mass immigration

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pages: 482 words: 117,962

Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future by Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron, Meera Balarajan

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, conceptual framework, creative destruction, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, endogenous growth, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, guest worker program, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour mobility, Lao Tzu, life extension, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, microcredit, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, old age dependency ratio, open borders, out of africa, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Richard Florida, selection bias, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spice trade, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, women in the workforce, working-age population

In 1889, the International Emigration Conference defended the freedom of movement as a natural right: “We affirm the right of the individual to the fundamental liberty accorded to him by every civilized nation to come and go and dispose of his person and his destinies as he pleases.”76 International migration may have been fiercely contested from some corners and for some people during the late nineteenth century—particularly the Chinese, and also southern Europeans and Slavs—but an ideology of economic openness and liberalism prevailed overall. Transatlantic Migration The period between 1840 and 1914 is commonly referred to as the “age of mass migration” because of the rapid increase in free mobility during this time.77 Mass migration raised the labor force of the United States and Australia by one-third, and reduced the labor force in Europe by about one-eighth. The average number of Europeans migrating to North America increased from about 300,000 per year in 1850 to around 600,000 per year in the 1870s, and then almost doubled again to over 1 million migrants annually at the beginning of the twentieth century.

The prevailing rationales for free movement and open borders were ethical—that people had the right to move—and economic—that the movement of people responded to similar economic forces (namely, supply and demand) as the movement of goods and capital. At times of major economic or social upheaval—such as the Irish famine, the anti-Jewish pogroms in Russia, or rapid industrialization—the result of open borders was mass migration. Two significant aspects of the nineteenth-century migration to the New World are less recognized than the fact of mass migration itself. First, a large number of migrants returned to their home countries after several years—half of those leaving Spain and Italy, for example. Second, sending countries went through life cycles of emigration. The volume of migrants remained high during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century, but the sources of emigrants shifted over time.12 The flow of people rose to a peak as the demographic push factors and economic pull factors increased, and descended into a valley as they diminished.

“Ritualization of Regulation: The Enforcement of Chinese Exclusion in the United States and China,” The American Historical Review 108(2): 377–403. 84. Hatton and Williamson, 1998. 85. Harzig, Hoerder, and Gabaccia, 2009: 37. 86. Winder, 2004: 196. 87. Ibid.: 229. 88. Hatton and Williamson, 1998. 89. Timothy Hatton and Jeffrey Williamson. 1998. The Age of Mass Migration: Causes and Economic Impact. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 90. Carl Solberg. 1978. “Mass Migrations in Argentina, 1870–1970,” in William H. McNeill and Ruth Adams (eds.), Human Migration: Patterns and Policies. London: Indiana University Press, p. 148. 91. Solberg, 1978: 151. 92. Hatton and Williamson, 1998. 93. Herbert S. Klein. 1995. “European and Asian Migrations to Brazil,” in Robin Cohen (ed.), The Cambridge Survey of World Migration.


pages: 177 words: 50,167

The Populist Explosion: How the Great Recession Transformed American and European Politics by John B. Judis

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Post-materialism, post-materialism, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, Winter of Discontent

The platform, which is still the party’s official stand, called for a “strategic plan for reindustrialization,” tariffs and quotas to protect against “unfair competition,” the separation of commercial from investment banking, a transactions tax on stock purchases, the nationalization of banks facing difficulties, a “cap” on credit card charges, opposition to cuts in social spending and to the privatization of public services, equal quality health care access regardless of income or location, and rejection of the European Union’s attempts to impose austerity. The EU had led, the platform said, to “open borders inducing relocation, unemployment, market dictatorship, destruction of public services, insecurity, poverty, and mass immigration.” The platform blamed Greece’s debt crisis on “the elites who want to feed the new Minotaur to save the Euro.” The FN demanded that France’s relationship to the EU be “renegotiated” and a referendum held on the Euro. The FN’s new program on economic nationalism became as integral to its appeal as its opposition to mass immigration. Its entire program was now subsumed under the concept of defending French sovereignty—in an echo of Chevenement and earlier de Gaulle, souveraniste was the new watchword. In Le Pen’s election brochure, its position on immigration, calling for a 95 percent reduction in annual entries, came on page seven after her position on consumer rights, the Euro, jobs, finance, pensions, and justice.

Beginning in the 1980s, Krarup argued that Danes had a special culture informed by Lutheranism to which Islam, which he saw as a political movement and not simply a religion, was antithetical. Krarup’s crusade against Denmark’s immigration policies was sparked by the Danish parliament’s passage in 1983 of an Alien Act welcoming refugees who had begun pouring into Europe from the Iran-Iraq war, and who after the act began entering Denmark annually by the thousands rather than hundreds. Krarup denounced the act as “legal suicide” for allowing “the uncontrolled and unconstrained mass migration of Mohammedan and Oriental refugees [who] come through our borders.” In 1997, Krarup was invited to address the newly formed People’s Party’s convention, and in 2001, he was elected to parliament from the party and headed its immigration and naturalization committee. The People’s Party campaigns were incendiary. One campaign poster from 1999 showed a woman with a burqa. The text read: “Your Denmark: A multiethnic society with rapes, violence, insecurity, forced marriages, oppressed women, gang crimes.”

Future Files: A Brief History of the Next 50 Years by Richard Watson

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Albert Einstein, bank run, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Black Swan, call centre, carbon footprint, cashless society, citizen journalism, commoditize, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, deglobalization, digital Maoism, disintermediation, epigenetics, failed state, financial innovation, Firefox, food miles, future of work, global supply chain, global village, hive mind, industrial robot, invention of the telegraph, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, knowledge economy, linked data, low skilled workers, M-Pesa, mass immigration, Northern Rock, peak oil, pensions crisis, precision agriculture, prediction markets, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, rent control, RFID, Richard Florida, self-driving car, speech recognition, telepresence, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Turing test, Victor Gruen, white flight, women in the workforce, Zipcar

Much has been written about China and India, in particular the sheer size of their populations, but the 60 million Chinese and 20 million Indians already living abroad who are subtly affecting their host nations are often overlooked. Instability in developing countries, brought on by environmental degradation, could send further waves of migration into Europe on a par with the movements that led to the collapse of the Roman Empire in the fifth century. The most likely areas to experience mass migration include Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia, which are affected by water shortages, a decline in food production, rising sea levels and radical Islam. The impact would be seen first at the edges of these areas, but would become more problematic as borders disappear and large urban populations become ungovernable. Population may influence politics in other, more subtle ways. Across the globe, people are having fewer children.

The key consequence of climate change — and one that politicians should worry about — is how higher temperatures, rising sea levels and increasingly severe and unpredictable weather will threaten the food security of millions and perhaps hundreds of millions of people. And remember, this isn’t just an altruistic point. If millions have their food or water supplies shut off, they will do what any sensible person would — they will move to the areas where supply is more certain. Such mass migrations would have profound implications for the stability of the entire world. Water in particular will become a serious problem over the next few years, although not in the way some people expect. It takes 11,000 liters of water to make a hamburger and 83,000 to make a medium-size family car, while the average person uses 135 liters every day (most of it wasted). Water, or more precisely the lack of it, will be a big problem in the future due to growing populations and urbanization.

However globalization, which means that everyone is increasingly connected to everyone else, is the most likely suspect. First, it means that animals are moved from one place to another more frequently. Second, people are traveling more often and faster. 234 FUTURE FILES The illness SARS (which was of animal origin) was spread by international travel. As we become more connected through cheap travel, the globalization of jobs and mass migration, we are more susceptible to new and old diseases alike. This brings us on to the issue of global pandemics. The 1918–19 flu pandemic killed somewhere in the region of 20 to 100 million people. Nobody knows for sure how many died, but the figure is almost certainly greater than the number killed during the First World War. Most (but not all) experts agree that another pandemic is overdue, possibly not on the same scale but devastating to our mental state nonetheless.


pages: 852 words: 157,181

The Origins of the British by Stephen Oppenheimer

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active measures, agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Eratosthenes, gravity well, mass immigration, out of africa, phenotype, the scientific method, trade route

For comparison, they also used samples from Friesland and Norway ‘to look for evidence of male immigration from the continent’.20 Their British samples were carefully selected to represent stable populations from at least the time of the Domesday Book (1086).21 In his analysis, Weale wanted to explore three different population processes: simple splitting with subsequent divergence, single mass migration (analogous to the first model described above) and continuous background migration (analogous, but not identical, to the third model, since no other previous sources of migration are considered). Since none of the available mathematical methods allowed these three processes to be examined simultaneously, in their own words they ‘developed an alternative inference method that allowed [them] to explore more flexible models under a range of historical scenarios involving both background [migration] and mass migration in the presence of population splitting and growth’. Figure 11.2a Weale’s British transect line and Continental ‘homelands’. The aims of Weale’s study were to genetically sample seven ancient market towns in a line from Norfolk to north Wales, and to determine whether the line of Offa’s Dyke formed a genetic boundary – and, if so, why.

The short answer is that Herodotus, in his identification of the geographical location of the Keltoi, mistakenly thought that the Danube rose somewhere near the Pyrenees rather than in Germany (but more of that below). Celto-sceptics Some archaeologists have, over the last couple of decades, become quite red-faced about the whole issue of Celts. They warn against the dangers of racial migrationism and point to the lack of archaeological evidence for mass migrations into the British Isles during the Iron Age. They further question the relevance and meaning of Celtic ethnicity. Their reasoning is that whatever the term ‘Celt’ may have meant to the ancients, it was not based on a clearly defined language group and thus does not amount to an adequate ethnic description.3 Furthermore, they argue that classical Celts bear little relation to the modern imagined picture of the origins of Atlantic coastal Celts.

And he explains why: The use of cord decoration was well known among eastern communities extending to the steppes, while the stone battle axes were evidently copied from metal forms already well established among the copper-using communities of south-eastern Europe. In the past it was conventional to explain large-scale culture change in terms of invasions. Thus some archaeologists argued that the Corded Ware/Battle Axe ‘culture’ reflected a mass migration of warriors moving into northern Europe from the Russian steppes. Explanations of this kind are no longer in favour, and it is now generally accepted that the development is likely to have been largely indigenous, growing out of contacts between the local farming groups of the TRB (Funnel-necked Beaker) culture, the metal-using communities of the south, and pastoralists on the Pontic steppes where the domestication of the horse had taken place.120 Figure 5.11 A cult of heroes from the East.


pages: 364 words: 103,162

The English by Jeremy Paxman

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back-to-the-land, British Empire, colonial rule, Corn Laws, Etonian, game design, George Santayana, global village, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, Khartoum Gordon, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, Own Your Own Home, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Right to Buy, sensible shoes, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

He is right: it was non-conformist denominations from the Methodists to the Salvation Army who tried to meet the challenge of urban life, while Irish immigrants brought their own Catholic faith with them. In the few areas where popular urban Toryism took root, the Church of England broadened its base. But, for the most part, those vast, echoing buildings built by the Anglicans on street corners throughout the great industrial cities as an instinctive response to mass migration from the countryside have never been filled, not even when originally built. Small wonder they look cold and uncared for over a century later, waiting to be bought up and turned into a Sikh temple or nightclub. The Reverend Lionel Espy and others like him are doing their best. But so long after the event, they have no chance at all of making up the ground lost. As things stand, the Church of England has the worst of all worlds.

When I was reading, with extreme care, the first batch of questionnaires which I received, I found I was constantly making the same notes: ‘What dull lives most of these people appear to lead!’ I remarked; and secondly, ‘What good people!’ I should still make the same judgements.1 The reasons for this unity are obvious enough – the country had just come though a terrible war, which had required shared sacrifice. The population of England was still relatively homogeneous, used to accepting the inconvenience of discipline and unaffected by mass immigration. It was still insular, not merely in a physical sense but because the mass media had yet to create the global village. It is the world of today’s grandparents. It is the world of Queen Elizabeth and her husband, the Duke of Edinburgh. The young Princess Elizabeth married the naval lieutenant, Philip Mountbatten, in 1947. In an age of austerity (potatoes rationed to 3 lb per person per week and bacon to one ounce) the wedding brought a breath of spectacle and magic to a drab country.

The flower-throwers had learned their behaviour from watching television, for it is a Latin custom: the potency of the mass media can hardly be exaggerated. Fashions in food, clothing, music and entertainment are no longer home-grown. Even those customs which remain authentically indigenous are the fruit of a greatly changed ‘English’ population. Within fifty years of the docking of the Empire Windrush at Tilbury, disembarking 492 Jamaican immigrants, the racial complexion of the country had changed utterly. Mass immigration to Britain had been concentrated on England and most cities of any size contained areas where white people had become a rarity. In those places, talking about immigrants as ‘ethnic minorities’ was beginning to sound decidedly perverse. By 1998, it was white children who had become a minority at local-authority secondary schools in inner London and even in the suburbs they made up only 60 per cent of the secondary-school population.


pages: 492 words: 70,082

Immigration worldwide: policies, practices, and trends by Uma Anand Segal, Doreen Elliott, Nazneen S. Mayadas

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, borderless world, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, centre right, conceptual framework, credit crunch, demographic transition, deskilling, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial independence, full employment, global village, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, informal economy, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, low skilled workers, mass immigration, minimum wage unemployment, moral panic, New Urbanism, open borders, phenotype, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, trade route, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, urban planning, women in the workforce

Figure 1-1 presents a framework of the salient ingredients in immigration, regardless of the country of origin or destination, and presents a framework of these dimensions. Salient Factors in Home Country Conditions in Home Country When conditions in a home country are satisfactory and meet physical, social, and emotional needs, the likelihood of leaving is minimal. Economic, political, or religious turbulence can cause dissatisfaction and result in mass migrations. For example, poor economic conditions, low income, and overcrowding in the home country often force individuals to seek opportunities elsewhere. As an illustration, from 1996 and well into 2003, Indonesia evidenced a prolonged economic crisis that continued to deepen, while news reports indicated that political corruption precluded any possibility of rapid recovery. Employment options for many Indonesians were increasingly limited, and legal and illegal migration out were high.

During the pre-Soviet period, 1796–1916, the total outflow of 47 48 Nations with Large Immigrant Populations population from European territories of Russia to its marches is estimated as 7 million persons; among them ethnic Russians were 80% (Population Encyclopedia, 1994). In the Soviet period, the opposite—centripetal—trends also existed; however, the total negative migration balance between Russia and other Soviet republics in 1917–1992 was about 4 million persons. These former population movements, which were at that time internal migrations by nature, in many respects determined causes and the structure of the current mass migration exchange between Russia and so-called new foreign states (Iontsev & Magomedova, 1999; Kabuzan, 1998). ‘‘New Foreign States’’ Phenomenon The term ‘‘new foreign states’’ (blijnee zarubejie) appeared in Russia in 1992 to define the former Soviet republics that have become the newborn sovereign states (in contrast to ‘‘old foreign states’’ (dalnee zarubejie), i.e., all other countries outside the ex-USSR territory).

At the same time social policy of the State in all of these new countries except for Russia was directed at ‘‘pushing out’’ the aliens. Slogans of ethnic superiority of indigenous populations popularized by new political leaders for their political self-establishment have resulted in the splash of ethnic intolerance and open nationalistic conflicts, as well as in ousting of ‘‘ethnically different’’ population from local labor markets, and finally in mass migration outflows to the places where these people hoped to find guaranties at least of ethnic security (Iontsev & Ivakhniouk, 2002:57). For ‘‘ethnic Russians’’ living in other ‘‘new foreign states,’’ their historical motherland, Russia, seemed a safe asylum. While some researchers use the term ‘‘repatriation’’ for return migration of Russians in the post-Soviet period, we prefer to put this term in quotes, as in fact persons who moved from their native places to other regions of the USSR during the Soviet or pre-Soviet periods were not emigrants as they participated in internal but not international migrations.


pages: 196 words: 53,627

Let Them In: The Case for Open Borders by Jason L. Riley

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affirmative action, creative destruction, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, declining real wages, deindustrialization, desegregation, guest worker program, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, lump of labour, mass immigration, open borders, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, trade liberalization, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, zero-sum game

What’s more, they’re learning it with the encouragement of their parents and despite the best efforts of bilingual education advocates and other nettlesome multiculturalists. Another goal of this book was to put today’s debate into perspective. Scapegoating foreigners for domestic problems real or imagined is something of an American tradition. Any student of history knows that the complaints and criticisms lodged against today’s Latinos were thrown at previous immigrant groups. But how easily some of us forget. Ireland was the source country of the first mass migration to the United States. The Irish flooded America in the middle of the nineteenth century, particularly the cities. In 1850, more than a quarter of New York City’s residents were born in Ireland. Throughout the 1800s, the United States absorbed Irish newcomers at more than double the rate of current Mexican immigration. These Irish immigrants were dirt-poor peasants back home, but in America they settled in urban ghettos among their own kind, where crime and violence and disease were not uncommon.

An Urban Institute study of immigration’s impact on Southern California in the 1970s—a period of high unemployment nationwide, remember—reached a similar conclusion. “To what extent did the influx of immigrants entering Southern California in the 1970s reduce the jobs available to nonimmigrant workers?” wrote Thomas Muller, the study’s author. “The answer for the 1970s is little if at all,” he concluded. “Despite mass immigration to Southern California, unemployment rates rose less rapidly than in the remainder of the nation.” Muller also found that labor-force participation rates among natives seemed to be unaffected, and “the participation rate for both blacks and whites was higher in Southern California [where the bulk of immigrants settled] than elsewhere in the state and the nation.” In 1994 economist Richard Vedder of Ohio University, working with Lowell Gallaway and Stephen Moore, conducted a historical analysis of immigration’s impact on the entire U.S. labor force.


pages: 965 words: 267,053

A History of Zionism by Walter Laqueur

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Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, illegal immigration, joint-stock company, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, new economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit motive, strikebreaker, the market place, éminence grise

The Bilu members, who had set up a central office in Constantinople, waited therefore in vain for a firman (official permit) to establish a series of settlements in Palestine which would create the basis for mass immigration. The Turkish government put many obstacles in their way, and in 1893 banned altogether the immigration of Russian Jews into Palestine and the purchase of land. These orders were frequently circumvented by registering the land that was bought in the name of Jews from western Europe and by distributing baksheesh among the local administration. In this way a few settlements were established, but these were hardly the conditions envisaged by Pinsker for mass immigration, let alone the establishment of a Jewish state. Among the first agricultural settlements established during that period were Zikhron Ya’akov, south of Haifa, and Rosh Pina, built by new immigrants from Rumania.

Ruppin’s main antagonist was Davis Trietsch, who had developed various highly original, sometimes splenetic colonisation schemes at the prewar Zionist congresses. For many years he continued to submit detailed programmes for mass immigration, all of them ignored by the experts or treated with disdain. In retrospect, however, Trietsch’s arguments seem weightier than most of his contemporaries were ready to acknowledge: he advocated intensive agriculture in contrast to the advice given by most other experts at the time. Moreover, in view of the lack of agricultural experience among the Jews as well as other obstacles, he insisted on the paramount importance of developing industry for the absorption of mass immigration. Whereas Ruppin and the other experts thought that an investment of £1,000-£1,500 was needed for the absorption of one family, Trietsch argued that since funds of such magnitude would never be available, they should develop cheaper methods of settlement.

The training of workers was an obvious case in point; it certainly would not show any profits in the ledger at the end of the year, but who would deny that it was an enterprise of essential national importance? Towards the end of his speech Ruppin made yet another point in justification of ‘practical Zionism’ which had never been made so clearly: ‘For a long time to come our progress in Palestine will depend entirely on the progress of our movement in the diaspora.’* This was a far cry from the early visions of Herzl and Nordau, the idea that there would be a wave of mass migration resulting in the establishment of a Jewish state, and that thereafter the state would be in a position to solve the Jewish question. Ruppin was not a great orator, but his case was forceful and convincing and he got a big ovation. Compared to other Zionist leaders his background was unconventional. Born in eastern Germany, he had worked his way up against heavy odds. The extreme poverty of his boyhood was movingly described many years later in his autobiography.


pages: 241 words: 90,538

Unequal Britain: Equalities in Britain Since 1945 by Pat Thane

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Ayatollah Khomeini, British Empire, call centre, collective bargaining, equal pay for equal work, full employment, gender pay gap, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, old-boy network, pensions crisis, sexual politics, Stephen Hawking, unpaid internship, women in the workforce

The concessions achieved by Britain’s minority religious communities in the nineteenth century can be characterised as piecemeal reforms: there was no universal declaration of the freedom of religious expression or all-inclusive protection of religious rights. Religious diversity was tolerated, 56 U N E Q UA L B R I TA I N alongside an understanding that Britain remained a Christian country with a dominant established church. The history of multi-faith Britain is inextricably connected with the history of immigration (see Chapter 2). Britain’s indigenous Catholic population was small in the 1830s and it was only mass migration from Ireland in the mid-nineteenth century that re-established Catholicism as a fixed presence on the British mainland. Similarly, the integration and acceptance of Anglo-Jewry is linked to the growth of Britain’s Jewish population. Between the 1880s and 1914, some 100,000 Jews escaping from persecution in Eastern Europe migrated chiefly to the East End of London, as well as establishing smaller communities in Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds and Scotland.

The following comment from columnist Peregrine Worsthorne, published in the Sunday Telegraph in 1991, suggests: Islam, once a great civilization worthy of being argued with . . . has degenerated into a primitive enemy fit only to be sensitively subjugated . . . If they want jihad, let them have it . . . [Islam,] once a moral force, has long been corrupted by variations of the European heresies, fascism and communism – a poisonous concoction threatening seepage back into Europe through mass migration.18 The first Gulf War (1990–1) caused further problems for British Muslims, now defined by some as ‘the enemy within’. During the war, West Yorkshire police noted a 100 per cent rise in racist attacks in Bradford. The classifying of such attacks as ‘racist’ rather than ‘anti-religious’ further demonstrated an unwillingness by public institutions to recognize British Muslim identity.19 The introduction of a question concerning ethnic origin in the 1991 Census was further testimony to a lack of understanding within Whitehall of the predominance of religious identity over ethnic identity within the Muslim community.

In a poll for the Scottish Daily Herald in September 1999, 37 per cent of readers agreed that there were ‘deep rooted anti-Catholic attitudes throughout Scottish society’; a further 13 per cent agreed ‘strongly’, while 45 per cent disagreed.9 A report by the Scottish Executive showed that between 2004 and 2005, the number of sectarian incidents reported to the police rose by 50 per cent, to 440, mostly in the Glasgow area and contrary to an overall decline in reported crime. Sixty-four per cent of these were offences against Catholics and 31 per cent were against Protestants, with many of them occurring at football matches where historic sectarian rivalry between Glasgow’s (Catholic) Celtic and (Protestant) Rangers remains strong.10 1950s AND 1960s: IMMIGRATION AND CHANGE Mass immigration from the former Empire during the 1950s and 1960s transformed Britain (in demographic terms) into a multi-faith society (see Chapter 2). Numbers are imprecise, as immigration statistics were not calculated on the basis of religion, but by 1980, Britain’s Hindu and Muslim populations are estimated to have more than doubled to 120,000 and 600,000 respectively (see Table 3.3). In addition, substantial numbers of Christians of all denominations migrated from the Caribbean.

Immigration and Ethnic Formation in a Deeply Divided Society: The Case of the 1990s Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union in Israel by Majid Al Haj

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demographic transition, ghettoisation, job satisfaction, mass immigration, phenotype, profit motive, zero-sum game

(Note that, according to halakhah, a child’s Jewishness depends on that of its mother.) This debate was spearheaded by the religious parties, in the wake of the considerable number of such cases in the first wave of mass immigration from Europe (ibid.). These parties also demanded a definition of “who is a Jew” before the Law of Return could be enacted. In the end, however, a compromise was 40   reached and the law was passed without reference to what remains a controversial issue to the present day (Hacohen 1998: 85). The movement’s attitude toward large-scale immigration by nonEuropean Jews has been always ambivalent and to some extent even projectionist (Gilbar 1998). This was very obvious in the discussions of mass immigration from Arab and Islamic countries toward the end of the Second World War. The declarations by Zionist leaders reflected a clear preference for “qualitative” immigration from Anglophone countries and strong fears of a “backward” immigration by Oriental Jews (Mizrahim) (ibid.).

This group, which claims to its credit that it was the leading force in the establishment of the Jewish community (Yishuv) in Palestine and later in the establishment of Israel, perceived the Oriental mass immigration as a threat to its political and cultural dominance. Hence warnings were voiced about the “danger” of the “orientalization and levantization of the Yishuv” and the need to instill into these oriental immigrants the spirit and culture of the veteran Ashkenazi group. 48   Ya"akov Zerubavel, one of the leaders of Po"alei Zion–Left and a member of the Jewish Agency Executive, wrote: The great spiritual entity produced through arduous labor and pioneering effort, along with all the rest of the basic enterprises of the Zionist movement, may come to naught if it does not have successors who act in the spirit of the Pioneers. The mass immigration now flowing in from backward, primitive countries to Eretz Israel may inundate all our work.

In addition, the monograph analyzes the dynamic relationship between immigrants and the veteran Israeli population and the immigrants’ impact on the ethnic structure of Israel and the possibilities of developing a civil  3 society, based on multicultural conception. These issues are analyzed in light of the economic, political, and ideological changes that have taken place in Israel during the past decade, including developments in the peace process and the deterioration in Israeli-Palestinian relations since October 2000. The following questions are addressed: What are the implications of mass immigration for a deeply divided society that is coping with both internal conflicts (the result of internal cleavages) and external (territorial-national) conflict? What are the main factors affecting ethnic formation, ethnic identity, and ethnic cohesiveness among these immigrants? What forms of political organization and behavior exist among immigrants? Are these patterns based on individual or collective mobilization?


pages: 411 words: 95,852

Britain Etc by Mark Easton

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, British Empire, credit crunch, financial independence, garden city movement, global village, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, intangible asset, James Watt: steam engine, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass immigration, moral panic, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, sexual politics, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Slavoj Žižek, social software

‘It is traditional that British subjects, whether of Dominion or Colonial origin (and of whatever race or colour), should be freely admissible to the United Kingdom,’ Attlee continued. ‘That tradition is not, in my view, to be lightly discarded, particularly at a time when we are importing foreign labour in large numbers.’ The arrival of the Empire Windrush became the symbolic starting point for mass migration of Commonwealth citizens to the United Kingdom, but it also fundamentally changed the politics of immigration. From the moment those nervous but eager Jamaicans stepped ashore, the alien threat – privately at least – became less about economics and more about the colour of people’s skin. Front of house, post-war Britain was anxious to appear honourable, generous and loyal. The uplifting narrative was of a nation that had defeated the vile racism of Nazi Germany by occupying the moral high ground.

But the political debate was no less dishonest than that which had gone before. Labour had been so timid about discussing immigration that it almost forgot to mention how its open door policy had seen the number of foreigners coming to live in the UK more than double since it took office: from 224,000 in 1996 to 494,000 in 2004. Later, government insider Andrew Neather would claim that there had been a political purpose in using mass immigration to make the UK multicultural. An advisor to the Prime Minister and Home Secretary, Neather let slip how ministers understood the conservatism of their core voters and, while they might have been passionately in favour of a more diverse society, ‘it wasn’t necessarily a debate they wanted to have in working men’s clubs in Sheffield or Sunderland.’ Labour’s reluctance to talk about the record levels of immigration into Britain meant there was little public discussion about the impact the new arrivals were having on communities and resources.


pages: 299 words: 19,560

Utopias: A Brief History From Ancient Writings to Virtual Communities by Howard P. Segal

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1960s counterculture, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, complexity theory, David Brooks, death of newspapers, dematerialisation, deskilling, energy security, European colonialism, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of journalism, garden city movement, germ theory of disease, Golden Gate Park, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Jeff Bezos, John Markoff, John von Neumann, knowledge economy, liberation theology, Louis Pasteur, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, Nicholas Carr, Nikolai Kondratiev, out of africa, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, union organizing, urban planning, War on Poverty, Whole Earth Catalog

Fogarty examined 141 communities that arose between 1860 and 1914, including mystical Shalam in New Mexico, free-love Spirit Fruit in Ohio and Illinois, all-female Women’s Commonwealth in Texas, and socialist, then anarchist, Equality in Washington state. To varying degrees all were inspired by the Book of Revelations’ injunction to “make all things new” and were self-conscious about their need for journeying elsewhere in America or abroad (usually Palestine) to do so. As such they both reflected and took to extremes the mass migrations and frontier extensions of other, non-utopian Americans of their day. Contrary to stereotypes, some of these 141 utopias were conservative, not radical—for example, rejecting the growing calls for class action in favor of older ideals of the common good. Certain communities were even “anti-modernist” in various respects. It is therefore wrong to assume that utopian communities in this— or any other—period of American history were invariably on the political or social or cultural fringes, for many were not.

The book envisioned the establishment of countless factories and the steady increase of national wealth. The identification between America as a distinctive social collection and its idyllic crusade for nationwide coherence and homogeneity collapsed in the decade following the Civil War. Obviously the war undermined national unity for decades to come. But the growing nation was becoming fractionalized in other ways and for other reasons. Mass immigration from Central and Eastern Europe, more than any other factor, resulted in an increasingly diverse The American Utopias and Utopians and Their Critics 77 America that, unlike in contemporary times, was lamented more than celebrated. Unlike their mid-nineteenth-century counterparts, late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century Americans routinely made firm, fixed, and critical distinctions between peoples, places, and things.


pages: 105 words: 18,832

The Collapse of Western Civilization: A View From the Future by Naomi Oreskes, Erik M. Conway

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anti-communist, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, oil shale / tar sands, Pierre-Simon Laplace, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, stochastic process, the built environment, the market place

Moreover, the scientists who best understood the problem were ham-strung by their own cultural practices, which demanded an excessively stringent standard for accepting claims of any x i n t r o d u C t i o n kind—even those involving imminent threats. Here, our future historian, living in the Second People’s Republic of China, recounts the events of the Period of the Penumbra (1988–2093) that led to the Great Collapse and Mass Migration (2073–2093). The Collapse of WesTern CivilizaTion The nation formerly known as the Netherlands Once referred to as the “Low Countries” of Europe, much of the land area of this nation had been reclaimed from the sea by extensive human effort from the sixteenth through the twentieth centuries. The unexpectedly rapid rise of the seas of the Great Collapse overwhelmed the Dutch citizens. The descendants of their survivors largely reside in the Nordo-Scandinavian Union, while the rusting skyscrapers of their drowned cities are a ghostly reminder of a glorious past. 1 The Coming of the Penumbral Age In the prehistory of “civilization,” many societies rose and fell, but few left as clear and extensive an account of what happened to them and why as the twenty-first-century nation-states that referred to themselves as Western civilization.

In poor nations, conditions were predictably worse: rural portions of Africa and Asia began experiencing significant depopulation from out-migration, malnutrition-induced disease and infertility, and starvation. Stil , sea level had risen only 9 to 15 centimeters around the globe, and coastal populations were mainly intact. Then, in the Northern Hemisphere summer of 2041, unprecedented heat waves scorched the planet, destroying food crops around the globe. Panic ensued, with food riots in virtually every major city. Mass migration of undernourished and dehydrated individuals, coupled with explosive increases in insect populations, led to widespread outbreaks of typhus, cholera, dengue fever, yellow fever, and viral and retroviral agents never before seen. Surging insect populations also destroyed huge swaths of forests in Canada, Indonesia, and Brazil. As social order began to break down in the 2050s, governments were overthrown, particularly in Africa, but also in many parts of Asia and Europe, further decreasing social capacity to deal with increasingly desperate populations.

The European Union announced similar plans for voluntary northward relocation of eligible citizens from its southernmost regions to Scandinavia and the United Kingdom. While governments were straining to maintain order and provide for their people, leaders in Switzerland and India—two countries that were rapidly losing substantial portions of their glacially-sourced water resources— convened the First International Emergency Summit on Climate Change, organized under the rubric of Unified Mass migration of undernour- Nations for Climate Pro- ished and dehydrated indi- tection (the former United viduals, coupled with explosive increases in insect populations, Nations having been disled to widespread outbreaks credited and disbanded over of typhus, cholera, dengue the failure of the UNFCCC). fever, yellow fever, and viral Political, business, and reli- and retroviral agents never gious leaders met in Geneva before seen.


pages: 162 words: 50,108

The Little Book of Hedge Funds by Anthony Scaramucci

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Andrei Shleifer, asset allocation, Bernie Madoff, business process, carried interest, corporate raider, Credit Default Swap, diversification, diversified portfolio, Donald Trump, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, fear of failure, fixed income, follow your passion, Gordon Gekko, high net worth, index fund, John Meriwether, Long Term Capital Management, mail merge, margin call, mass immigration, merger arbitrage, money market fund, Myron Scholes, NetJets, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, random walk, Renaissance Technologies, risk-adjusted returns, risk/return, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, Sharpe ratio, short selling, Silicon Valley, the new new thing, too big to fail, transaction costs, Vanguard fund, Y2K, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

Chapter Seven: A Balancing Act Long/Short Equity—Borrowing from Peter to Pay Paul Relative Value—Two of a Kind . . . but Different Event Driven—One Man’s Loss is Another Man’s Gain Directional Chapter Eight: If you Can’t Beat ’Em, Join ’Em Stop Right There! Manager Selection The Screening Process The Never-Ending Process Filling in the Data Portfolio Construction Stay Alert . . . It’s Your Money Chapter Nine: The Men Behind the Curtains A Quick History Lesson More than Just a Middleman The Specifics Your Dream Team The Pluses . . . . . . and the Minuses Chapter Ten: From Wall Street to Park Avenue Wall Street’s Mass Migration Only the Strongest Survive Inside the Mind of a Super Capitalist A Quick Pop Quiz Scoring a Job at a Hedge Fund A Final Few Words: 15 Things I Would Do If I Were you Conclusion Appendix Acknowledgments Little Book Big Profits Series In the Little Book Big Profits series, the brightest icons in the financial world write on topics that range from tried-and-true investment strategies to tomorrow’s new trends.

If you are looking to chase money, fortune, or fame and don’t think you have the stomach for managing money or being a part of an asset management organization, then hopefully you will go back to your art or poetry class when you are done reading this chapter. As I tell any young person I advise or mentor: follow your passions and do want you really want to do. Don’t chase what you think you should do; it will only delay your journey to job and life fulfillment. Wall Street’s Mass Migration Growing up, it was fairly simple. Whenever I was asked what I wanted to be when I grew up, my answer was always the same: I wanted a job that would give me and my family financial security. At the time, I had no idea what a hedge fund was and if someone asked me I probably would have said it had to do with landscaping (as in hedges) and nothing to do with money management. When I graduated college and law school in the 1980s, the dream job was to work in investment banking.

From seasoned money managers to up-and-coming MBAs to college students working out of their dorms, everywhere you turned some whiz kid (and in some cases, some not so whiz kid) was starting his own fund. During that time, I, too, caught the hedge fund fever. Seven years out of law school I began my journey and entered the industry by cofounding Oscar Capital with Andrew K. Boszhardt Jr. So, what was the cause of this mass migration? Earnings Potential: Just as insects are attracted to light, money managers are attracted to lucrative fee structures. Take that and throw in the fact that the money manager is joining an exclusive secret club and it’s easy to see why the industry boomed. In the last decade, the top hedge fund managers earned “more money than God in a couple of years of trading,” amassing more wealth than the mightiest masters of the universe at prominent investment banks and private equity firms.


pages: 743 words: 201,651

Free Speech: Ten Principles for a Connected World by Timothy Garton Ash

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Andrew Keen, Apple II, Ayatollah Khomeini, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, British Empire, Cass Sunstein, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, Clapham omnibus, colonial rule, crowdsourcing, David Attenborough, don't be evil, Donald Davies, Douglas Engelbart, Edward Snowden, Etonian, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Ferguson, Missouri, Filter Bubble, financial independence, Firefox, Galaxy Zoo, George Santayana, global village, index card, Internet Archive, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Jaron Lanier, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Mark Zuckerberg, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, national security letter, Netflix Prize, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, pre–internet, profit motive, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, semantic web, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, Snapchat, social graph, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wisdom of Crowds, Turing test, We are Anonymous. We are Legion, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey, Yom Kippur War

It is in such unmediated human encounters that words come closest to deeds, and sometimes the word becomes flesh. Who knows, perhaps bioengineering and communications technology will one day combine to reproduce cybercognitively, at a distance of thousands of miles, the incomparable richness of that experience. In the meantime, what characterises our transformed world is external combinations of the virtual and the physical, as a result of developments that I summarise as ‘mass migration and the internet’. COSMOPOLIS In a book called The Gutenberg Galaxy, published in 1962, the media guru Marshall McLuhan declared that ‘the new electronic interdependence recreates the world in the image of a global village’.37 This was an extraordinary seerlike insight, well ahead of its time, but McLuhan’s simile of ‘global village’ is inadequate, both as description and prescription.

In doing so, they draw on documents such as the authoritative General Comment of the UN Human Rights Committee on Article 19, the judgements of various courts, and philosophical, political and psychological arguments of the kind I have explored. Their work has traditionally been concentrated on states and international organisations, laws and the executive actions of governments. I have argued that in the cosmopolis created by mass migration and the internet, we must also look at other levels of the multidimensional struggle for word power, especially the role of private powers and that of self-shaping, networked communities, both online and offline. (‘Offline’ is a strange term, almost implying that ‘online’ is the richer, fuller human condition. ‘Real world’, on the other hand, falsely suggests that the online world is unreal.)

But living with such an intimate plenitude of difference is also difficult, and many people might prefer to live more among ‘their own’. This difficulty is hardly new. It is something that those inhabiting the territories we now call India and Pakistan have wrestled with for millennia. The emperors Ashoka and Akbar were promoting peaceful coexistence between communities and sects long before Europeans discovered the virtue of ‘toleration’. Yet the combination of mass migration and the internet has produced a staggering growth in visible diversity on the physical streets of a global city and the online pages of the virtual one. Unsurprisingly, some of the most intense free speech controversies of our time have concerned how people express themselves about such differences. Across the quarter century since the Rushdie affair exploded in 1989, many of those controversies have involved religion.


pages: 317 words: 101,475

Chavs: The Demonization of the Working Class by Owen Jones

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Asperger Syndrome, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, deindustrialization, Etonian, facts on the ground, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, Occupy movement, pension reform, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, rising living standards, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working-age population

Because 'class' had for so long been a forbidden word within the political establishment, the only inequalities discussed by politicians and the media were racial ones. The white working class had become another marginalized ethnic minority, and this meant that all their concerns were understood solely through the prism of race. They became presented as a lost tribe On the wrong side of history, disorientated by multiculturalism and obsessed with defending their identity from the cultural ravages of mass immigration. The rise of the idea of a 'white working class' fuelled a new liberal bigotry. It was OK to hate the white working class, because they were themselves a bunch of racist bigots. One defence of the term' chav' points out that 'Chavs themselves use the word, so what's the problem?' They have a point: some young working-class people have even embraced the word as a cultural identity. But the meaning of a word often depends on who is using it.

Many of these caricatures appeared in the BBe's White season, a supposedly sympathetic series of programmes dedicated to the white working class that aired in 2007. In reality, it simply boostedthe image of white working-class people as a race-obsessed, BNP- voting rump. Their problems were not portrayed as economic-thingslike housing and jobs that affect working-class people of all colours did not get a look-in. They were simply portrayed as a minority culture under threat from mass immigration. 'The White season examines why some feel increasingly marginalised and explores possible reasons behind the rise in popularity of far-right politics in some sections of this community,' the BBC announced. But the trailer for the series said it all: a white man's face being scrib- bled over by dark-skinned hands with a black marker pen until he disappeared into the background. Accompanying the trailer was the question: 'Is the white working class becoming invisible?'

On the night of the GLC election, they didn't have a majority, but they were the leading party in those wards ... But two years ago, they virtually got no votes-just a couple of per cent. So I think you tend to get a problem of racism in an area undergoing transition.' Hackney is one of the most mixed areas in the country, and as a result the far right has died out there. But it flourishes in areas such as Barking and Dagenham, where mass immigration is a new phenomenon and where the BNP has done well; or, conversely, where there is very little immigration but a tremendous fear of it. The demonization of the working class has also had a real role to play in the BNP's success story. Although ruling elites have made itclear that there is nothing of worth in working-class culture, we have been (rightly) urged to celebrate the identities of minority groups.


pages: 484 words: 120,507

The Last Lingua Franca: English Until the Return of Babel by Nicholas Ostler

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barriers to entry, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Internet Archive, invention of writing, Isaac Newton, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mass immigration, open economy, Republic of Letters, Scramble for Africa, statistical model, trade route, upwardly mobile

This, then, would belong with Swahili and Malay as a trade-created lingua-franca, if it had not largely died away by the early nineteenth century. Africa and Brazil saw some take-up of Portuguese creoles, mostly among slaves. But the spread of Portuguese to Brazil—by now far the most populous speech community that it has—only began in earnest in the late seventeenth century, when discoveries of gold and precious metals, and the opening up of the interior to economic development, caused mass migration from Portugal itself. Once it was known that there were fortunes to be made in Brazil, European settlement, and hence the spread of Portuguese, took off . In general, then, these world languages with less than 40 percent lingua-franca use are languages that have grown through gradual immigration, a process which acts mainly to create larger mother tongue communities rather than lingua-francas, although inevitably in a multilingual environment some bilingualism and recruitment of speakers of other languages will occur.

This has applied not just to the major western empires of France and Great Britain, but also to smaller (or older) colonial powers such as the Netherlands and Spain, and even (since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991) from the states of Central Asia to Russia. Moreover, this is not just an effect of the twilight of Empire. Similar trends have affected powers that did not have relevant ex-imperial territories: these notably include the mass immigration of Turks into Germany (long characterized as Gastarbeiter ‘guest-workers’, though large numbers have eventually taken up residence), and of Latin Americans into the USA (much of the latter clandestine—hence the term mojados ‘wetbacks’, suggesting informal crossing of the Rio Grande). Most recently (especially in the last decade) additional flows of “asylum seekers” have left the war-troubled countries of the Balkans, Middle East, Africa, and South Asia for quieter and richer lands, usually in Europe or North America.


pages: 31 words: 7,670

Why America Must Not Follow Europe by Daniel Hannan

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Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, mass immigration, obamacare, quantitative easing, Ronald Reagan, stakhanovite, Upton Sinclair

Like most folk memories, the idea of a European economic miracle has some basis in fact. Between 1945 and 1974, Western Europe did indeed outperform the U.S. And in retrospect, we can see why. Europe happened to enjoy perfect conditions for rapid growth. Infrastructure had been destroyed during the war, but an educated, industrious, and disciplined workforce remained. There was also, for the first time in Europe’s history, mass migration. Within individual nations, people moved in unprecedented numbers from the countryside to the growing cities. Within Europe, they journeyed from the Mediterranean littoral to the coalfields and steelworks of northern Europe. And millions more came from beyond Europe – from North Africa, Turkey, and the former British, French, and Dutch colonies. As if all these advantages were not enough, Europe received a massive external stimulus.


pages: 391 words: 102,301

Zero-Sum Future: American Power in an Age of Anxiety by Gideon Rachman

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Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, centre right, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, global reserve currency, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, invisible hand, Jeff Bezos, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, offshore financial centre, open borders, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, popular capitalism, price stability, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Sinatra Doctrine, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, The Myth of the Rational Market, Thomas Malthus, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent, zero-sum game

The debt crisis in Europe or trade wars, triggered by American anger at Chinese mercantilism, could plunge the world economy into a severe new downturn. The inability to stabilize failing states could see countries such as Afghanistan and Pakistan slipping further into violent anarchy, with dangerous consequences for the rest of the world. Over the longer term, a failure to deal with climate change could provoke the most serious international crises of all—leading to flooding, famine, mass migration, and even war. Crises such as these ultimately threaten the future of the whole world. Yet the world’s major powers are unable to deal with them cooperatively. That is because a damaged and dysfunctional world economy and the growth of new international rivalries—in particular between the United States and China—are increasingly trapping the world in a zero-sum logic, in which one country’s gain looks like another’s loss.

Indeed, far from being alarmist, Obama’s list of global problems was arguably a little on the short side. The president chose to highlight terrorism, war, genocide, the proliferation of nuclear weapons, global warming, global poverty, and the threat of pandemics. To that list could be added global economic tensions; shortages of food, water, and energy; failed states; international crime; and uncontrolled mass migration. All of these issues are problems of globalization. Some have been created or worsened by the process of global economic integration that has defined international politics since 1978. None of them can be solved without a significant degree of international cooperation. And yet the world lacks the international political structures needed to fix global problems. That will be the central dilemma of international politics for the next decade or more.

Western intelligence services are also concerned about Somalia and Yemen as bases for terrorist activity. A spate of terrorist attacks inside India is also increasing the dangers of war between Pakistan and India, two nuclear-armed neighbors. The dangers of climate change have been amply rehearsed. If the United Nations’ International Panel on Climate Change is correct, there is a serious risk in the coming decades of desertification, crop failures, the flooding of coastal cities, and mass migration by displaced people—with war and conflict following in the wake of environmental disaster. Even many of those who are skeptical about the UN-endorsed science on climate change accept the need for international action to curb greenhouse gases, even if only as an insurance policy against catastrophe. The failure to address global economic imbalances will, as outlined above, probably lead to a rise in protectionism.


pages: 193 words: 47,808

The Flat White Economy by Douglas McWilliams

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access to a mobile phone, banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, correlation coefficient, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, George Gilder, hiring and firing, income inequality, informal economy, knowledge economy, loadsamoney, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, Network effects, new economy, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, Peter Thiel, Productivity paradox, Robert Metcalfe, Silicon Valley, smart cities, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, working-age population, zero-sum game

CHAPTER 4 Flat White Lifestyles What makes the Flat White Economy tick is arguably the number of people available to work in it. Many of them are attracted to London by jobs – London has been the only place in Europe creating jobs for young people at Western rates of pay on a significant scale over the past ten years. And the virtual collapse of employment opportunities for young people in most of the Eurozone has stimulated mass migration into London. But the people aren’t only attracted by the jobs. Often they come to London to look for fun. Once they are in London, of course, they then look for work to pay for the fun. This creates the supply of skills that support either the Flat White Economy itself with high-tech skills knowhow or the support industries that rely on more prosaic abilities like making coffee or mending bikes.

It is a small, but highly networked and highly educated country with a strong sense of creativity and entrepreneurship. Its unique geopolitical situation also seems to foster a necessary culture of innovation in the face of daunting opposition – much of the reasons for Israel’s strength in telecommunications technology, security and encryption stems from substantial funding by the government for military purposes. It also has an exceptional, multicultural and multilingual talent base and Jewish mass migration from Eastern Europe in the past quarter century has massively expanded its skills base.18 Despite the geopolitical problems of the Middle East, the Israeli tech sector has such momentum that it is highly unlikely to stumble unless Israel gets involved in a war on so large a scale that it makes it impossible for the industry to operate. Bangalore/Bengaluru19 Known as ‘India’s Silicon Valley’, Bangalore is the focus of the IT and software industry in India.

Global Financial Crisis by Noah Berlatsky

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, centre right, circulation of elites, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, corporate raider, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, deindustrialization, Doha Development Round, energy security, eurozone crisis, financial innovation, Food sovereignty, George Akerlof, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, moral hazard, new economy, Northern Rock, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, South China Sea, structural adjustment programs, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transfer pricing, working poor

“In several instances, we are seeing a net outflow from countries facing economic crisis, especially from badly affected sectors such as construction and tourism, where many migrants are employed.” Ban said it is important that governments protect the rights of foreign workers in order to prevent mass migrations of angry, unemployed, and impoverished workers. 131 The Global Financial Crisis “I would also urge those countries who accommodate many migrants—they should ensure, through their domestic legislation and political and social framework—to protect and promote the human rights of migrant workers,” he said. But there are signs that the opposite is taking place in some countries. [UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon] said it is important that governments protect the rights of foreign workers in order to prevent mass migrations of angry, unemployed, and impoverished workers. In Russia, Prime Minister Vladimir Putin this month [December 2008] signed a decree aimed at reducing quotas on the number of foreigners working in the country.


pages: 225 words: 189

The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War by Robert D. Kaplan

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Berlin Wall, clean water, Deng Xiaoping, edge city, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Honoré de Balzac, mass immigration, Peace of Westphalia, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, trade route, unemployed young men, Yom Kippur War

It is time to understand "the environment" for what it is: the national-security issue of the early twenty-first century. The 20 / THE COMING ANARCHY political and strategic impact of surging populations, spreading disease, deforestation and soil erosion, water depletion, air pol­ lution, and, possibly, rising sea levels in critical, overcrowded regions like the Nile Delta and Bangladesh—developments that will prompt mass migrations and, in turn, incite group con­ flicts—will be the core foreign-policy challenge from which most others will ultimately emanate, arousing the public and uniting assorted interests left over from the Cold War. In the twenty-first century water will be in dangerously short supply in such diverse locales as Saudi Arabia, Central Asia, and the southwestern United States. A war could erupt between Egypt and Ethiopia over Nile River water.

Israel, with a 6.6 percent economic growth rate based increasingly on high-tech exports, is about to enter Homer-Dixon's stretch limo, fortified by a well-defined political community that is an organic outgrowth of history and ethnicity. Like prosperous and peaceful Japan on the one hand, and war-torn and poverty-wracked Armenia on the other, Israel is a classic national-ethnic organism. Much of the Arab world, however, will undergo alteration, as Islam spreads across artifi- 42 / THE COMING ANARCHY cial frontiers, fueled by mass migrations into the cities and a soaring birth rate of more than 3.2 percent. Seventy percent of the Arab population has been born since 1970—youths with lit­ tle historical memory of anticolonial independence struggles, postcolonial attempts at nation-building, or any of the ArabIsraeli wars. The most distant recollection of these youths will be the West's humiliation of colonially invented Iraq in 1991.


pages: 709 words: 191,147

White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America by Nancy Isenberg

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A. Roger Ekirch, back-to-the-land, British Empire, California gold rush, colonial rule, Copley Medal, desegregation, Donald Trump, feminist movement, full employment, indoor plumbing, invisible hand, joint-stock company, land reform, land tenure, mass immigration, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Republic of Letters, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, trade route, transcontinental railway, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, Works Progress Administration

It is not only directed by the top 1 percent and supported by a contented middle class. We can no longer ignore the stagnant, expendable bottom layers of society in explaining the national identity. The poor, the waste, the rubbish, as they are variously labeled, have stood front and center during America’s most formative political contests. During colonial settlement, they were useful pawns as well as rebellious troublemakers, a pattern that persisted amid mass migrations of landless squatters westward across the continent. Southern poor whites figured prominently in the rise of Abraham Lincoln’s Republican Party, and in the atmosphere of distrust that caused bad blood to percolate among the poorer classes within the Confederacy during the Civil War. White trash were dangerous outliers in efforts to rebuild the Union during Reconstruction; and in the first two decades of the twentieth century, when the eugenics movement flourished, they were the class of degenerates targeted for sterilization.

Whether by accident or, as some have speculated, by secret design, their first ship, the Mayflower, landed on Cape Cod, beyond the purview of the Virginia Company, in 1620. The small, struggling band lost half their number to starvation and disease during the first year. The wife of one of the leaders, William Bradford, mysteriously disappeared over the side of the Mayflower. It would be a full decade before the English settlers in Massachusetts made significant inroads in attracting new settlers to the region.39 When the mass migration of 1630 did take place, it was the well-organized John Winthrop who led a fleet of eleven ships, loaded with seven hundred passengers and livestock, and bearing a clear objective to plant a permanent community. Far more intact families migrated to the colony than had to Virginia, and a core of the settlers were Puritans who did not need the threat of a death sentence to attend church services on the Sabbath—one of the many examples of heavy-handedness practiced in the early days of Jamestown.

The glorious title of cultivator would remain beyond the reach of most backcountry settlers.48 CHAPTER FIVE Andrew Jackson’s Cracker Country The Squatter as Common Man Obsquatulate, To mosey, or to abscond. —“Cracker Dictionary,” Salem Gazette (1830) By 1800, one-fifth of the American population had resettled on its “frontier,” the territory between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi. Effective regulation of this mass migration was well beyond the limited powers of the federal government. Even so, officials understood that the country’s future depended on controlling this vast territory. Financial matters were involved too. Government sale of these lands was needed to reduce the nation’s war debts. Besides, the lands were hardly empty, and the potential for violent conflicts with Native Americans was ever present, as white migrants settled on lands they did not own.


pages: 298 words: 81,200

Where Good Ideas Come from: The Natural History of Innovation by Steven Johnson

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Ada Lovelace, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, carbon-based life, Cass Sunstein, cleantech, complexity theory, conceptual framework, cosmic microwave background, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, data acquisition, digital Maoism, digital map, discovery of DNA, Dmitri Mendeleev, double entry bookkeeping, double helix, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Drosophila, Edmond Halley, Edward Lloyd's coffeehouse, Ernest Rutherford, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, greed is good, Hans Lippershey, Henri Poincaré, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invention of air conditioning, invention of movable type, invention of the printing press, invention of the telephone, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John Snow's cholera map, Joseph Schumpeter, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kevin Kelly, lone genius, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, Mason jar, mass immigration, Mercator projection, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, online collectivism, packet switching, PageRank, patent troll, pattern recognition, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, silicon-based life, six sigma, Solar eclipse in 1919, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, urban planning

Before long, Carrier and a band of entrepreneurial engineers from Buffalo Forge broke off and formed the Carrier Engineering Corporation, devoted exclusively to the manufacture of air-conditioning systems. The business made Carrier a wealthy man, as air conditioning went from a curiosity to a luxury item to a middle-class necessity. In 2007, the Carrier Corporation, now part of United Technologies, did $15 billion in sales. Thanks to Carrier’s brilliant idea, the second half of the twentieth century saw a mass migration within the United States to the Sunbelt and to Deep South climates that had been nearly intolerable before the widespread adoption of air conditioning. It is not exaggerating matters to say that Carrier’s idea ultimately rearranged the social and political map of America. Carrier’s story is the archetypal myth of modern innovation. A clever individual, working in a private research lab, driven by ambition and the promise of great riches, hits upon a brilliant idea in a sudden flash of insight and the world changes.

First-quadrant solo entrepreneurs, crafting their products in secret to ensure their eventual payday, turn out to be practically nonexistent. Gutenberg was the exception, not the rule. 1600-1800 Scanning the next two centuries, we see that the pattern changes dramatically (see page 229). Solo, amateur innovation (quadrant three) surrenders much of its lead to the rising power of networks and commerce (quadrant four). The most dramatic change lies along the horizontal axis, in a mass migration from individual breakthroughs (on the left) to the creative insights of the group (on the right). Less than 10 percent of innovation during the Renaissance is networked; two centuries later, a majority of breakthrough ideas emerge in collaborative environments. Multiple developments precipitate this shift, starting with Gutenberg’s press, which begins to have a material impact on secular research a century and a half after the first Bible hits the stands, as scientific ideas are stored and shared in the form of books and pamphlets.


pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders

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agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

At various points in the nineteenth century, places like Camberwell, Deptford, and Holloway were home to large squatter enclaves of very poor rural arrivals (mixed with inner-city castoffs). And, while social mobility remained a visible and concrete goal for most migrants, rural–urban migration was by no means always an ascent to better living standards. A significant number of the thousands of abandoned children who roamed the streets of London, according to the Victorian reformer Thomas Barnardo, were “victims of the family dislocation involved in mass migration to London.”19 At least half of all prostitutes at any time were born outside London. As everywhere, the move to a city almost always meant an improvement in livelihood—but one that was not without risk. London in the latter half of the nineteenth century became famous for the wide range of public-housing schemes developed by philanthropic and government bodies. These were often admirable. But they also had little relationship to the actual needs of the people flooding into London, and they often made matters worse.

Rushdie, facing the fatwa, defended his novel The Satanic Verses by describing it as an arrival city, like the arrival cities that fill its pages, like the arrival cities throughout the world: a place that “celebrates hybridity, impurity, intermingling, the transformation that comes of new and unexpected combinations of human beings, cultures, ideas, politics, movies, songs. It rejoices in mongrelisation and fears the absolutism of the Pure. Melange, hotchpotch, a bit of this and a bit of that is how newness enters the world. It is the great possibility that mass migration gives the world, and I have tried to embrace it.”22 This is the way of the world. The functioning arrival city slowly colonizes the established city (just as the failed arrival city is likely, after festering and simmering, to invade it violently). The city discovers, confronts, and, in fortunate circumstances, embraces the arrival city. Yesterday’s alien villagers and immigrants become today’s urban merchants and tomorrow’s professionals and political leaders.

., 23–34. 24 David Mitch, “Literacy and Occupational Mobility in Rural Versus Urban Victorian England,” Historical Methods 38, no. 1 (2005); Jason Long, “Social Mobility within and across Generations in Britain since 1851,” in Economic History Society Conference (Oxford: 2007). 25 Aside from the previously cited works by Andrew Miles and Jason Long, see Sara Horrell, Jane Humphries, and Hans-Joachim Voth, “Destined for Deprivation: Human Capital Formation and Intergenerational Poverty in Nineteenth-Century England,” Explorations in Economic History 38 (2001); Kenneth Prandy and Wendy Bottero, “Social Reproduction and Mobility in Britain and Ireland in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries,” Sociology 34, no. 2 (2000); Paul Lambert, Kenneth Prandy, and Wendy Bottero, “By Slow Degrees: Two Centuries of Social Reproduction and Mobility in Britain,” Sociological Research Online 12, no. 1 (2007), www.socresonline.org.uk/12/1/prandy.html. 26 Jason Long and Joseph Ferrie, “A Tale of Two Labor Markets: Intergenerational Occupational Mobility in Britain and the U.S. since 1850,” ed. National Bureau of Economic Research (Cambridge, MA: 2005). 27 Leslie Page Moch, Moving Europeans: Migration in Western Europe since 1650 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003), 149. 28 Timothy J. Hatton and Jeffrey G Williamson, “What Drove the Mass Migrations from Europe in the Late Nineteenth Century?” ed. National Bureau of Economic Research (Cambridge, MA: 1992); Dudley Baines, Migration in a Mature Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985). 29 Cited in Richard Harris, Unplanned Suburbs (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996), 111–25. 30 Ibid., 200–232; David G. Burley, “Review of Richard Harris, Unplanned Suburbs,” Humanities & Social Sciences Online, March 19, 1997, http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?


pages: 421 words: 125,417

Common Wealth: Economics for a Crowded Planet by Jeffrey Sachs

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agricultural Revolution, air freight, back-to-the-land, British Empire, business process, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, demographic transition, Diane Coyle, Edward Glaeser, energy security, failed state, Gini coefficient, Haber-Bosch Process, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of agriculture, invention of the steam engine, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, labour mobility, low skilled workers, mass immigration, microcredit, oil shale / tar sands, old age dependency ratio, peak oil, profit maximization, profit motive, purchasing power parity, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Simon Kuznets, Skype, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, unemployed young men, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population

This activist philosophy, which holds that the self-organizing forces of a market economy should be guided by overarching principles of social justice and environmental stewardship, has not yet been extended robustly to global society. In the twenty-first century our global society will flourish or perish according to our ability to find common ground across the world on a set of shared objectives and on the practical means to achieve them. The pressures of scarce energy resources, growing environmental stresses, a rising global population, legal and illegal mass migration, shifting economic power, and vast inequalities of income are too great to be left to naked market forces and untrammeled geopolitical competition among nations. A clash of civilizations could well result from the rising tensions, and it could truly be our last and utterly devastating clash. To find our way peacefully through these difficulties, we will have to learn, on a global scale, the same core lessons that successful societies have gradually and grudgingly learned within their own national borders.

These problems can still be overcome by helping impoverished farmers to adopt improved technologies and diversified income strategies, but such gains will not be sufficient to keep ahead of a doubling of population every generation! Figure 7.7: Average Farm Size by Continent front 1930 to 1990 Source: Estimates from Eastwood et al. (2004) Note: Vertical axis on logarithmic scale Fourth, and finally, there are the threats to the rest of the world. Rapid population growth raises the pressures for mass migration and local conflict. Today’s conflicts in Africa mainly reflect a breakdown of order among hungry and impoverished communities. Violence is not just a matter of poverty but also of the age-population structure. Higher fertility rates, we’ve seen, lead to age-population pyramids with a wide base and a narrow apex: too few elders per adolescent. The evidence points to added risks of violence and even war, a link that we will explore further in the next chapter.

At the same time, massive migration from the interior to the coastal provinces, and from the rural areas to the cities, has also helped the development process in two ways. It has provided jobs and improved incomes for more than one hundred million migrants. Many of these migrants were unemployed or working at very low productivity in their home villages. Second, part of that increased income has been sent back to the villages to support local consumption, business formation, and investments in homes and farms. The costs, however, are high, since the mass migration has very often meant separated families, and even mothers and children left behind in the villages, with the husbands not seen again. THE BENEFITS AND LIMITS OF INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION One solution for desperate regions is out-migration. The solution for China’s poor interior is clearly a combination of out-migration and investment and remittances in. When a country has both geographically stressed regions and geographically favored regions, out-migration from the difficult regions is both inevitable and salutary.


pages: 286 words: 94,017

Future Shock by Alvin Toffler

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Albert Einstein, Brownian motion, Buckminster Fuller, cognitive dissonance, Colonization of Mars, corporate governance, East Village, global village, Haight Ashbury, information retrieval, invention of agriculture, invention of movable type, invention of writing, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, post-industrial society, RAND corporation, the market place, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog, zero-sum game

Some people are deeply attracted to this highly accelerated pace of life—going far out of their way to bring it about and feeling anxious, tense or uncomfortable when the pace slows. They want desperately to be "where the action is." (Indeed, some hardly care what the action is, so long as it occurs at a suitably rapid clip.) James A. Wilson has found, for example, that the attraction for a fast pace of life is one of the hidden motivating forces behind the much publicized "brain-drain"—the mass migration of European scientists to the United States and Canada. After studying 517 English scientists and engineers who migrated, Wilson concluded that it was not higher salaries or better research facilities alone, but also the quicker tempo that lured them. The migrants, he writes, "are not put off by what they indicate as the 'faster pace' of North America; if anything, they appear to prefer this pace to others."

This is only slightly different than in the United States. In France, a continuing housing shortage contrives to slow down internal mobility, but even there a study by demographer Guy Pourcher suggests that each year 8 to 10 percent of all Frenchmen shift homes. In Sweden, Germany, Italy and the Netherlands, the rate of domestic migration appears to be on the rise. And Europe is experiencing a wave of international mass migration unlike anything since the disruptions of World War II. Economic prosperity in Northern Europe has created widespread labor shortages (except in England) and has attracted masses of unemployed agricultural workers from the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries. They come by the thousands from Algeria, Spain, Portugal, Yugoslavia and Turkey. Every Friday afternoon 1000 Turkish workers in Istanbul clamber aboard a train heading north toward the promised lands.

The earth's weather system is an integrated whole; a minute change at one point can touch off massive consequences elsewhere. Even without aggressive intent, there is danger that attempts to control a drought on one continent could trigger a tornado on another. Moreover, the unknown socio-psychological consequences of weather manipulation could be enormous. Millions of us, for example, hunger for sunshine, as our mass migrations to Florida, California or the Mediterranean coast indicate. We may well be able to produce sunshine—or a facsimile of it—at will. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is studying the concept of a giant orbiting space mirror capable of reflecting the sun's light downward on night-shrouded parts of the earth. A NASA official, George E. Mueller, has testified before Congress that the United States will have the capacity to launch huge sunreflecting satellites by mid-1970.


pages: 497 words: 144,283

Connectography: Mapping the Future of Global Civilization by Parag Khanna

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1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, 9 dash line, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, amateurs talk tactics, professionals talk logistics, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Asian financial crisis, asset allocation, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Black Swan, blockchain, borderless world, Boycotts of Israel, Branko Milanovic, BRICs, British Empire, business intelligence, call centre, capital controls, charter city, clean water, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, crony capitalism, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, cuban missile crisis, data is the new oil, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, Detroit bankruptcy, digital map, diversification, Doha Development Round, edge city, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, energy security, ethereum blockchain, European colonialism, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, family office, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, forward guidance, global supply chain, global value chain, global village, Google Earth, Hernando de Soto, high net worth, Hyperloop, ice-free Arctic, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, industrial robot, informal economy, Infrastructure as a Service, interest rate swap, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Just-in-time delivery, Kevin Kelly, Khyber Pass, Kibera, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, LNG terminal, low cost carrier, manufacturing employment, mass affluent, mass immigration, megacity, Mercator projection, Metcalfe’s law, microcredit, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, mutually assured destruction, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, openstreetmap, out of africa, Panamax, Parag Khanna, Peace of Westphalia, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-oil, post-Panamax, private military company, purchasing power parity, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Rana Plaza, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Coase, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, six sigma, Skype, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, TaskRabbit, telepresence, the built environment, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, transaction costs, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, WikiLeaks, young professional, zero day

Yet today many scholars still hold political boundaries to be the most fundamental man-made lines on the map out of a bias toward territory as the basis of power, the state as the unit of political organization, an assumption that only governments can order life within those states, and a belief that national identity is the primary source of people’s loyalty. The march of connectivity will bring all these beliefs to collapse. Forces such as devolution (the fragmentation of authority toward provinces), urbanization (the growing size and power of cities), dilution (the genetic blending of populations through mass migration), mega-infrastructures (new pipelines, railways, and canals that morph geography), and digital connectivity (enabling new forms of community) will demand that we produce maps far more complex. SUPPLY CHAIN WORLD It’s time to reimagine how human life is organized on earth. There is one—and only one—law that has been with us since we were hunter-gatherers, outlasted all rival theories, transcended empires and nations, and serves as our best guide to the future: supply and demand.

The combination of viewing the globe from the top rather than the side, living in an extreme climate that defies borders, and forging a common Arctic culture leads to fresh relational thinking about geography. “China is our neighbor now,” jokes Hoffmann. “It’s just 20 days away by ship!” — BY 2100, THE BROADER Persian Gulf geography is projected to be too excruciatingly hot and humid for humans to safely spend more than a few hours outside.10 The twentieth century witnessed the population of the global south eclipsing that of the north, but the twenty-first century may require mass migrations from south to north as equatorial and southern populations stricken by the triple whammy of increasing temperatures, drought, and rising sea levels flock toward more temperate and agriculturally productive regions. As Canada and Russia become massive agricultural breadbaskets that could produce most of the world’s subsistence crops, their almost completely depopulated geographies will need workers to run the agribusiness industries.

Mid-twentieth-century concerns over world population growth and food shortages led some legal scholars to argue that a few million Australians could not justify possessing an entire continent while billions were deprived basic nourishment. As the earth’s overpopulated equatorial latitudes experience drought, crop failure, and desertification while the depopulated far northern latitudes experience thaw, warming, and abundance, will mass migrations to Canada and Russia turn them into internationally governed agribusiness colonies? Because neither country would suddenly accept the burden of massive numbers of new citizens, there are initial financial and administrative costs that would need to be managed by international agencies and investors. But both Russia and Canada would also benefit massively from doubling or tripling—or, in Canada’s case, quintupling—their populations.


pages: 285 words: 81,743

Start-Up Nation: The Story of Israel's Economic Miracle by Dan Senor; Saul Singer

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Boycotts of Israel, call centre, Celtic Tiger, cleantech, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, friendly fire, immigration reform, labor-force participation, mass immigration, new economy, pez dispenser, post scarcity, profit motive, Silicon Valley, smart grid, social graph, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Ballmer, web application, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

And it gives an inkling of the nature of the human resource that Israel received when the Soviet floodgates were opened in 1990. It was a challenge to figure out what to do with an immigrant influx that, although talented, faced significant language and cultural barriers. Plus, the educated elite of a country the size of the Soviet Union would not easily fit into a country as small as Israel. Before this mass immigration, Israel already had among the highest number of doctors per capita in the world. Even if there had not been a glut, the Soviet doctors would have had a difficult adjustment to a new medical system, a new language, and an entirely new culture. The same was true in many other professions. Though the Israeli government struggled to find jobs and build housing for the new arrivals, the Russians could not have arrived at a more opportune time.

The Center for Absorption in Science helps match arriving scientists with Israeli employers, and the absorption ministry runs entrepreneurship centers, which provide assistance with obtaining start-up capital.16 There are also absorption programs supported by the government but launched by independent Israeli citizens. Asher Elias, for example, believes there is a future for Ethiopians in the vaunted high-tech industry in Israel. Elias’s parents came to Israel in the 1960s from Ethiopia, nearly twenty years before the mass immigration of Ethiopian Jews. Asher’s older sister, Rina, was the first Ethiopian-Israeli born in Israel. After completing a degree in business administration at the College of Management in Jerusalem, Elias took a marketing job at a high-tech company and attended Selah University, then in Jerusalem, to study software engineering—he had always been a computer junkie. But Elias was shocked when he could find only four other Ethiopians working in Israel’s high-tech sector.


pages: 471 words: 109,267

The Verdict: Did Labour Change Britain? by Polly Toynbee, David Walker

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banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bob Geldof, call centre, central bank independence, congestion charging, Corn Laws, Credit Default Swap, decarbonisation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Etonian, failed state, first-past-the-post, Frank Gehry, gender pay gap, Gini coefficient, high net worth, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, market bubble, mass immigration, millennium bug, moral panic, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, pension reform, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, Right to Buy, shareholder value, Skype, smart meter, stem cell, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, working-age population, Y2K

If the UK had a formula it was still Thatcher’s: the costs of employing people remained lower in the UK than elsewhere in Europe – workers were more ‘flexible’. During the recession, unemployment remained relatively low, at 8 per cent. But the social costs of a low-wage economy are also destabilizing, putting extreme pressure on households and communities, helping explain idiosyncratic British worries about crime and disorder. Socially disruptive mass migration pegged down low wages. The British model was only one of the ways to trade off inequality, social disruption, job creation and prosperity. The Germans had higher unemployment, but treated those out of work more generously because, right and left, they valued ‘social solidarity’. The UK formula started with consumption. Growth kept going because people spent more than they could afford. The ratio of UK savings to GDP was the lowest of any OECD country; the proportion of private disposable income saved fell from 12 per cent in the early 1990s to zero in 2008.

Because employment law was flexible – a coy way of saying in the UK it was easier to hire and fire staff – French, German, Spanish and other job-seekers came and often stayed. Brits of course also worked in Paris, Madrid and Frankfurt am Main but on the Paseo del Prado your waiter was not going to be a UK migrant. British plumbers did not fix the blocked drains of Wroclaw. The UK was far from unique; mass migration affected the Netherlands and Sweden and 13 per cent of Germany’s population was foreign-born. Getting into Britain to work legally had become easier. By 2009, 14 per cent of the population of working age had been born abroad, compared with 8 per cent in 1995, 6.8 million people, up from 2.9 million. Labour extended the Tories’ policy of encouraging those with desirable skills – nurses, for example – to take jobs and settle.


pages: 339 words: 88,732

The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies by Erik Brynjolfsson, Andrew McAfee

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, access to a mobile phone, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, basic income, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, British Empire, business intelligence, business process, call centre, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable, clean water, combinatorial explosion, computer age, computer vision, congestion charging, corporate governance, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, digital map, employer provided health coverage, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, factory automation, falling living standards, Filter Bubble, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Freestyle chess, full employment, game design, global village, happiness index / gross national happiness, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, informal economy, intangible asset, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Joseph Schumpeter, Kevin Kelly, Khan Academy, knowledge worker, Kodak vs Instagram, law of one price, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Mars Rover, mass immigration, means of production, Narrative Science, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, payday loans, price stability, Productivity paradox, profit maximization, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, Robert Gordon, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, six sigma, Skype, software patent, sovereign wealth fund, speech recognition, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, TaskRabbit, technological singularity, telepresence, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, winner-take-all economy, Y2K

Economist David Card, for example, evaluated the impact of Cuba’s 1980 Mariel boatlift (a mass emigration of Cubans to the United States approved by Fidel Castro) on the Miami labor market. Mariel brought over one hundred thousand people to the city in less than a year and increased its labor force by 7 percent, yet Card found “virtually no effect on the wages or unemployment rates of less-skilled workers, even among Cubans who had immigrated earlier.”28 Economist Rachel Friedberg reached virtually the same conclusion about mass migration from Russia and the rest of the former Soviet Union into Israel.29 Despite increasing the country’s population by 12 percent between 1990 and 1994, this immigration had no discernible adverse effect on Israeli workers. Despite this and other evidence, concerns persist in America that large-scale immigration of unskilled workers, particularly from Mexico and other Latin American countries and particularly by illegal means, will harm the economic prospects of the native-born labor force.

Measuring the Economic Benefits of Immigration Reform,” Cato Institute, August 13, 2009, http://www.cato.org/publications/trade-policy-analysis/restriction-or-legalization-measuring-economic-benefits-immigration-reform (accessed December 14, 2012); Robert Lynch and Patrick Oakford, “The Economic Effects of Granting Legal Status and Citizenship to Undocumented Immigrants,” Center for American Progress, March 20, 2013, http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/immigration/report/2013/03/20/57351/the-economic-effects-of-granting-legal-status-and-citizenship-to-undocumented-immigrants/ (accessed August 12, 2013). 28. David Card, “The Impact of the Mariel Boatlift on the Miami Labor Market,” Working Paper (National Bureau of Economic Research, August 1989), http://www.nber.org/papers/w3069. 29. Rachel M. Friedberg, “The Impact of Mass Migration on the Israeli Labor Market,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 116, no. 4 (2001): 1373–1408, doi:10.1162/003355301753265606. 30. Amy Sherman, “Jeb Bush Says Illegal Immigration Is ‘Net Zero,’ ” Miami Herald, September 3, 2012, http://www.miamiherald.com/2012/09/01/2980208/jeb-bush-says-illegal-immigration.html. 31. Gordon F. De Jong et al., “The Geography of Immigrant Skills: Educational Profiles of Metropolitan Areas,” Brookings Institution, June 9, 2011, http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2011/06/immigrants-singer. 32.


pages: 209 words: 89,619

The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class by Guy Standing

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8-hour work day, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bertrand Russell: In Praise of Idleness, call centre, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, corporate governance, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, deskilling, fear of failure, full employment, hiring and firing, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, libertarian paternalism, low skilled workers, lump of labour, marginal employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, means of production, mini-job, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, nudge unit, old age dependency ratio, pensions crisis, placebo effect, post-industrial society, precariat, presumed consent, quantitative easing, remote working, rent-seeking, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, science of happiness, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, The Market for Lemons, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, Tobin tax, transaction costs, universal basic income, unpaid internship, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population, young professional

After all, when the global crisis hit, the rural system acted as a safety valve, with millions returning to the land. The Chinese precariat is easily the largest such group in the world. Earlier generations of social scientists would have called them semi-proletarian. But there is no reason to think they are becoming proletarians. First, stable jobs would have to come and stay. That is unlikely and surely will not come before social tensions turn ugly. Already, while the authorities are organising mass migration, the floating labour force has posed a threat to locals, creating ethnic tensions. An example was the government-organised transportation of Turkic-speaking Muslim Uighurs 3,000 miles to labour for the Xuri toy factory in Guangdong. The Uighurs, housed near the Han majority, were paid much less than the Hans they displaced. In June 2009, in riots over the alleged rape of a local woman, a Han mob killed two Uighurs.

MIGRANTS: VICTIMS, VILLAINS OR HEROES? 109 Placating an itinerant labour force is hard enough. But the scale of the movement was bound to raise tensions. As one Han worker told a journalist, ‘The more of them there were, the worse relations became’. In those riots, the Uighurs claimed their death toll was understated and that the police did not protect them. Whatever the truth, the violence was an almost inevitable outcome of mass migration of temporary workers across unfamiliar cultures. The internal migration in China is the largest migratory process the world has ever known. It is part of the development of a global labour market system. Those migrants are having an effect on how labour is being organised and compensated in every part of the world. The emerging labour export regimes An early feature of globalisation was that a few emerging market economies, notably in the Middle East, became magnets for migration from other parts of the world.


pages: 297 words: 89,176

Cheese and Culture: A History of Cheese and Its Place in Western Civilization by Paul Kindstedt

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agricultural Revolution, mass immigration, New Urbanism, trade route

The move toward pastoralism (that is, primary reliance on livestock grazing) and milk production was probably a response to these troubled times (Bellwood 2005). Pastoralism enabled peoples who were threatened by crop failures and hunger to take advantage of surrounding unused marginal land that was unsuitable for crop cultivation but could support sheep and goat grazing (Zarins 1990). This in turn encouraged the movement of pastoral populations in search of new land, which soon erupted into mass migrations that led to the settlement of northwest Anatolia around this time. There, along the fertile shores of the Sea of Marmara, the settlers shifted their pastoral emphasis from small ruminants to cattle, and the production of cow’s milk commenced probably for the first time (Evershed et al. 2008). Neolithic man’s first efforts at harvesting milk were probably targeted toward the feeding of infants and young children, for whom milk was an invaluable food, rather than toward the adult population.

Layered on top of these developments were dramatic social and demographic changes that accompanied the bubonic plague outbreak of 1348 through 1350, during which between 30 and 45 percent of the general population of England perished. The scarcity of labor that resulted dealt a fatal blow to the labor-intensive manor demesnes and catalyzed a progressive shift away from demesne agriculture in favor of capitalistic yeomanry. In the process, mass migrations of peasants who became dislocated from the rural countryside as the manors broke up streamed into London and other population centers in search of work, creating large urban centers for the first time in England and new markets for cheese. The London market would profoundly influence the next chapter in English cheese history, that of the yeoman cheeses. Mountain Cheeses Cheese making was already well developed in the mountains of central Europe before the Roman occupation.


pages: 281 words: 86,657

The Great Inversion and the Future of the American City by Alan Ehrenhalt

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anti-communist, big-box store, British Empire, crack epidemic, David Brooks, deindustrialization, Edward Glaeser, Frank Gehry, haute cuisine, Honoré de Balzac, housing crisis, illegal immigration, Jane Jacobs, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, postindustrial economy, Richard Florida, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, transit-oriented development, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, walkable city, white flight, working poor, young professional

In many cities, at the moment, there is a greater problem of oversupply than of unfulfilled demand. There are partially inhabited or partially complete condominium towers awaiting the return of an economy in which more people who find them attractive will be able to afford them. But this state of affairs will not last forever. It is important to reiterate that demographic inversion and mass migration are not the same thing. Mass migration means, to me, at least, a reversal in which a much greater proportion of the residents of a large metropolitan area will live near the center of the city than have lived there for the past thirty or forty years. Robert Fishman, one of America’s most respected urban historians, believes that a “fifth great migration” is taking place. This amplifies the contention of Lewis Mumford in the 1920s that there had been three previous ones (west across the frontier in the early nineteenth century; from farms to factory towns a few decades later; and to the great metropolitan centers around the beginning of the twentieth century), and Mumford’s accurate prediction that there would soon be a fourth, decentralizing population away from city centers and into empty suburban land, as the twentieth century unfolded.

When the Money Runs Out: The End of Western Affluence by Stephen D. King

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Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, British Empire, capital controls, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, congestion charging, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, cross-subsidies, debt deflation, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, endowment effect, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, financial repression, fixed income, floating exchange rates, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, joint-stock company, liquidationism / Banker’s doctrine / the Treasury view, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, loss aversion, market clearing, mass immigration, moral hazard, mortgage debt, new economy, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, price mechanism, price stability, quantitative easing, railway mania, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, technology bubble, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade route, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population

Argentina was a major outperformer between 1870 and the outbreak of the First World War, thanks largely to the free-­trade instincts of the late nineteenth-­century British Empire, new scientific advances and the mass migration of people in the late nineteenth century. It may have been a long way away from Europe and the US but Argentina was able to take full advantage of the Royal Navy’s commitment to keep international sea lanes open. New refrigerator technologies – and faster ships – meant its beef could be 14 4099.indd 14 29/03/13 2:23 PM Taking Progress for Granted exported to destinations many thousands of miles away. Its working age population grew rapidly, a reflection of the Belle Époque mass migration from Europe – particularly from southern Europe – that led to equally dramatic demographic changes in the US, Canada and Australia. The growth of international financial markets, meanwhile, led to huge improvements in Argentina’s capital stock.


pages: 606 words: 87,358

The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization by Richard Baldwin

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, air freight, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Branko Milanovic, buy low sell high, call centre, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, Commodity Super-Cycle, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, domestication of the camel, Edward Glaeser, endogenous growth, Erik Brynjolfsson, financial intermediation, George Gilder, global supply chain, global value chain, Henri Poincaré, imperial preference, industrial cluster, industrial robot, intangible asset, invention of agriculture, invention of the telegraph, investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, James Dyson, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Lao Tzu, low skilled workers, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Metcalfe’s law, New Economic Geography, out of africa, paper trading, Paul Samuelson, Pax Mongolica, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, Robert Metcalfe, Second Machine Age, Simon Kuznets, Skype, Snapchat, Stephen Hawking, telepresence, telerobotics, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus

Given this situation, the massive transatlantic labor migration during the 1880 to 1914 period (Table 3) raised average productivity in both sending and receiving regions. This triggered what are called “Kuznets cycles.” As the dramatic drop in transport costs—especially the construction of railroads and canals—opened U.S. frontier areas to staple production, the United States experienced a sequence of fifteen-to twenty-year booms driven by migration and capital flows that were responding to the newly opened land. TABLE 3 Nineteenth-century mass migration from Europe to the New World. % of own population 1880s 1890s 1900s Senders: U.K. −3.1 −5.2 −2.0 Italy −1.7 −3.4 −4.9 Spain −1.5 −6.0 −5.2 Sweden −2.9 −7.2 −3.5 Portugal −3.5 −4.2 −5.9 Receivers: U.S. 5.7 8.9 4.0 Canada 2.3 4.9 3.7 Europe in the nineteenth century was overpopulated while the New World was underpopulated. The partial evening out of this state of affairs was one of the most remarkable economic aspects of Act I of globalization’s Phase Three.

After all, the migration did not reverse America’s land-based comparative advan tage in wheat; it exaggerated it. The resulting U.S. growth and higher exports, however, were of a very different nature than would have been expected from Ricardo’s framework. First, the migration changed (strengthened) U.S. comparative advantage in the sense that wheat exports rocketed. Second, unlike lower trade costs, the impact was not global. It was geographically limited to the nations that got the mass migration (United States, Canada, Argentina, etc.). This is how I suggest we think about the second unbundling. The ICT revolution is like the open-migration policy of the United States in that it allows the G7’s source of comparative advantage (know-how) to move to the I6’s source of comparative advantage (labor). But unlike the nineteenth-century case, the new knowledge flows did not merely exaggerate the comparative advantage of the receiving nations.


pages: 831 words: 98,409

SUPERHUBS: How the Financial Elite and Their Networks Rule Our World by Sandra Navidi

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activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, assortative mating, bank run, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Black Swan, Bretton Woods, butterfly effect, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, cognitive bias, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, conceptual framework, corporate governance, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, crony capitalism, diversification, East Village, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, family office, financial repression, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, Google bus, Gordon Gekko, haute cuisine, high net worth, hindsight bias, income inequality, index fund, intangible asset, Jaron Lanier, John Meriwether, Kenneth Arrow, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, McMansion, mittelstand, money market fund, Myron Scholes, NetJets, Network effects, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, Parag Khanna, Paul Samuelson, peer-to-peer, performance metric, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, Renaissance Technologies, rent-seeking, reserve currency, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, rolodex, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, sovereign wealth fund, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, The Predators' Ball, too big to fail, women in the workforce, young professional

EU populist parties and “extremist” U.S. presidential candidates reflect the explosive anger of globalization’s losers, who are now lobbying for radical change in greater numbers. Protectionism and isolationism are resurging, manifesting themselves in the opposition to trade agreements, and in separatist movements in the U.K. with regard to Europe, in Scotland with regard to the U.K., and in Catalonia with regard to Spain. Global inequality has also driven mass migration, which in turn polarizes politics even further. According to the WEF’s Global Risk Report, we are currently seeing the highest level of protests since the 1980s, because through access to information on the Internet, people realize the extent of inequality and their own powerlessness.19 Several years ago, former National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski warned of the impending “global political awakening.”

Why have so few improvements been made after the dramatic global financial meltdown of 2008? Perhaps—as Einstein said—we don’t need to think more, but think differently. Traditionally, we have been trained to think analytically and deal with parts of problems separately. However, today’s multidimensional, complex world is not linear, but is the result of dynamic, simultaneously interacting phenomena. Brexit, unpredictable monetary policies, mass migration and terrorism are but a few examples. We can attain a deeper understanding of these problems by employing a different approach called “systems thinking” and focusing more on the relationship of individual parts than on the parts themselves, which alone say nothing about the system’s behavior.39 According to organizational theorist Stephen Haines, “major change fails 75 percent of the time because of a piecemeal and analytical approach to a systems problem that tries to cure one problem at a time.”40 And in the opinion of world systems analyst Immanuel Wallerstein, part of the problem is that “we have studied . . . phenomena in separate boxes to which we have given special names—politics, economics, the social structure, culture—without seeing that these boxes are constructs more of our imagination than of reality.”41 The postcrisis banking regulation exemplifies the analytical, one-dimensional approach to problem solving.


pages: 128 words: 35,958

Getting Back to Full Employment: A Better Bargain for Working People by Dean Baker, Jared Bernstein

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Asian financial crisis, collective bargaining, declining real wages, full employment, George Akerlof, income inequality, inflation targeting, mass immigration, minimum wage unemployment, new economy, price stability, publication bias, quantitative easing, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, selection bias, War on Poverty

For example, North Dakota maintained an unemployment rate of 4.0 percent even in the worst years of the Great Recession. Workers in the state experienced substantial pay increases – the average weekly wage rose 16 percentage points more than the national average from 2007 to 2011.[9] Clearly more workers could have been employed if they had opted to move from areas of high unemployment to North Dakota. However, the economy-wide impact of a mass migration to North Dakota would have been minimal. In 2011 there were 380,000 people employed in North Dakota. Boosting that number by a massive 25 percent would reduce the national unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage point. To make a serious case that a mismatch between the location of unemployed workers and the location of the available jobs is a major cause of unemployment would require identifying dozens of North Dakotas.


pages: 349 words: 114,038

Culture & Empire: Digital Revolution by Pieter Hintjens

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4chan, airport security, anti-communist, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, Bill Duvall, bitcoin, blockchain, business climate, business intelligence, business process, Chelsea Manning, clean water, commoditize, congestion charging, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, cryptocurrency, Debian, Edward Snowden, failed state, financial independence, Firefox, full text search, German hyperinflation, global village, GnuPG, Google Chrome, greed is good, Hernando de Soto, hiring and firing, informal economy, intangible asset, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Rulifson, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, M-Pesa, mass immigration, mass incarceration, mega-rich, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, national security letter, new economy, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, packet switching, patent troll, peak oil, pre–internet, private military company, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Richard Stallman, Satoshi Nakamoto, security theater, selection bias, Skype, slashdot, software patent, spectrum auction, Steve Crocker, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stuxnet, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, transaction costs, union organizing, wealth creators, web application, WikiLeaks, Y2K, zero day, Zipf's Law

These men had made phony war their business for decades, and ran the largest budgets in the world, so when their era of "mutually assured destruction" ended, they were presumably looking for new work. I would, in their place. I think that by the end of the last century, Islam was selected as the best candidate for a Bad Guy to replace the crumbling East-West divide with its slowing profits for the military-industrial complex. We have the mass immigration of North Africans and Turks into Europe as the basis for anti-Islamic public policies in Europe. We have the conflicts in Chechnya, Indonesia, India, Afghanistan, ex-Yugoslavia, and of course, Palestine, to prove how Islam is the religion of hate. We had at least $600 million of American money going to Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, the founder of the Hezb-e Islami radical Islamic militant faction.

By September of 2013, the U.S. military had been involved in various activities in Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde Islands, Senegal, Seychelles, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda and Zambia, among others, constructing bases, undertaking "security cooperation engagements, training exercises, advisory deployments, special operations missions, and a growing logistics network. The battlefield covers the whole world, and above all, the American homeland itself. The US is the keystone in the Para-state's power structure. It represents by far the richest food source for this parasitic political class. The US is wealthy due to three things: centuries of mass immigration, abundant natural resources, and a geography blessed with generous natural transport. If it was not for the Para-state's predations, the US would be considerably more prosperous, easily affording first rate healthcare, education, transport to all its people, and a massively better technological infrastructure. As it is, other parts of the world have to show this wealthiest of all nations how to build decent trains, schools, networks, health care.


pages: 736 words: 210,277

1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War by Benny Morris

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Albert Einstein, British Empire, family office, friendly fire, illegal immigration, mass immigration

Herzl reached a dismal conclusion: There was no hope and no future for the Jews in Europe; it could not and would not assimilate them. And in the large, multiethnic Continental empires, Jews would eventually face the hostility of the various minorities bent on selfdetermination. Ultimately, the Jews of Europe faced destruction. The solution was a separate, independent Jewish state to be established after a mass migration of Jews out of Europe. Herzl dashed off a political manifesto, The Jews' State (1896), and spent his remaining years organizing the "Zionist" movement. He unsuccessfully canvassed Europe's potentates, including Sultan Abdulhamid II of Turkey, to grant the Jews a state. But the sultan, unwilling to relinquish any part of his steadily diminishing empire, rebuffed Herzl, a master bluffer, who had promised the Ottomans billions (which he did not have and probably could not have raised).

Later, Palestine should be granted independence within a unitary or binational framework. The AAC's recommendations were unanimous. But the AAC had done nothing to heal the basic Anglo-American rift. Truman once again endorsed the passage of a hundred thousand DPs to Palestine and approved the scrapping of the white paper's land sale provisions, which the AAC had deemed discriminatory; Attlee ruled out mass immigration until the Yishuv was disarmed (which he knew was a nonstarter). The Jewish Agency endorsed the report's immigration recommendation but rejected all the rest. The Arabs rejected everything. They demanded immediate independence for an Arab-ruled Palestine, not "binationalism," whatever that might mean, and called for an immediate cessation of immigration. One Foreign Office cable, in the wake of the report, spoke of Arab hatred of the Jews as being greater than that of the Nazis.


pages: 126 words: 37,081

Men Without Work by Nicholas Eberstadt

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Carmen Reinhart, centre right, deindustrialization, financial innovation, full employment, illegal immigration, jobless men, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Kenneth Rogoff, labor-force participation, low skilled workers, mass immigration, moral hazard, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, Simon Kuznets, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working-age population

Over the following decades, labor market performance deteriorated less for married men with children than any other family type. Though only beginning in 1994, CPS data on employment by nativity are compelling. In 1994, prime-age immigrant men were reportedly less likely to be working than their native-born counterparts and more likely to be out of the labor force altogether. By 2015, this situation had been completely reversed. After two decades of mass immigration, prime-age male work rates were more than five points higher among the foreign born, and LFPRs were over four points higher. Indeed, immigrants pushed national prime-age male work rates and LFPRs up by about one percentage point in 2015. The long-term fall in prime-age male work rates and rise in NILF rates are also due to the changing weight of subgroups in the composition of the overall population.


pages: 494 words: 28,046

Empire by Michael Hardt, Antonio Negri

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Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, equal pay for equal work, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, global village, Haight Ashbury, informal economy, invention of the printing press, invisible hand, labour mobility, late capitalism, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, New Urbanism, open borders, Peace of Westphalia, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Scramble for Africa, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, urban planning, William of Occam

Obviously they will come into view and consolidate themselves only after tremendous socialist crises.’’ 8 We cannot say exactly what Nietzsche foresaw in his lucid delirium, but indeed what recent event could be a stronger example of the power of desertion and exodus, the power of the nomad horde, 213 214 INTERMEZZO than the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the entire Soviet bloc? In the desertion from ‘‘socialist discipline,’’ savage mobility and mass migration contributed substantially to the collapse of the system. In fact, the desertion of productive cadres disorganized and struck at the heart of the disciplinary system of the bureaucratic Soviet world. The mass exodus of highly trained workers from Eastern Europe played a central role in provoking the collapse of the Wall.9 Even though it refers to the particularities of the socialist state system, this example demonstrates that the mobility of the labor force can indeed express an open political conflict and contribute to the destruction of the regime.

In the expression of its own creative energies, immaterial labor thus seems to provide the potential for a kind of spontaneous and elementary communism. Network Production The first geographical consequence of the passage from an industrial to an informational economy is a dramatic decentralization of production. The processes of modernization and the passage to the industrial paradigm provoked the intense aggregation of productive forces and mass migrations of labor power toward centers that became factory cities, such as Manchester, Osaka, and Detroit. Efficiency of mass industrial production depended on the concentration and proximity of elements in order to create the factory site and facilitate transportation and communication. The informatization of industry and the rising dominance of service production, however, have made such concentration of production no longer necessary.

Is it possible to imagine U.S. agriculture and service industries without Mexican migrant labor, or Arab oil without Palestinians and Pakistanis? Moreover, where would the great innovative sectors of immaterial production, from design to fashion, and from electronics to science in Europe, the United States, and Asia, be without the ‘‘illegal labor’’ of the great masses, mobilized toward the radiant 397 398 THE DECLINE AND FALL OF EMPIRE horizons of capitalist wealth and freedom? Mass migrations have become necessary for production. Every path is forged, mapped, and traveled. It seems that the more intensely each is traveled and the more suffering is deposited there, the more each path becomes productive. These paths are what brings the ‘‘earthly city’’ out of the cloud and confusion that Empire casts over it. This is how the multitude gains the power to affirm its autonomy, traveling and expressing itself through an apparatus of widespread, transversal territorial reappropriation.


pages: 484 words: 131,168

The Big Sort: Why the Clustering of Like-Minded America Is Tearing Us Apart by Bill Bishop, Robert G. Cushing

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1960s counterculture, affirmative action, American Legislative Exchange Council, assortative mating, big-box store, blue-collar work, Cass Sunstein, citizen journalism, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, demographic transition, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, immigration reform, income inequality, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Milgram experiment, music of the spheres, New Urbanism, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Ralph Nader, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, War on Poverty, white flight, World Values Survey

The unusual thing about this country has been the stubborn and quite strong connection between religious belief and political party—a cultural peculiarity that, in the post-materialist politics of values, has allowed computer technicians in Orange County to find common cause with West Virginia coal miners and truck drivers.73 6. THE ECONOMICS OF THE BIG SORT Culture and Growth in the 1990s Opportunity, not necessity, is the mother of invention. —JANE JACOBS "An Inexplicable Sort of Mass Migration" THE Baton Rouge Advocate ran a series of stories in 2002 titled "Leaving Louisiana"—and people were. They were hoofing it from Louisiana by the hundreds of thousands long before Hurricane Katrina washed, rinsed, and tumbled out those who remained. In the flow of people back and forth across the state line, Texas cities alone had a net gain of 121,000 Louisianans between 1992 and 2000. Most went to Houston or Dallas, but a good number migrated to Austin.

Portland (I'm talking about Oregon throughout this chapter), Seattle, Dallas, and Austin gained at the same time the Cleveland Plain Dealer described the depopulation of its city as a "quiet crisis" and the Baton Rouge Advocate published its series. Dave Eggers, in his 2000 autobiographical book A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius, called the movement of his educated and young midwestern friends to San Francisco "an inexplicable sort of mass migration."1 Actually, it was perfectly explicable. Eggers and his heartland buddies weren't the only ones switching addresses. As many as 100 million Americans resettled across a county border in the 1990s. People didn't scatter like ants from a kicked-over hill. There was an order and a flow to the movement—more like the migration of different species of birds. Eggers and his flock landed in San Francisco.


pages: 261 words: 10,785

The Lights in the Tunnel by Martin Ford

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Albert Einstein, Bill Joy: nanobots, Black-Scholes formula, call centre, cloud computing, collateralized debt obligation, commoditize, creative destruction, credit crunch, double helix, en.wikipedia.org, factory automation, full employment, income inequality, index card, industrial robot, inventory management, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, knowledge worker, low skilled workers, mass immigration, moral hazard, pattern recognition, prediction markets, Productivity paradox, Ray Kurzweil, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, strong AI, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, Thomas L Friedman, Turing test, Vernor Vinge, War on Poverty

As we have seen, this will be very difficult because of low wages, a growing unemployment problem and the Chinese propensity to save rather than consume. However, local consumption will be increasingly essential because the primary incentives which drive the private sector to locate manufacturing in countries like China are likely to shift dramatically in the coming decades. The Future of Manufacturing Recent years have seen a mass migration of manufacturing to developing countries. Low labor costs have clearly been the primary incentive underlying this trend. In the future, however, factories of all types are likely to become increasingly automated. As the years and decades progress, labor costs will comprise a smaller and smaller component of manufacturers’ cost structures. To get some insight into how automation is likely to continue impacting manufacturing, it may help to look at a sector which has already been heavily automated: agriculture in the United States.


pages: 219 words: 61,334

Brit-Myth: Who Do the British Think They Are? by Chris Rojek

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Bob Geldof, British Empire, business climate, colonial rule, deindustrialization, demand response, full employment, Gordon Gekko, Isaac Newton, Khartoum Gordon, Live Aid, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, post-industrial society, Red Clydeside, sceptred isle, Stephen Hawking, the market place, urban planning, Winter of Discontent

Herder’s concept is ideological rather than descriptive, since it sought to act as the catalyst for German unity. It has been the source of a great deal of muddled thinking about the meaning of nations. The idea of lifeblood coursing through the veins of the nation may be instinctively attractive, but it gets analysis off on the wrong foot. National blood ties are always more mixed, loyalties and interests more divided. These tendencies are reinforced in an age of mass communications and mass migration in which, in the West at least, ideas, opinions and people travel more freely than ever before. In English, the term nation entered common currency during the thirteenth century, when it was deployed to refer to a people characterized by common racial affinities. Implicit was a separate meaning of a political group that stands in a relation of representation with respect to the nation. This group includes nationalist movements of various kinds, but its focal point is the nation-state.


pages: 225 words: 54,010

A Short History of Progress by Ronald Wright

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Albert Einstein, Atahualpa, Bretton Woods, British Empire, clean water, Columbian Exchange, cuban missile crisis, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, invention of agriculture, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, nuclear winter, out of africa, Parkinson's law, Ronald Reagan, Thomas Malthus, urban sprawl

Webster believes that at the height of Copan’s magnificence, during the long reign of King Yax Pasaj, “life expectancy was short, mortality was high, people were often sick, malnourished, and decrepit-looking.”61 House remains show that in a century and a half, Copan’s population had shot up from about 5,000 to 28,000, peaking in A.D. 800; it stayed high for one century, then fell by half in fifty years, then dropped to nearly nothing by A.D. 1200. We can’t attribute these figures to mass migration in or out, for much the same pattern occurs throughout the Maya area. The graph, Webster observes, “closely resembles the kind of ‘boom and bust’ cycle associated with … wild animal populations.”62 He might have compared it to something more immediate: Copan’s fivefold surge in just a century and a half is exactly the same rate of increase as the modern world’s leap from about 1.2 billion in 1850 to 6 billion in 2000.


pages: 248 words: 57,419

The New Depression: The Breakdown of the Paper Money Economy by Richard Duncan

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asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, banks create money, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Bretton Woods, currency manipulation / currency intervention, debt deflation, deindustrialization, diversification, diversified portfolio, fiat currency, financial innovation, Flash crash, Fractional reserve banking, income inequality, inflation targeting, Joseph Schumpeter, laissez-faire capitalism, liquidity trap, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, money market fund, money: store of value / unit of account / medium of exchange, mortgage debt, private sector deleveraging, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, special drawing rights, The Great Moderation, too big to fail, trade liberalization

United or divided, China’s nuclear arsenal would make it Asia’s undisputed superpower if the United States were to withdraw from the region. From Korea and Japan in the North to New Zealand in the South to Burma in the West, all of Asia would be at China’s mercy. And hunger among China’s population of 1.3 billion people could necessitate territorial expansion into Southeast Asia. In fact, the central government might not be able to prevent mass migration southward, even if it wanted to. In Europe, severe economic hardship would revive the centuries-old struggle between the left and the right. During the 1930s, the Fascists movement arose and imposed a police state on most of Western Europe. In the East, the Soviet Union had become a communist police state even earlier. The far right and the far left of the political spectrum converge in totalitarianism.


pages: 171 words: 54,334

Barefoot Into Cyberspace: Adventures in Search of Techno-Utopia by Becky Hogge, Damien Morris, Christopher Scally

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A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Chelsea Manning, citizen journalism, cloud computing, corporate social responsibility, disintermediation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Fall of the Berlin Wall, game design, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, information asymmetry, Jacob Appelbaum, jimmy wales, John Markoff, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, mass immigration, Menlo Park, moral panic, Mother of all demos, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, Richard Stallman, Silicon Valley, Skype, Socratic dialogue, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Telecommunications Act of 1996, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

The surveillance capabilities already here or about to come online – from vast, permanent databases of number plate records gathered from roads across the Western world, to data mining and behaviour-predicting algorithms and facial recognition technology – were Erich Honecker’s “wet dream”. And thanks to 9/11, new laws were being passed – most notably the EU’s Data Retention Directive – that gave the authorities blanket powers to store and manipulate surveillance information in whatever way they wanted. This was not all. Several external forces – globalisation, climate change, and the resource wars and mass migration that would inevitably follow – were creating the conditions for a “perfect storm”. Soon, every citizen would be a potential threat, an enemy of state stability. Powers reserved for combating terrorism would be unleashed on the entire population. Against such an irresistible force, what could hackers have done differently? They had lost, just as they were always going to. You can still watch videos of this talk online.


pages: 168 words: 56,211

The Pleasures and Sorrows of Work by Alain de Botton

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Donald Trump, Isaac Newton, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, Ralph Waldo Emerson, spice trade, supply-chain management, Vilfredo Pareto

In the pale late-afternoon sky, an ultralight aircraft was advancing slowly over the valley, making no discernible progress. But as I continued around the airfield, a more arresting spectacle came into view: on the horizon at the far end of the runway, the entire aeronautical population of a sizeable international airport appeared to have touched down and been parked in close formation, wing tip to wing tip, as if a calamity I had not yet heard about had prompted a mass migration by aircraft from every continent to this particular corner of southern California. There were representatives from the Netherlands, Australia, South Korea, Zimbabwe and Switzerland; there were short-haul Airbuses and giant 747s. Adding to the eeriness of the scene, the planes had none of their usual supporting equipment – no jetties, buses, baggage carts or refuelling trucks. They sat unattended in the desert shrub, their passengers seemingly still waiting inside for the doors to be opened.

What We Say Goes: Conversations on U.S. Power in a Changing World by Noam Chomsky, David Barsamian

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banking crisis, British Empire, Doomsday Clock, failed state, feminist movement, Howard Zinn, informal economy, liberation theology, mass immigration, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus

Since the government doesn’t provide rural credit, thanks to the policies Friedman lauds, you borrow from a usurer at 40 percent interest. Then the next year you can’t pay him, so you’ve got to sell off your land. Pretty soon your children are starving and you can do nothing. That’s why the rate of peasant suicides is sharply rising within eyesight of the marvels that Friedman describes. As the journalist P. Sainath has pointed out, for the first time in Indian history there is mass migration from the countryside.19 There always was migration during harvests. This is different. People are fleeing the devastated countryside, where the large majority lives, and essentially pouring into the Mumbai slums. The most serious economic analyses—not the rave reviews on the op-ed page of the Times but real analyses—indicate that maybe 80 percent of the population or so is in the informal economy, which is not even counted.20 In states such as Uttar Pradesh, which has about the same population as Pakistan, the conditions for women are probably worse than under the Taliban.


pages: 166 words: 49,639

Start It Up: Why Running Your Own Business Is Easier Than You Think by Luke Johnson

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Albert Einstein, barriers to entry, Bernie Madoff, collapse of Lehman Brothers, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, Grace Hopper, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, James Dyson, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, mass immigration, mittelstand, Network effects, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, patent troll, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Silicon Valley, software patent, stealth mode startup, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, traveling salesman, tulip mania, Vilfredo Pareto, wealth creators

It can broaden horizons and lead to a healthy realignment of priorities. All this dislocation is hard to take, but there is little choice. The task is made easier for those who believe there will always be new opportunities, whatever the temporary difficulties. The consumer’s new mantra is value The most dramatic shift in consumer behaviour one witnesses in a cycle is the trading down from aspirational goods to ‘value goods’. It is a sudden, mass migration. In their work and personal lives, consumers cut back and look for a bargain. As always, the best businesses adapt to the new psychology and the rest asphyxiate. In the good times, nearly every company likes to think of its products as ‘aspirational’. It’s true there always will be customers willing to pay extra for premium goods, obsessively seeking quality over price. But every such era will wax and wane, and must inevitably give way to the mantra of ‘value’ – and it doesn’t matter which market you’re in.


pages: 179 words: 43,441

The Fourth Industrial Revolution by Klaus Schwab

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, autonomous vehicles, barriers to entry, Baxter: Rethink Robotics, bitcoin, blockchain, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, conceptual framework, continuous integration, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, distributed ledger, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, epigenetics, Erik Brynjolfsson, future of work, global value chain, Google Glasses, income inequality, Internet Archive, Internet of things, invention of the steam engine, job automation, job satisfaction, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, life extension, Lyft, mass immigration, megacity, meta analysis, meta-analysis, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, Narrative Science, Network effects, Nicholas Carr, personalized medicine, precariat, precision agriculture, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, reshoring, RFID, rising living standards, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, smart cities, smart contracts, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Steven Levy, Stuxnet, supercomputer in your pocket, The Future of Employment, The Spirit Level, total factor productivity, transaction costs, Uber and Lyft, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, WikiLeaks, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y Combinator, Zipcar

This would further increase social tensions and conflicts, and create a less cohesive, more volatile world, particularly given that people are today much more aware of and sensitive to social injustices and the discrepancies in living conditions between different countries. Unless public- and private-sector leaders assure citizens that they are executing credible strategies to improve peoples’ lives, social unrest, mass migration, and violent extremism could intensify, thus creating risks for countries at all stages of development. It is crucial that people are secure in the belief that they can engage in meaningful work to support themselves and their families, but what happens if there is insufficient demand for labour, or if the skills available no longer match the demand? 3.1.3 The Nature of Work The emergence of a world where the dominant work paradigm is a series of transactions between a worker and a company more than an enduring relationship was described by Daniel Pink 15 years ago in his book Free Agent Nation.26 This trend has been greatly accelerated by technological innovation.


pages: 164 words: 57,068

The Second Curve: Thoughts on Reinventing Society by Charles Handy

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Airbnb, basic income, Bernie Madoff, bitcoin, bonus culture, British Empire, call centre, Clayton Christensen, corporate governance, delayed gratification, Diane Coyle, Edward Snowden, falling living standards, future of work, G4S, greed is good, informal economy, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, joint-stock limited liability company, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, late capitalism, mass immigration, megacity, mittelstand, Occupy movement, payday loans, peer-to-peer lending, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Ronald Coase, shareholder value, sharing economy, Skype, Steve Jobs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transaction costs, Veblen good, Walter Mischel

There are always ways round these things but ideally such a formula, adjusted for the size of the organisation and even for the type of industry, would encourage productivity which would, in turn, allow an organisation to pay more to those at the bottom without harming its profitability. If that were accompanied by a profit-sharing scheme related to base salary it would allow a proportional level of reward for everyone, including the senior executives. If that formula were to be internationally agreed that would be even better. Even if it weren’t an international norm there is no evidence that there would be a mass migration of talent in search of more exotic rewards. Money, I sometimes think, is often rightly called compensation, compensation for stressful, tedious or pointless work in unpleasing surroundings. Not everyone would judge the extra compensation to be enough for the pain and upheaval of moving home and family to the other side of the world. Brave organisations could try it and see. So could governments.


pages: 196 words: 58,886

Ten Myths About Israel by Ilan Pappe

British Empire, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, one-state solution, WikiLeaks

President Anwar Sadat of Egypt visits Jerusalem and begins bilateral talks with Israel. 1978 Peace treaty signed between Israel and Egypt. PLO attack on Tel Aviv reciprocated by Operation “Litani”—Israel occupies part of southern Lebanon. 1981 Annexation of the Golan Heights to Israel. 1982 Sinai returned to Egypt. Operation “Peace for the Galilee” in which Israel invades Lebanon in an attempt to destroy the PLO. 1987 The First Palestinian Intifada. 1989 Collapse of the USSR and mass migration of Jews and non-Jews from across the Eastern Bloc to Israel. 1991 First Gulf War. US convenes international conference on Palestine in Madrid. 1992 Labor returns to power and Yitzhak Rabin becomes prime minister for the second time. 1993 The PLO and Israel sign the Oslo Declaration of Principles in the White House. 1994 The Palestinian National Authority is formed and Yasser Arafat, the PLO chairman, arrives in the occupied territories to become president of the PNA.


America Right or Wrong: An Anatomy of American Nationalism by Anatol Lieven

British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, European colonialism, failed state, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, income inequality, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, mittelstand, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, moral panic, new economy, Norman Mailer, oil shock, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Bork, Ronald Reagan, Thomas L Friedman, World Values Survey, Y2K

This overclass is still overwhelmingly White, and even WASP, but creams off and co-opts small numbers of the Black and other elites while diverting the energies of radicals into essentially pointless struggles over symbols—and away from concrete transracial issues such as immigration control and raising the minimum wage, which would genuinely help ordinary members of the racial minorities, who on average remain markedly poorer than the White population.70 Political correctness of this type is not simply the result of a swing to the Left in academia on one hand meeting a newly radicalized Right on the other. It also reflects profound changes in American society from the 1960s on: the freeing of Blacks as a serious political force and the resumption of mass immigration without racial restrictions. The resulting new society is one to which Americans of many different political allegiances have had to respond. Thus not just official American patriotic propaganda, but the visual propaganda of the nationalist and religious Right is in general deliberately multiracial (Lynne Cheney's patriotic primer is full of drawings of Black and Asian American toddlers waving flags and playing at being soldiers).71 Indeed, to be fair, one could almost say that America over the past generation or so has become so complicated that its educational system is more or less forced back to simplistic myths, for trying to teach or discuss the full reality would be physically impossible.

Equally important, if continued, will be the fading of the American Dream as far as large sections of the American middle classes are concerned, due to economic change and the effects of globalization. Over the past thirty years, incomes in this central part of American society have stagnated or even fallen, with the skilled and semiskilled working classes suffering particularly badly.1 Meanwhile, incomes at the lower end of the scale have been held down by the resumption of mass immigration, both legal and illegal. Median family income rose by 40 percent in the 1950s and 1960s, but in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s by only some 7 percent, despite the fact that a vastly greater number of women entered full employment over the latter period. Meanwhile income inequality increased considerably. In 1969 the richest 5 percent of families earned 15.6 percent of all income. In 1996, the figure was 20.3 percent.2 Ruthless competition, the lack of state regulation and a minimum wage, the increase in temporary and informal employment, the use of unregistered illegal immigrants and the decline of the trade unions have meant that many jobs which once kept people in the middle classes now barely maintain them at subsistence level.


pages: 223 words: 58,732

The Retreat of Western Liberalism by Edward Luce

3D printing, affirmative action, Airbnb, basic income, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, call centre, carried interest, centre right, cognitive dissonance, colonial exploitation, colonial rule, computer age, corporate raider, cuban missile crisis, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, double entry bookkeeping, Erik Brynjolfsson, European colonialism, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, George Santayana, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, illegal immigration, imperial preference, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, knowledge economy, liberal capitalism, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Monroe Doctrine, moral panic, more computing power than Apollo, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, offshore financial centre, one-China policy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Plutocrats, plutocrats, precariat, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Richard Florida, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, Snapchat, software is eating the world, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, superstar cities, TaskRabbit, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, white flight, World Values Survey, Yogi Berra

Farage refers to the BNP as the ‘Bloody Nasty Party’.32 He pointed out that many of UKIP’s potential voters were old enough to remember the Second World War and had a lifelong allergy to fascism. When Theresa May, then Home Secretary, set up a pilot scheme to round up illegal immigrants, he criticised her methods as ‘nasty’ and ‘not the British way’. UKIP is officially opposed to ‘unlimited mass immigration’. But for the most part, it has focused on stopping Britain from turning into ‘a province of the United European superstate’. Only during the Brexit campaign did the party endorse overt xenophobia with its ‘breaking point’ poster showing hordes of Muslim immigrants streaming across the border. That did not deter a significant slice of the non-white electorate – particularly British Asians – from voting to leave Europe.


pages: 204 words: 67,922

Elsewhere, U.S.A: How We Got From the Company Man, Family Dinners, and the Affluent Society to the Home Office, BlackBerry Moms,and Economic Anxiety by Dalton Conley

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3D printing, assortative mating, call centre, clean water, commoditize, dematerialisation, demographic transition, Edward Glaeser, extreme commuting, feminist movement, financial independence, Firefox, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, Home mortgage interest deduction, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, late capitalism, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, McMansion, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, off grid, oil shock, PageRank, Ponzi scheme, positional goods, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, principal–agent problem, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, statistical model, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Moderation, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, women in the workforce, Yom Kippur War

All you can hear is the sound of the heat pump on the side of the house; all you can see is the blue glow behind the living-room curtains.”12 Gone were seersucker suits. Southern fashion looked not much different from what was worn in Pennsylvania or Illinois. Sunbelt cities—if you could actually call them cities—were thriving; but they were so low density sprawling and absent any economic center, that they were really more like suburbs connected by freeway arterioles. This air-conditioned-induced mass migration would have enormous consequences for national politics as the South regained the dominant position in federal electoral politics that had been wrested away by FDR’s New Deal coalition. Nixon’s “Southern strategy” to peel Democrats off what was once the “solid South” could not have been better timed. Over time, however, the commutes from the Sunbelt (and Northern) suburbs got longer, the traffic got worse, and the quality of life deteriorated.


pages: 239 words: 68,598

The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning by James E. Lovelock

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Ada Lovelace, butterfly effect, carbon footprint, Clapham omnibus, cognitive dissonance, continuous integration, David Attenborough, decarbonisation, discovery of DNA, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, Henri Poincaré, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), mandelbrot fractal, mass immigration, megacity, Northern Rock, oil shale / tar sands, phenotype, Pierre-Simon Laplace, planetary scale, short selling, Stewart Brand, University of East Anglia

As I mentioned earlier, I base this prediction on the Earth’s historical record and on models like that illustrated in Figure 3 (p. 33). When it happens the ocean may have risen twenty or even thirty metres, if much of West Antarctica melts into the ocean as well as Greenland; and almost everywhere will be five to six degrees hotter than now. These changes are at least as devastating as was the interglacial shift and will affect a world that is already hot and dry. When they do mass migration is inevitable. The recognition that we are the agents of planetary change brings a sense of guilt and gives environmentalism a religious significance. So far it is no more than a belief system that has extended the concept of pollution and ecosystem destruction from the local to the planetary scale. Maybe it will grow into a faith but it is still nascent and its dogma not yet properly codified.


pages: 233 words: 75,477

Surrender or Starve: Travels in Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia, and Eritrea by Robert D. Kaplan

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Ayatollah Khomeini, citizen journalism, European colonialism, facts on the ground, land reform, Live Aid, mass immigration, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, the market place

Although there was one famine in Ethiopia, its estimated eight to ten million victims were divided up, in terms of responsibility, among three major armies and other minor ones in the warring north of Ethiopia. Outside of the main towns, most of Eritrea and Tigre were in the hands of antigovernment guerrillas: the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) and the Tigre People's Liberation Front (TPLF), each with its own famine relief organization whose declared purpose was the same as the RRC's. With troops constantly on the move, and mass migrations of peasants in progress, it often was impossible to know exactly how many starving people were in the territory of any one army at any particular time. As few as one-third, or as many as two-thirds, of those starving could have been in areas held by the EPLF and the TPLF on a given day. A common assumption was that almost half of the eight to ten million affected peasants were in territory reached only by guerrilla relief agencies.


pages: 222 words: 75,561

The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It by Paul Collier

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air freight, Asian financial crisis, Bob Geldof, British Empire, Doha Development Round, failed state, falling living standards, income inequality, mass immigration, out of africa, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, structural adjustment programs, trade liberalization, zero-sum game

There is a straightforward explanation: conflict generates territory outside the control of a recognized government, and this comes in handy if your activity is illegal. Osama bin Laden chose to locate in Afghanistan for the same reason. So countries in civil war have what might be called a comparative advantage in international crime and terrorism. AIDS probably spread through an African civil war: the combination of mass rape and mass migration produces ideal conditions for spreading sexually transmitted disease. Consequently, wars in the bottom billion are our problem as well. All in all, the cost of a typical civil war to the country and its neighbors can be put at around $64 billion. In recent decades about two new civil wars have started each year, so the global cost has been over $100 billion a year, or around double the global aid budget.


pages: 296 words: 82,501

Stuffocation by James Wallman

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3D printing, Airbnb, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, big-box store, Black Swan, BRICs, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, collaborative consumption, commoditize, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, Fall of the Berlin Wall, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), James Hargreaves, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, McMansion, means of production, Nate Silver, Occupy movement, Paul Samuelson, post-industrial society, Post-materialism, post-materialism, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, Skype, spinning jenny, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, Thorstein Veblen, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, World Values Survey, Zipcar

They would be as aware of the days you spent drinking in the local hostelry or chasing foxes from horseback, as they would be of the horse-drawn carriage you owned. That meant, for signalling your status to others and establishing your place in the village’s social hierarchy, what you did was as important as what you owned. In those times, to signal status, the conspicuous consumption of leisure – that is, experiences – was just as good as the conspicuous consumption of goods. It was the arrival of cities that changed all that. The mass migrations of the 20th century, from small communities where everyone knew everyone else to large metropolises where you barely knew your neighbour, meant that what you did with your time became virtually useless as a way to signify status. In the relative anonymity of urban and, to a lesser extent, suburban life, your neighbours, friends, colleagues at work, and the people you passed on the street were much more likely to see what you owned than know what you did.


pages: 234 words: 63,149

Every Nation for Itself: Winners and Losers in a G-Zero World by Ian Bremmer

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airport security, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, Bretton Woods, BRICs, capital controls, clean water, creative destruction, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, energy security, European colonialism, failed state, global rebalancing, global supply chain, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Julian Assange, labour mobility, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Nixon shock, nuclear winter, Parag Khanna, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, Stuxnet, trade route, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War

In the countryside, agricultural production soared as new rules gave farmers new freedoms and new incentives to produce. As with Japan and the Asian Tigers, trade expanded and manufacturing boomed. Economic change created social problems. The injection of huge amounts of money into China’s labyrinthine bureaucracy created corruption on a massive scale. In a country with little history of labor mobility, mass migration brought tens of millions of peasants from rural backwaters into the boomtowns of the southern and eastern coasts. A spike in social unrest followed as the gap between rich and poor widened and already populous cities became dangerously overcrowded. Political leaders who feared that the party would lose control of all these changes grew even more anxious as a different form of experimentation sparked turmoil inside the Soviet Union.


pages: 193 words: 63,618

The Fair Trade Scandal: Marketing Poverty to Benefit the Rich by Ndongo Sylla

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British Empire, carbon footprint, corporate social responsibility, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deglobalization, Doha Development Round, Food sovereignty, global value chain, illegal immigration, income inequality, income per capita, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, labour mobility, land reform, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Mont Pelerin Society, Naomi Klein, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, open economy, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price mechanism, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, selection bias, structural adjustment programs, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, trickle-down economics, Washington Consensus, zero-sum game

For Frans van der Hoff (2005: 136), one of the structural characteristics of neoliberalism is that ‘it takes away money from the poorer social classes to give it to the wealthier social classes’. 27. The economist and historian Jeffrey Williamson, as well as many of his colleagues, distinguish a first ‘wave’ of globalisation, which they place between 1870 and 1913 and refer to as the ‘age of mass migration’. In contrast, the second ‘wave’ of globalisation would have started in the 1950s and continues to the present. From their point of view, the intervening period (1913–45) would be one of de-globalisation. See for example Williamson (1996). 28. According to Rodrik (2007b: 8), with a 3 per cent increase in their share of the labour force of rich countries, immigrants from the South would enjoy net gains of $265 billion per year.

Blindside: How to Anticipate Forcing Events and Wild Cards in Global Politics by Francis Fukuyama

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Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, cognitive bias, cuban missile crisis, energy security, flex fuel, income per capita, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, John von Neumann, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Norbert Wiener, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, packet switching, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, The Wisdom of Crowds, trade route, Vannevar Bush, Vernor Vinge, Yom Kippur War

If one were to superimpose Indonesia on a map of Europe, it would reach from Ireland to Turkey. There are some 13,000 islands. Vital trade routes move through the region. Most of the oil that goes to China and Japan moves through the region, so any disintegration or instability in this area would be a vital concern to both of those countries. Terrorism almost certainly would increase, and the prospect of mass migration would be a serious one for Australians to worry about. Another less spectacular but not unimportant surprise may be in the offing: a serious change in the character of the U.S.-Australian alliance. For fifty years the alliance has been marked by undeviating devotion on Australia’s 2990-7 ch13 harries 7/23/07 12:15 PM global discontinuities Page 145 145 part, a willingness to march in lockstep with its great ally.

Economic Gangsters: Corruption, Violence, and the Poverty of Nations by Raymond Fisman, Edward Miguel

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Andrei Shleifer, Asian financial crisis, barriers to entry, blood diamonds, clean water, colonial rule, congestion charging, crossover SUV, Donald Davies, European colonialism, failed state, feminist movement, George Akerlof, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Live Aid, mass immigration, megacity, oil rush, prediction markets, random walk, Scramble for Africa, selection bias, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, unemployed young men

After all of last year’s harvest has been eaten, the cattle sold off, and all favors from friends called in, households sometimes face some very uncomfortable arithmetic. What if there are still too many mouths and too little food? Each household member could go his own way in search of food or work, and migration is a common response to famines. This happened seventy years ago in the United States when the Great Plains turned into a giant dustbowl, causing mass migrations to California during the Great Depression. But countries like Kenya and Chad don’t have a Golden State of opportunity where fortunes can be sought by the starving masses—remember the migrations of Niger’s Tuaregs from chapter 5? Without a possibility of escaping to greener pastures, everyone in the household could instead be called upon to first cut back on what they spend and consume. While this sounds fair, it could actually make the family’s situation even 137 CH A PTER SI X worse.


pages: 251 words: 76,868

How to Run the World: Charting a Course to the Next Renaissance by Parag Khanna

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Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, bank run, blood diamonds, Bob Geldof, borderless world, BRICs, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, commoditize, continuation of politics by other means, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, don't be evil, double entry bookkeeping, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, global village, Google Earth, high net worth, index fund, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, labour mobility, laissez-faire capitalism, Live Aid, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open economy, out of africa, Parag Khanna, private military company, Productivity paradox, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, sustainable-tourism, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trickle-down economics, UNCLOS, uranium enrichment, Washington Consensus, X Prize

Since there is little “victory” to celebrate in wars today, this would be a good cause to pursue. Chapter Five The New Colonialism: Better Than the Last Some states were never meant to be—and really never were. Centuries of Western colonialism created the modern world as we know it, but that map is unraveling as some states splinter, collapse, or seem to fall off it altogether. Terrorist cells striking from zones of chaos and mass migrations from countries with no economy or stability are a constant reminder that even if we peacefully remap volatile regions, the postcolonial world—which includes most members of the United Nations—is in a state of high entropy, fragmenting into a fluid, neo-medieval labyrinth. Globalization has filled this void with a twenty-first-century colonialism of strong states, international agencies, NGOs, and companies.


pages: 237 words: 77,224

The Fracture Zone: My Return to the Balkans by Simon Winchester

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Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, borderless world, invention of movable type, Khyber Pass, mass immigration

Once the tide of empire had visibly begun to ebb—once the siege of Vienna had been overwhelmed, and the Ottomans started to be chased back to their lairs—so the Austrians themselves began to cast a covetous eye on the possibility of spoils. Within three years of the failure of the siege, the Austrians had taken Budapest (or Buda as it was then) and two years later, Belgrade (though in a sick convulsion the Ottomans recovered it half a century later). Back in Constantinople people began to fear that a Christian army would suddenly appear at the gates. House prices fell. There was a mass migration across the Bosporus to Asia. There were veiled mutterings against the indifference and pomposity of the sultan and his court, the luxury and abandon, the absurdities of his ram fights and of camel wrestling, and of the cruel caprices of the courtiers’ whims. At its zenith the empire was truly vast—Morocco to Mesopotamia, Poland to Yemen—and when it began to totter, Russia and Austria discussed dividing it between them.


pages: 225 words: 11,355

Financial Market Meltdown: Everything You Need to Know to Understand and Survive the Global Credit Crisis by Kevin Mellyn

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asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Bernie Madoff, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, collateralized debt obligation, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, cuban missile crisis, disintermediation, diversification, fiat currency, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, George Santayana, global reserve currency, Home mortgage interest deduction, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, liquidity trap, London Interbank Offered Rate, long peace, margin call, market clearing, mass immigration, money market fund, moral hazard, mortgage tax deduction, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, pattern recognition, pension reform, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, profit maximization, pushing on a string, reserve currency, risk tolerance, risk-adjusted returns, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, statistical model, The Great Moderation, the new new thing, the payments system, too big to fail, value at risk, very high income, War on Poverty, Y2K, yield curve

This power was widely abused through monopoly and financial manipulation, producing an unlovable class of super-rich, vulgar plutocrats the press labeled as ‘‘robber barons,’’ though to their credit most robber barons actually founded their companies, indeed whole industries, and many started life poor. Second, the United States became an urban, industrial society where most people for the first time depended on formal employment in big companies for a living. Up until 1880 or so, most Americans more or less worked for themselves. By the early 1900s, the vast majority were ‘‘employees.’’ They felt powerless and exploited, even though U.S. wages were in fact high by world standards. Mass immigration of Europe’s poor added to both the reality and the visibility of misery in the midst of plenty. Immigrants also brought the radical politics of Europe, where industrialization had brought trade unionism, socialism, communism, and anarchism to the working class. The Limits of Financial Regulation Third, starting in the states but reaching the White House in the person of Teddy Roosevelt, a progressive movement took root in American politics that stood traditional roles of government and the private economy on their head.


pages: 293 words: 81,183

Doing Good Better: How Effective Altruism Can Help You Make a Difference by William MacAskill

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barriers to entry, basic income, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, Cal Newport, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carbon footprint, clean water, corporate social responsibility, correlation does not imply causation, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, effective altruism, en.wikipedia.org, end world poverty, experimental subject, follow your passion, food miles, immigration reform, income inequality, index fund, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, job automation, job satisfaction, labour mobility, Lean Startup, M-Pesa, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, microcredit, Nate Silver, Peter Singer: altruism, purchasing power parity, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, randomized controlled trial, self-driving car, Skype, Stanislav Petrov, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, universal basic income, women in the workforce

Border,” Center for Global Development, working paper 148, July 2008, http://www.cgdev.org/sites/default/files/16352_file_CMP_place_premium_148.pdf. greater than a 50 percent increase in world GDP: For a comprehensive list of these estimates, see “Double World GDP,” Open Borders: The Case, http://openborders.info/double-world-gdp/. Readers interested in open borders are encouraged to explore this excellent resource. You might have some concerns about this idea. Won’t mass immigration be politically disruptive? Won’t it cause a “brain drain,” resulting in all the best talent from poor countries leaving, making those left behind worse off than before? Won’t it harm the native workers of the rich country, depressing wages and increasing unemployment? There are good responses to each of these worries. Let’s take the objections in turn. Regarding political disruption, it would improve politics in poor countries: dictators and corrupt governments would have far less power over their people, because those people would have a much easier opportunity to leave the country.


pages: 932 words: 307,785

State of Emergency: The Way We Were by Dominic Sandbrook

anti-communist, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, David Attenborough, Doomsday Book, edge city, estate planning, Etonian, falling living standards, fear of failure, Fellow of the Royal Society, feminist movement, financial thriller, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, German hyperinflation, mass immigration, moral panic, Neil Kinnock, new economy, New Urbanism, Norman Mailer, North Sea oil, oil shock, Own Your Own Home, sexual politics, traveling salesman, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, Winter of Discontent, young professional

Like most of his ministers, Heath had always been determinedly moderate on questions of race and immigration; indeed, his dogged refusal to play the race card and his decision to sack Enoch Powell for rocking the boat on immigration had upset many grass-roots Tories in the last years of the 1960s. But his position in the election campaign of 1970 had been clear. Public opinion overwhelmingly demanded an end to mass immigration, so an end must be made. In October 1971, therefore, the government had passed a landmark Immigration Act bringing up the drawbridge. From now on, only so-called Commonwealth ‘patrials’ with a parent or grandparent born in the United Kingdom (which meant they were likely to be white) had the right to settle in Britain; all other Commonwealth citizens had to apply for work permits, just like everybody else.

Some observers detected a hint of racism in the distinction between ‘patrials’ and the rest; indeed, Reginald Maudling told his colleagues that since assimilation was ‘all but impossible’ for Asians, immigration ought to be limited to people from a ‘cultural background fairly akin to our own’. But Heath’s ministers were, by and large, a liberal-minded lot, and certainly far more tolerant than the majority of the population. They closed the door to mass immigration not because they were racist reactionaries, but because public opinion – as manifested in one poll after another – demanded it. The Act worked and the furore died down – until Idi Amin reignited it.4 At first, even as terrified Ugandan Asians were desperately calling friends and relatives in Britain to beg for help, the government tried to play for time. On 12 August, Heath sent his urbane European troubleshooter, Geoffrey Rippon, to Kampala to persuade Amin to change his mind or, at the very least, to extend his deadline.

Yet even though the Chinese population almost doubled during the 1970s, there was no repeat of the racist panics of the Edwardian era, and no talk of the yellow peril. For one thing, they were widely dispersed across the country; for another, they worked such long hours and were so discreet that they were rarely even noticed. Ironically, although critics often complained that immigrants did not even try to fit in, the ones who provoked least hostility were those who made least effort to do so.18 Ever since mass immigration from the Commonwealth began in the early 1950s, successive governments had been anxious to make sure that the newcomers found productive work and a chance to make their way up the ladder. Initially there seemed good reason for optimism: a study in 1970 found that many immigrants had readily adapted to new challenges, with 18 per cent of both Indians and West Africans finding professional or technical work and another 19 per cent getting clerical jobs.


pages: 337 words: 103,273

The Great Disruption: Why the Climate Crisis Will Bring on the End of Shopping and the Birth of a New World by Paul Gilding

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airport security, Albert Einstein, Bob Geldof, BRICs, carbon footprint, clean water, cleantech, Climategate, commoditize, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, decarbonisation, energy security, Exxon Valdez, failed state, fear of failure, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Joseph Schumpeter, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, Naomi Klein, new economy, nuclear winter, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, purchasing power parity, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, union organizing, University of East Anglia

Central Command, retired Marine Corps general Anthony Zinni, who participated in a high-level Military Advisory Board review on the subject, we either address climate change today or “we will pay the price later in military terms. And that will involve human lives. There will be a human toll.” The 2007 report concluded that climate change would act as a threat multiplier by exacerbating conflict over resources, especially because of declining food production, border and mass migration tensions, and so on—increasing political instability and creating failed states—if no action was taken to reduce impacts. The findings of this report agree with those of the confidential assessment of the security implications of climate change by the National Intelligence Council (NIC), the coordinating body of America’s sixteen intelligence agencies. Former NIC chairman Thomas Fingar told Congress that unchecked, climate change has “wide-ranging implications for national security because it will aggravate existing problems,” especially in already vulnerable areas such as sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East.


pages: 289 words: 112,697

The new village green: living light, living local, living large by Stephen Morris

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back-to-the-land, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, cleantech, collective bargaining, Columbine, Community Supported Agriculture, computer age, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, discovery of penicillin, distributed generation, energy security, energy transition, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, Firefox, index card, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Kevin Kelly, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McMansion, Menlo Park, Negawatt, off grid, peak oil, rolodex, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review

Throughout the study, the organic plots have repeatedly performed better than the conventional plots, especially during severe weather events. The Big Picture There are deeper societal issues that need to be addressed when looking at soil conservation on a global scale. First, urbanization needs to be better managed. The wholesale conversion of rural lands to concrete jungles consumes and degrades vast amounts of soil. In many places, particularly much of the developing world, the roots of mass migration to cities – poverty, war, desperation – need to be addressed. Franklin suggests, “The more small farmers have control over their land, the less likely they’ll be to mine the soil.” In addition, cities can mitigate damage to soils by supporting low-impact development and construction of eco-roofs and integrated parking lots. Fundamentally, Hepperly believes people need to reestablish their connection to the land.


pages: 291 words: 87,296

Lethal Passage by Erik Larson

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mass immigration, Menlo Park, pez dispenser, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, The Great Moderation

Erase these ineffective regulations—but immediately replace them with a formal, rational federal code that at last recognizes guns for what they are: the single most dangerous, socially costly, culturally destabilizing consumer product marketed in America. Herewith, the Life and Liberty Preservation Act, its provisions divided into three parts governing the distribution, purchase, and design of firearms: I. DISTRIBUTION Any serious effort to halt the mass migration of weapons to illegal hands must first concentrate on the firearms distribution network, in particular, the role played by retail dealers. As things stand now, it is simply too easy to get a license to buy and sell guns. As a first step, Congress should repeal all provisions of the McClure-Volkmer Act, except the machine-gun ban. The Life and Liberty Preservation Act would then: ♦ Sharply increase the cost of the basic gun-dealer license to $2,500 and designate this a one-time business-entry fee.


pages: 363 words: 101,082

Earth Wars: The Battle for Global Resources by Geoff Hiscock

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Admiral Zheng, Asian financial crisis, Bakken shale, Bernie Madoff, BRICs, butterfly effect, clean water, cleantech, corporate governance, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Edward Lorenz: Chaos theory, energy security, energy transition, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, flex fuel, global rebalancing, global supply chain, hydraulic fracturing, Long Term Capital Management, Malacca Straits, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, Menlo Park, Mohammed Bouazizi, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, purchasing power parity, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, smart grid, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, trade route, uranium enrichment, urban decay, working-age population, Yom Kippur War

Only in recent years have parts of the lake made something of a comeback. Even so, according to a case study by the UN’s World Water Assessment Program, the unsustainable use of water has caused irreversible damage to water quality and the ecosystem of the Aral Sea basin. There is heavy pollution of surface water and groundwater from untreated wastewater containing high concentrations of pesticide, fertiliser, and industrial runoff. According to the case study, mass migration away from the basin, as well as malnutrition and extreme poverty for many of the people who remain there, are consequences of Soviet policy. The Soviet Union is long gone; in its place since 1991 are five Central Asian republics—Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan—with an interest in the Aral Sea’s health because of the rivers that flow through the basin. The two most directly affected are Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, which share a border through the middle of the lake area.


pages: 364 words: 102,528

An Economist Gets Lunch: New Rules for Everyday Foodies by Tyler Cowen

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agricultural Revolution, big-box store, business climate, carbon footprint, cognitive bias, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, food miles, guest worker program, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, informal economy, iterative process, mass immigration, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, pattern recognition, Peter Singer: altruism, price discrimination, refrigerator car, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Upton Sinclair, winner-take-all economy, women in the workforce

Most of the world’s hunger-related migration in the eighteenth century was from crowded cities to the free land in the New World, or later in Australia and New Zealand. Free land was very important then in part because many cities had become cesspools of infectious diseases. Today, the diseases are mostly gone (in the wealthy countries), the economic infrastructure of cities works better, and so most hunger-related migration is to more densely populated areas, including the mass migration from Western China to the Chinese cities in the east of the country. Migration has been directed at cities since at least the late nineteenth century. For instance, given how much land there is in Australia, it is remarkable that it is one of the most urbanized nations in the world with cities full of first- or second-generation immigrants. Democracy helps avoid outright famine, as democratic governments are more likely to rush aid to stricken regions; Nobel economist Amartya Sen is famous for making this point.


pages: 398 words: 100,679

The Knowledge: How to Rebuild Our World From Scratch by Lewis Dartnell

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agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic, clean water, Dava Sobel, decarbonisation, discovery of penicillin, Dmitri Mendeleev, global village, Haber-Bosch Process, invention of movable type, invention of radio, invention of writing, iterative process, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, lone genius, mass immigration, nuclear winter, off grid, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, technology bubble, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, trade route

Instances of extreme road rage flare as drivers grow increasingly desperate, before abandoning their cars among the others already littering the shoulders and lanes and joining the droves of people pushing onward on foot. Even without an immediate hazard, any event that disrupts distribution networks or the electrical grid will starve the cities’ voracious appetite for a constant influx of resources and force their inhabitants out in a hungry exodus: mass migrations of urbanite refugees swarming into the surrounding countryside to scavenge for food. TEARING UP THE SOCIAL CONTRACT I don’t want to get stuck in the philosophical quagmire of debating whether mankind is intrinsically evil or not, and whether a controlling authority is a necessary construct to impose a set of laws and maintain order through the threat of punishment. But it is clear that with the evaporation of centralized governance and a civil police force, those with ill intentions will seize the opportunity to subjugate or exploit those more peaceful or vulnerable.


pages: 357 words: 99,684

Why It's Still Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions by Paul Mason

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back-to-the-land, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, capital controls, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, informal economy, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Occupy movement, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rising living standards, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, union organizing, We are the 99%, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, young professional

There is a ‘heroic’ period of globalization, beginning in 1989 and ending around 1999, during which China’s entry into the world market helps suppress inflation; where falling wages are offset by a seemingly sustainable expansion of credit; where house prices rise, allowing the credit to be paid off and a whole bunch of innovations are suddenly deployed—above all mobile telephony and broadband Internet. Then there is a second phase in which the disruption overwhelms the innovations: China’s increased consumption of raw materials creates world-wide inflationary pressure; the house-price boom ends, because the banks run out of poverty-stricken workers to lend to; mass migration begins to exert a downward pressure on the wages of unskilled workers in Europe and the USA; the financial dynamic overtakes, dominates and ultimately chokes off the dynamics of production, trade and innovation. The rise of finance, wage stagnation, the capture of regulation and politics by a financial elite, consumption fuelled by credit rather than wages: it all blew up spectacularly. If this process had been accompanied by dire warnings from economists and politicians; if Madonna and Fifty Cent had wagged their diamond-encrusted fingers at us and rapped, ‘Hey kids, be careful, it won’t last’—then maybe the ideological shock would have been smaller.


pages: 304 words: 88,773

The Ghost Map: A Street, an Epidemic and the Hidden Power of Urban Networks. by Steven Johnson

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call centre, clean water, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, Dean Kamen, digital map, double helix, edge city, germ theory of disease, Google Earth, Jane Jacobs, John Nash: game theory, John Snow's cholera map, lone genius, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, pattern recognition, peak oil, side project, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, trade route, unbiased observer, working poor

Both trends are likely to trigger disastrous consequences if left unchecked, and the sooner we get serious about solutions to both problems, the better. But in both cases, one of the primary solutions may well prove to be to encourage people to move to metropolitan areas. A warmer planet is still a city-planet, for better or worse. Yet that doesn’t mean continued urbanization is inevitable. It just means that the potential threats will come from somewhere else. Most likely, if some new force derails our mass migration to the cities, it will take the form of a threat that specifically exploits density to harm us, just as Vibrio cholerae did two hundred years ago. IN THE IMMEDIATE AFTERMATH OF THE 9/11 ATTACKS, MANY commentators observed that there was a certain dark irony in the technological method of the terrorists: they had used what were effectively Stone Age tools—knives—to gain control of advanced American machines—four Boeing 7-series planes—and then employed that technology as a weapon against its creators.


pages: 323 words: 94,406

To the Edge of the World: The Story of the Trans-Siberian Express, the World's Greatest Railroad by Christian Wolmar

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anti-communist, Cape to Cairo, land reform, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, railway mania, refrigerator car, stakhanovite, trade route, transcontinental railway, urban planning

The concentration of resources by an impoverished government on what was perceived as adventurism in the Far East – especially during the building of the Amur railway in the years running up to the First World War – undoubtedly contributed to the political instability in Russia. The Trans-Siberian, therefore, does not merely have a major role in railway history, but its contribution to the wider geopolitics of the twentieth century cannot be overestimated. Without the Trans-Siberian, modern maps of Europe and Asia might have a very different complexion. The sequence of wars, as well as the mass migration stimulated by the line, were the source of much suffering, and there are numerous tragic stories in this book. But there is also a fantastic, positive tale to be told, one that is too often omitted or simply forgotten in the clichéd view of Russia. The construction and the continued efficient operation of the Trans-Siberian ranks among the greatest achievements of mankind. Indeed, much of this book is about debunking myths.


pages: 356 words: 103,944

The Globalization Paradox: Democracy and the Future of the World Economy by Dani Rodrik

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, bilateral investment treaty, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, collective bargaining, colonial rule, Corn Laws, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, floating exchange rates, frictionless, frictionless market, full employment, George Akerlof, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, industrial cluster, information asymmetry, joint-stock company, Kenneth Rogoff, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, low skilled workers, margin call, market bubble, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, microcredit, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, night-watchman state, non-tariff barriers, offshore financial centre, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Paul Samuelson, price stability, profit maximization, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, savings glut, Silicon Valley, special drawing rights, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Tobin tax, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, tulip mania, Washington Consensus, World Values Survey

If the leaders of the advanced nations were serious about boosting incomes around the world and in doing so equitably, they would focus single-mindedly on reforming the rules that govern international labor mobility. Nothing else on their agenda—not Doha, not global financial regulation, not even expanding foreign aid—comes even close in terms of potential impact on enlarging the global pie. I am not talking about total liberalization. A complete, or even significant, reduction in visa restrictions in the advanced countries would be too disruptive. It would set off a mass migration that would throw labor markets and social policies in the advanced nations into disarray. But a small-scale program of expanded labor mobility would be manageable, and still generate very large economic gains for the migrant workers and their home economies. Here is what I have in mind. Rich nations would commit to a temporary work visa scheme that would expand their total labor force by no more than 3 percent.


pages: 355 words: 92,571

Capitalism: Money, Morals and Markets by John Plender

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activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Black Swan, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, business climate, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computer age, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, diversification, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, God and Mammon, Gordon Gekko, greed is good, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Meriwether, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, London Interbank Offered Rate, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, money market fund, moral hazard, moveable type in China, Myron Scholes, Nick Leeson, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, paradox of thrift, Paul Samuelson, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, principal–agent problem, profit motive, quantitative easing, railway mania, regulatory arbitrage, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, risk-adjusted returns, Robert Gordon, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, South Sea Bubble, spice trade, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Chicago School, The Great Moderation, the map is not the territory, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, time value of money, too big to fail, tulip mania, Upton Sinclair, Veblen good, We are the 99%, Wolfgang Streeck, zero-sum game

Some, like Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, were pleased at the removal of feudal restraints on enterprise, but railed at the glorification of self-interest and what they saw as the morally scandalous foundations of capitalism. For them, the conflict of interest between rich bourgeois capitalists and poor exploited workers was irreconcilable. Others, following Rousseau, worried that the individualistic nature of a capitalist society was destroying a shared sense of community. Oliver Goldsmith’s poem The Deserted Village is an eloquent attack on the shortcomings of modernity and the impact on the country of mass migration to industrial cities induced by capitalism: Ill fares the land, to hastening ills a prey, Where wealth accumulates and men decay; Princes and lords may flourish, or may fade; A breath can make them, as a breath has made; But a bold peasantry, their country’s pride, When once destroyed, can never be supplied.20 In like vein, the German playwright, poet and philosopher Friedrich Schiller emphasised the anti-spiritual, anti-aesthetic tendency of contemporary political economy.


pages: 380 words: 104,841

The Human Age: The World Shaped by Us by Diane Ackerman

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23andMe, 3D printing, additive manufacturing, airport security, Albert Einstein, augmented reality, back-to-the-land, carbon footprint, clean water, dark matter, dematerialisation, double helix, Drosophila, epigenetics, Google Earth, Google Glasses, haute cuisine, Internet of things, Loebner Prize, Louis Pasteur, Masdar, mass immigration, megacity, microbiome, nuclear winter, personalized medicine, phenotype, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI@home, skunkworks, Skype, stem cell, Stewart Brand, the High Line, theory of mind, urban planning, urban renewal, Whole Earth Catalog

Open your imagination to how we began—as semiupright apes who spent some of their time in trees; next as ragtag bands of nomadic hunter-gatherers; then as purposeful custodians of favorite grains, chosen with mind-bending slowness, over thousands of years; and in time as intrepid farmers and clearers of forests with fixed roofs over our heads and a more reliable food supply; afterward as builders of villages and towns dwarfed by furrowed, well-tilled farmlands; then as makers, fed by such inventions as the steam engine (a lavish power source unlike horses, oxen, or water power, and not subject to health or weather, not limited by location); later as industry’s operators, drudges and tycoons who moved closer to the factories that arose in honeycombed cities beside endless fields of staple crops (like corn, wheat, and rice) and giant herds of key species (mainly cows, sheep, or pigs); and finally as builders of big buzzing metropolises, ringed by suburbs on whose fringes lay shrinking farms and forests; and then, as if magnetized by a fierce urge to coalesce, fleeing en masse into those mountainous hope-scented cities. There, like splattered balls of mercury whose droplets have begun flowing back together, we’re finally merging into a handful of colossal, metal-clad spheres of civilization. Among the many shocks and wonders of the Anthropocene, this is bound to rank high: the largest mass migration the planet has ever seen. In only the past hundred years, we’ve become an urban species. Today, more than half of humanity, 3.5 billion people, cluster in cities, and scientists predict that by 2050 our cities will enthrall 70 percent of the world’s citizens. The trend is undeniable as the moon, unstoppable as an avalanche. Between 2005 and 2013, China’s urban population skyrocketed from 13 percent to 40 percent, with most people moving from very rural locales to huddled megacities whose streets jingle with chance and temptation.


pages: 323 words: 95,188

The Year That Changed the World: The Untold Story Behind the Fall of the Berlin Wall by Michael Meyer

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Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, Bretton Woods, BRICs, call centre, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, haute couture, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, union organizing

Volunteers from the West German automobile association worked around the clock to repair spluttering cars that were on the verge of giving out. The chief of the checkpoint looked as if he had not slept in days. “We are seeing more than ten thousand refugees every day,” he said wearily. “They keep coming, all day and all night. We do not expect a letup.” He figured one hundred thousand people had crossed over since the border opened roughly a week ago. This was psychosis, a mass migration feeding on itself. “Twenty of my friends have gone to the West this year,” said a twenty-three-year-old waiter from Jena. A young man, leaving with his girlfriend, told me how it had grown “lonely” back home. “We have as many friends in Frankfurt now as we do in Erfurt.” A woman who hitchhiked through Czechoslovakia with her husband and young child said that the sight of so many people leaving made her pick up and go, too.


pages: 391 words: 99,963

The Weather of the Future by Heidi Cullen

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, air freight, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, availability heuristic, back-to-the-land, bank run, California gold rush, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, energy security, illegal immigration, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, mass immigration, megacity, millennium bug, out of africa, Silicon Valley, smart cities, trade route, urban planning, Y2K

Water Mediterranean environments: Sacramento, San Diego; Los Angeles; Atlanta; Las Vegas; Phoenix; Albuquerque; Dakar; Lima, Peru; Quito, Ecuador; La Paz, Bolivia; Sana’a, Yemen. 4. Snowmelt and Runoff Snow-fed rivers amid forested mountains: Many large cities of India, Pakistan, and China; Portland and the Pacific Northwest; Sacramento–San Joaquin river basin; downstream from the Alps. 5. Fire and Beetles Arid regions: Western United States, Canada (Alberta, British Columbia); Spain; Portugal. 6. Food and Mass Migration Agricultural plains: United States Great Plains; Australian coastal regions; Tijuana, Mexico; Lagos, Africa; Nairobi, Kenya. 7. Permafrost Thaw Seasonal freezing: Fairbanks, Alaska; northern Canada in general; Siberia. 8. Heat Hot and humid (summer) weather regimes: Texas generally, New York, Chicago, Paris, southern China. 9. Hurricanes and Typhoons Tropical cyclone paths: New Orleans, New York, Miami, Charleston, Chesapeake Bay, Hong Kong, Tokyo and other cities in Japan, Shanghai, Manila. 10.


pages: 561 words: 87,892

Losing Control: The Emerging Threats to Western Prosperity by Stephen D. King

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Admiral Zheng, asset-backed security, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Bretton Woods, BRICs, British Empire, capital controls, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, corporate governance, credit crunch, crony capitalism, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Diane Coyle, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, German hyperinflation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, income per capita, inflation targeting, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, market clearing, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Naomi Klein, new economy, old age dependency ratio, Paul Samuelson, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, price stability, purchasing power parity, rent-seeking, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, sovereign wealth fund, spice trade, statistical model, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, The Market for Lemons, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transaction costs, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population, Y2K, Yom Kippur War

If globalization represents a triumph for market forces, why are we seeing the rise of state capitalism, a topic that crops up time and again in this book? Do we really live in a global market economy when so much economic activity is influenced by governments, either directly via high levels of public spending or indirectly through government influence on energy supplies or bond prices? If past economic success owed much to mass migrations of people both within countries and across borders, what should we make of heightened border controls and the growth of anti-immigration politics? How will Western countries deal with the economic hole created by population ageing? Will they be forced to rethink their current resistance to large-scale immigration? Part Four, ‘Great Power Games’, draws together the various strands of my thesis.


pages: 302 words: 97,076

The Trigger: Hunting the Assassin Who Brought the World to War by Tim Butcher

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centre right, colonial rule, land reform, mass immigration, Scramble for Africa, trade route, urban sprawl, éminence grise

Their arrival here in the middle of the eighteenth century formed part of the gradual ethnic division of the region’s south-Slav population. It was a split predominantly defined not by language, culture, costume or physical appearance, all of which remained very similar across the local population, but by faith. The modern history of the Western Balkans began roughly halfway through the first millennium, with the collapse of ancient Rome and the arrival in the area of a dominant population of Slavs, one of the many mass migrations from further east that populated much of Europe. Long before the tight modern concept of today’s nation state, national identity was then defined most strongly through religion, and in the Western Balkans the south-Slav arrivals found themselves atop some of the great faith fault lines of medieval Europe. Those who were converted to Orthodox Christianity by missionaries sent from Byzantium, the eastern relic of the collapsed Roman Empire, came to identify themselves as Serb.


pages: 357 words: 95,986

Inventing the Future: Postcapitalism and a World Without Work by Nick Srnicek, Alex Williams

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3D printing, additive manufacturing, air freight, algorithmic trading, anti-work, back-to-the-land, banking crisis, basic income, battle of ideas, blockchain, Bretton Woods, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, centre right, collective bargaining, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, David Graeber, decarbonisation, deindustrialization, deskilling, Doha Development Round, Elon Musk, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, financial independence, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, future of work, gender pay gap, housing crisis, income inequality, industrial robot, informal economy, intermodal, Internet Archive, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, late capitalism, liberation theology, Live Aid, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, market design, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, minimum wage unemployment, Mont Pelerin Society, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, patent troll, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Philip Mirowski, post scarcity, postnationalism / post nation state, precariat, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, reshoring, Richard Florida, rising living standards, road to serfdom, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Slavoj Žižek, social web, stakhanovite, Steve Jobs, surplus humans, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, universal basic income, wages for housework, We are the 99%, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

These are among the reasons behind a gradual drive to incorporate the world’s population into a global labour force, fostered by imperialism and globalisation.117 On the other hand, capital requires a particular type of surplus population: cheap, docile and pliable.118 Without these characteristics, this excess of humanity becomes a problem for capital. Not content to lie down and accept its disposability, it makes itself heard through riots, mass migration, criminality, and all sorts of actions that disrupt the existing order. Capitalism therefore has simultaneously to produce a disciplined surplus and deploy violence and coercion against those who resist. One of the principal ways to manage the unruly surplus has been to champion the social democratic ideal of full employment, whereby every physically capable (male) worker has a job. In support of this ideal, economic policies aim to reincorporate the surplus into capitalism as disciplined and waged workers, secured by a hegemonic consensus between the representatives of labour and capital.


pages: 318 words: 85,824

A Brief History of Neoliberalism by David Harvey

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affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, business climate, capital controls, centre right, collective bargaining, creative destruction, crony capitalism, debt deflation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial intermediation, financial repression, full employment, George Gilder, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, labour market flexibility, land tenure, late capitalism, Long Term Capital Management, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, Mont Pelerin Society, mortgage tax deduction, neoliberal agenda, new economy, Pearl River Delta, phenotype, Ponzi scheme, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, structural adjustment programs, the built environment, The Chicago School, transaction costs, union organizing, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Washington Consensus, Winter of Discontent

The urban/rural differential in real incomes is now, according to some estimates, greater than in any other country in the world.7 Forced to seek work elsewhere, rural migrants—many of them young women—have consequently flooded—illegally and without the rights of residency—into the cities to form an immense labour reserve (a ‘floating’ population of indeterminate legal status). China is now ‘in the midst of the largest mass migration the world has ever seen’ which ‘already dwarfs the migrations that reshaped America and the modern Western world’. By official count, it has ‘114 million migrant workers who have left rural areas, temporarily or for good, to work in cities’, and government experts ‘predict the number will rise to 300 million by 2020, eventually to 500 million’. Shanghai alone ‘has 3 million migrant workers; by comparison, the entire Irish migration to America from 1820 to 1930 is thought to have involved perhaps 4.5 million people’.8 This labour force is vulnerable to super-exploitation and puts downward pressure on the wages of urban residents.


pages: 324 words: 92,805

The Impulse Society: America in the Age of Instant Gratification by Paul Roberts

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, accounting loophole / creative accounting, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, business process, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, crony capitalism, David Brooks, delayed gratification, double helix, factory automation, financial deregulation, financial innovation, fixed income, full employment, game design, greed is good, If something cannot go on forever, it will stop - Herbert Stein's Law, impulse control, income inequality, inflation targeting, invisible hand, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge worker, late fees, Long Term Capital Management, loss aversion, low skilled workers, mass immigration, new economy, Nicholas Carr, obamacare, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, performance metric, postindustrial economy, profit maximization, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, reshoring, Richard Thaler, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Predators' Ball, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, total factor productivity, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Walter Mischel, winner-take-all economy

Yet in viewing the social side of commerce through such a purely economic, Darwinian lens, we lose a lot of important detail. Adam Smith himself insisted that markets will not yield their famous optimality without a strong moral dimension: absent trust and empathy between buyer and seller, markets quickly lose their efficiencies and fail—as numerous scandals and scams and bubbles and busts have demonstrated. But you didn’t have to wait for a full-blown collapse to see the costs of our mass migration from social customers to more purely economic consumers. You only had to look as far as the big-box phenomenon. Although these mega-stores with their mega-efficiencies meant lower prices and larger selections, they also brought a new set of costs for those same empowered small-town consumers. Kenneth Stone, a rural economist at Iowa State University, found that within two years of a new Walmart coming to town, local shops within a twenty-mile radius could expect sales declines of anywhere from a quarter to nearly two-thirds.


pages: 364 words: 102,225

Instant City: Life and Death in Karachi by Steve Inskeep

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battle of ideas, British Empire, call centre, creative destruction, Edward Glaeser, European colonialism, illegal immigration, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Khyber Pass, Kibera, knowledge economy, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, new economy, New Urbanism, urban planning, urban renewal

Private interests—both personal and political—overcame the efforts of public servants. In the 1970s the government undertook a variety of new development schemes, and even developed a master plan for the city. But it could hardly keep up with the city’s accelerating growth. The civil war that came in 1971 convulsed the country, and when it was over, Pakistan was split in two: East Pakistan became Bangladesh. Karachi became the destination of another mass migration: years after the war, Bengalis fled their impoverished new country and migrated to Karachi seeking work. The breakaway of Bangladesh was a symptom of ethnic discord all across the country. Secessionist movements arose, including one in Karachi’s province of Sindh. These movements, and government crackdowns, added to the poverty and instability of the countryside, encouraging still more migrations to Karachi.


pages: 322 words: 88,197

Wonderland: How Play Made the Modern World by Steven Johnson

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Ada Lovelace, Alfred Russel Wallace, Antoine Gombaud: Chevalier de Méré, Berlin Wall, bitcoin, Book of Ingenious Devices, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, Clayton Christensen, colonial exploitation, computer age, conceptual framework, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Drosophila, Edward Thorp, Fellow of the Royal Society, game design, global village, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, HyperCard, invention of air conditioning, invention of the printing press, invention of the telegraph, Islamic Golden Age, Jacquard loom, Jacquard loom, Jacques de Vaucanson, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, John von Neumann, joint-stock company, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, lone genius, mass immigration, megacity, Minecraft, moral panic, Murano, Venice glass, music of the spheres, Necker cube, New Urbanism, Oculus Rift, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, pets.com, placebo effect, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Ray Oldenburg, spice trade, spinning jenny, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, Stewart Brand, supply-chain management, talking drums, the built environment, The Great Good Place, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, trade route, Turing machine, Turing test, Upton Sinclair, urban planning, Victor Gruen, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, white flight, white picket fence, Whole Earth Catalog, working poor, Wunderkammern

Shopping meccas like L.A.’s Beverly Center became cultural landmarks, and the default leisure activity of hanging at the mall would define an entire generation of “Valley girls.” But as mall culture went global, Gruen’s design became increasingly prominent in the downtown centers of new megacities. Originally conceived as a way to escape the harsh winters of Minnesota, Gruen’s enclosed public space accelerated the mass migration to desert or tropical climates made possible by the invention of air-conditioning. Today, the ten largest shopping malls in the world are all located in non-U.S. or European countries with tropical or desert climates, such as China, the Philippines, Iran, and Thailand. And while the mall itself would expand in scale prodigiously—a mall in Dubai has more than one thousand stores spread out over more than five million square feet of real estate—the basic template of Gruen’s design would remain constant: two to three floors of shops surrounding an enclosed courtyard, connected by escalators.


pages: 502 words: 107,657

Predictive Analytics: The Power to Predict Who Will Click, Buy, Lie, or Die by Eric Siegel

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Albert Einstein, algorithmic trading, Amazon Mechanical Turk, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, backtesting, Black Swan, book scanning, bounce rate, business intelligence, business process, call centre, commoditize, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, crowdsourcing, dark matter, data is the new oil, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, Everything should be made as simple as possible, experimental subject, Google Glasses, happiness index / gross national happiness, job satisfaction, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, lifelogging, Machine translation of "The spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak." to Russian and back, mass immigration, Moneyball by Michael Lewis explains big data, Nate Silver, natural language processing, Netflix Prize, Network effects, Norbert Wiener, personalized medicine, placebo effect, prediction markets, Ray Kurzweil, recommendation engine, risk-adjusted returns, Ronald Coase, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, software as a service, speech recognition, statistical model, Steven Levy, text mining, the scientific method, The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Bayes, Turing test, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, X Prize, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

More and more, each move you make, online and offline, is recorded, including transactions conducted, websites visited, movies watched, links clicked, friends called, opinions posted, dental procedures endured, sports games won (if you’re a professional athlete), traffic cameras passed, flights taken, Wikipedia articles edited, and earthquakes experienced. Countless sensors deploy daily. Mobile devices, robots, and shipping containers record movement, interactions, inventory counts, and radiation levels. Personal health monitors watch your vital signs and exercise routine. The mass migration of online applications from your desktop up into the cloud (aka software as a service) makes even more of your computer use recordable by organizations. Free public data is also busting out, so a wealth of knowledge sits at your fingertips. Following the open data movement, often embracing a not-for-profit philosophy, many data sets are available online from fields like biodiversity, business, cartography, chemistry, genomics, and medicine.

The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape by James Howard Kunstler

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A Pattern Language, blue-collar work, California gold rush, car-free, City Beautiful movement, corporate governance, Donald Trump, financial independence, fixed income, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, germ theory of disease, indoor plumbing, jitney, land tenure, mass immigration, means of production, megastructure, Menlo Park, new economy, oil shock, place-making, Plutocrats, plutocrats, postindustrial economy, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism

Nor did they challenge their social assump­ tions. The government-funded low-income housing projects were built on the old existenzminimum principle of a Weimar siedlung, which assumed workers to have no higher aspiration for the quality of life than to be stacked like anchovies in a concrete can. The rise of America's postwar housing projects-the term project itself became a derogatory label-coincided with a mass migration of poor southern rural blacks to northern cities, where their presence in such large numbers was not warmly welcomed. The existenzminimum housing block was just the place to put them, in large, neat, high­ density stacks, out of the way, occupying a minimum of land. It wasn't the final solution, but it might do as long as the buildings lasted-which was not necessarily long. One infamous project, the crime-plagued Pruitt-Igoe apartment complex in St.


pages: 316 words: 103,743

The Emperor Far Away: Travels at the Edge of China by David Eimer

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back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, car-free, Deng Xiaoping, Fall of the Berlin Wall, illegal immigration, mass immigration, megacity, offshore financial centre, open borders, South China Sea

The Dai diaspora from Banna into Shan State and the north-west of Laos, which borders both Shan and Banna, dates back centuries. Sipsongpanna stretched into what is now Myanmar and Laos, and the Dai have always moved beyond borders to different areas of their old kingdom. But it was the CCP’s takeover of China and the subsequent chaos of the Cultural Revolution especially which prompted the last great mass migration of the Dai and the other ethnic groups of Banna into the Golden Triangle. Not even the remote rainforests of Yunnan’s borderlands were spared the Red Guards. As monasteries were raided and wrecked, monks took sanctuary in the temples of Kengtung and Muang Sing in north-west Laos. With schools closed for years in the turmoil, many Dai sent their children to stay with relatives over the borders, or went with them to escape being punished for adhering to their traditional lifestyle.


The Culture of Narcissism: American Life in an Age of Diminishing Expectations by Christopher Lasch

cuban missile crisis, delayed gratification, desegregation, feminist movement, full employment, George Santayana, impulse control, Induced demand, invisible hand, Kitchen Debate, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Norman Mailer, road to serfdom, Scientific racism, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, theory of mind, Thorstein Veblen, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, yellow journalism

The latter argument probably appealed more strongly to wealthy benefactors and public officials than the first. Both led to the same conclusions: that the best interests of society lay in a system of universal com- pulsory education which would isolate the student from other in- cally, these observations appeared at the very moment European conditions were about to reproduce themselves in the United States, in the form of a mass migration of European workers and peasants. Beginning with the Irish in the 1840s with the students the immigration of politically backward elements as they were commonly regarded sharpened the fear, already an undercurrent in , , American social thought, that the United States would regress to a hated old-world pattern of class conflict hereditary poverty, and political despotism. In the climate of such anxieties educational reformers like Horace Mann and Henry Barnard won a hearing for proposals to set up a national system of compulsory education and to broaden the curriculum beyond the purely intellectual training envisioned by earlier reformers From this time on, the problem of acculturating the immigrant population never , , .


pages: 351 words: 93,982

Leading From the Emerging Future: From Ego-System to Eco-System Economies by Otto Scharmer, Katrin Kaufer

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collapse of Lehman Brothers, colonial rule, Community Supported Agriculture, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, Fractional reserve banking, global supply chain, happiness index / gross national happiness, high net worth, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Joseph Schumpeter, market bubble, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mohammed Bouazizi, mutually assured destruction, Naomi Klein, new economy, offshore financial centre, peak oil, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, smart grid, Steve Jobs, technology bubble, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, Washington Consensus, working poor, Zipcar

To HMS and JCS CONTENTS Introduction: Breathing Life into a Dying System 1 On the Surface: Symptoms of Death and Rebirth 2 Structure: Systemic Disconnects 3 Transforming Thought: The Matrix of Economic Evolution 4 Source: Connecting to Intention and Awareness 5 Leading the Personal Inversion: From Me to We 6 Leading the Relational Inversion: From Ego to Eco 7 Leading the Institutional Inversion: Toward Eco-System Economies 8 Leading from the Emerging Future: Now Acknowledgments Notes Index About the Authors About the Presencing Institute INTRODUCTION Breathing Life into a Dying System Finance. Food. Fuel. Water shortage. Resource scarcity. Climate chaos. Mass poverty. Mass migration. Fundamentalism. Terrorism. Financial oligarchies. We have entered an Age of Disruption. Yet the possibility of profound personal, societal, and global renewal has never been more real. Now is our time. Our moment of disruption deals with death and rebirth. What’s dying is an old civilization and a mindset of maximum “me”—maximum material consumption, bigger is better, and special-interest-group-driven decision-making that has led us into a state of organized irresponsiblity, collectively creating results that nobody wants.


pages: 354 words: 92,470

Grave New World: The End of Globalization, the Return of History by Stephen D. King

9 dash line, Admiral Zheng, air freight, Albert Einstein, Asian financial crisis, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bilateral investment treaty, bitcoin, blockchain, Bonfire of the Vanities, borderless world, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, central bank independence, collateralized debt obligation, colonial rule, corporate governance, credit crunch, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, eurozone crisis, facts on the ground, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, George Akerlof, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, Hyman Minsky, imperial preference, income inequality, income per capita, incomplete markets, inflation targeting, information asymmetry, Internet of things, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Long Term Capital Management, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, moral hazard, Nixon shock, offshore financial centre, oil shock, old age dependency ratio, paradox of thrift, Peace of Westphalia, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, reserve currency, reshoring, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Scramble for Africa, Second Machine Age, Skype, South China Sea, special drawing rights, technology bubble, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, the market place, trade liberalization, trade route, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

These clashes marked the beginnings of increasingly sectarian violence: more than 200 Muslims killed by Christians in May 2004; 500 protesters killed by Nigerian troops in Port Harcourt later that year; attacks on gas pipelines in 2006; kidnapping of foreign oil workers; and, in 2009, the emergence of Boko Haram, the Islamist movement intent on imposing Sharia law on the entire country, whatever the cost in terms of bloodshed.22 Should this violence escalate further (with luck, the risk may be less than before, following the peaceful democratic transition of 2015), Nigeria would eventually be in danger of becoming Africa’s Syria. In the event, Syria’s refugee crisis – appalling as it is – might end up being a mere footnote in a new epoch of mass migration. Ultimately, the African migration story will be driven by population, modest gains in per capita incomes, improved transportation linkages with the rest of the world and, in some cases, the emergence of ethnic and religious violence: precisely the conditions, in fact, that led to the exodus from Southern and Eastern Europe in the late nineteenth century. In total, the population of the six ‘least-peaceful’ sub-Saharan African countries in 2015 was 327 million – compared with Syria’s pre-war 22 million.


pages: 329 words: 88,954

Emergence by Steven Johnson

A Pattern Language, agricultural Revolution, Brewster Kahle, British Empire, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, Danny Hillis, Douglas Hofstadter, edge city, epigenetics, game design, garden city movement, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Kevin Kelly, late capitalism, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Murano, Venice glass, Naomi Klein, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, pattern recognition, pez dispenser, phenotype, Potemkin village, price mechanism, profit motive, Ray Kurzweil, slashdot, Socratic dialogue, stakhanovite, Steven Pinker, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, Turing test, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush

They remain clustered along the Por Santa Maria because staying put is easier than moving. (In other words, it’s not emergence we’re seeing here—it’s laziness.) The objection might make some sense if we were talking about a fifty-year span, or even a century. But on a thousand-year scale, the force of cultural drift becomes far more powerful. Technological and geopolitical changes obviously have a tremendous impact—killing off entire industries, triggering mass migrations, launching wars, or precipitating epidemics. Neighborhood clusters are extremely vulnerable to those dramatic forces of change, but they are also vulnerable to the slower, mostly invisible drift that all culture undergoes. Over twenty or thirty generations, even something as fundamental as the name of a common item can be transformed beyond recognition, and the steady but imperceptible shifts in pronunciation can make a spoken language unintelligible to listeners.


pages: 313 words: 100,317

Berlin Now: The City After the Wall by Peter Schneider, Sophie Schlondorff

Berlin Wall, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, mass immigration, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, rent control, Ronald Reagan, Ronald Reagan: Tear down this wall, Silicon Valley, young professional

Members of the opposition threatened to—and in some cases actually did—resign. The journalist Claudia Keller was reminded of the 1920s, when the “assimilated Jews from genteel Charlottenburg didn’t want anything to do with the ‘Eastern European Jews’ from East Berlin’s barn quarters.” In the meantime, according to Kugelmann, the Jewish Community is shrinking again. After all, she explains, its enormous expansion wasn’t the result of natural growth but of the mass migration of sorts that began after the fall of the Wall. Moreover, Jewish communities throughout the country are registering many more deaths than births. Since 2005, Germany has insisted that only “halachic Jews”—people of Jewish origin on both their mother’s and father’s sides—have the right to immigrate to Germany. Kugelmann is convinced that Germany’s Jews are about to enter into a new chapter. She believes that the concept of a “shared fate” has been “used up,” that the Jewish community’s symbolic role as the victim of the Holocaust is “finished”; young Jews no longer define themselves according to their parents’ example.


pages: 752 words: 201,334

Like Dreamers: The Story of the Israeli Paratroopers Who Reunited Jerusalem and Divided a Nation by Yossi Klein Halevi

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back-to-the-land, Boycotts of Israel, Burning Man, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, mass immigration, New Journalism, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, Transnistria, Yom Kippur War

Let him and his friends imagine they can determine the future borders of the state; meanwhile, the Labor Party will continue to rein in the utopian fantasies of the Jews. “Srulik,” Arik called him, a Yiddish endearment for Yisrael. The nickname seemed to Yisrael a subtle put-down, reminder of his outsider status as a religious Jew. But he kept his resentment to himself. NATAN ALTERMAN DIED in 1970 at age fifty-nine. Some said the poet died of heartbreak. Only a mass immigration of Western Jews, he had argued, would allow Israel to absorb the West Bank without risking a Palestinian majority, but the Jews weren’t coming. Café Casit closed for the funeral. Yisrael Harel was assigned the role of escorting the poet’s mistress behind the casket. Chapter 13 UTOPIAS LOST AND FOUND AVITAL GEVA, PROVOCATEUR THE FARMERS HEADING toward the fields of Ein Shemer weren’t sure they were seeing right.

The 55th Brigade had led the most daring operation of the war and then endured sustained bombardment—more intense, said Danny Matt, than in any battle in World War II. Yet the brigade survived relatively intact, losing fifty-seven men (along with three hundred wounded)—half the number of its fatalities in the battle for Jerusalem. Along with grief came rage. The Labor Zionist leadership had led the Jewish people through the twentieth century, remained steady through war and siege and terrorism, through waves of mass immigration and economic devastation. Until now. How had the pioneer statesmen and their hero generals become so complacent, so arrogant, that they had failed to notice the growing strength of Arab armies and the prewar buildup on the borders? The world had never seemed to Israelis a more hostile place than it did in late October 1973. The Arab oil boycott, which punished pro-Israel countries with a suspension of oil deliveries, pressured Third World countries to sever relations with the Jewish state, while panicked European governments suddenly discovered the Palestinian cause.


pages: 267 words: 106,340

Europe old and new: transnationalism, belonging, xenophobia by Ray Taras

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affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, British Empire, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, energy security, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, illegal immigration, immigration reform, low skilled workers, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Naomi Klein, North Sea oil, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, Potemkin village, Ronald Reagan, World Values Survey

At subsequent EU summits, the Polish leadership emphasized the urgency of reaching a common energy security treaty for all EU states, which was made more difficult by Russia reaching special energy deals with Germany, Italy, France, and the Netherlands. A second issue in German-Polish relations concerned recognition of minorities in each country. Adam Krzemiński, longtime editor of a leading Polish weekly, Polityka, asked: “Must mass immigration involve giving minority status to the new ethnic groups in the EU member states? This is currently a bone of contention between Germany and Poland. If hundreds of thousands of Poles live in Germany, why shouldn’t they have minority status? Allocating such a status to Muslims has already been broached in debates in Germany. The joke is that until now no Polish National Catholic has demanded minority status for the one hundred thousand Poles living in the UK.


pages: 284 words: 85,643

What's the Matter with White People by Joan Walsh

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affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, banking crisis, clean water, collective bargaining, David Brooks, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, full employment, global village, Golden Gate Park, hiring and firing, impulse control, income inequality, invisible hand, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, mass immigration, new economy, obamacare, Occupy movement, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Nader, Ronald Reagan, upwardly mobile, urban decay, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

he saw the sun setting on the white Christian American empire he once ruled. According to Buchanan, Democrats needn’t fret about politics anymore; demography is destiny. We’ve won. “The European and Christian core of our country is shrinking,” he wrote. “The birthrate of our native born has been below replacement level for decades. By 2020, deaths among white Americans will exceed births, while mass immigration is forever altering the face of America.” Soon, even whites who supported Obama, Buchanan warned, “may discover what it is like to ride in the back of the bus.” The architect of Nixon’s win-over-whites strategy simply couldn’t see a place for himself in a majority nonwhite America. It’s impossible to know how many white people feel the same way, but the book became a best seller. We know Buchanan has company


pages: 459 words: 103,153

Adapt: Why Success Always Starts With Failure by Tim Harford

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Andrew Wiles, banking crisis, Basel III, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Black Swan, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, charter city, Clayton Christensen, clean water, cloud computing, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, corporate governance, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Dava Sobel, Deep Water Horizon, Deng Xiaoping, double entry bookkeeping, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Fermat's Last Theorem, Firefox, food miles, Gerolamo Cardano, global supply chain, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Jane Jacobs, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, Jarndyce and Jarndyce, John Harrison: Longitude, knowledge worker, loose coupling, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Menlo Park, Mikhail Gorbachev, mutually assured destruction, Netflix Prize, New Urbanism, Nick Leeson, PageRank, Piper Alpha, profit motive, Richard Florida, Richard Thaler, rolodex, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, South China Sea, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, the market place, The Wisdom of Crowds, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, web application, X Prize, zero-sum game

The end of error in finance would also be the end of new ideas, and indeed of most banking as we know it. We’d miss it. In the 1960s, my father-in-law tried to get a mortgage. He couldn’t. He was a dentist, so self-employed – too risky. Property was concentrated in the hands of a narrow class of wealthy landlords, who were able to buy it cheap, without much competition, and rent it out to the masses. Immigrants or those with the wrong colour of skin were often the last to be able to get hold of a loan to buy their own home. Let’s not forget that, although we ended up taking several steps too far in making mortgages easy to come by, those steps started off as being in the right direction. As in any other sector, some innovations in finance will inevitably fail. And as in any other sector, those inevitable failures are a price well worth paying for innovations that succeed – but only if the failures are survivable.


pages: 278 words: 88,711

The Next 100 Years: A Forecast for the 21st Century by George Friedman

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banking crisis, British Empire, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, illegal immigration, immigration reform, invisible hand, mass immigration, megastructure, Monroe Doctrine, pink-collar, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, trade route, working poor

Commercialization processes were just beginning, and it would take several decades to transform the civilian economy. So the mass deployment of robotics technologies will not be taking place until the 2040s, and the full transformative power of robotics will not be felt until about 2060. Ironically, immigrant technologists will be critical in developing robotics technology, a technology that will undercut the need for mass immigration. In fact, as robotics enters the mainstream of society, it will undercut the economic position of those migrants engaged in unskilled labor at the bottom of the economic pyramid. Once again, the solution to one problem will be the catalyst for the next one. This situation will set the stage for the crisis of 2080. The system for encouraging immigration will be embedded into American culture and politics.


pages: 323 words: 90,868

The Wealth of Humans: Work, Power, and Status in the Twenty-First Century by Ryan Avent

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3D printing, Airbnb, American energy revolution, assortative mating, autonomous vehicles, Bakken shale, barriers to entry, basic income, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Clayton Christensen, cloud computing, collective bargaining, computer age, creative destruction, dark matter, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, falling living standards, first square of the chessboard, first square of the chessboard / second half of the chessboard, Ford paid five dollars a day, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, future of work, gig economy, global supply chain, global value chain, hydraulic fracturing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Internet of things, inventory management, invisible hand, Jacquard loom, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, knowledge economy, low skilled workers, lump of labour, Lyft, manufacturing employment, Marc Andreessen, mass immigration, means of production, new economy, performance metric, pets.com, price mechanism, quantitative easing, Ray Kurzweil, rent-seeking, reshoring, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, savings glut, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, software is eating the world, supply-chain management, supply-chain management software, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade liberalization, transaction costs, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, Uber and Lyft, Uber for X, very high income, working-age population

It is worth the time and effort of residents of poor countries to invest in rich-country social capital, if they can relocate to places where that social capital is shared by a critical mass of the population. Advanced economies cannot turn poor countries into rich ones, and we lack a foolproof recipe for poor countries seeking to make themselves rich. What can be achieved, and has reliably been achieved, is the process of helping residents of poor countries to become rich by welcoming them into places with strong social capital. Mass immigration has always been the obvious, pie-in-the-sky solution to wide gaps in incomes across countries. Yet the experience of the last two decades has left the people of the rich world deeply ambivalent, if not outright hostile, to the notion of increased immigration. Years of stagnant wages punctuated by the trauma of the financial crisis have voters turning inward, looking to fringe politicians of a nativist bent.


words: 49,604

The Weightless World: Strategies for Managing the Digital Economy by Diane Coyle

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barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, clean water, computer age, Corn Laws, creative destruction, cross-subsidies, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, dematerialisation, Diane Coyle, Edward Glaeser, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, financial deregulation, full employment, George Santayana, global village, hiring and firing, Howard Rheingold, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, knowledge economy, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, lump of labour, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, McJob, microcredit, moral panic, Network effects, new economy, Nick Leeson, night-watchman state, North Sea oil, offshore financial centre, pension reform, pensions crisis, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, spinning jenny, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, Tobin tax, two tier labour market, very high income, War on Poverty, winner-take-all economy, working-age population

Fears about investment by Western companies overseas should also be calmed by the fact that, although capital has become very mobile, people are substantially less able to move between countries than they were at the end of the last century. Research suggests that the aspect of nineteenth century globalisation that was most responsible for falling wages and growing inequality in some countries was mass immigration. It was the doubling of the size of the population in Chicago and New York within the space of a decade, the quintupling of Detroit’s population between 1900 and 1930, that undermined wages for the uneducated masses. This is a phenomenon that is not going to be repeated as this century draws to a close, if politicians succeed in their desire to stem the flows in the tide of humanity from war and famine zones.


pages: 273 words: 87,159

The Vanishing Middle Class: Prejudice and Power in a Dual Economy by Peter Temin

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, anti-communist, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, clean water, corporate raider, Corrections Corporation of America, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Ferguson, Missouri, financial innovation, financial intermediation, floating exchange rates, full employment, income inequality, intangible asset, invisible hand, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mandatory minimum, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, mortgage debt, Network effects, New Urbanism, Nixon shock, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shock, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Powell Memorandum, price stability, race to the bottom, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, the scientific method, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, white flight, working poor

It was always something you called someone who could be considered anything less than you.”12 Jews followed a similar immigrant path when they began to arrive at the end of the nineteenth century in response to pogroms in Eastern Europe. They were discriminated against, and restricted in where they could live, work, and sometimes simply stay during the first half of the twentieth century—from the age of mass immigration from Eastern Europe to the end of the Second World War. There were a few rich Jews—the heirs of earlier court Jews—but they were the exception to the general rule. Most Jews were lumped in with blacks even though they were not black. After the tragic effects of the Second World War and in postwar prosperity, Jews began to be accepted everywhere; they had become white. But while they had made the transition, their movement did not affect the structure of race relations in America.


pages: 313 words: 92,053

Places of the Heart: The Psychogeography of Everyday Life by Colin Ellard

augmented reality, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Broken windows theory, Buckminster Fuller, carbon footprint, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Frank Gehry, Google Glasses, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute couture, Howard Rheingold, Internet of things, Jaron Lanier, mandelbrot fractal, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, megastructure, more computing power than Apollo, Oculus Rift, Peter Eisenman, RFID, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, sentiment analysis, smart cities, the built environment, theory of mind, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, Victor Gruen

But the generic city is free of established patterns and expectations. . . . Some 80 percent of the population of a city like Dubai consists of immigrants. . . . I believe that it’s easier for these demographic groups to walk through Dubai, Singapore or HafenCity than through beautiful medieval city centers. For these people, (the latter) exude nothing but exclusion and rejection. In an age of mass immigration, a mass similarity of cities might just be inevitable. These cities function like airports in which the same shops are always in the same places.15 Koolhaas’ argument that the cultural trappings inherent in traditional cities may be alienating for mobile, multicultural residents of the modern city has merit. He may well be right about the inevitability of generic, functional design in an age of globalization, instant communication, and ubiquitous connectedness.


pages: 323 words: 95,492

The Rise of the Outsiders: How Mainstream Politics Lost Its Way by Steve Richards

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Bernie Sanders, call centre, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Etonian, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, full employment, housing crisis, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, obamacare, Occupy movement, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley

Around a thousand people attended the convention, which also hosted Italy’s Lega Nord (Northern League), the party overtly rooted on the right, compared to Five Star’s convenient apolitical flexibility; the Dutch Party for Freedom; the Austrian Freedom Party; and other right-wing parties from across Europe. In her opening remarks, Le Pen said the influx of migrants arriving on the continent would ‘kill their civility forever’. Heinz-Christian Strache from the Austrian Freedom Party declared at the gathering: ‘We all agree that Europe and European culture and freedom are under threat today because of irresponsible mass immigration.’ ‘The European Union and leaders of national governments have failed in a dramatic fashion. We are here to say that we want a Europe as normal, that another Europe is possible,’ said the secretary of the Lega Nord, Matteo Salvini. He added that we must ‘recover sovereignty as a matter of urgency’.25 What is a ‘normal’ Europe? What precisely does he mean by ‘sovereignty’? What does Le Pen mean when she warns of impoverishment and the end of civility?


pages: 1,773 words: 486,685

Global Crisis: War, Climate Change and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century by Geoffrey Parker

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agricultural Revolution, British Empire, Climatic Research Unit, colonial rule, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Defenestration of Prague, Edmond Halley, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, failed state, Fellow of the Royal Society, financial independence, friendly fire, Google Earth, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Joseph Schumpeter, Khyber Pass, mass immigration, Mercator projection, moral hazard, mortgage debt, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Thiel, Republic of Letters, sexual politics, South China Sea, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unemployed young men, University of East Anglia, World Values Survey, zero-sum game

Above all, although the major rivers of Siberia – Ob, Yenisey and Lena – run north–south, their tributaries form an almost continuous east–west waterway from the Urals to Lake Baikal. Likewise the broad rivers that run from Muscovy south towards the Black and Caspian Seas – Dnieper, Donets, Don and Volga – allow communications by boat in the summer and on the ice in winter. These natural ‘corridors’ permitted not only mass migration, the transmission of orders, tribute and trade, but also dramatic military raids: Cossack adventurers captured Sinop in Anatolia in 1614 and Azov near the Crimea in 1641. The principal strategic challenges to the Russian state nevertheless lay elsewhere. Smolensk, forward bastion of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, stood just over 200 miles west of Moscow, while Narva, a Baltic outpost of the Swedish state, stood scarcely 400 miles to the northwest.

Furthermore, in the 1630s the tsar exempted the pioneers from paying taxes for a decade or more. Not surprisingly, this combination of advantages attracted a substantial migration of peasants from the north. Some joined the Cossacks beyond the Belgorod and Simbirsk Lines, seeking Tatar booty, while others fell victim to Tatar raiders and begged to be ransomed; but most settled and prospered on the hundreds of thousands of acres of virgin farmland now available behind the Lines. This mass migration created a crisis for the ‘servitors’ of the northern regions, on whom the tsars relied to defend the empire. To finance their military service, most servitors depended on the labour and services exacted from the unfree inhabitants of their estates. Now, the servitors claimed, no sooner had they departed on campaign than either their serfs fled southwards or else neighbouring noblemen kidnapped them as extra hands to work their own estates: they could therefore no longer fulfil their military obligations for lack of peasants.

For example, in many areas Jewish entrepreneurs acquired the exclusive right to distil and sell vodka: this meant that they operated the only taverns in the region, where they could charge whatever prices they liked, and they called in the army to destroy illegal stills. Unsurprisingly, these measures enraged the local population and alienated them from their Jewish neighbours.52 Rabbi Hannover did not mention one more factor that helped to precipitate the rebellion that would cost half of Ukraine's Jews their lives and property: adverse weather. The failure of the 1637 revolt triggered a mass migration of Cossacks to the lower Dnieper which, even at the best of times, suffered from almost unbearable humidity and heat in summers and intense cold in winters. As elsewhere in the northern hemisphere, these were not ‘the best of times’. The diary of Marcin Goliński of Kraków recorded the deteriorating situation, with high bread prices in 1638; an exceptionally cold summer in 1641 (during which the sparse grain harvest ripened late and the wine was sour); spring frosts in 1642 and 1643 that blighted all crops; and heavy snow and frosts in the early months of 1646 that gave way to daily rains so torrential that the roads became impassable.

England by David Else

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active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, back-to-the-land, Berlin Wall, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, David Attenborough, David Brooks, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, out of africa, period drama, place-making, sceptred isle, Skype, Sloane Ranger, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, unbiased observer, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

Return to beginning of chapter Food & Drink * * * STAPLES & SPECIALITIES Breakfast Lunch Dinner Regional Specialities Puddings DRINKS Alcoholic Nonalcoholic WHERE TO EAT & DRINK Picnics & Self-catering Cafes & Teashops Restaurants Pubs & Bars FOOD GLOSSARY * * * Once upon a time, English food was highly regarded. In the later medieval period and 17th century, many people – especially the wealthy – ate a varied diet. Then along came the Industrial Revolution, with mass migration from the country to the city, and food quality took a nosedive – a legacy that means there’s still no English equivalent for the phrase bon appétit. But today the tide has turned once again. In 2005, food bible Gourmet magazine famously singled out London as having the best collection of restaurants in the world, and in the years since then the choice for food lovers – whatever their budget – has continued to improve, so it’s now easy to find decent food in other cities, as well as country areas across England

Certainly the counties were part of King Alfred the Great’s 9th-century kingdom of Wessex. From Tudor times onwards Devon and Cornwall helped England build an empire – plaques on Plymouth’s Barbican (Click here) note the departures of Sir Francis Drake, America’s first settlers and emigrant ships to Australia and New Zealand. The late 1800s saw a sharp decline in Cornwall’s mining industry and mass migration – some communities were cut by a third; today ruined engine houses still dot the county’s cliffs, most dramatically at Geevor and Botallack (Click here). The Victorian era brought the railways, mass tourism and resorts – notably at Torquay (Click here) and Penzance (Click here). WWII brought devastating bombing and hundreds of thousands of American servicemen. The following decades saw the death of the mining industry, and fishing and farming slip into decline; despite the holiday image the region still has among the lowest wages in the country.

History Though Norwich’s history stretches back well over a thousand years, the city’s golden age was during the Middle Ages, when it was England’s most important city after London. Its relative isolation meant that it traditionally had stronger ties to the Low Countries than to London and when Edward III encouraged Flemish weavers to settle here in the 14th century this connection was sealed. The arrival of the immigrants helped establish the wool industry that fattened the city and sustained it right through to the 18th century. Mass immigration from the Low Countries peaked in the troubled 16th century. In 1579 more than a third of the town’s citizens were foreigners of a staunch Protestant stock, which proved beneficial during the Civil War when the Protestant parliamentarians caused Norwich little strife. Today the spoils of this rich period in the city’s history are still evident, with 36 medieval churches (see www.norwichchurches.co.uk) adorning the streets whose layout is largely unchanged since this time.

Great Britain by David Else, Fionn Davenport

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active transport: walking or cycling, Albert Einstein, Beeching cuts, British Empire, call centre, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, Columbine, congestion charging, credit crunch, David Attenborough, Etonian, food miles, glass ceiling, global village, haute cuisine, illegal immigration, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, land reform, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, mega-rich, negative equity, new economy, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, period drama, place-making, Skype, Sloane Ranger, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, the market place, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, Winter of Discontent

Return to beginning of chapter Food & Drink * * * FOOD DRINKS WHERE TO EAT & DRINK FOOD GLOSSARY * * * Once upon a time, in the later medieval period and the 17th century, many people in Britain – especially the wealthy – ate a varied diet, although Queen Elizabeth I did reputedly have the kitchen at Hampton Court Palace moved because the smell of cooking food drifted into her bedroom and spoilt her clothes. Then along came the Industrial Revolution, with mass migration from the country to the city, and food quality took a nosedive – a legacy that means there’s still no English equivalent for the phrase bon appétit. * * * Queen Elizabeth I decreed that mutton could only be served with bitter herbs – intended to stop consumption and help the wool trade – but her subjects discovered that mint sauce improved the taste. It’s been roast lamb’s favourite condiment ever since

Strictly speaking, Britain has been multicultural for millennia, made up as it is of three different countries with distinct languages, histories and cultures, colonised centuries ago by a melting pot of Romans, Celts, Saxons, Vikings and Normans. However, this ‘native’ multiculturalism has been greatly influenced by peoples from all over the world – French Huguenots, Russian Jews, West Indians, Poles and Somalis, to name but a few – who have immigrated here over the centuries. In the 20th century, mass immigration to Britain began with the arrival of many thousands of Afro-Caribbeans and Asians in the 1950s and ’60s, which saw the country’s non-white population increase from a few thousand in 1945 to 1.4 million in 1970. Today, British Asians (of Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Sri Lankan descent) account for 5.3% of the population, Black British (Caribbean and African descent) 2.7%, and British Chinese 0.7%.

History Though Norwich’s history stretches back well over a thousand years, the city’s golden age was during the Middle Ages, when it was England’s most important city after London. Its relative isolation meant that it traditionally had stronger ties to the Low Countries than to London and when Edward III encouraged Flemish weavers to settle here in the 14th century this connection was sealed. The arrival of the immigrants helped establish the wool industry that fattened the city and sustained it right through to the 18th century. Mass immigration from the Low Countries peaked in the troubled 16th century. In 1579 more than a third of the town’s citizens were foreigners of a staunch Protestant stock, which proved beneficial during the Civil War when the Protestant parliamentarians caused Norwich little strife. Today the spoils of this rich period in the city’s history are still evident, with 36 medieval churches (see www.norwichchurches.co.uk) adorning the streets whose layout is largely unchanged since this time.


pages: 1,309 words: 300,991

Vanished Kingdoms: The Rise and Fall of States and Nations by Norman Davies

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anti-communist, Berlin Wall, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, Corn Laws, en.wikipedia.org, energy security, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, labour mobility, land tenure, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, Red Clydeside, Ronald Reagan, Skype, special economic zone, trade route, urban renewal

Unlike other Anglo-Saxons, they mixed readily with the native British, creating ‘the only recognisably Germano-Celtic cultural and political fusion in Britain’.28 Their long-term strategy, dictated by their advantageous coastal position, was to link up with their kinsmen in the Kingdom of Deur or Deira to the south, forming a united Anglian realm in Northumbria (that is, ‘North of the Humber’). At the same time, they could chip away at the surrounding British kingdoms of Rheged and Gododdin. The Gaelic Scots on the west coast developed their activities in similar fashion. The theory that they arrived from Ireland in one mass migration is now discredited: there may well have been ‘Scottish’ (meaning Irish) settlements on both sides of the North Channel from much earlier times. Yet the important political fact concerns the extension of a Gaelic Kingdom of Dalriada from Ulster to the British shore of what would henceforth be known as ‘Argyll’ or the ‘Eastern Gaels’, where Aedan macGabrain began his reign in 574. The facts of the reign are known through the presence of St Columba (c. 521–97), who had recently planted a Christian community on the island of Iona and whose biographer, Adamnan, provides a well informed and detailed source.29 The strategic concerns of the Gaels of Argyll are not hard to divine.

Galicia appeared to be falling victim to the Malthusian nightmare which most of Europe had avoided. Overpopulation underlay all other socio-economic ills. Food production had fallen well below rates in neighbouring countries in every crop except potatoes. The birth rate soared to 44/1,000 per annum. The death rate was dropping. The total population was heading for 9 million. Galicia could no longer feed its sons and daughters. Mass migration was the result. Migrant workers no longer returned home after a seasonal spell in Germany or in Western Europe, but went further and further afield. The coal mines of Ostrava or of Upper Silesia were a frequent destination, but once the railways were built, it was a relatively simple matter to take a train to Bremen or Hamburg and to sail for America. The station at Oświe˛cim provided the main point of departure.


Eastern USA by Lonely Planet

1960s counterculture, active transport: walking or cycling, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, centre right, collective bargaining, cuban missile crisis, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Frank Gehry, glass ceiling, Guggenheim Bilbao, haute cuisine, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, immigration reform, information trail, interchangeable parts, jitney, license plate recognition, Mason jar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, new economy, New Urbanism, obamacare, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, Silicon Valley, Skype, the built environment, the High Line, the payments system, transcontinental railway, union organizing, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, Works Progress Administration, young professional

Formerly wartime allies, the communist Soviet Union and the capitalist USA soon engaged in a running competition to dominate the globe. The superpowers engaged in proxy wars – notably the Korean War (1950–53) and Vietnam War (1959–75) – with only the mutual threat of nuclear annihilation preventing direct war. Meanwhile, with its continent unscarred and its industry bulked up by WWII, the American homeland entered an era of growing affluence. In the 1950s, a mass migration left the inner cities for the suburbs, where affordable single-family homes sprang up. Americans drove cheap cars using cheap gas over brand-new interstate highways. They relaxed with the comforts of modern technology, swooned over TV, and got busy, giving birth to a ‘baby boom.’ Though the town of Woodstock, NY, lent its name to the mythic music fest of 1969, the event actually took place in the nearby hamlet of Bethel, where dairy farmer Max Yasgur rented his alfalfa field to organizers.

It’s the kind of place where homeless people are treated kindly at the coffee shops, where the buses are kept immaculately clean, and where the public workers tell everyone to ‘Have a nice day,’ rain or shine (or snow). The city is ‘Minnesota Nice’ in action. History Timber was the city’s first boom industry, and water-powered sawmills rose along the Mississippi River in the mid-1800s. Wheat from the prairies also needed to be processed, so flour mills churned into the next big business. The population boomed in the late 19th century with mass immigration, especially from Scandinavia and Germany. Today Minneapolis’ Nordic heritage is evident, whereas twin city St Paul is more German and Irish-Catholic. Sights & Activities The Mississippi River flows northeast of downtown. Despite the name, Uptown is actually southwest of downtown, with Hennepin Ave as its main axis. Minneapolis’ twin city, St Paul, is 10 miles east. Most attractions are closed Monday; many stay open late Thursday.


pages: 1,104 words: 302,176

The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living Since the Civil War (The Princeton Economic History of the Western World) by Robert J. Gordon

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, airport security, Apple II, barriers to entry, big-box store, blue-collar work, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, clean water, collective bargaining, computer age, creative destruction, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of penicillin, Donner party, Downton Abbey, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, Erik Brynjolfsson, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, feminist movement, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, glass ceiling, high net worth, housing crisis, immigration reform, impulse control, income inequality, income per capita, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflight wifi, interchangeable parts, invention of agriculture, invention of air conditioning, invention of the telegraph, invention of the telephone, inventory management, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, jitney, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, labor-force participation, Loma Prieta earthquake, Louis Daguerre, Louis Pasteur, low skilled workers, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market fragmentation, Mason jar, mass immigration, mass incarceration, McMansion, Menlo Park, minimum wage unemployment, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Norbert Wiener, obamacare, occupational segregation, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, payday loans, Peter Thiel, pink-collar, Productivity paradox, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, refrigerator car, rent control, Robert X Cringely, Ronald Coase, school choice, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, Skype, stem cell, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Pinker, The Market for Lemons, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, transaction costs, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Unsafe at Any Speed, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban sprawl, washing machines reduced drudgery, Washington Consensus, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration, yellow journalism, yield management

But after 1940, the relationship was reversed, with productivity growth of 2.25 percent outpacing real wage growth of 1.56 percent by a difference of 0.69 percentage points. The time interval with the fastest real wage growth was 1910–40, when the growth rate of 3.08 percent was a full percentage point faster than during 1870–1910. A plausible explanation for this shift was the role of unlimited immigration in holding down real wages in the earlier period and the end of mass immigration caused by World War I and the restrictive anti-immigration quotas passed in 1921, which saw further tightening in 1924 and 1929. The encouragement of labor unions by New Deal legislation may have been just as important, as suggested by the extremely rapid 4.64 annual growth rate of the real wage series between 1936 and 1940. Figure 8–7. Real Hourly Compensation of Production Workers and Real GDP per Hour, Bottom 90 Percent of the Income Distribution, 1870–2012 Sources: Wages are from Production Workers Compensation from MeasuringWorth, price deflator is ratio linked from the PCE deflator 1929–2010, NIPA Table 1.1.9, to the CPI for pre-1929 from MeasuringWorth, GDP is from Balke and Gordon (1989) Table 10, 1869–1928, and NIPA Table 1.1.6, post-1928, and Total Hours are from BLS and Kendrick (1961) Appendix Table A-X.

Real Hourly Compensation of Production Workers and Real GDP per Hour, Bottom 90 Percent of the Income Distribution, 1870–2012 Sources: Wages are from Production Workers Compensation from MeasuringWorth, price deflator is ratio linked from the PCE deflator 1929–2010, NIPA Table 1.1.9, to the CPI for pre-1929 from MeasuringWorth, GDP is from Balke and Gordon (1989) Table 10, 1869–1928, and NIPA Table 1.1.6, post-1928, and Total Hours are from BLS and Kendrick (1961) Appendix Table A-X. Some part of the explanation of rapid real wage increases before 1940, particularly between 1920 and 1940, may be attributable to the end of mass immigration and the encouragement of labor unions by New Deal legislation. But ultimately it was technological change that drove real wages higher. Part of this was compositional—new machines that pulled, pushed, carried, and lifted shifted the composition of employment away from the common laborer to operatives doing specialized albeit repetitive tasks and to new layers of supervisors, engineers, and repairmen to plan the layout of the machines, train new workers, and tend the machines.


pages: 441 words: 136,954

That Used to Be Us by Thomas L. Friedman, Michael Mandelbaum

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3D printing, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, Amazon Web Services, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, Andy Kessler, Ayatollah Khomeini, bank run, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, blue-collar work, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, Climatic Research Unit, cloud computing, collective bargaining, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, delayed gratification, energy security, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, full employment, Google Earth, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, Lean Startup, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, more computing power than Apollo, Network effects, obamacare, oil shock, pension reform, Report Card for America’s Infrastructure, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, Steve Jobs, the scientific method, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, University of East Anglia, WikiLeaks

Nor can we be sure what the consequences of higher temperatures will be for the planet. The Earth’s atmosphere and its surface are complicated interrelated systems, too complicated to lend themselves to precise prediction even by the best scientists using the most sophisticated mathematical models. The social and political effects of the geophysical consequences of higher global temperatures involve even greater uncertainties. They could include famines, mass migrations, the collapse of governmental structures, and wars in the places most severely affected. Unfortunately, it is not possible to know in advance how, whether, and when global warming will trigger any or all of these things. So, yes, there are uncertainties surrounding the effects of climate change, but none about whether it is real. The uncertainties concern how and when its effects will unfold.


pages: 504 words: 147,660

In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts: Close Encounters With Addiction by Gabor Mate, Peter A. Levine

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Albert Einstein, Anton Chekhov, corporate governance, epigenetics, ghettoisation, impulse control, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, phenotype, placebo effect, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), source of truth, Yogi Berra

Tobacco and other potentially addictive substances, were available to North American Natives prior to the European invasions, even alcohol in what are now Mexico and the American Southwest—not to mention potentially addictive activities such as sex, eating and gambling. Yet, as Dr. Alexander points out, there is no mention by anthropologists of “anything that could be reasonably called addiction…. Where alcohol was readily available, it was used moderately, often ceremonially rather than addictively.” With the mass migration of Europeans to North America and the economic transformation of the continent came also the loss of freedom of mobility for Native peoples, the inexorable and still continuing despoliation and destruction of their homelands, the loss of their traditional livelihoods, the invalidation of their spiritual ways, persistent discrimination and abject poverty. Within living memory Native children were seized from their homes, alienated from their families and, for all intents and purposes, incarcerated in “civilizing” institutions where their lot was one of cultural suppression, emotional and physical maltreatment and, with distressing frequency, sexual abuse.


pages: 523 words: 148,929

Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by the Year 2100 by Michio Kaku

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agricultural Revolution, AI winter, Albert Einstein, Asilomar, augmented reality, Bill Joy: nanobots, bioinformatics, blue-collar work, British Empire, Brownian motion, cloud computing, Colonization of Mars, DARPA: Urban Challenge, delayed gratification, double helix, Douglas Hofstadter, en.wikipedia.org, friendly AI, Gödel, Escher, Bach, hydrogen economy, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, industrial robot, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of movable type, invention of the telescope, Isaac Newton, John Markoff, John von Neumann, life extension, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, Mars Rover, mass immigration, megacity, Murray Gell-Mann, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, optical character recognition, pattern recognition, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, Ray Kurzweil, refrigerator car, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Rodney Brooks, Ronald Reagan, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Silicon Valley, Simon Singh, speech recognition, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, telepresence, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, trade route, Turing machine, uranium enrichment, Vernor Vinge, Wall-E, Walter Mischel, Whole Earth Review, X Prize

Coastal cities may disappear. Large parts of Manhattan may have to be evacuated, with Wall Street underwater. Governments will have to decide which of their great cities and capitals are worth saving and which are beyond hope. Some cities may be saved via a combination of sophisticated dikes and water gates. Other cities may be deemed hopeless and allowed to vanish under the ocean, creating mass migrations of people. Since most of the commercial and population centers of the world are next to the ocean, this could have a disastrous effect on the world economy. Even if some cities can be salvaged, there is still the danger that large storms can send surges of water into a city, paralyzing its infrastructure. For example, in 1992 a huge storm surge flooded Manhattan, paralyzing the subway system and trains to New Jersey.


pages: 339 words: 57,031

From Counterculture to Cyberculture: Stewart Brand, the Whole Earth Network, and the Rise of Digital Utopianism by Fred Turner

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1960s counterculture, A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, back-to-the-land, bioinformatics, Buckminster Fuller, Claude Shannon: information theory, complexity theory, computer age, conceptual framework, Danny Hillis, dematerialisation, distributed generation, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, Dynabook, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death, future of work, game design, George Gilder, global village, Golden Gate Park, Hacker Ethic, Haight Ashbury, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, informal economy, invisible hand, Jaron Lanier, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, market bubble, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Mother of all demos, new economy, Norbert Wiener, peer-to-peer, post-industrial society, postindustrial economy, Productivity paradox, QWERTY keyboard, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, Richard Stallman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, South of Market, San Francisco, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, technoutopianism, Ted Nelson, Telecommunications Act of 1996, theory of mind, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, Yom Kippur War

We can ask what kinds of dependency we prefer, but that’s our only choice.37 For Brand and the readers of CQ, the fading of the New Communalist dream and the entry into middle age posed a dilemma: Having just repudiated the mainstream adult world, how could they join it? And if they did find a way in, how could they bring with them their entrepreneurial habits and their celebration of small-scale technology and spiritual community? In the late 1960s, the elevation of consciousness into a principle on which to found communities had helped justify a mass migration to the rural wilds. In the early 1970s, many were seeking a view of consciousness that might justify a return to civilization. In the pages of CQ, as in the Whole Earth Catalog before it, Brand supplied that view by turning to systems-oriented ecological theory and cybernetics. He explained in the first issue that the magazine took its name from the biological theory of “coevolution,” in which two species evolved symbiotically.


pages: 419 words: 125,977

Factory Girls: From Village to City in a Changing China by Leslie T. Chang

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anti-communist, Deng Xiaoping, estate planning, financial independence, index card, invention of writing, job-hopping, land reform, Mason jar, mass immigration, new economy, Pearl River Delta, risk tolerance, special economic zone

Agriculture brings little economic benefit now; family plots, of just under one acre on average, are too small to be profitable. But across China, the family farm is still being tended, because that is what people have always done. The land is less an income source than an insurance policy—a guarantee that a person can live and will not starve. The continuing link to a family farm has stabilized China in an age of mass migration. Its cities have not spawned the shantytown slums of so much of the developing world, because the migrant who fails in the city can always return home and find someone there. A teenager may go out for work, leaving his parents on the farm. A husband who migrates may have a wife at home tilling the fields, or sometimes the other way around. A married couple might go out together, leaving young children in the care of their aged parents.


pages: 543 words: 147,357

Them And Us: Politics, Greed And Inequality - Why We Need A Fair Society by Will Hutton

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Andrei Shleifer, asset-backed security, bank run, banking crisis, Benoit Mandelbrot, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Bretton Woods, capital controls, carbon footprint, Carmen Reinhart, Cass Sunstein, centre right, choice architecture, cloud computing, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, Corn Laws, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, debt deflation, decarbonisation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of DNA, discovery of the americas, discrete time, diversification, double helix, Edward Glaeser, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial intermediation, first-past-the-post, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Levy and Richard Murnane: The New Division of Labor, full employment, George Akerlof, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, Growth in a Time of Debt, Hyman Minsky, I think there is a world market for maybe five computers, income inequality, inflation targeting, interest rate swap, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, James Watt: steam engine, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, Louis Pasteur, low-wage service sector, mandelbrot fractal, margin call, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, Mikhail Gorbachev, millennium bug, money market fund, moral hazard, moral panic, mortgage debt, Myron Scholes, Neil Kinnock, new economy, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, Plutocrats, plutocrats, price discrimination, private sector deleveraging, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, railway mania, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Richard Thaler, Right to Buy, rising living standards, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Ronald Reagan, Rory Sutherland, Satyajit Das, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, Skype, South Sea Bubble, Steve Jobs, The Market for Lemons, the market place, The Myth of the Rational Market, the payments system, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, too big to fail, unpaid internship, value at risk, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, working poor, zero-sum game, éminence grise

It turns an insurance payment into a tax, delegitimises the principle of social insurance and embeds an unfair conception of human motivation into the heart of our civilisation. The evidence is that the vast majority of people want to work, detest unemployment and wish to insure themselves against the risk – but that is not the moral basis of the current unemployment compensation system. Some on the left might agree with this criticism, but they will cavil at another. For this is also why, in an era of mass migration, countries have to be careful to organise their welfare system so that migrants can qualify for the full array of benefits only after they have contributed for some years. The EU requires each member state to offer immigrants from other member states immediate access to benefits in the host state, which was a reasonable proposition when immigration was low and per capita incomes were broadly equal.


pages: 434 words: 150,773

When the Iron Lady Ruled Britain by Robert Chesshyre

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Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, corporate raider, deskilling, Etonian, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, full employment, housing crisis, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, means of production, Neil Kinnock, North Sea oil, oil rush, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, school choice, Silicon Valley, the market place, trickle-down economics, union organizing, wealth creators, young professional

Between the wars, it was the Welsh who left the valleys and headed east along the A4 to the town rising from ‘the dump’: recent newcomers have been Asians (‘it’s the first town they come to after leaving Heathrow’ is the local joke), and nearly a quarter of the population has origins in the Indian sub-continent, a proportion projected to rise substantially by the end of the twentieth century. Between these two mass migrations came Cockneys, Irish and Poles. The mobility continues, and one-fifth of all owner-occupier houses change hands each year. Because of its solid industrial base – and despite the extortionate house prices – Slough remains a community without frills. Shortly before my visit, the mayor, a former Londoner with a rough diamond reputation, had crossed swords with, of all people, the Queen Mother – a skirmish that said much about both the town and how its grand neighbours see it.


pages: 565 words: 151,129

The Zero Marginal Cost Society: The Internet of Things, the Collaborative Commons, and the Eclipse of Capitalism by Jeremy Rifkin

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3D printing, active measures, additive manufacturing, Airbnb, autonomous vehicles, back-to-the-land, big-box store, bioinformatics, bitcoin, business process, Chris Urmson, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, collaborative consumption, collaborative economy, Community Supported Agriculture, Computer Numeric Control, computer vision, crowdsourcing, demographic transition, distributed generation, en.wikipedia.org, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global supply chain, global village, Hacker Ethic, industrial robot, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Watt: steam engine, job automation, John Markoff, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, John Maynard Keynes: technological unemployment, Julian Assange, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, labour mobility, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, Mark Zuckerberg, market design, mass immigration, means of production, meta analysis, meta-analysis, natural language processing, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, Occupy movement, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, pattern recognition, peer-to-peer, peer-to-peer lending, personalized medicine, phenotype, planetary scale, price discrimination, profit motive, QR code, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Ray Kurzweil, RFID, Richard Stallman, risk/return, Ronald Coase, search inside the book, self-driving car, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social web, software as a service, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, the built environment, The Nature of the Firm, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas L Friedman, too big to fail, transaction costs, urban planning, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, web application, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks, working poor, zero-sum game, Zipcar

The REA convinced General Electric and Westinghouse to manufacture cheaper appliances that would sell at half the usual price to stimulate the equipping of millions of rural households with the latest electrical conveniences.54 The acquisition of new appliances by rural households accounted for an amazing 20 percent increase in appliance sales during the worst years of the Depression, helping to keep a flagging economy afloat.55 Rural electrification also increased property values across rural America and provided the electrical-transmission infrastructure for the mass migration from urban to rural areas in the 1950s to the 1980s, with the build-out of the interstate highway system and the construction of millions of new suburban homes, offices, and shopping malls off of the highway exits. The suburbanization of America also brought new commercial opportunities to rural areas, and with it, millions of new jobs, marking the most prosperous economic period in U.S. history.56 Every argument that Hotelling advanced in his paper in favor of federal government financing of the TVA proved to be astonishingly accurate.


pages: 504 words: 143,303

Why We Can't Afford the Rich by Andrew Sayer

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accounting loophole / creative accounting, Albert Einstein, asset-backed security, banking crisis, banks create money, basic income, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, David Graeber, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, debt deflation, decarbonisation, declining real wages, deglobalization, deindustrialization, delayed gratification, demand response, don't be evil, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, en.wikipedia.org, Etonian, financial innovation, financial intermediation, Fractional reserve banking, full employment, G4S, Goldman Sachs: Vampire Squid, high net worth, income inequality, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, Isaac Newton, James Dyson, job automation, Julian Assange, labour market flexibility, laissez-faire capitalism, land value tax, low skilled workers, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, moral hazard, mortgage debt, negative equity, neoliberal agenda, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, patent troll, payday loans, Philip Mirowski, Plutocrats, plutocrats, popular capitalism, predatory finance, price stability, pushing on a string, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, Steve Jobs, The Nature of the Firm, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, universal basic income, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, working poor, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

This event made it all too clear that extreme weather can sweep devastating tidal surges across low-lying and often populous coasts. The combination of global warming and such events is truly disturbing: droughts, deforestation and desertification (already happening in Spain, parts of Africa and California), increased extinctions of species and loss of biodiversity, food shortages, deaths from heat exhaustion, and mass migrations of people. By 2009, according to the Global Humanitarian Forum report The Anatomy of a Silent Crisis, hundreds of thousands of deaths had been caused by global warming, and many millions more people were negatively affected.38 Under these conditions we can expect political tensions to rise, and some think ‘resource wars’ will become common.39 Many climate scientists fear that even a 1 degree Celsius warming is risky, but the more optimistic figure of 2 degrees Celsius as the maximum that we can risk has been widely touted in political discussions, though this is very much a politically acceptable figure.


pages: 506 words: 146,607

Confessions of a Wall Street Analyst: A True Story of Inside Information and Corruption in the Stock Market by Daniel Reingold, Jennifer Reingold

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barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, corporate governance, estate planning, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fixed income, George Gilder, high net worth, informal economy, margin call, mass immigration, new economy, pets.com, Robert Metcalfe, rolodex, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, short selling, Silicon Valley, stem cell, Telecommunications Act of 1996, thinkpad, traveling salesman

“Hi, I’m John Mack…” All of this happened just before bonus checks were handed out on Wall Street. Bonus time on the Street was the most eagerly anticipated, tension-filled month of the year. The rumors began early and spread faster than the usual sex or political gossip. And, once you found out your “number,” it was time to move. The end of February on Wall Street was the equivalent of summer in the Serengeti Plain, with the annual mass migration not of zebras and springboks, but of bankers, brokers, and analysts to their competitors who were willing to pay more. It was a time to plop new butts in all the suddenly empty chairs, disconnect and reconnect phone lines, empty and fill cabinets, and order new corporate credit cards. It was perfectly normal to walk in one morning and discover that the chemicals analyst you sat next to had evaporated into thin air.


pages: 366 words: 123,151

The Routes of Man: How Roads Are Changing the World and the Way We Live Today by Ted Conover

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airport security, Atahualpa, carbon footprint, Deng Xiaoping, East Village, financial independence, Google Earth, mass immigration, megacity, mutually assured destruction, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, off grid, Ronald Reagan, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, urban renewal

The “ideal of contamination,” he continues, “has no more eloquent exponent than Salman Rushdie, who has insisted that the novel that occasioned his fatwa ‘celebrates hybridity, impurity, intermingling, the transformation that comes of new and unexpected combinations of human beings, cultures, ideas, politics, movies, songs. It rejoices in mongrelization and fears the absolutism of the Pure. Mélange, hotchpotch, a bit of this and a bit of that is how newness enters the world. It is the great possibility that mass migration gives the world, and I have tried to embrace it’” (p. 112). TRADITION HAS IT THAT CHILING’S SMITHS: Janet Rizvi, Ladakh, p. 160. ROAD ECOLOGY THE FLORIDA PANTHER, DOWN TO FEWER THAN A HUNDRED INDIVIDUALS: “Florida panther deaths increase from collisions with vehicles,” news release from Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, June 29, 2007. EDWARD O. WILSON’S RESEARCH: Robert H.


pages: 462 words: 142,240

Iron Sunrise by Stross, Charles

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blood diamonds, dumpster diving, gravity well, hiring and firing, industrial robot, life extension, loose coupling, mass immigration, mutually assured destruction, phenotype, planetary scale, postindustrial economy, RFID, side project, speech recognition, technological singularity, trade route, uranium enrichment, urban sprawl, zero-sum game

Eventually a black dwarf hung alone, cooling toward absolute zero. Fusion didn’t stop but ran incredibly slowly, mediated by quantum tunneling under conditions of extreme cold. Over a span billions of times greater than that which had elapsed since the big bang in the universe outside, light nuclei merged, tunneling across the high quantum wall of their electron orbitals. Heavier elements disintegrated slowly, fissioning and then decaying down to iron. Mass migrated until, by the end of the process, a billion trillion years down the line, the star was a single crystal of iron crushed down into a sphere a few thousand kilometers in diameter, spinning slowly in a cold vacuum only trillionths of a degree above absolute zero. Then the external force that had created the pocket universe went into reverse, snapping shut the pocket and dropping the dense spherical crystal into the hole at the core of the star, less than thirty seconds after the bomb had gone off.


pages: 407 words: 121,458

Confessions of an Eco-Sinner: Tracking Down the Sources of My Stuff by Fred Pearce

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additive manufacturing, air freight, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, ghettoisation, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Kibera, mass immigration, megacity, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, profit motive, race to the bottom, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

Eastern Europe could lose between a third and a half of its populations by mid-century – a trend exacerbated by the ‘vodka effect’, which has cut male life expectancy in Russia to fifty-eight years. By 2050, Russia may have fewer people than Uganda. By 2100, Britain’s indigenous population can be expected to halve, while Italy’s population could crash from 58 million now to just 8 million. Germany could have fewer people than today’s Berlin. Without a sharp rise in fertility rates, only mass migration into Europe can halt this. Perhaps that is how it will play out. The new demography may create a planet of itinerants as labour becomes globalized along with capital. We already see Indian workers building Dubai, Poles in the fields of England, Chinese foresters in Siberia, Guatemalan grape-pickers and housemaids in California. But where will the new migrants come from if global populations start to fall?


pages: 476 words: 144,288

1946: The Making of the Modern World by Victor Sebestyen

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anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Bretton Woods, British Empire, centre right, clean water, colonial rule, Etonian, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, illegal immigration, imperial preference, land reform, long peace, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, operation paperclip

When a rough-and-ready body count was made after the city quietened down, nearly three-quarters of the dead were Muslims. * The Great Calcutta Killings, as they were called, were the first of the wave of massacres that accompanied the Partition of India the following summer. Nobody knows exactly how many people were killed. The best estimate is between 1 million and 1.2 million. Around 15 million people were uprooted in a mass migration. The world had never been more full of refugees. In the immediate aftermath of the riots, Jinnah was blamed by both the British and the Congress for calling the Direct Action Day, and the Muslim League was blamed for ratcheting up the rhetoric of Islamic nationalism. But all the leaders in India were guilty of playing ethnic politics and then affecting surprise when their harsh words resulted in violent deeds.

After the Cataclysm by Noam Chomsky

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8-hour work day, anti-communist, British Empire, facts on the ground, illegal immigration, land reform, mass immigration, RAND corporation, union organizing

Turning to the Khmer Rouge, Barron and Paul claim that “there is no evidence that the communists ever enjoyed the voluntary support of more than a small minority of Cambodians, in either the countryside or the cities” (a standard propaganda cliché of the Vietnam War applied to the NLF, although known to be false by official experts).296 Rather, the Khmer Rouge programs “alienated the peasantry affected” so that families “fled to the cities” in a “mass migration”—not from the U.S. bombing but rather from Khmer Rouge cruelty. Their “mute and phlegmatic” soldiers include children “impressed into the revolutionary army at age ten or eleven when the communists had overrun their villages.”297 On the assumption that these remarks accurately characterize the Khmer Rouge relation to the peasantry, the “difficult question” of how they now maintain control becomes an imponderable mystery, not to speak of their rise from a tiny movement to a substantial army under the most horrendous conditions and their success in defeating the Lon Nol army backed by massive U.S. force.


pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

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1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

Central to this process was the idea of leaving the ground-level street, with its pollution, congestion, conflict and poverty, for raised-up and rationally planned three-dimensional urban worlds that were emancipatory because they were designed in toto. To their advocates, mass vertical housing blocks ‘offered a social and political response to the chaos of cities rocked by an age of industrial poverty, population explosion, mass migration, and total war.’10 The rhetoric signified a step-change in mass industrial society, a planned and designed revolution through vertical, designed housing which mimicked the parallel rise of mass vertical housing in socialist and communist societies. The obsession was with the creation of a tabula rasa through massive demolition of what was there before so that a radically new society could be engineered.


pages: 399 words: 116,828

When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor by William Julius Wilson

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affirmative action, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deliberate practice, desegregation, Donald Trump, edge city, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, jobless men, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, school choice, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

“Public housing was now meant to collect the ghetto residents left homeless by the urban renewal bulldozers.” A new, lower-income ceiling for public housing residency was established by the federal Public Housing Authority, and families with incomes above that ceiling were evicted, thereby restricting access to public housing to the most economically disadvantaged segments of the population. This change in federal housing policy coincided with the mass migration of African-Americans from the rural South to the cities of the Northeast and Midwest. Since smaller suburban communities refused to permit the construction of public housing, the units were overwhelmingly concentrated in the overcrowded and deteriorating inner-city ghettos—the poorest and least socially organized sections of the city and the metropolitan area. “This growing population of politically weak urban poor was unable to counteract the desires of vocal middle- and working-class whites for segregated housing,” housing that would keep blacks out of white neighborhoods.


pages: 437 words: 113,173

Age of Discovery: Navigating the Risks and Rewards of Our New Renaissance by Ian Goldin, Chris Kutarna

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2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, 3D printing, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, AltaVista, Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, autonomous vehicles, banking crisis, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, bioinformatics, bitcoin, Bonfire of the Vanities, clean water, collective bargaining, Colonization of Mars, Credit Default Swap, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, Dava Sobel, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, double helix, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, experimental economics, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial innovation, full employment, Galaxy Zoo, global supply chain, Hyperloop, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial cluster, industrial robot, information retrieval, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, Islamic Golden Age, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, labour market flexibility, low cost carrier, low skilled workers, Lyft, Malacca Straits, mass immigration, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral hazard, Network effects, New Urbanism, non-tariff barriers, Occupy movement, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, open economy, Panamax, Pearl River Delta, personalized medicine, Peter Thiel, post-Panamax, profit motive, rent-seeking, reshoring, Robert Gordon, Robert Metcalfe, Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, Second Machine Age, self-driving car, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart grid, Snapchat, special economic zone, spice trade, statistical model, Stephen Hawking, Steve Jobs, Stuxnet, TaskRabbit, The Future of Employment, too big to fail, trade liberalization, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, uranium enrichment, We are the 99%, We wanted flying cars, instead we got 140 characters, working poor, working-age population, zero day

.* Beginning in the 1520s, the rest of Europe experienced another flow of displaced people—this time, as the result of Luther’s Reformation. That violent division of Christendom into Catholics and Protestants produced migration on a scale that Europe had not seen since the fall of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century, and would not see again until the First World War.52 The most infamous mass migration was the Atlantic slave trade, which began within a few years of Columbus’s discovery of the New World and which transplanted over 11 million Africans to the Americas by the mid-nineteenth century. As with the seaborne goods trade, this grim business started off modestly. Some 400,000 Africans had been delivered by the year 1600, forced to join some 250,000 Europeans in their New World colonies.53 But the inhumanity had begun and would balloon in the centuries to come.


pages: 566 words: 163,322

The Rise and Fall of Nations: Forces of Change in the Post-Crisis World by Ruchir Sharma

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3D printing, Asian financial crisis, backtesting, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, BRICs, business climate, business process, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, colonial rule, Commodity Super-Cycle, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, currency peg, dark matter, debt deflation, deglobalization, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Doha Development Round, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, Elon Musk, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Freestyle chess, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, income inequality, indoor plumbing, industrial robot, inflation targeting, Internet of things, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Markoff, Joseph Schumpeter, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, liberal capitalism, Malacca Straits, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, mittelstand, moral hazard, New Economic Geography, North Sea oil, oil rush, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, pattern recognition, Paul Samuelson, Peter Thiel, pets.com, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, price stability, Productivity paradox, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, rent-seeking, reserve currency, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, secular stagnation, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Simon Kuznets, smart cities, Snapchat, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spectrum auction, Steve Jobs, The Future of Employment, The Wisdom of Crowds, Thomas Malthus, total factor productivity, trade liberalization, trade route, tulip mania, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, unorthodox policies, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, working-age population

And here China is winning the race to build second cities, hands down. China has a remarkably large number of cities that started out with fewer than a quarter-million people three decades ago and mushroomed into metropolises of more than one million, and in some cases much more. In all, there are nineteen such boom cities in China, led by Shenzhen with more than ten million and the neighboring city of Dongguan with more than seven million. In a sense, the mass migration to the southwestern United States has an even larger echo in China, where the move has been from inland provinces to the southeastern coast. Over the same time period in India, only two towns of under a quarter-million have emerged as cities of more than one million—Mallapuram and Kollam in Kerala state—and their emergence is due largely to a redrawing of the local administrative map. If it were not for a widening of their boundaries in 2011, these two cities’ populations would still fall well short of the one million mark.


pages: 469 words: 146,487

Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World by Niall Ferguson

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British Empire, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, Corn Laws, European colonialism, imperial preference, income per capita, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Khyber Pass, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Livingstone, I presume, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, night-watchman state, profit motive, Scramble for Africa, spice trade, The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping his morning tea in bed, the various products of the whole earth, the new new thing, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, union organizing, zero-sum game

In leaving Britain, the early emigrants risked not merely their life savings but their very lives. Their voyages were never without hazard; their destinations were often unhealthy and inhospitable. To us, their decision to gamble everything on a one-way ticket seems baffling. Yet without millions of such tickets – some purchased voluntarily, some not – there could have been no British Empire. For the indispensable foundation of the Empire was mass migration: the biggest in human history. This Britannic exodus changed the world. It turned whole continents white. For most of the emigrants, the New World spelt liberty – religious freedom in some cases, but above all economic freedom. Indeed, the British liked to think of this freedom as the thing that made their empire different from – and of course better than – the Spanish, the Portuguese and the Dutch.


pages: 411 words: 114,717

Breakout Nations: In Pursuit of the Next Economic Miracles by Ruchir Sharma

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3D printing, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, American energy revolution, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, business climate, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, capital controls, Carmen Reinhart, central bank independence, centre right, cloud computing, collective bargaining, colonial rule, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, Deng Xiaoping, eurozone crisis, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, inflation targeting, informal economy, Kenneth Rogoff, knowledge economy, labor-force participation, labour market flexibility, land reform, M-Pesa, Mahatma Gandhi, Marc Andreessen, market bubble, mass immigration, megacity, Mexican peso crisis / tequila crisis, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open economy, Peter Thiel, planetary scale, quantitative easing, reserve currency, Robert Gordon, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, software is eating the world, sovereign wealth fund, The Great Moderation, Thomas L Friedman, trade liberalization, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, working-age population, zero-sum game

The development of this habit—deficit spending in good times as well as bad—was a major contributor to the current debt problems in the United States and Western Europe, and India can ill afford it. What’s more, welfare schemes such as the rural employment guarantees create a perverse incentive for villagers to stay on the farm. As we’ve seen, China was able to convert its growing labor force into an economic miracle by encouraging a rapid mass migration of inland farmers to the more productive coastal cities. Over the past decade the share of the Chinese population living in urban areas rose from 35 to 46 percent. During the same period India’s urban population grew much more slowly—from 26 percent to 30 percent of the whole. India’s hope for a big payoff from population growth ignores where people are living. Rising population helps drive growth when people are moving to higher-paying and more productive factory jobs in the cities, not languishing in farm regions.


pages: 582 words: 136,780

Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded by Simon Winchester

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Alfred Russel Wallace, British Empire, cable laying ship, global village, God and Mammon, Isaac Newton, joint-stock company, Marshall McLuhan, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, South China Sea, spice trade, trade route

(Although there was migration into California from Europe, in Newfoundland the reverse took place: migrants were sent back east across the ocean, because there was not enough for them to eat.) And yet back in Europe it was quite as bad. The weather for 1816 is the worst recorded, with low temperatures stretching as far south as Tunisia. French grapes could not be harvested until November. The German wheat crop failed entirely, and prices for flour had doubled in a year. In some places there were reports of famine, and in others there were riots and mass migrations. The diaries and newspapers of the day presenta litany of miseries. It is said that Byron composed his most miserable poem, ‘Darkness’ – Morn came and went –and came, and brought no day – the influence of that dismal year; and Mary Shelley may have composed Frankenstein while gripped by a similarly unseasonable melancholy. Nowadays sophisticated instruments and the measurements they take have usurped the role of anecdote and diary.


pages: 414 words: 121,243

What's Left?: How Liberals Lost Their Way by Nick Cohen

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, centre right, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Farzad Bazoft, feminist movement, haute couture, kremlinology, liberal world order, light touch regulation, mass immigration, moral hazard, Naomi Klein, Plutocrats, plutocrats, post-industrial society, profit motive, Ralph Nader, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, sensible shoes, the scientific method, union organizing, upwardly mobile, Yom Kippur War

George Packer, who had known Makiya for years, said his friend didn’t understand that for all their tough talk the neo-conservatives were far less worldly than they appeared. The Republicans had been out of the White House in the Nineties. Most of the party’s senior figures had treated the decade’s debates on humanitarian intervention and failed states with derision, and opposed the wars to stop ethnic cleansing in the former Yugoslavia as bleeding heart indulgences. They hadn’t thought about the mass migration of refugees, chemical weapons in the hands of terrorists and global crime. They hadn’t come to terms with the new age of warfare where the infantry had to be soldiers one minute and police officers the next. Makiya’s last, best hope was George W. Bush, who as Packer said, came to power with ‘no curiosity about the world, only a suspicion that his predecessor had entangled America in far too many obscure places of no importance to national interests’.


pages: 502 words: 125,785

The Arsenal of Democracy: FDR, Detroit, and an Epic Quest to Arm an America at War by A. J. Baime

banking crisis, British Empire, Ford paid five dollars a day, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, housing crisis, interchangeable parts, Louis Blériot, mass immigration, means of production, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker

If people wanted a paycheck working at the bomber factory, they had to live in its direct vicinity or they would spend upward of three hours each day trying to get to work and back on buses that were overcrowded, unreliable, and, at forty cents a day, expensive to ride (“an unreasonable burden upon the wage earner,” as one Washington investigator put it). The government had started work on a new highway to connect Willow Run to downtown Detroit. (Today this highway, the Edsel Ford Expressway, is part of I-94.) But it would take time to complete, and what good what it do if people were forbidden by law from driving on it? All over the country, infrastructure struggled under the weight of the most sudden and profound mass migration the United States had ever experienced. Seventeen million Americans would leave their homes for a job in a war factory between 1940 and 1945. In a nation suffering its twelfth year of depression, a steady paycheck was worth the move. Few urban centers would see a larger in-migration than the four counties in the Detroit-Willow Run area, into which 212,457 would arrive between 1940 and 1944, according to census figures.


pages: 433 words: 129,636

Dreamland: The True Tale of America's Opiate Epidemic by Sam Quinones

1960s counterculture, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, British Empire, call centre, centralized clearinghouse, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, deindustrialization, feminist movement, illegal immigration, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, McMansion, obamacare, zero-sum game

The San Fernando Valley comprises 260 square miles, larger than Chicago, and contains the sprawling northern chunk of Los Angeles. At its west end is Canoga Park, a district of sixty thousand people, bisected by boulevards with palm trees. Classic, modest suburban ranch-style houses made of stucco line its residential streets. For years after it emerged from citrus groves in the 1950s, Canoga Park and the Valley had been famously white, with only small islands of Mexican American barrios. But the mass migration of Mexicans to Southern California and the end of the Cold War changed the area. Defense contractors departed; so did many white people. Soon, districts of Los Angeles such as Van Nuys, Reseda, North Hollywood, and Canoga Park were largely Mexican. Those changes were beginning as Enrique arrived. Though fourteen, Enrique was tall enough not to arouse suspicion behind the wheel. He drove the streets of the San Fernando Valley with his mouth full of tiny balloons, following beeps from his uncles.


On the Move: Mobility in the Modern Western World by Timothy Cresswell

British Empire, desegregation, deskilling, Frederick Winslow Taylor, global village, illegal immigration, mass immigration, moral panic, Rosa Parks, technoutopianism, The Chicago School, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman, urban planning

Consider, for instance, the words of Edward Said: For surely it is one of the unhappiest characteristics of the age to have produced more refugees, migrants, displaced persons, and exiles than ever before in history, most of them as an accompaniment to and, ironically enough, as afterthoughts of great postcolonial and imperial conflicts. As the struggle for independence produced new states and new boundaries, it also produced homeless wanderers, nomads, vagrants, unassimilated to the emerging structures of institutional power, rejected by the established order for their intransigence and obdurate rebelliousness.63 In addition to mass migrations of mobile people (either forced or voluntary), the postmodern world includes the experiences of communication and transportation on a scale and speed hitherto unknown—the phenomenon David Harvey calls “time-space compression.”64 In this new world, a place such as the airport lounge, once seen as a reprehensible site of RT52565_C002.indd 44 3/6/06 7:44:17 PM The Metaphysics of Fixity and Flow • 45 placelessness, becomes a contemporary symbol of flow, dynamism, and mobility.


pages: 427 words: 124,692

Empire: What Ruling the World Did to the British by Jeremy Paxman

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British Empire, call centre, Cape to Cairo, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Etonian, European colonialism, Fellow of the Royal Society, imperial preference, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, Kibera, land tenure, Livingstone, I presume, mass immigration, offshore financial centre, polynesian navigation, Scramble for Africa, transatlantic slave trade

(Did anyone ask quite how this had escaped the attention of the all-knowing officials in Whitehall, when the extent of British rule had been the boast of empire for the best part of a century?) A new 1962 Commonwealth Immigrants Act would now create a clear distinction between ‘authentic’ Britons and those whose skin was a different colour, its unambiguous intention being to stop new arrivals and to encourage those already here to go back whence they had come. Like just about every other piece of immigration legislation dreamed up since, the law failed to curb mass immigration. Current United Nations forecasts project a UK population of over 70 million by 2050: when the 1962 Act was passed, it stood at about 53 million. The presence of significant numbers of people from one-time imperial communities has completely changed parts of Britain. The empire is not behind the British, it is living within them, for it has changed their very genetic make-up. But the British have not found their one-time imperial identity at all easy to deal with.


pages: 790 words: 150,875

Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson

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Admiral Zheng, agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, Andrei Shleifer, Atahualpa, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, clean water, collective bargaining, colonial rule, conceptual framework, Copley Medal, corporate governance, creative destruction, credit crunch, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Dean Kamen, delayed gratification, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, Francisco Pizarro, full employment, Hans Lippershey, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, invention of movable type, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, James Hargreaves, James Watt: steam engine, John Harrison: Longitude, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kitchen Debate, land reform, land tenure, liberal capitalism, Louis Pasteur, Mahatma Gandhi, market bubble, Martin Wolf, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, Pearl River Delta, Pierre-Simon Laplace, probability theory / Blaise Pascal / Pierre de Fermat, profit maximization, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, reserve currency, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, Scramble for Africa, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Great Moderation, the market place, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, total factor productivity, trade route, transaction costs, transatlantic slave trade, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, uranium enrichment, wage slave, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, World Values Survey

According to one estimate the total population has risen from around 10 million in 1990 to 17 million in 2010.93 As a share of national populations, Muslim communities range in size from as much as 9.8 per cent in France to as little as 0.2 per cent in Portugal.94 Such figures seem to belie the warnings of some scholars of a future ‘Eurabia’ – a continent Islamicized by the end of the twenty-first century. However, if the Muslim population of the UK were to continue growing at an annual rate of 6.7 per cent (as it did between 2004 and 2008), its share of the total UK population would rise from just under 4 per cent in 2008 to 8 per cent in 2020, to 15 per cent in 2030 and to 28 per cent in 2040, finally passing 50 per cent in 2050.95 Mass immigration is not necessarily the solvent of a civilization, if the migrants embrace, and are encouraged to embrace, the values of the civilization to which they are moving. But in cases where immigrant communities are not successfully assimilated and then become prey to radical ideologues, the consequences can be profoundly destabilizing.96 The crucial thing is not sheer numbers so much as the extent to which some Muslim communities have been penetrated by Islamist organizations like the Arab Muslim Brotherhood, the Pakistani Jama’at-i Islami, the Saudi-financed Muslim World League and the World Assembly of Muslim Youth.


pages: 621 words: 157,263

How to Change the World: Reflections on Marx and Marxism by Eric Hobsbawm

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anti-communist, banking crisis, battle of ideas, Berlin Wall, British Empire, continuation of politics by other means, creative destruction, currency manipulation / currency intervention, deindustrialization, discovery of the americas, experimental subject, Fall of the Berlin Wall, full employment, Gunnar Myrdal, labour market flexibility, liberal capitalism, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, means of production, new economy, Simon Kuznets, Thorstein Veblen, Upton Sinclair, upwardly mobile, Vilfredo Pareto, zero-sum game

However, this systematic dehumanisation also keeps the workers out of the reach of 94 On Engels’ The Condition of the Working Class in England bourgeois ideology and illusion – for instance of bourgeois egoism, religion and morality. Progressive industrialisation and urbanisation forces them to learn the lessons of their social situation and in concentrating them, makes them aware of their power. ‘The closer the workers are associated with industry the more advanced they are.’ (However, Engels also observes the radicalising effect of mass immigration, as among the Irish.) The workers face their situation in different ways. Some succumb to it, allowing themselves to be demoralised: but the increase in drunkenness, vice, crime and irrational spending is a social phenomenon, the creation of capitalism, and not to be explained by the weakness and shiftlessness of individuals. Others submit passively to their fate and exist as best they can as respectable law-abiding citizens, take no interest in public affairs and thus actually help the middle class to tighten the chains which bind the workers.


pages: 377 words: 115,122

Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can't Stop Talking by Susan Cain

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8-hour work day, Albert Einstein, Asperger Syndrome, Bill Gates: Altair 8800, call centre, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, delayed gratification, deliberate practice, game design, hive mind, index card, indoor plumbing, Isaac Newton, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, new economy, popular electronics, Ralph Waldo Emerson, ride hailing / ride sharing, Rosa Parks, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, telemarketer, The Wisdom of Crowds, traveling salesman, Walter Mischel, web application, white flight

The nation quickly developed from an agricultural society of little houses on the prairie to an urbanized, “the business of America is business” powerhouse. In the country’s early days, most Americans lived like Dale Carnegie’s family, on farms or in small towns, interacting with people they’d known since childhood. But when the twentieth century arrived, a perfect storm of big business, urbanization, and mass immigration blew the population into the cities. In 1790, only 3 percent of Americans lived in cities; in 1840, only 8 percent did; by 1920, more than a third of the country were urbanites. “We cannot all live in cities,” wrote the news editor Horace Greeley in 1867, “yet nearly all seem determined to do so.” Americans found themselves working no longer with neighbors but with strangers. “Citizens” morphed into “employees,” facing the question of how to make a good impression on people to whom they had no civic or family ties.


pages: 404 words: 118,759

The Bohemians: Mark Twain and the San Francisco Writers Who Reinvented American Literature by Ben Tarnoff

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California gold rush, interchangeable parts, mass immigration, Maui Hawaii, new economy, New Journalism, Plutocrats, plutocrats, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Ronald Reagan, South of Market, San Francisco, South Sea Bubble, transcontinental railway, traveling salesman

And yet, within this apparently favorable turn of events lurked an awful threat. “The locomotive is a great centralizer,” George wrote. “It kills towns and builds up great cities, and in the same way kills little businesses and builds up great ones.” The economic forces unfettered by its arrival wouldn’t benefit everyone equally—on the contrary, it would concentrate wealth in the hands of the few, and make life harder for the rest. Mass immigration would force real estate prices up and wages down. The railroad barons, big landholders, and factory owners stood to gain an ever-greater share of land and capital, while ordinary people found it harder to earn a decent living. California’s relatively egalitarian society would disappear, fractured by the growing gulf between rich and poor already seen in the industrializing East. San Francisco would have its own Astors and Vanderbilts—and its own scenes of ruthless poverty to match those of Massachusetts mill towns and Manhattan slums.


pages: 388 words: 125,472

The Establishment: And How They Get Away With It by Owen Jones

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anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, bank run, battle of ideas, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, bonus culture, Bretton Woods, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, don't be evil, Edward Snowden, Etonian, eurozone crisis, falling living standards, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, G4S, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, housing crisis, inflation targeting, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), investor state dispute settlement, James Dyson, laissez-faire capitalism, light touch regulation, market fundamentalism, mass immigration, Monroe Doctrine, Mont Pelerin Society, moral hazard, Neil Kinnock, night-watchman state, Northern Rock, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, old-boy network, open borders, Plutocrats, plutocrats, popular capitalism, profit motive, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent control, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, short selling, sovereign wealth fund, stakhanovite, statistical model, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transfer pricing, union organizing, unpaid internship, Washington Consensus, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent

In other words, the IPPR can hardly be described as a think tank that is independent of the Establishment, let alone challenging it. Another self-styled ‘centre-left’ think tank is Demos, whose current director is David Goodhart, an Old Etonian who came to prominence by founding Prospect, a political magazine, in 1995, and whose overriding passion appears to be an almost obsessive opposition to what he regards as mass immigration. ‘The direction I very much want to take Demos in,’ Goodhart says, ‘is a “social glue” direction’ – by which he means social cohesion – ‘looking particularly at those difficult things for Labour, like welfare, immigration and multiculturalism’. A lonely exception to these organizations is the New Economics Foundation, a progressive think tank that remains studiously ignored by most mainstream media.


pages: 572 words: 134,335

The Making of an Atlantic Ruling Class by Kees Van der Pijl

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anti-communist, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, Bretton Woods, British Empire, capital controls, collective bargaining, colonial rule, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, deskilling, diversified portfolio, European colonialism, floating exchange rates, full employment, imperial preference, Joseph Schumpeter, liberal capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, North Sea oil, Plutocrats, plutocrats, profit maximization, RAND corporation, strikebreaker, trade liberalization, trade route, union organizing, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, War on Poverty

Capitalist Universalism and Anglo-Saxon Chauvinism The dream of the Rhodes trustees and Joseph Chamberlain to make British imperialism part of a wider Anglo-Saxon union was reciprocated from the other side of the Atlantic. Here, Anglo-Saxon chauvinism developed in the context of Progressivism, a disparate social and ideological movement through which the American bourgeoisie and middle classes responded to the rise of the trusts and mass immigration after the turn of the century. Idealizing the past for its gentlemanly democracy and individualism, the descendants of the first generations of colonists, mostly of British descent, felt particularly threatened by the hordes of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe crowding the rapidly expanding cities and subscribing to alien ideologies like Anarchism and Marxism. Progressivism, for all its exaltation of good government and municipal reform, scarcely concealed its quest for ethnic purity.3 The anti-trust and petty-bourgeois orientation of the Progressive Movement did not prevent important segments of the American ruling class from subscribing to its goals.


pages: 387 words: 120,092

The Idea of Israel: A History of Power and Knowledge by Ilan Pappe

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affirmative action, Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, double helix, facts on the ground, feminist movement, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, mass immigration, New Journalism, one-state solution, postnationalism / post nation state, stem cell, urban planning, Yom Kippur War

The combination of Shas and a relatively open door for Mizrachi politicians within Likud (and later, even in the Labour Party) did reform the status of this community in the political and cultural realm in the late 1990s. Mizrachim held key positions in government and in the army. But there was still good reason for a scholar or any other kind of knowledge producer to continue the search for the roots and realities of discrimination against Mizrachi Jews, since the socio-economic gap did not narrow and in many ways worsened. One of the main reasons for this was the mass immigration of Russian Jews in the 1990s. This led to a prominent voice in the anti-Zionist group of Mizrachi challengers, Smadar Lavie, who attacked the Israeli government for its attempt to ‘whiten the Jewish people’ by bringing in large numbers of Russian Jews, many of whom were in fact Christians.24 By the end of the twentieth century, still nearly 90 per cent of upper-income Israelis were Ashkenazi Jews, while 60 per cent of the lower-income families were Mizrachim.


pages: 537 words: 158,544

Second World: Empires and Influence in the New Global Order by Parag Khanna

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Admiral Zheng, affirmative action, anti-communist, Asian financial crisis, Bartolomé de las Casas, Branko Milanovic, British Empire, call centre, capital controls, central bank independence, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, complexity theory, continuation of politics by other means, crony capitalism, Deng Xiaoping, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, energy security, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, flex fuel, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, friendly fire, Gini coefficient, global reserve currency, global supply chain, haute couture, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Islamic Golden Age, Khyber Pass, knowledge economy, land reform, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Monroe Doctrine, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, open borders, open economy, Parag Khanna, Pax Mongolica, Pearl River Delta, pirate software, Plutonomy: Buying Luxury, Explaining Global Imbalances, Potemkin village, price stability, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, reserve currency, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Skype, South China Sea, special economic zone, stem cell, Stephen Hawking, Thomas L Friedman, trade route, trickle-down economics, uranium enrichment, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce

—Toynbee surmised, “There is nothing to prevent our Western civilization from following historical precedent, if it chooses, by committing social suicide,” as Greco-Roman civilization had, decaying long before it was extinguished by turning itself “into an idol to which men paid an exorbitant worship.”38 America’s defining trait has been above all else a capacity for self-renewal—a political, economic, and cultural regeneration, even self-correction. But the combination of messianic leaders and corporate puppet masters, culture wars, fear of the outside world, and self-doubt about its leadership make a new domestic consensus unlikely. America’s foreign policy elite is utterly divorced from citizens’ concerns as well: Leaders are keen for the United States to fight more wars, push for free trade, and allow mass immigration, while the majority of Americans want fewer military interventions, less foreign aid, immigration restrictions, and some form of protectionism for American jobs and industries.39 The era of the “Great Society” seemed to end definitively with President Reagan, never to return again. America has lost its momentum, and it cannot turn things around simply because it wants to—especially because it no longer seems to know what it wants.


pages: 734 words: 244,010

The Ancestor's Tale: A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Evolution by Richard Dawkins

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agricultural Revolution, Alfred Russel Wallace, complexity theory, delayed gratification, double helix, Drosophila, Haight Ashbury, invention of writing, Louis Pasteur, mass immigration, nuclear winter, out of africa, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, Richard Feynman, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Spread Networks laid a new fibre optics cable between New York and Chicago, Steven Pinker, the High Line, urban sprawl

When even the four horsemen are laid low by the apocalypse, it will be rats that scavenge their remains, rats that will swarm like lemmings over the ruins of civilisation. And, by the way, lemmings are rodents, too -- northern voles who, for reasons that are not entirely clear, build up their populations to plague proportions in so-called 'lemming years', and then indulge in frantic -- though not wantonly suicidal as is falsely alleged -- mass migrations. Rodents are gnawing machines. They have a pair of very prominent incisor teeth at the front, perpetually growing to replace massive wear and tear. The gnawing masseter muscles are especially well developed in rodents. They don't have canine teeth, and the large gap or diastema that separates their incisors from their back teeth improves the efficiency of their gnawing. Rodents can gnaw their way through almost anything.


pages: 789 words: 213,716

The uplift war by David Brin

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mass immigration, mutually assured destruction, out of africa, trade route

When the crisis began, nearly one Garth year ago, it had been clear that neither Earth nor Tymbrim would be able to help this faraway colony. And most of the “moderate” Galactics were so slow and judicious that there was little hope of persuading one of those clans to intervene. Uthacalthing had hoped to fool the Thennanin into doing the job instead—pitting Earth’s enemies against each other. The plan had worked beyond Uthacalthing’s expectations because of one factor her father had not know of. The gorillas. Had their mass migration to the Ceremonial Mound been triggered by the s’ustru’thoon exchange, as she had earlier thought? Or was the Institute’s Grand Examiner correct to declare that fate itself arranged for this new client race to be at the right time and place to choose? Somehow, Athaclena felt sure there was more to it than anyone knew, or perhaps ever would know. “So the Thennanin are coming to chase out the Gubru.”


pages: 603 words: 182,781

Aerotropolis by John D. Kasarda, Greg Lindsay

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3D printing, air freight, airline deregulation, airport security, Akira Okazaki, Asian financial crisis, back-to-the-land, barriers to entry, Berlin Wall, big-box store, blood diamonds, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, carbon footprint, Cesare Marchetti: Marchetti’s constant, Clayton Christensen, cleantech, cognitive dissonance, commoditize, conceptual framework, credit crunch, David Brooks, David Ricardo: comparative advantage, Deng Xiaoping, deskilling, digital map, edge city, Edward Glaeser, failed state, food miles, Ford paid five dollars a day, Frank Gehry, fudge factor, full employment, future of work, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, global supply chain, global village, gravity well, Haber-Bosch Process, Hernando de Soto, hive mind, if you build it, they will come, illegal immigration, inflight wifi, intangible asset, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), intermodal, invention of the telephone, inventory management, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jeff Bezos, Kangaroo Route, knowledge worker, kremlinology, labour mobility, Marchetti’s constant, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Menlo Park, microcredit, Network effects, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, Peter Thiel, pets.com, pink-collar, pre–internet, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Coase, Ronald Reagan, Rubik’s Cube, savings glut, Seaside, Florida, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, South China Sea, South Sea Bubble, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, spice trade, spinning jenny, stem cell, Steve Jobs, supply-chain management, sustainable-tourism, telepresence, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Nature of the Firm, thinkpad, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, Tony Hsieh, trade route, transcontinental railway, transit-oriented development, traveling salesman, trickle-down economics, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, walkable city, white flight, white picket fence, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

The sleeper awakened in 1979 and had started shaking twenty years later when president Jiang Zemin urged factory owners to “Go West.” He hoped to drive growth toward China’s impoverished interior provinces, narrowing the noxious inequality between them and the coast. In 2001, on the eve of joining the WTO, Jiang instructed his own people to “Go Out” into the world. What began as a race to lock up natural resources has evolved into a mass migration of traders and tourists to the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa, where there are as many as a million Chinese on the ground in mining, construction, farming, and any other sector they can dominate. So what will China do with hundreds of new airports and dozens of aerotropoli? It will go west, go out, and go global. More than any other nation, China grasps that the aerotropolis is a weapon, a well-oiled piece of urban machinery that recasts cities as competitive engines.


pages: 552 words: 168,518