewer farmers to feed significantly more people. The wartime boom in American agriculture meant that the United States was not only able to provide its enormous army and civilian population with plentiful quantities of food, it was also able to feed the soldiers and civilians of the Soviet Union, China and Great Britain.

As soon as hostilities had ceased Kenyan settlers reverted to the old arguments of the 1930s, claiming the African farmers were denuding the land and they began pushing for the removal of the now relatively prosperous vegetable-growing African squatters** from their farms. This set post-war Kenya on a course towards internal conflict which came to a head seven years later with the Mau Mau conflict, when Kikuyu farmers rose in protest against repressive measures which deprived them of their land.78 A side-effect of this conflict was the consolidation of Kikuyu land-holdings which provided the basis for the 1950s ‘agricultural revolution’. Vegetable-planting schemes like the one associated with the long-closed military vegetable-drying plant were revived. African farmers were reorganized into high-productivity cash-crop farming and began growing European vegetables on a large scale. This is why Britain still imports fresh beans by air from Kenya.79 In the Rhodesias the political power of the settler communities had expanded to such a point that they were able to push through the creation of a Native Labour Supply Commission which recruited African labour to work on white farms right up until the 1970s, reinforcing the neglect of African farming.80 The bitter consequences of the resentments this caused are still being felt today in Zimbabwe (as Southern Rhodesia was renamed), where Robert Mugabe’s ‘land reform programme’ has dispossessed white farmers, and raging inflation has left the African population destitute, ravaged by hunger and a cholera epidemic in 2008.

He introduced new varieties of vegetables which were more amenable to mechanized harvesting such as ‘tomatoes with fruit that grew on accessible parts of the plant, [and] stringless beans’.163 Farmers were taught how to stagger the planting of peas so that as each successive field matured they could be fed through the canning factory.164 Seabrook introduced scientific methods for testing the starch content of the vegetables, to predict precisely when the crop should be picked for processing.165 Factories were sent pattern machines from America so that they could manufacture power-operated potato diggers, rotary weeders, and bean and pea harvesters.166 Using a pea harvester, a crop which used to take 1,500 pickers two weeks to harvest could be processed by fifteen men in days.167 Major Seabrook was praised by one contemporary historian for having ‘effected an agricultural revolution in this land’, without which ‘Australia could not have met the demands made upon her’.168 To complement the introduction of new vegetable-growing techniques, American experts overhauled the canning industry. Faulty end and side seams on the Australian cans had a tendency to let in bacteria. In May 1942 the GI Stan Tutt was horrified by the tins of tomatoes he had to unload in northern Queensland.


pages: 411 words: 95,852

Britain Etc by Mark Easton

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Boris Johnson, British Empire, credit crunch, financial independence, garden city movement, global village, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, intangible asset, James Watt: steam engine, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass immigration, moral panic, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, social software

In March 1669, the diarist Samuel Pepys reflected the caution with which foreign fruit and veg were met in Britain, when presented with a glass of fresh orange juice. ‘I was doubtful whether it might not do me hurt,’ he wrote. Vegetables won an improved status in the rural economy when it was realised that including legumes like beans and peas in crop rotation dramatically improved soil fertility and yields. During the British agricultural revolution in the eighteenth century, the Whig Parliamentarian Lord Charles Townshend became convinced of the central role for the turnip in this new agricultural system, earning both the inevitable nickname Turnip Townshend and a reputation for boring the pants off anyone who engaged with him on the subject. The British have always tended to regard vegetables as objects of ridicule, particularly root crops.

Horne, Sleepfaring: A Journey through the Science of Sleep (Oxford University Press, 2006) 9. R. G. Foster and S. W. Lockley, Sleep: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2011) INDEX Acheson, Dean, ref1 acid (drug), ref1 Act of Consecration (UK), ref1 Act of Union (1707), ref1 adolescence, concept of, ref1 Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, ref1 Age of Reason, ref1 agricultural revolution, ref1 AIDS, ref1 Ajax, ref1 alcohol and drinking, ref1 and antisocial behaviour, misconception concerning, ref1 Britain’s ‘intoxication culture’ concerning, ref1 and cultural differences, ref1 and expected behaviour, ref1 and fighting, ref1 and journalism, ref1 and links to social problems, ref1 and liver disease, ref1 and murder, ref1 northern European attitude to, ref1 and outdated licensing laws, ref1 pseudo-science about, ref1 and sexual assaults, ref1 southern European attitude to, ref1 UCLA study concerning, ref1 and UK courts, ref1 Washington State University experiment concerning, ref1 ale, real, ref1 Alfred, King, ref1 Alternative Regional Strategy, ref1 Aliens Act (1905), ref1 allotments, ref1, ref2 American Psychological Association (APA), ref1 Amis, Martin, ref1 anachronism, and Britishness, ref1 Anatomy of Swearing (Montagu), ref1 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ref1 [roman in text: OK?]

David, ref1 NVLA, ref1 obesity, ref1 obscenity, see bad language Observer, ref1 O’Donnell, Sir Gus, ref1, ref2 Ofcom, ref1 Oliver, Jamie, ref1, ref2, ref3 Olmstead, Frederick, ref1 On the Origin of Species (Darwin), ref1 One Tree Hill, ref1 open space, see public open space opium, ref1 in laudanum, ref1, ref2 Royal Commission on, ref1 Wars, ref1 see also drugs, recreational Orange Lodge, ref1 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 d’Ortous de Mairan, Jean-Jacques, ref1 Osbourne, Ozzie, ref1 Oswald, Ian, ref1 Oxford, murders in, ref1 Oz, ref1 Paddick, Brian, ref1 paedophobia, ref1 Paine, Thomas, ref1, ref2, ref3 Palmerston, Lord, ref1 Panorama, ref1 Pantazis, Christina, ref1, ref2 pantomime, ref1, ref2 Papago people, drinking culture among, ref1 parasol, see umbrella Parental Advisory Scheme, ref1 Parliament: Acts of, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6, ref7, ref8, ref9, ref10, ref11, ref12, ref13, ref14, ref15, ref16, ref17, ref18, ref19, ref20 and agricultural revolution, ref1 and coalition government, ref1 House of Commons, ref1, ref2 House of Lords, ref1, ref2 and Internet, ref1 kitsch fancy dress in, ref1 and obscenity, ref1 and public health, ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 and social capital, ref1 State Opening of, ref1 televised, ref1 see also monarchy Partridge, Eric, ref1 paruresis, ref1 Pauper Pedigree Project, ref1 Paxton, Joseph, ref1 Payne, Sarah, ref1 Pearl Harbor, ref1 pedagogy, ref1 Peel Park, ref1 Peel, Sir Robert, ref1, ref2 penal code, ref1 Pennsylvania Railroad, ref1 Pentagon, ref1 People’s Palace, ref1 Peplau, Letitia Anne, ref1 Pepys, Samuel, ref1, ref2, ref3 Peru, ref1 Peter Pan (Barrie), ref1 philanthropy, ref1, ref2 Philips Park, ref1 Phillips, Pearson, ref1 The Philosophy of Sleep (Macnish), ref1 Pickles, Eric, ref1 Pitlochry, ref1 Plato, ref1 Plough Green, ref1 Plumstead Common, ref1 Poitiers, Battle of, ref1 Poland, ref1, ref2 police: affection for, ref1 beat constable, ref1 passim characteristic helmets of, ref1 on demonisation of young people, ref1, ref2, ref3 in Kansas, ref1 and neighbourhood policing, ref1 patrol cars adopted by, ref1 targets for, ref1 see also crime; Dixon, George; knife crime; Morse, Ch.


A Brief History of Everyone Who Ever Lived by Adam Rutherford

23andMe, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, bioinformatics, British Empire, colonial rule, dark matter, delayed gratification, demographic transition, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Earth, Isaac Newton, Kickstarter, longitudinal study, meta analysis, meta-analysis, out of africa, phenotype, sceptred isle, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, twin studies

The ‘Paleo Diet’ is a popular fad that eschews processed foods and carbohydrates in favour of the only foods imagined to be available to the hunter-gatherers of the Palaeolithic: no dairy or processed grains, no lentils, beans, peas or other human designed veg. Nuts are OK, but no peanuts, as they’re a farmed product. It is almost certainly built on bunkum foundations, as indeed most fad diets are. By the time of the agricultural revolution, we see multiplication and expansion of genes that encode salivary amylase, an enzyme in your spittle that initiates the digestion of complex molecules. Some people have eighteen copies of it, but chimpanzees only have two. Amylase digests starchy, carbohydrate rich foods, and helps generate glucose from them, which would provide much needed energy for the evolving and highly energetic brain.

As with all fad diets it probably works a bit, but not because of the content of the diet itself, but because the act of dieting prompts people to eat less and think more about their food, and not to shovel huge portions of pasta or chips on their supper plates. So go ahead and diet, but don’t pretend that it’s based on some evolutionary precedent. And remember that whatever we did in the deep past, we live longer and better now than at any point in the history of humankind. Regardless, the agricultural revolution that occurred at the beginning of the current epoch, the Holocene, coincided with the first evidence for farming, even though the reasons for this revolution remain unclear. But it did irreversibly change everything. This transition to a domestic life fundamentally changed us in our bones and our genes, as we’ll see soon. The land changed more obviously, as you would expect, when it became worked in this most unnatural way.

I like to ponder how entirely unnatural they are, how they’ve been designed and built over thousands of years, how the hedgerows – so critical to the biodiversity of the land – were put there by people to separate crops and animals and predators and property. Even the coarse wild brush in the highlands of Scotland and much of northern England has been grazed and unnaturally tended and grazed again continually for millennia. Estimates are that the hunter-gatherers who were all but wiped out by the agricultural revolution numbered around 2 million 12,000 years ago. Agriculture spread like a virus over the continents from its birth somewhere in the Middle East (and dotted in other spots in Africa and China), and would be the dominant business of humans for most of the rest of history. Farming today is industrial, and dominated by monolithic corporations who control almost all the food we eat. But this book is not about that.


pages: 422 words: 113,525

Whole Earth Discipline: An Ecopragmatist Manifesto by Stewart Brand

agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, back-to-the-land, biofilm, borderless world, Buckminster Fuller, business process, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dark matter, decarbonisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Elon Musk, Exxon Valdez, failed state, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, glass ceiling, Google Earth, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, Jane Jacobs, jimmy wales, Kevin Kelly, Kibera, land tenure, lateral thinking, low earth orbit, M-Pesa, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, microbiome, New Urbanism, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, out of africa, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, stem cell, Stewart Brand, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, Thomas Malthus, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, wealth creators, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, William Langewiesche, working-age population, Y2K

Those dates happen to match major human diebacks from pandemics—Roman-era epidemics, the Black Death in Europe, and the devastation of North American native populations by European diseases. Each time, forests grew back rapidly over empty agricultural land and drew down carbon dioxide. If Ruddiman is right, climate has been a human artifact, a highly sensitive one, for a long time. “The end of nature,” to use Bill McKibben’s famous book title, didn’t begin two hundred years ago with the Industrial Revolution but ten thousand years ago with the agricultural revolution. Farm and pasture land now takes up over a third of the world’s ice-free land surface. Ruddiman notes that “farming is not nature, but rather the largest alteration of Earth’s surface from its natural state that humans have yet achieved.” Furthermore, “A good case can be made that people in the Iron Age and even the late Stone Age had a much greater per-capita impact on the earth’s landscape than the average modern-day person

While working in Borneo in the 1960s, he became one of the pioneers of “integrated pest management.” From 1998 to 2004, he was president of the Rockefeller Foundation, and during that time he wrote an important book, The Doubly Green Revolution (1999). It noted the shortcomings of the original green revolution (excessive water use, excessive advantage to rich farmers, neglect of soil maintenance) and proposed how to remedy them. Conway expects the doubly green agricultural revolution to expand opportunities for the poorest farmers and to emphasize conserving natural resources and the environment while using GE to increase yield yet further. “Our capacity to build ecology into the seed,” he writes, “is largely a consequence of modern biotechnology.” The new “gene revolution” will be more adroit than the green revolution for two reasons but harder to implement for one reason, which he is trying to fix.

GE bananas are also being developed to provide a full daily allowance of vitamins A and E and iron for countries, like Uganda, that rely on bananas as their major food source. “Greenpeace will fight to keep GE bananas, cassava, and sorghum from poor countries’ fields, just as it will keep opposing golden rice, says Janet Cotter of Greenpeace’s Science Unit in London.” That quote was in an April 2008 issue of Science. • A journalist I know, Gregg Zachary, wrote in 2008 about a little-noticed agricultural revolution going on in Africa:Exports of vegetables, fruits, and flowers, largely from eastern and southern Africa, now exceed $2 billion a year, up from virtually zero a quarter-century ago. . . . “The driver of agriculture is primarily urbanization,” observes Steve Wiggins, a farm expert at London’s Overseas Development Institute. As more people leave the African countryside, there is more land for remaining farmers, and more paying customers in the city. . . .


pages: 412 words: 128,042

Extreme Economies: Survival, Failure, Future – Lessons From the World’s Limits by Richard Davies

agricultural Revolution, air freight, Anton Chekhov, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, big-box store, cashless society, clean water, complexity theory, deindustrialization, eurozone crisis, failed state, financial innovation, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, James Hargreaves, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, joint-stock company, large denomination, Livingstone, I presume, Malacca Straits, mandatory minimum, manufacturing employment, means of production, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pension reform, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, school choice, school vouchers, Scramble for Africa, side project, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Chicago School, the payments system, trade route, Travis Kalanick, uranium enrichment, urban planning, wealth creators, white picket fence, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

., and Leinsalu M., ‘Avoidable Mortality in Estonia: Exploring the Differences in Life Expectancy Between Estonians and Non-Estonians in 2005–2007’, Public Health, 125, 754–62. Brynjolfsson, E., and McAfee, A. (2012), Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution is Accelerating (Digital Frontier Press). Chambers, J. D., and Mingay, G. E. (1966), The Agricultural Revolution 1750–1850 (London: B. T. Batsford). Clark, G. (2002), The Agricultural Revolution and the Industrial Revolution, Working Paper, University of California, Davis. ———— (2005), ‘The Condition of the Working Class in England, 1209–2004’, Journal of Political Economy, 113, 1307–40. Deane, P. (1969), The First Industrial Revolution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). FINA (1995), Falling Through the Net: A Survey of the ‘Have Nots’ in Rural and Urban America, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, United States Department of Commerce, July.

On the role the system plays in allowing personal control of private data, see Priisalu and Ottis (2017); on the use of the system by private sector companies, see Paide et al. (2018). Logistics and the labour market Data on transport and logistics in the labour market are from Statistics Estonia, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (US) and the Office for National Statistics (UK). The early agricultural revolution On the importance of crop innovations and how these ideas diffused across the UK, see Overton (1985); on improvements to livestock breeding by Robert Bakewell, see Wykes (2004). On the importance of mechanization in farming and of how individual farmers are promoters of change, see Fox and Butlin (eds.) (1979). For recent work and data on the intensity of innovation in seventeenth-century Britain, see Ang et al. (2013); for estimates of agricultural productivity, see Apostolides et al. (2008).

Nilsson, N. (2009), The Quest for Artificial Intelligence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). OECD (2018), ‘Bridging the Rural Digital Divide’, OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 265 (Paris: OECD). Overton, M. (1985), ‘The Diffusion of Agricultural Innovations in Early Modern England: Turnips and Clover in Norfolk and Suffolk, 1580–1740’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 10 (2), 205–221. ———— (1996), Agricultural Revolution in England: The Transformation of the Agrarian Economy 1500–1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Paide, K., Pappel, I., Vainsalu, H., and Draheim, D. (2018), ‘On the Systematic Exploitation of the Estonian Data Exchange Layer X-Road for Strengthening Public-Private Partnerships’, in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, ICEGOV’18, April.


pages: 540 words: 168,921

The Relentless Revolution: A History of Capitalism by Joyce Appleby

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, Bartolomé de las Casas, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, Charles Lindbergh, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Doha Development Round, double entry bookkeeping, epigenetics, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, Firefox, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francisco Pizarro, Frederick Winslow Taylor, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, interest rate swap, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Long Term Capital Management, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, moral hazard, Parag Khanna, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, profit motive, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, refrigerator car, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, strikebreaker, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Yogi Berra, Yom Kippur War

A powerful reason for maintaining the strict social order had unobtrusively disappeared, leaving behind a set of social prescriptions whose obsolescence would slowly be discovered. Nothing could have so dramatically distinguished England from the rest of Europe with its last general famine in 1819, not to mention the rest of the world, which still wrestles with failing food supplies. Despite the dislocations of the Agricultural Revolution, it improved everyone’s life chances. Inland trading in foods and other goods became denser. A single national market, the largest, free trading zone in Europe, took shape. This countrywide commercial network created another bulwark against famine because rarely did crop failures hit all regions at the same time. Now there were the connections—transportation, middlemen, and means of payment—to ship food anywhere there was a dearth.

The steady increase of food output also introduced a new measure of certainty in people’s lives. After a generation without famines, spenders and investors could shed the caution associated with fear and begin to take a few risks with their savings. There is no direct connection between more effective farming and the ingenious engineering of new machines that ushered in a new age in manufacturing. The Agricultural Revolution could not produce the inventions central to industrialization, but without its bounteous harvests, those inventions would have been confined to that small part of the economy not dedicated to growing food for the whole. Unlike the earlier quickening pace in commerce, the production of more food with less money and fewer workers released the vital resources of people and capital for a variety of other economic activities, some of them previously unimaginable.

Their experience was the harbinger of what awaited the entire European peasantry in the ensuing decades. Millions of these men and women would cross the Atlantic to establish a European beachhead in North and South America while their sisters and brothers became part of an emerging proletariat. Present-day famines remind us of the complex challenge of feeding a society. They also make us aware of how an agricultural revolution made capitalism possible. COMMENTARY ON MARKETS AND HUMAN NATURE THE EAST INDIA COMPANY began importing colorful calicoes and ginghams at the end of the seventeenth century. After spending lifetimes wearing heavy wools and linens, ordinary Englishmen and women reacted with enthusiasm to this opportunity to wear light, bright fabrics. Their response so surprised observers that some of them waxed eloquent on the benefit of material desires.


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Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies by Nick Bostrom

agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, anthropic principle, anti-communist, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Bayesian statistics, bioinformatics, brain emulation, cloud computing, combinatorial explosion, computer vision, cosmological constant, dark matter, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, delayed gratification, demographic transition, different worldview, Donald Knuth, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, epigenetics, fear of failure, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, friendly AI, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, information retrieval, interchangeable parts, iterative process, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Nash equilibrium, Netflix Prize, new economy, Norbert Wiener, NP-complete, nuclear winter, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, performance metric, phenotype, prediction markets, price stability, principal–agent problem, race to the bottom, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, reversible computing, social graph, speech recognition, Stanislav Petrov, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, superintelligent machines, supervolcano, technological singularity, technoutopianism, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Nature of the Firm, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, Turing machine, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Later developments, related to the Industrial Revolution, brought about a second, comparable step change in the rate of growth. Such changes in the rate of growth have important consequences. A few hundred thousand years ago, in early human (or hominid) prehistory, growth was so slow that it took on the order of one million years for human productive capacity to increase sufficiently to sustain an additional one million individuals living at subsistence level. By 5000 BC, following the Agricultural Revolution, the rate of growth had increased to the point where the same amount of growth took just two centuries. Today, following the Industrial Revolution, the world economy grows on average by that amount every ninety minutes.1 Even the present rate of growth will produce impressive results if maintained for a moderately long time. If the world economy continues to grow at the same pace as it has over the past fifty years, then the world will be some 4.8 times richer by 2050 and about 34 times richer by 2100 than it is today.2 Yet the prospect of continuing on a steady exponential growth path pales in comparison to what would happen if the world were to experience another step change in the rate of growth comparable in magnitude to those associated with the Agricultural Revolution and the Industrial Revolution.

If the world economy continues to grow at the same pace as it has over the past fifty years, then the world will be some 4.8 times richer by 2050 and about 34 times richer by 2100 than it is today.2 Yet the prospect of continuing on a steady exponential growth path pales in comparison to what would happen if the world were to experience another step change in the rate of growth comparable in magnitude to those associated with the Agricultural Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. The economist Robin Hanson estimates, based on historical economic and population data, a characteristic world economy doubling time for Pleistocene hunter–gatherer society of 224,000 years; for farming society, 909 years; and for industrial society, 6.3 years.3 (In Hanson’s model, the present epoch is a mixture of the farming and the industrial growth modes—the world economy as a whole is not yet growing at the 6.3-year doubling rate.)

The craft was practiced in China during the Tang Dynasty around AD 600 (and might have been in use as early as AD 200), but was mastered by Europeans only in the eighteenth century.7 Wheeled vehicles appeared in several sites across Europe and Mesopotamia around 3500 BC but reached the Americas only in post-Columbian times.8 On a grander scale, the human species took tens of thousands of years to spread across most of the globe, the Agricultural Revolution thousands of years, the Industrial Revolution only hundreds of years, and an Information Revolution could be said to have spread globally over the course of decades—though, of course, these transitions are not necessarily of equal profundity. (The Dance Dance Revolution video game spread from Japan to Europe and North America in just one year!) Technological competition has been quite extensively studied, particularly in the contexts of patent races and arms races.9 It is beyond the scope of our investigation to review this literature here.


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The Big Ratchet: How Humanity Thrives in the Face of Natural Crisis by Ruth Defries

agricultural Revolution, Columbian Exchange, demographic transition, double helix, European colonialism, food miles, Francisco Pizarro, Haber-Bosch Process, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, out of africa, planetary scale, premature optimization, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, social intelligence, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

He had turned his attention to farming on his estate, earning the name Turnip Townshend for his enthusiasm for the new Norfolk system. Yields of cereal crops soared in England, a combined result of nitrogen-enriching clover and manure, tools for deeper plowing, more livestock for manure and labor, and new seeds that increased edible portions of the harvest along with other agricultural improvements. The impact was so colossal that the period is termed the agricultural revolution. The result of the revolution was a surplus of food. Whether the surplus spurred England’s industrial revolution of the eighteenth century or the other way around is impossible to say. Whether the times truly ushered in an abrupt revolution or a slower evolution is also a debatable point. But there’s no doubt that surplus food was available to feed the growing cities and the human laborers who worked the machines of the textile mills and other factories.

Fawcett, E. Inoue, M. Inoue-Muruyama, J. Mitani, M. Muller, M. Robbins, G. Schubert, T. Stoinski, B. Viola, D. Watts, R. Wittig, R. Wrangham, K. Zuberbühler, S. Pääbo, and L. Vigilant. 2012. Generation times in wild chimpanzees and gorillas suggest earlier divergence times in great ape and human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109:15716–15721. Larsen, C. 2006. The agricultural revolution as environmental catastrophe: Implications for health and lifestyle in the Holocene. Quaternary International 150:12–20. ———. 2009. Emergence and evolution of agriculture: The impact in human health and lifestyle. Pages 3–13 in W. Pond, B. Nichols, and D. Brown, eds., Adequate Food for All: Culture, Science, and Technology of Food in the 21st Century. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Lev-Yadun, S., A.

Popkin. 2009. Prospective study on nutrition transition in China. Nutrition Reviews 67 (Suppl. 1):S56–S61. Zimmerman, C. 1932. Ernst Engel’s law of expenditures for food. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 47:78–101. INDEX Africa failure of Green Revolution to reach, 182 introduced species, 150 locust plagues, 145 pest management, 152 wheat rust, 183 Age of Discovery, 94, 97 Agricultural revolution, 81 Agriculture birth of, 53, 56 Chinese, 75–78 corn, 60, 133–136, 148 four-course system, 80–81 genetically engineered crops, 168 greenhouse gases from, 196–197 pesticide use in, 154–155 rice, 176–178 slash-and-burn, 60, 65, 69–70 soybeans, 138–140 three-field system, 80 wheat, 136–138, 172–176 See also Farming and farmers Al-Haytham, Ibn, 72 Algal bloom, 118–120 Amaranth, 194 Amazon region, farming in, 59–60 Ambrosia beetles, farming by, 9 American crows, learning by, 40 Ammonia, 63–64, 108, 109 Animals domestication of, 52–53 transport to New World, 94–95, 97 use for power, 73, 74–75, 78–81, 97, 98, 123, 141 Antony Gibbs & Sons, 89, 90 Ants farming by, 9 fire, 155 insecticide use to control, 155 leaf-cutter, 149 Aping, 44 Arctic, 35–37 Arsenic, 151, 156, 169 Artificial breeding, 127–128 Asia, rice breeding in, 176–178 Asimov, Isaac, 65–66 Aswan dams, 72 Atmosphere greenhouse effect, 20–21 greenhouse gases in, 121–125, 196–197 of Mars, 21 nitrogen in, 62 solar wind as threat to, 21, 22 Aurora australis, 21 Aurora borealis, 21 Australia, locust plagues in, 146 Australopithecine, 48 Azotobacter, 63, 109 Aztec, 93 Bacillus thuringiensis, 168 Bacteria of early Earth, 30 nitrogen cycling and, 63–65 Balboa, Vasco Nuñez de, 94 Bangladesh, increase in overweight people in, 194 BASF, 109, 110 Beachell, Henry, 177 Beans in China, 75 New World origin of, 93 nitrogen and, 62–63, 75 soybeans, x, 138–140, 186, 193 Bennett, Merrill, 142–143, 144, 191, 192 Bergius, Friedrich, 109 Biofuels, 198 Biotechnology, criticisms of, 186–187 Birds guano from, 88–92 pesticide effects on, 160–162 protecting crops from, 151 Birth rates, 6 Black Death, 80 Blended inheritance, 129, 132 Blue-green algae, 63 Bolivia, 90, 91 Bone meal, 113 Bone Valley, Florida, 116 Bones, phosphorus from, 113–116 Borlaug, Norman on Africa, 182 on criticisms of Green Revolution, 182–183 in Mexico, 172–174 Nobel Peace Prize, 179, 181 on pest reappearance, 184 on pesticide use, 164, 169 on poverty, 181 view of biotechnology, 187 Bosch, Carl, 109 Boserup, Ester, 13–14 Bottlenose dolphin, 41, 42 Bowen, Samuel, 139 Boyd, Robert, 38, 45 Brain evolution of human, 42–43 intelligent, 40 Brandt, Hennig, 66 Brazil deforestation, ix–xi diet transformation in, 192 overweight people, 194 soybean production, x Breastfeeding, 57 Britain, guano trade, 90–91 Bt crops, 168, 186 Bubonic plague, 80 Buffalo bones, phosphorus from, 114 Calories burned to produce food, 122 Canals, 71 Capron, Horace, 138 Capuchin monkeys, 44 Carbon, cycling of, 23–24, 26–27, 125 Carbon dioxide global warming and, 27 as greenhouse gas, 121, 196, 202 nitrous oxide compared to, 121 in photosynthesis, 74 temperature effect on atmospheric, 27 from volcanoes, 24, 26, 27 weathering and, 26 Carnivore, 74 Carson, Rachel, 161–163, 169 Carter, Jimmy, 182 Cassava mealybug, 150, 167 Catton, William, Jr., 13 Chemical poisonings, 167–168 Children, number of, 6 Chile, 90, 91 Chimpanzee, 43–44, 45, 48 China agriculture in ancient, 75–78 diet transformation, 191–192 pest control in, 151 soybean domestication in, 139 Cholera, 77, 86 Chrysanthemum, 151, 152, 154, 158, 167, 169 Cities, growth of population in, 5 Civilization farming link to, 8 food as engine of, 7–10 overshoot and, 13–14 Clear Lake, California, 160–161 Climate agriculture’s impact on, 196–197 change from greenhouse gases, 125 fluctuations in, 43 shift from foraging to farming and, 55–56 Clover, 62–63, 75, 78, 80–82 Coal energy from, 81–82 industrial revolution and, 81–82 opening of energy bottleneck by, 123 steam engine tractors, 123 Coffee, as New World commodity, 96 Collar harnesses, 78 Colorado potato beetle, 158–159 Columbus, Christopher, 10, 93–94 Comets, 30 Communication by animals, 50 cumulative learning, 44–46 genetic inheritance, 39 language, 50–51 transition to cooked meals and, 49 Continents, 24–25 Continuously Habitable Zone, 20 Cooking, 49 Corals, phosphorus from, 116 Corn, 133–136 as biofuel, 198 Bt, 168, 186 farming in Amazon region, 60 fungal disease of, 148 high-fructose corn syrup, 193 origin of, 53–54, 93 Cortés, Hernando, 94 Cotton, Bt, 168, 186 Cows, greenhouse gases released in production of, 196 Crick, Francis, 186 Crookes, Sir William, 105–106, 107, 108, 136, 141 Crop rotation in China, 75–76 in Egypt, 78 in Europe, 80 Crops, genetically engineered, 168, 186 Crosby, Alfred, 94 Cross-fertilization, 130–131 Crows, tool use by, 48 Culsius, Carolus, 98 Culture cumulative learning and, 45–46 defined, 37, 45 evolution of, 38, 39 genes and, 46 role in human evolution, 37–38 Cumulative learning, 44–46, 49, 50 Dairy farming, 46 Dalrymple, Oliver, 123 Dams, 101, 124 Darwin, Charles hybrid vigor principle, 129 inbreeding, 128–129 natural selection and, 37–38, 127–128 On the Origin of Species, 128 Dawkins, Richard, 10 DDT.


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Leading From the Emerging Future: From Ego-System to Eco-System Economies by Otto Scharmer, Katrin Kaufer

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fractional reserve banking, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, market bubble, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, peak oil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, working poor, Zipcar

Nature in economic thought and action has been transformed from its original function as mother (0.0) to a resource (1.0) to a commodity (2.0) to a regulated commodity (3.0). In the emerging next stage of economic thought, we might reframe the role of nature in terms of eco-system and commons, which we collectively cultivate and steward for the well-being of future generations and the whole (4.0). THE JOURNEY FROM 0.0 TO 3.0 The transition from 0.0 to 1.0 was marked by an agricultural revolution. As long as humans limited their economic activities to harvesting and hunting in order to feed and clothe themselves, their impact on nature was limited. But when people started to settle in one place and to cultivate the land, they began to interfere more deeply with the natural ecosystem. They began to use tools to cut trees and plow the land. Over thousands of years, humans focused their economic activities on advancing agricultural production, and through these efforts developed a complex system of seeds, tools, livestock, and cultivation practices.

As indicated in table 3, earlier in this chapter, the concept of capital has changed significantly over the course of human and economic history.24 THE JOURNEY FROM 0.0 TO 3.0: NATURAL, HUMAN, INDUSTRIAL, AND FINANCIAL CAPITAL Capital was not in the vocabularies of 0.0 societies. From today’s view, 0.0 economies used capital in the form of physical tools and indigenous wisdom to relate to the natural cycles of Mother Nature. Nor was the word used during the Agricultural Revolution, in what we’re calling 1.0. Instead, advanced forms of physical equipment, craftsmanship, and knowledge of how to use tools were examples of capital. In the Middle Ages, capital meant financial assets that people invested in businesses. What we know as capital began in the British colonial empire as merchant capital and later morphed into industrial capital. Without the accumulation of physical, human, and financial capital, the growth miracle of the Industrial Revolution would not have been possible.

THE JOURNEY FROM 0.0 TO 3.0: FROM CONSUMERISM TO CONSCIOUS CONSUMPTION Viewed from this angle, what does the journey of the economy look like? As we have already discussed, this journey has evolved through stages. In the 0.0 stage, economic activities were subsistence driven—that is, driven by the immediate needs of a local community. In 1.0, the production function began to differentiate through the Agricultural Revolution as production became more methodical and intentional. In the 2.0 economy, the differentiation of the production function continued, resulting in the first Industrial Revolution. Mass production led to mass consumption. Professional advertising, sales strategies, and product design slowly became part of the industrial management process. In the 3.0 economy, we see the second Industrial Revolution, as well as marketing and branding moving into the mainstream of management, thereby giving rise to a global culture of consumerism that took material consumption to previously unknown levels of scale.


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The Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update by Donella H. Meadows, Jørgen Randers, Dennis L. Meadows

agricultural Revolution, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, Climatic Research Unit, conceptual framework, dematerialisation, demographic transition, financial independence, game design, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), longitudinal study, means of production, new economy, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, University of East Anglia, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review

We need to turn off our computers, put away our data and scenarios, and reappear in chapter 8, where we will conclude with insights that have come as much from our hearts and our intuition as they have from our scientific analyses. CHAPTER 8 Tools for the Transition to Sustainability We must be careful not to succumb to despair, for there is still the odd glimmer of hope. -EDOUARD SAOUMA, 1993 Can we move nations and people in the direction of sustainability? Such a move would be a modification of society comparable in scale to only two other changes: the Agricultural Revolution of the late Neolithic and the Industrial Revolution of the past two centuries. Those revolutions were gradual, spontaneous, and largely unconscious. This one will have to be a fully conscious operation, guided by the best foresight that science can provide.... If we actually do it, the undertaking will be absolutely unique in humanity's stay on the Earth. -WILLIAM D. RUCKELSHAUS, 1989 r - 're have been writing about, talking about, and working toward sustainability for over three decades now We have had the privilege of knowing thousands of colleagues in every part of the world who work in their own ways, with their own talents, in their own societies toward a sustainable society.

The ideas of wealth, status, inheritance, trade, money, and power were born. Some people could live on excess food produced by others. They could become full-time toolmakers, musicians, scribes, priests, soldiers, athletes, or kings. Thus arose, for better or worse, guilds, orchestras, libraries, temples, armies, competitive games, dynasties, and cities. As its inheritors, we think of the agricultural revolution as a great step forward. At the time it was probably a mixed blessing. Many anthropologists think that agriculture was not a better way of life, but a necessary one to accommodate increasing populations. Settled farmers got more food from a hectare than hunter-gatherers did, but the food was of lower nutritional quality and less variety, and it required much more work to produce. Farmers became vulnerable in ways nomads never were to weather, disease, pests, invasion by outsiders, and oppression from their emerging ruling classes.

They must demand the right to produce, buy, and sell those commodities without outside regulation or interference.... As wants multiplied, as markets grew more and more far-flung, the bond between humans and the rest of nature was reduced to the barest instrumentalism.' That bare instrumentalism led to incredible productivity and a world that now supports, at varying levels of sufficiency, 6,000 million people more than 600 times the population existing before the agricultural revolution. Far-flung markets and swelling demands drive environmental exploitation from the poles to the tropics, from the mountaintops to the ocean depths. The success of the industrial revolution, like the previous successes of hunting-gathering and of agriculture, eventually created its own scarcity, not only of game, not only of land, not only of fuels and metals, but of the total carrying capacity of the global environment.


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The Knowledge: How to Rebuild Our World From Scratch by Lewis Dartnell

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, clean water, Dava Sobel, decarbonisation, discovery of penicillin, Dmitri Mendeleev, global village, Haber-Bosch Process, invention of movable type, invention of radio, invention of writing, iterative process, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, lone genius, low earth orbit, mass immigration, nuclear winter, off grid, Richard Feynman, technology bubble, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route

You could, of course, always hunt for meat, but keeping livestock, and sacrificing some of your arable capacity to support them, actually contributes a critical function for keeping your fields productive. As we’ve seen, without chemical fertilizers farmland would deteriorate in fertility, but animal manure allows you to return nutrients to the soil. Furthermore, there is a particular class of crops that will naturally boost soil nitrogen levels for you, the incorporation of which was a crucial step in the agricultural revolution in the seventeenth century. In the immediate post-apocalyptic world, the husbandry of plants and of animals will once again become inseparable, mutually supporting endeavors. Throughout the Middle Ages, European farmers followed an agricultural convention of routinely leaving plots fallow—a woefully inefficient practice, as at any one time up to half of your fields would be growing no crops at all.

But rather than simply swapping back and forth between two—from clover to wheat, say—a far better option is a crop rotation with several stages, as it also breaks the cycle of diseases and pests. These are often very specific to the plant they can attack, and so annually shifting, and not growing the same crop on a plot for several years, means that you can exert natural control without pesticides. The Norfolk four-course rotation is the most successful of these historical systems and became widespread only in the eighteenth century, spearheading the British agricultural revolution. In the Norfolk system, succession of crops through each plot follows the order: legumes, wheat, root crops, barley. As we have seen, growing legumes is intended to build up the soil’s fertility for the rest of the cycle. Clover and alfalfa grow well in the British climate, but in other regions you might be better off with soy or peanuts. At the end of the season, if you’re not harvesting any part of the plant for human consumption, the entire crop can be grazed by livestock or simply plowed back into the ground as green manure.

* Even the familiar color of carrots is artificial: their roots are naturally white or purple, and the orange variety was created by seventeenth-century agriculturists in the Netherlands to honor William I, the Prince of Orange. * Even within Britain, the Norfolk four-course rotation is less effective on the heavy clay soils of the north and west, and so historically these regions focused on livestock pasturing and on manufacturing (and using their profits to buy grain from the south). * Using many of the advances discussed in this chapter, between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries the British agricultural revolution achieved a substantially greater production of food while simultaneously becoming less labor-intensive, and the fact that a decreasing proportion of farmers and agricultural laborers was needed to feed everyone else enabled greater urbanization. By 1850, Britain had the lowest proportion of farmers of any country in the world, with only one person in five working the fields to feed the entire nation.


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Enlightenment Now: The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress by Steven Pinker

3D printing, access to a mobile phone, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Arthur Eddington, artificial general intelligence, availability heuristic, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bonfire of the Vanities, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, clockwork universe, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, dark matter, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, distributed generation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Doomsday Clock, double helix, effective altruism, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, endogenous growth, energy transition, European colonialism, experimental subject, Exxon Valdez, facts on the ground, Fall of the Berlin Wall, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, frictionless, frictionless market, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Hans Rosling, hedonic treadmill, helicopter parent, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, Joan Didion, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Snow's cholera map, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge economy, l'esprit de l'escalier, Laplace demon, life extension, long peace, longitudinal study, Louis Pasteur, Martin Wolf, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, minimum wage unemployment, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Nate Silver, Nathan Meyer Rothschild: antibiotics, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, open economy, Paul Graham, peak oil, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, precision agriculture, prediction markets, purchasing power parity, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, Republic of Letters, Richard Feynman, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Saturday Night Live, science of happiness, Scientific racism, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Simon Kuznets, Skype, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, Stuxnet, supervolcano, technological singularity, Ted Kaczynski, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, union organizing, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey, Y2K

., & Madfis, E. 2018. Don’t name them, don’t show them, but report everything else: A pragmatic proposal for denying mass shooters the attention they seek and deterring future offenders. American Behavioral Scientist. Latzer, B. 2016. The rise and fall of violent crime in America. New York: Encounter Books. Laudan, R. 2016. Was the agricultural revolution a terrible mistake? Not if you take food processing into account. http://www.rachellaudan.com/2016/01/was-the-agricultural-revolution-a-terrible-mistake.html. Law, S. 2011. Humanism: A very short introduction. New York: Oxford University Press. Lawson, S. 2013. Beyond cyber-doom: Cyberattack scenarios and the evidence of history. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 10, 86–103. Layard, R. 2005. Happiness: Lessons from a new science.

It was only at the time of the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution that people figured out how to bend the curve upward.15 In Jonathan Swift’s 1726 novel, the moral imperative was explained to Gulliver by the King of Brobdingnag: “Whoever makes two ears of corn, or two blades of grass to grow where only one grew before, deserves better of humanity, and does more essential service to his country than the whole race of politicians put together.” Soon after that, as figure 7-1 shows, more ears of corn were indeed made to grow, in what has been called the British Agricultural Revolution.16 Crop rotation and improvements to plows and seed drills were followed by mechanization, with fossil fuels replacing human and animal muscle. In the mid-19th century it took twenty-five men a full day to harvest and thresh a ton of grain; today one person operating a combine harvester can do it in six minutes.17 Machines also solve an inherent problem with food. As any zucchini gardener in August knows, a lot becomes available all at once, and then it quickly rots or gets eaten by vermin.

As we’ll see, this also affects our assessment of prosperity in the developing world (this chapter), of income inequality in the developed world (next chapter), and of the future of economic growth (chapter 20). * * * What launched the Great Escape? The most obvious cause was the application of science to the improvement of material life, leading to what the economic historian Joel Mokyr calls “the enlightened economy.”8 The machines and factories of the Industrial Revolution, the productive farms of the Agricultural Revolution, and the water pipes of the Public Health Revolution could deliver more clothes, tools, vehicles, books, furniture, calories, clean water, and other things that people want than the craftsmen and farmers of a century before. Many early innovations, such as in steam engines, looms, spinning frames, foundries, and mills, came out of the workshops and backyards of atheoretical tinkerers.9 But trial and error is a profusely branching tree of possibilities, most of which lead nowhere, and the tree can be pruned by the application of science, accelerating the rate of discovery.


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The AI Economy: Work, Wealth and Welfare in the Robot Age by Roger Bootle

"Robert Solow", 3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, anti-work, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Chris Urmson, computer age, conceptual framework, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, deskilling, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, facts on the ground, financial intermediation, full employment, future of work, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the wheel, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job satisfaction, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, license plate recognition, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mega-rich, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, positional goods, quantitative easing, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Richard Florida, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, social intelligence, spinning jenny, Stanislav Petrov, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, universal basic income, US Airways Flight 1549, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, wealth creators, winner-take-all economy, Y2K, Yogi Berra

Momentous developments such as the First Agricultural Revolution, involving the domestication of animals and the plantation of crops, which can be said to have begun about 10,000 BCE, were stretched out over a very long time. Accordingly, even if the cumulative effect once the process was complete was indeed momentous, the changes to average output and living standards did not amount to much on a year-by-year basis.9 The second possible explanation is structural and distributional. For a technological improvement in one sector (e.g., agriculture) to result in much increased productivity for the economy overall, the labor released in the rapidly improving sector has to be capable of being employed productively in other parts of the economy. But as the First Agricultural Revolution took hold, there were effectively no other forms of productive employment.

But as the First Agricultural Revolution took hold, there were effectively no other forms of productive employment. Hence the proliferation of temple attendants, pyramid builders, and domestic servants. The anthropologist James Scott has suggested that after the First Agricultural Revolution average living standards for the mass of the population actually declined.10 Nor was there anything in the new agrarian economy, with its lopsided income and wealth distribution, that favored further technological developments. From technology to prosperity The third possible explanation is that technological advance alone is not enough to deliver economic progress. You have to have the resources available to devote to new methods and to make the tools or equipment in which technological progress is usually embodied. Accordingly, growth requires the forgoing of current consumption in order to devote resources to provision for the future.


pages: 1,152 words: 266,246

Why the West Rules--For Now: The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal About the Future by Ian Morris

addicted to oil, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Arthur Eddington, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, cuban missile crisis, defense in depth, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Doomsday Clock, en.wikipedia.org, falling living standards, Flynn Effect, Francisco Pizarro, global village, God and Mammon, hiring and firing, indoor plumbing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Kitchen Debate, knowledge economy, market bubble, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, New Journalism, out of africa, Peter Thiel, phenotype, pink-collar, place-making, purchasing power parity, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Sinatra Doctrine, South China Sea, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, upwardly mobile, wage slave, washing machines reduced drudgery

Turkeys and llamas, their only domesticable animals other than dogs, took centuries more. Australians had the most limited resources of all. Recent excavations show that they experimented with eel farming, and given another few thousand years may well have created domesticated lifestyles. Instead, European colonists overwhelmed them in the eighteenth century CE, importing wheat and sheep, descendants of the original agricultural revolution in the Hilly Flanks. So far as we can tell, people were indeed much the same everywhere. Global warming gave everyone new choices, among working less, working the same amount and eating more, or having more babies, even if that meant working harder. The new climate regime also gave them the option of living in larger groups and moving around less. Everywhere in the world, people who chose to stay put, breed more, and work harder squeezed out those who made different choices.

Back in Chapter 1 I described the historian Kenneth Pomeranz’s complaints about how comparative historians often skew analysis of why the West rules by sloppily comparing tiny England with enormous China and concluding that the West already led the East by 1750 CE. We must, he insisted, compare like-sized units. I spent Chapters 1 and 2 responding to this by defining West and East explicitly as the societies that have descended from the original Western and Eastern agricultural revolutions in the Hilly Flanks and the Yellow and Yangzi river valleys; now it is time to admit that that resolved only part of Pomeranz’s problem. In Chapter 2, I described the spectacular expansion of the Western and Eastern zones in the five thousand or so years after cultivation began and the differences in social development that often existed between core areas such as the Hilly Flanks or Yangzi Valley and peripheries such as northern Europe or Korea; so which parts of the East and West should we focus on when working out scores for the index of social development?

Perhaps the industrial revolution came first to the West not because of some extraordinary fluke, as Pomeranz concluded, but because East and West were both on track for such a revolution; and then something about the way the West reacted to the events of the fourteenth century gave it a slight but decisive lead in reaching the takeoff point in the eighteenth. It seems to me that Figures 3.3, 3.7, and 3.8 illuminate a real weakness in both long-term lock-in and short-term accident theories. A few of the theorists focus on the story’s beginning in the agricultural revolution, while the great majority look only at its very end, in the last five hundred years. Because they largely ignore the thousands of years in between, they rarely even try to account for all the spurts of growth, slowdowns, collapses, convergences, changes in leadership, or horizontal ceilings and vertical links that jump out at us when we can see the whole shape of history. That, putting it bluntly, means that neither approach can tell us why the West rules; and that being the case, neither can hope to answer the question lurking beyond that—what will happen next.


pages: 232 words: 63,803

Billion Dollar Burger: Inside Big Tech's Race for the Future of Food by Chase Purdy

agricultural Revolution, cognitive dissonance, corporate governance, Donald Trump, gig economy, global supply chain, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jeff Bezos, Peter Thiel, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, sovereign wealth fund, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Steve Jobs

The reason why Homo sapiens have become what we are is because we learned to overcome nature. You see, what makes us different from the animals, why we were able to develop afterwards, intelligently, was we learned how to cook. That is something that is completely underestimated.” And while Brabeck-Letmathe conceded that vegetables and grown foods play an important role, he told me that he knew it “wasn’t enough” for him. For him and Singer, the agricultural revolution is an evolving narrative. The work of figuring out new ways to efficiently feed people is not work for the weary, though it doesn’t make him popular with slow food advocates such as former New York Times food columnist Mark Bittman. I asked him about Brabeck-Letmathe’s perspective and couldn’t help but chuckle at his scornful reaction. “It really is about, do you think shitty food boosted by nutrients is better for you than real food?”

Chapter Fourteen: Setting the Table global meat sector: “Global Meat Sector Market Analysis & Forecast Report, 2019—A $1.14 Trillion Industry Opportunity by 2023,” Globe Newswire News Room, Research & Markets, May 2, 2019. www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2019/05/02/1815144/0/en/Global-Meat-Sector-Market-Analysis-Forecast-Report-2019-A-1-14-Trillion-Industry-Opportunity-by-2023.html. ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ INDEX The page numbers in this index refer to the printed version of this book. The link provided will take you to the beginning of that print page. You may need to scroll forward from that location to find the corresponding reference on your e-reader. ag-gag laws, 200–201 agrarian model, 197–98 agribusiness. See industrial farming Agricultural Revolution, 195–98 Agriculture Department, U.S. (USDA) cell-cultured meat and, 130–31 cell-cultured meat and beef industry, 154–55, 168–78 conflict with FDA, 173–76, 177 egg industry and Just Mayo, 91–92 farm consolidation, 7–8 political lobbying of, 168–74, 176–77 Albright, Curt, 146–47 Aleph Farms, xv, 114, 116–18, 155 Almy, Jessica, 170 Alternative Protein Show, 230 American Civil War, 232 American Egg Board, 90–93 American Meat Science Association, 130–31 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), 34–35 Amsterdam, 57–58 animal farming.


Innovation and Its Enemies by Calestous Juma

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Asilomar, Asilomar Conference on Recombinant DNA, autonomous vehicles, big-box store, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, computer age, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, deskilling, disruptive innovation, energy transition, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, global value chain, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, loss aversion, Marc Andreessen, means of production, Menlo Park, mobile money, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, pensions crisis, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, smart grid, smart meter, stem cell, Steve Jobs, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Travis Kalanick

Innovations such as the reaper, however, were mostly pertinent to the Midwest and were of little use for non-grain growers. For the most part, advances in farm implements during this period were regionally exclusive, and farmers benefited little from their development. With the onset of the Civil War and the ensuing political and social upheaval, farming in America underwent significant changes. The Civil War prompted the first agricultural revolution, transitioning from hand labor to horse labor.6 With the surging demand for agricultural products and shortage of labor due to the draft, farmers were called upon to adopt practices that would foster productivity. Deere’s steel plow and McCormick’s reaper facilitated greater animal use and enabled farmers to produce more in a shorter period of time. The value of grain, corn, and other farm products soared during the war, and advances in technology assisted northern farmers to meet the nation’s demands.

Danhof, “Gathering the Grass,” Agricultural History 30, no. 4 (1956): 169–173. 4. R. Douglas Hurt, American Farm Tools: From Hand-Power to Steam-Power (Manhattan, KS: Sunflower University Press, 1982), 133. 5. Wayne D. Rasmussen, “The Impact of Technological Change on American Agriculture, 1862–1962,” Journal of Economic History 22, no. 4. (1962): 574. 6. Rasmussen, “Impact of Technological Change,” 578; Wayne D. Rasmussen and Paul S. Stone, “Toward a Third Agricultural Revolution,” Proceedings from the Academy of Political Science 34, no. 3 (1982): 174–185. 7. Robert C. Williams, Fordson, Farmall, and Poppin’ Johnny: A History of the Farm Tractor and Its Impact on America (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988), 11. 8. Williams, Fordson, 90. 9. Deborah Fitzgerald, Every Farm a Factory: The Industrial Ideal in American Agriculture (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), 97. 10.

See also Farm mechanization; Transgenic crops agricultural biotechnology, differing perceptions of, 4–5 agricultural research, lack of, 253 agricultural research stations, 133, 134 agricultural technology, 256, 298 agro-ecological farming, 3, 233, 251–252 changing farm sizes, 121 chaos in, 126 chemicals, opposition to use of, 24 in China, reduced pesticide exposure, 246 farmers’ organizations, 143 farm subsidies, 229 first agricultural revolution, 123 impact of Civil War on, 123–124 institutionalization of mechanization of, 137–140 lack of government intervention in, 98 researchers, tensions with, 134–135 sustainable, 224, 248–249 traditional farming economy, impact of technology on, 23 transgenic crops, 226–227 as way of life, 141 Agriculture Department (USDA) cold storage, public education on, 195–196 Economic Research Service, 140 frozen pack laboratory, 195 genetic engineering regulation and, 237 HAA on, 130 inspection service, 197 ISAAA, support for, 244 market-news network, 196–197 role of, 138–139, 142, 197, 201 shipping conditions, tests on, 193 transgenic plant regulation, 265–266 on warehouse cold storage, 187 warehouse reporting system, 188 Agrochemicals, 227, 250.


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The Economic Singularity: Artificial Intelligence and the Death of Capitalism by Calum Chace

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, call centre, Chris Urmson, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, lifelogging, lump of labour, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, McJob, means of production, Milgram experiment, Narrative Science, natural language processing, new economy, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, PageRank, pattern recognition, post scarcity, post-industrial society, post-work, precariat, prediction markets, QWERTY keyboard, railway mania, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, software is eating the world, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, The Future of Employment, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber for X, uber lyft, universal basic income, Vernor Vinge, working-age population, Y Combinator, young professional

This ceased when Spain's power declined toward the end of the century, and the buccaneers became more of a nuisance than a blessing to their former sponsors.) When a buccaneer raiding party boarded a Spanish ship the first thing they would look for and demand was the maps. Charts – a form of information which improve navigation – were actually more valuable than silver and gold.[ix] An example of one revolution re-igniting another is that the industrial revolution enabled the mechanisation of agriculture, causing a second agricultural revolution, making the profession of farming more effective and more efficient. The information revolution does the same, providing farmers with crops that are more resilient in the face of weather, pests and weeds, and allowing them to sow, cultivate and harvest their crops far more accurately with satellite navigation. Along with the uncertainty about the start date of the information revolution, there is disagreement about how distinct it is from the industrial revolution.

Unemployed people often struggle with depression, but they are experiencing it in the context of a society where it seems that everyone else has a job. They are also on a lower income than the employed people around them. How bad would it be if everyone else was also unemployed, and receiving a decent income? Fortunately, there are a couple of places we can look for an answer to that question. The rich and the old The agricultural revolution, around 12,000 years ago, created sustainable surpluses of food and other basic resources. This enabled a class of people to stop doing the work that pretty much all humans had done since our arrival on the planet, which was foraging and hunting for food. They became tribal leaders, kings, warriors, priests, traders and so on. Sometimes they spent as much time on these activities as the people who continued to forage and hunt, but sometimes they took time off – deliberately or by happenstance – and engaged in lives of leisure.


pages: 242 words: 73,728

Give People Money by Annie Lowrey

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, airport security, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, ending welfare as we know it, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, full employment, gender pay gap, gig economy, Google Earth, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, indoor plumbing, information asymmetry, Jaron Lanier, jitney, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, late capitalism, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, McMansion, Menlo Park, mobile money, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, Peter Thiel, post scarcity, post-work, Potemkin village, precariat, randomized controlled trial, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Sam Altman, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, theory of mind, total factor productivity, Turing test, two tier labour market, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, War on Poverty, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, women in the workforce, working poor, World Values Survey, Y Combinator

Yet the boosterism also does seem to be ignited by a real concern that we are in the midst of a profound economic and technological revolution. Sam Altman, the president of Y Combinator, recently spoke at a poverty summit cohosted by Stanford, the White House, and the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, the Facebook billionaire’s charitable institution. “There have been these moments where we have had these major technology revolutions—the Agricultural Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, for example—that have really changed the world in a big way,” he said. “I think we’re in the middle or at least on the cusp of another one.” As it turns out, the idea of a UBI has tended to surface during such epochal economic moments. It first arrived, it seems, at the very birth of capitalism, as medieval feudalism was giving way to Renaissance mercantilism during the reign of Henry VIII.

“VC for the people”: Steve Randy Waldman, “VC for the People,” Interfluidity (blog), Apr. 16, 2014, http://www.interfluidity.com/​v2/​5066.html. “evolving as we speak”: Chris Hughes, telephone interview by author, Oct. 21, 2016. “we can see the future”: Misha Chellam, telephone interview by author, Feb. 10, 2017. “There have been these moments”: Lowrey, “Future of Not Working.” the open-field system: Mark Overton, Agricultural Revolution in England: The Transformation of the Agrarian Economy 1500–1850 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), ebook. “Who will maintain husbandry”: Quoted in John F. Pound, Poverty and Vagrancy in Tudor England, 2nd ed. (London: Routledge, 2014), 5. meek animals: Thomas More, Utopia, ed. Henry Morley (1901; Project Gutenberg 2005), ebook, https://www.gutenberg.org/​files/​2130/​2130-h/​2130-h.htm.


A Natural History of Beer by Rob DeSalle

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, double helix, Drosophila, Louis Pasteur, microbiome, NP-complete, phenotype, placebo effect, wikimedia commons

Clearly, beer did not start out as a simple beverage that became more complex over time. Indeed, it would seem more accurate to say that today’s craze for extreme beers represents a return to the beverage’s origins. One difference between beer in earlier times and beer today is that nowadays we have the option of slaking our thirsts with water. Today most citizens of developed economies take pure and refreshing water for granted; but it was not always so. The Agricultural Revolution brought with it pollution on a grand scale, as one of the major byproducts of progress with which human society is still coming to terms. On the marshy Mesopotamian plain, crowded with people and their even more numerous domestic animals, there would have been few sources of reliably potable water in Sumerian times. This meant that if you couldn’t afford the wine available only to a privileged few, the safest option was to drink Ninkasi’s brew.

But there is some documentary evidence for ancient beer-making as well, so it is not surprising that the first American attempt to resurrect a beer from the ancient world involved Ninkasi, the fourth millennium BCE Sumerian goddess of beer celebrated in the ode we cited earlier. In 1989 Fritz Maytag, a wealthy young entrepreneur who had not long before bought and rejuvenated San Francisco’s venerable Anchor Brewing Company, ran across a 1987 article by the Philadelphia anthropologist Sol Katz. In this piece Katz argued that gathering cereal grains for brewing had been a major impetus for the agricultural revolution; and in support of this contention he cited the translation of the Hymn to Ninkasi that the University of Chicago Assyriologist Miguel Civil had made a couple of decades earlier. Working closely with Katz and Civil, Maytag then figured out a practical recipe for Ninkasi’s beer that was compatible with her activities as described in the Hymn. He brewed and bottled a batch, which came out at a respectable 3.5 percent ABV, and presented it at the annual meeting of the American Association of Microbrewers.


pages: 436 words: 140,256

The Rise and Fall of the Third Chimpanzee by Jared Diamond

agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Atahualpa, Columbian Exchange, correlation coefficient, double helix, Drosophila, European colonialism, invention of gunpowder, invention of the wheel, invention of writing, longitudinal study, out of africa, phenotype, Scientific racism, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, the scientific method, trade route

Since no food is grown and little is stored, there is (according to this view) no respite from the time-consuming struggle that starts anew each day to find wild foods and avoid starving. Our escape from this misery was launched only after the end of the last Ice Age, when people began independently in different parts of the world to domesticate plants and animals (see Chapter Fourteen). The agricultural revolution gradually spread until today it is nearly universal and few tribes of hunter-gatherers survive. From the progressivist perspective on which I was brought up, the question 'Why did almost all our hunter-gatherer ancestors adopt agriculture? is silly. Of course they adopted it because agriculture is an efficient way to get more food for less work. Our planted crops yield far more tons per acre than do wild roots and berries.

For example, animal domestication arose partly from people keeping captive wild animals as pets, partly from wild animals learning to profit from the proximity of people (such as wolves following human hunters to catch crippled prey). Similarly, early stages of plant domestication included people harvesting wild plants and discarding seeds, which were thereby accidentally 'planted'. The inevitable result was unconscious selection of those plant and animal species and individuals most useful to humans. Eventually, conscious selection and care followed. Now let's return to the progressivist view of this agricultural revolution of ours. As I explained at the outset of this chapter, we are accustomed to assuming that the transition from the hunter-gatherer lifestyle to agriculture brought us health, longevity, security, leisure, and great art. While the case for this view seems overwhelming, it is hard to prove. How do you actually show that lives of people 10,000 years ago got better when they abandoned hunting for farming?

Thus, the lives of at least the surviving modern hunter-gatherers are not 'nasty, brutish, and short', even though farmers have pushed them into the world's worst real-estate. Hunters of the past, who still occupied fertile lands, could hardly have been worse off than modern hunters. However, all those modern hunter societies have been affected by farming societies for thousands of years and do not tell us about the condition of hunters before the agricultural revolution. The progressivist view is really making a claim about the distant past: that the lives of people in each part of the world got better when they switched from hunting to farming. Archaeologists can date that switch by distinguishing remains of wild plants and animals from remains of domestic ones in prehistoric rubbish dumps. How can one deduce the health of the prehistoric rubbish makers, and thereby test directly for agriculture's supposed blessings?


pages: 509 words: 132,327

Rise of the Machines: A Cybernetic History by Thomas Rid

1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alistair Cooke, Apple II, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, business intelligence, Charles Lindbergh, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, connected car, domain-specific language, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, dumpster diving, Extropian, full employment, game design, global village, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, Jaron Lanier, job automation, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kubernetes, Marshall McLuhan, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Mother of all demos, new economy, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, The Hackers Conference, Vernor Vinge, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Y2K, Yom Kippur War, Zimmermann PGP

Everything that human beings might need or want, Hilton foresaw, would very soon be produced by machines—“solely by machines without any human intervention or labor.”53 The industrial revolution of the nineteenth century wasn’t big enough as a comparison, Hilton argued. The agricultural revolution was the better analogy. The ability to cultivate crops and livestock turned food gatherers and primitive hunters into food growers and organized communities. Cultivating plants and domesticating animals freed “some” of their energy to create civilization. Automating production would have a similar effect yet again: now “all of human energy” could be freed from the task of providing for survival. Instead of an agricultural revolution, humankind would now face a cybercultural revolution. Hilton, an exceptionally eloquent mathematician, was certainly the most potent cheerleader of that revolution. She tried to come to terms with the consequences of it in a book published in 1963: Logic, Computing Machines, and Automation.

., 109 Abene, Mark, 237 abstraction, 68, 69 “Achieving Electronic Privacy” (Chaum), 281–82 action, brain and, 63 adaptation, 55 Adelman, Leonard, 251–52, 254 Ad Hoc Committee on the Triple Revolution, 104–7, 110 Adobe Acrobat, exploitation of, 327–28 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 147 Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET), 111, 148, 186 Advanced Technology Institute, 319 Aeronautical Research Committee (Britain), 19 aeronautics, 12 African Americans, 107 “After the Take-Over,” 101 Age of Cyberculture, The (book series), 103 Agile Eye, 204 agricultural revolution, 102–3 Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion program, 128–29 air defense, xi–xii, 40, 56, 78–81; See also Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) Air Defense Command, 40, 79, 81 Air Defense Systems Engineering Committee (Valley Committee), 76 Air Force Office of Scientific Research, 143 Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, 76, 144 AirLand Battle, 300–301 airpower, 4, 10, 300–301 Albe Archer exercise, 208 Aliens (film), 136 “All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace” (Brautigan), v, 165–66, 170 Amazon.com, 244 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 71–72 American Civil Liberties Union, 244 American Mathematical Society, 29 Ames Research Center, 220 amputees, 141–42 Analyzer, The (hacker), 315 anarchy, 246–93 Andrews Air Force Base, 314–15 AN/FSQ-7 computer, 96 Anguilla, 287, 288 anonymity, 272 antiaircraft batteries, 22 Anti-Aircraft Command (Britain), 39 antiaircraft gunnery, 56 antiaircraft missiles, 78 “antiaircraft problem,” 12, 16–17 Apache helicopter, 305 Apple Computer, 184, 186–88, 215 Apple II computer, 211–12, 295 Applied Cryptography (Schneier), 276 Arbeit am Mythos (Blumenberg), xvi “Are Human Beings Necessary?”


pages: 473 words: 130,141

The Goodness Paradox: The Strange Relationship Between Virtue and Violence in Human Evolution by Richard Wrangham

agricultural Revolution, Alfred Russel Wallace, Defenestration of Prague, experimental subject, Fellow of the Royal Society, impulse control, income inequality, meta analysis, meta-analysis, out of africa, phenotype, Ronald Reagan, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Steven Pinker, twin studies, ultimatum game

When Homo sapiens first reached Europe and Asia is uncertain, but an expansion 100,000 to 60,000 years ago seems to have been the critical move that led them to diversify into most of the various familiar populations around the world, including spreading within the African continent. By the end of the Pleistocene, almost 12,000 years ago, Homo sapiens were hunting and gathering with sophisticated tools. Some populations were already occupying settled villages, living with dogs, decorating cave walls with multicolored paints, using pottery, and grinding grain. Shortly afterward, about 10,000 years ago, the agricultural revolution began.3 Too few fossils have been found for us to be sure when and where an archaic form first started differentiating into Homo sapiens. To be unambiguously Homo sapiens, skulls must be markedly round (globular) in profile with a clearly flexed base, and have such a small face that it is tucked mostly under the cranium. The earliest examples with these features come from the Omo River in Southern Ethiopia, dated to 195,000 years ago.4 Shortly after that time Homo sapiens is found more broadly in Africa and later in the Middle East.

The frequency of hunter-gatherer intergroup conflict, as well as its context and its rate of mortality, have often been hotly contested issues. One school of thought has held that battles and “real war” were trivially rare before agriculture. Supporters of this view argue that nomadic hunter-gatherers had low rates of intergroup violence from time immemorial until they encountered farmers, at which time they had to start defending themselves. Until the agricultural revolution, these scholars tend to suggest, there was no need to fight: if a dispute arose between forager groups, one group could always move elsewhere. The motivation for taking this perspective was sometimes explicitly political. For instance, the anthropologist Douglas Fry wrote, “One important, general, contribution that anthropology holds for ending ‘the scourge of war’ lies in demonstrating that warfare is not a natural, inevitable part of human nature.”44 On an opposite side of the debate, it can be noted that other primates invariably populate their habitats fully, which leaves groups with few options when conflict occurs.

For instance, the anthropologist Douglas Fry wrote, “One important, general, contribution that anthropology holds for ending ‘the scourge of war’ lies in demonstrating that warfare is not a natural, inevitable part of human nature.”44 On an opposite side of the debate, it can be noted that other primates invariably populate their habitats fully, which leaves groups with few options when conflict occurs. When competing groups cannot find vacant land, they fight. It would be surprising if human groups could regularly find empty, well-resourced space to occupy, or if humans could relate to their neighbors without aggression. Thus the claim that groups of hunter-gatherers before the agricultural revolution had generally peaceful relations and could move to unoccupied resource-rich land is implausible. Furthermore, many scholars point to archaeological evidence of frequent warfare prior to agriculture in the form of fortified settlements, armor, and high levels of violent trauma exhibited in skeletons and skulls. Finally, while known death rates from between-group fighting among hunter-gatherers vary widely, they are rarely zero.


pages: 345 words: 84,847

The Runaway Species: How Human Creativity Remakes the World by David Eagleman, Anthony Brandt

active measures, Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Burning Man, cloud computing, computer age, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Dava Sobel, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, haute couture, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, John Harrison: Longitude, John Markoff, lone genius, longitudinal study, Menlo Park, microbiome, Netflix Prize, new economy, New Journalism, pets.com, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Kurzweil, reversible computing, Richard Feynman, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Simon Singh, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the scientific method, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, wikimedia commons, X Prize

HOW WE REFASHION THE WORLD Humans are continually creative: whether the raw material is words or sounds or sights, we are food-processors into which the world is fed, and out of which something new emerges. Our innate cognitive software, multiplied by the massive population of Homo sapiens, has produced a society with increasingly faster innovation, one that feeds upon its latest ideas. Eleven millennia transpired between the Agricultural Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. Then it only took a hundred and twenty years to get from the Industrial Revolution to the light bulb. Then merely ninety years until the moon landing. From there it was only twenty-two years until the World Wide Web, and a mere nine years later the human genome was fully sequenced.12 Historical innovation paints a clear picture: the time between major innovations is shrinking rapidly.

Into the future 1 Anthony Brandt, “Why Minds Need Art,” TEDx Houston, November 3, 2012, accessed May 17, 2016, <http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/Anthony-Brandt-at-TEDxHouston-2> 2 Yun Sun Cho et al., “The tiger genome and comparative analysis with lion and snow leopard genomes,” Nature Communications 4 (2013), <http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3433> Index Abakanowicz, Magdalena ref1 Achelis, Elisabeth ref1 acronyms ref1 Acura TLX ref1 adaptation ref1 advertisements ref1, ref2 Aerial Restaurant ref1 African masks ref1 Agricultural Revolution ref1 ailerons (hinged flaps) ref1 airport towers/fences ref1 aldehydes ref1 Alessi, Alberto ref1, ref2 Alessi (company) ref1 Alexander McQueen ref1 Alhambra Palace ref1 Alice in tumblr-land (Manley) ref1 Allocamelus ref1 Alpha Centauri ref1 The Alteration (Amis) ref1 altruism ref1 Amazon ref1 American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T) ref1 Amis, Kingsley ref1 Andrews, Arlan ref1 Ant-roach robot ref1, ref2 Apocalyptic Vision (El Greco) ref1 Apollo 13 ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 Apple ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 mining history ref1, ref2, ref3 Apple Watch ref1 Arcangel, Cory ref1, ref2 Aristotle ref1, ref2 Army (US) ref1 Army–Navy football game (1963) ref1 art bending ref1, ref2, ref3 blending ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 breaking ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 good ref1, ref2 education ref1 mining history ref1 proliferating options ref1 public reception ref1, ref2 arts, influence of ref1, ref2 Asimov, Isaac ref1 Asplund, Antii ref1 Atlantic (magazine) ref1 Atlassian ref1 ATMs ref1 Audi ref1 audiences ref1 automated behavior ref1, ref2, ref3 Available Forms I (Brown) ref1 Bach, Johann Sebastian ref1 Back to the Future (film) ref1 Bacon, Francis ref1, ref2 Barbèy, Thomas ref1 The Beatles ref1 The Beatles (album) ref1 Beaumarchais, Pierre ref1 beauty, universal ref1 Beaux, Ernest ref1 Beekman Tower (Gehry building) ref1 bees ref1, ref2, ref3 Beethoven, Ludwig van ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 Bel Geddes, Norman ref1 Bell, Graham ref1 Bell, James ref1 Bell Labs (New Jersey) ref1, ref2 bending ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 art ref1, ref2, ref3 design ref1 “end of time” illusion ref1 language ref1 time ref1 “Beowulf” (poem) ref1 bestselling books ref1 Betrayal (Pinter) ref1 Better Place (auto company) ref1 bicycles ref1 Biome car ref1 bionics ref1 The Birth and Triumph of Venus (Boucher) ref1 “Black Tractor” (Ferguson) ref1 Blackberry ref1 blending ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 art ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 design ref1, ref2 language ref1 mathematical techniques ref1 mythical creatures ref1 science ref1, ref2, ref3 Blockbuster ref1, ref2 Bloom, Benjamin ref1 Blur Building (Diller/Scofidio) ref1 Bonaparte, Napoleon ref1 bone furniture (Laarman) ref1 Bonnie and Clyde (film) ref1 Bose, Amar ref1 Botanical Society of America ref1 Boucher, François ref1 Boulton, Mathew Piers Watt ref1 Boyle, Robert ref1 Bradbury, Ray ref1 brain breaking ref1 cognitive flexibility ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 cognitive workings ref1, ref2 overt/covert creativity ref1 refashioning the world ref1 seeking/decision making ref1 Brand, Stewart ref1 Brandenburg, Karlheinz ref1 Branson, Richard ref1 Braque, Georges ref1 breaking ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 art ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 design ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 good ref1, ref2, ref3 music ref1, ref2 science ref1, ref2 Breakthrough Starshot ref1 Broken Obelisk (Newman) ref1 Bromberg, Irv ref1 Bronze Age ref1 Brown, Capability ref1 Brown, Earle ref1 Brown, James ref1 Buffalo News (newspaper) ref1 Building 20 (magical incubator) ref1 Bull series (Lichtenstein) ref1 Bull series (Picasso) ref1 bullet train ref1 Burton, Sarah ref1 buses ref1 Buxton, Bill ref1, ref2 Byron, Lord ref1 Café Carlyle (New York) ref1 calcite ref1 calendars ref1 California State Curriculum Committee ref1 cameras ref1 canal locks ref1 car industry ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 testing possibilities ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 carbon copies ref1 Cardin, Pierre ref1 Carnegie Mellon ref1 Carver, George Washington ref1, ref2, ref3 Casio AT-550-7 wristwatch ref1 Castro, Fidel ref1 Catalano, Bruno ref1 Cave, Sophie ref1 Cézanne, Paul ref1 Chanel N°5 ref1 change, responding to ref1 Cheney, Vice President Dick ref1 Chicago World’s Fair (1893) ref1 The Children’s Hour (Hellman) ref1 chimeras ref1 Chomsky, Noam ref1 Chopin, Frédéric ref1 Chung, Kwanghun ref1 Church, George ref1 Cichon, Steve ref1 Cicoria, Anthony ref1 cigarette factories ref1 Cimarosa, Domenico ref1 Citizen Kane (film) ref1, ref2 CitySmoother ref1 CLARITY method ref1 Clark, Barney ref1 Clark, Steve ref1 Cummings, e.e. ref1, ref2 “The Clock” (Marclay) (video) ref1 “closed-world assumption” ref1 CoBot ref1 Coca-Cola company ref1 cognitive flexibility ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Cohn, Billy ref1, ref2 Coleridge, Samuel Taylor ref1 Colescott, Robert ref1 companies ref1 challenges ref1 flexibility ref1 proliferating options ref1 testing possibilities ref1 workplace changes ref1 Composition VII (Kandinsky) ref1 Conan Doyle, Arthur ref1 concrete ref1 Conference Bike ref1 A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court (Twain) ref1 consonance ref1 Contac decongestant ref1 continental drift ref1 continuous flow heart ref1, ref2 Continuum Innovation ref1 Cook, Captain ref1 Cooper, James Fenimore ref1 Cotsworth, Moses ref1 Cotsworth calendar ref1 creativity economy ref1 explosion ref1 overt/covert ref1 practice ref1 creoles ref1 Crick, Francis ref1 The Crossword Puzzle (Hockney) ref1 Cubism ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 cultural conditioning ref1 public approval ref1 da Vinci, Leonardo ref1, ref2 dance ref1, ref2 Dancing House (Gehry/Milunić) ref1 “Dare to Try” Award ref1 Darwin, Charles ref1, ref2, ref3 Data Rover 840 ref1 Davis, Miles ref1 Davy, Humphry ref1 Dawkins, Richard ref1 de Kooning, Willem ref1 decision making ref1 Defragmentados (Portal) ref1 Deisseroth, Karl ref1 Delacroix, Eugène ref1 “The Descent of Edward Wilson” (review) ref1 design ref1, ref2, ref3 bending ref1 blending ref1, ref2 breaking ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 fashion ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 meaningful ref1 proliferating options ref1, ref2, ref3 risk ref1, ref2, ref3 testing possibilities ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 see also technology DeVries, William ref1 Diabelli, Anton ref1 Dick, Philip K. ref1 Dickinson, Emily ref1 dictionary definitions ref1 DiCycle ref1 digital pixilation ref1 Diller, Elizabeth ref1 diminutive artwork ref1 dissonance ref1 drama ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 cultural conditioning ref1, ref2 timelessness ref1 Dre, Dr ref1 Duchamp, Marcel ref1 DuPont ref1 Dweck, Carol ref1 Dynamic Architecture (Fisher) ref1 Dyson, James ref1 Eagleman, David ref1 Eastman, George ref1, ref2 Eastman Kodak Company ref1, ref2 E-car ref1 Edgerton, Harold ref1 Edison, Thomas ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5, ref6 education see schools efficiency ref1 egg drop experiment ref1 Einstein, Albert ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 El Greco ref1 electroencephalography (EEG) ref1 elevators ref1, ref2 Eleven Madison Park (restaurant) ref1 Elias, Anastassia ref1, ref2 Eliot, T.S. ref1 “end of time” illusion ref1 equivalence principle ref1 Ercon frangible mast ref1 Esnault-Pelterie, Robert ref1 Esola, Lindsay ref1 ESP computer game ref1 Esperanto ref1, ref2 Eureka Innovation Lab ref1 eureka moments ref1 exploration/exploitation trade-off point ref1, ref2, ref3 Facebook ref1, ref2 failure ref1, ref2 cultural tastes ref1 fearlessness ref1 public reception ref1 schools, failing ref1 Solyndra ref1 Falconer, William ref1 familiarity ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4, ref5 A Farewell to Arms (Hemingway) ref1 fashion ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4 Federal Aviation Administration ref1 Feldman, Morton ref1 Ferguson, Harry ref1 Fermat, Pierre de ref1 Fermat’s Last Theorem ref1 Feynman, Richard ref1 film, breaking ref1 Fire Phone, Amazon ref1 Fisher, David ref1 Fisher-Price ref1 FitDog ref1 Fitzgerald, F.


Affluence Without Abundance: The Disappearing World of the Bushmen by James Suzman

access to a mobile phone, agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, clean water, discovery of the americas, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, full employment, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, means of production, Occupy movement, open borders, out of africa, post-work, quantitative easing, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, We are the 99%

What was also special about primitive affluence was that it suggested that Keynes’s “economic problem” was not a “permanent condition” of the human species but instead that it was a relatively recent phenomenon when viewed against the broader scope of human history. One that emerged only when some of our ancestors abandoned a life of foraging and became farmers and food producers. The story of southern Africa’s Bushmen encapsulates the history of modern Homo sapiens from our species’ first emergence in sub-Saharan Africa through to the agricultural revolution and beyond. It is an incomplete story, one pieced together from fragments of archaeology, anthropology, and most recently genomics. Taken together, these fragments offer a sense of how hunter-gatherers came to exemplify elements of Keynes’s Utopia and how, since the invention of agriculture, our destiny has been shaped by our preoccupation with solving the “economic problem.” The glue that holds these fragments together is the story of one particular Bushman group, the Ju/’hoansi of Namibia.

The cattlemen’s eventual conquest of this part of the Kalahari may have taken place many millennia after the first farmers in the Fertile Crescent sowed their first seeds, but it is very much part of the same chapter in human history. The story of this conquest helps us to make sense of how and why the Neolithic Revolution expanded far beyond the places it began, eventually converging on the Kalahari some ten millennia later. It also reveals the extent to which so many of our contemporary social, cultural, and economic institutions were shaped by the legacy of the agricultural revolution. Early Neolithic farmers had one massive advantage over hunter-gatherers. When the stars were in alignment, the weather favorable, the pests subdued, and the soils still packed with nutrients, farming was very much more productive than hunting and gathering. This enabled farming populations to grow much more rapidly than hunter-gatherers and sustain these growing populations with less land.


pages: 462 words: 150,129

The Rational Optimist: How Prosperity Evolves by Matt Ridley

"Robert Solow", 23andMe, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, collateralized debt obligation, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, Corn Laws, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, feminist movement, financial innovation, Flynn Effect, food miles, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hans Rosling, happiness index / gross national happiness, haute cuisine, hedonic treadmill, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, Kula ring, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, Northern Rock, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, packet switching, patent troll, Pax Mongolica, Peter Thiel, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Productivity paradox, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Silicon Valley, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supervolcano, technological singularity, Thales and the olive presses, Thales of Miletus, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, transaction costs, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, wage slave, working poor, working-age population, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Now imagine a bowl of nuts that had the opposite character. The more pecans you took, the larger and more numerous they grew. Implausible, I admit. Yet that is precisely the character of the human experience since 100,000 years ago. Inexorably, the global nut bowl has yielded ever more pecans, however many get used. The pace of acceleration of returns lurched upwards around 10,000 years ago in the agricultural revolution. It then lurched upwards again in AD 1800 and the acceleration continued in the twentieth century. The most fundamental feature of the modern world since 1800 – more profound than flight, radio, nuclear weapons or websites, more momentous than science, health, or material well-being – has been the continuing discovery of ‘increasing returns’ so rapid that they outpaced even the population explosion.

Here is how Landes puts it: ‘For a long time, the most accepted view has been that propounded by Marx and repeated and embellished by generations of socialist and even non-socialist historians. This position explains the accomplishment of so enormous a social change – the creation of an industrial proletariat in the face of tenacious resistance – by postulating an act of forcible expropriation: the enclosures uprooted the cottager and small peasant and drove them into the mills. Recent empirical research has invalidated this hypothesis; the data indicate that the agricultural revolution associated with the enclosures increased the demand for farm labour, and that indeed those rural areas that saw the most enclosure saw the largest increase in resident population. From 1750 to 1830 Britain’s agricultural counties doubled their inhabitants. Whether objective evidence of this kind will suffice, however, to do away with what has become an article of faith is doubtful.’ Landes, D.S. 2003.

Even when, by the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, science appeared to make mighty contributions to new industries, the philosophers still played second fiddle to the engineers. Lord Kelvin’s contributions to the physics of resistance and induction were driven more by practical problemsolving in the telegraph industry than esoteric rumination. And though it is true that the physics of James Clerk Maxwell produced an electrical revolution, the chemistry of Fritz Haber spawned an agricultural revolution, Leo Szilard’s idea of a chain reaction of neutrons led to nuclear weapons and the biology of Francis Crick fathered biotechnology, it is none the less also true that these sages needed legions of engineers to turn their insights into things that could change living standards. Tinkering Thomas Edison, with his team of forty engineers, was more important to electrification than thinking Maxwell; practical Carl Bosch mattered more than esoteric Haber; administrative Leslie Groves than dreamy Szilard; practical Fred Sanger than theoretical Crick.


pages: 811 words: 160,872

Scots and Catalans: Union and Disunion by J. H. Elliott

active measures, agricultural Revolution, banking crisis, British Empire, centre right, land tenure, mass immigration, mobile money, new economy, North Sea oil, Red Clydeside, sharing economy, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban renewal

Scottish landowners had been catching up with the English in their enthusiasm for agricultural improvement, and in 1723 a ‘Society of Improvers in the Knowledge of Agriculture’ was founded in Edinburgh. Highland farming continued to present many difficulties, but the numerous improvements made in Lowland farming in the first half of the century were followed in its second half by a transition to more intensive farming, encouraged by increased commercialization and higher levels of investment. The result was an agricultural revolution. 86 Initially, the advent of Union proved more problematic for industrial than agricultural development, leaving a real possibility that Scottish manufactures would wither, and that post-Union Scotland would be relegated to the status of a mere supplier of food and raw materials to the English market. The woollen industry was hard hit by English competition, and the all-important linen industry was not only subjected to new levies but was also hampered by defective techniques that made it uncompetitive.

The 1830s were a critical decade for the industrialization of Scotland, as of Catalonia, 62 but both, with their long tradition of rural and urban production of cloths and linens, had a promising proto-industrial record. Both, too, had experienced a significant population increase and growing urbanization in the eighteenth century, and achieved major agricultural improvements in response to the demands of expanding market opportunities. While eighteenth-century Catalonia saw an impressive development of viticulture in particular, Lowland and Highland Scotland underwent an agricultural revolution over the later eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. 63 As connections between town and country multiplied, industrial and agricultural transformation went hand in hand, although Scotland and Catalonia both remained predominantly rural societies, at least until the middle of the nineteenth century. In Scotland, agriculture and domestic service were still the largest employers of labour in 1851. 64 In both countries commercial capital had done much to bring about the massive changes underway by the middle decades of the nineteenth century.

., abbot of Montserrat, (i) España, Carlos, Count of, (i) Espartero, General Baldomero, (i) , (ii) Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya (ERC), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) Estates: Scotland, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Catalonia, (i) , (ii) Estatut, (i) ; see also Autonomy, Statutes of ETA (Basque movement), (i) European Commission: bars unilateral secession, (i) European Union ( formerly Community): promotes liberal democracy, (i) ; Spain joins, (i) ; Scottish policy on, (i) ; attitude to breakaway states, (i) ; and British referendum, (i) ; Britain votes to leave, (i) ; danger of independent Catalonia losing membership, (i) ; member states fear internal separatist movements, (i) ; Puigdemont supporters denounce, (i) Ewing, Winifred, (i) Exclusion Crisis (England, 1679–81), (i) ‘exempt provinces’, (i) , (ii) , (iii) exhibitions: Barcelona, (i) , (ii) ; Glasgow, (i) ; Paris (1937), (i) Faculty of Advocates (Scottish), (i) , (ii) fadristerns , (i) , (ii) ; see also mas (farmstead) fascism, (i) , (ii) federalism, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) felipistas , (i) , (ii) Feliu de la Peña, Narciso, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; Fénix de Cataluña , (i) Ferdinand of Antequera, (i) Ferdinand (the Catholic), King of Aragon and of Spain: marriage and rule, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; death, (i) , (ii) ; as king of Aragon after Isabella’s death, (i) ; and Sentence of Guadalupe, (i) ; captures Granada, (i) Ferdinand VII, King of Spain ( earlier Prince of Asturias), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) Ferguson, Adam, (i) Feria, Lorenzo Suárez de Figueroa y Córdoba, 2nd Duke of, (i) Ferrer i Guárdia, Francesc, (i) Ferro, Víctor, (i) feudalism, (i) , (ii) , (iii) First World War see Great War (1914–18) fiscal-military state, (i) , (ii) flags: Scottish, (i) ; British (union flag), (i) , (ii) ; Spanish, (i) , (ii) ; Catalan, (i) , (ii) Flanders, (i) Fletcher, Andrew, of Saltoun, (i) Flodden Field, battle of (1513), (i) foral law (Catalonia), (i) , (ii) Forcadell, Carme, (i) France: ‘auld alliance’ with Scotland, (i) ; rescues and supports Mary Queen of Scots, (i) ; wars with England, (i) ; Catalonia becomes protectorate of, (i) , (ii) ; war with Spain (1635–59), (i) , (ii) ; Franco-Spanish frontier redrawn (1659), (i) ; French immigrants in Catalonia, (i) ; French invasion (1695–7), (i) ; Catalan hostility to, (i) , (ii) ; supports Stuart pretender to English throne, (i) ; war with Spain (1793–5), (i) ; French invasion and Spanish resistance (1808), (i) , (ii) ; occupies Catalonia in Napoleonic Wars, (i) Francis II, King of France, (i) Franco, General Francisco, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) Franks, (i) , (ii) Free Church of Scotland, (i) , (ii) French Revolution (1789), (i) , (ii) fueros (Aragonese and Valencian): Aragon’s revolt over defence of, (i) ; abolished by Philip V, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; ‘exempt provinces’, (i) , (ii) ; desire for recovery, (i) ; see also Constitutions, Catalan Gaelic see language Galicia, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Galileo Galilei, (i) Ganivet, Ángel: Idearium español , (i) Garbett, Samuel, (i) Gaudí, Antoni, (i) Gaythelos (Greek prince), (i) Generalitat: role and function, (i) ; revived (1931), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; re-established (1977), (i) , (ii) ; Pujol’s presidency, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Constitutional Tribunal discusses, (i) ; educational and cultural programmes, (i) ; anger at Supreme Constitutional Tribunal’s ruling, (i) ; policy on independence, (i) , (ii) ; overspending, (i) ; economic management, (i) ; see also Diputació; Govern Genoa, Treaty of (1705), (i) Geoffrey of Monmouth: History of the Kings of England , (i) , (ii) George I, King of Great Britain, (i) , (ii) George II, King of Great Britain, (i) George III, King of Great Britain, (i) George IV, King of Great Britain, (i) Gibbs, James, (i) Gibraltar: captured by Allies (1704), (i) Gil, Pere, (i) Gil Robles, José María, (i) Gilmour, Sir John, (i) Girona: established as province, (i) ; under French occupation, (i) ; sieges of (1684), (i) ; (1808), (i) Gladstone, William Ewart, (i) , (ii) n.4 Glasgow: riots over proposed union (1706), (i) ; Malt Tax riots (1725), (i) ; population increase, (i) ; and Atlantic trade, (i) ; Literary Society, (i) ; compared with Barcelona, (i) ; mercantile elite, (i) ; university, (i) , (ii) n. 130; unrest and riots (1819), (i) ; (1848), (i) ; industrial growth and dominance, (i) , (ii) ; Kelvingrove Park exhibitions (1880 and 1901), (i) ; contribution to Great War, (i) ; rent strike, (i) ; see also Clydeside Glasgow General Assembly (1638), (i) Glencairn, William Cunningham, 9th Earl of, (i) Glencoe, Massacre of (1692), (i) Glendower, Owen, (i) , (ii) Glenfinnan, (i) globalization, (i) Glorious Revolution (1688–9), (i) , (ii) Gloucester, William, Duke of: death (1700), (i) ‘God Save the King’: as British national anthem, (i) , (ii) Goded, General Manuel, (i) Godoy, Manuel, (i) Good Friday Agreement (Ireland, 1998), (i) Goschen, George, 1st Viscount, (i) Goths, (i) Govern, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Goya, Francisco, (i) Granada: as Moorish kingdom, (i) ; captured by Ferdinand and Isabella, (i) Grant, Alexander, (i) Great Britain: and Scottish independence movement, (i) ; formed by James VI/I’s joint monarchy, (i) ; mythical origins, (i) ; and dynastic union (1603), (i) ; as term, (i) , (ii) ; and nationality, (i) ; formally created (1707), (i) , (ii) ; reordered after Union, (i) ; victories in Seven Years War, (i) ; as fiscal-military state, (i) ; impact of French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars, (i) , (ii) ; Spain sees as enemy, (i) ; wars with Spain (1796–1802, 1804–8), (i) ; growing power, (i) ; patriotism, (i) ; as united nation-state, (i) ; union by association and imitation, (i) ; 19th-century stability and prosperity, (i) ; proposed federalism, (i) ; regional aspirations, (i) ; patriotism in Great War, (i) ; sense of unity in Second World War, (i) ; welfare state established, (i) , (ii) ; post-war GDP, (i) ; votes to leave EU, (i) ; see also England Great Depression (1929–1930s), (i) Great Reform Bill (and Act, 1832), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Great War (1914–18): and collapse of Austro-Hungarian Empire, (i) ; suspends British home rule movements, (i) , (ii) ; and social-political change, (i) ; Spain’s neutrality in, (i) , (ii) ; effect on British sense of community, (i) Guadalupe, Sentence of, (i) Guardia Civil: created (1844), (i) Güell family, (i) Guipúzcoa, (i) Habsburg dynasty: and Spanish royal succession, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Haig, Douglas, 1st Earl, (i) Hamilton, James, 3rd Marquis ( later 1st Duke) of, (i) Hamilton, James Douglas, 4th Duke of (and Duke of Brandon), (i) , (ii) Hamilton, James, 7th Duke of, (i) Hamilton by-election (1967), (i) Hampden, John, (i) Hanover, House of: and succession to British throne, (i) , (ii) harvest: failures in Scotland (1695–9), (i) ; in Spain (1790s), (i) Hastings, Warren, (i) Heath, Ted, (i) Hebrides, (i) Henry II, King of England, (i) Henry VII, King of England, (i) , (ii) Henry VIII, King of England, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Henry II, King of France, (i) heraldry: Catalan, (i) Heritable Jurisdictions Act (1747), (i) , (ii) Hesse-Darmstadt, George, Prince of, (i) Highlands (Scottish): character, (i) ; lawlessness and banditry in, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; Glencairn’s rising (1653), (i) ; Monck subdues, (i) ; as recruiting ground for Jacobites, (i) ; Anglicization, (i) , (ii) ; land tenure, (i) ; Wade’s road-building programme, (i) ; and Jacobite rebellion (1745), (i) ; farming difficulties, (i) ; provides troops for British Army, (i) ; migration to America, (i) ; and national identity, (i) ; in romanticized history, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; clearances, (i) , (ii) Hispania: as myth, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; as term, (i) historiography, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; see also myths Holland, Henry Richard Vassall-Fox, 3rd Baron, (i) Holyroodhouse, Palace of, (i) home rule: Catalan, (i) , (ii) ; Spain and, (i) ; Irish, (i) , (ii) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; devolution accepted by major British political parties, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; critics of, (i) , (ii) ; see also independence Horne, Sir Robert, (i) Huguenots: persecuted in France, (i) Hume, David, (i) Hundred Thousand Sons of St Louis, (i) Hutcheson, Francis, (i) ‘Hymn of the Grenadiers’ (Spanish national anthem), (i) Iberian Peninsula: union of regions, (i) , (ii) ; localism, (i) ; see also federalism; Hispania; Spain Ilay, Archibald Campbell, Earl of ( later 3rd Duke of Argyll), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ‘improvement’: English origins, (i) , (ii) ; in Scotland, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) ; in Catalonia, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) independence movements: Catalan, (i) , (ii) ; independent republic (1641) (i) ; (1713), (i) ; criticized by Balmes, (i) ; (1934) (i) ; (since 2010), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; overseas imperial territories, (i) , (ii) ; Cuba, (i) , (ii) ; see also home rule; secession and separatism India: Scots in, (i) Indies see empires, Spanish industrialization: Catalan, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) , (viii) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; European, (i) , (ii) ; see also ‘improvement’; textiles Innes, Thomas, (i) Inquisition, Spanish, (i) Institute of San Isidro, (i) intermarriage: Scots-English, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; in Spanish Monarchy, (i) Ireland: treaty with Britain (1921) and creation of Irish Free State (1922), (i) , (ii) ; conquered by English, (i) , (ii) ; Henry VIII proclaimed King of (1541) and English rule, (i) , (ii) ; relations with western Scotland and Scottish settlers in, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; Ulster plantation, (i) ; rebellion (1641), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; support for James II and reconquered by William III, (i) ; keeps parliament, (i) ; manpower resources, (i) ; 1798 rebellion, (i) , (ii) ; incorporating union (1801) and inclusion in British parliament, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Church disestablished (1869), (i) ; nationalism and Home Rule movement, (i) , (ii) ; Easter Rising (1916), (i) , (ii) ; Irish immigrants in Scotland, (i) ; see also Northern Ireland; Ulster Isabel II, Queen of Spain, (i) Isabella I of Castile, Queen of Spain, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) Italy: fascism in, (i) ; see also Mazzini Jacobites and Jacobitism: (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; rebellions (1715), (i) , (ii) ; (1745), (i) , (ii) ; Jacobitism and Scottish history, (i) ; see also Charles Edward Stuart; James Francis Edward Stuart Jamància (pastry-cooks’ revolt, 1842), (i) James II, King of Great Britain ( earlier Duke of York): proposed as viceroy in Scotland, (i) ; Edinburgh court (1679–82), (i) ; accession (1685) and religious policy, (i) ; flight to France and exile, (i) ; death (1701), (i) James III, King of Scotland, (i) James IV, King of Scotland, (i) , (ii) James V, King of Scotland, (i) James VI, King of Scotland (James I of England): succeeds to English throne (1603), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; as ruler of composite monarchy, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; crowned king of Scotland, (i) ; adopts style ‘Great Britain’, (i) ; compatriots follow to English court, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; advocates perfect union, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) , (viii) ; and nationality question, (i) ; on intermarriage of nobility, (i) ; attempts to pacify Borders, (i) ; death (1625), (i) James Francis Edward Stuart, Prince (‘the Old Pretender’; ‘James III/VIII’): and succession, (i) ; rising (1715), (i) , (ii) ; exile and plotting, (i) ; see also Jacobites Jaume I, Count-King (‘the Conqueror’), (i) Jefferson, Thomas, (i) Jeffreys, George, 1st Baron, (i) Jenkins’s Ear, War of (1739–48), (i) Jesuits, (i) , (ii) Jocs Florals , (i) , (ii) John of Fordun, (i) John II, King of Aragon, (i) John II, King of Catalonia, (i) John IV, King of Portugal ( formerly Duke of Braganza), (i) Johnson, Samuel, (i) Johnston, Tom, (i) Johnstone family, (i) Johnstone, George, (i) Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor, (i) Joseph Bonaparte, King of Spain, (i) , (ii) Juan Carlos, King of Spain, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Juan José de Austria, Don, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Junqueras, Oriol, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Junta de Comercio (Barcelona), (i) Junta Superior (Catalonia, 1808), (i) , (ii) Junts per Catalunya (JpC), (i) , (ii) Justices of the Peace: in Scotland, (i) Kames, Henry Home, Lord, (i) Killiecrankie, battle of (1689), (i) Kirk: General Assembly, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; unease at James VI/I’s religious policies, (i) ; gifts of property revoked, (i) ; Charles I’s liturgical reforms resisted, (i) ; fails to extend church government to England, (i) ; vulnerability after 1707 settlement, (i) ; welcomes Hanoverian succession, (i) ; opposes Gaelic language, (i) ; Moderates acquire control, (i) ; and national sentiment, (i) ; diminishing influence, (i) ; see also Church of Scotland; Disruptionists; Presbyterianism Kirk o’ Field, Edinburgh, (i) Knox, John, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; see also Covenant Labour Party (British), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) Labour Party (Scottish), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) labour (workers): in Scotland and Catalonia, (i) , (ii) ; and industrial unrest, (i) ; organized, (i) , (ii) ; indifference to Catalan autonomy, (i) ; see also anarchism; trade unions lairds, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) language: Castilian, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) ; Catalan, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; nineteenth-century revival, (i) , (ii) ; prohibitions under Franco, (i) ; official status in 1978 Constitution, (i) ; Generalitat’s promotion of, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; English, (i) ; Gaelic, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Laud, William, Archbishop of Canterbury, (i) Lauderdale, John Maitland, 1st Duke of, (i) , (ii) law: English–Scottish differences, (i) ; English Common, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; Catalan, (i) , (ii) León: united with Castile, (i) ; foundation myth, (i) Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, (i) Leovigild, Visigothic king, (i) Lérida see Lleida Lerroux, Alejandro, (i) , (ii) Leslie, General Alexander, 1st Earl of Leven, (i) Liberal Democrats (Britain): coalition with Conservatives (2010), (i) ; decline in Scotland, (i) Liberal Party (British), (i) , (ii) Liberal Party (Spanish), (i) ; factional divisions, (i) Liberal Unionists (Scottish), (i) , (ii) liberalism: ideology, (i) , (ii) ; in Cortes of Cadiz, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; in Spain, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) ; liberal triennium (1820–3) (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; in Catalonia, (i) , (ii) ; in Scotland, (i) Lithuania: union with Poland, (i) Lleida (Lérida), (i) , (ii) Lliga Regionalista ( later Catalana), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) Llivia, (i) Llorens i Barba, Xavier, (i) Lloyd George, David, (i) London Corresponding Society, (i) Lord Advocate (Scotland), (i) , (ii) Lords of the Articles (Scotland), (i) , (ii) Lords, House of: Scottish peers in, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; as ultimate court of appeal, (i) ; Irish peers in, (i) Lothian, William Kerr, 3rd Earl of, (i) Louis I (the Pious), Carolingian Emperor, (i) Louis XIII, King of France, (i) , (ii) Louis XIV, King of France, (i) , (ii) ; and Spanish succession, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Louis XVI, King of France, (i) Lublin, Union of (1569), (i) McCormick, John, (i) McCrone, David: Understanding Scotland , (i) MacDiarmid, Hugh, (i) MacDonald, Ramsay, (i) Macià, Colonel Francesc, (i) , (ii) Macmillan, Harold, (i) Macpherson, James, (i) Madrid: Archduke Charles captures, (i) , (ii) ; population increase, (i) ; uprising against French invaders ( dos de mayo , 1808), (i) ; urban elite, (i) ; lacks manufacturing, (i) ; political and administrative power, (i) , (ii) ; as national capital, (i) , (ii) ; University, (i) ; see also Castile; Spain Magna Carta (1215), (i) Mair, John: Historia Maioris Britanniae , (i) Major, John, (i) , (ii) Malcolm III, King of Scotland, (i) Malcontents , (i) Mallorca: Jaume I captures from Moors, (i) ; and Indies, (i) ; language, (i) , (ii) ; and Nueva Planta, (i) Malt Tax, (i) ; riots (Glasgow, 1725), (i) Man, Isle of, (i) Mancomunitat, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Manresa, (i) , (ii) Mar, John Erskine, 22nd or 6th Earl of, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Maragall, Pasqual, (i) , (ii) Margaret (‘Maid of Norway’): death, (i) , (ii) Margaret, Queen of Alexander III of Scotland, (i) Margaret, St, Queen of Malcolm III of Scotland, (i) Margaret Tudor, Queen of James IV of Scotland, (i) Margarit i Pau, Joan, Cardinal, (i) María Cristina de Borbón, Queen of Ferdinand VII, (i) María Cristina de Austria, Queen of Alfonso XII, (i) Martin the Humane, Count of Barcelona, (i) Martínez Marina, Francisco, (i) ; Theory of the Cortes , (i) Mary of Guise, Queen of James V of Scotland, (i) , (ii) Mary I (Tudor), Queen of England, (i) Mary II (Stuart), Queen of Great Britain, (i) Mary Queen of Scots, (i) , (ii) Mas, Artur, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) mas (farmstead), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; see also fadristerns Mataró, (i) Maura, Antonio, (i) , (ii) May, Theresa, (i) Mazzini, Giuseppe, (i) ‘Memorandum of Grievances’ ( Memorial de Greuges ), (i) Menéndez y Pelayo, Marcelino, (i) Menorca, (i) Millar, John, (i) miquelets , (i) , (ii) Miralles, Enric, (i) Miró, Joan: Segador (mural), (i) modernista movement, (i) Mon, Alejandro, (i) monarchy: as unifying force, (i) ; ‘vertical’ and ‘horizontal’, (i) , (ii) ; restored in Spain (1874), (i) ; ceremonial activities in Europe, (i) ; as centre of stability in Spain, (i) ; styling in Britain, (i) monarquia española (Spanish Monarchy), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; see also empires, Spanish Monck, General George (1st Duke of Albemarle), (i) , (ii) Monmouth, James Scott, Duke of: rebellion (1685), (i) Montjuïc, battle of (1641), (i) ; World Fair site (1929), (i) Montrose, James Graham, 5th Earl and 1st Marquis of, (i) , (ii) Montserrat: Santa Maria abbey, (i) , (ii) Moors (Muslims): invade and settle southern Spain, (i) ; conflict with Christians, (i) ; Barcelona recaptured from, (i) Morocco: Spain’s wars in, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Mossos d’Esquadra, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Muir, Edwin, (i) Muirhead, Roland, (i) Muntañola, Pere, (i) Murat, General Joachim, (i) Mussolini, Benito, (i) myths: and national identity, (i) , (ii) ; and foundation of Britain and Spain, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; and foundation of Catalonia, (i) , (ii) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; see also historiography; Romantic movement Nairn, Tom, (i) Naples: Alfonso V conquers, (i) ; and composite monarchy, (i) Napoleon I (Bonaparte), Emperor of the French, (i) , (ii) Napoleonic Wars: impact on Britain and Spain, (i) , (ii) Narváez, General Ramón Maria, 1st Duke of Valencia, (i) Naseby, battle of (1645), (i) nation: concept and meaning, (i) , (ii) ‘nation-state’: as political formation, (i) ; (i) ; (i) ; Pi i Margall on, (i) ; Prat de la Riba on, (i) national anthems, (i) , (ii) National Assembly of Catalonia (ANC), (i) National Party of Scotland, (i) nationalism: rise of, (i) , (ii) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; linguistic, (i) ; English, (i) , (ii) ; Spanish, (i) , (ii) ; British, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Catalan, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) ; in post–Great War Europe, (i) ; resurgence, (i) , (ii) ; changes with circumstances, (i) ; see also patria , patriotism; unionist nationalism nationality, (i) ; difficulties over definition, (i) nationalization, (i) NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), (i) Navarre, kingdom of: status in Spain, (i) ; Castilian conquest and incorporation (1515), (i) ; under Bourbon administration, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; see also ‘exempt provinces’ Navigation Acts (English), (i) , (ii) Negrín, Juan, (i) Netherlands see Dutch Republic, Flanders New Lanark, (i) New Model Army (English), (i) Newcastle, Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of, (i) newspapers, (i) , (ii) Newton, Sir Isaac: Principia Mathematica , (i) Nifo, Francisco Mariano, (i) Nine Years War (1688–97), (i) , (ii) nobility: Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; intermarriage in Britain and Spain, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; see also Lords, House of Normans: expansion in Britain, (i) North America Act (Britain, 1867), (i) North Sea oil, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) Northern Ireland: Good Friday Agreement (1998), (i) ; see also Ulster Norway: contends for dominion over Scotland, (i) Nottingham, Daniel Finch, 2nd Earl of, (i) Nueva Planta: as incorporating union, (i) , (ii) ; and system of government and administration, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) Numancia, (i) , (ii) Núria Statute, (i) ‘October Revolution’ (1934), (i) O’Donnell, General Leopoldo, (i) Olivares, Gaspar de Guzmán, Count-Duke of: administration and reforms, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; and war with France (1635), (i) ; and Catalans, (i) , (ii) ; opposition and downfall, (i) ; see also Union of Arms Oliver, Frederick Scott, (i) , (ii) Omnium Cultural (organization), (i) Organic Laws (1978 Constitution), (i) , (ii) n. 41 Orkney, (i) Ortega y Gasset, José, (i) Orwell, George, (i) Ossian, (i) Oswald, Richard, (i) Oxford, Robert Harley, 1st Earl of, (i) , (ii) Paisley: riots (1819), (i) Paris International Exhibition (1937), (i) Parliament British: composition, (i) ; and peripheral countries’ representation, (i) ; sovereignty, (i) ; see also Great Reform Bill (1832); Lords, House of Catalan, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) English: and union with Scotland, (i) ; Short (1640), (i) ; Long (1640–60), (i) ; Rump (1648), (i) ; as counterpart to Scottish parliament, (i) ; Convention (1689), (i) ; historical legacy, (i) Irish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Scottish: devolved, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; defers to monarch, (i) ; ratifies National Covenant, (i) ; and Triennial Act, (i) , (ii) ; and rebellion (1640s), (i) ; Covenanter, (i) ; dissolved, (i) ; post-Restoration status, (i) ; relations with English parliament, (i) ; activities, (i) ; passes Succession Act favouring James II, (i) ; revival under William III, (i) ; history of, (i) Spanish see Cortes; Corts parliamentary democracy: European disillusionment with, (i) Partido Popular (PP), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) Paterson, William, (i) Patiño, José, (i) , (ii) patria , patriotism: Catalan image of, (i) ; and Scottish and Catalan rebellions, (i) ; dual patriotism, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; in Cortes of Cadiz, (i) ; and struggle for liberty, (i) ; and a federal Spain, (i) ; and state, (i) ; Primo de Rivera and Spanish, (i) Patronage Act (British, 1712), (i) peasantry, Catalan: (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) peers (Scottish): in House of Lords, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; apply for English titles, (i) Pelayo, Don (legendary figure), (i) , (ii) , (iii) Penedès region, (i) Peninsular War, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Perpinyà (Perpignan), (i) Perth, Five Articles of (1618–21), (i) , (ii) , (iii) Peterborough, Admiral Charles Mordaunt, 3rd Earl of, (i) Peterloo Massacre (Manchester, 1819), (i) Petronilla, wife of Ramon Berenguer, (i) Philip II, King of Spain, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) , (viii) Philip III, King of Spain, (i) , (ii) Philip IV, King of Spain: accession (1621), (i) ; early encounters with Catalans, (i) ; and Olivares’s administration, (i) , see also Olivares; and Catalan rebellion (1640–52), (i) , (ii) ; rule without minister-favourite, (i) Philip V, King of Spain ( earlier Duke of Anjou): contends for succession, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) ; and Catalan Corts (1702), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Nueva Planta, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; aims to recover lost Italian territories, (i) ; war with Charles VI ends, (i) Philip VI, King of Spain, (i) , (ii) Philippines, (i) , (ii) Philosophical Society of Edinburgh, (i) Pi i Margall, Francesc, (i) , (ii) ; Las nacionalidades , (i) Picasso, Pablo: Guernica (painting), (i) Picts, (i) Pitt, William the Younger, (i) PNV (Partido Nacionalista Vasco, Basque Nationalist Party), (i) Poland: union with Lithuania, (i) political culture: English, (i) , (ii) ; Catalan, (i) ; Spanish, (i) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) population: Castile, (i) ; Catalonia, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Crown of Aragon, (i) ; Scotland, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; England and Wales, (i) , (ii) Popular Front, (i) Porteous Riots (Edinburgh, 1736), (i) Portugal, kingdom of: (i) ; dynastic marriages, (i) ; and Ferdinand and Isabella’s title, (i) ; union with Spain (1580), (i) ; citizens declared foreigners in Castile, (i) ; customs barriers with Castile, (i) ; recovers independence (1640), (i) , (ii) ; in War of Spanish Succession, (i) ; French invade (1807), (i) ; and proposed federation with Spain, (i) , (ii) POUM (Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista), (i) Prat de la Riba, Enric, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; Compendium of Catalanist Doctrines (with Muntañola), (i) ; La nacionalitat catalana , (i) prayer book: in Scotland, (i) Presbyterianism: (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; restored (1690), (i) , (ii) ; and Scottish national identity, (i) ; internal dissent, (i) ; relations with state, (i) ; see also Church of Scotland; Covenant; Kirk; Knox, John Preston, battle of (1648), (i) Prim, General Joan, (i) prime ministers (British): Scottish origins of, (i) , (ii) n. 4 Primo de Rivera, General Miguel, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Privy Council, British (post-Union), (i) , (ii) Privy Council, English, (i) , (ii) Privy Council, Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) pronunciamientos , (i) , (ii) proportional representation: in Scotland, (i) , (ii) protectionism, (i) Protestantism: adopted in England and Scotland, (i) ; and Scottish working-class culture, (i) ‘province’: differing interpretations, (i) PSOE (Partido Socialista Obrero Español; Socialist Party), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) Puerto Rico, (i) , (ii) Puig, Tomàs, (i) Puigdemont, Carles, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Pujol, Jordi, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) Pyrenees, Peace of the (1659), (i) Quadruple Alliance (Britain–France–Austria–Netherlands), (i) Quebec, (i) rabassaires , (i) , (ii) ; see also viticulture Radical Republican Party, (i) radicalism, (i) Rajoy, Mariano, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) Ramon Berenguer IV, Count, (i) rauxa , (i) rebellions: Aragon (1590–1), (i) , (ii) barretines (1687), (i) Carlist, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Catalonia: (1640), (i) , (ii) ; (1705), (i) ; (1719), (i) ; (1822), (i) Ireland: (1641), (i) , (ii) ; (1798), (i) , (ii) Jacobite: (1715), (i) , (ii) ; (1745), (i) , (ii) , (iii) Madrid (1808), (i) Monmouth’s (1685), (i) Riego’s (1820), (i) , (ii) Scotland: (1638), (i) ; (1640s), (i) see also wars, civil Recaredo, Visigothic king, (i) , (ii) referendums Canada (1980, 1995), (i) Catalan (2017), (i) , (ii) , (iii) Scotland: (1979), (i) ; (1997), (i) ; (2014), (i) , (ii) , (iii) Spain (1978), (i) Wales (1979), (i) Reformation (Protestant): effect on Anglo-Scottish relations, (i) , (ii) ; exacerbates religious differences, (i) regidores , (i) , (ii) regionalism: in Spain, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) , (viii) , (ix) , (x) , (xi) ; in Catalonia, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; see also Home Rule; Lliga regionalista religion: resurgence, (i) ; see also Church of England; Church of Rome; Church of Scotland Renaixença , (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) resistance, right of, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Revocation, Act of (1625), (i) revolutions of 1848, (i) , (ii) Richard III, King of England, (i) Richelieu, Cardinal Armand du Plessis, Duc de, (i) , (ii) Riego, Colonel Rafael de, (i) , (ii) rights (civil): and independence movements, (i) Ripon, Treaty of (1640), (i) Rius i Taulet, Francesc, (i) Rivera, Albert, (i) Robertson, William, (i) ; The History of America , (i) Robres, Agustín López de Mendoza y Pons, Count of, (i) Roebuck, John, (i) Romanones, Alvaro de Figueroa, Count of, (i) Romantic movement: influence, (i) , (ii) ; and historiography, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; and revival of Catalan language, (i) Rome: Fascist march on (1922), (i) Ross, Willie, (i) Rosselló ( comtat ), (i) ‘rough wooing’ (Henry VIII’s), (i) Royal Academy of History, Madrid, (i) Royal Commission on the Constitution (1969), (i) Royal Company of Barcelona, (i) Rubió i Ors, Joaquim, (i) Ryswick, Treaty of (1697), (i) Sabadell, (i) Sagasta, Práxades, (i) Salisbury, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquis of, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Salmond, Alex, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) San Sebastián, Pact of (1930), (i) Sànchez, Jordi, (i) Sanjurjo, General José, (i) Sanpere i Miquel, Salvador, (i) Santa Coloma, Dalmau de Queralt, Count of, (i) , (ii) Sardana (dance form), (i) Scone, Scotland: as site of royal enthronement, (i) , (ii) ; stone of, (i) , (ii) Scota (mythical Scottish queen), (i) Scotia: as term, (i) Scotland: recent independence movement, (i) ; as nation without state, (i) ; devolved parliament (Assembly), (i) , (ii) ; dynastic union with England (1603), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Edward I invades and subdues, (i) ; geographical character, (i) ; colonised and settled, (i) ; influence of sea on, (i) ; Scots dominate, (i) ; early claims to sovereignty, (i) , (ii) ; land ownership and transfers, (i) ; close relations with Ireland, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; local powers and chieftains, (i) ; territorial consolidation and expansion, (i) , (ii) ; slow state-building, (i) ; Wars of Independence, (i) , (ii) ; ‘auld alliance’ with France (1295), (i) ; population changes, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; foundation myth, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Protestantism, (i) , (ii) ; union settlement debated, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; administrative system after union, (i) ; intermarriage with English, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; and nationality question, (i) ; customs barriers with England, (i) ; transatlantic trade and colonization (i) , (ii) ; incorporating union with England, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; innovation and reform under Charles I, (i) ; revenue raising under Charles I, (i) ; Estates, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; rebellion against England (1640s), (i) ; defeated by Cromwell (1650), (i) ; army threat to England, (i) ; army strength, (i) ; seeks confederal union with England, (i) ; role and fortunes in English Civil War, (i) , (ii) ; rift with England over execution of Charles I, (i) ; improvement in, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) , (viii) , (ix) ; post–Civil War settlement and government reforms, (i) ; Episcopacy reimposed (1661), (i) ; rejects office of viceroy, (i) ; clan conflict, (i) ; church government (Presbyterian) in, (i) , (ii) ; and succession question (to Charles II), (i) ; divisions in, (i) ; cross-border trade, (i) , (ii) ; economic hardship and population loss, (i) , (ii) ; migration to America, (i) , (ii) ; William III’s indifference to, (i) ; and succession to William III and Anne, (i) ; opposes Catholic monarch, (i) ; as prospective province of Dutch Republic, (i) ; government and constitution under Union, (i) ; fear of anglicization after Treaty of Union, (i) ; constituencies reduced, (i) ; post-Union administrative and political part-autonomy, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; coinage, (i) ; sacrifices sovereignty, (i) ; shares economy with England, (i) ; delayed economic development, (i) ; Secretary of State for Scotland office revived under Oxford, (i) ; unable to participate in overseas trade, (i) ; administrative reforms under Walpole, (i) ; riots against English government, (i) ; resents English governance, (i) ; feudal jurisdictions abolished (1748), (i) ; social and economic changes (18th century), (i) , (ii) ; commercial networks disrupted by wars, (i) ; surplus food production and exports, (i) ; access to British market and overseas trade, (i) ; industrialization, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; textile and weaving industry, (i) , (ii) ; gains access to overseas trade, (i) , (ii) ; military service abroad, (i) ; shipbuilding, (i) ; manpower resources, (i) ; taxation levels, (i) ; administrators in India and colonies, (i) ; rise of English hostility to (1760s), (i) ; national identity and culture, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Enlightenment, (i) ; dual patriotism in, (i) ; and romanticized history, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; dissent and riots in, (i) ; Lords Lieutenant introduced, (i) ; national militia question, (i) ; representation in British parliament, (i) ; national debt, (i) ; ‘radical war’ (1820), (i) ; contribution to British Empire, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; agricultural revolution, (i) ; employment and labour, (i) ; landed aristocracy, (i) ; cotton spinners’ strike (1837), (i) ; parliamentary reform, (i) ; laissez-faire government in mid-19th century, (i) ; peripheral role in British economic development, (i) ; semi-independence, (i) ; feudalism survives, (i) ; historiography, (i) ; nineteenth-century renaissance, (i) ; grievances, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; provides British prime ministers, (i) , (ii) n. 4; education, (i) ; demands separate Department of State, (i) ; home rule movement, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) ; close ties with England, (i) ; in Great War, (i) ; effect of Irish developments in, (i) ; Labour party ascendancy in, (i) ; political parties established in British system, (i) ; Unionism, (i) , (ii) ; devolution proposals, (i) ; in Great Depression, (i) ; ‘Renaissance’ (1930s), (i) ; contribution to Second World War, (i) ; state intervention in, (i) ; heavy industries decline, (i) , (ii) ; post–Second World War nationalism, (i) ; referendum on devolution (1979), (i) ; Poll Tax (Community Charge) proposed, (i) ; recession (1980s), (i) ; campaign for legislative assembly, (i) ; parliament opened (July 1999), (i) ; proportional representation in 1999 poll, (i) ; referendum (September 1997), (i) ; economic resources and revival, (i) , (ii) ; renaissance of history as academic subject, (i) ; referendum campaign and vote on independence (2014), (i) , (ii) ; plans second referendum on independence, (i) ; and end of empire, (i) ; sense of Britishness, (i) ; and inadequate dialogue with London government, (i) ; see also Treaty of Union Scotland Act (1998), (i) Scots (people): arrival in Scotland, (i) ; unpopularity in England after union, (i) ; settle in Ulster, (i) Scott, Sir Walter: on Darien scheme, (i) , (ii) ; on development of Scotland, (i) ; popularity in Europe, (i) ; romanticizes Scottish past, (i) ; on Scottish emotionalism, (i) ; The Antiquary , (i) ; Waverley , (i) Scottish Assembly: proposed, (i) Scottish Council: established in London, (i) ; disbanded, (i) Scottish Education Act (1872), (i) Scottish Executive, (i) , (ii) ; title changed to Scottish Government, (i) Scottish Home Rule Association, (i) , (ii) Scottish Militia Act (1796), (i) Scottish National Party (SNP): founded, (i) ; weakness, (i) ; Hamilton by-election victory (1967), (i) ; growing strength, (i) , (ii) ; aims for independence, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; claims North Sea oil, (i) ; European policy, (i) , (ii) ; and new economy, (i) ; in government, (i) ; success in 2011 election, (i) , (ii) ; gains seats in 2015 general election, (i) ; membership increases after referendum, (i) ; members move to Barcelona to support independence, (i) ; popular appeal, (i) ; efficient rule, (i) Scottish Office: transferred to Edinburgh, (i) Scottish Reform Act (1832), (i) Scottish Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, (i) secession and separatism, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; Catalonia and Portugal (1640), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Catalonia (2010–17), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; Scotland (2014), (i) ; see also Cuba; independence movements Second World War (1939–45): and nationalism, (i) ; outbreak, (i) ; effect on British unity, (i) Security, Act of (1703), (i) seny , (i) , (ii) separatism see secession Serrano Suñer, Ramón, (i) Sert, Josep María, (i) Settlement, Act of (1701), (i) Seven Years War (1756–63), (i) , (ii) Sharp, James, Archbishop of St Andrews, (i) Shetland, (i) shipbuilding, (i) , (ii) Sidney, Algernon, (i) Silvela, Francisco, (i) Sinn Fein (Irish party), (i) slave trade, (i) Smith, Adam, (i) , (ii) ; Wealth of Nations , (i) Smith, John, (i) Socialist Party (Catalonia) see PSOE socialists: in Barcelona, (i) , (ii) Societies of Friends of the Country (Amigos del País), (i) Societies of the Friends of the People (Scotland), (i) Society of Barcelona Weavers, (i) Society of Improvers in the Knowledge of Agriculture (Scotland), (i) Solemn League and Covenant (1643), (i) , (ii) Solidaritat Catalana, (i) Sophia, Electress of Hanover, (i) sovereignty: national, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; Edward I claims over Scotland, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; Bodin on indivisibility, (i) , (ii) ; embodied in English/British parliament, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Catalan claims, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; Basque claims, (i) Soviet Union: collapse (1989), (i) Spain: and Catalan independence movement, (i) ; dynastic union (Ferdinand and Isabella), (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; mythological origins, (i) ; union with Portugal (1580), (i) ; in Low Countries, (i) ; internal customs, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; war with France (1635–40), (i) ; post-Olivares government, (i) ; frontier with France defined, (i) ; and the Austrian connection, (i) ; Bourbon administrative intentions, (i) ; sends invasion fleet against Britain (1719), (i) ; population, (i) ; as fiscal-military state, (i) ; migration to Americas, (i) ; taxation, (i) , (ii) ; national identity, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; resistance to Enlightenment ideas, (i) ; Britain perceived as enemy and rival, (i) ; impact of French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars on, (i) ; allies with France against Britain (1796–1802), (i) ; uprisings against French in Napoleonic wars, (i) , (ii) ; Cortes of Cadiz and constitutional monarchy, (i) , (ii) ; liberal reform, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; new regional divisions (1833), (i) ; economic development (19th century), (i) ; political instability in 19th century, (i) , (ii) ; tensions with Catalonia over government, (i) ; developed and undeveloped regions, (i) ; civil code, (i) ; Moderates and Progressives, (i) ; centralization, (i) ; Revolutionary Sexennium (1868–74), (i) ; First Republic (1873), (i) , (ii) ; monarchy restored (1874), (i) ; considers home rule for regions and overseas territories, (i) ; varied historic regions and communities, (i) ; proposed federalism, (i) , (ii) ; defeat in war with USA (1898), (i) ; anarchist attacks in, (i) ; war in Morocco, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; loss of Empire and decline, (i) , (ii) ; regionalism, (i) , (ii) ; neutrality in Great War, (i) , (ii) ; provoked by increasing Catalan nationalism, (i) ; and Primo de Rivera’s nationalism, (i) , (ii) ; Second Republic (1931), (i) , (ii) ; under Franco’s dictatorship, (i) , (ii) ; monarchy restored (1975), (i) ; decentralization under 1978 Constitution, (i) ; membership of European Community and NATO, (i) ; failure to counter Catalan independence propaganda, (i) ; illegality of unilateral secession under Constitution, (i) ; reaction to Catalan referendum and declaration on independence, (i) ; and consequences of Catalan independence decision, (i) ; see also Castile Spanish Civil War see wars, civil Spanish Succession, War of (1700–14), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Spanish-American War (1898), (i) , (ii) ‘Squadrone Volante’ (Scotland), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) Stair, Sir James Dalrymple, 1st Viscount, (i) ; Institutions of the Laws of Scotland , (i) state, the: and surrender of overseas empires, (i) ; changing meaning, (i) ; fiscal-military, (i) ; and sense of nationality, (i) ; and bureaucracy, (i) ; and pàtria , (i) ; Catalonia as a ‘complete’ state, (i) ; see also ‘nation-state’; nationalism Stevenson, Robert Louis, (i) Stewart see Stuart Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of, (i) ‘Strategy for Catalanization’ (document), (i) Stuart dynasty, (i) , (ii) Sturgeon, Nicola, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Suárez, Adolfo, (i) , (ii) Supreme Constitutional Tribunal (Spain), (i) , (ii) , (iii) syndicalists, (i) , (ii) ; see also anarchism and anarcho-syndicalism; trade unions tacks (Highland land leases), (i) Tarradellas, Josep, (i) , (ii) , (iii) Tarragona, (i) taxation: in Catalonia (1716), (i) , (ii) ; (2015) (i) ; in Scotland (18th century), (i) ; (since 1888), (i) ; in Spain, (i) , (ii) Terrassa, (i) textiles: Catalan, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) ; Scottish, (i) , (ii) Thatcher, Margaret, (i) , (ii) Thirty Years War (1618–48), (i) Three Commons, the see Conferència dels Tres Comuns Times, The , (i) , (ii) tobacco: trade, (i) , (ii) Toleration Acts (England, 1689), (i) , (ii) ; (British, 1712), (i) , (ii) Tories: election victory (1710), (i) , (ii) ; see also Conservative Party Townsend, Joseph, (i) , (ii) Townshend, Charles, (i) trade: Catalan, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) ; see also Darien project Spanish Atlantic, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) trade unions: Scottish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; Spanish, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; see also anarchism and anarcho-syndicalism trading companies, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; see also individual companies Trastámaras, (i) , (ii) Treaty of Union (Anglo-Scottish, 1707): and Scottish parliament, (i) ; negotiated and ratified, (i) ; as incorporating union, (i) , (ii) ; and Scottish and English law, (i) ; and Scottish religious fears, (i) ; and Scottish representation in British parliament, (i) ; on relations between state and Presbyterian Church, (i) ; see also Anglo-Scottish Union Trevor-Roper, Hugh, (i) Triennial Act (Scotland, 1641), (i) , (ii) Tubal, son of Japhet, (i) , (ii) Tweeddale, John Hay, 4th Marquis of, (i) Tyrconnel, Rory O’Donnell, 1st Earl of, (i) Tyrone, Hugh O’Neill, 2nd Earl of, (i) UGT (Unión General de Trabajadores), (i) , (ii) Ulster: plantation established, (i) ; see also Northern Ireland Ulster Unionists, (i) Union, Anglo-Scottish see Treaty of Union (Anglo-Scottish, 1707) Union Commissioners (English and Scottish), (i) union (forms of): dynastic, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) , (viii) , (ix) ; aeque principaliter , (i) , (ii) ; incorporating, (i) , (ii) ; see also Nueva Planta Union of Rabassaires , (i) , (ii) ; see also viticulture Union of Arms, (i) , (ii) unionist nationalism (‘banal’ nationalism), (i) , (ii) n. 93 Unionist Party (Scotland), (i) , (ii) ; see also Conservative Party United Irishmen, (i) United Kingdom see Great Britain United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP), (i) United Scotsmen, (i) United States of America: war with Spain (1898), (i) , (ii) Universal Male Suffrage Law (Spain, 1890), (i) , (ii) universities: Catalonia, (i) , (ii) ; Scotland, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) ; Spain, (i) urbanization: Catalonia, (i) ; Scotland, (i) Utrecht, Treaty of (1713), (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Vairement, Richard (Veremundus): Gesta Annalia (attrib.), (i) Valencia, kingdom of: Jaume I reconquers, (i) ; economic strength, (i) ; and internal relationships of Crown of Aragon, (i) ; in War of Spanish Succession, (i) ; imposition of Nueva Planta (i) , (ii) , (iii) Vatican Council, Second (1962–5), (i) Velasco, Don Francisco Antonio Fernández de, (i) Versailles: peace settlement and treaties (1919), (i) Vicens Vives, Jaume, (i) ; Noticia de Cataluña , (i) viceroys: title rejected by Scots, (i) , (ii) ; of Catalonia, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) , (v) , (vi) , (vii) ; of Peru, (i) Villahermosa, Carlos de Aragón de Gurrea de Borja, 9th Duke of, (i) , (ii) Visigoths, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) viticulture, (i) , (ii) , (iii) ; see also rabassaires Vizcaya, (i) ; see also Basque provinces Wade, General George, (i) Wales: English conquest, (i) ; incorporating union, (i) , (ii) ; referendum on devolved assembly, (i) Wallace, William, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) Walpole, Sir Robert, (i) , (ii) , (iii) , (iv) War of Spanish Succession see Spanish Succession, War of wars, civil: English (1642–50), (i) ; Spanish (1936–9), (i) ; see also rebellions Wars of the Congregation (Scotland, 1550s), (i) Waterloo, battle of (1815), (i) Watt, James, (i) West Indies (Caribbean): trade with Spain, (i) ; immigration and settlement, (i) West Lothian question, (i) Western Isles: purchased by Alexander III from Norway, (i) Weyler, Valeriano, (i) Whigs: Junto falls (1710), (i) ; return to power under George I, (i) ; and Jacobite rebellion (1715), (i) ; supported by 2nd Duke of Argyll, (i) Whitelaw, Archibald, (i) Wilfred the Hairy, Count of Barcelona, (i) Wilhelm II, Kaiser of Germany, (i) William III (of Orange), King of Great Britain, (i) , (ii) Wilson, Harold, (i) Wilson, Woodrow, (i) wine production (Catalonia) see viticulture woollen industry (Scotland), (i) ; see also textiles workers see labour Young Scots Society, (i) Zapatero, José Luis Rodríguez, (i) , (ii) Zapatero, General Juan, (i) Zaragoza: rising (1591–2), (i) ; resists French invasion, (i)


Protein Power: The High-Protein/Low-Carbohydrate Way to Lose Weight, Feel Fit, and Boost Your Health--In Just Weeks! by Michael R. Eades, Mary Dan Eades

agricultural Revolution, Louis Pasteur

This restricted-carbohydrate diet worked like a charm for Banting and, if sales were any in duration, many others. It has always intrigued us because it completely flies in the face of today’s low-fat paradigm. At about the same time we ran across Banting we began attending paleopathology conferences and studying anthropology, where we learned what paleopathologists and anthropologists have known for years: the agricultural revolution and the increased consumption of carbohydrates it brought along with it played havoc with the health of early man. Mary Dan’s extensive study of eating disorders and metabolic hormonal derangements combined with Mike’s interest in biochemistry rounded out the “preparation” of our minds. We looked at Banting’s success with carbohydrate restriction along with the paleopathological/anthropological data showing a decline in health accompanying an increase in carbohydrate intake and concluded that maybe the intake of large amounts of carbohydrates wasn’t necessarily a good thing.

The archaeological dietary data support this conclusion.” Dr. Cassidy is not alone in reporting this phenomenon. Many scientific papers have been written on this subject, and they present even the most passionate believer in the superiority of the high-carbohydrate diet with some food for thought. As Dr. Kathleen Gordon, like Dr. Cassidy an anthropologist at the Smithsonian Institution, writes in one such paper: “Not only was the agricultural ‘revolution’ not really so revolutionary at its inception, it has also come to represent something of a nutritional ‘devolution’ for much of mankind.” The Thrifty Gene: Store That Fat! The anthropological record provides plenty of evidence that the change to a high-carbohydrate diet caused a general decline in health of people designed to eat a high-protein, carbohydrate-restricted diet. Why?


pages: 297 words: 89,176

Cheese and Culture: A History of Cheese and Its Place in Western Civilization by Paul Kindstedt

agricultural Revolution, Kickstarter, mass immigration, New Urbanism, trade route

The Philistine Settlement as Mercantile Phenomenon? American Journal of Archaeology 104:513–530. Barham, E. 2003. Translating Terroir: The Global Challenge of French AOC Labeling. Journal of Rural Studies 19:127–138. Barker, G. 1981. Landscape and Society: Prehistoric Central Italy. Academic Press, London. —. 1985. Prehistoric Farming in Europe. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. —. 2006. The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory: Why Did Foragers Become Farmers? Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Barker, G., and T. Rasmussen. 1998. The Etruscans. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK. Barker, G., A. Grant, P. Beavitt, N. Christie, J. Giorgi, P. Hoare, T. Leggio, and M. Migliavacca. 1991. Ancient and Modern Pastoralism in Central Italy: An Interdisciplinary Study in the Cicolano Mountains. Papers of the British School at Rome 59:15–88.

Archeological Sources for the History of Palestine: Between Large Forces: Palestine in the Hellenistic Period. The Biblical Archeologist 60(1):2–51. Berlin, I. 1998. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Bezeczky, Dr. 1996. Amphora Inscriptions—Legionary Supply? Britannia 27:329–336. Bidwell, P. W. 1921. The Agricultural Revolution in New England. The American Historical Review 26(4):683–702. Bidwell, P. W., and J. I. Falconer. 1941. History of Agriculture in the Northern United States, 1620–1860. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. 358. Peter Smith, New York. Bieber, M. 1957. A Bronze Statuette in Cincinnati and Its Place in the History of the Asklepios Types. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 101(1):70–92.


pages: 97 words: 28,524

Minimalism: Live a Meaningful Life by Joshua Fields Millburn, Ryan Nicodemus

agricultural Revolution, price anchoring, Skype, young professional

Pescatarians are basically vegetarians who eat fish. We also consume some dairy products, albeit significantly less than we used to. Paleo or Primal. Although neither of us subscribe to this diet (because we don’t eat meat), we have some friends who have had tremendous results from some form of a paleo or primal diet. The Paleo Diet mimics the types of foods most people on earth ate prior to the Agricultural Revolution (a mere 500 generations ago). These foods (fresh fruits, vegetables, lean meats, and seafood) are high in the beneficial nutrients that promote good health. The Paleo Diet is low in the foods and nutrients (refined sugars and grains, dairy, trans fats, salt, high-glycemic carbohydrates, and processed foods) that frequently cause weight gain, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and numerous other health problems.


pages: 1,773 words: 486,685

Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century by Geoffrey Parker

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Defenestration of Prague, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, friendly fire, Google Earth, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, mass immigration, Mercator projection, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Republic of Letters, sexual politics, South China Sea, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Some English historians have hailed these practical and theoretical efforts, which gathered momentum in the 1640s and 1650s, as an ‘agricultural revolution’.19 Chinese farmers also innovated at this time, notably by cultivating maize, peanuts and sweet potatoes: three crops recently imported from the Americas, which thrived in marginal soils, resisted both droughts and locusts, did not require transplanting like rice, and produced twice as much as other dry-land crops with far less labour input. According to a Gazetteer from Jiangxi province, ‘in general, maize is grown on the sunny side of the hills, sweet potatoes on the shady side’ while maize ‘provides half a year's food for the mountain dwellers’. Sucheta Mazumdar has hailed these improvements during the later seventeenth century as China's ‘second agricultural revolution’, one ‘predicated on the maximum utilization of all crops and the development of complementary patterns of crop selection’.

Rawski, ‘The Qing formation’, 217–18, notes the pawnshops; demographic data from Pomeranz, ‘Is there an East Asian development path?’, 325–6; acreage from Ho, Studies, 102 (but note the caveat on page 730 n. 4 to ch. 5 above). Other information from Huang, Peasant economy, 85–6; Pomeranz, The Great Divergence, 84; and Will, ‘Développement quantitatif’. 19. Hartlib, Samuel Hartlib his legacie. Kerridge, The agricultural revolution, first published in 1967, produced a barrage of examples of agrarian ‘improvement’ in England during the later seventeenth century. Mark Overton, An agricultural revolution, later dismissed this evidence and argued that little changed before 1750. The rival claims may be reconciled by noting that Kerridge drew most of his examples from East Anglia, where lighter soils facilitated innovation, whereas Overton concentrated on the Midlands, with heavier soils. For similar improvements in Japan, see ch. 16 above. 20.

The number who took advantage of these schemes ‘during the late seventeenth century and eighteenth centuries alone easily surpassed 10,000,000’. Thanks to these measures, the total cultivated land in the empire, which had fallen to 67 million acres in 1645, climbed back to 90 million acres in 1661 and to 100 million acres in 1685 – although since over 191 million acres of Chinese soil had been under cultivation in 1600, the heavy footprint of the Global Crisis remained perceptible well into the eighteenth century.18 A Second Agricultural Revolution A baby boom normally stimulates the agricultural sector, since every new mouth needs to be fed, encouraging farmers to invest in irrigation and drainage works, to improve the yield of traditional crops and to introduce new ones. In Mughal India the versatile peasants of the Ganges valley, who already cultivated almost 50 different crops in the early seventeenth century, added maize (as well as tobacco, the other New World ‘miracle crop’) to their repertory; while the farmers of west central Africa began to plant not only maize but also manioc (originally a Brazilian crop) as a safeguard against the failure of the millet and sorghum harvests during drought.


pages: 372 words: 107,587

The End of Growth: Adapting to Our New Economic Reality by Richard Heinberg

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, banks create money, Bretton Woods, business cycle, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, computerized trading, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Elliott wave, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, Gini coefficient, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Kenneth Rogoff, late fees, liberal capitalism, mega-rich, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, naked short selling, Naomi Klein, Negawatt, new economy, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, price stability, private military company, quantitative easing, reserve currency, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, short selling, special drawing rights, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade liberalization, tulip mania, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game

Both of these strategies have deep and ancient roots in human history.46 Division of labor increases economic efficiency by optimizing the use of people’s unique talents, proclivities, and skills. If all people had to grow or gather all of their own food and fuel, the effort might require most of their working hours. By leaving food production to skilled farmers, we enable others to spend their days weaving cloth, playing the oboe, or screening hand-carried luggage at airports.47 Prior to the agricultural revolution several millennia ago, division of labor was mostly along gender lines, and was otherwise part-time and informal; with farming and the settling of the first towns and cities, full-time division of labor appeared, along with social classes. Since the Industrial Revolution, the number of full-time occupations has soared. If economists often underestimate the contribution of energy to economic growth, it would be just as wrong to disregard the role of specialization.

Fire enabled us to stay warm in forbidding environments, cook our food (leading to profound changes not only in human culture but human physiology as well), and alter landscapes in our favor.24 The second was the development of language — likely a gradual process that began many tens of millennia ago, but an equally fateful one: it enabled humans to coordinate their actions over time and space, and it slowly altered the internal architecture of our brains. With language we told stories, and with those stories we wove religions, philosophies, and eventually scientific theories and computer programs. The third turning point was the agricultural revolution 10,000 years ago. Seasonal surpluses of storable food enabled full-time division of labor (society became segmented into peasants, soldiers, accountants, merchants, and kings) as well as the emergence of cities and empires — which brought with them writing, mathematics, and money. The industrial revolution, only about two centuries old, liberated the energies of fossil fuels, which replaced muscle power in production and transportation, thereby dramatically increasing the speed and scale of those processes.


pages: 339 words: 105,856

Machine Learning: New and Collected Stories by Hugh Howey

agricultural Revolution, Donner party, hive mind, Kevin Kelly, RFID, side project

I couldn’t help but imagine him on the porch with a book that he probably didn’t pay for, sipping an iced tea, while the brother of someone he was both having sex with and legally owned was pausing in his toil to wipe his brow and gaze up at the man who would one day get credit for all his hard work. Sure, it probably didn’t happen like that. But it certainly didn’t happen like the tour guides suggest. The men and women who built the railroads, started our agricultural revolution, our industrial revolution, had to go through a period of abuse, ownership, and neglect. Will our machines suffer the same? I think they already are. My sailboat is a robot—a collection of robots, really. My floating home runs on solar power, but there’s a machine that talks to my batteries, and if they get below 35 percent, it cranks the generator for me. The generator hums and strains and drinks diesel and fills the batteries until they are at 80 percent and then shuts itself off.

He smiled at the thought of worlds springing up from plowed rows of dirt, cloudlike shrouds unwrapping to reveal blue and spiral-green planets of life. The word “farm,” of course, was a holdover from the clusters of computers, the server farms, used at places like Pixar, where virtual worlds were created for entertainment. It took a while before the productive uses of such worlds were understood. Once they were, the result was often referred to as the third great agricultural revolution. Sim farms, in just the last decade, had sprouted all over the place. Government-owned, university-owned, even a few private ones. The flood of research from these farms drowned out all the work done in the real world. A theory would be published in the morning and overturned by mid-afternoon. Planetary formation and plate tectonics; punctuated equilibrium and mass extinctions; arsenic-based life forms and exoskeletons.


pages: 332 words: 104,587

Half the Sky: Turning Oppression Into Opportunity for Women Worldwide by Nicholas D. Kristof, Sheryl Wudunn

agricultural Revolution, correlation does not imply causation, demographic dividend, feminist movement, Flynn Effect, illegal immigration, Mahatma Gandhi, microcredit, paper trading, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, school choice, special economic zone, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce

“They will not rest until they have revolutionized the fishing industry.” Drayton is the founder of Ashoka, an organization that supports and trains social entrepreneurs around the world. They are called Ashoka Fellows, and there are now more than two thousand of them—many involved in women’s rights campaigns. Drayton’s brief history of the rise of social entrepreneurs goes like this: The agricultural revolution produced only a small surplus, so only a small elite could move into the towns to create culture and conscious history. This pattern persisted ever since: Only a few have held the monopoly on initiative because they alone have had the social tools. That is one reason that per capita income in the West remained flat from the fall of the Roman Empire until about 1700. By 1700, however, a new, more open architecture was beginning to develop in northern Europe: entrepreneurial/competitive business facilitated by more tolerant, open politics….

Likewise Scotland examined the Dutch and Swedish approaches, along with that of New South Wales in Australia, and preferred Sweden’s strategy: Scottish Parliament, Local Government and Transport Committee, “Evidence Received for Prostitution Tolerance Zones (Scotland) Bill Stage One,” February 4, 2004. CHAPTER THREE Learning to Speak Up 52 A retired high court judge, Bhau Vahane: Raekha Prasad, “Arrest Us All,” The Guardian, September 16, 2005. The New Abolitionists 55 “The agricultural revolution”: Bill Drayton, “Everyone a Changemaker: Social Entrepreneurship’s Ultimate Goal,” Innovations 1, no. 1 (Winter 2006): 80–96. CHAPTER FOUR Rule by Rape 61Women aged fifteen through forty-four: The calculation that more women die or are maimed from male violence than from the other causes comes from Marie Vlachova and Lea Biason, eds., Women in an Insecure World: Violence Against Women, Facts, Figures and Analysis (Geneva: Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, 2005), p. vii.


pages: 419 words: 109,241

A World Without Work: Technology, Automation, and How We Should Respond by Daniel Susskind

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, blue-collar work, British Empire, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, cloud computing, computer age, computer vision, computerized trading, creative destruction, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic transition, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial innovation, future of work, gig economy, Gini coefficient, Google Glasses, Gödel, Escher, Bach, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Hargreaves, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Metcalfe’s law, natural language processing, Network effects, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, precariat, purchasing power parity, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Sam Altman, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, social intelligence, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, strong AI, telemarketer, The Future of Employment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, upwardly mobile, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We are the 99%, wealth creators, working poor, working-age population, Y Combinator

See, for instance, Daron Acemoglu, “Advanced Economic Growth: Lecture 19: Structural Change,” delivered at MIT, 12 November 2017. 41.  Jesus Felipe, Connie Bayudan-Dacuycuy, and Matteo Lanzafame, “The Declining Share of Agricultural Employment in China: How Fast?” Structural Change and Economic Dynamics 37 (2016): 127–37. 42.  Estimate of “males in agriculture” in 1900–1909 is 810,000 in Gregory Clark, “The Agricultural Revolution and the Industrial Revolution: England, 1500–1912,” unpublished ms. (University of California, Davis, 2002). The National Health Service of England and Wales employed about 1.2 million people in 2017; see https://digital.nhs.uk/. 43.  David Autor, “Polanyi’s Paradox and the Shape of Employment Growth” in “Re-evaluating Labor Market Dynamics: A Symposium Sponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.

Manufacturing Really Declining?” Federal Bank of St. Louis Blog, 11 April 2017. Chui, Michael, Katy George, James Manyika, and Mehdi Miremadi. “Human + Machine: A New Era of Automation in Manufacturing.” McKinsey & Co., September 2017. Cingano, Federico, “Trends in Income Inequality and Its Impact on Economic Growth.” OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Paper No. 163 (2014). Clark, Gregory, “The Agricultural Revolution and the Industrial Revolution: England, 1500–1912.” Unpublished manuscript, University of California, Davis, 2002. ________. A Farewell to Alms. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007. Cobb, Charles, and Paul Douglas. “A Theory of Production.” American Economic Review 18, no. 1 (1928): 139–65. Cohen, G. A. If You’re an Egalitarian, How Come You’re So Rich? London: Harvard University Press, 2001. ________.


The Life and Death of Ancient Cities: A Natural History by Greg Woolf

agricultural Revolution, capital controls, Columbian Exchange, demographic transition, endogenous growth, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, global village, invention of agriculture, invention of writing, joint-stock company, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, out of africa, Scramble for Africa, social intelligence, social web, trade route, urban planning, urban sprawl

A World of Villages No doubt many early experiments in farming failed. Domesticated species were not adequate, the environment was not propitious, and societies failed to stick together long enough to make it work. Yet as the Holocene progressed more and more experiments were successful, and around the world cultivated fields and plots and gardens were carved out of the wilderness. It used to be common to write about the agricultural revolution, as if a world of foragers changed suddenly into a world of farmers. In reality it was more complicated. Different groups of foragers approached farming by various routes. All they had in common were those social and cognitive capacities that had evolved for other purposes. Mostly these changes happened sooner in those warmer regions where plant resources had always been a bigger part of foragers’ diets: in Mesopotamia and Mesoamerica, Egypt and northern China.

The different paths followed by temperate Europe and the Near East offer a useful reminder of how complicated and precarious the early stages of city-building were. Some early accounts of urbanization—focused on the experience of the Near East—seem to assume that once a society had committed to farming then population growth, metallurgy, and trade would all follow automatically, with cities and states the inevitable end point of the historical trajectory. Childe’s Urban Revolution was seen as a natural sequel to his Agricultural Revolution. The European sequence is one of those that shows things were not so simple. Humans might have an urban aptitude, but did not have an urban destiny. Other kinds of social worlds could be built out of farming, multispecies societies, and metal-working. The Mediterranean, as one might expect, was somewhere between the two. Communications was the key factor here. The Mediterranean islands had been settled very early, by prehistoric mariners paddling amazingly tiny canoes.20 As early as the sixth millennium b.c.e. their voyages connected scattered farming communities.

“So Fair a House: Göbekli Tepe and the Identification of Temples in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of the Near East.” Current Anthropology 52 (5): 619–660. Bannon, Cynthia. 2009. Gardens and Neighbours: Private Water Rights in Roman Italy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Bar-Kochva, Bezalel. 1979. The Seleucid Army: Organization and Tactics in the Great Campaigns. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Barker, Graeme. 2006. The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory: Why Did Foragers Become Farmers? Oxford: Oxford University Press. Barker, Graeme, and Tom Rasmussen. 1998. The Etruscans. Malden, MA: Blackwell. Bass, George, ed. 1972. History of Seafaring. London: Thames and Hudson. Beard, Mary. 2007. The Roman Triumph. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Bedford, Peter R. 2009. “The Neo-Assyrian Empire.” In The Dynamics of Ancient Empires: State Power from Assyria to Byzantium, edited by Ian Morris and Walter Scheidel, 30–65.


pages: 137 words: 36,231

Information: A Very Short Introduction by Luciano Floridi

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, bioinformatics, carbon footprint, Claude Shannon: information theory, conceptual framework, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, George Akerlof, Gordon Gekko, industrial robot, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Internet of things, invention of writing, John Nash: game theory, John von Neumann, Laplace demon, moral hazard, Nash equilibrium, Nelson Mandela, Norbert Wiener, Pareto efficiency, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, prisoner's dilemma, RAND corporation, RFID, Thomas Bayes, Turing machine, Vilfredo Pareto

The length of time that the evolution of information life cycles has taken to bring about the information society should not be surprising. According to recent estimates, life on Earth will last for another billion years, until it will be destroyed by the increase in solar temperature. So imagine an historian writing in the near future, say in a million years. She may consider it normal, and perhaps even elegantly symmetrical, that it took roughly six millennia for the agricultural revolution to produce its full effect, from its beginning in the Neolithic (10th millennium BC), until the Bronze Age, and then another six millennia for the information revolution to bear its main fruit, from the Bronze Age until the end of the 2nd millennium AD. During this span of time, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) evolved from being mainly recording systems - writing and manuscript production - to being also communication systems, especially after Gutenberg and the invention of printing - to being also processing and producing systems, especially after Turing and the diffusion of computers.


pages: 374 words: 114,660

The Great Escape: Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality by Angus Deaton

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, clean water, colonial exploitation, Columbian Exchange, creative destruction, declining real wages, Downton Abbey, end world poverty, financial innovation, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, John Snow's cholera map, knowledge economy, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, new economy, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, structural adjustment programs, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, trade route, very high income, War on Poverty

A six-foot-tall worker weighing 200 pounds would have survived about as well in the eighteenth century as a man on the moon without a spacesuit; on average there simply was not enough food to support a population of people of today’s physical dimensions. The small workers of the eighteenth century were effectively locked into a nutritional trap; they could not earn much because they were so physically weak, and they could not eat because, without work, they did not have the money to buy food. With the beginnings of the agricultural revolution, the trap began to fall apart. Per capita incomes began to grow and, perhaps for the first time in history, there was the possibility of steadily improving nutrition. Better nutrition enabled people to grow bigger and stronger, which further enabled productivity to increase, setting up a positive synergy between improvements in incomes and improvements in health, each feeding off the other.

See Massimo Livi-Bacci, 2001, A concise history of world population, third edition, Blackwell; James C. Riley, 2001, Rising life expectancy: A global history, Cambridge University Press; and Mark Harrison, 2004, Disease and the modern world, Polity Press. 2. The data are taken from the Human Mortality Database, http://www.mortality.org/. 3. The following account relies on Graeme Barker, 2006, The agricultural revolution in prehistory: Why did foragers become farmers? Oxford University Press, and Mark Nathan Cohen, 1991, Health and the rise of civilization, Yale University Press. See also Morris, Why the West rules. 4. David Erdal and Andrew Whiten, 1996, “Egalitarianism and Machiavellian intelligence in human evolution,” in Paul Mellars and Kathleen Gibson, eds., Modelling the early human mind, McDonald Institute Monographs, 139–50. 5.


pages: 376 words: 118,542

Free to Choose: A Personal Statement by Milton Friedman, Rose D. Friedman

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, bank run, banking crisis, business cycle, Corn Laws, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, invisible hand, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, price stability, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, rent control, road to serfdom, Sam Peltzman, school vouchers, Simon Kuznets, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

During most of the period of rapid agricultural expansion in the United States the government played a negligible role. Land was made available—but it was land that had been unproductive before. After the middle of the nineteenth century land-grant colleges were established, and they disseminated information and technology through governmentally financed extension services. Unquestionably, however, the main source of the agricultural revolution was private initiative operating in a free market open to all—the shame of slavery only excepted. And the most rapid growth came after slavery was abolished. The millions of immigrants from all over the world were free to work for themselves, as independent farmers or businessmen, or to work for others, at terms mutually agreed. They were free to experiment with new techniques—at their risk if the experiment failed, and to their profit if it succeeded.

Government started playing a major role in agriculture during and after the Great Depression of the 1930s. It acted primarily to restrict output in order to keep prices artificially high. The growth of agricultural productivity depended on the accompanying industrial revolution that freedom stimulated. Thence came the new machines that revolutionized agriculture. Conversely, the industrial revolution depended on the availability of the manpower released by the agricultural revolution. Industry and agriculture marched hand in hand. Smith and Jefferson alike had seen concentrated government power as a great danger to the ordinary man; they saw the protection of the citizen against the tyranny of government as the perpetual need. That was the aim of the Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776) and the United States Bill of Rights (1791); the purpose of the separation of powers in the U.S.


Worldmaking After Empire: The Rise and Fall of Self-Determination by Adom Getachew

agricultural Revolution, Bretton Woods, British Empire, collective bargaining, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, failed state, financial independence, Gunnar Myrdal, land reform, land tenure, liberal world order, market fundamentalism, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, structural adjustment programs, trade liberalization, transatlantic slave trade

Their relative incomes are therefore determined by their relative productivities in growing food; and the relative prices of steel and cocoa are determined by these relative incomes and by productivities in steel and cocoa.”13 The cocoa farmer and the steelworker the w elfa r e wor ld of the new economic or der [ 147 ] had to be paid wages that attracted them away from food production and toward these forms of employment. Because an agricultural revolution had already occurred in the temperate regions, wages would be higher.14 The absence of an agricultural revolution was thus one of the distinguishing features of underdeveloped countries. This meant that relatively low wages could attract workers away from food production and toward the production of cash crops like coffee and cocoa. Moreover, without a revolution in agricultural production, the economies of underdeveloped countries did not have the necessary surplus food and raw materials that could be consumed in an industrial sector.


pages: 537 words: 200,923

City: Urbanism and Its End by Douglas W. Rae

agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business climate, City Beautiful movement, complexity theory, creative destruction, desegregation, edge city, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, informal economy, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, manufacturing employment, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Works Progress Administration

ACCIDENTS OF URBAN CREATION Beginning in about 1840, a concatenation of four events and two nonevents began to emerge in the United States; they would constitute what I’ll call accidents of urban creation. All of these outcomes are wrapped within the evolution of American capitalism, with its sharply increasing capacity to create and to destroy, and to influence the course of government policy. These developments were: the rising dominance of steam-driven manufacturing, already noted; an agricultural revolution allowing the nation to support more and larger urban centers; the emergence, largely as a result of integrated railroad systems, of national markets accessible from central-city manufacturing plants; a critical timing gap between the maturation of that rail system (which centralized cities) and the coming automotive and truck transportation (which decentralized them); a sustained period of relatively open immigration allowing accelerated growth in the supply of urban labor; and a delayed and uneven spreading out and implementation of distance-compressing technologies such as alternating current (AC) electricity.

The national forces that lined up between about 1870 and the 1920s helped to shape the city that became home to Joe Perfetto’s store. During this time, two of these forces were important by their absence: motor vehicles with the highway system on which they relied, and a well-developed electrical grid spanning urban regions. The other forces were made important by their presence: the (temporary) dominance of steam-powered manufacturing, the agricultural revolution needed to sustain more and larger urban centers, the maturation of a well-integrated railroad system, and, finally, the willingness of government to permit a great wave of immigration during the same decades. There was nothing inevitable or even predictable about this temporary historical alignment: if God, or nature, should elect to run the same history a thousand times, there is no particularly good reason to expect that the same alignment would recur very often, or at all.

See brutalism; modernism; New Urbanism assembly-line production, 21–22, 224 athletic organizations, 144–45 Atlas Club, 154 automobiles assembly-line production of, 21–22, 221 growth in numbers, 437 impact of on city governance, 23–24 manufacture of, 223 –24 in New Haven, 223, 224–28, 296 and urban life, 14–15, 223 –30, 369 – 70 A&P stores, 236–43 Adler, Max, 81, 172, 187 African-Americans. See blacks agglomeration economies, 435 agricultural revolution, 11–13, 17 agriculture in the New Haven area, 48 – 50, 63 Albertus Magnus College, 248 Alexander, Bruce, 431 Alfano, Jenny, 250–51 Amalgamated Clothing Workers, 250–51 Ambler Realty, 261 American Automobile Association, 223, 458 American Federation of Teachers, 252 American Steel & Wire Company, 110, 111 Amorotti, Ben, 384 Andrew B. Hendryx Company, 109 Andrews, Norris, 306, 317 Angell, James Rowland, 247–48 annexation, 386 Ansonia, Conn., 64, 65 anti-Semitism, 153, 154, 268 Baldwin, Simeon, 172 Balsamo, Emidio, 77 Baltimore, Md., 72 banking, 93 –96 Baptist churches, 148 Barbieri, Arthur, 293, 294, 309, 310, 407, 419, 429, 431 503 I N D E X Campner, Samuel, 188, 189, 291 Candee Rubber Company, 109, 111, 156, 217, 220–21 capitalism and urban growth, 7–8, 9 –11, 215–16 and urban policy, 27–28 capitalist enterprise, 62–63 Caplan, Ruth Ginsberg, 73 Cappel, Andrew, 262 Carnegie, Andrew, 1, 10 Carpentieri, Constantino, 396 Carpentieri, Hope, 3, 396, 397 cars.


Tyler Cowen - Stubborn Attachments A Vision for a Society of Free, Prosperous, and Responsible Individuals by Meg Patrick

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, conceptual framework, Fall of the Berlin Wall, framing effect, hedonic treadmill, impulse control, Peter Singer: altruism, rent-seeking, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, zero-sum game

The more plausible view is that progress is unevenly bunched, we have been in a slow period as of late, various new developments are percolating, and we should do our best to help them along. Whether we like it or not, economic growth and technological progress do not always come in steady doses. World history offers various precedents for the idea of a "great transformation," leading to enormous increases in the quality and quantity of human lives. Our ancestors did not foresee the evolution of humans, the agricultural revolution, the "urban revolution" (Sumeria and Mesopotamia, circa 4000 B.C.), or the Industrial Revolution. For that matter the East Asian 14 See for instance Venkatraman (2009) and Tsai (2006). 25 revolution in economic growth was not widely anticipated. Each development, over time, dramatically changed the human condition, and eventually very much for the better. The history of economic growth, to some extent, is the history of working out the consequences of such unforeseen transformations.


pages: 473 words: 124,861

Wilding: The Return of Nature to a British Farm by Isabella Tree

agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, British Empire, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, illegal immigration, Kickstarter, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, oil shale / tar sands, phenotype

These changes have taken place at all scales in the landscape, from the size of fields that now cover entire valleys and hills to the almost total disappearance of native flowers and grasses from farmland. Chemical fertilizers and weedkillers have eradicated common plants like fumitory and scarlet pimpernel, on whose tiny, energy-rich seeds the turtle doves feed; while the wholesale clearance of wasteland and scrub, the ploughing of wildflower meadows, and the draining and pollution of natural water courses and standing ponds has wiped out their habitat. The same agricultural revolution has taken place on the Continent, but in Europe, it seems, there is enough wild land left – and in large enough areas – to slow the decline in turtle-dove numbers. But in lowland England what tiny fragments of nature remain, whether left by accident or by design, are like oases in a desert, disconnected from natural processes – the interactions and dynamism that drive the natural world.

Much, much more. Evidence of shifting baselines was apparent on our first tractor-and-trailer tours of Knepp in the early 2000s, when we began to take mixed generational groups from NGOs like the National Farmers’ Union and the Country Landowners’ Association around the project. We were familiar with the usual reaction from our own generation, the forty-to-sixty-somethings. Children of the agricultural revolution were aghast at what we were doing. The twenty-somethings were often more responsive. For them the idea of national food security, of digging for victory, was an anxiety from a bygone age. They had grown up in a time of plenty – an era of globalization, cheap clothes and cheap food, their supermarket shelves stocked with Spanish tomatoes in winter, asparagus from Peru, lamb from New Zealand, tiger prawns from Thailand and beef from Argentina.


pages: 481 words: 121,300

Why geography matters: three challenges facing America : climate change, the rise of China, and global terrorism by Harm J. De Blij

agricultural Revolution, airport security, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial exploitation, complexity theory, computer age, crony capitalism, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, illegal immigration, Internet Archive, John Snow's cholera map, Khyber Pass, manufacturing employment, megacity, Mercator projection, MITM: man-in-the-middle, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, special economic zone, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, UNCLOS, UNCLOS

The Ming rulers ordered an end to the maritime expeditions, dictated the burning of all ocean-going vessels, and instructed the Nanjing shipyard, then by far the largest in the world, to build only barges that could navigate the Grand Canal with cargoes of rice, thus to alleviate the plight of the colder, drier north. Environment may not determine the capacities of humans, but environmental events can decisively influence the course of history. CRISIS IN EUROPE It is no exaggeration to say that the vicissitudes of Western Europe's Little Ice Age climate brought about what cultural geographers refer to as the second Agricultural Revolution. Farm implements were improved; field methods (planting, sowing, watering, weeding, harvesting) got better, transportation and storage of produce involved less waste and loss. New crops were tried (not always with good results); marketing in the growing urban areas became more efficient. All this was, literally, a matter of survival, because toward the end of the sixteenth century there were signs that the Little Ice Age had even worse in store.

See also specific countries, organizations and events and Afghanistan, 156-59, 176, 177 (see also primary entry for Afghanistan) bin Laden, 155-56, 157, 160, 161-62, 163, 177 of Chechens, 247-48 color-coded terror alerts, 174 INDEX terrorism (continued) defining terrorism, 151 and demarcation, 120 expansion of, 159-61 favorable environments for, 176-77 (see also states, failed or malfunctioning) funding of, 187-88 and globalization, 164 incidence of, ix (see also specific attacks) infiltration, 180 and insurgency, 188 and Iraq, 189-96 (see also primary entry for Iraq) and Islam, 48-50, 123, 124, 147, 148, 151-56, 161-73, 181-87 potential targets, 174-75, 176-81 religious extremism, 48-49, 50, 151-56, 161-67 responding to attacks, 175-76 suicide attacks, 152, 160, 170, 175-76, 189,248 and territorial imperative, 161-62 Triple Frontier, 179-81, 180 Thailand, 147, 177 Thatcher, Margaret, 151-52 Thira eruption, 76 Tiananmen Square, 131 Tianjin, China, 127, 139 Tiber Valley, 201 Tibet (Xizang, China) borders and boundaries, 119-20, 135 China's claims to, 108, 130, 135, 144 name, 37 Tibetan revolt (1959), 137 Tigris-Euphrates rivers, 98, 190, 193 time in geologic terms, 53, 58, 59 Toba eruption, 71-72, 82, 83, 279 Togo, 185 toilets, 93 topography, 28, 29, 30 Toure, Sekou, 267 trade Africa, 182, 258, 267, 271 China, 124, 136, 146-47, 149 Europe, 202 Japan, 146-47 South Korea, 146-47 United States, 14| Transcaucasia, 234, 236, 238, 243-48 transculturation, 144, 173 Transdniestria, Moldova, 3, 206 Trans-Siberian Railroad, 238, 239 Transylvania, Romania, 206 TreatyofNice (2000), 211 TreatyofRome (1957), 210 tree ring research (dendochronology), 78 Tribal Areas (Waziristan), Pakistan, 177 Trinidad and Tobago, 180 Triple Frontier, 179-81, 180 Truman, Harry, 209 tsunami of December 26, 2004, 12, 55, 279 Tunisia, 94 Turkestan, 133 Turkey borders and boundaries, 193 Dardanelles Strait, 116 ethnic groups, 228 and European Union, 225, 228-29, 253 immigration, 95, 168 and Iraq, 190 Islam in, 162, 164 and oil, 234 terrorists, 188 and U.S. invasion of Iraq, 189 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, 37 Turkmenistan, 109, 176 Tuscany (region), 218 Tutsi population, 264, 269 Uganda, 185. 265-66, 268 Ukraine climate change, 72 and European Union, 218, 225-26, 228, 230 industrialization, 203 language, 199, 201 name changes, 37, 40 and Russia, 205, 231, 234, 237, 253, 254 terrorists, 188 unitary states, 110-11 United Arab Emirates, 277 United Flight 93, 174 United Kingdom borders and boundaries, 115, 119-20, 223 colonialism, 112, 125, 129, 136, 138, 142-43, 183,262,263,264,265 currency, 213 and European Community, 210 and European Free Trade Association, 210 and European Union, 217, 218 geographic education in, 13 and Gibraltar, 222, 224 government of, 110-11 and immigration, 168, 212 and Iraq, 189, 194 Islam in, 168, 169 and language, 201 Navy, 128 physical separation from Europe, 74 population, 95, 223 remote-sensing technology, 48 and separatist movements, 220-21 strength of, 128 terrorism, 177 United Nations and China, 125 Conferenceon Environment and Development inRiodeIaneiro(1992), 100 Convention on Law of the Sea, 115, 148, 252, 281 307 creation of Israel, 162 definition of terrorism, 151 on environmental issues, 100 on genocide, 183 on Iraq, 113, 114, 189,229 Israel's origins, 162 Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, 175 and Soviet Union, 113 and United States, 280 United States and Afghanistan, 3, 148, 159-60 and Africa, 255-56, 266, 274 African American population, 274 bases in Asia, 129 borders and boundaries, 108, 115, 120, 181, 280-81 challenges to supremacy, 123-24 and China, 47, 125-26, 129-30, 132-33, 133, 282 climate, 87 and continental drift, 57 and Cuba, 114 democracy, 148, 195, 276, 281 economy, ix education, 13, 14-15 elections, ix and Europe, 122, 214, 229, 280, 281 and European Union, 214, 229, 280 and Heartland Theory, 129 immigration, 106, 167-68, 181, 281 intelligence operations, 130 international relations, 45 and Iraq, 3, 21-22, 42, 167, 189-90, 193-94, 195 (see (j/so Gulf Wars) and Islam, 167 migration to Sunbelt, 85 military, 229-30 and NAFTA, 3, 109, 209, 280 national security, 277 oil imports, 271-72 and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, 210 population, 93, 94, 95, 97, 101 race relations, 148 at Rio summit (1992), 100-101 as superpower, ix-x, 129, 229-30, 274-75, 280, 281-82 support of the mujahideen, 153-54 and Taiwan, 129, 130-31, 146, 279-80 and terrorism, 3, 150, 152, 156, 159, 160-61, 174, 178, 180, 1T5 unilateralism, 147, 194, 195, 229-30, 281 and United Nations, 280 United States Geological Survey (USGS), 28 United States Naval War College, 8 University of Baghdad, 44 University of California at Berkeley, 9 University of Miami, 17, 18 Upper Silesia, Poland, 206 Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), 112, 183, 185 Uralic languages, 201 Ural Mountains, 204, 238, 240 urban areas and urbanization. See also specific cities Afghanistan, 158-59 Africa, 265, 267 and Agricultural Revolution, 79 Chechnya, 246 China, 129, 134, 141 distance between, 10 and environmental issues, 100, 106 Europe, 202-3 and field of geography, 7, 10 growth rates, 96 interaction between cities, 10 and Little Ice Age, 78 and Muslim community, 171 and population, 96, 97-99 and terrorism, 26-27, 164, 176-77 Uruguay, 180 USS Cole, 156 U.S.S.R. See Soviet Union Usuli doctrine, 192 Uttaranchal, India, 3 Uyghurs in China, 144, 152 Uzbekistan, 109 Vakhan Corridor, 157 Van Gogh, Theo, 172 Van Loon, Hendrik Willem, 4-5 vegetation, 64 Venezuela, 146, 176, 180, 181 Vienna, Austria, 162 Vietnam borders and boundaries, 121 and China, 145 U.S. knowledge of, 13, 14, 17, 49, 50 U.S. presence in, 129 Vladivostok, Russia, 236, 242, 243 volcanoes Laki eruption, 80 Little Ice Age, 79 Pleistocene, 68 "Ring of Fire," 55, 56 Russia, 239 Tambora eruption, 81, 82, 279 Thira eruption, 76 Toba eruption, 71-72, 82, 83, 279 Volga River, 238 Wahhabism, 154-55, 159, 163, 164 Wales, England, 206, 220-21 water, 57-58, 93, 100, 279 Waziristan, Pakistan, 177 weapons of mass destruction (WMD).


Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action by Elinor Ostrom

agricultural Revolution, clean water, Gödel, Escher, Bach, land tenure, Pareto efficiency, principal–agent problem, prisoner's dilemma, profit maximization, RAND corporation, The Nature of the Firm, transaction costs

The Cold Fish War: Long-Term Competition in a Dynamic . Game. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation. Central and West Basin Water Replenishment District. 1987. Annual Survey Re­ port on Ground Water Replenishment. Glendale, Calif.: Bookman, Edmmonston Engineering. Chamberlin, J. 1974. Provision of Collective Goods as a Function of Group Size. American Political Science Review 68:707-16. Chambers, J. D., and G. E. Mingay. 1966. The Agricultural Revolution, 1750­ 1880. New York: Schocken Books. Chambers, R. 1981. In Search of a Water Revolution: Questions for Canal Man­ agement in the 1980s. Water Supply and Management 5:5-18. Chapagain, D. P. 1984. Managing Public Lands as a Common Property Resource: A Village Case Study in Nepal. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Wisconsin. Cheung, S. 1970. The Structure of a Contract and the Theory of a Non-Exclusive Resource.


Moon Rush: The New Space Race by Leonard David

agricultural Revolution, Colonization of Mars, cuban missile crisis, data acquisition, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, Google X / Alphabet X, gravity well, Jeff Bezos, life extension, low earth orbit, multiplanetary species, out of africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, telepresence, telerobotics

It would have a similar effect for a Mars mission. Sowers testified before the House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology in September 2017, outlining his perceptions of private-sector exploration of the Moon. Space resources are plentiful, he asserted, and utilizing them will free human progress from the resource constraints of Earth. In recorded human history, there have been two major economic revolutions, he recounted: the agricultural revolution of 10,000 years ago, which gave birth to human civilization, and the industrial revolution of 300 years ago, which gave rise to the tremendous increase in human well-being and prosperity we enjoy today. “Space resources will be the third major economic revolution and will usher in an era of unprecedented prosperity and flourishing,” Sowers concluded. Space resource utilization can save humankind as it unchains human progress from the constraints of Earth’s ever diminishing resources.


pages: 1,014 words: 237,531

Escape From Rome: The Failure of Empire and the Road to Prosperity by Walter Scheidel

agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, British Empire, colonial rule, conceptual framework, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, dark matter, disruptive innovation, Eratosthenes, European colonialism, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, mandelbrot fractal, means of production, Network effects, out of africa, Peace of Westphalia, peer-to-peer lending, plutocrats, Plutocrats, principal–agent problem, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, Republic of Letters, secular stagnation, South China Sea, spinning jenny, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, zero-sum game

Comparatively speaking, these crises arrived right on time.205 More specifically, the growth of an unmarried male population and signs of Malthusian pressures in the eighteenth century cast the subsequent famines and risings as the culmination of a drawn-out process. And even if the strength of these demographic and resource constraints remains contested, there can be no doubt that—in von Glahn’s words—the “lack of significant innovation in productive technologies” placed a growing burden on the agricultural base. At the same time, England benefited hugely from an agricultural revolution that supported both ongoing population growth and concurrent urbanization.206 In all of this, details matter little. A simple counterfactual shows why. Even if, on that occasion, imperial destabilization and breakdown could somehow have been avoided or, perhaps more plausibly, if an equivalent empire could swiftly have been put back together after such a breakdown and resumed business as usual—featuring ostensibly benevolent and light-handed central policies such as low taxes, agrarianism, basic welfare provisions, and the preservation of peace—such outcomes were not likely to precipitate transformative innovation.207 It is telling that “despite China’s integration into global trade networks, movement toward an industrial revolution was almost wholly absent before the twentieth century.”

For similar statistics, see Wrigley 2016: 45–50, 67–74, who emphasizes that English urban growth in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries hugely exceeded the continental rates: the urban population in England grew by more than 700 percent compared to 80 percent in continental Western Europe, and the urban share quadrupled in England while rising by one-third in Western Europe overall, with much of the latter growth due to the former’s: see chapter 10 in this volume. Cf. Palma 2016 for the observation that international trade boosted real wages in some other Atlantic economies of Europe as well. Agricultural revolution: Overton 1996; Wrigley 2016: 51–60, 65, 67–74. 65. Allen 2009b: 129 (quote); Hoffman 2015: 211–12. See also chapter 10 in this volume. 66. Allen 2009b: 111, 162–63. Also see, e.g., Pomeranz 2000: 61; Cuenca Esteban 2004: 55. 67. Goldstone 2002: 363–64; G. Clark 2007: 242; Wrigley 2016: 34, table 3.2. Coal and China: Pomeranz 2000: 59–68; Pomeranz 2006: 252–56; also Marks 2002: 110–11; Tvedt 2010: 34, 36.

Osterhammel, Jürgen. 1996. “Transkulturell vergleichende Geschichtswissenschaft.” In Haupt and Kocka 1996a, 271–314. Ostrowski, Donald. 1998. Muscovy and the Mongols: Cross-cultural influences on the steppe frontier, 1304–1589. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. O’Sullivan, Shaun. 2006. “Coptic conversion and the Islamization of Egypt.” Mamluk Studies Review 10, no. 2: 65–80. Overton, Mark. 1996. Agricultural revolution in England: The transformation of the agrarian economy, 1500–1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Padilla Peralta, Dan-el. 2014. “Divine institutions: Religious practice, economic development, and social transformation in mid-Republican Rome.” PhD diss., Stanford University. Pagden, Anthony. 2001. Peoples and empires: A short history of European migration, exploration, and conquest, from Greece to the present.


pages: 852 words: 157,181

The Origins of the British by Stephen Oppenheimer

active measures, agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Eratosthenes, gravity well, mass immigration, out of africa, phenotype, the scientific method, trade route

Immediately after the Younger Dryas, sea levels rose at a dramatic rate, which eventually slowed until another warm-up hit and produced the highest post-LGM temperatures, causing the final over-topping ‘flood’ of the Black Sea around 7,500 years ago.74 Now, let us see what our ancestors were doing in this post-glacial springtime, also known as the Mesolithic. 4 ULTIMATE HUNTERS AND GATHERERS: THE MESOLITHIC The cultural period following the Younger Dryas Event, the Mesolithic, saw the final and most sophisticated flourishing of the hunter-gatherer lifestyle in Europe. It was the golden age of coastal hunter-gatherers. The Mesolithic was a time of rapid innovation in stone tools and increasing use of microliths – very small, multipurpose stone tools which had already been in use in Africa and India for 20,000 years – and preceded the Neolithic agricultural revolution. Quite a bit is known about how Mesolithic hunter-gatherers lived, and one major feature in the evolution of their lifestyle in north-west Europe was a reduction in big game hunting and an increasing reliance on the beach and sea. In making this change, our Mesolithic ancestors resembled their African forebears, who were the first humans to see the great advantages of seafood,1 but the reason for the change in Europe was the encroachment of the forest, not the desert.

Large parts of the world, such as South-east Asia, still practise some form of labour-intensive agriculture, many elements of which would be familiar to their Neolithic ancestors, apart from the change to rather more effective metal implements such as iron ploughshares and iron hand-held rice-cropping knives. The Neolithic is therefore rightly seen as a culturally more dramatic threshold than our more recent Agricultural Revolution (immediately preceding the Industrial Revolution), although the size of its effect on population growth in Europe was controversially less than previously thought.1 The Agricultural Age, as the Neolithic is sometimes called, is certainly the most researched period of European prehistory. The Neolithic Revolution in the western part of Eurasia started at least 10,000 years ago, but did not impinge on Britain and Ireland until 6,500–5,500 years ago.2 Not only were the British Isles at the very end of the long trail of agricultural influence that began in the Near East, but they seem to have received their Neolithic inputs, agricultural and otherwise, via two completely different routes: north and south through and round Europe from the Balkans and the Near East.


pages: 470 words: 148,444

The World as It Is: A Memoir of the Obama White House by Ben Rhodes

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cuban missile crisis, David Brooks, demand response, different worldview, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, drone strike, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, F. W. de Klerk, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, illegal immigration, intangible asset, Mahatma Gandhi, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, WikiLeaks

As we left behind a military hangar filled with U.S. troops, Obama returned to talking about the book he’d been reading, and I could tell that it was his way of indirectly addressing the discomfort of flying in a United States military helicopter to a city that the United States had once destroyed. “It’s interesting,” he said, “that individual human beings didn’t benefit much from the agricultural revolution. Life was actually better for hunters and gatherers.” Some of the people in the helicopter looked a little confused, but I knew that he’d rewritten the speech to pose questions about whether the march of technology would inexorably lead to the destruction of humankind. His tangent made a certain kind of sense. “Why?” I asked, knowing I had to keep this conversation going. “Because of feudalism?” “No,” he said. “That was part of it, but it was also because for most of the early agricultural revolution, people focused on grain. Grain is not as nutritious and balanced as eating a diet with proteins, fruits, and nuts. Hunters and gatherers lived in small units—ten to twelve people—and agriculture required people to have more children, which led to disease and infant mortality.


pages: 796 words: 242,660

This Sceptred Isle by Christopher Lee

agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, failed state, financial independence, glass ceiling, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Johannes Kepler, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Nelson Mandela, new economy, Northern Rock, Ronald Reagan, sceptred isle, spice trade, spinning jenny, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, urban decay

Because the British lands were surrounded by water then it followed that development of the islands was likely to be later than that of, for example, eastern Continental Europe. That is a generalization, but not out of place in our story. This period is called Neolithic which can be translated from two Greek words neos (new) and lithos (stone) – thus Neolithic is New Stone Age. Because of what was going on in settled farming, it is sometimes called the Agricultural Age and is seen as a ‘culturally more dramatic threshold than our more recent Agricultural Revolution’.3 Yet, if we look at the New Stone Age or Agricultural Age in the British Isles, we would probably date it c.5,500 BC–c.2,500 BC. But the same age in the region where Europe meets Asia started not c.5,000 BC but c.10,000 BC. The three larger reasons for this late start were the distances from the origins of change in the Middle East; climate; and resettlement that came from two distinct directions.

When the migration started, it appears to have been mainly a pincer movement. One migration came along the southern European-Balkan corridors then up the western coast of Europe. The second claw in the migratory pincer was from the near neighbours of northwestern Europe. Agriculture followed by settled farmers (as opposed to herdsmen who would follow the grazing) is in evidence in East Anglia as early as 6,300 years ago. It took hundreds of years for the Agricultural Revolution to spread throughout the islands from the south, the east and the west as far north as the Orkneys.4 What is not so clear is the answer to the threefold question of the consequence of the introduction of the new society: Were the influences of the new cultures spread by the migrants from Continental Europe or by the indigenous population? Did the new farming produce a diet and a less vulnerable lifestyle that preserved the indigenous population?

James ref 1 Act of Reformation ref 1 Act of Uniformity ref 1 Act of Union (Ireland) ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4 Act of Union (Scotland) ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4 Acts of Supremacy ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Adams, Sam ref 1 Addington, Henry, Viscount Sidmouth ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5, ref 6, ref 7 Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen ref 1 Adrian I, Pope ref 1 Adrian IV, Pope ref 1 Ælfthryth ref 1 Ælla, King ref 1 Ælle, King ref 1 Æthelbald, King ref 1 Æthelberht, King ref 1, ref 2 Æthelflaed ref 1 Æthelfrid ref 1 Æthelred of Mercia ref 1, ref 2 Æthelred of Wessex ref 1 Æthelred the Unready ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Æthelwald ref 1 Afghan Wars ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 passim, ref 4, ref 5, ref 6 Africa ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5, ref 6 passim, ref 7, ref 8 Agincourt, Battle of ref 1, ref 2 Agricultural Revolution ref 1 Ailwin, Henry fitz ref 1 Aiscough, William ref 1 Aix-la-Chapelle, Treaty of ref 1 Albert, Prince ref 1, ref 2, ref 3, ref 4, ref 5, ref 6 Alexander I of Russia ref 1, ref 2 Alexander I of Scotland ref 1 Alexander II of Scotland ref 1, ref 2 Alexander III of Scotland ref 1 Alexander III, Pope ref 1 Alexandra of Denmark ref 1 Alfred the Great ref 1, ref 2, ref 3 Alfred the Innocent ref 1, ref 2 Allenby, Gen.


Growth: From Microorganisms to Megacities by Vaclav Smil

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, agricultural Revolution, air freight, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business cycle, colonial rule, complexity theory, coronavirus, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, disruptive innovation, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, endogenous growth, energy transition, epigenetics, happiness index / gross national happiness, hydraulic fracturing, hydrogen economy, Hyperloop, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, Law of Accelerating Returns, longitudinal study, mandelbrot fractal, market bubble, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, megastructure, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microbiome, moral hazard, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, optical character recognition, out of africa, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, Productivity paradox, profit motive, purchasing power parity, random walk, Ray Kurzweil, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Republic of Letters, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, technoutopianism, the market place, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, urban sprawl, Vilfredo Pareto, yield curve

The adoption and diffusion of settled farming during the Neolithic era—starting 11,000–12,000 years ago in the Middle East and eventually spreading to all continents with the exception of Australia—was credited with the first notable population increase. This is ascribed to an expanded and more reliable food supply. This Neolithic demographic transition (also called, inaccurately because it was a long process, Neolithic or agricultural revolution) was seen as the first notable period of population growth and its extent has been documented by a variety of linguistic, anthropological, and archaeological evidence (Barker 2009). One of the convincing archaeological studies based on cemetery sequences has shown an abrupt increase in the proportion of juvenile skeletons as an indicator of an increase in the total fertility rate, a shift seen as one of the fundamental structural processes of human history (Bocquet-Appel and Bar-Yosef 2008; Bocquet-Appel 2011).

Baranyi, J. 2010. Modelling and Parameter Estimation of Bacterial Growth with Distributed Lag Time. Szeged, Hungary: University of Szeged. Barfield, T. J. 2001. The shadow empires: Imperial state formation along the Chinese-Nomad frontier. In S. E. Alcock et al., eds., Empires: Perspectives from Archaeology and History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 10–41. Barker, G. 2009. The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory: Why Did Foragers Become Farmers? Oxford: Oxford University Press. Barkey, K. 2008. Empire of Difference: The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Barnosky, A. D., et al. 2011. Has the Earth’s sixth mass extinction already arrived? Nature 471:51–57. Barro, R. J. 2013. Health and economic growth. Annals of Economics and Finance 14-2(A):305–342.

Swine Production Handbook. http://www.ag.auburn.edu/~chibale/swineproduction.html. Chilvers, B. L., et al. 2007. Growth and survival of New Zealand sea lions, Phocarctos hookeri: Birth to 3 months. Polar Biology 30:459–469. Ching, F. D. K., et al. 2011. A Global History of Architecture. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Chongqing Municipal Government. 2017. Comprehensive market situation. http://en.cq.gov.cn/. Chorley, G. P. H. 1981. The agricultural revolution in Northern Europe, 1750–1880: Nitrogen, legumes, and crop productivity. Economic History 34:71–93. Chu, W., et al. 2016. A survey analysis of energy use and conservation opportunities in Chinese households. In B. Su and E. Thomson, eds., China’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation. Berlin: Springer, pp. 5–22. Chumlea, W. C., et al. 2009. First seriatim study into old age for weight, stature and BMI: The Fels longitudinal study.


pages: 215 words: 59,188

Seriously Curious: The Facts and Figures That Turn Our World Upside Down by Tom Standage

agricultural Revolution, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, blood diamonds, corporate governance, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, Elon Musk, failed state, financial independence, gender pay gap, gig economy, Gini coefficient, high net worth, income inequality, index fund, industrial robot, Internet of things, invisible hand, job-hopping, Julian Assange, life extension, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mega-rich, megacity, Minecraft, mobile money, natural language processing, Nelson Mandela, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, ransomware, reshoring, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Coase, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Snapchat, South China Sea, speech recognition, stem cell, supply-chain management, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, undersea cable, US Airways Flight 1549, WikiLeaks

Inequality rose steadily after the shift to agriculture, but tailed off in the Americas after around 2,500 years. In the old world, however, wealth inequality continued to climb for several millennia. That may be because Eurasia was richer in large mammals that could be domesticated. Horses and oxen greatly improved farm productivity – but livestock were mainly owned by the rich (who could also rent them out). In traditional African societies, livestock remain an important store of value. The agricultural revolution was good for humanity, because it supported a larger population and paved the way for modern civilisation. But it was awful for egalitarians. Nice digs Gini coefficient of house sizes at archaeological sites 1=perfect inequality, 0=perfect equality Source: “Greater post-Neolithic wealth disparities in Eurasia than in North America and Mesoamerica” by Timothy A. Kohler et al What makes something a commodity?


Epigenetics: How Environment Shapes Our Genes by Richard C. Francis

agricultural Revolution, cellular automata, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, experimental subject, longitudinal study, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, meta analysis, meta-analysis, phenotype, stem cell, twin studies

He proposed, by way of explanation, that these populations had evolved in an environment of periodic famine in which individuals whose bodies were particularly efficient at turning calories into fat stores were at a selective advantage. These individuals could thrive during lean times because of their “thrifty genes,” but they become fat and diabetic in an environment where food is plentiful. The thrifty-genes hypothesis was criticized on a number of grounds. Most damningly, there is no evidence that humans experienced periodic famine until the agricultural revolution 9,000 years ago.2 Neel himself soon abandoned the idea, but it survives to this day in mutated forms.3 The thrifty-genes hypothesis reflects a genocentric view of the obesity epidemic, a view that is also manifest in the search for obesity genes.4 There is no lack of candidate obesity genes, but none of the candidate genes, alone or combined, go very far toward explaining who gets fat and why.5 While the gene hunters were busy at their labors, other researchers approached the obesity issue from a different angle, based on the fact that Americans and many Europeans were getting fatter at an accelerating rate.


pages: 561 words: 167,631

2312 by Kim Stanley Robinson

agricultural Revolution, double helix, full employment, hive mind, if you see hoof prints, think horses—not zebras, Kuiper Belt, late capitalism, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, offshore financial centre, orbital mechanics / astrodynamics, pattern recognition, phenotype, post scarcity, precariat, retrograde motion, stem cell, strong AI, the built environment, the High Line, Turing machine, Turing test, Winter of Discontent

These compensatory ideologies are part of the hegemonic influence over subject peoples in an imperial situation. It happens in all class systems, meaning all cultures in recorded history, since the first agrarian and urban civilizations.” “They’ve all been class systems?” “There might have been classless societies before the Neolithic agricultural revolution, but the record makes our understanding of those cultures very speculative. All we can say for sure is that in the post–ice age agricultural revolution, which was one of those more general revolutions that took perhaps a thousand years, a division into classes was institutionalized as a state power apparatus. All over the world, and independent of others, there emerged a four-level division into priests, warriors, artisans, and farmers. Often they were all under the rule of what everyone agreed was a sacred monarch, a king that was also a god.


pages: 204 words: 66,619

Think Like an Engineer: Use Systematic Thinking to Solve Everyday Challenges & Unlock the Inherent Values in Them by Mushtak Al-Atabi

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Barry Marshall: ulcers, Black Swan, business climate, call centre, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cognitive bias, corporate social responsibility, dematerialisation, disruptive innovation, Elon Musk, follow your passion, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, invention of the wheel, iterative process, James Dyson, Kickstarter, knowledge economy, Lao Tzu, Lean Startup, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, remote working, shareholder value, six sigma, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker

Throughout history, a number of technological revolutions shaped the world that we live in. A list of these revolutions is given below. 1. Putting fire under control (800,000 BC) Controlling fire was a great technological feat. It gave humans access to energy when it’s most needed, i.e., for warmth and cooking food; which in turn enabled humans to extract more calories from the food they eat, hence improving their survival chances. 2. Agricultural Revolution (8000 BC) Unfolded in Mesopotamia, modern day Iraq, mastering agriculture was a real technological triumph. It was the result of putting huge amounts of knowledge and observation into a practical use. Agriculture permitted humans to get more out of the land they lived on and aided the formation of the first cities. The same piece of land, when used for agriculture, can support far more people compared to the same area when used for hunting and gathering.


pages: 262 words: 66,800

Progress: Ten Reasons to Look Forward to the Future by Johan Norberg

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, availability heuristic, Bartolomé de las Casas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business climate, clean water, continuation of politics by other means, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, demographic transition, desegregation, Donald Trump, Flynn Effect, germ theory of disease, Gini coefficient, Gunnar Myrdal, Haber-Bosch Process, Hans Island, Hans Rosling, Ignaz Semmelweis: hand washing, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, more computing power than Apollo, moveable type in China, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, open economy, place-making, Rosa Parks, sexual politics, special economic zone, Steven Pinker, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transatlantic slave trade, very high income, working poor, Xiaogang Anhui farmers, zero-sum game

The head, chest and stomach could not be operated on reliably. Injured limbs were amputated. There were no targeted drugs or transplants. Ageing meant losing one’s mobility and eyesight. In prehistoric times, the average hunter-gatherer is estimated to have had a life expectancy of around twenty to thirty years depending on local conditions.6 Despite an often more stable supply of food, the agricultural revolution did not improve this much, and according to some accounts reduced it, since larger, settled groups were more exposed to infectious disease and problems related to sanitation. In classical civilizations such as Ancient Greece and the Roman Empire, life expectancy has been estimated at around eighteen to twenty-five years. In medieval Britain, estimates range from seventeen to thirty-five years.7 The early era of globalization resulted in terrible epidemics, since populations which had earlier been separated now exchanged contagious germs.


pages: 243 words: 66,908

Thinking in Systems: A Primer by Meadows. Donella, Diana Wright

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, clean water, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, game design, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Just-in-time delivery, Kickstarter, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, peak oil, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Stanford prison experiment, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, Whole Earth Review

Even a delicate and intricate pattern, such as the Koch snowflake shown here, can evolve from a simple set of organizing principles or decision rules. Here are some other examples of simple organizing rules that have led to self-organizing systems of great complexity: • All of life, from viruses to redwood trees, from amoebas to elephants, is based on the basic organizing rules encapsulated in the chemistry of DNA, RNA, and protein molecules. • The agricultural revolution and all that followed started with the simple, shocking ideas that people could stay settled in one place, own land, select and cultivate crops. • “God created the universe with the earth at its center, the land with the castle at its center, and humanity with the Church at its center”—the organizing principle for the elaborate social and physical structures of Europe in the Middle Ages


pages: 272 words: 71,487

Getting Better: Why Global Development Is Succeeding--And How We Can Improve the World Even More by Charles Kenny

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, demographic transition, double entry bookkeeping, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, germ theory of disease, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, income per capita, Indoor air pollution, inventory management, Kickstarter, Milgram experiment, off grid, open borders, purchasing power parity, randomized controlled trial, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, Toyota Production System, trade liberalization, transaction costs, very high income, Washington Consensus, X Prize

There are large parts of the world where rights remain severely and often violently curtailed (not least China), but the global trend is away from autocracy and toward respect for civil and political rights. And once again there was faster improvement in previously more autocratic regimes.16 VIOLENCE Over the very long term, the world is a considerably more peaceful place than it was before the agricultural revolution, when somewhere between 5 and 30 percent of deaths were probably caused by violence. And the world as a whole today is also comparatively crime-free compared to Britain in the Middle Ages, when homicide rates were around 23 per 100,000. The global average is one-third that level today.17 Still, evidence from a global sample of countries suggests that the homicide rate increased from 5 to 7 per 100,000 people per year between the late 1970s and the early 1990s.


pages: 218 words: 70,323

Critical: Science and Stories From the Brink of Human Life by Matt Morgan

agricultural Revolution, Atul Gawande, biofilm, Black Swan, Checklist Manifesto, cognitive dissonance, crew resource management, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Strachan, discovery of penicillin, en.wikipedia.org, hygiene hypothesis, job satisfaction, John Snow's cholera map, meta analysis, meta-analysis, personalized medicine, publication bias, randomized controlled trial, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs

It is so important to our survival as a species that it has allowed us to exist alongside other life. We not only live side by side with millions of other life forms, but embrace an ecosystem of microscopic life living on and under our skin. For the vast majority of this time, it was essential to combat the daily barrage of infections from parasites, worms, bacteria and viruses. Following the first agricultural revolution 10,000 years ago, life changed for Homo sapiens. No longer nomadic, we lived in settled, cleaner communities. We ate more grain and fewer infected animal parts. This ‘progress’ has continued to the point where today our homes are relative sanctuaries of sterility in which we interact with animals far less, and wash our hands, our clothes and each other multiple times per day with microbe-killing substances.


pages: 603 words: 182,826

Owning the Earth: The Transforming History of Land Ownership by Andro Linklater

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, Anton Chekhov, Ayatollah Khomeini, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, business cycle, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, facts on the ground, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gini coefficient, Google Earth, income inequality, invisible hand, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kibera, Kickstarter, land reform, land tenure, light touch regulation, market clearing, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, mortgage debt, Northern Rock, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, Right to Buy, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, spinning jenny, The Chicago School, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, ultimatum game, wage slave, WikiLeaks, wikimedia commons, working poor

More recently the growth of representative government and the rule of law have been picked out as vital in guaranteeing social stability and encouraging investment. But in Poland, sixteenth-century landowners elected the members of the Sejm, or parliament, while in France the law guaranteed peasants a security of tenure that was virtually unbreakable. Yet neither country experienced an agricultural revolution in the seventeenth century. Today, economists argue for the influence of trade and of urban merchants from London who bought land as vital in fostering a businesslike outlook. They cite the nineteenth-century German economist Heinrich von Thünen, who identified proximity to cities, both as markets and suppliers of capital for investment, as the crucial factor in transforming farmers from feudal to capitalist producers.

When persistent farmers finally evolved a design tough enough for the job, they discovered that Tull had been right: sowing the seed in rows, rather than scattering them broadcast, and plowing the weeds in between, increased wheat yields by almost 25 percent, or four to five hushels per acre. Tull’s invention remains famous as the first of a succession of eighteenth-century innovations in crop and livestock production that were sometimes dubbed the “Agricultural Revolution.” In reality, many supposed novelties, such as the selective breeding of livestock, four-year crop rotation, and the addition of lime or marl to increase wheat yields, had already been introduced in the sixteenth century. Mechanical developments like the horse-powered threshing machine that flailed and winnowed the ear from the wheat, suffered the same long development gap as the drill, with the first patent being issued in 1756, but no widespread use until the early nineteenth century.


pages: 586 words: 186,548

Architects of Intelligence by Martin Ford

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Asilomar, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, Bayesian statistics, bitcoin, business intelligence, business process, call centre, cloud computing, cognitive bias, Colonization of Mars, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, deskilling, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Douglas Hofstadter, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, Flash crash, future of work, gig economy, Google X / Alphabet X, Gödel, Escher, Bach, Hans Rosling, ImageNet competition, income inequality, industrial robot, information retrieval, job automation, John von Neumann, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, means of production, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, new economy, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, phenotype, Productivity paradox, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, self-driving car, sensor fusion, sentiment analysis, Silicon Valley, smart cities, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, stealth mode startup, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, superintelligent machines, Ted Kaczynski, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, theory of mind, Thomas Bayes, Travis Kalanick, Turing test, universal basic income, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, working-age population, zero-sum game, Zipcar

It’s definitely the kind of thing where you want governments to be paying attention and figuring out for people whose jobs change or shift, how can they acquire new skills or get new kinds of training that make them able to do things that are not at risk of automation? That’s an important aspect that governments have a strong, clear role to play in. MARTIN FORD: Do you think someday we may need a universal basic income? JEFF DEAN: I don’t know. It’s very hard to predict because I think any time we’ve gone through technological change, that has happened; it’s not like this is a new thing. The Industrial Revolution, the Agricultural Revolution, all these things have caused imbalance to society as a whole. What people do in terms of their daily jobs has shifted tremendously. I think this is going to be similar, in that entirely new kinds of things will be created that people will do, and it’s somewhat hard to predict what those things will be. So, I do think it’s important that people be flexible and learn new things throughout their career.

Full autonomy is more of a social evolution than a technical evolution, and those are harder to predict. MARTIN FORD: Agreed, but even so that’s a big disruption coming quite soon in one industry with a lot of drivers losing their jobs. Do you think a universal basic income is a possible solution to this job loss? DAPHNE KOLLER: It is just too early to make that decision. If you look back at some of the previous significant revolutions in history: The Agricultural Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, there were all the same predictions of massive workforce disruption and huge numbers of people being out of jobs. The world changed and those people found other jobs. It is too early to say that this one is going to be completely different to the others, because every disruption is surprising. Before we focus on universal basic income, we need to be a lot more thoughtful and deliberate about education.


pages: 631 words: 177,227

The Secret of Our Success: How Culture Is Driving Human Evolution, Domesticating Our Species, and Making Us Smarter by Joseph Henrich

agricultural Revolution, capital asset pricing model, Climategate, cognitive bias, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, delayed gratification, demographic transition, endowment effect, experimental economics, experimental subject, Flynn Effect, impulse control, Monkeys Reject Unequal Pay, Nash equilibrium, out of africa, phenotype, placebo effect, profit maximization, randomized controlled trial, risk tolerance, side project, social intelligence, social web, Steven Pinker, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, ultimatum game

Perhaps this major revolution in human history is a unique event from which we cannot draw general conclusions? To the contrary, my view is that the agricultural revolution just happens to be the best-timed revolution in order for us to detect its causes and effects in our genome. The industrial revolution is too recent, and the revolutions that preceded food production are much older and thus harder to study. Nevertheless, there’s every reason to suspect that there was a cooking-and-fire revolution, a projectile-weapons revolution, and a spoken-language revolution, among many others. And as you will see in later chapters, technologically driven revolutions are probably underpinned by revolutions in forms of social organization or institutions. The agricultural revolution is just the one in the temporal sweet spot for today’s science. To see something of this, consider that chimpanzees have two copies of the AMY1 gene, but humans have, on average, six copies.


pages: 288 words: 76,343

The Plundered Planet: Why We Must--And How We Can--Manage Nature for Global Prosperity by Paul Collier

agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, business climate, Doha Development Round, energy security, food miles, G4S, information asymmetry, Kenneth Arrow, megacity, new economy, offshore financial centre, oil shock, profit maximization, rent-seeking, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, sovereign wealth fund, stem cell, Stewart Brand

Although current research qualifies this conventional account, reducing the estimates of productivity gains to the 10–20 percent range, to ignore commercial agriculture as a force for rural development and enhanced food supply is surely ideological. Large organizations can internalize those effects that in smallholder agriculture are localized externalities, and thus not adequately absorbed. In the European agricultural revolution innovations indeed occurred on small farms as well as on large ones, and today many small farmers, especially those that are better off and better-educated, are keen to innovate. Nonetheless, agricultural innovation is highly sensitive to local conditions, especially in Africa, where soils are complex and variable. Innovators create benefits for the locality and, to the extent that these benefits are not fully captured by the innovators, improvement will be too slow.


pages: 258 words: 77,601

Everything Under the Sun: Toward a Brighter Future on a Small Blue Planet by Ian Hanington

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Bretton Woods, carbon footprint, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, Exxon Valdez, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hydraulic fracturing, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), oil shale / tar sands, stem cell, sustainable-tourism, the scientific method, University of East Anglia, urban planning, urban sprawl

For most of our existence, we were nomadic hunter-gatherers, following useful plants and animals through the seasons. Our ecological footprint (the amount of land and water required to fulfill our needs) was slight because when you have to carry everything you own, you tend to lug only the bare necessities. People understood and were grateful for nature’s abundance and generosity. About ten thousand years ago, the agricultural revolution signalled a monumental shift in human existence. By deliberately planting and growing food, we could settle in one place and establish roots. Civilizations rose and fell relatively rapidly in evolutionary time, but until the past century, most people lived in rural communities and were involved in growing food. Farmers watch the seasons carefully. They understand the relationship between winter snow and summer moisture, and they know which plants and insects are beneficial and which are pests.


Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital: The Dynamics of Bubbles and Golden Ages by Carlota Pérez

agricultural Revolution, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Noyce, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, commoditize, Corn Laws, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, distributed generation, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, Hyman Minsky, informal economy, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, late capitalism, market fundamentalism, new economy, nuclear winter, offshore financial centre, post-industrial society, profit motive, railway mania, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Sand Hill Road, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, South Sea Bubble, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thorstein Veblen, trade route, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Washington Consensus

Externalities of all sorts are so overwhelmingly favorable to it that engineers, designers, managers, entrepreneurs and investors ‘naturally’ follow certain common principles as obvious good business. A thousand plas- 36. 37. These qualitative aspects of growth are rarely included in the usual interpretations of ‘long waves’. Kuznets (1940) pp. 261–2. 28 Technological Revolutions and Financial Capital tics followed the first breakthroughs in synthetic materials, wired houses could take on dozens of successive new electrical appliances, the agricultural revolution could combine the use of oil-driven machinery of increasing variety and specialization with any number of petrochemical pesticides and fertilizers. The same has occurred this time with computer games, with software packages, with the various generations of personal computers and then with ‘dot com’ services in the Internet. Once the path has been successfully signaled, growing bunches can join the bandwagon.


pages: 252 words: 74,167

Thinking Machines: The Inside Story of Artificial Intelligence and Our Race to Build the Future by Luke Dormehl

Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Alexey Pajitnov wrote Tetris, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, Automated Insights, autonomous vehicles, book scanning, borderless world, call centre, cellular automata, Claude Shannon: information theory, cloud computing, computer vision, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, drone strike, Elon Musk, Flash crash, friendly AI, game design, global village, Google X / Alphabet X, hive mind, industrial robot, information retrieval, Internet of things, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Law of Accelerating Returns, life extension, Loebner Prize, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Menlo Park, natural language processing, Norbert Wiener, out of africa, PageRank, pattern recognition, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, remote working, RFID, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, Turing machine, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

For hundreds of years, mankind has steered evolutionary processes to breed new kinds of animals and plants that best suit our needs and wishes. During the eleventh century, the brilliant Persian polymath Abu Rayhan Biruni observed how foresters could create better trees by leaving branches they perceived to be excellent, while cutting away the rest. This notion was turned into a science by a man named Robert Bakewell during the British Agricultural Revolution of the eighteenth century. Bakewell discovered that he could engineer extra-woolly sheep and beefier cattle by controlling their breeding. As more and more farmers followed Bakewell’s lead, farm animals increased in both size and quality. In 1700, the average bull sold for slaughter weighed 168 kg. By 1786, the average weight had more than doubled to 381 kg. As Lohn learned, these same principles are possible with computers using Artificial Intelligence which mimics the idea of natural selection.


pages: 246 words: 76,561

Radical Cities: Across Latin America in Search of a New Architecture by Justin McGuirk

A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, dark matter, Donald Trump, Enrique Peñalosa, extreme commuting, facts on the ground, Guggenheim Bilbao, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income per capita, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, lateral thinking, mass immigration, microcredit, Milgram experiment, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, place-making, Silicon Valley, starchitect, technoutopianism, unorthodox policies, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus

They were both architects and former colleagues of his from the University of Engineering in Lima. They backed his idea enthusiastically, and pulled all the strings they could to get the UN to fund it. In 1968, everything was ready to go. However, that October, Belaúnde was overthrown by a military coup. The junta now in power nearly scrapped PREVI. More populist than Belaúnde, the generals favoured agricultural revolution and the expropriation of land to give to the poor. To the junta, PREVI looked like just another housing project – but because the UN was backing it, the experiment was allowed to proceed. In 1969, the international architects were flown in to Lima to study the barriadas and prepare their competition entries. The idea was that one of these house designs would be chosen to roll out on a massive scale.


pages: 314 words: 77,409

The Serengeti Rules: The Quest to Discover How Life Works and Why It Matters by Sean B. Carroll

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, clean water, discovery of penicillin, Fellow of the Royal Society, out of africa, pattern recognition, phenotype, Skype, Thomas Malthus

β-galactosidase, 60–63, 61f, 64 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase: cholesterol synthesis and, 78–81; discovery of statins and, 81–87; search for fungal inhibitor of, 82–84 Abelson leukemia virus, 98 abl gene, 97, 98–100, 99f, 102–104 acidity, 23–24, 25 ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), 17 acute myeloid leukemia, 92–93 acute promyelocytic leukemia, 95 Addis, James, 171–177 adrenal glands, 19–21, 27 adrenalin, 17, 19–21 adrenocorticotropic hormone, 17 Africa View (Huxley), 132 Agricultural Revolution, 4–5 AIDS, 4 algae: blooms as ecological imbalance, 155–158, 157f, 163, 165; green world hypothesis and, 116, 118f, 119; lake productivity and, 171–172, 173f; minnows, bass and, 123–125 Alligator Harbor Marine Laboratory, 114–115 allostery, 69–71, 70f Amchitka Island, 121–122 amino acid synthesis, 67–68 amygdala, 17 anemone, 119 Animal Ecology (Elton), 43, 46 Animal Farm (Orwell), 127 antelope, 182 ants, 125 Arctic animals, 37–39, 37f, 39f, 41 arctic foxes, 41 armadillos, 125 army ants, 125 Asia, rice production and, 158–161, 164 aspen, 180–182, 181f Aspergillus terreus, 84 atherosclerosis, 5–6, 76 Aucanquilcha, Mount, 73 Auckland, New Zealand, 120 Australopithecus afarensis, 3 Babbitt, Bruce, 177, 178f baboons, 161–162, 164, 165f bacteria: enzyme regulation and, 56–57, 60–63, 61f; growth and replication of, 54–58, 56f, 58f Bangladesh, 208 Bard, Philip, 21 barium salts, 18 barnacles, 118–119 barrens, 121, 124f bass, 123–125, 171–172, 173f Baumann, Oscar, 136 bay scallops, 162–163, 164 bcr gene, 98–100, 99f, 102 Bear Island, 32–39, 39f Beattie, Mollie, 177, 178f beavers, 181 Beschta, Robert, 181 “Better Living Through Ecology,” 203 bicarbonate ions, 23–24 Bilheimer, David, 86 Binney, George, 40 biosynthetic pathways, negative feedback and, 67–68 bipedal posture, 139 Birds of Massachusetts (Forbush), 113 Bishop, J.


Beyond Bigger Leaner Stronger: The Advanced Guide to Building Muscle, Staying Lean, and Getting Strong by Michael Matthews

agricultural Revolution, fear of failure, G4S, Gary Taubes, meta analysis, meta-analysis, phenotype, placebo effect, randomized controlled trial

Now, even if that strips the Paleo diet of a bit of its scientific legitimacy and luster, it doesn’t mean it’s not a healthy way to eat. The new question, then, becomes, Even if our ancient ancestors weren’t “Paleo,” is the diet worthwhile nonetheless? MAKING A CASE FOR THE PALEO DIET Here’s the premise of the Paleo diet, as stated by its founder, Dr. Loren Cordain: “With readily available modern foods, The Paleo diet mimics the types of foods every single person on the planet ate prior to the Agricultural Revolution (a mere 333 generations ago). These foods (fresh fruits, vegetables, meats, and seafood) are high in the beneficial nutrients (soluble fiber, antioxidant vitamins, phytochemicals, omega-3 and monounsaturated fats, and low-glycemic carbohydrates) that promote good health and are low in the foods and nutrients (refined sugars and grains, trans fats, salt, high-glycemic carbohydrates, and processed foods) that frequently may cause weight gain, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and numerous other health problems.


pages: 555 words: 80,635

Open: The Progressive Case for Free Trade, Immigration, and Global Capital by Kimberly Clausing

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Donald Trump, floating exchange rates, full employment, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, index fund, investor state dispute settlement, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, offshore financial centre, open economy, Paul Samuelson, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, uber lyft, winner-take-all economy, working-age population, zero-sum game

Technological change and structural changes in the economy would seem to be more important than trade shocks in driving this reduction in manufacturing jobs, since trade shocks were far from evenly distributed over this time period. While technological progress in the past has been disruptive, it has not caused a reduction in the total number of jobs or a higher unemployment rate. There have been many technological revolutions that have ultimately enabled higher standards of living and greater opportunities for workers, starting with the agricultural revolution that dramatically increased farm output per worker and freed labor to move to the cities, and later including revolutions in industrial processes like the assembly line. When work can be done more efficiently, that doesn’t mean that the number of jobs has to fall, though jobs will be redirected. Two centuries ago, over three-quarters of the labor force worked on farms, whereas now less than 2 percent of the labor force works on farms.12 Yet as agricultural productivity increased, that did not leave would-be farmers unemployed, since they could turn to job opportunities in the cities.


pages: 290 words: 76,216

What's Wrong with Economics? by Robert Skidelsky

"Robert Solow", additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, central bank independence, cognitive bias, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, full employment, George Akerlof, George Santayana, global supply chain, global village, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, hindsight bias, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, index fund, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet Archive, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, loss aversion, Mark Zuckerberg, market clearing, market friction, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, means of production, moral hazard, paradox of thrift, Pareto efficiency, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, precariat, price anchoring, principal–agent problem, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, survivorship bias, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, transfer pricing, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, Wolfgang Streeck, zero-sum game

It offers no general theory of economic development, but historically rich accounts, which can direct policy fruitfully to problems in the present. The neoclassical growth story tells us that a universal precondition for economic development is a secure set of property rights, so that owners of land and business can reap private rewards from socially beneficial improvements and innovations. On this theory, enclosure of the ‘commons’ in eighteenth-century England led, via the agricultural revolution, to the Industrial Revolution. Applying this ‘general theory’ in the 1990s, the first generation of post-communist reformers in Russia and eastern Europe auctioned off most state property at a stroke. The results varied with the histories and resource-profiles of the countries concerned, and the amount of foreign help they received. But in Russia the results were disastrous. The economy collapsed, most of the state property was ‘stolen’ by the Soviet managers of the state companies, creating a class of fabulously wealthy ‘oligarchs’, and autocracy returned as the only barrier against social disintegration.


pages: 650 words: 203,191

After Tamerlane: The Global History of Empire Since 1405 by John Darwin

agricultural Revolution, Atahualpa, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, deglobalization, deindustrialization, European colonialism, failed state, Francisco Pizarro, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Malacca Straits, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shock, open economy, price mechanism, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade

Far more than the ‘colonial’ West, the Islamic Near East was the intellectual legatee of the Ancient World and home to an intellectual culture that had all but collapsed in the ‘Dark Ages’ of the West. Nor was the wealth and urban tradition of the Near East an accident. Here, where the earliest riverine civilizations had grown up, economic life enjoyed a double stimulus. In the Nile–Euphrates corridor, and scattered across the Iranian uplands, were agricultural regions of exceptional productivity. An agricultural revolution had introduced new crops;37 hydraulic technique overcame the curse of aridity. An agrarian surplus sustained urban elites and their elaborate high culture. In the towns, an artisan class of legendary skill had sprung up to cater for these elites’ material demands. But the Near East was also the great commercial crossroads of the world: the land bridge between China, Europe, Africa and India, and the portage for the seaborne trade of the Indian Ocean.

The ‘Turko-Circassian’ elite (a mixture of the old Mamluk ruling class and Mehemet Ali’s Turkish and Albanian followers) would be made to pay for its privileged status in an overwhelmingly ‘Arab’ society by loyal support for its patron and protector. Both rulers understood that their chances depended upon a rapid increase in agrarian wealth. The omens were favourable. The demand for Egypt’s long-staple cotton in industrial Europe seemed almost insatiable, but to meet it required an agricultural revolution. The area of cultivable land grew by 60 per cent between 1813 and 1877.112 The delta marshlands below Cairo were drained and cleared. Perennial irrigation, supplied by a network of canals and barrages, replaced the reliance on the annual flood, and doubled production. By the mid-1860s foreign investment was growing, and foreign-owned banks sprang up to serve the new landed class. Alexandria boomed as the Mediterranean port city of the export economy.


pages: 285 words: 81,743

Start-Up Nation: The Story of Israel's Economic Miracle by Dan Senor, Saul Singer

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Boycotts of Israel, call centre, Celtic Tiger, cleantech, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, friendly fire, immigration reform, labor-force participation, mass immigration, new economy, pez dispenser, post scarcity, profit motive, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social graph, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, web application, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

And this is how he knew, well before official statistics were kept, how the economy was doing.” Sanbar also believes that this system could have worked only in a small, striving, and idealistic nation: there was no government transparency, but “all the politicians then . . . died poor. . . . They intervened in the market, and decided whatever they wanted, but at no point did anyone pocket even one cent.”6 The Kibbutz and the Agriculture Revolution At the center of the first great leap was a radical and emblematic societal innovation whose local and global influence has been wildly disproportionate to its size: the kibbutz. Today, at less than 2 percent of Israel’s population, kibbutzniks produce 12 percent of the nation’s exports. Historians have called the kibbutz “the world’s most successful commune movement.”7 Yet in 1944, four years before Israel’s founding, only sixteen thousand people lived on kibbutzim (kibbutz means “gathering” or “collective,” kibbutzim is the plural, and members are called kibbutzniks).


pages: 281 words: 79,958

Denialism: How Irrational Thinking Hinders Scientific Progress, Harms the Planet, and Threatens Our Lives by Michael Specter

23andMe, agricultural Revolution, Anne Wojcicki, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Asilomar, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, Drosophila, food miles, invention of gunpowder, out of africa, personalized medicine, placebo effect, profit motive, randomized controlled trial, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman: Challenger O-ring, Ronald Reagan, Simon Singh, Skype, stem cell, Ted Kaczynski, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, twin studies, Upton Sinclair, X Prize

The only way that will happen is by producing more food per hectare—more crop, as agronomists like to say, per drop. That is not the direction in which the world has been moving. Grain production began to decline in the 1990s for the first time since World War II. Africa, the continent that needs the most help, is the place that is faltering most profoundly. Total production on farms there, according to the World Resources Institute, is nearly 20 percent less than it was in 1970. Without another agricultural revolution, that trend will surely accelerate. IF WE GENUINELY care about sharing our fate, and making food more readily available to everyone, there is only one question worth asking: how can we foment that next revolution? Certainly we need a better way to grow crops, one that sustains the earth but also makes the most efficient possible use of it. Breeding is the art of choosing beneficial traits and cultivating them over time.


Rethinking Money: How New Currencies Turn Scarcity Into Prosperity by Bernard Lietaer, Jacqui Dunne

3D printing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, business climate, business cycle, business process, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, clockwork universe, collapse of Lehman Brothers, complexity theory, conceptual framework, credit crunch, different worldview, discounted cash flows, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, fiat currency, financial innovation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, German hyperinflation, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, liberation theology, Marshall McLuhan, microcredit, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, more computing power than Apollo, new economy, Occupy movement, price stability, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, the payments system, too big to fail, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, urban decay, War on Poverty, working poor

Against this emerging social and economic backdrop, part of the agenda of the Economic Hit Man that unfortunately worked so well in other parts of the world, taking advantage of developing countries to enslave them with indebtedness to international financial institutions, has come home to roost in what is referred to as the “developed world,” including the United States. Circumstances like these generate revolutions. The Agricultural Revolution. The Industrial Revolution. The American Revolution. We have entered such a time. Future historians, I believe, will define this as a Revolution in Consciousness. People around the world are waking up to the fact that a very few extremely wealthy individuals are enslaving the rest of us. The shackles take the form of the currencies and debt that are interwoven with global monetary systems.


pages: 324 words: 86,056

The Socialist Manifesto: The Case for Radical Politics in an Era of Extreme Inequality by Bhaskar Sunkara

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Bernie Sanders, British Empire, business climate, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, Charles Lindbergh, collective bargaining, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Donald Trump, equal pay for equal work, feminist movement, Ferguson, Missouri, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, gig economy, Gunnar Myrdal, happiness index / gross national happiness, Honoré de Balzac, income inequality, inventory management, labor-force participation, land reform, land value tax, Mark Zuckerberg, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, Neil Kinnock, new economy, Occupy movement, postindustrial economy, precariat, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, telemarketer, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, urban renewal, We are the 99%

Even before the Industrial Revolution, more than half of Britain’s population was engaged in labor other than agriculture, but it took several more decades for the landscape to be truly transformed by railroads, steamships, and heavy industry. Capitalists used the new technologies to create great factories that required a disciplined, centralized workforce.9 But the would-be urban proletariat had to be lured to cities first. Fortunately for the capitalists, the agricultural revolution and consequent population boom left many in poverty. Fleeing the countryside for the city was one way out. Wage labor was just as unappealing for them as it was for the old peasantry, but the impoverished had little chance of survival otherwise. They were joined in the new factories by Irish immigrants fleeing the devastating Great Famine. Once in cities workers had to be radically retrained.


pages: 275 words: 84,980

Before Babylon, Beyond Bitcoin: From Money That We Understand to Money That Understands Us (Perspectives) by David Birch

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, bank run, banks create money, bitcoin, blockchain, Bretton Woods, British Empire, Broken windows theory, Burning Man, business cycle, capital controls, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, clockwork universe, creative destruction, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, dematerialisation, Diane Coyle, disruptive innovation, distributed ledger, double entry bookkeeping, Ethereum, ethereum blockchain, facts on the ground, fault tolerance, fiat currency, financial exclusion, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, Fractional reserve banking, index card, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Irish bank strikes, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Kuwabatake Sanjuro: assassination market, large denomination, M-Pesa, market clearing, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Martin Wolf, mobile money, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, new economy, Northern Rock, Pingit, prediction markets, price stability, QR code, quantitative easing, railway mania, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Real Time Gross Settlement, reserve currency, Satoshi Nakamoto, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, smart contracts, social graph, special drawing rights, technoutopianism, the payments system, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, transaction costs, tulip mania, wage slave, Washington Consensus, wikimedia commons

But the idea spread, and in 1692 the Bank of England was created for the admirable purpose of financing wars against France. France, incidentally, went on to become the source of all sorts of crazy money experiments that ended in disaster: the assignats, John Law’s land bank, the Latin Monetary Union and … the euro. The past begins with money as debt in commodities and then a commodity (anything from grain to seashells to gold) or a claim on such. The agricultural revolution led to the rise of cities and the dawn of banking and, eventually, to coins. Stretching from antiquity to early modern times, the technological implementations went from cuneiform to banknotes to printed cheques. The Industrial Revolution then allowed these claims to move faster, by steam train rather than by horse, until technology freed them from the constraints of physicality. The past is about money as atoms.


pages: 282 words: 82,107

An Edible History of Humanity by Tom Standage

agricultural Revolution, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, carbon footprint, Columbian Exchange, Corn Laws, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Eratosthenes, financial innovation, food miles, Haber-Bosch Process, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Kickstarter, Louis Pasteur, Mikhail Gorbachev, special economic zone, spice trade, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce

In a prescient speech in March 1968, William Gaud of the United States Agency for International Development had highlighted the impact that high-yield varieties of wheat were starting to have in Pakistan, India, and Turkey. “Record yields, harvests of unprecedented size and crops now in the ground demonstrate that throughout much of the developing world—and particularly in Asia—we are on the verge of an agricultural revolution,” he said. “It is not a violent red revolution like that of the Soviets, nor is it a white revolution like that of the Shah of Iran. I call it the green revolution. This new revolution can be as significant and as beneficial to mankind as the Industrial Revolution of a century and a half ago.” The term “green revolution” immediately gained widespread currency, and it has remained in use ever since.


pages: 349 words: 86,224

Against the Grain: A Deep History of the Earliest States by James C. Scott

agricultural Revolution, clean water, David Graeber, demographic dividend, demographic transition, deskilling, facts on the ground, invention of writing, joint-stock company, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, means of production, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route

Not in dispute, however, is that between 8,000 and 6,000 BCE, all the so-called “founder crops”—the cereals and legumes: lentils, peas, chickpeas, bitter vetch, and flax (for cloth)—are being planted, though generally on a modest scale. Over the same two-millennia span—the timing vis-à-vis cereals is not clear—domesticated goats, sheep, pigs, and cattle make their appearance. With this suite of domesticates the full “Neolithic package,” seen as the decisive agricultural revolution that marks the beginning of civilization, including the first small urban agglomerations, is in place. Permanent proto-urban settlements emerge in the wetlands of the southern alluvium near the Persian Gulf around 6,500 BCE. The southern alluvium is not the earliest site of year-round settlements; nor is it the site where the first evidence of domesticated cereals appears. In these respects, it is a latecomer.


Europe: A History by Norman Davies

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, business climate, centre right, charter city, clean water, Columbian Exchange, conceptual framework, continuation of politics by other means, Corn Laws, cuban missile crisis, Defenestration of Prague, discovery of DNA, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, equal pay for equal work, Eratosthenes, Etonian, European colonialism, experimental economics, financial independence, finite state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, global village, Honoré de Balzac, Index librorum prohibitorum, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land reform, liberation theology, long peace, Louis Blériot, Louis Daguerre, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, Peace of Westphalia, popular capitalism, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, road to serfdom, sceptred isle, Scramble for Africa, spinning jenny, Thales of Miletus, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Transnistria, urban planning, urban sprawl

The country pays tribute to the king of the Western Tartars… Within it are collected in great abundance the furs of ermines, sables, martens, foxes … together with much wax. It contains several [silver] mines… [It] is an exceedingly cold region, and I have been assured that it extends even as far as the Northern Ocean, where … peregrine falcons are taken in vast numbers.39 Contrary to former assumptions, economic life in the Middle Ages was not stagnant. There is a school of thought which holds that ‘an agricultural revolution’ in northern Europe at this time was ‘equally decisive in its historical effects’ as ‘the so-called Industrial Revolution’ of the nineteenth century.40 The argument centres on new sources of power such as the water-mill and the windmill, on expanded mining activities, on the impact of the iron plough and horsepower, and on crop rotation and improved nutrition. New techniques sometimes took centuries to be widely applied, but the chain effect over time was decisive.

The change from the two-field to the three-field plan greatly improved crop yields whilst increasing the peasant family’s productivity by at least 50 per cent. It permitted the growing of all four cereals, and effectively distributed the peasant’s toil between spring and autumn sowing. But it demanded a marked rise in ploughing capacity. (See Plate 29.) By the twelfth century at the latest, all the elements of the northern agricultural revolution were in place from France to Poland. Historians may have modified some of the simpler equations of the subject, such as Meltzen’s ‘Scratch-plough + cross-ploughing = square fields’ or Marc Bloch’s famous ‘Three-piece plough + wheels = strips = open fields = communal agriculture’. But the main lines are now generally accepted. Square-shaped upland fields, which required cross-ploughing, were often abandoned, whilst long open-strip fields made their appearance in the heavy but fertile lands of the valley bottoms.

Brian Coe, The Birth of Photography: The Story of the Formative Years, 1800–1900 (London, 1976). PICARO 1. Bronislaw Geremek, Swiat Opery Żebraczej: obraz wtóczęgów i nędzarzy w literaturach XV-XVII wieku (The World of the Beggar’s Opera: Tramps and Beggars in the literature of the 15th-17th Centuries) (Warsaw, 1989); Poverty: A History (Oxford, 1994). 2. Ewa M. Thomson, Understanding Russia: The Holy Fool in Russian Literature (London, 1987). PLOVUM 1. Lynn White Jr., ‘The Agricultural Revolution in the Early Middle Ages’, in Mediaeval Technology and Social Change (Oxford, 1962), 39–78, with superlative footnotes. POGROM 1. ‘Pogrom’, in Encyclopaedia Judaica (Jerusalem, 1971), xiii. 694–702. 2. See J. D. Clier, Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History (Cambridge, 1991); I. M. Aronson, Troubled Waters: The Origins of the 1881 Anti-Jewish Pogroms in Russia (Pittsburgh, 1990). 3.


pages: 323 words: 89,795

Food and Fuel: Solutions for the Future by Andrew Heintzman, Evan Solomon, Eric Schlosser

agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, big-box store, clean water, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate social responsibility, David Brooks, deindustrialization, distributed generation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, flex fuel, full employment, half of the world's population has never made a phone call, hydrogen economy, Kickstarter, land reform, microcredit, Negawatt, Nelson Mandela, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, RAND corporation, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment

Almost one and a half billion small farmers in the developing world depend on saved seeds as their primary seed source; these are people whose average income barely creeps above two dollars a day, often not even above one. Imagine what it would mean if these farmers were suddenly required to pay distant corporations for every seed they planted. Imagine what it would mean for these farmers to relinquish centuries-old local agricultural practices for techniques and products developed and controlled by faraway corporations over which they have no say? We don’t need to imagine. We can look to another agricultural revolution and learn from history. Today’s “Gene Revolution,” after all, is in many ways a reprise of the 1960s Green Revolution, which used technological innovation to increase yields across the developing world. The key to the Green Revolution was the development of high-yield hybrid seeds, or what critics of the technology call “high-responding” because they require extensive application of inputs — including water, fertilizer, and pesticides.


pages: 346 words: 90,371

Rethinking the Economics of Land and Housing by Josh Ryan-Collins, Toby Lloyd, Laurie Macfarlane

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, deindustrialization, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, garden city movement, George Akerlof, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, land tenure, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, low skilled workers, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, mortgage debt, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, place-making, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, the built environment, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, working poor, working-age population

‘A Conjecture on the Explanation for High Unemployment in the Industrialized Nations: Part 1’. The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) no. 475, December. Oswald, Andrew J. [1999] 2009. ‘The Housing Market and Europe’s Unemployment: A Non-Technical Paper’. In Homeownership and the Labour Market in Europe, ed. Casper van Ewijk and Michiel van Leuvensteijn. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Overton, Mark. 1996. Agricultural Revolution in England: The Transformation of the Agrarian Economy 1500–1850. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Oxley, Michael, Tim J. Brown, A. M. Fernandez-Maldonado, L. Qu, and L. Tummers. 2009. Review of European Planning Systems. London: National Housing and Planning Advice Unit. https://www.dora.dmu.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/2086/7536. Oxley, Michael, and Marietta Haffner. 2010. ‘Housing Taxation and Subsidies: International Comparisons and the Options for Reform’.


pages: 294 words: 96,661

The Fourth Age: Smart Robots, Conscious Computers, and the Future of Humanity by Byron Reese

agricultural Revolution, AI winter, artificial general intelligence, basic income, Buckminster Fuller, business cycle, business process, Claude Shannon: information theory, clean water, cognitive bias, computer age, crowdsourcing, dark matter, Elon Musk, Eratosthenes, estate planning, financial independence, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, full employment, Hans Rosling, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Hargreaves, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, lateral thinking, life extension, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Mary Lou Jepsen, Moravec's paradox, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, pattern recognition, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Rodney Brooks, Sam Altman, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, spinning jenny, Stephen Hawking, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, strong AI, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, Turing machine, Turing test, universal basic income, Von Neumann architecture, Wall-E, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, women in the workforce, working poor, Works Progress Administration, Y Combinator

Only later, as civilization progressed, did the immorality of the institution become glaringly obvious. Over time, some people amassed more land and capital than others. As society became wealthier, complexity arose. Trade became more sophisticated. Technology advanced and cities grew. All of this together raised the upper limit of the amount of wealth a single person could accumulate. An unintended consequence of the agricultural revolution was that while more food could be produced, food could also be withheld from people. In a hunter-gatherer world, that wasn’t really possible, but with cities and agriculture, withholding food was a way for those in power to silence opposition, while distributing food was a way to ensure obedience. This is still done in parts of the world today. It is against this backdrop that people separated into the rulers and the ruled.


pages: 344 words: 93,858

The Post-American World: Release 2.0 by Fareed Zakaria

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, airport security, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, conceptual framework, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, global reserve currency, global supply chain, illegal immigration, interest rate derivative, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Wolf, mutually assured destruction, new economy, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, postindustrial economy, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Washington Consensus, working-age population, young professional, zero-sum game

He observed that food production in England rose at an arithmetic rate (1, 2, 3, 4, . . .) but population grew at a geometric rate (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, . . .). This mismatch, unless altered, would ensure that the country would be hungry and impoverished, and that only catastrophes like famine and disease could raise living standards (by shrinking the population).* Malthus’ dilemma was quite real, but he failed to appreciate the power of technology. He did not recognize that these very pressures would generate a human response in Europe—the agricultural revolution, which vastly expanded the production of food. (The continent also eased population pressures by exporting tens of millions of people to various colonies, mostly in the Americas.) So Malthus was wrong about Europe. His analysis, however, well described Asia and Africa. Strength Is Weakness And yet, how to make sense of those extraordinary Chinese voyages? Zheng He’s dazzling fleet is just one part of a larger picture of remarkable achievements in China and India—palaces, courts, cities—at the very time that the West was moving ahead of them.


pages: 329 words: 88,954

Emergence by Steven Johnson

A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, edge city, epigenetics, game design, garden city movement, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, pez dispenser, phenotype, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, slashdot, social intelligence, Socratic dialogue, stakhanovite, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush

But whichever one came first—the extroverted chicken or the self-aware egg—those faculties are prime examples of emergence at work. You wouldn’t be able to read these words, or speculate about the inner workings of your mind, were it not for the protean force of emergence. But there are limits to that force, and to its handiwork. Natural selection endowed us with cognitive tools uniquely equipped to handle the social complexity of Stone Age groups on the savannas of Africa, but once the agricultural revolution introduced the first cities along the banks of the Tigris-Euphrates valley, the Homo sapiens mind naturally recoiled from the sheer scale of those populations. A mind designed to handle the maneuverings of less than two hundred individuals suddenly found itself immersed in a community of ten or twenty thousand. To solve that problem, we once again leaned on the powers of emergence, although the solution resided one level up from the individual human brain: instead of looking to swarms of neurons to deal with social complexity, we looked to swarms of individual humans.


pages: 324 words: 93,606

No Such Thing as a Free Gift: The Gates Foundation and the Price of Philanthropy by Linsey McGoey

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, American Legislative Exchange Council, bitcoin, Bob Geldof, cashless society, clean water, cognitive dissonance, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, crony capitalism, effective altruism, Etonian, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, Ford paid five dollars a day, germ theory of disease, hiring and firing, Howard Zinn, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Mitch Kapor, Mont Pelerin Society, Naomi Klein, obamacare, Peter Singer: altruism, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, price mechanism, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent-seeking, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, school choice, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Slavoj Žižek, Steve Jobs, strikebreaker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, trickle-down economics, urban planning, wealth creators

In a grim irony, to end their lives, heavily indebted farmers turn to the same implements that failed them. Often with borrowed funds, they secure the $10 or so that it costs to buy a bottle of pesticide, and swallow it whole before settling to sleep.18 Norman Borlaug, who won a Nobel Peace Prize in 1970 for his pioneering role in the Green Revolution, later acknowledged that the overuse of pesticides was eroding some of the gains of the agricultural revolution. He called for more judicious use of fertilizer and pesticides in future.19 Bill Gates has repeatedly suggested that we need to extend the Green Revolution to Africa. His comments have sparked outrage in developing regions. Vandana Shiva, a renowned Indian environmental activist, has condemned the Gates Foundation’s links to Monsanto, calling the foundation the ‘greatest threat to farmers in the developing world’.20 In the late 2000s, a group of Seattle-based activists set up an organization called AGRA Watch in order to monitor, as their website puts it, ‘the Gates Foundation’s participation in the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA)’.


pages: 322 words: 89,523

Ecovillages: Lessons for Sustainable Community by Karen T. Litfin

active transport: walking or cycling, agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, collaborative consumption, Community Supported Agriculture, complexity theory, corporate social responsibility, glass ceiling, global village, hydraulic fracturing, megacity, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, planetary scale, publish or perish, Silicon Valley, the built environment, the scientific method, The Spirit Level, urban planning, Zipcar

“For example, I believe our gratitude for the magical spell of agriculture actually stabilized the climate. If you look at the charts, carbon dioxide and temperature rise and fall together. When they’re down, which was true for most of the last 600,000 years, there’s a mile of ice covering Chicago. But, about 10,000 years ago, they went up and stabilized. Plows didn’t exist so people slashed and charred before they cultivated. The agricultural revolution created the most life-conducive climate this planet has seen for over 600,000 years. “When the sorcerer takes on apprentices, there’s a danger that they’ll fall into a common trap. Remember the Disney movie Fantasia? The apprentice had to carry water. Chop wood, carry water: these are sacred responsibilities! But the apprentice preferred leisure so he cast a spell and had the broom do it.


pages: 797 words: 227,399

Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century by P. W. Singer

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Atahualpa, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bill Joy: nanobots, blue-collar work, borderless world, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Craig Reynolds: boids flock, cuban missile crisis, digital map, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Firefox, Francisco Pizarro, Frank Gehry, friendly fire, game design, George Gilder, Google Earth, Grace Hopper, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of gunpowder, invention of movable type, invention of the steam engine, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Law of Accelerating Returns, Mars Rover, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, pattern recognition, private military company, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, robot derives from the Czech word robota Czech, meaning slave, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, technological singularity, The Coming Technological Singularity, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Yogi Berra

By the time of the airstrikes over Afghanistan in 2001, the ratio had flipped; each plane was destroying 4.07 targets on average per flight. Connectivity is also expanding at an exponential rate, allowing new technologies to change human society quicker and quicker. For example, the wheel first appeared in Sumer around 8500 B.C. But it took roughly three thousand years for the wheel to be commonly used in animal-drawn carts and plows. So the agricultural revolution that made possible human cities, and what we now know as “civilization,” played out over several millennia. By the eighteenth century, communication and transportation had sped up to the point that it took only just under a century for the steam engine to become similarly widespread, launching the Industrial Age. Today, the spread of knowledge is nearly instantaneous. The Internet took roughly a decade to be widely adopted (and Internet traffic doubles every six months).

Biddle, Military Power: Explaining Victory and Defeat in Modern Battle (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2004), 30. 100 exponential “stretching” of the battlefield Michael E. O’Hanlon, Technological Change and the Future of Warfare (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2000), 121. 100 each plane was destroying 4.07 targets Edwards, “Swarming and the Future of Warfare,” 137. 100 the agricultural revolution Rodney Brooks, Flesh and Machines: How Robots Will Change Us (New York: Pantheon, 2002). 100 launching the Industrial Age Richard R. Nelson, Technology, Institutions, and Economic Growth (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005), 135. 100 The Internet took roughly a decade “Internet Usage Statistics—The Big Picture,” Internet World Stats, 2007 (cited May 30, 2007); available at http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. 100 In less than a decade, over a billion people Chuck Klosterman, Sex, Drugs, and Cocoa Puffs: A Low Culture Manifesto (New York: Scribner, 2003), 112. 101 the aggregate of technologic change Ray Kurweil in an interview with Kip P.


pages: 343 words: 101,563

The Uninhabitable Earth: Life After Warming by David Wallace-Wells

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Asian financial crisis, augmented reality, basic income, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, carbon-based life, cognitive bias, computer age, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, Donald Trump, effective altruism, Elon Musk, endowment effect, energy transition, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, failed state, fiat currency, global pandemic, global supply chain, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of agriculture, Joan Didion, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, life extension, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, megacity, megastructure, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, nuclear winter, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, postindustrial economy, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Sam Altman, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, the built environment, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, too big to fail, universal basic income, University of East Anglia, Whole Earth Catalog, William Langewiesche, Y Combinator

In Against the Grain, the political scientist and anthropologist of anarchy James C. Scott gives a more pointed critique of the same period: wheat cultivation, he argues, is responsible for the arrival of what we now understand as state power, and, with it, bureaucracy and oppression and inequality. These are no longer outlier accounts of what you may have learned about in middle school as the Agricultural Revolution, which you probably were taught marked the real beginning of history. Modern humans have been around for 200,000 years, but farming for only about 12,000—an innovation that ended hunting and gathering, bringing about cities and political structures, and with them what we now think of as “civilization.” But even Jared Diamond—whose Guns, Germs, and Steel gave an ecological and geographical account of the rise of the industrial West, and whose Collapse is a kind of forerunner text for this recent wave of reconsiderations—has called the Neolithic Revolution “the worst mistake in the history of the human race.”


pages: 436 words: 98,538

The Upside of Inequality by Edward Conard

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, assortative mating, bank run, Berlin Wall, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, corporate governance, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, future of work, Gini coefficient, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the telephone, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, Kodak vs Instagram, labor-force participation, liquidity trap, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, randomized controlled trial, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, survivorship bias, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, total factor productivity, twin studies, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, University of East Anglia, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

Perhaps robots will finally displace workers rather than increasing workers’ prosperity as technology and capital investment has in the past. It’s hard to know what will happen when armies of robots build more armies of robots at near-zero cost. One may surmise that even the poor will be rich when the cost of goods is near zero. And so far, wave after wave of robot-like innovation has already rolled in—the agricultural revolution, industrial automation, computerization, and offshoring—with no result other than growing standards of living for everyone. In another version of the hollowing-out argument, sociologists blame rising income inequality for increasing the unproductive behavior of the working class. For example, the greater uncertainty of employment allegedly makes working-class men less marriageable.7 Their lower workforce participation allegedly leads to a decline in marriage and a corresponding rise in out-of-wedlock births.


The New Harvest: Agricultural Innovation in Africa by Calestous Juma

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, bioinformatics, business climate, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, creative destruction, double helix, energy security, energy transition, global value chain, income per capita, industrial cluster, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, land tenure, M-Pesa, microcredit, mobile money, non-tariff barriers, off grid, out of africa, precision agriculture, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, structural adjustment programs, supply-chain management, total factor productivity, undersea cable

The process was driven by a strong, competent, and well-informed developmental state that could set clear medium- and long-term goals and support their implementation. Despite the historical, geographic, political, social, educational, and cultural differences between China and Africa, there are still many lessons from China’s agricultural transformation that can inspire Africa’s efforts to turn around decades of low agricultural investment and misguided policies. An African agricultural revolution is within reach, provided the continent can focus on supporting small-scale farmers to help meet national and regional demand for food, rather than relying on expansion of export crops. While prospects for Africa’s global agricultural commodities markets (including cocoa, tea, and coffee) are likely to be brighter than in recent decades, the African food market will grow from US$50 billion in 2010 to US$150 billion by 2030.


pages: 382 words: 100,127

The Road to Somewhere: The Populist Revolt and the Future of Politics by David Goodhart

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, assortative mating, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, central bank independence, centre right, coherent worldview, corporate governance, credit crunch, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, gender pay gap, gig economy, glass ceiling, global supply chain, global village, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, job satisfaction, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, market friction, mass immigration, mittelstand, Neil Kinnock, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, North Sea oil, obamacare, old-boy network, open borders, Peter Singer: altruism, post-industrial society, post-materialism, postnationalism / post nation state, race to the bottom, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, shareholder value, Skype, Sloane Ranger, stem cell, Thomas L Friedman, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, ultimatum game, upwardly mobile, wages for housework, white flight, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, World Values Survey

There are two commonplace Anywhere assumptions that inform the debate about mass immigration and globalisation. The first is that humanity is on the move on an unprecedented scale and the second is that the nation state is inexorably losing out to global markets and institutions. Neither is true. Human beings have not given up the largely settled life they have lived since hunter-gathering gave way to the first agricultural revolution 10,000 years ago. There is, it is true, a vast movement within poor countries from the rural to the urban, but the world’s people have not suddenly become country-hoppers. Rootedness is a strong human impulse. In 2015 the number of people living in countries other than the one they were born in was 244 million, or 3.3 per cent of the global population of 7.3 billion. That is a significant increase on 2000 when the total was 173 million, or 2.8 per cent.


pages: 398 words: 108,026

The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: Powerful Lessons in Personal Change by Stephen R. Covey

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, knowledge worker, the map is not the territory, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, zero-sum game

That phrase represents the evolution of three generations of time management theory, and how to best do it is the focus of a wide variety of approaches and materials. Personal management has evolved in a pattern similar to many other areas of human endeavor. Major developmental thrusts, or "waves" as Alvin Toffler calls them, follow each other in succession, each adding a vital new dimension, For example, in social development, the agricultural revolution was followed by the industrial revolution, which was followed by the informational revolution. Each succeeding wave created a surge of social and personal progress. Likewise, in the area of time management, each generation builds on the one before it--each one moves us toward greater control of our lives. The first wave or generation could be characterized by notes and checklists, an effort to give some semblance of recognition and inclusiveness to the many demands placed on our time and energy.


The Future of Money by Bernard Lietaer

agricultural Revolution, banks create money, barriers to entry, Bretton Woods, business cycle, clean water, complexity theory, corporate raider, dematerialisation, discounted cash flows, diversification, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Gilder, German hyperinflation, global reserve currency, Golden Gate Park, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invention of the telephone, invention of writing, Lao Tzu, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, microcredit, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, Norbert Wiener, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, pattern recognition, post-industrial society, price stability, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, seigniorage, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, The Future of Employment, the market place, the payments system, Thomas Davenport, trade route, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, working poor

Managing savings intelligently therefore boils down to allocating cash between the three classical major asset classes: real estate, bonds, and stocks. Over the past decade, another major asset class has appeared that is of particular interest to us: currencies. A few words about the changing role of each asset class over time puts this development into perspective. Real Estate From the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution until last century, real estate, particularly land, was the dominant form of savings available in the world. The wealth of individuals could usually be evaluated by the quality and the size of the real estate they had accumulated. This all changed with the Industrial Age when stocks and bonds in commercial enterprises became a favourite investment vehicle. Today, most people's real estate holdings are limited to their house, and typically even that is mortgaged.


pages: 344 words: 104,077

Superminds: The Surprising Power of People and Computers Thinking Together by Thomas W. Malone

agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, Asperger Syndrome, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, business process, call centre, clean water, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental economics, Exxon Valdez, future of work, Galaxy Zoo, gig economy, happiness index / gross national happiness, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of the telegraph, inventory management, invisible hand, Jeff Rulifson, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, Joi Ito, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, knowledge worker, longitudinal study, Lyft, Marshall McLuhan, Occupy movement, Pareto efficiency, pattern recognition, prediction markets, price mechanism, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Coase, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, slashdot, social intelligence, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, technological singularity, The Nature of the Firm, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Tim Cook: Apple, transaction costs, Travis Kalanick, Uber for X, uber lyft, Vernor Vinge, Vilfredo Pareto, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!

Within a few thousand years of their arrival, all but one of the other 24 largest animal species on the continent were extinct.11 We don’t have any eyewitness reports of the slaughters, but somehow our hunting-and-gathering ancestors had finally reached the top of the food chain. And it was human groups—not individual humans—who had become the apex predators. Agriculture A similar story was repeated in each of the other two major stages of human development: the Agricultural Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. By about 12,000 years ago, humans began to systematically cultivate wheat, corn, cows, and many other plants and animals. This allowed humans to increase their global population from about 2 million to 600 million by 1700 and to further solidify their dominance over the rest of nature.12 But agriculture required much more coordination in large groups than hunting and gathering did.


pages: 372 words: 110,208

Who We Are and How We Got Here: Ancient DNA and the New Science of the Human Past by David Reich

23andMe, agricultural Revolution, Alfred Russel Wallace, European colonialism, Google Earth, invention of agriculture, invention of the wheel, invention of writing, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, new economy, out of africa, phenotype, Scientific racism, supervolcano, the scientific method, transatlantic slave trade

The farmers in present-day Turkey expanded into Europe. The farmers in present-day Israel and Jordan expanded into East Africa, and their genetic legacy is greatest in present-day Ethiopia. Farmers related to those in present-day Iran expanded into India as well as the steppe north of the Black and Caspian seas. They mixed with local populations there and established new economies based on herding that allowed the agricultural revolution to spread into parts of the world inhospitable to domesticated crops. The different food-producing populations also mixed with one another, a process that was accelerated by technological developments in the Bronze Age after around five thousand years ago. This meant that the high genetic substructure that had previously characterized West Eurasia collapsed into the present-day very low level of genetic differentiation by the Bronze Age.


pages: 385 words: 111,113

Augmented: Life in the Smart Lane by Brett King

23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, Apple II, artificial general intelligence, asset allocation, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, business intelligence, business process, call centre, chief data officer, Chris Urmson, Clayton Christensen, clean water, congestion charging, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, deskilling, different worldview, disruptive innovation, distributed generation, distributed ledger, double helix, drone strike, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Fellow of the Royal Society, fiat currency, financial exclusion, Flash crash, Flynn Effect, future of work, gig economy, Google Glasses, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, Hyperloop, income inequality, industrial robot, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, invention of the wheel, James Dyson, Jeff Bezos, job automation, job-hopping, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Leonard Kleinrock, lifelogging, low earth orbit, low skilled workers, Lyft, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, megacity, Metcalfe’s law, Minecraft, mobile money, money market fund, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Oculus Rift, off grid, packet switching, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Metcalfe, Satoshi Nakamoto, Second Machine Age, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), self-driving car, sharing economy, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart transportation, Snapchat, social graph, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, strong AI, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telemarketer, telepresence, telepresence robot, Tesla Model S, The Future of Employment, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, Travis Kalanick, Turing complete, Turing test, uber lyft, undersea cable, urban sprawl, V2 rocket, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white picket fence, WikiLeaks

Farming jobs accounted for 42 per cent of the economy in the year 1900 but had dropped to under 5 per cent by 1970. The mechanisation of farming had a direct impact on employment patterns as we can see from the graph overleaf. Ironically, preceding the industrial age, there was a massive boom in agriculture in the economies of countries like the United States and the United Kingdom. In fact, technology was at play here too. The agricultural revolution led to improvements such as crop rotation, improvements in plowing implements, more intensive farming techniques with higher labour inputs, better breeding and animal husbandry, along with increases in farm size. Figure 1.5: The correlation between tractors and reduced employment in farming The disruptions in the next age were perhaps a little subtler, although the news of such changes tended to be more dramatic.


pages: 424 words: 108,768

Origins: How Earth's History Shaped Human History by Lewis Dartnell

agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, clean water, Columbian Exchange, decarbonisation, discovery of the americas, Donald Trump, Eratosthenes, financial innovation, Google Earth, Khyber Pass, Malacca Straits, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, Pax Mongolica, peak oil, phenotype, Rosa Parks, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, spice trade, supervolcano, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

‘Agriculture and the origins of the state in ancient Egypt’, Explorations in Economic History 34(2): 135–54. Allen, R. C. (2009). The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective, Cambridge University Press. Alvarez, W. (2018). A Most Improbable Journey: A Big History of Our Planet and Ourselves, W. W. Norton & Co. Andersen, T. B., P. S. Jensen and C. V. Skovsgaard (2016). ‘The heavy plow and the agricultural revolution in Medieval Europe’, Journal of Development Economics 118: 133–49. Angelakis, A. N., Y. M. Savvakis and G. Charalampakis (2006). Minoan Aqueducts: A Pioneering Technology, International Water Association 1st International Symposium on Water and Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Civilizations, Iraklio, Greece. Anthony, D. W. (2010). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World, Princeton University Press.


pages: 417 words: 109,367

The End of Doom: Environmental Renewal in the Twenty-First Century by Ronald Bailey

3D printing, additive manufacturing, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, autonomous vehicles, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, Climatic Research Unit, Commodity Super-Cycle, conceptual framework, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, dematerialisation, demographic transition, disruptive innovation, diversified portfolio, double helix, energy security, failed state, financial independence, Gary Taubes, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, knowledge economy, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, peak oil, Peter Calthorpe, phenotype, planetary scale, price stability, profit motive, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, Stewart Brand, Tesla Model S, trade liberalization, University of East Anglia, uranium enrichment, women in the workforce, yield curve

One fundamental downside to this form of social organization is that innovation, both social and technological, is stifled because it threatens the monopolies through which elite patrons extract wealth. But why don’t extractive elites encourage economic growth? After all, economic growth would mean more wealth for them to loot. In their 2012 book Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty, MIT economist Daron Acemoğlu and Harvard economist James Robinson largely concur with the analysis of North and his colleagues. They too find that since the Neolithic agricultural revolution, most societies have been organized around “extractive” political and economic institutions that funnel resources from the mass of people to small but powerful elites. The economic and political institutions that produce economic growth are inevitable threats to the power of reigning elites. “The fear of creative destruction is the main reason why there was no sustained increase in living standards between the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions.


pages: 343 words: 102,846

Trees on Mars: Our Obsession With the Future by Hal Niedzviecki

"Robert Solow", Ada Lovelace, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, big data - Walmart - Pop Tarts, big-box store, business intelligence, Colonization of Mars, computer age, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Flynn Effect, Google Glasses, hive mind, Howard Zinn, if you build it, they will come, income inequality, Internet of things, invention of movable type, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, Kodak vs Instagram, life extension, Lyft, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Ponzi scheme, precariat, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, ride hailing / ride sharing, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, Thomas L Friedman, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, working poor

McKinnon summarizes it, “needing to advance their technologies and degree of organization in order to respond to environmental challenges that are often of their own making.”9 But surely once we came up with agriculture we stopped strip mining our food supplies and then, finally, got down to what we were meant to be doing all along—innovating our way to being a kinder, gentler, smarter species living in harmony with each other and the world. Well, maybe not. In the modern age, despite the so-called agricultural revolution bringing us all the mono-crop you can eat, the killing and plundering continues apace. As historian David Edgerton notes in his book The Shock of the Old, we have this sense that we are more evolved today than our warring and hunting brethren of old. We imagine them as somewhat unrefined in their dedication to brutality and mayhem, both in their interpersonal and survival skills. But in truth, despite the rise of civilization and its many technologies, “the rate of killing—of all sorts of living things—increased in the twentieth century, and did so drastically.


The Year 1000: When Explorers Connected the World―and Globalization Began by Valerie Hansen

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, British Empire, financial innovation, Google Earth, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, polynesian navigation, seigniorage, South China Sea, trade route, transatlantic slave trade

.), The Vinland Sagas: The Norse Discovery of America (1965): 100. 92 percent: Jon Emont, “Why Are There No New Major Religions?,” The Atlantic (August 6, 2017). Chapter One: The World in the Year 1000 one quarter and one third: James C. Lee and Wang Feng, One Quarter of Humanity: Malthusian Mythology and Chinese Realities, 1700–2000 (1996): 6 (Figure 1.1). sustained prosperity: Andrew M. Watson, “The Arab Agricultural Revolution and Its Diffusion, 700–1100,” Journal of Economic History 34.1 (1974): 8–35; Watson, Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World: The Diffusion of Crops and Farming Techniques, 700–1100 (1983). Paolo Squatriti has demonstrated that Watson’s original thesis about the spread of crops throughout the Islamic world has stood the test of time in his “Of Seeds, Seasons, and Seas: Andrew Watson’s Medieval Agrarian Revolution Forty Years Later,” Journal of Economic History 74.4 (2014): 1205–20. 35 to 40 million: Andrew Watson, “A Medieval Green Revolution,” in The Islamic Middle East, 700–1900: Studies in Economic and Social History, ed.


pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders

agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

Collins, 1974), 35–36. 8 Rudé, “The Social Composition of the Parisian Insurgents of 1789–91,” in Paris and London in the 18th Century, 104–109. 9 McNeill, Population and Politics since 1750, 11. 10 Rudé, “Society and Conflict in London and Paris in the Eighteenth Century,” 53–55. 11 S. L. Popkin, “The Rational Peasant: The Political Economy of Peasant Society,” Theory and Society 9 (1980); Patrick Svensson, “Peasants and Entrepreneurship in the Nineteenth-Century Agricultural Transformation of Sweden,” Social Science History 30, no. 3 (2006). 12 Jonathan David Chambers and G. E. Mingay, The Agricultural Revolution, 1750–1880 (London: B.T. Batsford, 1968), 104. 13 Eugen Weber, Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870–1914 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1976), 10. This is also very well documented in Graham Robb, The Discovery of France (London: Picador, 2007). 14 For claims of Britain’s superior living standards, see Tom Kemp, Economic Forces in French History (London: Dobson, 1971); Charles P.


pages: 482 words: 117,962

Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan

Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, creative destruction, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

No sooner had this massive expansion been completed than the first developments in agriculture and horticulture began to generate new energy for migrants to spread technological and social innovations across thousands of miles. As human communities followed separate trajectories of social and cultural evolution, they remained connected by the unceasing movement of people. CONNECTING HUMANITY The Agricultural Revolution Around the time that humans completed their great migration, the ice age also ended and the earth entered into the Holocene period. The Holocene was marked by radical changes in climate, retreating ice sheets, shifting vegetational zones, and rising sea levels.23 The environment became more unpredictable in many parts of the world. These pressures contributed to the emergence of the first sedentary communities in the Middle East, which adapted to environmental changes through more intensive exploitation of food sources, food storage, and more permanent settlement.24 While sedentism did not immediately produce recognizable agriculture, as Christian notes, it was “a vital, unplanned step toward agriculture.”25 From 15,000 to 10,000 years ago, people living in six regions of the world experimented with harvesting and fishing techniques.


pages: 389 words: 119,487

21 Lessons for the 21st Century by Yuval Noah Harari

1960s counterculture, accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, algorithmic trading, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, Ayatollah Khomeini, basic income, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, blockchain, Boris Johnson, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon-based life, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, decarbonisation, deglobalization, Donald Trump, failed state, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, gig economy, glass ceiling, Google Glasses, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, job automation, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, obamacare, pattern recognition, post-work, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Scramble for Africa, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, transatlantic slave trade, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, uranium enrichment, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, zero-sum game

Thirty thousand years ago, hunter-gatherer bands buried some members in sumptuous graves replete with thousands of ivory beads, bracelets, jewels and art objects, while other members had to settle for a bare hole in the ground. Nevertheless, ancient hunter-gatherer bands were still more egalitarian than any subsequent human society, because they had very little property. Property is a prerequisite for long-term inequality. Following the Agricultural Revolution, property multiplied and with it inequality. As humans gained ownership of land, animals, plants and tools, rigid hierarchical societies emerged, in which small elites monopolised most wealth and power for generation after generation. Humans came to accept this arrangement as natural and even divinely ordained. Hierarchy was not just the norm, but also the ideal. How can there be order without a clear hierarchy between aristocrats and commoners, between men and women, or between parents and children?


pages: 441 words: 113,244

Seasteading: How Floating Nations Will Restore the Environment, Enrich the Poor, Cure the Sick, and Liberate Humanity From Politicians by Joe Quirk, Patri Friedman

3D printing, access to a mobile phone, addicted to oil, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Burning Man, business climate, business cycle, business process, California gold rush, Celtic Tiger, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, Colonization of Mars, Dean Kamen, Deng Xiaoping, drone strike, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, failed state, financial intermediation, Gini coefficient, happiness index / gross national happiness, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, low skilled workers, Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, minimum wage unemployment, Network effects, new economy, obamacare, offshore financial centre, open borders, paypal mafia, peak oil, Peter H. Diamandis: Planetary Resources, Peter Thiel, price stability, profit motive, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, stem cell, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, undersea cable, young professional

The Friedmans proposed that humanity rethink society from the ground up. Unfortunately, all ground was claimed by existing governments. A third-generation Friedman realized that the assumption contained in the phrase “from the ground up” was the problem. Our terrestrially trained minds are blind to the terrifying potential for tyranny in the power to claim land—fixed, immobile, where people have no choice but to live. At least since the agricultural revolution, humanity’s wealth and status had come from the power to control land and those who cultivate it. But that was about to change. A machinery of freedom was developing that would soon render citizens free to choose among governments and to disempower governments to claim monopoly control over land. To put Friedman theory into practice, all we had to do was imagine if civilization was founded not on “a solid foundation.”


pages: 437 words: 115,594

The Great Surge: The Ascent of the Developing World by Steven Radelet

"Robert Solow", Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Asian financial crisis, bank run, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, business climate, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, colonial rule, creative destruction, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, F. W. de Klerk, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, global supply chain, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the steam engine, James Watt: steam engine, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Arrow, land reform, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, off grid, oil shock, out of africa, purchasing power parity, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, Robert Gordon, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, South China Sea, special economic zone, standardized shipping container, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, women in the workforce, working poor

Ferreira de Souza, “Poverty, Inequality and Social Policies in Brazil, 1995–2009,” working paper 87, International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth, February 2012, www.econstor.eu/dspace/bitstream/10419/71804/1/687787998.pdf. 9. For an analysis of the turnaround in sub-Saharan Africa, see Radelet, Emerging Africa. 10. “Ethiopian Textile Exports Reach $29 Mn in First Quarter,” Fibre2fashion.com, November 7, 2013, www.fibre2fashion.com/news/textile-news/ethiopia/newsdetails.aspx?news_id=155309. 11. “Blooming Desert: An Agricultural Revolution,” Economist, July 7, 2005, www.economist.com/node/4157659. 12. This paragraph is drawn from Radelet, Emerging Africa, and is based on a personal email interview with Masetumo Lebitsa (May 6, 2010), and “Maseru Tapestries and Mats,” AfricanCraft.com, last modified July 2006, www.africancrafts.com/artisan.php?sid=32937883115182448238975381169031&id=maseru&pg=intro. 13. De Souza, “Poverty, Inequality and Social Policies in Brazil, 1995–2009.” 14.


pages: 467 words: 114,570

Pathfinders: The Golden Age of Arabic Science by Jim Al-Khalili

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrew Wiles, Book of Ingenious Devices, colonial rule, Commentariolus, Dmitri Mendeleev, Eratosthenes, Henri Poincaré, invention of the printing press, invention of the telescope, invention of the wheel, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Johannes Kepler, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, liberation theology, retrograde motion, scientific worldview, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method, Thomas Malthus, trade route, William of Occam

While far from the most important of Islamic astronomers, al-Bitrūji’s Principles of Astronomy (Kitab al-Hay’a) became very popular in Europe.3 Of course, the influence of Arabic scientists on the rest of the world, and Western Europe in the Middle Ages in particular, extended far beyond their achievements in the pure sciences. For example, I have not gone into detail about their contribution to what is described as the Islamic agricultural revolution and with it new methods of irrigation, or their creation of whole new chemical industries such as glassmaking and ceramics, or the sugar-refining industry. Their engineering feats in building dams, canals, waterwheels and pumps and their technological advances in clockmaking – all these advances in many ways changed the lives of millions of ordinary people directly and immediately. Rather than turn this into a dry and lengthy list, I shall mention in passing just one example of a gift from the Arabs that I for one am rather grateful for: coffee – especially as it was originally banned in Europe as a ‘Muslim drink’.


The Frayed Atlantic Edge: A Historian’s Journey From Shetland to the Channel by David Gange

agricultural Revolution, back-to-the-land, British Empire, garden city movement, global village, Scientific racism, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile

., Four Quartets (1943), 321 Enlightenment: agricultural sciences, 111; effort to make science universal, 257–8; elite domination of narrative, 190; ‘Highland problem’ as invention of, 344; impact on coastal communities, x; monetary economy and wage labour, 217, 218; need for eradication of label, 190, 340–1; rereading in light of island stories, 189, 190–5, 217–18, 257–8, 340–1 Enterprise Energy, 248 environmentalism: and Rachel Carson, 18, 345; ‘Counter-Desecration Phrasebook’ concept, 113–14, 115, 134; early history of British conservation, 158, 159–60; and Gaelic culture, 113–15; and Gaelic language, 113–14; intense awareness of present degradation, 115; Machair Life project on Uist, 112; modernity as ecological threat, 341, 343; new ways of living well, 9–10; protests against Shell, 249–50, 251–2; the whale as symbol of, 275–6 Eòrapaidh (chapel on Ness), 99 Eriskay, island of, 103 European Commission, 295 Evans, Christine, 305, 306–10, 317, 347 Evans, Colin, 305, 306 Evans, Ernest, 304, 305–6, 308–9 Evans, Estyn, 216–17 Eynhallow (holy island of Orkney), 77, 79, 81 Fair Isle, 27, 45, 50 Falkirk, 151 Fanad Head lighthouse, 198, 204 Farley, Erin, 201–2 farming: ‘agricultural revolution’ label, 340; cattle-droving routes, 149, 150–2; eagles seen as threat to, 10; ‘Glendale martyrs’ on Skye, 177; ‘Highland problem’ as Enlightenment invention, 344; and historic landscape, 79; in Ireland, 214, 216–17, 218, 219–20, 227; lazy-beds (feannagan), 110–11, 190; Machair Life project on Uist, 112; nineteenth-century ‘improvements’, 95, 111–12, 151–3, 195–6, 344; in north-west Scotland wilderness, 155–6; on Orkney, 66, 72, 76–7; peatland, 26, 67, 79, 93, 95, 117, 168, 220–1, 252, 255; potato blight of 1840s, 111, 210, 214, 228–9; of potatoes, 111, 210, 218; on Shetland, 43, 47; shieling customs, 94–5; small-scale crofting on Uist, 111–12, 115; twentieth-century focus on the present, 112; in Wales, 297, 311; on Western Isles, 94–5, 96, 111–13, 116–17, 119–20 Faroe, 20, 25, 54, 211 fascism, 177, 178 Fastnet Rock, 277, 284; lighthouse, 198 feldspar, 33 feminist historiography of geography, 282 Fiddler, Meg, 72 Fidelis (Irish monk), 284–5 field sports, 10, 152–3, 154–5 film, 10–12, 264–5, 281–2 Finlay, Ian Hamilton, 86–7 Fir Bolgs (mythological Irish race), 213, 261–2 First World War, 101, 138, 341–2 Fisherfield, 145, 153, 156 fishing: in Cornwall, 322, 323, 324; as dangerous industry, 235; eagles seen as threat to, 10; and European institutions, 264; in Ireland, 221–2, 230–1, 235, 247, 252, 256, 264–5; Irish boats, 208–9; Irish Fishers’ Knowledge Project, 264–5; modern factory of the sea, 11, 31, 101, 264; and North Sea, 11; on Orkney, 67–8; Outer Hebrides, 98, 101–2; on Shetland, 27–31, 47 Fivepenny (township on Ness), 99 Fladda lighthouse, 198, 199–201 Flaws, Andy, 202 Foinaven (Foinne Bheinn) (mountain), 2, 125, 134 folklore, 10; of the Armada, xi, 74–5; of Atlantic seals, 246; and Cornwall, 322–3; of Eynhallow, 81; and Ness group, 106–7; of Orkney, 79–80, 81; storytelling on Westray, 74–5; of Thoraí, 219; and transhumance customs, 94–5 Fomorians (mythological Irish race), 213 Forestry Commission, 160 Foula, island of, 38, 45, 55 Foulis, Will, 62 foxes, 125 Foze Rocks, 277 Fraser Darling, Frank, 8, 123 fulmars, 17, 22, 38, 46, 47, 55, 81, 98, 215, 227 gabbro, 33, 176, 179, 181 Gabhla, island of, 227 Gaelic culture: centralising onslaught against, 99–100, 114, 189–95, 215–19, 297, 341, 344–5; and communications revolution, 9–10, 109; and Cromwell, 211, 255, 287; devastation of on Mull, 187–8, 194–5; dinnseanchas (‘place-lore’), 256–8, 261, 263; divergence from Lowland Scotland (after 1840), 100–1; Dunnett and Adam campaign, 191–7, 345; engrained romantic imagery, 12; and environmentalism, 113–15; Galway city as haven of, 268; impact of Jacobite defeat, 129; Irish Gaeltacht, 209–11, 223, 246, 247, 255, 268; and Norman MacCaig, 12, 121, 124, 137–40, 142, 170; and Sorley MacLean, 165, 176–8, 187; MacLean’s view of as socialistic, 177–8; and narratives of failure, 102, 103–4, 106–7; oral history tradition, 99, 106, 112, 127, 130–3; politics on Skye, 176–8; rejuvenation of, x, 10, 91, 104–9, 112–15, 141–2; relationship of land with sea, 93–4, 107–9, 172, 209–12; Scottish Gàdhealtachd, 99, 100, 106, 110, 145, 177; seafaring epics, 171, 172, 173–4; and Skye, 165, 176–8; song and poem as history, 127–8, 130–3; stereotyping/mythologising of coastal communities, 11–12; symbolic ships, 172; as tied to place, 134; urban Gaelic renaissance, 141–2; as victim of modern farming methods, 111–12; as victim of nationalised education, 102–4, 106–7, 108, 109–10 Gaelic language, 4; activism promoting, 104, 133–4; and collapse of maritime trades, 246; in Connacht’s ABC zone, 255, 268; current state of, 110, 209; decline of, 102–3, 141; and Rob Donn, 130; and emigration, 102; environmental concepts, 113–14; Gaelic patronymics on Ness, 107; industrial modernity’s crusade against, 102–4, 341; Irish origins, 207–8; and lighthouse keeping, 204; and Norman MacCaig, 124, 139, 141; name ‘Argyll’, 208; place names on Havera, 45; propaganda against, 103–4, 341; rejuvenation of, 10, 91, 207–8; relative strength of Irish Gaelic, 210–11, 268; verse, 12, 94, 123–4, 126, 127–8, 129–34, 136, 165, 171–4, 176–8, 344; versifier’s function, 127–8; as victim of nationalised education, 102–4, 106–7, 108, 109–10; in Western Isles, 72, 91, 93, 99, 100, 102, 104–5, 107–10 Galician culture, 10, 283, 295 Gallagher, Sally and Paddy, 229 Galway, County (province of Connacht): ‘ABC of earth wonders’, 255–7; Connemara, 85, 210, 211–12, 223, 254–5, 256–61, 266–8; mapping of, 254–5, 256–8, 261; Slyne Head, 266–8 Galway Bay, 254–60 Galway city, 260, 268, 271 gannets, 20–2, 23, 31–2, 70, 107, 236, 271 garden-cities movement, 299 Garvaghy (Ulster), 134 gas fields, 247, 248–9, 251–3 Gaskell, Philip, Morven Transformed (1968), 188 geese, 174, 206, 214 gender: female scientists of the coast, 279–82; and herring industry, 72; Marianne Moore’s whale, 274; Orkney communities, 67–8; women of Thoraí, 216, 218 General Post Office, 11 gentians, 94, 256 George II, King, 129 George III, King, 239 George of Tarbert, Lord of Handa Island, 132, 134 Gilchrist, Janeanne, 343 Gillies, Agnes, 106 Gladstone, William, 177 Glasgow, 100, 101, 141, 152, 191 glass production, 157 Glendale (Skye), 177 Glyndwr, Owain, 311 gneiss, 18, 33, 92 Gokstad ship, 26 golden eagles, 110 Goodlad, Jessie, 46 goose barnacles, 236 Gorsedh Kernow, 324 Graemsay, island of, 82 Graham, W.S., 317–23, 324–5, 330, 332, 347 Gramsci, Antonio, 115 granite, 18, 32, 33, 43, 214, 255, 267, 316 Grant, Walter, 80 Grassholm (Pembrokeshire island), 291 great auks, 62–3 Great Western Railway, 325–7 Green, Fiona, 274 Greenock (Scotland), 317, 319, 320, 322 Greenpeace, 248 Grierson, John, 11 Griffith, M.


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Common Wealth: Economics for a Crowded Planet by Jeffrey Sachs

agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, Edward Glaeser, energy security, failed state, Gini coefficient, global pandemic, Haber-Bosch Process, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, mass immigration, microcredit, oil shale / tar sands, old age dependency ratio, peak oil, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, Skype, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, unemployed young men, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population

As explained in 1968 by USAID administrator William Gaud: [T]he developing nations—their governments, their institutions, and their farmers—cannot sustain the Green Revolution without outside support. They lack the skills to do the necessary adaptive research. They lack the capital to build fertilizer plants. They lack the facilities and the technicians needed to train their people in the new ways. If this agricultural revolution is to succeed, it can only do so as the result of a working partnership between the advanced and the developing nations…. This is why fertilizer is rapidly becoming the largest single element in the A.I.D. program. This is why A.I.D. is backing a growing number of American companies in their efforts to put up fertilizer plants in countries which are seeking to expand their production of food.


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The Way We Eat: Why Our Food Choices Matter by Peter Singer, Jim Mason

agricultural Revolution, air freight, clean water, collective bargaining, dumpster diving, food miles, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, means of production, rent control, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review

Tests carried out for The New York Times in March 2005 showed that six out of eight New York City stores, including gourmet haven Dean & DeLuca, were selling farmed salmon labeled-and priced-as the far more expensive wild salmon. The difference can be detected in the laboratory by the presence of an artificial coloring fed to farmed fish in order to turn their otherwise grayish flesh pink. The flesh of wild salmon is naturally pink because of the krill they eat.'4 Fish farming is the latest agricultural revolution and the fastest growing form of food production in the world. In 1970 it contributed only 3 percent of the world's seafood. Now about a third of the fish and other seafood we eat is farmed; the weight of farmed fish produced exceeds that of the global production of beef.15 Almost all of this is highly intensive production. In the fjords and coastal inlets along the coast of Norway, Britain, Iceland, Chile, China, Japan, Canada, the United States, and many other countries, cages or nets that may be more than 200 feet long and 40 feet deep have been lowered into the sea and secured to platforms from which workers feed the fish.


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What to Think About Machines That Think: Today's Leading Thinkers on the Age of Machine Intelligence by John Brockman

agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, algorithmic trading, artificial general intelligence, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, basic income, bitcoin, blockchain, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, complexity theory, computer age, computer vision, constrained optimization, corporate personhood, cosmological principle, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, Danny Hillis, dark matter, discrete time, Douglas Engelbart, Elon Musk, Emanuel Derman, endowment effect, epigenetics, Ernest Rutherford, experimental economics, Flash crash, friendly AI, functional fixedness, global pandemic, Google Glasses, hive mind, income inequality, information trail, Internet of things, invention of writing, iterative process, Jaron Lanier, job automation, Johannes Kepler, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge worker, loose coupling, microbiome, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, natural language processing, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, planetary scale, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Republic of Letters, RFID, Richard Thaler, Rory Sutherland, Satyajit Das, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart contracts, social intelligence, speech recognition, statistical model, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, strong AI, Stuxnet, superintelligent machines, supervolcano, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, Turing machine, Turing test, Von Neumann architecture, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Y2K

Recent research across a range of scientific fields has suggested that a variety of intelligent-seeming behaviors may simply be the physical manifestation of an underlying drive to maximize future freedom of action. For example, an intelligent robot holding a tool will realize that it has the option of leveraging that tool to alter its environment in new ways, thus allowing it to reach a larger set of potential futures than it could without one. Technology revolutions have always increased human freedom along some physical dimension. The Agricultural Revolution, with its domestication of crops, provided our hunter-gatherer ancestors with the freedom to spatially distribute their populations in new ways and with higher densities. The Industrial Revolution yielded new engines of motion, enabling humanity to access new levels of speed and strength. Now an Artificial Intelligence Revolution promises to yield machines able to compute all the remaining ways that our freedom of action can be increased within the boundaries of physical law.


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The Human Tide: How Population Shaped the Modern World by Paul Morland

active measures, agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, clean water, Corn Laws, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Donald Trump, European colonialism, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, global pandemic, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, Nelson Mandela, Ponzi scheme, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, sceptred isle, stakhanovite, Thomas Malthus, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

But the population would soon grow back towards its natural limit and, without the checks of ‘vice’ (birth control) or ‘restraints’ (late marriage and sexual abstinence), universal misery would return. As Malthus put it: ‘The power in population is so superior to the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.’3 Although Malthus had provided a landmark account of human development up to that point, the world was changing around him even as he wrote. With the arrival in his native Britain of the agricultural revolution followed by the industrial revolution, food production and trade were transformed, enabling the population to grow way beyond any previous bounds.4 Population size was no longer constrained by what could be produced locally. An industrialised country could sell its products on world markets and buy its food from around the globe. New agricultural techniques meant that more could be produced; for example, in the eighteenth century new sowing and crop rotation techniques boosted yields and in the nineteenth century agriculture was increasingly mechanised.


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The Great Divide: Unequal Societies and What We Can Do About Them by Joseph E. Stiglitz

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of DNA, Doha Development Round, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, information asymmetry, job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, urban sprawl, very high income, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, white flight, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population

A second major difference between left and right concerns the role of the state in promoting development. The left understands that the government’s role in providing infrastructure and education, developing technology, and even acting as an entrepreneur is vital. Government laid the foundations of the Internet and the modern biotechnology revolutions. In the 19th century, research at America’s government-supported universities provided the basis for the agricultural revolution. Government then brought these advances to millions of American farmers. Small business loans have been pivotal in creating not only new businesses, but whole new industries. The final difference may seem odd: the left now understands markets, and the role that they can and should play in the economy. The right, especially in America, does not. The new right, typified by the Bush-Cheney administration, is really old corporatism in a new guise.


pages: 476 words: 120,892

Life on the Edge: The Coming of Age of Quantum Biology by Johnjoe McFadden, Jim Al-Khalili

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, bioinformatics, complexity theory, dematerialisation, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, Drosophila, Ernest Rutherford, Gödel, Escher, Bach, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Louis Pasteur, New Journalism, phenotype, Richard Feynman, Schrödinger's Cat, theory of mind, traveling salesman, uranium enrichment, Zeno's paradox

Buchner went on to make the revolutionary proposal that the vital force was nothing more than a form of chemical catalysis. Catalysts are substances that accelerate ordinary chemical reactions and were already familiar to chemists in the nineteenth century. Indeed, many of the chemical processes that drove the industrial revolution depended crucially on catalysts. For example, sulphuric acid was an essential chemical that spurred both the industrial and agricultural revolutions, used in iron and steel manufacture, in the textile industry and for the manufacture of phosphate fertilizer. It is produced by a chemical reaction that starts off with sulphur dioxide (SO2) and oxygen (the reactants), both of which react with water to form the product: sulphuric acid (H2SO4). However, the reaction is very slow and was therefore initially difficult to commercialize. But in 1831 Peregrine Phillips, a vinegar manufacturer from Bristol, England, discovered a way to speed it up by passing the sulphur dioxide and oxygen over hot platinum, which acted as a catalyst.


Enriching the Earth: Fritz Haber, Carl Bosch, and the Transformation of World Food Production by Vaclav Smil

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Haber-Bosch Process, invention of gunpowder, Louis Pasteur, Pearl River Delta, precision agriculture, recommendation engine, The Design of Experiments

H. 1969. Agricultural Development in China 1368–1968. Chicago: Aldine, p. 16. Chao, J. 1986. Man and Land in Chinese History: An Economic Analysis. Stanford: Stanford University Press, p. 89. 51. According to Chorley’s estimates, even as late as 1770 the recycled organic matter supplied no more than 1/3 of all nitrogen inputs in Northwest Europe’s farming; see Chorley, G. P. H. 1981. The agricultural revolution in Northern Europe, 1750–1880: Nitrogen, legumes, and crop productivity. Economic History 34:71–93. 52. Ibid., p. 85. 53. Campbell, M. S., and M. Overton. 1993. A new perspective on medieval and early modern agriculture: six centuries of Norfolk farming c. 1250–c. 1850. Past and Present 141:38– 105. 54. Chorley (51), p. 92. 55. Bennett, M. K. 1935. British wheat yield per acre for seven centuries.


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Happy City: Transforming Our Lives Through Urban Design by Charles Montgomery

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, agricultural Revolution, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, City Beautiful movement, clean water, congestion charging, correlation does not imply causation, East Village, edge city, energy security, Enrique Peñalosa, experimental subject, Frank Gehry, Google Earth, happiness index / gross national happiness, hedonic treadmill, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Induced demand, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, license plate recognition, McMansion, means of production, megacity, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mortgage tax deduction, New Urbanism, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, rent control, ride hailing / ride sharing, risk tolerance, science of happiness, Seaside, Florida, Silicon Valley, starchitect, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, wage slave, white flight, World Values Survey, zero-sum game, Zipcar

Children overwhelmingly say: O’Brien, Catherine, “Sustainable Happiness: How Happiness Studies Can Contribute to a More Sustainable Future,” Canadian Psychology, 2008: 289–95. cyclists report: Harms, L., P. Jorritsma, and N. Kalfs, Beleving en beeldvorming van mobiliteit (The Hague: Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid, 2007). To put our history: My comparison of human history to the walk across the length of Central Park is based on these figures: Appearance of Australopithecus: 4 million years Agricultural revolution: 10,000 years ago Sumerian and Egyptian cities of cut stone: 3,000 years Length of Central Park: about 2.5 miles Width of Fifty-ninth Street: much more than 11 yards Width of New York sidewalk at Fifty-ninth: more than 3 yards Depth of a stair: much more than 4 inches See Wright, Ronald, A Short History of Progress (Toronto: Anansi Press, 2004), 35–69; Stringer, Chris, and Robin McKie, African Exodus: The Origins of Modern Humanity (New York: Henry Holt, 1997); Cordain, Gotshall, and Eaton, “Evolutionary Aspects,” 49–60; also drawn from interviews with Ronald Wright.


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The Marches: A Borderland Journey Between England and Scotland by Rory Stewart

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, connected car, Etonian, glass ceiling, Isaac Newton, Khyber Pass, land reform, RAND corporation, Silicon Valley

When they cleared the land – standing in cold water, in their rough gowns, thin from their sparse diet, tired from their hard beds and the bells that never allowed them more than three hours’ sleep – they did so because it was a practice that they believed strengthened their prayers. They continued, generation after generation, in this practice for 300 years. The unintended by-product of their faith was an agricultural revolution. Working alongside lay brothers and serfs, they dug great ditches to drain the heaped glacial debris, burned some of the peat-spoil for fuel, and stacked the rest into turf walls. As the turf died, the monks planted hawthorn hedges on these banks, which allowed them to keep sheep and cattle whose grazing removed the heather, further drying the peat. The manure, rich in nitrogen, like the manure from Eric Weir’s sheep and cattle, suffocated the bog plants and burned the reeds away.


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The Invention of Science: A New History of the Scientific Revolution by David Wootton

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, British Empire, clockwork universe, Commentariolus, commoditize, conceptual framework, Dava Sobel, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, Ernest Rutherford, Fellow of the Royal Society, fudge factor, germ theory of disease, Google X / Alphabet X, Hans Lippershey, interchangeable parts, invention of gunpowder, invention of the steam engine, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Johannes Kepler, John Harrison: Longitude, knowledge economy, lateral thinking, lone genius, Mercator projection, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, Philip Mirowski, placebo effect, QWERTY keyboard, Republic of Letters, social intelligence, spice trade, spinning jenny, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions

Bannister, Saxe. Denis Papin: Notice sur sa vie et ses écrits. Blois: F Jahyer, 1847. Barber, William H. ‘The Genesis of Voltaire’s “Micromégas” ’. French Studies 11 (1957): 1–15. Barbette, Paul. The Chirurgical and Anatomical Works . . . Composed according to the Doctrine of the Circulation of the Blood, and Other New Inventions of the Moderns. London: J Darby, 1672. Barker, Graeme. The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory: Why Did Foragers become Farmers? Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Barker, Peter. ‘Copernicus and the Critics of Ptolemy’. Journal for the History of Astronomy 30 (1999): 343–58. ———. ‘Copernicus, the Orbs and the Equant’. Synthèse 83 (1990): 317–23. Barker, Peter and Bernard R Goldstein. ‘The Role of Comets in the Copernican Revolution’. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 19: 299–319 (1988).

Harrison, ‘Reassessing the Butterfield Thesis’ (2006), 7, argues that the concept of the Scientific Revolution is incoherent because there is no way of knowing when it began and when it ended. I disagree: the concept would be coherent even if the dates were uncertain (compare the ‘Industrial Revolution’), but actually the dates are fairly easy to specify. CHAPTER 1 1. Borges, The Total Library (2001), 465. 2. Barker, The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory (2006). 3. Stein, Everybody’s Autobiography (1937), 289. 4. Turgot’s A Philosophical Review of the Successive Advances of the Human Mind was written in 1750 but not published until the nineteenth century (Turgot, Turgot on Progress (1973)); Condorcet, Outlines of an Historical View of the Progress of the Human Mind (1795) – original French edition the same year; Bury, The Idea of Progress (1920). 5.


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