ghettoisation

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We Need New Stories: Challenging the Toxic Myths Behind Our Age of Discontent by Nesrine Malik

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, barriers to entry, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, cognitive dissonance, continuation of politics by other means, currency peg, Donald Trump, feminist movement, financial independence, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, illegal immigration, invisible hand, mass immigration, moral panic, Nate Silver, obamacare, old-boy network, payday loans, planetary scale, Ponzi scheme, race to the bottom, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sexual politics, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, Thomas L Friedman, transatlantic slave trade

Identity becomes an accessory, a gold ‘feminist’ necklace, a high-fashion hijab, a Colin Kaepernick T-shirt where his Afro curves into a black fist. Identity as territory, as ‘recognition’. This makes it easier for the tool of universalism to be effective. But again, this is not the fault of representative identity politics, it is the fault of white monopoly on the means of cultural production. The very origin of the identity politics movement was an effort to find common cause, rather than ghettoise demands for equality. The history of the term ‘identity politics’ and how it was first used illustrates how much it has been corrupted and deliberately misunderstood over the years as divisive and distracting from ‘universal’ causes. In the mid-1970s, a group of Afrocentric black feminist scholars and activists in the United States formed an organisation specifically to address the concerns of black women, concerns which they felt had been ignored by the wider feminist movement.

This is an additional complication of narrator dominance – it exhausts and confounds the flourishing of new voices by restricting their ability to expand, to create a body of work that is not restricted to constantly responding to and challenging myths. And even this effort, to expand the knowledge bank, as Lola and her fellow students tried to do at Cambridge University, is met with resistance. Ferguson also has strong views on #MeToo. The ghettoisation of women or people of colour in ‘their lane’ in publishing and journalism is not an issue for him. If one is ‘an’ authority, they are then ‘the’ authority, moving from economic history to empire, to Islamism, to sexual politics and consent. On the latter he has this to say: ‘I wonder: do we risk sliding into a kind of secular sharia, in which all men are presumed to be sexual predators and only severe punishments can prevent routine rape?

In 2013, the literary website the Open Book crunched the New York Times top ten bestseller numbers and revealed that out of 124 authors on the list only three were by non-white authors and not one was African American. Of the three books and book series by these writers, only one had a main non-white character, who was half Latina. In 2017, the Sunday Times top ten bestselling hardback non-fiction chart did not include any writers who weren’t white. In the UK, the Writing the Future research reported in 2015 on the effect of ghettoising minority voices in either confessional non-fiction or literary fiction about race or colonialism. The result is an under representation of black and ethnic minority British writers in the bestselling writing genres. The problem is in the ranks of publishing as well, according to the report, only 8 per cent of UK publishing comes from a black and ethnic minority background. Timid, homogenous, and dreary, indeed.


pages: 427 words: 114,531

Legacy of Empire by Gardner Thompson

Albert Einstein, British Empire, colonial rule, European colonialism, facts on the ground, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, lateral thinking, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, means of production, Ronald Reagan, zero-sum game

As noted above, even in the early twentieth century Israel Zangwill’s Jewish Territorial Organisation saw no necessary link between the search for a homeland and Palestine: ‘we do not attach any real value to our supposed “historical rights” to that country’.23 Jewish experience in the post-70-ad diaspora has been distorted by generalisation. The Zionist version of history presents these Jewish communities, over many centuries, as uniformly powerless and constantly subjected to persecution. There were, of course, some solid grounds for this view. Ghettoisation is a historical fact, as are innumerable episodes of persecution (and apprehension of persecution, even in its absence). The pogroms in Russia, where so many Jews were living, were an accompaniment of modern political Zionism and, up to a point, explain it. This much is certainly not myth. Nonetheless, Zionist history was knowingly misleading. In many different communities, in many countries over many centuries, there was much diversity of experience.

., 34, 39, 193, 236 Cold War, 243, 256, 264, 272, 273, 280 colonialism, 33, 147, 259, 281, 283 Balfour Declaration, 95, 142 Britain, xii, xiii, 124, 300–301 British Mandate for Palestine, 135, 138, 174, 240 European colonialism, 283, 284 hybrid colonialism in Palestine, xiii, 142, 159, 218, 297–8 nationalism and, 289–90, 301 Zionism and, 281, 283–7, 289–90 Zionist colonisation of Palestine, xiii, 3, 15, 16–18, 22, 23, 31, 171, 173, 193, 198, 211, 216, 289, 294, 295, 299 Congreve, General, 49, 125–6, 139, 145–6 conversion, 5–6, 40, 41, 54 Cook, Thomas, 54 Coupland, Reginald, 330n82 Crane, Charles, 110–13 see also King-Crane Commission Report Crimean War, 63, 70 Crossman, Richard, 82 Curzon, Lord, 91–2, 109, 148–9 Cushing, Caleb, 286–7 Cyrus the Great, 44 Daily Mail (newspaper), 66, 95 The Daily Telegraph (newspaper), 233 Dalton, Hugh, 257 Dayan, Moshe, 273, 281 De Bunsen, Maurice, Sir: 1915 Report of the de Bunsen Committee, 61–4, 67, 68, 69, 70 Deedes, Wyndham, Sir, 121–3 diaspora (Jewish diaspora), 10, 24, 41, 53, 185, 265, 275, 280 70 AD diaspora, 45–6 discrimination, 5, 40, 43, 48, 117 Dominican Republic, 247 Dreyfus Affair, 4, 48, 315n11 Drummond Shiels, Thomas, Sir, 186 Dubnow, Ze’ev, 23, 50 East Africa, 11, 36, 75, 84, 107, 137 Eastern Mediterranean, xvi–xvii, 11, 45, 62, 66, 79, 94 The Economist (newspaper), 101 Eder, David, 119–20 Egypt, 45, 274 1936 demonstrations and strikes, 218 1956 Suez Crisis, 272, 332n9 1967 Six Day War, 272–3 1973 Yom Kippur, 273 Britain and, 11, 63, 69, 139 Gaza, 271, 272 Einstein, Albert, 47–8, 81, 159, 243 El Arish (Sinai), 11, 71, 75 Eliot, George: Daniel Deronda, 54, 142, 319n44 English (language), 133, 158, 181 Enlightenment, 3, 5 Haskalah/Jewish Enlightenment, 5, 19 Epstein, Yitzhak, 1, 14, 16–18, 25, 103, 241, 271–2, 286 equality, 8, 120, 190, 252 Eretz Yisrael (The Land of Israel), 13, 27, 28 Europe, xvi–xvii, 4 anti-Semitism, xi, xii, 4 Central Europe, xi, xii, 41 colonialism, 283, 284 Eastern Europe, 4, 7, 23, 47, 84, 240, 284 interest in Palestine, 152 Jewish Question, 3–4 Jews’ conversion to Christianity, 6 Exodus 1947 affair 259–60 Evian Conference (France, 1938), 246–9, 254 anti-Semitism, 247–8, 299 nimbyism, 299 Zionism, 248–9 Faisal I, King of Syria, 58–9, 71, 111, 117, 140, 170, 179, 263, 320n8 Emir, 110, 145 Fatah, 275, 278 fellahin (labourers), 22, 141, 209 Filastin (newspaper), 32, 221 Ford, Henry, 298 France, 4, 48, 58, 59, 218, 315n11 Britain and, 63–4, 68, 69–70, 77, 100, 139–40 Middle East, 68, 139 Palestine and, 140 Syria, 103, 104, 107 Zionism, 78 see also Sykes-Picot Agreement French Revolution, 3, 8 Galilee, 45, 46, 152, 168, 225, 229 Gandhi, Mahatma, 233 Gaza, 225, 259, 261, 273, 279, 280, 282 Egypt and, 271, 272 intifada, 278 Palestinian Arabs in, 280 Palestinian National Authority, 277 George V, King of the United Kingdom, 145 Germany, 70, 71, 73, 100, 139, 237 Jews in, 6–7, 8 see also Nazi Germany ghetto, 10, 14, 16, 89, 91 ghettoisation, 46 Golan Heights, 261, 273, 274–5, 282 Goldie, Annabel MacNicoll, Baroness, xiv–xv Great Powers, 13, 16, 29, 33, 34, 38, 40, 283 Greece, 78–80, 330n86 1919–22 Greco-Turkish War, 79 Grey, Lord, 73, 99–100, 101 Gruenbaum, Yitzhak, 249 Ha’aretz (newspaper), 182 Habash, George, 275 Haganah (Jewish militia), 167, 173, 216, 259, 267, 271, 290, 332n4, 333n25 1938 Arab Revolt, 229 1947–1949 First Arab-Israeli War, 265–6, 271 arms, 121, 216 IDF, 266, 271 Plan D, 266 World War II, 245 Haifa, 62, 64, 140, 152, 259, 260, 261, 282, 325n54 1933 protests and rioting, 215 1947–1949 First Arab-Israeli War, 266 Jewish population of, 207 Sykes-Picot agreement, 67, 68 terrorism, 229 Young Men’s Muslim Association, 215 Halevi, Chaim, 185 Halifax, Lord, 248 Hamas, 277–8, 329n74 Hammond, Laurie, Sir, 330n82 ‘Handbook of Palestine’ (1922), 150–1, 153–8, 159 see also Samuel, Herbert, Sir Hankey, Maurice, 77 Hapoel Hatzair (Young Worker) party, 26–7 Hashemites, 64, 65, 268 Haskalah (Jewish Enlightenment), 5, 19 Hattersley, Roy, 302 Haycraft, Thomas, Sir: Haycraft Report, 118–20, 123, 144, 297 Heath, Edward, 334n10 Hebrew, 26, 27, 167, 181, 209 as national language for Zionism in Palestine, 41, 50, 168, 316n36 as official language of Palestine, 133, 158, 168, 175 Hebron, 184–5, 220, 274 Hertzberg, Arthur, 14, 38, 50, 283, 291 The Zionist Idea, 14 Herzl, Theodor, 1, 2, 3, 4, 38, 47, 48, 88, 287, 288, 300, 317n74 alternatives to Palestine, 11 on anti-Semitism, 88 Arabs as indigenous Palestinian population, 36–7 assimilation, 7–8, 49, 162 death of, 34, 36, 37 diplomacy, 34–7, 80 on infiltration, 29, 34 Jewish Question, 1–2, 303 Judenstaat/The Jewish State, 1–2, 7–8, 10, 11, 29, 298 Political Zionism, 2, 15, 16, 50 World Zionist Organisation, 23, 34 Zionism, 2, 36–7, 55, 289, 314n5 Herzog, Chaim, ix Hess, Moses, 13, 314n5 Histadrut (labour federation), 167, 180, 181, 193, 267, 326n5 Hitler, Adolf, xi, 43, 107, 161, 207, 218, 237, 247, 293, 296, 300 al-Husayni, Amin and, 244 see also Nazi Germany; Nazism Hobsbawm, Eric, 48 Holocaust, xiv, 246, 265, 271, 293–4 Auschwitz, 49, 293 survivors of, 49, 254, 259, 294, 304 Holy Land, 11, 14, 21, 47, 54, 63, 93, 108, 112, 154, 198 Holy Places, 63, 64, 67, 75, 77, 175, 214, 216, 303, 320n10 Hope Simpson, John, Sir, 186–7 1930 Hope-Simpson Report, 183, 186, 187, 297 House of Commons (Britain), 76, 137, 190, 201, 258 House of Lords (Britain), 304 2017 debate on occasion of the Balfour Declaration centenary, xiii–xv, 300 Hovevei Zion (Lovers of Zion), 4, 7, 42 al-Husayni, Abd al-Qadir, 215, 267–8 al-Husayni, Amin, 33, 161, 175, 176, 177, 180, 212–14, 212, 215, 332n6 1937 Bloudan Conference, 231 1947–1949 First Arab-Israeli War, 266–8 AHC, 218, 219–20, 219 exile, 230, 244 Hitler, Adolf and, 244 Holy War Army, 267 radicalisation of 217, 244 SMC, 179, 213 al-Husayni, Jamal, 267 al-Husayni, Kamil, 175 al-Husayni, Musa Kazim, 136, 175, 176, 177, 179, 211–12, 212, 213 death, 215 al-Husayni, Tahir, 33, 175 Husayni dynasty, 175, 176, 177, 179, 218 Hussein, Abdullah, 170 Hussein, Faisal, see Faisal I Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, 64–6, 67, 100, 320n8 Hussein bin Talal, King of Jordan, 276 identity, 4, 6 Arab-Jewish identity, 170 assimilation and Jewish identity, 9–10 Jewish identity, 15, 170 Jewishness, 10, 54 ‘melting-pot’ metaphor, 5–6 national identity, 32, 283 Palestinian national identity, 32 see also assimilation IDF (Israel Defense Forces), 272, 273, 276, 278, 290, 333n25 1947–1949 First Arab-Israeli War, 266, 270, 271 as army of occupation/instrument of colonial repression, 274 Haganah and, 266, 271 Lebanon, 276 Operation Thunderbolt, Entebbe, 276 PLO, 276 India, 62, 69, 92, 201, 256, 260 intermarriage, 5–6, 9, 40 intifada, 279 1987–1993 first intifada, 278 2000–2005 second intifada, 278–9 Iraq, 251, 280, 330n84 oil, 140 see also Mesopotamia Ireland, 105, 108, 123–7, 133, 255, 300–301 1916 Easter Rising, Dublin, 124, 324n31 independence from Britain, 124 Sinn Fein, 124 Irgun militia, 245, 246, 290, 332n6, 333n25 1938 Arab Revolt, 229 establishment of, 173 violence, 238, 255, 332n4, 332n6 World War II, 245, 246 al-‘Isa, Isa, 32 Islam, 47, 151, 180, 216 Islamic revivalism, 215 Israel (state of Israel), 227, 273–4, 282 1948 Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel, ix, 44, 266, 267, 294 the army and, 290–1 origins of, ix, xiii, 290–1, 300 Palestinian Arabs in, 280 settlement policy, 274 territorial limits, 274 UN 242 Resolution, 275 USA and, 280 Istiqlal (Arab Independence Party), 211, 214, 266 Italy, 49 Jabotinsky, Ze’ev (Vladimir), 143, 171, 172, 245, 271, 279, 284 Betar, 173, 185 The Iron Wall, 164, 171 Revisionist Party, 164, 167, 173, 185 Jaffa, 21, 25, 209, 228, 261 1921 disturbances, 118–20, 121, 127, 148, 174, 203 1932 National Congress of Arab Youth, 208 1933 protests and rioting, 215 1936 Arab Revolt, 218, 220–1 Arab population in, 182, 221 Jeffries, Joseph, 65–6, 113, 126, 143, 164, 168–9, 215, 303, 324n15 Balfour Declaration, 95, 96, 99, 101, 116 Palestine: The Reality, 324n15 Jerusalem, 23, 45, 63, 192, 228, 261, 278, 314–15n8 1920 disturbances of Nabi Musa, 113–17, 174, 175, 179, 203 Arab-Jewish relations, worsening of, 114 Britain and, 71 settlement programme, 274 status of, 280 Western Wall, 184, 185, 186, 328n24 Jewish Agency, 188 1938 Arab Revolt, 229 Biltmore Programme, 252 British Mandate for Palestine, 121, 123, 132, 133, 143, 167, 168, 180 Jewish immigration to Palestine, 203, 209 as parallel government alongside the mandatory government, 168 SMC/Jewish Agency comparison, 179–80 unique status of, 167 UNSCOP, 260 see also Zionist Commission Jewish history, 40, 44–50 British Mandate for Palestine and, 134, 146 ‘exile’ from Judea, 45–6 exile from Palestine, 44, 45, 46, 49, 53, 58, 271, 284 ‘return’ to Palestine as Jewish national homeland, 40, 44, 46, 49, 53, 271 Zionist version of, 44, 46, 47, 49–50, 127, 134, 271 Jewish immigration to Palestine, 39, 149, 205, 206, 239, 280, 302–303 1920s, 159, 205–206, 223 1922 White Paper, 128 1930 White Paper, 188, 203–204, 206 1930s, 161, 203, 204, 206–10, 211, 237, 295–6 1931 General Muslim Conference, 214 1939 White Paper, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 254 ‘absorptive capacity’, 128–9, 188, 203–204, 208, 239 AHC, 220 Balfour Declaration, 138 Black Letter, 192, 204, 206 illegal immigration, 76, 129, 204, 207–208, 245, 259, 263 impact on Arabs, 183, 197, 204, 206, 235, 264 Jewish Agency, 203, 209 Jewish/Palestinian clashes and bloodshed, ix, 28–9, 30, 105, 126, 148, 185, 195, 203, 206, 208, 223, 243 Jews leaving Palestine, 39, 42, 158, 205 League of Nations Mandate, 121, 132, 204 limitation/restriction of, 112, 186, 203, 220, 234, 235, 236, 254 Nazism and, 218, 237 Palestine as Jewish national home and, 120, 159, 218, 296 Russian Jews, 4, 21, 22, 25–6, 152 suspension of, 120, 136, 177, 201, 203, 220, 236, 237, 255 World War II, 243 Zionism, 172, 296 see also aliyah Jewish Legion, 41–2 Jewish Question, x, xii, 3–7, 38, 249, 298, 300 anti-Semitism, x, 3, 6 assimilation, 5, 6–8 colonisation of Palestine as answer to, xiii, 7 conversion, 6 Herzl, Theodor, 1–2, 303 identity, 4–5 ‘return’ to Palestine, 13, 94, 105, 208, 227, 237 Zionism as answer to, 3, 38, 43, 291, 322n64 Jewish Reform Movement, 5, 19 Jewish refugees, x, 36, 147, 243, 247, 254, 255, 256, 274, 299 Jewish state in Palestine, 92, 96, 229, 241, 294 1939 White Paper, 238 1947–1949 First Arab-Israeli War, 271 Abdullah I, King of Transjordan, 268 Balfour Declaration, 96–7, 99 Biltmore Programme, 252, 253, 254 Churchill, Winston, 69 establishment of, 271 Jewish national home as precursor to, 262 King-Crane Commission Report, 112 Lloyd George, David, 75 Peel Report, 160, 168, 221, 226, 227, 241 Samuel, Herbert, 163 UN, x, 227 Weizmann, Chaim, 97 World War II, 243 Zionism, 189, 202, 224, 252, 253, 254, 289–90 see also partition of Palestine; statehood jihad, 216 JNF (Jewish National Fund), 24, 167, 198, 210 Johnson, Albert, 298 Jordan, 261, 271, 279 Palestinian refugees in, 276 Jordan River, 11, 129, 152, 155, 170, 326n3 JTO (Jewish Territorial Organisation), 12, 46 Judaism, 4–5, 6–7, 13, 15, 46, 52 Judea, 45–6 Kalischer, Zvi, 50 Kalvarisky, Haim, 31 Kenya, 11, 142, 165, 183, 231, 283, 298 Khalidi, Rashid, 304 Khalidi, Walid, 303–04 al-Khalidi, Yusuf Diya, 30 Khalidi, Yusuf Zia, 288 King, Henry, 110–13 see also King-Crane Commission Report King-Crane Commission Report (1919), 110–13, 114, 115, 142, 233, 242, 264, 297 Kipling, Rudyard, 153 Klein, Menachem, 170 Klier, John D., 20 Koestler, Arthur, 297–8, 302–303 Krämer, Gudrun, 39, 138, 179 La Guardia, Anton, 290 Labour Party (Britain), ix Labour Zionism, 173 language, 40, 41 see also Arabic; English; Hebrew; Yiddish Laqueur, Walter, 301 Laski, Neville, 248 Law, Andrew Bonar, 70 Lawrence, T.E., 71 League of Nations, 100, 240, 326n69, 330n86 Covenant, 107, 130–1, 211 Covenant, Article 22: 131, 132, 134, 135, 197, 263, 294 dominated by Britain and France, 130 failure of, 232–3 Mandate Commission, 133, 168 mandates for Arabic-speaking Ottoman provinces, 104, 107 see also British Mandate for Palestine; League of Nations Mandate League of Nations Mandate (1922), 130–5, 170, 188 Article 2: 132, 134, 199–200 Article 4: 121, 122, 123, 132, 133, 167, 168, 199–200 Article 6: 121, 132, 167, 199–200, 204 Article 11: 133, 143, 167, 199–200 Article 22: 133 Balfour Declaration and, 105, 115, 127, 132, 134, 135, 138, 146, 148, 170, 199 draft of, 121, 146 Jewish immigration to Palestine, 121, 132, 204 League of Nations Covenant/Mandate comparison, 131–2, 134, 135 Palestine as Jewish national home, 132, 133, 134 preamble, 134 written by the British, 130, 263 see also British Mandate for Palestine Lebanon, 117, 269, 276, 320n12 1975–90 Lebanese Civil War, 276 Israel-Lebanon border/Blue Line, 282 Legislative Council, 122, 135, 158, 164–5 1922 British White Paper, 128, 129, 164 absence of, 164, 165–6, 169, 180, 326–7n6, 327n15 allocations for seats, 165 Arab opposition to, 164, 165–6, 169, 177, 199 Levi, Primo, 49, 293 Levin, Judah, 48 Likud Party, 274 Lloyd George, David, x, 56, 70, 190, 300 Balfour Declaration, x–xi, 58, 73, 74–80, 93, 97, 100, 101, 105, 148 death, 331n15 Ireland, 124–5 memoirs, 75, 76, 321n27 Palestine and, 71, 74–5, 79, 80, 136, 140, 218, 242, 301 Paris Peace Conference, 78 World War I, 71, 72–3, 76 Zionism and, xii–xiii, 57, 71, 75–6, 77, 79, 80, 93, 136, 142, 296 Lucas, F.L., 233 Luke, Harry, Sir, 195 MacDonald, Malcolm, 257, 331n13 MacDonald, Ramsay, 189–90, 200–201, 213 Black Letter, 190–4, 204, 206, 213 McMahon, Henry, Sir: 1915 McMahon letter, 64–6, 69, 100, 262 MacMichael, Harold (British High Commissioner of Palestine), 229, 246, 257 MacMillan, Margaret, 78–9, 84, 96, 124 Maisky, Ivan, 249–51, 253 Marx, Heinrich, 6 Marx, Karl, 6, 283 Marxism, 275 Marxist Zionism, 25–6, 28 Masalha, Nur, 287 Mattar, Philip, 219 Meir, Golda, 268, 269 Mesopotamia, 12, 60, 62, 63, 65, 67, 68, 137, 139, 140, 186 see also Iraq messianism, 14, 15, 52, 147, 285, 316n27 Middle Ages, 46, 47 Middle East, 273 Britain, 68, 70, 72, 234 France, 68, 139 Milner, Alfred, Lord, 93 Mizrahim/Mizrahi Jews, 21 Money, Major-General, 109 Monroe, Elizabeth, 101 Montagu, Edwin, xi, 40, 41, 74, 88, 90, 254, 274 1917 Montagu Memorandum, 57, 88–92 assimilation, 88–9 Balfour Declaration, 74, 88–91, 92 National Insurance Bill, 322n64 Zionism, 90, 299 Montgomery, Bernard, General, 228, 229 Morris, Benny, 26, 294 Morris, Harold, Sir, 330n82 Moses, 43, 51, 155, 318n15 Mosley, Oswald, 48 Mossessohn, Nehemia, 81 Motzkin, Leo, 287 Moyne, Lord, 246 mukhtars (village headmen), 157, 327n15 Mussolini, Benito, 232 al-Nashashibi, Raghib, 175–6, 177, 178, 212, 213, 217 AHC, 219 Nashashibi dynasty, 175, 177, 209, 218, 268 Nassar, Najib, 31 Nasser, Gamal Abdel, General, 272, 332n9 nation/nationhood, 10, 40 Jewish nationhood, 40–4, 53, 88, 92, 134, 149, 319n41 national identity, 32, 283 ‘nationalisation’ of the Jews, 43 Palestinian nationhood, 32 nationalism, 38, 288–90 Arab nationalism, 29–30, 31, 59, 83, 121, 152, 166, 169, 180, 211, 223, 262 colonialism and, 289–90, 301 Jewish nationalism, 19, 223 Palestinian nationalism, 33, 210, 211, 214, 265, 269, 289 secular nationalism, 9 Zionism as Jewish national movement, 289, 290 see also self-determination Nazi Germany, 203, 207, 295–6, 299 1938 Kristallnacht, 295 Jews in, 237, 238, 295–6 Nazi persecution, 211, 218 Nuremberg Laws, 218 state-sponsored anti-Semitism, 161, 247, 296 see also Germany; Hitler, Adolf; Nazism Nazism, xii, 47, 148, 162 extermination of Jews, 245, 252 Jewish immigration to Palestine, 218, 237 see also Hitler, Adolf; Nazi Germany Netanyahu, Benjamin, 277 Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia, 35 Nietzsche, Friedrich W., 285 nimbyism, 240, 298–300 1939 British White Paper, 237 Balfour Declaration, xi, 74, 86–8 Britain, 141, 254, 298, 300, 334n10 Evian Conference, 299 Peel Report, 226–7, 237 UNSCOP, 264 USA, 207, 299 Nixon, Richard, 273 Nordau, Max, 27 Northern Ireland, 124, 330n85 Occupied Territories, 278, 280, 282 OETA (Occupied Enemy Territory Administration), 109, 113, 116–17, 125, 138, 182 Ormsby-Gore, William, 93, 146 Orthodox Jews, 19, 39, 167 Oslo Accords (1993), 277, 278 Ottoman Empire, 13, 40, 58 1327 Press Law, 156 1858 Land Code, 24, 327–8n21 1916 Arab Revolt, 65, 66, 71 Arab/Jew co-existence, 47 Britain and, 61–2, 64, 71, 72 Herzl, Theodor, 34–5 Palestine and, 24–5, 26, 29, 30, 32, 58, 151–2 post-war partition of Ottoman lands, 64, 66–7, 103, 104, 110, 146 Tanzimat/Reorganisation, 151 Young Turks, 30, 31 Oz, Amos, 9, 41 PAE (Palestinian Arab Executive), 176–8, 183, 194, 199, 208 1929–1930 delegation to London, 211, 212, 212–13 1931 General Muslim Conference, 211, 213–14 demise of, 211 shortcomings, 177 Pakistan, 256, 260 Palestine, 45, 282 1920s, x, 159 1922, 150–1, 153–8 1930s, x, 161, 167 Arabs/Muslims and Christians as indigenous population of, xi, 12, 17–18, 23, 36–7, 39, 44, 49, 58–9, 89–90, 91, 116, 149, 151, 152, 262, 271, 295, 302–303 cultural clash, 29 economy, 154–5, 180–1, 244 education, 181, 209 health issues, 153, 157 independence of, 277 infiltration, 29, 34 internationalisation of the Palestine problem, 231 Islam, 151 national consciousness, 22, 28, 32–3 national identity, 32 Ottoman government and, 24–5, 26, 29, 30, 32, 58, 151–2 population, 39, 152–3, 155, 157, 206, 236, 280 the Promised Land, 52, 58 rights of Palestinians, xii, 72, 95, 96, 97, 100, 121, 132, 134, 169, 183, 196, 197, 289 Sykes-Picot Agreement, 67–8, 69 transfer/population transfer, 37, 137, 162, 186, 226, 251, 253, 285, 287–8 World War I, 32, 49, 58, 59, 83 World War II, 162, 243–6 Zionism and, 3, 10–13, 24, 40, 153, 314–15n8 see also the entries below related to Palestine; British mandate for Palestine; colonialism; Jewish immigration to Palestine; Jewish state in Palestine; partition of Palestine Palestine, territory of, 151, 156, 170, 282, 326n1 1922 British White Paper, 129 coasts, 154, 156 geography, 155 Syria and, 58–9, 65, 174, 214 Palestine Arab Party, 267 Palestine as Jewish national home, 10, 12, 101, 147, 159, 166, 223, 268, 297 1922 League of Nations Mandate, 132, 133, 134 1922 White Paper, 127, 130 1930 White Paper, 188, 189, 193, 194 1931 Black Letter, 191, 213 1939 White Paper, 235–6, 240, 255 Abdullah I, King of Transjordan, 268 alternatives to Palestine as Jewish homeland, 11, 12, 36, 248, 287, 295–6 Arab opposition to, 217, 223, 228, 240 Balfour Declaration, 72, 95, 189, 197 Biltmore Programme, 252 British support for, 57–8, 89, 105, 140, 146, 174, 177, 182, 198, 204, 217, 224, 235, 239, 297 Jewish immigration and, 120, 159, 218, 296 as precursor to a Jewish state, 262 ‘return’ to Palestine as Jewish national homeland, 40, 44, 46, 49, 53, 147, 271 ‘the shutting down’ of, 223 USA, 207 Weizmann, Chaim, 13, 82, 98, 158, 169 World War II, 244, 255, 296 Zionism, 249 Palestine National Congress, 176, 177 Palestinian Arab politics, 211–18, 240–1, 244 radicalisation of Arab politics, 216–17 weakness of, 217 Palestinian land, 33, 148 1858 Land Code, 24, 327–8n21 1920s, 159, 182–4, 186, 198 1929 violence and disturbances, 186, 209–10 1930 Hope-Simpson Report, 183, 186, 187 1930s, 161, 206–207, 209–10 1947–1949 First Arab-Israeli War, 271 absentee landlords, 24, 31, 182–3, 328n21 eviction of Arabs from, 24, 183, 186, 209, 210, 271, 278 exclusion of Arabs from, 26, 30, 200, 271 farming, 28 inter-communal antagonism, 210 Jewish Agency, 209 Jewish agricultural colonies, 155 Jewish national territory, 210 Jews/Palestinian clashes over, 29, 223 Jezreel valley, 183 JNF, 210 kibbutz movement, 28 partition proposal and, 225 tenant farmers, 24, 25, 209 uncultivated land, 25 Zionist land reserves, 198 Zionist purchase of, 24–6, 31, 35, 159, 174, 182, 209, 210, 225, 284 Palestinian National Authority, 277, 279 Palestinian refugees, 274, 276, 278 Palin, Philip, Major-General Sir: Palin Report, 114–16, 297 Pappé, Ilan, 93 Paris Peace Conference (1919), 75, 78, 88, 96, 110, 112, 113, 124, 146, 263 League of Nations Covenant, 130 Parthian Empire, 45, 318n20 partition of Palestine, 182, 244, 256, 294 1937 Peel Commission Partition Proposal, 160, 221, 223–6, 288, 302 1947 UN Partition of Palestine, 261, 263, 299 1949 Armistice lines, 261 AHC, 227–8 cantonisation/federalism, 225, 256 Jewish/Palestinian segregation, 180–2, 221, 279, 287, 294 Palestine as unitary state, 224, 234, 254, 260, 301 ‘two-state solution’, xiii, 227, 263, 271, 277, 280 Zionism, 227 see also Jewish state in Palestine; UNSCOP Passfield, Lord (Sidney Webb), 197–200 see also British White Paper (1930, Passfield White Paper) Peel, Robert, Sir, 222 Peel, William, Lord, 222 see also Peel Commission and Report Peel Commission and Report (1937), 158, 161, 166, 168, 207, 231, 233, 240, 295, 297 1936 Arab revolt, 221, 222, 233 Abdullah I, King of Transjordan, 268–9 Arab opposition to, 161, 221, 227–8 British Mandate, abdication, 222 historic significance of, 221 Jewish state in Palestine, 160, 168, 221, 226, 227, 241 members of the Commission, 222, 330n82 nimbyism, 226–7, 237 Partition Proposal, 160, 221, 223–6, 288, 302 population transfer, 226, 288, 330n86 Report extracts, 222–3 ‘two-state solution’, xiii, 271 UNSCOP, 227, 262, 263 PEF (Palestine Exploration Fund), 54 Peres, Shimon, 27, 50, 52 persecution, 5, 35, 40, 43, 209, 295, 298 ghettoisation, 46 Nazi persecution, 211, 218 Zionism and, 46–7, 52, 108 Persian Gulf, 62, 66, 68 PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine), 275, 276 Picot, François Georges-, 66 see also Sykes-Picot Agreement Pinsker, Leo, 7, 15, 28, 42, 315n15 PLO (Palestine Liberation Organisation), 275–7 Black September, 276 IDF, 276 Palestinian National Covenant, 275 ‘two-state solution’, 277 UN observer status, 276 Plumer, Herbert, Field Marshal (British High Commissioner of Palestine), 196 Poale Zion (Workers of Zion), 25–6 pogrom, 38, 46, 47, 87, 107, 252, 255 Russia, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12, 35, 46, 47, 294 see also anti-Semitism; violence Poland, 4, 248, 251, 255 anti-Semitism, 161, 247 Jewish Question, x Jews in, x, 43, 207 Pollock, James, Captain, 117 al-Qassam, Izz ad-din, 215–16, 329n74 death, 216, 218 jihad, 216 Rabbinical Council, 155 Rabin, Yitzhak, 277 race, 41, 83, 87, 132, 185, 248 Jewish race, 61 rationalism, 5 Reagan, Ronald, 280 regeneration, 13, 14, 22, 27–8, 144, 205, 286 Revisionist Party, 164, 167, 172, 173, 185, 245 return ‘return’ to Palestine as answer to the Jewish Question, 13, 94, 105, 208, 227, 237 ‘return’ to Palestine as Jewish national homeland, 40, 44, 46, 49, 53, 94, 147, 271 ‘right of return’, 271, 280, 319n42 Rogan, Eugene, 64–5 Roman Empire, 45 Romans, 44, 45, 49, 53, 315n8 Roosevelt, Franklin, 247, 253 Rose, Norman, 39, 47, 193, 285 Rothschild, Edmond de, Baron, 24, 118, 144 Rothschild, Nathan, 2nd Baronet and Lord, 72, 76, 81, 83, 95, 96, 190 Rumbold, Horace, Sir, 330n82 Ruppin, Arthur, 25 Russia, 35, 70 Jewish Question, x, 4 Jews in, x, 4, 20, 42, 57, 73–4 Jews’ conversion to Christianity, 6 Pale of Settlement, 4, 8–9, 20, 47 pogrom, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12, 35, 46, 47, 294 see also USSR Rutenberg, Pinhas, 143 1921 Rutenberg affair, 143–4 Said, Edward, 98–9, 284, 285, 294, 302 al-Sakakini, Khalil, 30 Samaria, 45 Samuel, Herbert, Sir, 59, 60, 75, 80, 95, 115–16, 150, 303 1915 ‘The Future of Palestine’, 59–61, 63, 69 1922 British White Paper, 127 assimilation, 162 Balfour Declaration, 120–1 as British High Commissioner of Palestine, 117, 120, 122, 126, 150, 162–9, 170, 175, 179, 182, 196 gradualism, 163 Peel Report, 226 Zionism, 162, 196 see also ‘Handbook of Palestine’ San Remo Conference (1920), 103, 116, 146, 147, 162 Sand, Shlomo, 42, 44, 45, 46, 50, 318n21 Schneer, Jonathan, 69, 83, 91 Scott, C.P., 75, 77, 83, 326n64 secularism/secularisation, 5, 10, 14, 43 secular nationalism, 9 Zionism, 14, 19, 39, 40, 50, 52, 55, 149 self-determination, 43, 79, 106, 107, 260, 263 Arab self-determination, 131–2, 140 Balfour Declaration, 77, 105, 110, 115, 263 Zionism, 14, 32, 43, 52, 77, 105, 147, 285 see also nationalism Sephardi Jews, 21–2, 23, 41, 155 Seychelles, 267, 330–1n93 Shaftesbury, Lord, 54, 88, 92–3 Shamir, Yitzhak, 246 Sharon, Ariel, 278, 279 Shavit, Ari, 10, 17, 47, 141, 144 Shaw, Walter, Sir, 186, 187, 197, 202, 297 Shertok, Moshe, 229–30 Shlaim, Avi, 32, 173, 288–9, 318n6 Shuckburgh, John, Sir, 122, 123, 127, 139 Simms, William Gilmore, 288 Sinai, 11, 71, 272, 273, 274 SMC (Supreme Muslim Council), 178–80, 213, 215 Jewish Agency/SMC comparison, 179–80 Smuts, Jan, 93 socialism/socialist Zionism, 25, 26, 28, 31, 39, 48, 180, 181, 284, 286 inter-communal socialism, 246 Sokolow, Nahum, 78, 96, 146 South America, 23, 237 sovereignty, 88, 106, 124, 275, 283 Jewish sovereignty, 1, 10, 29, 34 Stalin, Joseph, 264, 293 Stanislawski, Michael, 73 statehood, 15, 40, 44, 52, 173, 294 Palestinian statehood, 269, 280 Zionism and, 294 see also Jewish state in Palestine Stein, Kenneth, 25, 163, 210 Stern, Avraham, 245 Stern Gang, 245–6, 332n4 Storrs, Ronald, 175 Suez Canal, 61, 63, 69, 77, 82, 83, 94, 139, 140, 256 1956 Suez Crisis, 272, 332n9 Sykes, Mark, Sir, 66, 87, 93, 95, 109 anti-Semitism, 87 Zionism, 140 see also Sykes-Picot Agreement Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916), 64, 66–8, 87, 107 Palestine, 67–8, 69, 140 partition plan, 66–7, 320n12 synagogue, 47, 184, 289 Syria, 63, 218 Greater Syria, 58, 65, 69, 174, 179, 214, 320n8 Palestine and, 58–9, 65, 174, 179, 214 Syrkin, Nahman, 287 Tel Aviv, 144, 184, 261, 270, 282 population, 207 as separate ‘Jewish’ port, 221 as separate municipality, 182 settlement programme, 274 territorialism, 12, 287 terrorism, 220, 229, 255, 265, 274, 276, 277 suicide bombing, 278–9 see also Haganah; Hamas; Irgun militia; PLO; Stern Gang The Times (newspaper), 72, 92, 96 Tolstoy, Leo, 302 Torah, 19 trade union issues 181 see also Histadrut Transjordan, 170, 186, 197, 220, 221, 266, 268 Truman, Harry, 256, 264 Turkey, 136–7, 140, 330n86 UN (United Nations), xiii, 257, 258, 259–60, 280 Jewish state in Palestine, x, 227 ‘Palestine’, observer status, 278 PLO, observer status, 276 Resolution 242, 275, 277 UN General Assembly’s vote on partition proposals, 265, 277 UNSCOP (UN Special Committee on Palestine), 260–4 1947 UN Partition of Palestine, 261, 263, 299 Arab case, 262–3 awarding 55% of Palestinian land to a Jewish state, x, 274 British Mandate for Palestine, 263–4 nimbyism, 264 Peel Report, 227, 262, 263 ‘two-state solution’, xiii, 227, 263, 271 USA (United States of America), 304, 332n9 1924 Johnson-Reed Act, 207, 237, 298–9, 329n62 as alternative to Palestine as Jewish homeland, 12, 23 annual quota of Jewish immigration, 237–8, 248, 254, 329n62 anti-Semitism and, xi, 86, 298 assimilation, 42, 48–9 Great Depression, 237 Israel and, 280 Jewish population in, 23, 237–8, 315n10 Jews in, xii, 23, 43, 57, 73–4, 107–108, 207, 295 Manifest Destiny, 286–7 ‘melting-pot’ metaphor, 5–6 nimbyism, 207, 299 Palestine as Jewish national home, 207 Protestantism and native Americans, 285–7 restrictions on immigration, 207, 237–8, 298–9 Statue of Liberty, 23 Zionism and, xi, 74, 86, 100, 145, 253, 285–7 Ussishkin, Menachem, 81, 288 USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), 256, 264, 273, 280, 300, 332n9 see also Russia Venizelos, Eleutherios, 78–80 Victor Emmanuel II, King of Italy, 35 Vienna (Austria), 1–2, 4 Vital, David, 6, 247 Viton, Albert, 208 Von Plehve, Vyacheslav Konstantinovich, 35, 88 Wasserstein, Bernard, 274 Wauchope, Arthur, General Sir (British High Commissioner of Palestine), 194, 196, 220 Weinstock, Nathan, 259, 314n5 Weizmann, Chaim, 20, 25, 36, 38, 52, 72–3, 78–83, 81, 147, 177, 182, 201, 285 1941 London meeting with Maisky, 247, 249–51 on Arab nationalism, 29–30 Arabs, disregard of, 141, 250–1 assimilation, 8–9, 49 Balfour Declaration, 36, 74, 75, 80–3, 90–1, 94, 96, 97, 98, 116, 117, 134, 321n43 Black Letter, 190 British Mandate for Palestine, 134, 146, 147, 149, 158 Deedes letter, answer to, 122–3 Jews as nation, 40, 42, 43 Palestine as Jewish national home, 13, 82, 98, 158, 169 Peel Report, 227 as President of World Zionist Organisation, 314n6 ‘transfer’/population transfer, 186, 251, 253 What is Zionism, 8, 12, 43 World War II, 246, 249–50 Zionism, 80, 82, 254, 289, 321n43 Zionist Commission, 145 West Bank, 261, 268, 270, 271, 275, 278, 282, 320n13 1967 Six Day War, 272, 273 Palestinian Arabs in, 280 Palestinian National Authority, 277 settlement programme, 274 West Bank Barrier, 279 Wilhelm II, German Emperor, 35 Wilson, Henry, Field Marshal Sir, 125 Wilson, Thomas Woodrow, 73, 77, 100, 130–1, 146, 326n69 Fourteen Points, 106–107, 131, 135 Wingate, Orde, 229 World War I, 41–2, 49, 57, 70–1 Allies, 76–7 Balfour Declaration, 73, 76–7, 83–4, 98, 101, 105, 148 Britain, 70–1, 72, 76–7, 87, 123, 139 Israel, origins of the state of, ix Palestine, 32, 49, 58, 59, 83 Zionism, 73, 83 World War II Axis powers, 244 British Mandate for Palestine, 234, 239, 254, 257 Haganah, 245 Irgun militia, 245, 246 Israel, origins of the state of, ix Jewish immigration to Palestine, 243 Jewish state in Palestine, 243 Palestine, 162, 243–6 Palestine as Jewish national home, 244, 255, 296 Zionism, 245–6, 252–3 see also Holocaust World Zionist Organisation, 23, 24, 34, 39, 122, 167, 314n6 Yiddish, 20, 41, 47, 316n36 yishuv (Jewish community in Palestine) 39, 119, 166, 167, 180, 221, 241, 252, 296, 327n15 1920s, 205 1947–1949 First Arab-Israeli War, 264–6 British administration and, 217 revenue from, 144 Zionist Commission and, 145 Young Turks, 30, 31, 40 Zangwill, Israel, 12, 46, 287 The Melting Pot, 12 Zionism, 13, 171–4, 257, 288, 297 aim of, 3, 14, 24, 55 alternatives to, 19, 21–2 anachronism, 47, 48 anti-Zionism, 22, 123, 169, 304, 318n6 arms and violence, 121, 147, 264, 284, 288, 297 assimilation and, 7–10 Balfour Declaration, xi, xiii, 95–6, 98, 99, 194, 251, 317n74 birth of modern Zionism, 1–3, 47, 314n5 British Mandate for Palestine, 115, 132, 133, 134, 135, 138, 140, 142–7, 149, 158, 161, 167, 173–4, 190, 194, 211, 217, 241, 254, 297–8 colonialism, 281, 283–7, 289–90 colonisation of Palestine, xiii, 3, 15, 16–18, 22, 23, 31, 171, 173, 193, 198, 211, 216, 289, 294, 295, 299 criticism of, 17, 19–20, 22, 30, 38, 90, 93, 254, 280, 286 different notions of, 13–18 diplomacy for Palestine, 33–7, 40 hybridity, 52 industrialisation of Palestine, 144 as ideology, 22, 37, 38, 40–53, 55, 130, 281, 288 as Jewish national movement, 289, 290 Jewish opposition to, 19–22 Jewish Question and, 3, 38, 43, 291, 322n64 lack of appeal to Jews, 39, 42–3, 48, 74 messianism, 14–15, 52 as movement, 22, 130, 281, 289 Political Zionism, 15, 16, 22, 38, 43, 46 secularism, 14, 19, 39, 40, 50, 52, 55, 149 self-determination, 14, 32, 43, 52, 77, 105, 147, 285 Spiritual/Cultural Zionism, 15–16, 286 the term, 314–15n8 transfer/population transfer, 37, 137, 186, 226, 251, 285, 287–8 World War I, 73, 83 World War II, 245–6, 252–3 see also Christian Zionism Zionist Commission, 108, 117, 119, 122, 126, 163, 324n21 criticism of, 144, 145–6 establishment of, 145 organisational structure, 167–8 see also Jewish Agency; Zionist Executive Zionist Congress, 27, 251 1st Zionist Congress (1897), 15, 34, 42, 251, 314n6 7th Zionist Congress (1905), 11 12th Zionist Congress (1921), 128 16th Zionist Congress (1929), 198 17th Zionist Congress (1931), 227 18th Zionist Congress (1933), 296 see also Biltmore Conference Zionist Executive, 167, 171 Zionist organisation, registering fee, 42–3 see also World Zionist Organisation

., 285 nimbyism, 240, 298–300 1939 British White Paper, 237 Balfour Declaration, xi, 74, 86–8 Britain, 141, 254, 298, 300, 334n10 Evian Conference, 299 Peel Report, 226–7, 237 UNSCOP, 264 USA, 207, 299 Nixon, Richard, 273 Nordau, Max, 27 Northern Ireland, 124, 330n85 Occupied Territories, 278, 280, 282 OETA (Occupied Enemy Territory Administration), 109, 113, 116–17, 125, 138, 182 Ormsby-Gore, William, 93, 146 Orthodox Jews, 19, 39, 167 Oslo Accords (1993), 277, 278 Ottoman Empire, 13, 40, 58 1327 Press Law, 156 1858 Land Code, 24, 327–8n21 1916 Arab Revolt, 65, 66, 71 Arab/Jew co-existence, 47 Britain and, 61–2, 64, 71, 72 Herzl, Theodor, 34–5 Palestine and, 24–5, 26, 29, 30, 32, 58, 151–2 post-war partition of Ottoman lands, 64, 66–7, 103, 104, 110, 146 Tanzimat/Reorganisation, 151 Young Turks, 30, 31 Oz, Amos, 9, 41 PAE (Palestinian Arab Executive), 176–8, 183, 194, 199, 208 1929–1930 delegation to London, 211, 212, 212–13 1931 General Muslim Conference, 211, 213–14 demise of, 211 shortcomings, 177 Pakistan, 256, 260 Palestine, 45, 282 1920s, x, 159 1922, 150–1, 153–8 1930s, x, 161, 167 Arabs/Muslims and Christians as indigenous population of, xi, 12, 17–18, 23, 36–7, 39, 44, 49, 58–9, 89–90, 91, 116, 149, 151, 152, 262, 271, 295, 302–303 cultural clash, 29 economy, 154–5, 180–1, 244 education, 181, 209 health issues, 153, 157 independence of, 277 infiltration, 29, 34 internationalisation of the Palestine problem, 231 Islam, 151 national consciousness, 22, 28, 32–3 national identity, 32 Ottoman government and, 24–5, 26, 29, 30, 32, 58, 151–2 population, 39, 152–3, 155, 157, 206, 236, 280 the Promised Land, 52, 58 rights of Palestinians, xii, 72, 95, 96, 97, 100, 121, 132, 134, 169, 183, 196, 197, 289 Sykes-Picot Agreement, 67–8, 69 transfer/population transfer, 37, 137, 162, 186, 226, 251, 253, 285, 287–8 World War I, 32, 49, 58, 59, 83 World War II, 162, 243–6 Zionism and, 3, 10–13, 24, 40, 153, 314–15n8 see also the entries below related to Palestine; British mandate for Palestine; colonialism; Jewish immigration to Palestine; Jewish state in Palestine; partition of Palestine Palestine, territory of, 151, 156, 170, 282, 326n1 1922 British White Paper, 129 coasts, 154, 156 geography, 155 Syria and, 58–9, 65, 174, 214 Palestine Arab Party, 267 Palestine as Jewish national home, 10, 12, 101, 147, 159, 166, 223, 268, 297 1922 League of Nations Mandate, 132, 133, 134 1922 White Paper, 127, 130 1930 White Paper, 188, 189, 193, 194 1931 Black Letter, 191, 213 1939 White Paper, 235–6, 240, 255 Abdullah I, King of Transjordan, 268 alternatives to Palestine as Jewish homeland, 11, 12, 36, 248, 287, 295–6 Arab opposition to, 217, 223, 228, 240 Balfour Declaration, 72, 95, 189, 197 Biltmore Programme, 252 British support for, 57–8, 89, 105, 140, 146, 174, 177, 182, 198, 204, 217, 224, 235, 239, 297 Jewish immigration and, 120, 159, 218, 296 as precursor to a Jewish state, 262 ‘return’ to Palestine as Jewish national homeland, 40, 44, 46, 49, 53, 147, 271 ‘the shutting down’ of, 223 USA, 207 Weizmann, Chaim, 13, 82, 98, 158, 169 World War II, 244, 255, 296 Zionism, 249 Palestine National Congress, 176, 177 Palestinian Arab politics, 211–18, 240–1, 244 radicalisation of Arab politics, 216–17 weakness of, 217 Palestinian land, 33, 148 1858 Land Code, 24, 327–8n21 1920s, 159, 182–4, 186, 198 1929 violence and disturbances, 186, 209–10 1930 Hope-Simpson Report, 183, 186, 187 1930s, 161, 206–207, 209–10 1947–1949 First Arab-Israeli War, 271 absentee landlords, 24, 31, 182–3, 328n21 eviction of Arabs from, 24, 183, 186, 209, 210, 271, 278 exclusion of Arabs from, 26, 30, 200, 271 farming, 28 inter-communal antagonism, 210 Jewish Agency, 209 Jewish agricultural colonies, 155 Jewish national territory, 210 Jews/Palestinian clashes over, 29, 223 Jezreel valley, 183 JNF, 210 kibbutz movement, 28 partition proposal and, 225 tenant farmers, 24, 25, 209 uncultivated land, 25 Zionist land reserves, 198 Zionist purchase of, 24–6, 31, 35, 159, 174, 182, 209, 210, 225, 284 Palestinian National Authority, 277, 279 Palestinian refugees, 274, 276, 278 Palin, Philip, Major-General Sir: Palin Report, 114–16, 297 Pappé, Ilan, 93 Paris Peace Conference (1919), 75, 78, 88, 96, 110, 112, 113, 124, 146, 263 League of Nations Covenant, 130 Parthian Empire, 45, 318n20 partition of Palestine, 182, 244, 256, 294 1937 Peel Commission Partition Proposal, 160, 221, 223–6, 288, 302 1947 UN Partition of Palestine, 261, 263, 299 1949 Armistice lines, 261 AHC, 227–8 cantonisation/federalism, 225, 256 Jewish/Palestinian segregation, 180–2, 221, 279, 287, 294 Palestine as unitary state, 224, 234, 254, 260, 301 ‘two-state solution’, xiii, 227, 263, 271, 277, 280 Zionism, 227 see also Jewish state in Palestine; UNSCOP Passfield, Lord (Sidney Webb), 197–200 see also British White Paper (1930, Passfield White Paper) Peel, Robert, Sir, 222 Peel, William, Lord, 222 see also Peel Commission and Report Peel Commission and Report (1937), 158, 161, 166, 168, 207, 231, 233, 240, 295, 297 1936 Arab revolt, 221, 222, 233 Abdullah I, King of Transjordan, 268–9 Arab opposition to, 161, 221, 227–8 British Mandate, abdication, 222 historic significance of, 221 Jewish state in Palestine, 160, 168, 221, 226, 227, 241 members of the Commission, 222, 330n82 nimbyism, 226–7, 237 Partition Proposal, 160, 221, 223–6, 288, 302 population transfer, 226, 288, 330n86 Report extracts, 222–3 ‘two-state solution’, xiii, 271 UNSCOP, 227, 262, 263 PEF (Palestine Exploration Fund), 54 Peres, Shimon, 27, 50, 52 persecution, 5, 35, 40, 43, 209, 295, 298 ghettoisation, 46 Nazi persecution, 211, 218 Zionism and, 46–7, 52, 108 Persian Gulf, 62, 66, 68 PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine), 275, 276 Picot, François Georges-, 66 see also Sykes-Picot Agreement Pinsker, Leo, 7, 15, 28, 42, 315n15 PLO (Palestine Liberation Organisation), 275–7 Black September, 276 IDF, 276 Palestinian National Covenant, 275 ‘two-state solution’, 277 UN observer status, 276 Plumer, Herbert, Field Marshal (British High Commissioner of Palestine), 196 Poale Zion (Workers of Zion), 25–6 pogrom, 38, 46, 47, 87, 107, 252, 255 Russia, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12, 35, 46, 47, 294 see also anti-Semitism; violence Poland, 4, 248, 251, 255 anti-Semitism, 161, 247 Jewish Question, x Jews in, x, 43, 207 Pollock, James, Captain, 117 al-Qassam, Izz ad-din, 215–16, 329n74 death, 216, 218 jihad, 216 Rabbinical Council, 155 Rabin, Yitzhak, 277 race, 41, 83, 87, 132, 185, 248 Jewish race, 61 rationalism, 5 Reagan, Ronald, 280 regeneration, 13, 14, 22, 27–8, 144, 205, 286 Revisionist Party, 164, 167, 172, 173, 185, 245 return ‘return’ to Palestine as answer to the Jewish Question, 13, 94, 105, 208, 227, 237 ‘return’ to Palestine as Jewish national homeland, 40, 44, 46, 49, 53, 94, 147, 271 ‘right of return’, 271, 280, 319n42 Rogan, Eugene, 64–5 Roman Empire, 45 Romans, 44, 45, 49, 53, 315n8 Roosevelt, Franklin, 247, 253 Rose, Norman, 39, 47, 193, 285 Rothschild, Edmond de, Baron, 24, 118, 144 Rothschild, Nathan, 2nd Baronet and Lord, 72, 76, 81, 83, 95, 96, 190 Rumbold, Horace, Sir, 330n82 Ruppin, Arthur, 25 Russia, 35, 70 Jewish Question, x, 4 Jews in, x, 4, 20, 42, 57, 73–4 Jews’ conversion to Christianity, 6 Pale of Settlement, 4, 8–9, 20, 47 pogrom, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12, 35, 46, 47, 294 see also USSR Rutenberg, Pinhas, 143 1921 Rutenberg affair, 143–4 Said, Edward, 98–9, 284, 285, 294, 302 al-Sakakini, Khalil, 30 Samaria, 45 Samuel, Herbert, Sir, 59, 60, 75, 80, 95, 115–16, 150, 303 1915 ‘The Future of Palestine’, 59–61, 63, 69 1922 British White Paper, 127 assimilation, 162 Balfour Declaration, 120–1 as British High Commissioner of Palestine, 117, 120, 122, 126, 150, 162–9, 170, 175, 179, 182, 196 gradualism, 163 Peel Report, 226 Zionism, 162, 196 see also ‘Handbook of Palestine’ San Remo Conference (1920), 103, 116, 146, 147, 162 Sand, Shlomo, 42, 44, 45, 46, 50, 318n21 Schneer, Jonathan, 69, 83, 91 Scott, C.P., 75, 77, 83, 326n64 secularism/secularisation, 5, 10, 14, 43 secular nationalism, 9 Zionism, 14, 19, 39, 40, 50, 52, 55, 149 self-determination, 43, 79, 106, 107, 260, 263 Arab self-determination, 131–2, 140 Balfour Declaration, 77, 105, 110, 115, 263 Zionism, 14, 32, 43, 52, 77, 105, 147, 285 see also nationalism Sephardi Jews, 21–2, 23, 41, 155 Seychelles, 267, 330–1n93 Shaftesbury, Lord, 54, 88, 92–3 Shamir, Yitzhak, 246 Sharon, Ariel, 278, 279 Shavit, Ari, 10, 17, 47, 141, 144 Shaw, Walter, Sir, 186, 187, 197, 202, 297 Shertok, Moshe, 229–30 Shlaim, Avi, 32, 173, 288–9, 318n6 Shuckburgh, John, Sir, 122, 123, 127, 139 Simms, William Gilmore, 288 Sinai, 11, 71, 272, 273, 274 SMC (Supreme Muslim Council), 178–80, 213, 215 Jewish Agency/SMC comparison, 179–80 Smuts, Jan, 93 socialism/socialist Zionism, 25, 26, 28, 31, 39, 48, 180, 181, 284, 286 inter-communal socialism, 246 Sokolow, Nahum, 78, 96, 146 South America, 23, 237 sovereignty, 88, 106, 124, 275, 283 Jewish sovereignty, 1, 10, 29, 34 Stalin, Joseph, 264, 293 Stanislawski, Michael, 73 statehood, 15, 40, 44, 52, 173, 294 Palestinian statehood, 269, 280 Zionism and, 294 see also Jewish state in Palestine Stein, Kenneth, 25, 163, 210 Stern, Avraham, 245 Stern Gang, 245–6, 332n4 Storrs, Ronald, 175 Suez Canal, 61, 63, 69, 77, 82, 83, 94, 139, 140, 256 1956 Suez Crisis, 272, 332n9 Sykes, Mark, Sir, 66, 87, 93, 95, 109 anti-Semitism, 87 Zionism, 140 see also Sykes-Picot Agreement Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916), 64, 66–8, 87, 107 Palestine, 67–8, 69, 140 partition plan, 66–7, 320n12 synagogue, 47, 184, 289 Syria, 63, 218 Greater Syria, 58, 65, 69, 174, 179, 214, 320n8 Palestine and, 58–9, 65, 174, 179, 214 Syrkin, Nahman, 287 Tel Aviv, 144, 184, 261, 270, 282 population, 207 as separate ‘Jewish’ port, 221 as separate municipality, 182 settlement programme, 274 territorialism, 12, 287 terrorism, 220, 229, 255, 265, 274, 276, 277 suicide bombing, 278–9 see also Haganah; Hamas; Irgun militia; PLO; Stern Gang The Times (newspaper), 72, 92, 96 Tolstoy, Leo, 302 Torah, 19 trade union issues 181 see also Histadrut Transjordan, 170, 186, 197, 220, 221, 266, 268 Truman, Harry, 256, 264 Turkey, 136–7, 140, 330n86 UN (United Nations), xiii, 257, 258, 259–60, 280 Jewish state in Palestine, x, 227 ‘Palestine’, observer status, 278 PLO, observer status, 276 Resolution 242, 275, 277 UN General Assembly’s vote on partition proposals, 265, 277 UNSCOP (UN Special Committee on Palestine), 260–4 1947 UN Partition of Palestine, 261, 263, 299 Arab case, 262–3 awarding 55% of Palestinian land to a Jewish state, x, 274 British Mandate for Palestine, 263–4 nimbyism, 264 Peel Report, 227, 262, 263 ‘two-state solution’, xiii, 227, 263, 271 USA (United States of America), 304, 332n9 1924 Johnson-Reed Act, 207, 237, 298–9, 329n62 as alternative to Palestine as Jewish homeland, 12, 23 annual quota of Jewish immigration, 237–8, 248, 254, 329n62 anti-Semitism and, xi, 86, 298 assimilation, 42, 48–9 Great Depression, 237 Israel and, 280 Jewish population in, 23, 237–8, 315n10 Jews in, xii, 23, 43, 57, 73–4, 107–108, 207, 295 Manifest Destiny, 286–7 ‘melting-pot’ metaphor, 5–6 nimbyism, 207, 299 Palestine as Jewish national home, 207 Protestantism and native Americans, 285–7 restrictions on immigration, 207, 237–8, 298–9 Statue of Liberty, 23 Zionism and, xi, 74, 86, 100, 145, 253, 285–7 Ussishkin, Menachem, 81, 288 USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), 256, 264, 273, 280, 300, 332n9 see also Russia Venizelos, Eleutherios, 78–80 Victor Emmanuel II, King of Italy, 35 Vienna (Austria), 1–2, 4 Vital, David, 6, 247 Viton, Albert, 208 Von Plehve, Vyacheslav Konstantinovich, 35, 88 Wasserstein, Bernard, 274 Wauchope, Arthur, General Sir (British High Commissioner of Palestine), 194, 196, 220 Weinstock, Nathan, 259, 314n5 Weizmann, Chaim, 20, 25, 36, 38, 52, 72–3, 78–83, 81, 147, 177, 182, 201, 285 1941 London meeting with Maisky, 247, 249–51 on Arab nationalism, 29–30 Arabs, disregard of, 141, 250–1 assimilation, 8–9, 49 Balfour Declaration, 36, 74, 75, 80–3, 90–1, 94, 96, 97, 98, 116, 117, 134, 321n43 Black Letter, 190 British Mandate for Palestine, 134, 146, 147, 149, 158 Deedes letter, answer to, 122–3 Jews as nation, 40, 42, 43 Palestine as Jewish national home, 13, 82, 98, 158, 169 Peel Report, 227 as President of World Zionist Organisation, 314n6 ‘transfer’/population transfer, 186, 251, 253 What is Zionism, 8, 12, 43 World War II, 246, 249–50 Zionism, 80, 82, 254, 289, 321n43 Zionist Commission, 145 West Bank, 261, 268, 270, 271, 275, 278, 282, 320n13 1967 Six Day War, 272, 273 Palestinian Arabs in, 280 Palestinian National Authority, 277 settlement programme, 274 West Bank Barrier, 279 Wilhelm II, German Emperor, 35 Wilson, Henry, Field Marshal Sir, 125 Wilson, Thomas Woodrow, 73, 77, 100, 130–1, 146, 326n69 Fourteen Points, 106–107, 131, 135 Wingate, Orde, 229 World War I, 41–2, 49, 57, 70–1 Allies, 76–7 Balfour Declaration, 73, 76–7, 83–4, 98, 101, 105, 148 Britain, 70–1, 72, 76–7, 87, 123, 139 Israel, origins of the state of, ix Palestine, 32, 49, 58, 59, 83 Zionism, 73, 83 World War II Axis powers, 244 British Mandate for Palestine, 234, 239, 254, 257 Haganah, 245 Irgun militia, 245, 246 Israel, origins of the state of, ix Jewish immigration to Palestine, 243 Jewish state in Palestine, 243 Palestine, 162, 243–6 Palestine as Jewish national home, 244, 255, 296 Zionism, 245–6, 252–3 see also Holocaust World Zionist Organisation, 23, 24, 34, 39, 122, 167, 314n6 Yiddish, 20, 41, 47, 316n36 yishuv (Jewish community in Palestine) 39, 119, 166, 167, 180, 221, 241, 252, 296, 327n15 1920s, 205 1947–1949 First Arab-Israeli War, 264–6 British administration and, 217 revenue from, 144 Zionist Commission and, 145 Young Turks, 30, 31, 40 Zangwill, Israel, 12, 46, 287 The Melting Pot, 12 Zionism, 13, 171–4, 257, 288, 297 aim of, 3, 14, 24, 55 alternatives to, 19, 21–2 anachronism, 47, 48 anti-Zionism, 22, 123, 169, 304, 318n6 arms and violence, 121, 147, 264, 284, 288, 297 assimilation and, 7–10 Balfour Declaration, xi, xiii, 95–6, 98, 99, 194, 251, 317n74 birth of modern Zionism, 1–3, 47, 314n5 British Mandate for Palestine, 115, 132, 133, 134, 135, 138, 140, 142–7, 149, 158, 161, 167, 173–4, 190, 194, 211, 217, 241, 254, 297–8 colonialism, 281, 283–7, 289–90 colonisation of Palestine, xiii, 3, 15, 16–18, 22, 23, 31, 171, 173, 193, 198, 211, 216, 289, 294, 295, 299 criticism of, 17, 19–20, 22, 30, 38, 90, 93, 254, 280, 286 different notions of, 13–18 diplomacy for Palestine, 33–7, 40 hybridity, 52 industrialisation of Palestine, 144 as ideology, 22, 37, 38, 40–53, 55, 130, 281, 288 as Jewish national movement, 289, 290 Jewish opposition to, 19–22 Jewish Question and, 3, 38, 43, 291, 322n64 lack of appeal to Jews, 39, 42–3, 48, 74 messianism, 14–15, 52 as movement, 22, 130, 281, 289 Political Zionism, 15, 16, 22, 38, 43, 46 secularism, 14, 19, 39, 40, 50, 52, 55, 149 self-determination, 14, 32, 43, 52, 77, 105, 147, 285 Spiritual/Cultural Zionism, 15–16, 286 the term, 314–15n8 transfer/population transfer, 37, 137, 186, 226, 251, 285, 287–8 World War I, 73, 83 World War II, 245–6, 252–3 see also Christian Zionism Zionist Commission, 108, 117, 119, 122, 126, 163, 324n21 criticism of, 144, 145–6 establishment of, 145 organisational structure, 167–8 see also Jewish Agency; Zionist Executive Zionist Congress, 27, 251 1st Zionist Congress (1897), 15, 34, 42, 251, 314n6 7th Zionist Congress (1905), 11 12th Zionist Congress (1921), 128 16th Zionist Congress (1929), 198 17th Zionist Congress (1931), 227 18th Zionist Congress (1933), 296 see also Biltmore Conference Zionist Executive, 167, 171 Zionist organisation, registering fee, 42–3 see also World Zionist Organisation


pages: 325 words: 89,374

Municipal Dreams: The Rise and Fall of Council Housing by John Boughton

British Empire, deindustrialization, full employment, garden city movement, ghettoisation, housing crisis, Jane Jacobs, laissez-faire capitalism, manufacturing employment, negative equity, Neil Kinnock, neoliberal agenda, new economy, New Urbanism, profit motive, rent control, Right to Buy, rising living standards, starchitect, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, young professional

There were riots again in Tottenham in August 2011 after the police shot Mark Duggan, an estate resident, and allegedly mistreated an initially peaceful vigil protesting the killing outside Tottenham Police Station. Five days of looting and violence followed in urban centres across the country. An agonised inquest followed, but one ready response among Conservative politicians such as Iain Duncan Smith was to blame ‘ghettoised’ council estates.34 The analysis was reprised by Cameron as he launched his ‘blitz’ on poverty: The riots of 2011 didn’t emerge from within terraced streets or low-rise apartment buildings. As spatial analysis of the riots has shown, the rioters came overwhelmingly from these post-war estates. Almost three-quarters of those convicted lived within them. That’s not a coincidence.35 There was some academic support for this argument in London, at least where there appeared to be a correlation between the location of rioting and the proximity of ‘large post-war housing estates’, amplified by the fact that a disproportionate number of those convicted came from those estates.

But what stood out most was a widespread resentment of police behaviour – ‘a lack of respect as well as anger at what was felt to be discriminatory treatment’.37 These explanations were borne out in a close study of the rioting which took place on the Pendleton Estate in Salford: the riots were a ‘response, albeit lacking in a formal political articulation, to perceived injustices that relate to poverty, exclusion and oppressive policing’.38 At any rate, the reflex to blame the design of modernist council estates seems simplistic – and too convenient to those politicians seeking not only a scapegoat to blame for social disorder but an opportunity for a little real estate redevelopment. The charge of ‘ghettoisation’ has greater weight but it contains both a truth – as the preceding pages have demonstrated – and a further simplification. Social housing estates may well be one of the most potent symbols of current inequalities – though their reality is more diverse and complex – but the Brexit vote showed how widely felt are feelings of alienation and exclusion. Besides, despite the focus on and criticism of large-scale, modernist 1960s estates, taken as archetypical, they are far from the norm.


pages: 279 words: 72,659

Gaza in Crisis: Reflections on Israel's War Against the Palestinians by Ilan Pappé, Noam Chomsky, Frank Barat

Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, desegregation, European colonialism, facts on the ground, failed state, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Islamic Golden Age, New Journalism, one-state solution, price stability, too big to fail

Ironically, most Israelis, according to 2006 polls, looked at Gaza as an independent Palestinian state that Israel has graciously allowed to emerge.12 The leadership, and particularly the army, saw it as a prison with the most dangerous community of inmates, which had to be managed ruthlessly one way or another. Thus, the ghettoization of the Palestinians in Gaza did not reap any dividends. The ghettoized community continued to express its will for life by firing primitive missiles into Israel. Ghettoizing or quarantining unwanted communities, even if they were regarded as dangerous, has never worked in history as a solution. The Jews know it best from their own history. The final strategy was not articulated and in its stead it seemed that the daily military activity began to emerge as the new strategy itself and thus the “punitive” tactics turned into genocidal strategy in 2006.

INVOLVEMENT IN THE PALESTINE QUESTION THE BLACKSTONE-SCOFIELD LEGACY THE KING-CRANE LEGACY THE LAGUARDIA AND KENEN LEGACY THE FIVE SISTERS’ LEGACY THE MORGENTHAU AND WALTZ LEGACY CONCLUSION THREE - STATE OF DENIAL: THE NAKBAH IN ISRAELI HISTORY AND TODAY THE ERASED CHAPTERS OF EVIL PROFESSIONAL REMEMBERING AND THE NAKBAH NAKBAH MEMORY IN THE PUBLIC EYE THE STRUGGLE AGAINST NAKBAH DENIAL NAKBAH DENIAL AND THE PALESTINE-ISRAEL PEACE PROCESS FUTURE PROSPECTS FOUR - “EXTERMINATE ALL THE BRUTES”: GAZA 2009 FIVE - BLUEPRINT FOR A ONE-STATE MOVEMENT: A TROUBLED HISTORY A TROUBLED HISTORY RESELLING THE PAST DECONSTRUCTING THE PEACE PROCESS PREPARING FOR THE FUTURE: THE MODULAR MODEL SIX - THE GHETTOIZATION OF PALESTINE: A DIALOGUE WITH ILAN PAPPÉ AND NOAM CHOMSKY SEVEN - THE KILLING FIELDS OF GAZA 2004-2009 MOVING TO A NEW STRATEGY, 2000-2005 2004: THE DUMMY CITY 2005: “FIRST RAINS” 2006: “SUMMER RAINS” AND “AUTUMN CLOUDS” 2007-2008: THE POLICY BECOMES A STRATEGY A GENOCIDAL POLICY? EIGHT - A MIDDLE EAST PEACE THAT COULD HAPPEN (BUT WON’T) Acknowledgements A NOTE ON THE TEXT NOTES INDEX ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTORS ALSO FROM HAYMARKET BOOKS ABOUT HAYMARKET BOOKS Copyright Page INTRODUCTION When Noam Chomsky first answered my email in December 2005, I would never have imagined that five years later I would be working on a book with him.

To answer this, I asked myself: “Why has this ‘conflict’ lasted for so long, who can stop it, and how?” Ignorance, the people, and by popular resistance and a refusal to remain silent were the first answers that came to mind. I sincerely believe that what is happening in Palestine would never have lasted this long if the public were properly informed about what had been really taking place in this part of the Middle East. Noam, Ilan, and I worked on the dialogue, now titled “The Ghettoization of Palestine,” again, gave it more insight, edited some questions, and added new ones. Ilan additionally contributed several articles addressing various crucial aspects of the Israel-Palestine question and Noam reworked his astonishing piece “‘Exterminate All the Brutes’: Gaza 2009.” Combining interviews and essays was important. On one hand, the interactive joint interview/dialogue form is a means to express and explore researched analysis and opinions in an accessible way.


pages: 309 words: 92,846

Memoirs of a Jewish Extremist: The Story of a Transformation by Yossi Klein Halevi

1960s counterculture, East Village, ghettoisation, Haight Ashbury, Yom Kippur War

Only Israel’s existence, our antidote to the Holocaust, had prevented most Jews from rejecting the world in bitter self-ghettoization. But now the pretense of normalcy was over. There could be no crueler irony for Jews than transforming Israel into a ghetto. Inevitably, the suppressed rage from the Holocaust was released; and Israelis began seeing their hope in the grim Revisionist outcasts, in Menachem Begin and his right-wing Likud party. Israel seemed caught in a cycle: The more it was unfairly quarantined, the more extreme it became—a position that in turn demanded its further isolation. I’d once read a story about children sold to medieval circuses and turned into freaks: Their legs, bound in blocks, remained stunted while their torsos grew to normal size; heads, placed in hourglasses, adapted to the shape of the curves. We too were being transformed into freaks—ghettoized and demonized, until we turned grotesque with rage.

Tzedek, tzedek tirdof, commands the Torah: Justice, justice shalt thou pursue. The repetition of the word “justice,” note the rabbis, is to remind us that not only ends but also means must be just. Inspired by the post-Holocaust Jewish renaissance, many young Jews of my generation—in America, the Soviet Union and throughout the Diaspora—rejected assimilation and adopted a Jewish identity. My journey worked differently: from the heart of Jewish self-ghettoization to an attempt to make peace with the world, embracing not only my Jewish identity but also my place within humanity. For many Holocaust survivors and their children, being a part of humanity was by no means a given. The message of the war against the Jews, unfolding unimpeded for over a decade in the heart of Europe, was exactly as the Nazis intended: Jews were wholly other. Aside from the destruction itself, the wound that lingers in the Jewish psyche is the fear of exclusion from humanity.

But now, a vicarious Israeli, I bopped to the back of the bus, where Italian kids in leather jackets pushed each other for fun and yelled at the passing streets. I took a window seat, propped my foot against the seat before me, and slumped, nonchalant, demonstratively oblivious to danger. BTA was modern Orthodox. Its main premise was that an Orthodox Jew could enter “the world” by becoming a professional, yet still remain mentally ghettoized. Unlike students at ultra-Orthodox yeshivas, we were permitted to go to movies and basketball games, to watch Gentiles from a distance; but actually fraternizing with them was unthinkable. The spirit of modernity—a curiosity about foreign cultures—didn’t penetrate our Judaism. The school transmitted opposite messages. In one wing of the building was a yeshiva girls’ high school—placing the sexes in such close proximity was virtually modern.


pages: 735 words: 214,791

IBM and the Holocaust by Edwin Black

card file, computer age, family office, ghettoisation, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, profit motive, Transnistria

The status of each of his grandparents must be given and substantiated by evidence in case of inquiry.”2 Certainly, by May 1939, virtually every “practicing Jew” had been registered, surveyed, numbered, and sorted numerous times in a series of overlapping, often disjointed, campaigns. The purpose of the 1939 census was to identify the so-called “racial Jews” in Germany proper, add Jews of any definition in the new territories of the expanded Reich, and locate each individual before being ghettoized or subjected to other action. Indeed the ghettoization decrees had begun that very month. In addition, Germany was preparing for all-out war and without the census, it could not identify exactly where all its draftable men were, and which women would step into their economic shoes once mobilized.3 As such, the census was vital to Hitler’s two-front war—one against the Jews, and one against all of Europe. Understandably, Dehomag’s 1939 undertaking dwarfed anything it had attempted before, including the 1933 Prussian census.

So how did it work? When Hitler came to power, a central Nazi goal was to identify and destroy Germany’s 600,000-member Jewish community. To Nazis, Jews were not just those who practiced Judaism, but those of Jewish blood, regardless of their assimilation, intermarriage, religious activity, or even conversion to Christianity. Only after Jews were identified could they be targeted for asset confiscation, ghettoization, deportation, and ultimately extermination. To search generations of communal, church, and governmental records all across Germany—and later throughout Europe—was a cross-indexing task so monumental, it called for a computer. But in 1933, no computer existed. When the Reich needed to mount a systematic campaign of Jewish economic disenfranchisement and later began the massive movement of European Jews out of their homes and into ghettos, once again, the task was so prodigious it called for a computer.

Preliminary analyzed results were ready by November 10, 1939, the one-year anniversary of Kristallnacht, and, more importantly for Hitler, the anniversary of Germany’s surrender in the Great War.10 Intense demand to access the final information on racial Jews came from competing Nazi organizations as well as state and national government bureaus. But anxious local and state agencies would have to wait. For example, municipal officials throughout Saxony asked their regional statistical offices if they could examine the census data first to speed their ghettoization and confiscation campaigns. But the Reich Statistical Office in Berlin said no. Greater priority was granted to the SD and Adolf Eichmann’s Referat II 112, which both received copies of all census registration lists.11 The census yielded exactly the data Nazi Germany needed, including data for the areas beyond Germany. Within months, for example, bureaucrats in the Austrian Statistical Office had compiled a complete profile of Jewish existence in the country.


Building and Dwelling: Ethics for the City by Richard Sennett

Buckminster Fuller, car-free, clean water, cognitive dissonance, complexity theory, creative destruction, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, double helix, Downton Abbey, East Village, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, housing crisis, illegal immigration, informal economy, interchangeable parts, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Masdar, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, new economy, Nicholas Carr, Norbert Wiener, open borders, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Richard Florida, Shoshana Zuboff, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, smart cities, Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the High Line, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen

The Venetian ghetto did not aim at conversion; the enclosing of the Jewish community marked the irremediable difference of their being Jewish. Exclusion of the Venetian sort was seemingly easy. It required only a space which could be totally isolated and sealed off. The essential element of built form is the containing wall. Water made the isolating wall around the islanded Jews then, just as now the ‘security’ fence made of steel ghettoizes Palestinians. But exclusion of an Other who is nonetheless needed in the city makes this kind of construction not so straightforward; the wall can enable the Other to prosper internally, whereas the dominant culture wants only to maintain it in conditions of bare survival. Jews gained bodily security, within the walls of the ghetto, so long as they stayed there. The isolated space protected them in 1534, for example, when they were subject to a wave of attacks during Lent; the bridges were drawn up, the windows closed as usual, the police cruised in boats around the islands to make sure crowds of Christian zealots couldn’t get at them.

The shared, tight-packed space of the ghetto cité was remarkable because Jews were themselves ‘peoples’ rather than a people. The strands of Renaissance Judaism were woven of very different social materials: Ashkenazi Jews did not speak the same language as Sephardic Jews, nor share a common culture, and the doctrinal differences between them were great. Levantine Jews in turn were composed of several schismatic sects. Once ghettoized, constrained to live in the same space, they had to learn how to mix with one another, and to live together. In part, this involved speaking as ‘Jews’ to the outside world, cooperating to protect their interests, even while continuing to disagree among themselves. In the Venetian ghetto, as shortly afterwards in the Roman ghetto, the Jews formed fraternal organizations which met in synagogues, but these dealt with purely secular matters concerning the ghetto.

If theologically the hyphen represents the neighbour condition, it also represents the neighbour condition among men and women – at once adjacent and separate.13 For over 3,000 years the Jews had survived in small cells mixed among alien, oppressive peoples, sustained in their faith no matter where they lived. Now ‘being Jewish’ became a shared spatial identity, even as Judaism continued to divide Jews religiously. The circumstances of ghettoization forced upon the Venetian Jews a necessary fiction – that of speaking with one voice. The space of the ghetto forced on them habits shared in common, but dwelling together also prompted them, along Levinas’s lines, to think of themselves as neighbours. As for the oppressors, hut and ghetto represent two ways of shunning people. The simplified space represented at an extreme by Heidegger’s hut allows no room for anything other than a stripped-down existence: there is no complexity of built form, paralleling the social ethos that there is no room for strangers in a place.


pages: 519 words: 136,708

Vertical: The City From Satellites to Bunkers by Stephen Graham

1960s counterculture, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, Buckminster Fuller, Buy land – they’re not making it any more, Chelsea Manning, Commodity Super-Cycle, creative destruction, deindustrialization, digital map, drone strike, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, energy security, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Google Earth, Gunnar Myrdal, high net worth, housing crisis, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, Indoor air pollution, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, late capitalism, low earth orbit, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, megastructure, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, oil shale / tar sands, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-industrial society, Project Plowshare, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Ronald Reagan, Skype, South China Sea, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, trickle-down economics, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, urban sprawl, white flight, WikiLeaks, William Langewiesche

Many lamented that the obsession with the modernist aesthetics of the new towers had not been matched by detailed sociological thinking about how they would benefit the lives of those who inhabited them. In the fierce debates about the design and management of vertical mass housing that developed in France, the UK, the US and elsewhere from the late 1960s, vertical mass housing began to be read off as an (often racialised) proxy for pathologically rooted ‘urban problems’: crime, poverty, gang violence, ghettoisation and drug misuse. Jane Jacobs, the most influential critic of all, complained of the ‘great blight of dullness’ in the cheap and poorly designed US public housing projects.18 Dutch planner John Habraken, meanwhile, criticised modernist planners and architects for being ‘bewitch[ed] by partially understood technical possibilities’ which resulted in a soul-destroying ‘“automatism” and uniformity in housing design.’19 Certainly, the forcible and arrogant rehousing and removal of populations into warrens of cell-like apartments within badly sited, poorly designed and under-landscaped housing towers was often socially disastrous.

Even in their ruinous condition, they can still offer a sense of possibility which decades of being told that ‘There is No Alternative’ has almost beaten out of us.’35 Successes in vertical social housing have occurred when design, maintenance and management have been of a high quality; where residents have been able to maintain their economic fortunes amid dramatic processes of urban restructuring; and where residents have had continued inputs into the design and management of their homes. The careful integration of socially rented housing and avoidance of ethnic ghettoisation have also often also been crucial. In nations where mass high-rise housing has been organised for whole populations – as in Singapore and Hong Kong – high levels of maintenance, rent regulation and the provision of mass transit, decent public and commercial services and quality landscaping have helped to make tower living relatively popular, even for families. We must be wary, then, of writing residential towers into simplistic ‘grand stories’ while ignoring their complex and varied histories and politics.


The Origins of the Urban Crisis by Sugrue, Thomas J.

affirmative action, business climate, collective bargaining, correlation coefficient, creative destruction, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Ford paid five dollars a day, George Gilder, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, informal economy, invisible hand, job automation, jobless men, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass incarceration, New Urbanism, oil shock, pink-collar, postindustrial economy, rent control, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, side project, Silicon Valley, strikebreaker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

Blacks in Detroit and other northern metropolises found themselves entrapped in rapidly expanding, yet persistently isolated urban ghettos. Despite the supposedly liberal mores of the North, despite successful court challenges to housing market discrimination, despite open housing advocacy and legislation, northern cities experienced rates of segregation that barely changed between the 1940s and the present. Segregated housing compounded the urban crisis. The combination of deindustrialization, white flight, and hardening ghettoization proved devastating. Residence in the inner city became a self-perpetuating stigma. Increasing joblessness, and the decaying infrastructure of inner-city neighborhoods, reinforced white stereotypes of black people, families, and communities.14 Racial conflict and tension surfaced as a persistent refrain in the lives of urban Americans in the postwar era. Discrimination by race was a central fact of life in the postwar city.

Popular images of whiteness and blackness—and the ways in which they changed—influenced the day-to-day encounters between whites and blacks at work and on city streets.16 Perceptions of racial differences were not, I argue, wholly, or even primarily, the consequences of popular culture. If they were, they would not have had such extraordinary staying power. In the postwar city, blackness and whiteness assumed a spatial definition. The physical state of African American neighborhoods and white neighborhoods in Detroit reinforced perceptions of race. The completeness of racial segregation made ghettoization seem an inevitable, natural consequence of profound racial differences. The barriers that kept blacks confined to racially isolated, deteriorating, inner-city neighborhoods were largely invisible to white Detroiters. To the majority of untutored white observers, visible poverty, overcrowding, and deteriorating houses were signs of individual moral deficiencies, not manifestations of structural inequalities.

Likewise, tenants who could barely afford to make rent payments had few resources to maintain their apartments in decent condition. The high turnover of tenants meant that few had any long-term commitment to the quality of life in their buildings. The result was detrimental to all concerned. Members of a group representing apartment dwellers in a West Side neighborhood described the self-perpetuating cycle of ghettoization: “When apartment buildings are poorly maintained, the whole neighborhood is downgraded. When rents are exorbitant, people cannot long afford to pay; this leads to a constantly changing community rather than to stable neighborhood relations.”78 Detroit’s housing shortage and its racial boundaries held firm for most of the 1940s. The result was the confinement of blacks to densely packed, rundown, and overpriced housing in the same neighborhoods that had entrapped blacks since the Great Migration.


pages: 501 words: 145,943

If Mayors Ruled the World: Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities by Benjamin R. Barber

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, Berlin Wall, bike sharing scheme, borderless world, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, Celebration, Florida, clean water, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, digital Maoism, disintermediation, edge city, Edward Glaeser, Edward Snowden, Etonian, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, Filter Bubble, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global pandemic, global village, Hernando de Soto, Howard Zinn, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, income inequality, informal economy, information retrieval, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Jeff Bezos, London Interbank Offered Rate, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, Marshall McLuhan, Masdar, megacity, microcredit, Mikhail Gorbachev, mortgage debt, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, obamacare, Occupy movement, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peace of Westphalia, Pearl River Delta, peer-to-peer, planetary scale, plutocrats, Plutocrats, profit motive, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RFID, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart meter, Steve Jobs, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tobin tax, Tony Hsieh, trade route, UNCLOS, UNCLOS, unpaid internship, urban sprawl, War on Poverty, zero-sum game

Take for example, newly gated neighborhoods blocked off from major thoroughfares by traffic diversions; or gentrification in the name of integration that actually allows market forces to push poor people out. Thus, we have recently seen what Alan Ehrenhalt has understood as a restratification or “inversion” in which ghettos give way to postindustrial centers of upscale-living downtowns, while suburbs become ghettoized—trends obvious in Paris and Chicago alike.40 If the persistence of ghettos is the bad news, the city itself as a form of human community inherently inclined to integration is the good news. Carl H. Nightingale has wisely remarked on the contradiction: “Despite centuries of segregation,” he writes, “cities have always been the site for the largest-scale interactions between people from different parts of the world, and they are responsible for most of the mixing of peoples and cultures in world history.”41 Nightingale sees the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries as the high point of urban segregation everywhere, remarking on how the neighborhoods around the grand imperial monuments in Delhi and the beaux-arts boulevards in Algiers or Buenos Aires act as cordons sanitaires keeping out the poor.

These trends inspire the hope that segregation will continue to wane and turn developed-world cities into more egalitarian building blocks for global governance. The same economic trends are everywhere evident in the developing world, but they too play out in distinctive cultural and religious settings. In Europe, it is not skin color but Islam, both as religion and culture, that occasions segregation, bigotry, and inequality. Muslims have not been as completely ghettoized by geography and polarization as African-Americans once were in the United States, but the inequalities attending their economic, educational, and residential status have made for sharp divisions and an insidious reactionary politics of fear that creates ghettos of the mind more perverse than physical ghettos. In what was once East (Communist) Germany, some older citizens still speak with frustration and rage at the “Mauer im Kopf” (wall in the mind) that still divides Germans a quarter of a century after the fall of the physical wall.

Aristotle thought democracy was limited by the size of a territory that could be traversed by a man on foot in a day (so he could get to the assembly). The new technology allows us to assemble en masse anywhere and at the speed of light, but the billion on the Internet gather only as individuals in small coteries of friends and family; others, aliens, and enemies are not welcome. The web removes all physical limits from deliberation and common decision making but seems to reinforce social ghettoization and groupthink, as Eli Pariser shows in The Filter Bubble, his book on Google and search engines.21 Enthusiasts cite the Arab Spring and Occupy Wall Street as exemplars of how technology can catalyze democracy. The culture of the web, they say, is embedded in the genes of contemporary rebels, defining not just how dissidents organize as free agents but how they think, how they understand their freedom.


pages: 280 words: 83,299

Empty Planet: The Shock of Global Population Decline by Darrell Bricker, John Ibbitson

affirmative action, agricultural Revolution, Berlin Wall, BRICs, British Empire, Columbian Exchange, commoditize, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, full employment, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global reserve currency, Gunnar Myrdal, Hans Rosling, Hernando de Soto, illegal immigration, income inequality, James Watt: steam engine, Jeff Bezos, John Snow's cholera map, Kibera, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, New Urbanism, nuclear winter, off grid, offshore financial centre, out of africa, Potemkin village, purchasing power parity, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, statistical model, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile, urban planning, working-age population, young professional, zero-sum game

As those lines blur and begin to dissolve, the Census Bureau will have the challenging task of trying to define what ethnicity or combination of ethnicities a person might be. The final stirring of the melting pot will be happily underway.345 A caveat: “We are becoming a more diverse society, but not a post-racial one,” the sociologist Richard Alba noted. The history of slavery, segregation, ghettoization, and other forms of discrimination are still too raw to airily dismiss. “But we need to admit that these categories are at best rough approximations when it comes to understanding who we are becoming,” he adds. “Our society, transformed by immigration and new forms of assimilation, hasn’t yet developed the vocabulary to capture the nuanced realities of this evolution.”346 Whatever hopeful signals a declining birth rate might send for future racial reconciliation, the fact remains that aging, low-fertility populations face deep challenges as their workforce and then their entire population begins to shrink.

The Vietnamese quickly integrated into society; people joked that every corner store seemed to be owned by a Vietnamese husband and wife; two decades later, it seemed as though every top-of-the-class student in the country’s universities was the son or daughter of those grocery-store owners. Second, private sponsorship was an excellent way to integrate refugees, who were dispersed across the country and who were well supported by the local community, preventing ghettoization. Private sponsorship became a permanent facet of Canada’s refugee program, especially during times of crisis. About half of the fifty thousand Syrian refugees who came to Canada in 2015 and 2016 were privately sponsored. There were far more volunteers ready and willing to sponsor refugees than there were properly vetted candidates. Canadians embrace refugees and immigrants, not because Canadians are particularly nice, but because they have learned it is in Canada’s own interest to welcome them.

We have a hunch that the really exciting music and theater, the truly groundbreaking innovations, the revolutionary new thinking in the last decades of this century will more likely come from Lagos or Mumbai than from Paris or Tokyo. Even the least fertile countries in Europe and Asia could, if they wanted to, stabilize their populations by accepting immigrants. But this view may be naive. Immigration without multiculturalism, as we’ve said, is a recipe for exclusion, ghettoization, marginalization, violence, and ultimately, the worst of fates: the collapse of the public square, the inability of different groups within a society to share space and assumptions and values together. It’s all well and good to say newcomers are welcome, so long as they adapt to our ways. But for immigration to work, each side has to adapt; each side has to give. A nationalist lack of social elasticity is what keeps too many societies from properly integrating newcomers.


pages: 440 words: 128,813

Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago by Eric Klinenberg

carbon footprint, citizen journalism, deindustrialization, fixed income, ghettoisation, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, longitudinal study, loose coupling, mass immigration, megacity, New Urbanism, postindustrial economy, smart grid, smart meter, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, urban renewal, War on Poverty

Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton capture part of the process in their argument that North Lawndale “became a wasteland” while Little Village evolved into “a beehive of commercial activity” because of “the degree of segregation” in North Lawndale.67 Yet the differences between the two areas—both of which are dominated by so-called minority populations and had few whites—clearly extend beyond segregation. Unlike African Americans in North Lawndale and several other Chicago community areas, Latinos in Little Village did not experience the particular constraints of ghettoization, the rapid and continuous abandonment of institutions and residents, or the arson and violence that contribute to the destruction of the local social ecology.68 The second crucial reason that Little Village developed into a commercial and residential hub is that since the 1960s the area has become a magnet for Mexican and Central American migrants and immigrants as well as for Mexican Americans already in Chicago, groups whose presence in the city has increased dramatically while the population of whites and blacks has declined.69 The continuous migration of Mexican Americans to this community area has replenished its human resources and regenerated the commercial economy of retailers and small local businesses, such as food stores, travel agencies, health-care providers, and telecommunications companies.

As is typical in contemporary health research and public policy discourse, much of the discussion about the group-specific health outcomes during the heat wave has been cast in ethnic or racial terms, with ethnic difference or cultural variation serving as explanations for ethnic mortality rates. The tale of the neighborhoods suggests that a key reason that African Americans had the highest death rates in the Chicago heat wave is that they are the only group in the city segregated and ghettoized in community areas with high levels of abandoned housing stock, empty lots, depleted commercial infrastructure, population decline, degraded sidewalks, parks, and streets, and impoverished institutions.82 Violent crime and active street-level drug markets, which are facilitated by these ecological conditions, exacerbate the difficulties of using public space and organizing effective support networks in such areas.

In ideal-typical terms, a ghetto may be characterized as a bounded, racially and/or culturally uniform socio-spatial formation based on (1) the forcible relegation of (2) a ‘negatively typed’ population . . . to a (3) reserved, ‘frontier territory,’ in which this population (4) develops under duress a set of parallel institutions” that (5) duplicate dominant institutions “at an incomplete and inferior level while (6) maintaining those who rely on them in a state of structural dependency.” According to Wacquant, in U.S. cities only African-Americans have been subjected to unmatched levels of each of the five “elementary forms of racial domination: prejudice, discrimination, segregation, ghettoization, and violence.” 69. According to 2000 figures from the U.S. Bureau if the Census, the official Hispanic population in Chicago grew by more than 200,000 between 1990 and 2000, while the number of whites fell by 150,000 and the African-American population fell by 20,000. Hispanics also accounted for 69 percent of the new residents in the six-county metropolitan region. 70. McMurray 1995, 33. 71.


pages: 197 words: 49,240

Melting Pot or Civil War?: A Son of Immigrants Makes the Case Against Open Borders by Reihan Salam

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Bonfire of the Vanities, charter city, delayed gratification, Donald Trump, Edward Glaeser, ghettoisation, guest worker program, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, income per capita, industrial robot, interchangeable parts, job automation, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mass immigration, megacity, new economy, obamacare, open borders, race to the bottom, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, two tier labour market, upwardly mobile, urban decay, working poor

But what about those who haven’t been incorporated into the mainstream? Until recently, African Americans were excluded from it, often violently, as were other nonwhite groups. Today, rising rates of intermarriage and residential integration suggest that a growing minority of blacks are finding a place in the mainstream. But it’s still just a minority: most blacks, burdened by the legacy of enslavement and segregation, find themselves ghettoized in segregated social networks. Among newcomers of Asian and Latin American origin, we are seeing a range of experiences. In a study of Mexican Americans, Alba, Tomás Jiménez, and Helen Marrow found that at one end of the economic spectrum, Mexican immigrants and their descendants are being incorporated into the mainstream.5 However, at the other end of it, we’re seeing the emergence of (some) Mexican Americans as a marginalized minority, which suffers from persistently low levels of educational attainment and income.

So when we talk about assimilation, it is helpful to think of it as a differentiated phenomenon. Drawing on the work of some of the aforementioned scholars, I find it useful to distinguish between amalgamation, in which intermarriage and other forms of cultural intermingling cause the ethnic boundaries separating different groups of Americans to blur to the point of insignificance, and racialization, in which a minority group finds itself ghettoized in segregated social networks. Two Immigrants, Two Kinds of Assimilation Consider the lives of two Spanish-speaking immigrants from Mexico. Patricia is a highly educated bilingual professional who enters the United States on a skilled worker visa, and who works alongside a diverse group of English-speaking colleagues. Influenced by her peers, she settles in a well-off neighborhood, where she meets and eventually marries a second-generation Taiwanese American professional.


pages: 356 words: 97,794

The Biggest Prison on Earth: A History of the Occupied Territories by Ilan Pappé

Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, low skilled workers, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, one-state solution, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, urban planning, urban sprawl, Yom Kippur War

Israel did not covet any chunk of land in the Strip, as it did in the West Bank; nor did the Strip have a hinterland, like Jordan, to which the Palestinians of Gaza could have been expelled. As mentioned before, ethnic cleansing was an ineffective option here. Up to 2007, the salient strategy in Gaza had been ghettoizing the Palestinians there, but this was no longer working. The ghettoized community continued to express its zest for life by firing primitive missiles into Israel. Ghettoizing or quarantining unwanted communities, even if they were regarded as sub-human or dangerous, had historically never been a solution. The Jews knew it best from their own history. Hamas’s counter-operation culminated in the capture of the Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit on Gaza’s soil in June 2006. This incident was irrelevant in the general scheme of things, but nonetheless provided an opportunity for the Israelis to escalate even more the components of the tactical and allegedly punitive missions.


pages: 950 words: 297,713

Crucible: The Long End of the Great War and the Birth of a New World, 1917-1924 by Charles Emmerson

Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, continuation of politics by other means, currency peg, Etonian, European colonialism, ghettoisation, Isaac Newton, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, Monroe Doctrine, new economy, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Solar eclipse in 1919, strikebreaker, trade route

White workers in the city’s booming war industries protest that new black immigrants fleeing poverty and violence in the rural South are holding down wages and introducing crime into the city. In May, a white man is shot by a black man during a hold-up, prompting a downtown riot. Soon after, black labourers at a meat-packing plant are beaten up as they leave work. Whites move out of the neighbourhoods where black families move in. The city is ghettoised. One Sunday in July, the tensions explode. In the course of a sweltering day, a string of assaults take place. White youths in a Ford motor car cruise along Market Avenue, unloading a gun at random into black houses and shops as they drive by. That night, a police automobile, perhaps mistaken for the same Ford, comes under fire from black residents. Two white officers, Samuel Coppedge and Frank Wadley, are killed.

‘It has been forced on us by brute strength, ignorance, poverty, degradation and fraud’, he writes. ‘It is the white race, roaming the world, that has left its trail of bastards and outraged women and then raised its hands to high heaven and deplored race mixture.’ It is quite wrong to suggest that two individuals, of whatever race, may not marry if they so desire. A creed of race separateness can only lead to ghettoisation. It encourages the awful rise of the Ku Klux Klan. It encourages Garvey. ‘The day black men love black men simply because they are black is the day they will hate white men simply because they are white’, he writes: ‘and then, God help us all!’ SFAYAT, TUNISIA–ISTANBUL: Over a year now since Wrangel’s fleet left Crimea. On the north coast of Africa, a Russian community has been established.

In February, Du Bois describes Garvey as ‘a little fat black man, ugly, but with intelligent eyes and a big head’. He declares that Garveyism is a ‘bubble’ which now finally has burst, however appealing the ideas behind the Black Star Line or the undoubted appeal of the back-to-Africa refrain. The two men have never even met. Du Bois hears the same dismal message from all over the world, he writes: the warning that race war is inevitable and that segregation, ghettoisation, emigration and separation is the future. Racism has always been there, but now new and dangerous theories of race have arisen, to be exploited by the unscrupulous and the foolish, white and black, from the pavement pundits of Harlem to the beer-hall orators of Munich. Race superiority has become a cult, and its acolytes are everywhere. Two pathways now lie ahead. For a thousand years, Du Bois writes, ‘from the First Crusade to the Great War’, the barriers between nations and races have been breaking down.


pages: 255 words: 77,849

Is It Just Me? by Miranda Hart

banking crisis, Bob Geldof, Donald Trump, ghettoisation, Live Aid, mail merge, period drama, Rubik’s Cube, wage slave

Once you fully accept this as your role and decide to make the most of it, you can relax and have fun. What kind of fun? At a dinner party you can initiate rowdy games of ‘Would You Rather’ at one end of the table, whilst people are earnestly discussing the new wave of young women playwrights at the other. So as they’re asking, whilst leaning forward, glasses on nose, mouth puckered: ‘But don’t you think that the whole concept of a new wave constitutes a ghettoisation of female talent?’ you’ll be asking, leaning back in your chair, giggling, a bit pissed: ‘Would you rather have an elbow on your ear, or an ear on your elbow?’ Which is a question that does need asking, I rather strongly feel. Other questions in the ‘Would You Rather’ category might include: ‘Would you rather have squirrels for feet or hamsters for hands? Or a face for an arse, or an arse for a face?’


On Palestine by Noam Chomsky, Ilan Pappé, Frank Barat

Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, conceptual framework, David Brooks, facts on the ground, failed state, ghettoisation, Naomi Klein, Nelson Mandela, one-state solution, Stephen Hawking

Israelis do not find it therefore at all bizarre or unacceptable that determining the results of a democratic process by first determining by force who makes up the electorate gets the desired result: a purely Jewish state in a binational country. This charade is still marketed successfully in the West: Israel is a democracy because the majority decides what it wants, even if the majority is determined by means of colonization, ethnic cleansing, and, recently, by ghettoizing the Palestinians in the Gaza Strip, enclaving them in Areas A and B in the West Bank and in isolated villages in the Greater Jerusalem area, the Jordan Valley, and the Bedouin reservations in the Naqab. Israeli Jews need to safeguard the existence of the Palestinians, threatened daily by their government and army, before nourishing the project of coexistence. If they want to help, they can join the international solidarity movement and those within the land who wish to transform Israel and Palestine into a geopolitical entity in which everyone can live as equal persons and citizens.

The geopolitical location of the West Bank creates the impression in Israel, at least, that it is possible to achieve this without anticipating a third uprising or too much international condemnation. The Gaza Strip, due to its unique geopolitical location, did not lend itself that easily to such a strategy. Ever since 1994, and even more so when Ariel Sharon came to power as prime minister in the early 2000s, the strategy there has been to ghettoize Gaza and somehow hope that the people there—1.8 million as of today—would be dropped into eternal oblivion. But the ghetto proved to be rebellious and unwilling to live under conditions of strangulation, isolation, starvation, and economic collapse. There was no way it would be annexed to Egypt, either in 1948 or in 2014. In 1948, Israel pushed into the Gaza area (before it became a strip) hundreds of thousands of refugees it expelled from the northern Naqab and southern coast who, so Israel hoped, would move even farther away from Palestine.


pages: 196 words: 58,886

Ten Myths About Israel by Ilan Pappe

British Empire, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, one-state solution, WikiLeaks

It remains in the hands of Hamas, while the Palestinian Authority seems to run the fragmented West Bank with Israeli and American blessing. There is no chunk of land in the Strip that Israel covets and there is no hinterland, like Jordan, into which it can expel the Palestinians. Ethnic cleansing as the means to a solution is ineffective here. The earliest strategy adopted in the Strip was the ghettoization of the Palestinians, but this was not working. The besieged community expressed its will to life by firing primitive missiles into Israel. The next attack on this community was often even more horrific and barbaric. On September 12, 2005, Israeli forces left the Gaza Strip. Simultaneously, the Israeli army invaded the town of Tul-Karim, made arrests on a massive scale, especially activists of the Islamic Jihad, an ally of Hamas, and killed a few of its people.

It seems that nothing is going to stop Israel now from completing its colonization of the West Bank and continuing its siege on Gaza. This might be achieved with international blessing, but there are quite enough politicians in Israel who seem willing to proceed without that blessing. In either case, Israel will need to use brutal force to implement its vision of a “solution”: annexing half of the West Bank, ghettoizing the other half as well as the Gaza Strip, and imposing an apartheid regime of a sort on its own Palestinian citizens. Such a situation will render any discourse on the two-states solution irrelevant and obsolete. In ancient times, the dead were buried with their beloved artifacts and belongings. This coming funeral will probably follow a similar ritual. The most important item to go six feet under is the dictionary of illusion and deception with its famous entries such as “the peace process,” “the only democracy in the Middle East,” “a peace-loving nation,” “parity and reciprocity,” and “a humane solution to the refugee problem.”


pages: 258 words: 85,971

Glasgow: The Real Mean City by Malcolm Archibald

British Empire, ghettoisation, joint-stock limited liability company, Red Clydeside, strikebreaker

From at least the 1820s and perhaps particularly in the 1840s, so many Irish people immigrated into Glasgow that it had the second largest expatriate Irish community in the world, with only New York’s being greater. In 1848 1,000 Irish arrived a week. They added to the cultural mix in Glasgow – not always amicably, as religious differences and poor housing combined to create tensions that could explode into violence. Glasgow became nearly ghettoised as different religions, backgrounds and levels of employment drove people into separate areas of the city. These incomers were housed in hastily erected tenements containing houses of one and two rooms, and frequently lacking sanitation. The middle-class speculators minted money by cramming families into these hovels and charging rents that could sometimes only be afforded by sub-letting, leading to unhealthy overcrowding.


Multicultural Cities: Toronto, New York, and Los Angeles by Mohammed Abdul Qadeer

affirmative action, business cycle, call centre, David Brooks, deindustrialization, desegregation, edge city, en.wikipedia.org, Frank Gehry, game design, ghettoisation, global village, immigration reform, industrial cluster, Jane Jacobs, knowledge economy, market bubble, McMansion, new economy, New Urbanism, place-making, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, Silicon Valley, Skype, telemarketer, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the scientific method, urban planning, urban renewal, working-age population, young professional

While the structural conditions of a city’s market do frame the choices, there is no guiding hand or systemic discrimination that herds 60 Multicultural Cities an ethnic group into a particular area. In this respect, enclaves normally represent the promise of modern multiculturalism, namely, ethnic minorities exercising their civil and human rights to live where they can afford to and feel comfortable. Enclaves, Ghettos, and Citadels The history of racial discrimination leading to the ghettoization of racial minorities haunts the discussions on enclaves. Aren’t enclaves just ghettos of immigrant minorities? It is a question often raised in public discussions. Newspapers and television often paint enclaves as breeding grounds for poverty, exclusion, and even crime.8 Yet the same media in their reporting of a city’s places of colour and excitement laud ethnic enclaves. Scholars make distinctions between enclaves and ghettos.

This sphere of social relations, with its norms and values, lays the ground for subcultures to flourish in families and communities, but it functions within the bounds set by the public sphere. These are the structural conditions that underlie ethno-racial communities and groups. They colour social relations within ethnic and racial communities. Multiracial and multi-ethnic urban areas are affected by various processes of social differentiation, ranging from stratification, clustering, and concentration and to the structures of inequality, namely, segregation and polarization, ghettoization, and gentrification.8 Cities differ in terms of the prevalence and scope of these processes. Family, Neighbourhood, and Social Relations Where one lives is an entry point into the social life of a place. From a home a network of social relations radiate out; from casual but regular contacts with store operators, daycare workers, teachers, and neighbours to intimate and persistent relations with friends, relatives, and co-workers.

Conceptually, there is a fundamental tension between the recognition and expression of cultural diversity, on the one hand, and the pull to integrate multicultural communities into the mainstream and instil in them a sense of belonging, on the other.12 Ideologically, multiculturalism sits well with the left-liberal values of social justice, individual rights, and 272 Appendix freedoms. Yet many of those espousing the rights of minorities and the disadvantaged find multiculturalism to not be fulfilling its promise of equality and fairness. For them, it ignores the racism that has long afflicted minorities by shifting the focus onto culture instead of race and class. Another criticism from this perspective is that multiculturalism ghettoizes minorities and freezes them in primordial identities, thereby reinforcing conservative mores in community cultures.13 In the same vein, multiculturalism is said to be promoting the exoticism of song and dance rather than liberal values and human rights. Some argue for a post-multiculturalism and post-ethnicity that promotes human rights and ethno-racial equality without herding individuals into ethnic enclosures.14 The underlying theme of these criticisms is that multiculturalism goes only part way towards achieving equality of diversity.


Migrant City: A New History of London by Panikos Panayi

Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, Brixton riot, call centre, discovery of the americas, en.wikipedia.org, financial intermediation, ghettoisation, gig economy, glass ceiling, haute cuisine, immigration reform, income inequality, Mahatma Gandhi, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, multicultural london english, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, plutocrats, Plutocrats, transatlantic slave trade, upwardly mobile, urban sprawl, white flight

By the beginning of the twenty-first century the ethnic concentrations which had characterized the history of London became a feature of the entire metropolis, as a patchwork of ethnic concentrations developed. This apparent universalization of settlement based upon ethnic lines reflected the increasing numbers of migrants moving to London, as well as the growing diversification of these newcomers. Ethnic concentration seems the easiest way of understanding the migrant settlement in London, perpetuated by contemporary observers racializing and exoticizing new arrivals. Ghettoization, to the extent that it exists, offers just one way of understanding the living patterns of migrant populations in London. The ghetto remains a temporary phenomenon, at least for the ethnic group which settles within it, as social mobility means that migrants and their offspring usually move to more prosperous parts of London, epitomized by the East European Jews who initially settled around Whitechapel at the end of the nineteenth century but would gradually, by the middle of the twentieth, form concentrations in a variety of suburban areas.

The Jewish East End provides the closest example to a ghetto in the modern history of London because of the level of ethnic concentration. While people from the same part of the world live in close proximity throughout the capital in the twenty-first century, mixed-residence patterns have increasingly become the norm, providing a good indication of the existence of cosmopolitanism, with roots not simply in Soho but also in the East End, as one migrant group replaces another. THE HOMELESS MIGRANT Ghettoization, suburbanization and cosmopolitanism reflect the settlement of migrants in London, but so does homelessness, displaying patterns of life in the capital which characterize all ethnic groups, both majorities and minorities, partly explained by the movement of migrants, whether internal or international, who fall on hard times. During the nineteenth century such homeless people constituted part of the Victorian underworld,3 victims, but also opportunists, in the rapidly expanding metropolis.

However, such spaces replicate themselves throughout the capital, whether in the case of, for example, Bangladeshi Spitalfields, or the settlement of Sikhs in Southall and other locations in West London such as Hounslow and Slough, leading to the type of nostalgia which characterized the Jewish East End symbolized by the film Bend it Like Beckham.126 The London borough of Ealing, in which Southall lies, had become concerned about the concentration of Sikhs from the 1960s, to the extent that it implemented a policy of ‘busing’ pupils to schools in other parts of the borough. This was a short-lived policy which broke down due to resistance from anti-racist groups in particular, although it did continue on a limited scale until 1981.127 THE SUBURB Ghettoization offers just one way of understanding the history of migrant settlement in the metropolis. Despite the level of concentration which occurred amongst the Jewish population in Stepney immediately before and after the First World War, ‘the American ghetto model of hypersegregation is not present’ in early twenty-first-century London, certainly not in the same way as black concentration in the United States,128 despite the concerns of academics and politicians,129 who simply repeated earlier anti-Irish and antisemitic discourse.


pages: 293 words: 89,712

After Zionism: One State for Israel and Palestine by Antony Loewenstein, Ahmed Moor

Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, drone strike, facts on the ground, ghettoisation, land reform, Naomi Klein, one-state solution, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, young professional

They suffered an actual policy of expulsion up to the mid-1950s and were then submitted to a ruthless military rule that made life quite unbearable for many until the abolishment of that rule in 1967.3 The successful Israeli fragmentation of the Palestinian existence caused one huge concern for the Israelis. There were many Palestinian “problems” to deal with and each required a different treatment. Yet, however one reviews the policies towards the various Palestinian existences – as citizens in Israel, as occupied in the West Bank, ghettoised in the Gaza Strip, or exiled as refugees elsewhere – all these policies rest on an ideological infrastructure that can be defined as ethnic cleansing. The military rule over the Palestinians in Israel until 1966 and the spatial policies and comprehensive legal, economic and cultural discrimination ever after are the manifestation of that policy towards the Palestinians in Israel. Not allowing repatriation for the refugees is another; and the actual expulsion, enclavement and Bantustanisation of the Occupied Territories is the third.


pages: 252 words: 13,581

Cape Town After Apartheid: Crime and Governance in the Divided City by Tony Roshan Samara

conceptual framework, deglobalization, ghettoisation, global village, illegal immigration, late capitalism, moral panic, neoliberal agenda, New Urbanism, structural adjustment programs, unemployed young men, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Washington Consensus, working poor

An assessment of the NCPS after its first year found that virtually no action has been taken on the two “social pillars” of the strategy, with all the available funding to date already devoted to the reform of the criminal justice system, and to border patrol. . . . [T]he original national priorities have not been tackled with equal vigor—crimes against women and children were subsumed under the national victim empowerment programme. This reflects the traditional ghettoisation of issues affecting women, children, and victims, and indicates a lack of interest in what are probably the most prevalent violent crimes in South Africa.24 The assessment found similar deficiencies in the areas of rehabilitation of offenders and corruption in the criminal justice system. What these 36╇ ·â•‡ Security and Development in Postapartheid South Africa developments suggested is that from the start, the ideals of “Ready to Govern” and other early documents were rapidly being overtaken by a more “pragmatic” state relationship to crime.


pages: 346 words: 90,371

Rethinking the Economics of Land and Housing by Josh Ryan-Collins, Toby Lloyd, Laurie Macfarlane

"Robert Solow", agricultural Revolution, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, barriers to entry, basic income, Bretton Woods, business cycle, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, collective bargaining, Corn Laws, correlation does not imply causation, creative destruction, credit crunch, debt deflation, deindustrialization, falling living standards, financial deregulation, financial innovation, Financial Instability Hypothesis, financial intermediation, full employment, garden city movement, George Akerlof, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, Hyman Minsky, income inequality, information asymmetry, knowledge worker, labour market flexibility, labour mobility, land reform, land tenure, land value tax, Landlord’s Game, low skilled workers, market bubble, market clearing, Martin Wolf, means of production, money market fund, mortgage debt, negative equity, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, Pareto efficiency, place-making, price stability, profit maximization, quantitative easing, rent control, rent-seeking, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, rising living standards, risk tolerance, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, the built environment, The Great Moderation, The Market for Lemons, The Spirit Level, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, universal basic income, urban planning, urban sprawl, working poor, working-age population

This is because, at present, owner-occupation is highest among those in their forties, fifties and early sixties, and the large cohort of people who became homeowners in the 1980s are not yet old enough to pass on their wealth to future generations but will do at some time in the future. Spatial dynamics One of the feedback loops in this trend is increasing socioeconomic sorting into neighbourhoods, or ‘ghettoisation’, and an increased polarisation of house prices between areas (New Economics Foundation, 2014). Houses in more attractive neighbourhoods come to be treated as luxury goods as people are willing to pay excessively high prices to access them. Inequality levels are in turn exacerbated by the land value appreciation of homeowners in these increasingly affluent areas. The promise of capital gains has enticed new buyers into these areas, most noticeably overseas investors who are usually able to buy outright and gain from speculation.


pages: 286 words: 95,372

The Fields Beneath: The History of One London Village by Gillian Tindall

ghettoisation, Jane Jacobs, means of production, New Urbanism, profit motive, Right to Buy, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Davenport, urban sprawl

The planning-blight that descended upon west Kentish Town in the 1950s and ’60s had a permanent effect, and though the partial destruction and rebuilding in the name of ‘improvement’ in the years that followed was much less extreme than originally intended, it has confirmed west Kentish Town’s character as the less desirable side of town. Excepting, of course, places such Kelly Street and the Crimea enclave: these, once narrowly saved from demolition, are now carefully conserved, worlds away in character though not in distance from the ill-designed housing blocks and litter of Malden Road. East Kentish Town has, by good luck, avoided such obvious ghettoisation. Here a whole grid-pattern of streets was initially bought by the local authority for demolition, but a belated change of heart meant the terrace houses were then rehabilitated as flats and maisonettes for Council tenants (see pages 231–2). These proved very popular, with the inevitable result that since the right-to-buy legislation of 1980, many of the properties have passed out of the Council’s stock of homes and into private ownership.


pages: 309 words: 96,434

Ground Control: Fear and Happiness in the Twenty First Century City by Anna Minton

Albert Einstein, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, Broken windows theory, call centre, crack epidemic, credit crunch, deindustrialization, East Village, energy security, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, housing crisis, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, Jaron Lanier, Kickstarter, moral panic, new economy, New Urbanism, race to the bottom, rent control, Richard Florida, Right to Buy, Silicon Valley, Steven Pinker, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Spirit Level, trickle-down economics, University of East Anglia, urban decay, urban renewal, white flight, white picket fence, World Values Survey, young professional

The result is that those who are known to cause trouble are excluded from social housing and left to the slums of the private rented sector, which are fast turning into ghettoes, in contrast to the high-security environments of public housing, fortified by Secured by Design policies. A parenting officer told me how ‘enforcement-led evictions’ were making things worse. ‘It’s been led by housing and it increases ghettoization, creating enclaves of poor-quality private rented housing, which means that things become even more polarized,’ he said, a comment which reflects crime figures looked at in the next section, which shows that crime is highest in areas of private rented housing. There is no security. Tenants who complain about poor conditions face the risk of eviction, a catch-22 the Citizens Advice Bureau revealed in its report of 2007: The Tenants’ Dilemma: Warning, Your Home is at Risk if You Dare Complain. 6 Many are what’s known as ‘HMOs’ – Houses in Multiple Occupation – which are bedsits with high concentrations of economic migrants, who may be forced to share mattresses in shifts.

The system is changing now, adding another layer of confusion, with Local Housing Allowance replacing housing benefit, but there is little evidence that it will improve, with the changes already subject to legal challenges and accusations from tenants and council housing departments that the government slipped new legislation through the backdoor without proper consultation. Under Local Housing Allowance new, much larger market areas have been drawn up, which means that tenants living in more expensive parts of the city are likely to find their benefit pooled with cheaper areas, bringing benefit levels down. Shelter warns this ‘may force claimants to cluster in particular areas’ and ‘worsen the effects of marginalization’, which means that the pattern of ghettoization will increase.8 Local Housing Allowance was introduced in 2008 and at the time of writing it is too early to tell what its effects will be, but the early signs are not encouraging; figures obtained from the Department of Work and Pensions suggest that more than 63,000 people across England could be priced out of their homes.9 Equally disturbing are the accusations that the government is riding roughshod over the legal system after the House of Lords found in favour of a test case by Sheffield tenant Daniel Heffernan, who argued that his benefit had been unfairly reduced and that the Sheffield-wide market area was too large.


pages: 278 words: 93,540

The Full Catastrophe: Travels Among the New Greek Ruins by James Angelos

bank run, Berlin Wall, centre right, death of newspapers, Fall of the Berlin Wall, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, income inequality, moral hazard, plutocrats, Plutocrats, urban planning

The neighborhood, in decades past, had been a middle-class bastion, but as its residents had grown wealthier, and the area congested and overdeveloped, many people moved away to the greener suburbs. This left an abundance of empty apartments that migrants began to inhabit, changing the demographics of the neighborhood rather quickly. Giannatou sipped on her coffee and pithily summarized the change for me like this: “We went to bed in Athens and woke up in Kabul.” Around the time they sent the letter, residents also planned a demonstration. “No to the ghettoization of our area,” read a flyer advertising the event. “No to the unconditional surrender of our lives.” Leftist groups from the area heard of the planned gathering, however, and, considering the committee’s tone to be one of “racism and fascism,” planned their own counterdemonstration on the square. These leftists threatened to bring 1,500 Afghans with them to “slaughter” the residents, Giannatou recalled during our conversation.

A formation of black-clad men carrying Greek flags marched past the shops and cafés, emerging before the Committee of Residents’ supporters. “Foreigners out of Greece,” these entrants onto the scene yelled. “Greece belongs to the Greeks.” Many residents greeted the formation with cheers and whistles. “Bravo! Bravo!” some yelled, and joined in the chants. “Foreigners out of Greece!” The entrants tossed leaflets pledging their intention to defend the homeland and urging Greeks to “wake up” and “resist the ghettoization of our neighborhoods.” The black-clad men held up their flags and sang the national anthem. Some raised their arms in a manner that looked to newspaper reporters present like a Nazi salute, but was, rather, as least according to the group the men belonged to, an ancient Greek salute. Before the men departed, they chanted: “Blood, honor, Golden Dawn. We will return and the earth will tremble.”


pages: 469 words: 97,582

QI: The Second Book of General Ignorance by Lloyd, John, Mitchinson, John

Ada Lovelace, Boris Johnson, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, Captain Sullenberger Hudson, Charles Lindbergh, clean water, double helix, Etonian, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Isaac Newton, Lao Tzu, Louis Pasteur, Mikhail Gorbachev, Murano, Venice glass, out of africa, the built environment, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, traveling salesman, US Airways Flight 1549

The results confirmed that a founder group of perhaps a thousand Romani emerged from India in AD 1000 and then spread out in smaller units. This explains the complex pattern of Romani dialects that are found all across Europe. For most of the last thousand years, the ability of the Romani to move and adapt has only been matched by the persecution they have suffered at the hands of the sedentary populations they encountered. Forced into slavery in Eastern Europe, ghettoised in Spain, marked out by head shaving and ear removal in France and England, they have been discriminated against legally and socially in every state they have travelled through. Their painful history culminated in the Nazi regime’s attempt at genocide, known as the Porjamos (‘the devouring’ in Romani). This killed an estimated 1.5 million people between 1935 and 1945. And, as recently as 2008, the Italian government blamed a rise in city crime specifically on Romani migration, describing their presence as a ‘national emergency’.


pages: 317 words: 101,475

Chavs: The Demonization of the Working Class by Owen Jones

Asperger Syndrome, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Boris Johnson, British Empire, call centre, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, deindustrialization, Etonian, facts on the ground, falling living standards, first-past-the-post, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, hiring and firing, housing crisis, illegal immigration, income inequality, informal economy, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, mass immigration, Neil Kinnock, Occupy movement, pension reform, place-making, plutocrats, Plutocrats, race to the bottom, Right to Buy, rising living standards, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Spirit Level, too big to fail, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, We are the 99%, wealth creators, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working-age population

Some commentators took this rhetoric to its logical extreme: right~wing journalist Richard Littlejohn used his Daily Mail column to describe rioters as a 'wolfpack of feral inner-city waifs and strays', calling for them to be clubbed 'like baby seals'. The idea of a 'normal' middle-class majority versus a problematic underclass was ubiquitous in post-riot commentary. According to Conservative Work and Pensions Secretary lain Duncan-Smith, 'Too many people have remained unaware of the true nature of life on some of our estates. This was because we had ghettoised many of these problems, keeping them out of sight of the middle-class majority.' In the febrile atmosphere that followed the riots, the government proposed that rioters living in council homes should be evicted, along with their families: in other words, collective punishment. It 'should be possible to evict them and keep them evicted', Cameron told MPs, and local councils-such as Nottingham, Salford and Westminsterannounced their intention to do precisely that.


pages: 91 words: 26,009

Capitalism: A Ghost Story by Arundhati Roy

activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Bretton Woods, corporate governance, feminist movement, Frank Gehry, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, informal economy, land reform, Mahatma Gandhi, means of production, megacity, microcredit, Nelson Mandela, neoliberal agenda, Occupy movement, RAND corporation, reserve currency, special economic zone, spectrum auction, stem cell, The Chicago School, Washington Consensus, WikiLeaks

From their ranks have come good scholars and academics but also the prime ministers, finance ministers, economists, corporate lawyers, bankers, and bureaucrats who helped to open up the economies of their countries to global corporations. Scholars of the foundations-friendly version of economics and political science were rewarded with fellowships, research funds, grants, endowments, and jobs. Those with foundation-unfriendly views found themselves unfunded, marginalized, and ghettoized, their courses discontinued. Gradually, one particular imagination—a brittle, superficial pretense of tolerance and multiculturalism (that morphs into racism, rabid nationalism, ethnic chauvinism, or warmongering Islamophobia at a moment’s notice) under the roof of a single overarching, very unplural economic ideology—began to dominate the discourse. It did so to such an extent that it ceased to be perceived as an ideology at all.


pages: 480 words: 112,463

The Golden Thread: How Fabric Changed History by Kassia St Clair

barriers to entry, bitcoin, blockchain, butterfly effect, Dmitri Mendeleev, Elon Musk, Francisco Pizarro, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, gravity well, Jacquard loom, James Hargreaves, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, Kickstarter, out of africa, Rana Plaza, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, spinning jenny, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, Works Progress Administration

For most people, who know little of the practical business of turning the stems of flax into thread or conjuring damasks from a skeletal warp on a loom, these linguistic motifs could seem little more than empty shells washed up on a beach: a pallid reminder of something greater, richer, only half understood today, but worth our curiosity. When I studied eighteenth-century dress at university, I was constantly confronted with the stubborn belief that clothing was frivolous and unworthy of notice, despite its evident importance to the society under discussion. When I went on to write about contemporary design and fashion I encountered similar snobbery. Examination of fabrics is often ghettoised. Even when it is the principal focus of mainstream attention, it is usually the appearance and desirability of the end product being discussed, rather than the constituent raw materials and the people who fashion them. This book invites you to take a closer look at the fabrics that you surround and clothe yourself with each day. It is not – and was never intended to be – an exhaustive history of textiles.


pages: 104 words: 34,784

The Trouble With Brunch: Work, Class and the Pursuit of Leisure by Shawn Micallef

big-box store, call centre, cognitive dissonance, David Brooks, deindustrialization, ghettoisation, Jane Jacobs, Joan Didion, knowledge worker, liberation theology, Mason jar, McMansion, new economy, post scarcity, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, World Values Survey

For many ‘white’ North Americans, so-called ethnic cuisine can provide a safe, pseudo-relationship through which one can experience ‘exotic’ cultures without any meaningful, deep interaction with those cultures. How many times have we seen politicians, looking for instant connections to a particular ethnic community, use that community’s restaurants or cultural events as a convenient backdrop? (The cheeky name of the Toronto-based web magazine Ethnic Aisle, which wittily explores ethnicity and race throughout the city and country, alludes to a related ghettoization in grocery stores.) Ternikar grew up in Tampa, Florida, a mid-sized city a little bigger than Windsor, though lacking its industrial base. When she left for graduate school in Chicago, which had and continues to have an extensive brunch scene, she noticed the same difference I did between brunch back home and brunch in her new city. In Tampa and Windsor, brunch was held in hotels and banquet halls, both of which maintained a faded, old-school glamour, big rooms that conjured up images of Friars Club roasts and boozy Dean Martin types.


pages: 371 words: 110,641

On the Run: Fugitive Life in an American City by Alice Goffman

ghettoisation, informal economy, mass incarceration, payday loans, traffic fines, unemployed young men, working poor

Under the second Bush administration, the near unanimous endorsement of tough-on-crime policies by police and civic leaders accompanied the mushrooming of federal and state police agencies, special units, and bureaus.1 These policies increased the sentences for violent offenses, but they also increased the sentences for prostitution, vagrancy, gambling, and drug possession.2 The tough-on-crime era ushered in a profound change in how the United States manages ghettoized areas of its cities. For most of the twentieth century, the police ignored poor and segregated Black neighborhoods such as 6th Street. Between the 1930s and the 1980s, an era which saw the Great Migration, restrictive racial housing covenants, the Civil Rights Movement, growing unemployment, the erosion of social services, an expanding drug trade, and the departure of much of the Black middle class from the poor and segregated areas of major cities,3 reports from firsthand observers paint the police in segregated Black neighborhoods as uninterested, absent, and corrupt.4 This began to change in the 1960s, when riots in major cities and a surge in violence and drug use spurred national concern about crime, particularly in urban areas.

As officers raid women’s houses, threaten to arrest them or get them evicted, and take their children away, they must decide between their own safety and the freedom of the men they hold dear. Women’s pledges to protect the men in their lives dissolve under sustained police pressure, and some find they become the unwilling accomplices of the authorities. This descent from trusted partner to snitch or abandoner causes considerable personal anguish as well as public humiliation. In ghettoized communities there has long been distrust between men and women, and also between people living respectably and those living on the edge. The divide between members of respectable society and those oriented toward the fast life or criminal activity has long been noted. But generosity and trust, and bonds of family and friendship, also have endured through great duress. Around 6th Street, intensive policing and the looming threat of prison are tearing at these bonds, shutting people up in their homes, sowing suspicion and distrust into friendship and family life.


pages: 323 words: 106,008

Fire in the Ashes: Twenty-Five Years Among the Poorest Children in America by Jonathan Kozol

Albert Einstein, ghettoisation

There is an intimidating rhetoric of cultural defensiveness in many inner-city neighborhoods like those of the South Bronx, which sometimes has the power to inhibit any actions that might tend to break down racial borders and to stigmatize the people who propose them as “invasive” or “paternalistic.” There is a kind of mantra that one often hears from local power brokers in neighborhoods like these that the way to “fix” a ghettoized community is, first of all, never to describe it in such terms and, second, to remain there and do everything you can to improve it and promote its reputation. Those who choose to leave are seen as vaguely traitorous, and those who help them leave are often seen as traitorous as well. Sometimes ideology and rhetoric like this can introduce an element of complicated and neurotic inhibition into issues that should be decided by the people they will actually affect.

Unhealthy and self-destructive inclinations are not the “special illnesses” of young men and women who grow up in inner-city neighborhoods. I recall, from my father’s sixty years of practicing psychiatry, that he treated many affluent young people who seemed “hell-bent,” as he put it, “on finding any way they can to ruin their own lives,” and some of them attempted suicide repeatedly. But, for the children of a ghettoized community, the pre-existing context created by the social order cannot be lightly written off by cheap and facile language about “parental failings” or by the rhetoric of “personal responsibility,” which is the last resort of scoundrels in the civic and political arena who will, it seems, go to any length to exculpate America for its sins against our poorest people. The question of exceptionality needs to be dealt with here.


Capitalism, Alone: The Future of the System That Rules the World by Branko Milanovic

"Robert Solow", affirmative action, Asian financial crisis, assortative mating, barriers to entry, basic income, Berlin Wall, bilateral investment treaty, Black Swan, Branko Milanovic, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, colonial rule, corporate governance, creative destruction, crony capitalism, deindustrialization, dematerialisation, Deng Xiaoping, discovery of the americas, European colonialism, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, global supply chain, global value chain, high net worth, income inequality, income per capita, invention of the wheel, invisible hand, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Joseph Schumpeter, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, land reform, liberal capitalism, low skilled workers, Lyft, means of production, new economy, offshore financial centre, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, purchasing power parity, remote working, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, uber lyft, universal basic income, Vilfredo Pareto, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working-age population, Xiaogang Anhui farmers

The most serious is probably the creation of an underclass that, even if not always composed of the same individuals (in the case of circular migration), would exist without ever being absorbed into the native community. It is possible to think that this would lead to the development of local ghettoes, high crime, and a general feeling of alienation from the native population (and vice versa). The problem of ghettoization may be less severe than it seems at first sight, as more skilled and well-paid migrants would mix more easily with native populations, but it is unlikely that the stigma and the problems of exclusion would ever be entirely eliminated. It would also require robust and possibly violent enforcement of exits when the time was up, and big changes in countries that do not have national ID cards. This concern brings up the problem of how to ensure social stability in such a diverse and somewhat disarticulated society where migrants might be a class apart.

See also Rich; Upper class Ellul, Jacques, 208–209 Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs), to deconcentrate capital ownership, 48 The End of History and the Last Man (Fukuyama), 70 Engels, Friedrich, 1, 2, 3, 114, 224 Entrepreneurship, 25 Entry costs, rich and, 33–34 Equilibrium corruption, 121 Escaping Poverty (Vries), 115 Ethical imperialism, 126 Ethical vs. legal, 182 Ethics of ruling class, 66 Europe, performance of socialist vs. capitalist economies in, 84–85 Export pessimism, 149–150 Extractive institutions, 73 Fallacy: of the lump of labor doctrine, 198–199; of lump of raw materials and energy, 200–201; that human needs are limited, 199 Family, decreased usefulness of, 187–190 Fascism, explaining rise of, 70–72 Feldstein, Martin, 33 Ferguson, Niall, 72 Financial assets, rich and rate of return on, 32–33 Financial centers, corruption and global, 169–170 Financial deregulation, 183 Financial settlements, amorality and, 183–184 Finland, universal basic income in, 202 First Congress of the Peoples of the East, 223 Fischer, Fritz, 72 Fisher, Irving, 48 Fixed investment in China, 89–90 France: inherited wealth in, 62; minority support for globalization in, 9; share of capital as percent of national income in, 15 Frank, André Gunder, 148 Fraser, Nancy, 195 Freeman, Richard, 144, 198 Freund, Caroline, 50, 161–163 Fu, Zhe, 102 Fukuyama, Francis, 68, 70, 115, 120 Functional distribution of income, 233 Funding of political parties and campaigns, control of political process by rich and, 57–58 Future, inability to visualize, 197–201 GDP per capita: for China and India, 8, 211, 212; in countries with political capitalism, 97; decline in global inequality and, 213; growth rate in China, Vietnam, and United States, 86; household net wealth and, 27, 30, 31; in socialist vs. capitalist economies in Europe in 1950, 83–84; universal basic income and, 203 Gender, ruling class and, 66 Geopolitical changes, global inequality and, 211–214 Germany: cracking down on tax evasion in, 173; inequality in income from capital and labor in, 26–27, 29; limits of tax-and-transfer redistribution in, 44–45; migration and, 137, 242n47; share of global GDP, 9, 10; subcitizenship in, 136 Gernet, Jacques, 105–106, 115 Ghettoization, of migrants, 146–147 Gig economy, 190, 192, 194 Gilens, Martin, 56 Gini coefficients, 6, 27, 231, 241–242n40 Gini points, 6, 7, 239n22, 240n30 Gintis, Herbert, 209–211 Giving Pledge, 242n44 Global attractiveness of political capitalism, 112–113; Chinese “export” of political capitalism and, 118–128 Global capitalism, future of, 176–218; amorality of hypercommercialized capitalism, 176–187; atomization and commodification, 187–197; fear of technological progress and, 197–205; global inequality and geopolitical changes, 211–214; leading toward people’s capitalism and egalitarian capitalism, 215–218; political capitalism vs. liberal capitalism, 207–211; war and peace, 205–207 Global capitalism, globalization and, 153–155 Global GDP: China’s share of, 9, 10; Germany’s share of, 9, 10; India’s share of, 9, 10; United States’ share of, 9, 10 Global inequality, 6–9; decline in, 257n36; geopolitical changes and, 211–214; history of income inequality, 6–9; measurement of, 231–233 Global Inequality (Milanovic), 102 Globalization: capitalism and, 3; eras of, 150–155; facilitating worldwide corruption, 107; inequality in liberal meritocratic capitalism and, 22; malaise in the West about, 9–10; scenarios for evolution of, 209–211; support for in Asia, 9; tax havens and, 44; welfare state and, 50–55, 155–159; welfare state in era of, 50–55; worldwide corruption and, 159–175.


pages: 649 words: 185,618

The Zionist Ideas: Visions for the Jewish Homeland—Then, Now, Tomorrow by Gil Troy

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, demand response, different worldview, European colonialism, financial independence, ghettoisation, Mahatma Gandhi, mass immigration, Nelson Mandela, one-state solution, Silicon Valley, union organizing, urban planning, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

Political Zionism: Theodor Herzl’s pragmatic yet utopian Zionism, his nineteenth-century Romantic liberal nationalism harnessed toward establishing a democratic Jewish state in Palestine, the Jewish homeland, prioritizing securing a state to save Jewish lives. Yet, “Jewish normalcy” would also help Jews cultivate their enlightened and traditional selves, saving the world—and perhaps even saving Judaism. Labor Zionism: The utopian yet pragmatic Zionism of the kibbutz and the moshav championed rebuilding the Jewish self by working the land. Thinkers such as A. D. Gordon and Berl Katznelson grounded the intellectual, urbanized, ghettoized European Jew in the challenging practicalities of agriculture, while injecting dollops of Marxism and universalism. Although passionately secular, Labor Zionism fostered an enduring love for Eretz Yisra’el, the Land of Israel. Kibbutznikim became Bible-quoting amateur archaeologists. At the same time, the socialists among these Laborites harnessed the prophetic tradition, the messianic impulse, fostering social justice, envisioning the New Jews as a socialist vanguard.

By leading the Mizrachi movement in the United States and Israel, he helped synthesize Zionism and Orthodoxy. While attending his first Zionist Congress, Berlin spearheaded the Religious Zionist opposition to Herzl’s Uganda plan. Eventually coining the Mizrachi slogan “The land of people for the people of Israel according to the Torah of Israel,” Berlin envisioned a truly Jewish state that did not ghettoize religion. Instead, the “spirit of Torah” would resonate “in the thoroughfare, on the street, upon the masses and within the state.” After a decade of leading Mizrachi in the United States—launching over one hundred chapters there—Berlin immigrated to Palestine in 1926. Now heading international Mizrachi, he opposed partitioning Palestine, established the Religious Zionist newspaper HaTzofeh, and appeared before the U.S.

Something radical will happen to Judaism when we are challenged to have our economic and social order mirror the Sabbath’s celebration of the world as a creation and of human beings as creatures and not absolute masters over nature or other human beings. . . . The rebirth of Israel marks the repudiation of the hal’akhic ghetto as the means for guarding Jewish survival in history. Israel not only argues against the ghettoization of Judaism, but is also a rejection of the mistaken universalism that characterized the assimilationist tendencies that affected many Jews as a result of the breakdown of the ghetto. The birth of the third Jewish commonwealth teaches all of Jewry that being rooted in a particular history and tradition need not be antithetical to involvement and concern with the larger issues affecting the human world. . . .


pages: 216 words: 115,870

The Player of Games by Iain M. Banks

always be closing, ghettoisation, gravity well, invisible hand, Network effects, New Journalism

The Hole was a set of vast artificial caverns burrowed out of the chalk centuries ago to store natural gas in; the gas had long since run out, the city ran on other forms of energy, and the set of huge, linked caves had been colonised, first by Groasnachek's poor, then (by a slow process of osmosis and displacement, as though - gas or human - nothing ever really changed) by its criminals and outlaws, and finally, though not completely, by its effectively ghettoised aliens and their supporting cast of locals. Gurgeh and Za's car drove into what had once been a massive above-ground gas-storage cylinder; it had become the housing for a pair of spiralling ramps taking cars and other vehicles down into and up out of the Hole. In the centre of the still mostly empty, ringingly echoing cylinder, a cluster of variously sized lifts slid up and down inside ramshackle frameworks of girders, tubing and beams.


pages: 537 words: 200,923

City: Urbanism and Its End by Douglas W. Rae

agricultural Revolution, barriers to entry, business climate, City Beautiful movement, complexity theory, creative destruction, desegregation, edge city, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, income per capita, informal economy, information asymmetry, interchangeable parts, invisible hand, James Watt: steam engine, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, Kickstarter, manufacturing employment, New Economic Geography, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Calthorpe, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Saturday Night Live, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, the market place, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty, white flight, Works Progress Administration

Inflation-adjusted percentage of city’s (1954) peak aggregate wage flow to factory operatives declining as black and Hispanic population increases, 1950–2000 for populations, 1954 –97 for wage flow. 259 E N D O F U R B A N I S M ing facts in greater detail later, it is important here to emphasize this brute fact: as industrial opportunity has narrowed, racial minorities have expanded in the course of half a century. Nor are these small movements: a fivefold decline in wage flow coincides with a fivefold increase in the minority percentage of the city’s population. Arwildie Howard (her married name) is now in her early sixties and living with her daughter in the Atlanta suburb of Decatur. Having spent half a century in New Haven—living mostly in the increasingly ghettoized Dixwell area, working mostly in dead-end jobs while caring for her family (which later included several grandchildren), Ardie says she “just got tired.” She had arrived very near the crest of New Haven’s population wave in 1943 but well after the most vibrant years of economic expansion, and just before the era of population decline. With each passing decade of Ardie’s life, opportunity grew thinner for people living in the Dixwell neighborhood, for her children and grandchildren.

European immigrant groups in earlier decades had faced far better economic prospects, far fewer spatial constraints, and far less virulent discrimination than these African-Americans encountered. As Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton write, “For our purposes, a ghetto is a set of neighborhoods that are exclusively inhabited by members of one group, within which virtually all members of that group live. By this definition, no ethnic or racial group in the history of the United States, except one, has ever experienced ghettoization, even briefly. For urban blacks, the ghetto has been the paradigmatic residential configuration for at least eighty years.”51 The intense marginalization of black ghettos is an inescapable element in the end-of-urbanism story. It is a symbolic fact of great significance, causing some suburban drivers to lock their car doors while in or even near such dreaded places. It is a fact of the greatest economic significance, devaluing many centralplace locations in commercial and residential credit markets.

See religious congregations Church Street project, 323 Church Street South, 383 Ciaburri, Joseph, 467 cities capital investment in, 41–42, 54–56, 66 citizens of, 113–15 decentralization of, 16 population patterns in, 12, 63–64, 70 – 71 Barton, Bob, 179–80 Basset, George, 164 Batelli, Enrico, 76 Bean, Ed, 78 Beaver Hills, 268 Bechel Bros., 85 Beecher, Wheeler, 187 Beecher & Sons, 109 Bello, Ralph (Rocky), 308–9, 418 Benson, Lorin, 4 Berg, Christian J., 4 Bigelow Company, 109 Billiau, Oscar G., 4 Black Panther Party, 386–88 blacks displacement of by urban renewal, 340 –41 exclusion of from New Haven politics, 355 –57 ghettoization of, 280 –81 in New Haven, 255–60, 405, 414 in public housing, 279–80, 341 Blake, Henry T., 135 B’nai Jacob, 381 Boardman Trade, 170 Bonefacio, Bea, 251 Booth Prep, 170 Boyd, Anne, 385 Bradley, Lewis, 230 Branford, Conn., 48–49, 50, 64, 375, 403, 443, 473 Braudel, Fernand, 29, 43, 434, 441 Breuer, Marcel, 332 Brewer, C. H., 354 Brewster, Frederick, 328 Brewster, Kingman, 247, 427, 428–29 brokerage houses, 94 Brookside, 279, 383, 384 Brosseau, A.


pages: 147 words: 41,256

Letters to My Palestinian Neighbor by Yossi Klein Halevi

ghettoisation, market clearing, mass immigration, one-state solution

We have outlived the empires that tried to destroy us—going back to ancient Egypt and Babylon and Rome. But in our long and improbable history, nothing can quite compare to the resurrection Jews managed in the twentieth century. It’s as if all that came before was mere prelude, practice for the moment when Jews had to choose between continuity and extinction. My father survived the war in a hole in the forest. When the Jews of his town were ghettoized, as the final stage before deportation to Auschwitz, he escaped with two friends. A forest keeper, who’d once worked for my grandfather, an owner of vineyards, occasionally brought food to the three young men. In 1945, when the war ended, my father returned home and found a Jewish wasteland. Together with the few young Jews who began trickling back from the death camps, he spent those first weeks of freedom drinking.


To the Ends of the Earth: Scotland's Global Diaspora, 1750-2010 by T M Devine

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, deindustrialization, deskilling, full employment, ghettoisation, housing crisis, invention of the telegraph, invisible hand, joint-stock company, Khartoum Gordon, land tenure, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, oil shale / tar sands, railway mania, Red Clydeside, rising living standards, Robert Gordon, Scramble for Africa, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, trade route, transatlantic slave trade, transcontinental railway, women in the workforce

I also believe that it is vital, whenever possible, to situate the Scottish experience in a comparative and international context in order to at least reduce some of the dangers of parochialism, introspection and exceptionalism. In addition, there seems to me to be a pressing need for Scottish historians to relate their specific discussions to the wider historiographical issues which currently attract the interest of international scholarship – to avoid so doing is to threaten the ghettoization of a subject which deserves to be part of such a wider discourse. Equally, the emigration saga of the Scots contains much which can enlighten historians of empire, settlement, identity, globalization, European expansion, relations with native peoples and many other topics. In my view another clear principle, obvious because it should be at the heart of all history writing, is to react as honestly as one can to the complexities and ambiguities of the evidence of the past when coming to interpretation and judgement.

The Catholic Irish were unambiguously alien, ‘the other’, not only because of their faith but as poor and unskilled and, especially during the famine years and afterwards, arriving destitute in such massive numbers that they inevitably caused immense social problems in the American cities where they first settled. The Scots, on the whole, like the English and Welsh, shared the Protestant traditions of the American majority, were much fewer in number and tended not to concentrate in semi-ghettoized urban areas. Five million Irish entered the United States between 1820 and 1930. The Scots numbered one-seventh of that, or 726,000 immigrants over the same period. Indeed, the peak percentage of the US population of Scottish birth was reached as early as 1791. Thereafter, it was a mere 3.1 per cent in 1850, 2.4 per cent in 1900 and 1.9 per cent in 1920. They settled mainly in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and California.


pages: 444 words: 138,781

Evicted: Poverty and Profit in the American City by Matthew Desmond

affirmative action, Cass Sunstein, crack epidemic, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, desegregation, dumpster diving, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, housing crisis, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, jobless men, Kickstarter, late fees, mass incarceration, New Urbanism, payday loans, price discrimination, profit motive, rent control, statistical model, superstar cities, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, thinkpad, upwardly mobile, working poor, young professional

On social programs designed to combat “social isolation,” see US Department of Housing and Urban Development, Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing Demonstration Program: Final Impacts Evaluation (Washington, DC: Office of Policy Development and Research, 2011); US Department of Housing and Urban Development, Mixed-Income Housing and the HOME Program (Washington, DC: Office of Policy Development and Research, 2003). For canonical theories about poverty and community life holding that spatial isolation (residential ghettoization) brings about social isolation (network ghettoization), see William Julius Wilson, The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy, 2nd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012 [1987]); Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton, American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993). For a detailed analysis of neighborhood and network disadvantage, see Matthew Desmond and Weihua An, “Neighborhood and Network Disadvantage Among Urban Renters,” Sociological Science 2 (2015): 329–50. 3.


pages: 692 words: 127,032

Fool Me Twice: Fighting the Assault on Science in America by Shawn Lawrence Otto

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anthropic principle, Berlin Wall, Brownian motion, carbon footprint, Cepheid variable, clean water, Climategate, Climatic Research Unit, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, commoditize, cosmological constant, crowdsourcing, cuban missile crisis, Dean Kamen, desegregation, different worldview, double helix, energy security, Exxon Valdez, fudge factor, ghettoisation, global pandemic, Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, Harvard Computers: women astronomers, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invisible hand, Isaac Newton, Louis Pasteur, mutually assured destruction, Richard Feynman, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, shareholder value, sharing economy, smart grid, Solar eclipse in 1919, stem cell, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, transaction costs, University of East Anglia, War on Poverty, white flight, Winter of Discontent, working poor, yellow journalism, zero-sum game

This segregation may have worked well in the large, well-staffed newsrooms of the mid-twentieth century, when multiple reporters could cover the same story from different angles, but the policy has since become a problem. Science is now central to most of our major policy challenges. Segregating it has, in effect, taken a large portion of the political discussion off the table. No other major human endeavor is so ghettoized. The religion and ethics beat has long since crossed over into the politics pages, as has the business and economics beat. And of course military and foreign policy have been there all along. This segregation is also unique among Western democracies. In Europe it was the journalists themselves, joined together as the European Union of Science Journalists’ Associations under the leadership of Hanns-J.

They were waxing on about foreign policy and military affairs even though none were generals or diplomats and some had no military or foreign policy experience whatsoever. They offered economic plans even though they had little knowledge of economics. They talked about morality and religion even though they were not pastors or priests. But they refused to debate on science—the issue that is having some of the most profound effects on Americans’ lives. THE GREAT DUMBING DOWN Partly, this ghettoization is due to economics. Facing increased competition from cable TV and a free model for news on the Internet, American news media have been trimming costs. Among the first things to go were investigative and science reporters. A Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy report from 2005—early in the science news crisis—showed that from 1989 to 2005, the number of major newspapers with weekly science sections fell from ninety-five to thirty-four.


pages: 518 words: 143,914

God Is Back: How the Global Revival of Faith Is Changing the World by John Micklethwait, Adrian Wooldridge

affirmative action, anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, barriers to entry, battle of ideas, Bonfire of the Vanities, Boris Johnson, correlation does not imply causation, credit crunch, David Brooks, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, God and Mammon, hiring and firing, industrial cluster, intangible asset, invisible hand, Iridium satellite, Jane Jacobs, joint-stock company, knowledge economy, liberation theology, low skilled workers, mass immigration, McMansion, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shock, Peace of Westphalia, Robert Bork, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Scientific racism, Silicon Valley, stem cell, supply-chain management, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas Malthus, upwardly mobile, Washington Consensus

Many of the mob were wearing Hindutva gear—saffron headbands, or the khaki shorts favored by those who take part in the movement’s early-morning physical exercises. The place is more peaceful now. Sophia, a middle-class lawyer who was also forced to retreat to “little Pakistan,” calls Togadia “a fanatic,” but she thinks most Muslims have given in: “They are too scared and poor to get anything.” Although Modi’s reputation has suffered—he was refused a visa to visit America in 2005—he was reelected comfortably in 2007. Ghettoization has radicalized the women of Sibbaka Bab. They go to the mosque more often and talk approvingly of Osama bin Laden. The otherwise mild Abeda is proud that her son is called Saddam (like the Iraqi leader “who died for Islam”) and she wishes a horrible death on Modi and his friends. Togadia has survived several assassination attempts. One of his preoccupations is trying to stop the (mainly secular) Congress Party from blowing a hole in a holy bridge, supposedly built by Lord Rama, that links India to Sri Lanka.

They are once more debating—and sometimes dying over—questions that they had long ago consigned to the attic. The reason for this is Islam. Islam is clearly on the march in Europe. Muslim immigrants are strengthening their commitment to their faith—or rediscovering a commitment that had begun to fade—and reasserting their unique cultural identity. Many Islamic communities are trying to build their own parallel universe of institutions, much as conservative Christians did in the United States. Ghettoization is part of this: from Bradford to Barcelona, Muslims are segregated. There is also an element of collective self-help, understandable when the jobless rate is 24 percent among Turks in Germany and 39 percent among North Africans in France.19 But such self-help also has the effect of creating an all-embracing religious cocoon that separates its inmates from wider society and reinforces a sense of cultural exclusiveness.


pages: 214 words: 14,382

Monadic Design Patterns for the Web by L.G. Meredith

barriers to entry, domain-specific language, don't repeat yourself, finite state, Georg Cantor, ghettoisation, John von Neumann, Kickstarter, semantic web, social graph, type inference, web application, WebSocket

Plotkin-style operational semantics, a highly structured means of specifying something morally akin to the rewrite rules of Chomsky-style grammars, was added to this basic substrate. From this combo, the modern means of specifying a language was born. While the roots of specifying a language this way can be found in linguistics, computing, and mathematics – which should have made this technology approachable from several fields – quite surprisingly the approach has remained more or less ghetto-ized as a kind of folklore in small pockets of theoretical computer science. It is not more widely utilized by the communities who could benefit from the basic complexity management properties these techniques enjoy. On yet another thread, the category theory community was discovering similar ideas, but finding powerful means to package and present them. Effectively, every algebra (of the kind we are likely to encounter), and hence every algebraic data type, is presented by a monad.


pages: 177 words: 50,167

The Populist Explosion: How the Great Recession Transformed American and European Politics by John B. Judis

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, Bernie Sanders, Boris Johnson, Bretton Woods, capital controls, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, first-past-the-post, fixed income, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, invisible hand, laissez-faire capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, neoliberal agenda, obamacare, Occupy movement, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post-materialism, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, white flight, Winter of Discontent

In a deeper sense, the existence of an immigrant underclass can undermine the public trust on which a welfare state or social democracy needs to be based. Social democracy does not necessarily require ethnic homogeneity. But when ethnic heterogeneity takes the form of an immigrant underclass, then it can make citizens less willing to pay taxes to support social benefits. By the same token, as French sociologist Olivier Roy has warned, the existence in countries like France of a ghettoized underclass can also be a seedbed for political extremism and terrorism. Rightwing populists wrongly look at Islam the religion as the cause of extremism, and advocate the public suppression of Islam, but they at least acknowledge there is a problem with these communities that must be addressed. Populism and Neoliberalism In the United States, Trump’s and Sanders’s assault against the neoliberal consensus significantly shifted the economic debate during the 2016 presidential election.


pages: 840 words: 224,391

Goliath: Life and Loathing in Greater Israel by Max Blumenthal

airport security, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, centre right, cognitive dissonance, corporate raider, crony capitalism, European colonialism, facts on the ground, ghettoisation, housing crisis, knowledge economy, megacity, moral panic, open borders, plutocrats, Plutocrats, surplus humans, upwardly mobile, urban planning, WikiLeaks, Yom Kippur War, young professional, zero-sum game

Toward the Gaza Strip, where Netanyahu had vowed to “crush the rule of Hamas,” the Israeli military would “mow the lawn,” an expression used to describe periodic assaults on the enclave’s civilian and military infrastructure, hoping to whittle away at Hamas’s deterrence capacity while battering the besieged population into submission. In the Negev Desert and the Galilee, the Israeli government ramped up its strategy of “Judaization,” planting new, exclusively Jewish communities around, and sometimes in place of, ghettoized Arab towns. Judaization also formed the basis of Israel’s approach to the mixed cities in the interior, creating unbearable pressure on Arab city dwellers to move. On Netanyahu’s watch, evidence of a clear and comprehensive plan to control all space—and the lives of all people—between the river and the sea was clearer than ever. In the Likud-dominated Knesset, the plan took the form of legislation aimed at strengthening the “Jewish” character of the state at the expense of its purported democratic charter.

The plan for the wall had been years in the making, and its designs were unlikely to produce the kind of political change that many liberal Zionists longed for. Indeed, the wall was intended primarily as a means to consolidate Israel’s Jewish demographic majority without risking the removal of the major settlement blocs that encircled Palestinian East Jerusalem, and severed it from the West Bank. Rather than delivering a viable country to the Palestinians, it became the backbone of a policy of forced ghettoization that would guarantee a one-way peace while limiting the Palestinian Authority to a realm of disjointed Bantustans. The process of drafting a blueprint for the wall began beneath the media’s radar, under the first government of Benjamin Netanyahu. During the late 1990s, when Ariel Sharon, the so-called “Bulldozer,” served as foreign minister in the government of Netanyahu, he became acquainted with a professor with a long basset hound-like face who claimed he could tell his future.

As the British journalist Jonathan Cook reported, the town had even produced a few millionaires, beneficiaries of what had once been a roaring agricultural business and factories providing soda and gas to Palestinians who lived in and around Ramallah. But in the year since my first visit to Ni’lin, Israel had completed the section of the wall the protests had attempted to obstruct, consolidating the first stage in the process of ghettoization. The next phase would come with the tunnels, which would drive Ni’lin’s factories into ruin by blocking access to Highway 446, turning the town into a replica of Qalqilya, which had seen an exodus of thousands of residents since being surrounded on all sides by the wall. And that was the point. In the long term, the Israeli administrators of the West Bank aimed to coerce much of the Palestinian population out of Area C, the vast area placed by the Oslo Accords under full Israeli control.


The New Enclosure: The Appropriation of Public Land in Neoliberal Britain by Brett Christophers

Boris Johnson, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Corn Laws, credit crunch, cross-subsidies, Diane Coyle, estate planning, ghettoisation, Hernando de Soto, housing crisis, income inequality, invisible hand, land reform, land tenure, land value tax, late capitalism, market clearing, Martin Wolf, New Journalism, New Urbanism, off grid, offshore financial centre, performance metric, Philip Mirowski, price mechanism, price stability, profit motive, Right to Buy, Skype, sovereign wealth fund, special economic zone, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, urban sprawl, wealth creators

Identifying London’s Broadgate and Canary Wharf, both of which had previously been public land, as prominent early examples of ‘private ownership of public space under a single landlord’, Minton claimed that these ‘private–public’ places – privately owned, but professing to offer public space – were ‘sterile, uniform places, which inhibit genuine public access and lack the diversity and humanity of traditional street life, while also displacing social problems into neighbouring ghettoised enclaves’.1 To understand why this particular form of socially dislocating market failure occurs, it helps to understand why the private sector would use land for the provision of quasi-public space in the first place. ‘Investors and developers’, the Planning and Housing Committee of the Greater London Authority (GLA) explained in a report on London’s public space, see public space of some sort as ‘integral to the success and value of their sites’.2 But this must be not just any type of public space: the quality of such space is deemed crucial.


pages: 198 words: 52,089

Dream Hoarders: How the American Upper Middle Class Is Leaving Everyone Else in the Dust, Why That Is a Problem, and What to Do About It by Richard V. Reeves

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, assortative mating, Bernie Sanders, Branko Milanovic, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, circulation of elites, cognitive dissonance, desegregation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, helicopter parent, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, knowledge economy, land value tax, longitudinal study, mortgage tax deduction, obamacare, Occupy movement, plutocrats, Plutocrats, positional goods, race to the bottom, randomized controlled trial, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, We are the 99%, working-age population, zero-sum game

The idea of owning your own piece of land and your own home became an important part of the American dream and of the American idea of success. Home ownership remains vivid in the American imagination; hence homeowners’ highly favorable (but deeply regressive) tax status. The physical segregation of the upper middle class noted in chapter 2 is, for the most part, not the result of the free workings of the housing market. This inverse ghettoization is a product of a complex web of local rules and regulations regarding the use of land. The rise of “exclusionary zoning,” designed to protect the home values, schools, and neighborhoods of the affluent, has badly distorted the American property market. As Lee Anne Fennell points out, these rules have become “a central organizing feature in American metropolitan life.”9 Land is scarce by definition.


pages: 532 words: 155,470

One Less Car: Bicycling and the Politics of Automobility by Zack Furness, Zachary Mooradian Furness

active transport: walking or cycling, affirmative action, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, back-to-the-land, Build a better mousetrap, Burning Man, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, colonial rule, conceptual framework, dumpster diving, Enrique Peñalosa, European colonialism, feminist movement, ghettoisation, Golden Gate Park, interchangeable parts, intermodal, Internet Archive, Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, market fundamentalism, means of production, Naomi Klein, New Urbanism, peak oil, place-making, post scarcity, race to the bottom, Ralph Nader, RAND corporation, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, sustainable-tourism, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas L Friedman, Thorstein Veblen, urban planning, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, working poor, Yom Kippur War

On the basis of self-interest, the roadway users—cyclists and motorists—should be in one corner and the anti-traffic forces—political bicyclists, residentialists, and environmentalists—in the other. . . . assume, until you know otherwise, that those who have initiated contact with you are political bicyclists, and that real cyclists have seen no useful reason to contact government.124 instead of praising cyclists for taking an active role in the political process or working toward a more egalitarian vision of mobility, Forester and his supporters frame government-funded bicycle facilities as restrictive, choosing to champion equality as a reaganite ethos of every man for himself: “Same roads—Same rights—Same rules.”125 Equality, in this sense of sameness, is conceived not as the rectification of a national problem whereby one form of mobility (auto transportation) dominates public thoroughfares, receives a grossly disproportionate amount of government subsidies, and poses undue physical threats to pedestrians, cyclists, the elderly, children, and people of color. rather, it functions as an ideological and political rationale for voluntary cyclists (those who ride out of choice as opposed to low income) to legitimize their participation in an already unequal matrix of public spaces.126 The idea that the street is somehow a space of equality, or neutrality, that one accesses by simply disciplining and ultimately demonstrating one’s cycling skill is a premise that holds true only if one decontextualizes, if not totally ignores, all the relevant socioeconomic, physical, material, and cultural factors that influence—and in most cases dictate—everyday transportation choices. it virtually mirrors the claims of cyclists in the nineteenth century who, by virtue of their socioeconomic and/or racial status, could easily ignore the cultural restraints on public mobility because they were never subject to them in the first place. not coincidentally, it is a group of mainly white, middle- to upper-class men who now reproduce this same ideology with recourse to similar vulgar psychological explanations. The main difference now is the brazen manner in which vC proponents use racially loaded terms like segregationists (bikeway advocates) and ghettoization (being forced into bike lanes) while they promote a paradigm that explicitly, and openly, condemns what they see as “affirmative action” policies.127 One can peruse the archives of the Chain Guard, an online discussion list for vC advocates, to see just how pointedly the issue of bicycle transportation is framed in such terms. One person writes: i despair of responding at length to all the unending preferences for prioritizing the “special needs” of all the presumed incapable bike riders while we continue to ignore the development of informed, intelligent, safe, enjoyable, efficient transportation by driving a bicycle on normal roads with normal training and education easily achieved by almost all of us, while we promote equal rights.128 The lip service given to equal rights is nicely highlighted in later discussion about the formation of Bicycle advisory Committees, which are groups that recommend localized policies for cycling.

See also Bike messengers Urbanism, 54; and urban driving, 48–49 Urban Mass Transportation act (1964), 52 Urban planning, 53; and capitalist ideology, 54 Urban repair Squad, 96 Urban space, 12; and automobility, 50, 83; and bicyclists, 49; and driving, 88; semiotics of, 92–93; and skateboarding, 83 Urban Underground, 62, 245n75 Urry, John, 6, 87 van Bree, Miriam, 57 van Der Tuin, patrick, 97 van Duyn, roel, 55 vans and punk music, 147–148 vant, andré, 18, 25 vehicular cycling (vT) advocacy, 71–72, 74–76; and use of terms segregationists and ghettoization, 73 vehicularists, 72–73 velocipower, 25 vélomobility, 48, 76 vélorution, 13, 47, 170 viera-Gallo, José antonio, 246n97 vietnam, 217 village Bicycle project (vBp), 187–188, 191, 194 visual resistance, 97 voelcker, Jake, 268n117 voeten, Teun, 242n39 volti, rudi, 16 Wachs, Martin, 100 Wald, 168 Wallace, Christopher, 101–102 Ward, Benjamin, 264n65 War production Board (WpD), 120 Washington area Bicyclist association, 63, 68 Watt, Mike, 147, 272n26 Wehr, Kevin, 127 Westfield Manufacturing Company, 262n47 Wheelman (magazine), 23 White privilege: and public events, 101–102; and public mobility, 103 Whole Earth Catalog, 67–68 Wieler, aaron, 154 Wilcher, aaron, 25, 41 Willard, Carla, 21 Willard, Frances, and corset as rhetorical metaphor, 20 Williams, “Fast” Eddie, 165 Williams, lee, 89 Wilson, Owen, 113 Winner, langdon, 192, 218 Wish image, 44 Wolf, Wilhelm, 38 Woman’s rescue league, 20 WOMBaTS (Women’s Mountain Bike and Tea Society), 185 Women: and bicycling, 19–20, 230n39, 282n34; and bike culture, 185–186; as bike mechanics, 184–185; and gender divide and intimidation factor, 181–183 Women’s national Council of the United States, 20 The Worker-Cyclist (newspaper), 34 Worker’s Cycling Federation: Solidarity (arbeiter-radfahrerbund Solidarität), 33–34, 37 Working Bikes, 191, 200 Working Bikes Cooperative, 175 Worksman Cycles, 168 World Bank, 189, 190 World Bicycle relief, 199 World naked Bike ride, 105 World’s Fair (1939), 50 Xtracycle, 154 yohans, yini, 259n18 You, Me and Dupree (film), 112–113 young, iris Marion, 177 youth Bicycle Education network, 171 yukon, 4 yunus, Muhammad, 199–200 Zaire, 196 Zerzan, John, 205 Zo, Eric, 168


pages: 311 words: 168,705

The Rough Guide to Vienna by Humphreys, Rob

centre right, ghettoisation, Peace of Westphalia, strikebreaker, sustainable-tourism, trade route, urban sprawl

Far more imposing, though, is the Italianate facade of the Dominikanerkirche, further south along Postgasse; the vast interior is an orgy of early Baroque stucco and frescoes, rebuilt in the 1630s following damage in the first Turkish siege. 65 Dr-Ignaz-Seipel-Platz and Heiligenkreuzerhof THE INNE RE S TADT | East of Rotenturmstrasse 66 One block west of Postgasse along Bäckerstrasse lies Dr-Ignaz-Seipel-Platz, named after the leader of the Christian Socialists, who became the country’s chancellor in 1922. Son of a cab driver, a trained priest, and, ironically, one-time professor of moral theology, Seipel was one of the city’s most vociferous antiSemites, who openly flirted with re-ghettoizing the Jews. Given the eventual fate of Austria’s Jews, this rather attractive little square might have been better left as Universitäts Platz, since its east side is still taken up by the Alte Universität (Old University), founded by Rudolf IV in 1365, and thus the second oldest (after Prague’s) in the German-speaking world. The current barracks-like building dates from the seventeenth century when, along with many leading educational institutions, it was handed over to the Jesuits.

This situation was exacerbated by the very visible presence of around 25,000 Jewish refugees from Galicia, poverty-stricken pedlars whose Orthodox garb made them all the more conspicuous. At the same time, the much larger assimilated Jewish population, who were prominent in the arts, the media and the SDAP, became the target of vicious anti-Semitism from the Christian Social and Pan-German parties. The cleric Ignaz Seipel, head of the Christian Socials and among the most vociferous anti-Semites, flirted with the idea of re-ghettoizing the Jews. This sort of rhetoric was a permanent feature of the First Republic, which the SDAP consistently failed to tackle head-on. In the municipal elections of May 1919, the Social Democrats won 54 percent of the vote, and Vienna got its first Socialist mayor, Jakob Reumann. The party held power in the capital for nearly fifteen years, a period which has gone down in history as Rotes Wien or “Red Vienna” (see p.185).


I You We Them by Dan Gretton

agricultural Revolution, anti-communist, back-to-the-land, British Empire, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, conceptual framework, corporate social responsibility, Desert Island Discs, drone strike, European colonialism, financial independence, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Honoré de Balzac, IBM and the Holocaust, illegal immigration, invisible hand, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, laissez-faire capitalism, liberation theology, Mikhail Gorbachev, Milgram experiment, Neil Kinnock, Nelson Mandela, New Journalism, place-making, pre–internet, Stanford prison experiment, University of East Anglia, wikimedia commons

Then, over several pages, he lists all the institutions of government, Civil Service, business, the military and the judiciary that were necessary to co-ordinate the Holocaust: Reich Chancellery: Co-ordination of laws and decrees Interior Ministry: Definition of the term ‘Jew’; prohibition of mixed marriages; decrees for compulsory names; dismissals from the Civil Service; deprivation of property Churches: Supply of proof of non-Jewish descent Justice Ministry: Elimination of Jewish lawyers; inheritance questions; divorce questions; regulation of names of enterprises Party Boycott Committee: Boycott of Jewish enterprises Party Chancellery: Participation of decisions involving the status of Jews Reich Chamber of Culture: Dismissals of musicians, artists and journalists and barring of writers Education Ministry: Elimination of Jewish students, professors and researchers Propaganda Ministry: Suggestions to the press Economics Ministry: Regulation for the acquisition of Jewish firms Dresdner Bank and Other Banking Concerns: Intermediaries in takeovers of Jewish firms Various Firms in Retailing, Wholesaling, Manufacturing, and Construction: Acquisitions of Jewish firms; dismissals of Jewish employees; utilisation of Jewish forced labour in cities, ghettoes and camps; contracting for measures of destruction such as supply of poison gas Finance Ministry: Discriminatory taxes; blocked funds; confiscation of personal belongings; special budgetary allocations, such as clearing Warsaw Ghetto ruins Foreign Office: Negotiations for deportations of Jews in foreign countries and of foreign jews in the Reich Transport Ministry: Transports to ghettoes and camps; utilisation of forced Jewish labour; acquisitions of Jewish personal property Armed Forces: Logistic support of killing operations in the occupied USSR; direct killings in Serbia and the occupied USSR; ghettoisation in the occupied USSR; discriminatory measures and deportations from France, Belgium, and Greece; regulation of forced Jewish labour in armament plants; employment of forced Jewish labour by army offices; transport questions Municipal Authorities in the Greater German Reich: Movement and housing restrictions Protektorat Administration in Bohemia and Moravia: Anti-Jewish measures patterned on those of the Reich General Government in Occupied Central Poland: Confiscations; ghettoisation; forced labour; starvation measures; preparations for deportations Ministry for Eastern Occupied Territories: Anti-Jewish measures patterned on those of the Reich Reichskommissariat of the Netherlands: Anti-Jewish measures patterned on those of the Reich Führer Chancellery: Staffing of the Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka death camps Reich Security Main Office: Marking of Jews in the Reich; supervision of the Jewish communities; in the Reich and Protektorat; Einsatzgruppen killings in the occupied USSR; preparations of European-wide deportations Main Office Order Police: Guarding of ghettoes, trains and camps; participation in round-ups and shootings Economic-Administrative Main Office: Administration of Auschwitz and Majdanek (Lublin) Higher SS and Police Leaders in Occupied Poland: Deportations to death camps; administration of the Chelmno (Kulmhof), Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka death camps Higher SS and Police Leaders in Occupied USSR: Shootings All of these agencies combined to create the most systematic and industrialised act of mass murder ever carried out; each of these organisations’ contributions were essential to the process; hundreds of thousands of men and women, from Germany and occupied countries, took part in this process.


pages: 644 words: 156,395

Among the Bohemians: Experiments in Living 1900-1939 by Virginia Nicholson

back-to-the-land, British Empire, Etonian, financial independence, ghettoisation, lone genius, plutocrats, Plutocrats

It must have been delicious out on the downs in the afternoon sun, a thing I have often wanted to do… I imagine you, however, with your bare limbs intertwined with him and all the ecstatic preliminaries of Sucking Sodomy – it sounds like the name of a station… How divine it must have been… What would the parlourmaid have thought? Today we are worlds away from the atmosphere of restriction and taboo which both ghettoised and intensified the sexual leanings of Bohemia’s homosexuals in those days. Secrecy and stealth attended their movements. Public toilets and the ever-available Guards’ barracks were known meeting-places; more aspirant types might attend the meetings of the Fitzrovian ‘Psychological Society’ that doubled as a pick-up joint for homosexual aesthetes. The painter Robert Medley, born in 1904, grew up in a society where it was still deeply difficult to admit to being gay.


pages: 475 words: 155,554

The Default Line: The Inside Story of People, Banks and Entire Nations on the Edge by Faisal Islam

Asian financial crisis, asset-backed security, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Basel III, Ben Bernanke: helicopter money, Berlin Wall, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, Boris Johnson, British Empire, capital controls, carbon footprint, Celtic Tiger, central bank independence, centre right, collapse of Lehman Brothers, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, crony capitalism, dark matter, deindustrialization, Deng Xiaoping, disintermediation, energy security, Eugene Fama: efficient market hypothesis, eurozone crisis, financial deregulation, financial innovation, financial repression, floating exchange rates, forensic accounting, forward guidance, full employment, G4S, ghettoisation, global rebalancing, global reserve currency, hiring and firing, inflation targeting, Irish property bubble, Just-in-time delivery, labour market flexibility, light touch regulation, London Whale, Long Term Capital Management, margin call, market clearing, megacity, Mikhail Gorbachev, mini-job, mittelstand, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, mutually assured destruction, Myron Scholes, negative equity, North Sea oil, Northern Rock, offshore financial centre, open economy, paradox of thrift, Pearl River Delta, pension reform, price mechanism, price stability, profit motive, quantitative easing, quantitative trading / quantitative finance, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, reserve currency, reshoring, Right to Buy, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, savings glut, shareholder value, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, the payments system, too big to fail, trade route, transaction costs, two tier labour market, unorthodox policies, uranium enrichment, urban planning, value at risk, WikiLeaks, working-age population, zero-sum game

The MiniJobs and ‘one-euro’ jobs created by the Hartz reforms were providing an escalator down rather than up for large swathes of German citizens. Social mobility was declining. Official measures of poverty reached all-time highs, with one in six Germans now beneath the poverty line. More than one in three children in Berlin relied on a Hartz IV payment. The German dream of ‘prosperity for all’ is fractured, even if there are plenty of jobs. Hartz IV recipients were becoming ghettoised. It’s easy to see why southern Europe may not volunteer for a German blueprint that amounts to ‘Get Paid Less’. Hartz himself told me: ‘The reforms needn’t necessarily be accompanied by wage reductions.’ Does he accept that some of the Hartz reforms have led to more poverty, less social mobility, and declining living standards? ‘Absolutely not. The reforms opened up prospects for all so that no one should arrive at a dead-end situation.


Pocket New York City Travel Guide by Lonely Planet

Airbnb, Chuck Templeton: OpenTable:, East Village, Frank Gehry, G4S, ghettoisation, Saturday Night Live, starchitect, the High Line, urban renewal, walking around money

(Click here) Village Vanguard WALTER MCBRIDE/CORBIS © Best LGBT The future has arrived in NYC: men seek out other men using apps with geolocators, drag queens are so ‘out’ that they’re practically ‘in,’ bouncers thumb through guest lists on their iPads and gay marriage is – at long last – legal. It’s time to hop in your time machine and join the fray. Mo Money, No Matter Although New York City has a smattering of neighborhoods that are infamous for their gay hangouts, the city’s LGBT scene is hardly segregated, let alone ghettoized. With one of the largest disposable incomes of any demographic, the gays seem to run the city, from the fashion runways and major music labels to Wall Street downtown. The new marriage laws of 2011 are a further acknowledgement that here in New York it’s totally ‘in’ to be ‘out’. Weekdays are the New Weekend Here in the Big Apple, any night of the week is fair game to paint the town rouge – especially for the gay community, who attack the weekday social scene with gusto.


pages: 182 words: 64,847

Working by Robert A. Caro

carbon footprint, desegregation, ghettoisation, rent control, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty

And, since the people he evicted were overwhelmingly black, Hispanic, and poor, the most defenseless of the city’s people, and since he refused, despite the policy of the city’s elected officials, to make adequate provision (to make any substantial provision at all, really) for their relocation, the policies he followed created new slums almost as fast as he was eliminating old ones and, tragically, were to be a major factor in solidifying the already existing ghettoization of New York—the dividing up of its residents by color and income. Immense as was Robert Moses’ physical shaping of New York, however, his influence on the city’s history cannot be measured merely by the physical. All told, during the decades of his power he used that power to bend the city’s social policies to his philosophical beliefs, skewing, often despite the wishes of its mayors and other elected officials, the allocation of the city’s resources to the benefit of its middle, upper-middle, and upper classes at the expense of the city’s lower middle class and its poor, and particularly at the expense of the new immigrants.


pages: 260 words: 76,223

Ctrl Alt Delete: Reboot Your Business. Reboot Your Life. Your Future Depends on It. by Mitch Joel

3D printing, Amazon Web Services, augmented reality, call centre, clockwatching, cloud computing, Firefox, future of work, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, Google Glasses, Google Hangouts, Khan Academy, Kickstarter, Kodak vs Instagram, Lean Startup, Marc Andreessen, Mark Zuckerberg, Network effects, new economy, Occupy movement, place-making, prediction markets, pre–internet, QR code, recommendation engine, Richard Florida, risk tolerance, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, social graph, social web, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Thomas L Friedman, Tim Cook: Apple, Tony Hsieh, white picket fence, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

While this is painting with very broad strokes, it comes down to vertical integration versus horizontal integration. When a business claims to be moving in the direction of becoming a more social business, the brands that often fail are the ones that have a social media department within another department (usually marketing and/or communications); their work involves things like campaigns currently in-market or individual initiatives. This, in essence, is the ghettoization of the social business spirit and will ultimately lead to failure. When it’s implemented horizontally (across all departments), you have a top-down and bottom-up seismic shift that becomes a value-based system by which the corporation is governed. In plain English: Everyone has skin in the game. It’s not a campaign, it’s who you are—as a business. It’s a statement to the world that your business is made up of people and your consumers are people too.


pages: 276 words: 71,950

Antisemitism: Here and Now by Deborah E. Lipstadt

anti-communist, Ayatollah Khomeini, Boycotts of Israel, Cass Sunstein, Donald Trump, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, fixed income, ghettoisation, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, union organizing, WikiLeaks, zero-sum game

Weisman marveled at the fact that the RJC could equate with “a straight face” the trollers who issued overtly antisemitic statements, threatened reporters with rape and death, and depicted them being pushed into gas chambers with members of pro-Clinton and pro-Sanders groups who had done no such things.5 A particularly bizarre phenomenon is antisemitic white supremacists who express fervent admiration for Israel. At an appearance at the University of Florida in October 2017, alt-right leader and white nationalist Richard Spencer depicted Israel as an example of the “ethno-state” he would like to create in the United States—a state in which non-whites (which include, in his determination, Jews) would be ghettoized away from white people.6 He hates Jews but loves Israel. Being simultaneously antisemitic and pro-Israel seems to be possible in several European countries as well. In the summer of 2017, Hungarian prime minister Orbán began a concerted attack on George Soros, a billionaire Hungarian American Jew and Holocaust survivor who has funded pro-democracy and human rights groups in many former Soviet-bloc countries, including Hungary.


pages: 229 words: 72,431

Shadow Work: The Unpaid, Unseen Jobs That Fill Your Day by Craig Lambert

airline deregulation, Asperger Syndrome, banking crisis, Barry Marshall: ulcers, big-box store, business cycle, carbon footprint, cashless society, Clayton Christensen, cognitive dissonance, collective bargaining, Community Supported Agriculture, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, disintermediation, disruptive innovation, financial independence, Galaxy Zoo, ghettoisation, gig economy, global village, helicopter parent, IKEA effect, industrial robot, informal economy, Jeff Bezos, job automation, John Maynard Keynes: Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren, Mark Zuckerberg, new economy, pattern recognition, plutocrats, Plutocrats, recommendation engine, Schrödinger's Cat, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, statistical model, Thorstein Veblen, Turing test, unpaid internship, Vanguard fund, Vilfredo Pareto, zero-sum game, Zipcar

In 2013, Luca and his colleague Georgios Zervas of Boston University published “Fake It Till You Make It: Reputation, Competition, and Yelp Review Fraud.” They analyzed 316,425 Yelp reviews of Boston restaurants and found that 16 percent were fraudulent, as identified by Yelp’s internal algorithm that flags suspicious posts. Yelp confirmed the study and even raised the ante, announcing that its filtering software in fact flagged about 25 percent of Yelp’s forty-two million reviews as fakes. Yelp doesn’t completely delete such notices but ghettoizes them as “Not Currently Recommended” reviews at the bottom of a business’s page and does not factor them into the establishment’s star rating. No one knows how many phony reviews escape the algorithm and mingle with the real ones. Professional forgers are definitely trying. The twenty-first-century term astroturfing takes its name from AstroTurf, the original artificial grass used on sports fields.


pages: 281 words: 78,317

But What if We're Wrong? Thinking About the Present as if It Were the Past by Chuck Klosterman

a long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, British Empire, citizen journalism, cosmological constant, dark matter, Edward Snowden, Elon Musk, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Frank Gehry, George Santayana, Gerolamo Cardano, ghettoisation, Howard Zinn, Isaac Newton, Joan Didion, non-fiction novel, obamacare, pre–internet, Ralph Nader, Ray Kurzweil, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Stephen Hawking, the medium is the message, the scientific method, Thomas Kuhn: the structure of scientific revolutions, too big to fail, Y2K

If so, a spiritual person might argue this means dreams are preparing us for something quite important; using the same information, a secular person might argue this means dreams are micro-versions of a massive chemical event that happens only at the very end of life. But either way, such a scenario should drastically alter the significance we place on the content of dreams. Right now, we don’t think the content of dreams matters at all. If we end up being wrong about the psychological consequence of dreaming, it will be the result of our willingness to ghettoize an acute cognitive experience simply because it seems too difficult to realistically study. The problem with studying the subject matter of dreams is straightforward: We can map the brain’s electrical activity, but we can’t see other people’s dreams. The only way we can analyze the content of a dream is to ask the dreamer what she remembers. That makes the entire endeavor too interpretive to qualify as regular science.


The Autistic Brain: Thinking Across the Spectrum by Temple Grandin, Richard Panek

Asperger Syndrome, correlation does not imply causation, dark matter, David Brooks, deliberate practice, double helix, ghettoisation, if you see hoof prints, think horses—not zebras, impulse control, Khan Academy, Mark Zuckerberg, meta analysis, meta-analysis, mouse model, neurotypical, pattern recognition, phenotype, Richard Feynman, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), Silicon Valley, Steve Jobs, theory of mind, twin studies

Half the employees at Silicon Valley tech companies would be diagnosed with Asperger’s if they allowed themselves to be diagnosed, which they avoid like the proverbial plague. I’ve been to their offices; I’ve seen the work force up close. Many of the hits on my home page come from Silicon Valley and other areas with a high concentration of tech industries. A generation ago, a lot of these people would have been seen simply as gifted. Now that there’s a diagnosis, however, they’ll do anything to avoid being ghettoized. Label-locked thinking can affect treatment. For instance, I heard a doctor say about a kid with gastrointestinal issues, “Oh, he has autism. That’s the problem”—and then he didn’t treat the GI problem. That’s absurd. Just because gastrointestinal problems are common in people with autism doesn’t mean that the GI problems are untreatable on their own. If you want to help the kid with GI issues, talk about his diet, not his autism.


pages: 338 words: 74,302

Only Americans Burn in Hell by Jarett Kobek

AltaVista, coherent worldview, corporate governance, crony capitalism, Donald Trump, East Village, ghettoisation, Google Chrome, haute couture, illegal immigration, indoor plumbing, Jeff Bezos, mandelbrot fractal, MITM: man-in-the-middle, pre–internet, sexual politics, Skype, Snapchat, Steve Jobs, Telecommunications Act of 1996

As long as the appearance of that object was maintained, the vast majority of human beings would never notice any deviation from common expectations, and, in fact, people would go out of their way to ignore those deviations. The most obvious place where this principle operated was within the publishing industry of the United States of America. Despite decades of effort, and thousands of Internet thinkpieces about the inclusion of marginalized voices, publishing was a dirty business that had done nothing to alleviate a system of ghettoizing its authors based on their physical appearances and socio-economic points of origins. The books of the publishing industry rested on a cheap shorthand, with each of its marketing demographics defined by the implicit prejudices of the American upper middle class. And if you think that’s an exaggeration, ask yourself this: how many well-received books of Literary Fiction published over the last thirty years do you remember being written by a poor person?


pages: 752 words: 201,334

Like Dreamers: The Story of the Israeli Paratroopers Who Reunited Jerusalem and Divided a Nation by Yossi Klein Halevi

back-to-the-land, Boycotts of Israel, Burning Man, facts on the ground, friendly fire, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, mass immigration, New Journalism, out of africa, Ronald Reagan, Transnistria, Yom Kippur War

The reason for anti-Semitism, wrote one nineteenth-century Zionist theoretician, was that the Jews, a disembodied people without a land, were “haunting” the nations; anti-Semitism, he concluded, was a fear of ghosts. Give the Jews a state—a flag and postage stamps and marching bands—and they would become concretized, demystified. Normal. Zionism had been the Jews’ last desperate strategy for collective acceptance among the nations. And now that strategy had failed. Zionism had been turned against itself: the very means for freeing the Jews from the ghetto had become the pretext for their renewed ghettoization. Only Gush Emunim had a ready explanation for why this was happening. It was an old Jewish answer, and it first appeared in the Bible: “Lo it is a nation that shall dwell alone and not be reckoned among the nations.” Not that Hanan and Yoel and their friends welcomed Israel’s isolation. But it hardly fazed them. Goyim were acting like goyim; now Jews needed to act like Jews, embrace their unavoidable uniqueness and fulfill their redemptive destiny, the world be damned.

In ancient Israel, he’d noted, prophecy had come from the people of the mountain, aimed at the mercantile people near the sea. But even as the Israelis of the coast were drifting away from their Jewish roots, the Israelis of the mountain were retreating into a self-enclosed provinciality. Religious Zionism had been founded as a mediation between modernity and tradition, but parts of the religious Zionist community were adopting ultra-Orthodox ghettoization. And they were replacing the messy engagement with reality—the essence of the Judaic approach to life—with a purist ideology that bypassed historical process. If the alienation between the mountain and the coast continued, Yoel now taught, Israel would, God forbid, face hurban, destruction. “The body pulls to excessive materialism, and the soul to detached spirituality,” he told a journalist.


pages: 262 words: 83,548

The End of Growth by Jeff Rubin

Ayatollah Khomeini, Bakken shale, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, British Empire, business cycle, call centre, carbon footprint, collateralized debt obligation, collective bargaining, Credit Default Swap, credit default swaps / collateralized debt obligations, decarbonisation, deglobalization, energy security, eurozone crisis, Exxon Valdez, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fiat currency, flex fuel, full employment, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Hans Island, happiness index / gross national happiness, housing crisis, hydraulic fracturing, illegal immigration, income per capita, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Jane Jacobs, Kickstarter, McMansion, Monroe Doctrine, moral hazard, new economy, Occupy movement, oil shale / tar sands, oil shock, peak oil, Ponzi scheme, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, reserve currency, Ronald Reagan, South China Sea, sovereign wealth fund, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, too big to fail, uranium enrichment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce, working poor, Yom Kippur War, zero-sum game

A disruption to production in Saudi Arabia, the world’s second-largest oil producer after Russia, would make the loss of Libyan output, or that of any other OPEC producer for that matter, look minor by comparison. Concerns about Saudi Arabia aren’t just theoretical. In neighboring Bahrain, an absolutist monarchy sits tenuously atop a country divided by fundamental religious and economic differences. A Sunni elite minority lives in glass towers in the capital city of Manama, while a politically disenfranchised Shiite working class is ghettoized in suburban slums, shut out from high-paying jobs in government, the military and the private sector. A former British colony, the island kingdom of Bahrain was supposed to be a constitutional monarchy run by an elected parliament. At least, that was the plan when Britain turned over the island to home rule. Instead, in 1975 the monarch, Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa, suspended parliament and imposed an autocratic rule that remains in full force today.


pages: 281 words: 83,505

Palaces for the People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life by Eric Klinenberg

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, assortative mating, basic income, big-box store, Broken windows theory, carbon footprint, Cass Sunstein, clean water, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, East Village, Filter Bubble, ghettoisation, helicopter parent, income inequality, informal economy, invisible hand, Jane Jacobs, John Snow's cholera map, late fees, Mark Zuckerberg, mass incarceration, Menlo Park, New Urbanism, Peter Thiel, Ray Oldenburg, Richard Florida, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, smart grid, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, The Great Good Place, the High Line, universal basic income, urban planning, young professional

” * * * Stories like these help explain the popularity—or perhaps the necessity—of social infrastructures that serve as safe spaces for members of excluded groups that are subjected to prejudice, discrimination, and violence. Oppressed communities often endure extreme social and economic pressures that inhibit the formation of stable, enduring relationships. In the United States, as the Harvard sociologist Orlando Patterson has argued, the history of slavery, ghettoization, segregation, and mass incarceration has led to high levels of instability within the black community. “Afro-Americans are the most unpartnered and isolated group of people in America,” Patterson writes, “and quite possibly in the world.” Black Americans, and all other groups that face severe discrimination, need spaces that foster support and cohesion. From ancient times, oppressed people—women, slaves, ethnic minorities, gays and lesbians, the working classes, and the like—have built special places and institutions where they can assemble to make sense of and plan responses to their situation, free from surveillance by the dominant group.


pages: 312 words: 84,421

This Chair Rocks: A Manifiesto Against Ageism by Ashton Applewhite

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, Airbnb, Albert Einstein, Atul Gawande, Buckminster Fuller, clean water, cognitive dissonance, crowdsourcing, desegregation, Downton Abbey, fixed income, follow your passion, ghettoisation, Google Hangouts, hiring and firing, income inequality, informal economy, Internet of things, invention of the printing press, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, life extension, longitudinal study, Mark Zuckerberg, Naomi Klein, obamacare, old age dependency ratio, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, sensible shoes, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, Snapchat, stem cell, the built environment, urban decay, urban planning, white picket fence, women in the workforce

It’s important to show up at that birthday party, not only because segregation impoverishes our lives but because the exchange of skills and experience across generations makes sense in so many arenas, from kitchen to conference room, from learning a language to mastering a sport, from art to astronomy. The list could go on forever, because it’s the natural order of things. In the United States, ageism has subverted it. And when people aren’t visible, whether ghettoized or homebound, whether by choice or reluctantly, so are the issues that affect them. Decouple identity and capacity Even when shame is held at bay, even when help is adequate and freely offered, it’s hard to negotiate the loss of independence. Especially as they head into their eighth or ninth decades, people worry, not without reason, about being whisked off to an institution if they encounter any difficulties managing on their own.


The Gene Machine by Venki Ramakrishnan

double helix, Fellow of the Royal Society, ghettoisation, Mark Zuckerberg, Richard Feynman, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, Stephen Hawking, the scientific method

In one case, the landlady said the flat was available, but when we showed up to look at it only a few minutes later, she took one look at me and said it was ‘just taken.’ That was my first experience of racism in America. Unable to find a flat that weekend, I signed up for a dorm room and spent the first year living primarily on cheese sandwiches at the cafeteria. Notwithstanding its culinary disadvantages, the dorm room had the great benefit of allowing me to instantly acquire a group of friends and avoid the feeling of isolation and ghettoization so common to foreigners. My dorm mates quickly helped me assimilate into American college life. The first Saturday, we went to a football game. The pomp, with cheerleaders, bands, and the loud PA system, seemed to dwarf the game itself. The dorm also had the advantage of being close to the physics department, and several fellow graduate students lived in rooms nearby, so we were able to form a friendly study group and get used to graduate school together.


pages: 324 words: 80,217

The Decadent Society: How We Became the Victims of Our Own Success by Ross Douthat

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, AI winter, Bernie Sanders, bitcoin, Burning Man, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, centre right, charter city, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, David Graeber, Deng Xiaoping, Donald Trump, East Village, Elon Musk, Flynn Effect, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, Francisco Pizarro, ghettoisation, gig economy, Haight Ashbury, helicopter parent, hive mind, Hyperloop, immigration reform, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Islamic Golden Age, Jeff Bezos, Joan Didion, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, life extension, mass immigration, mass incarceration, means of production, megacity, move fast and break things, move fast and break things, multiplanetary species, New Journalism, Nicholas Carr, Norman Mailer, obamacare, Oculus Rift, open borders, out of africa, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Peter Thiel, plutocrats, Plutocrats, pre–internet, QAnon, quantitative easing, rent-seeking, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Ronald Reagan, secular stagnation, self-driving car, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley ideology, Snapchat, social web, Steve Jobs, Steven Pinker, technoutopianism, the built environment, The Rise and Fall of American Growth, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, wage slave, women in the workforce, Y2K

To the extent that Western decadence is shaped by Western Christianity’s mix of weakness and resilience, its internal stalemate in the debate over its confrontation with modernity, its preservationist but not dynamic position in the culture, then it’s hard to imagine a more decisive way to end this phase in history than with the full revival of the religious tradition that Christianity once displaced. A Western Islam? A Christian China? But, of course, Christianity has other rivals. If the return of paganism is one end-of-religious-decadence scenario, another obvious one would be the spread of Islam, in Europe especially, out of its current position as the ghettoized Other, and into the role of cultural inheritor that both radical and merely ambitious Muslims envision for their faith. As I argued in chapter 7, this is not presently happening: Islam is growing in the West through migration rather than conversion, and to outsiders it’s defined more by its ongoing convulsions and civil wars—and, of course, the threat of terrorism—than by its potential allure as an alternative to an incoherent secularism and a faded Christianity.


pages: 318 words: 82,452

The End of Policing by Alex S. Vitale

Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, anti-communist, Broken windows theory, citizen journalism, Columbine, deindustrialization, desegregation, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, equal pay for equal work, Ferguson, Missouri, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, mandatory minimum, mass immigration, mass incarceration, moral panic, Occupy movement, open borders, rent-seeking, Ronald Reagan, strikebreaker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, white flight

Ghettos were established in Northern cities to control this growing population, with police playing the role of both containment and pacification. Up until the 1960s, this was largely accomplished through the racially discriminatory enforcement of the law and widespread use of excessive force. Blacks knew very well what the behavioral and geographic limits were and the role that police played in maintaining them in both the Jim Crow South and the ghettoized North. Political Policing in the Postwar Era With the rise of the civil rights movement came more repressive policing. In the South police became the front line for suppressing the movement. They denied protest permits, threated and beat demonstrators, made discriminatory arrests, and failed to protect demonstrators from angry mobs and vigilante actions, including beatings, disappearances, bombings, and assassinations.


pages: 327 words: 84,627

The Green New Deal: Why the Fossil Fuel Civilization Will Collapse by 2028, and the Bold Economic Plan to Save Life on Earth by Jeremy Rifkin

1919 Motor Transport Corps convoy, 2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, autonomous vehicles, Bernie Sanders, blockchain, borderless world, business cycle, business process, carbon footprint, collective bargaining, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, creative destruction, decarbonisation, en.wikipedia.org, energy transition, failed state, ghettoisation, hydrogen economy, information asymmetry, intangible asset, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Internet of things, invisible hand, Joseph Schumpeter, means of production, megacity, Network effects, new economy, off grid, oil shale / tar sands, peak oil, planetary scale, renewable energy credits, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, sovereign wealth fund, Steven Levy, the built environment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Tim Cook: Apple, trade route, union organizing, urban planning, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

The freeways and Interstate Highway System created a new form of segregation, not much talked about to this day, except among urban planners and select academics. Mass transit, a vital means of transportation in inner cities, was allowed to atrophy across the North at the height of the auto age. Inner-city trolley systems and public bus systems were often scuttled to ensure exclusivity for automobile transport. Unemployed, on welfare, without mobility, and isolated and ghettoized, generations of African American families became wards of the state. Drug traffic, gang warfare, and the rest followed. * * * In 1977, my colleague Randy Barber and I began a conversation about the plight of American workers and small- and medium-sized businesses in the northeastern and midwestern tiers of the country. We saw close up the devastation wreaked on African American and white working-class communities in the inner cities by the mass exodus of companies and whole industries to the Sunbelt.


pages: 355 words: 81,788

Monolith to Microservices: Evolutionary Patterns to Transform Your Monolith by Sam Newman

Airbnb, business process, continuous integration, database schema, DevOps, fault tolerance, ghettoisation, inventory management, Jeff Bezos, Kubernetes, loose coupling, microservices, MVC pattern, price anchoring, pull request, single page application, software as a service, source of truth, telepresence

The one certainty is that not everything will go smoothly, and you will need to be open to reverting changes you make, trying new things, or sometimes just letting things settle for a moment to let you see what impact it is having. If you try to embrace a culture of constant improvement, to always have something new you’re trying, then it becomes much more natural to change direction when needed. If you ghettoize the concept of change or process improvements into discrete streams of work, rather than building it into everything you do, then you run the risk of seeing change as one-off transactional activities. Once that work is done, that’s it! No more change for us! That way of thinking is how you’ll find yourself in another few years way behind all your competitors and with another mountain to climb.


Immigration and Ethnic Formation in a Deeply Divided Society: The Case of the 1990s Immigrants From the Former Soviet Union in Israel by Majid Al Haj

demographic transition, ghettoisation, job satisfaction, mass immigration, phenotype, profit motive, zero-sum game

Aliya and absorption in historical perspective. Sekirah Hodshit 7–8: 22–34 (Hebrew). ——. 1995. The immigrants from the FSU: Segregation and integration. Jerusalem: Center for Social Policy Studies in Israel (Hebrew). ——— . 1999. The mass immigration of the fifties: The failure of the melting-pot policy. Jerusalem: Mossad Bialik (Hebrew). —— and Elazar Leshem. 1995. The Russian intelligentsia in Israel: Between ghettoization and integration. Israeli Affairs 2(1–2): 20–36. Litvak, Yoseph, Avraham Yehoshafat and Nono Magor. 1981. The Jews of Georgia, Bokhara and the Caucasus. Aliya potential for the 1980s. Jerusalem: The Ministry of Immigration Absorption, Section for Planning and Research (mimeographed) (Hebrew).  231 Livneh, Neri. 1999. The Russian revolution: An interview. Ha’aretz Weekend Magazine, May 14.


pages: 357 words: 99,684

Why It's Still Kicking Off Everywhere: The New Global Revolutions by Paul Mason

anti-globalists, back-to-the-land, balance sheet recession, bank run, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, business cycle, capital controls, centre right, citizen journalism, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, creative destruction, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, currency peg, do-ocracy, eurozone crisis, Fall of the Berlin Wall, floating exchange rates, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, informal economy, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, means of production, megacity, Mohammed Bouazizi, Naomi Klein, Network effects, New Journalism, Occupy movement, price stability, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rising living standards, short selling, Slavoj Žižek, Stewart Brand, strikebreaker, union organizing, We are the 99%, Whole Earth Catalog, WikiLeaks, Winter of Discontent, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, young professional

As discussed in Chapter 7, the working class of a modern economy tends to be culturally divided between those exposed to global labour markets and technocratic conditions, and this beleaguered group oriented to traditional values and national economic solutions. Absent any solidarity between the plebeian right and the left intelligentsia, the protests against Putin would continue to be small, repressed and ghettoized. Sergei Udaltsov, the leader of the Left Front, would, in the twelve months before the 2011 election, spend a total of eighty-six days in detention. And for some the price of dissent could be higher still. Ask Alexander Litvinenko. Ask Sergei Magnitsky, the anti-corruption lawyer imprisoned without trial, who died in custody after being denied medical assistance. Ask Anna Politkovskaya. Putin, it seemed, would coast to victory in the 2012 presidential election and the oil and gas money would keep on flowing.


pages: 358 words: 104,664

Capital Without Borders by Brooke Harrington

banking crisis, Big bang: deregulation of the City of London, British Empire, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, complexity theory, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility, diversified portfolio, estate planning, eurozone crisis, family office, financial innovation, ghettoisation, haute couture, high net worth, income inequality, information asymmetry, Joan Didion, job satisfaction, joint-stock company, Joseph Schumpeter, liberal capitalism, mega-rich, mobile money, offshore financial centre, race to the bottom, regulatory arbitrage, Robert Shiller, Robert Shiller, South Sea Bubble, the market place, Thorstein Veblen, transaction costs, upwardly mobile, wealth creators, web of trust, Westphalian system, Wolfgang Streeck, zero-sum game

This is rooted in cultural practices going back centuries, in which unsavory but necessary financial activities were quarantined in specially designated zones. In medieval Europe, money changers were segregated from the rest of society: for example, in 1141, King Louis VII of France restricted the practice to a single bridge over the Seine, right next to a prison.26 Lending money at interest, an even more transgressive activity in light of the Catholic prohibition against usury, was famously the province of ghettoized Jews; although many European kings availed themselves of this service, the practitioners were relegated to the margins of civilization, like butchers and executioners.27 One of the major advances pioneered by OFCs was to turn this isolation—usually a source of shame—into an advantage. As they discovered, “a sovereign right to write the law … can be used as a competitive asset.”28 The “fiction of fragmentation” With the loosening of currency controls and the increasing ease of international travel and communication, wealth management strategies now hinge on scattering assets as far and wide as possible.


pages: 360 words: 100,991

Heart of the Machine: Our Future in a World of Artificial Emotional Intelligence by Richard Yonck

3D printing, AI winter, artificial general intelligence, Asperger Syndrome, augmented reality, Berlin Wall, brain emulation, Buckminster Fuller, call centre, cognitive bias, cognitive dissonance, computer age, computer vision, crowdsourcing, Elon Musk, en.wikipedia.org, epigenetics, friendly AI, ghettoisation, industrial robot, Internet of things, invention of writing, Jacques de Vaucanson, job automation, John von Neumann, Kevin Kelly, Law of Accelerating Returns, Loebner Prize, Menlo Park, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Metcalfe’s law, neurotypical, Oculus Rift, old age dependency ratio, pattern recognition, RAND corporation, Ray Kurzweil, Rodney Brooks, self-driving car, Skype, social intelligence, software as a service, Stephen Hawking, Steven Pinker, superintelligent machines, technological singularity, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Future of Employment, the scientific method, theory of mind, Turing test, twin studies, undersea cable, Vernor Vinge, Watson beat the top human players on Jeopardy!, Whole Earth Review, working-age population, zero day

At times certain subsets of the population will push for acceptance and a change of behavior across an entire society before a sufficient number of its members are prepared for such an adjustment. Sometimes this results in accelerating acceptance and thus normalization of those perceived differences through legislative means, before they would have otherwise been accepted. However, such acceleration can also backfire, giving rise to ostracism, ghettoization, and worse. We would be wise to look to the lessons of the uncanny valley in helping us to prepare for or, better, to avoid future conflicts such progress might bring about. To bring these ideas about the uncanny valley full circle, consider a future in which conscious, emotionally sentient machines exist. Faced with the reality and awareness of a finite lifespan—one that may or may not be considerably longer or shorter than a typical human lifespan—might these machines be forced to adopt similar defense mechanisms to avoid anxiety and other forms of existential crisis?


pages: 405 words: 103,723

The Government of No One: The Theory and Practice of Anarchism by Ruth Kinna

Berlin Wall, British Empire, complexity theory, creative destruction, David Graeber, en.wikipedia.org, Fall of the Berlin Wall, feminist movement, friendly fire, ghettoisation, Kickstarter, late capitalism, means of production, moral panic, New Journalism, Occupy movement, post scarcity, Steven Pinker, Ted Kaczynski, union organizing, wage slave

Noted for mixing self with sociological analysis, Goodman wrote about his sense of anomie from the vacuity of American consumerism and suburban living and the effects of corporate advancement, rationalization, affluence and bureaucratic welfare systems in post-war America. These were almost entirely detrimental and he used the term ‘the empty society’ to describe the prevailing culture. Some of the most obvious symptoms of the ‘empty society’ were middle-class withdrawal into the suburbs, the urban ghettoization of poor and Black American populations, the growth of public media and the concomitant depletion of intelligent news reporting, social breakdown and delinquency. America, he argued in 1966, was ‘on a course’ heading towards ‘empty and immoral empire or to exhaustion and fascism’.64 These seismic sociological shifts were played out in education. Like Read, Goodman argued that modern education was designed to meet government agendas.


pages: 337 words: 101,440

Revolution Française: Emmanuel Macron and the Quest to Reinvent a Nation by Sophie Pedder

Airbnb, Berlin Wall, Bernie Sanders, bike sharing scheme, centre right, disruptive innovation, Donald Trump, Downton Abbey, Erik Brynjolfsson, eurozone crisis, failed state, Fall of the Berlin Wall, ghettoisation, haute couture, Jean Tirole, knowledge economy, liberal capitalism, mass immigration, mittelstand, new economy, post-industrial society, rent-seeking, ride hailing / ride sharing, Second Machine Age, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Travis Kalanick, urban planning, éminence grise

The unemployed had to catch a bus to a neighbouring suburb if they wanted to check job vacancies. Many of those who made the effort said that their applications got nowhere; they suspected that a foreign-sounding name, or the local postcode, put employers off. A report in 2004 by the Institut Montaigne exposed job discrimination on the basis of address or name on ‘an undreamed of’ scale. France has no monopoly on a ghettoized, isolated underclass, but its high unemployment rate makes life in its banlieues particularly difficult. ‘The only integration that means anything is a job,’ Samir Mihi, a youth worker at Clichy’s town hall whose parents came to France from Algeria, told me. Over the years, governments have appointed cities ministers, devised ‘Marshall plans’, and invested billions in regeneration schemes. Yet from 2008 to 2011 the gap between unemployment rates in French ‘sensitive urban zones’ and surrounding areas simply widened.


pages: 398 words: 107,788

Coding Freedom: The Ethics and Aesthetics of Hacking by E. Gabriella Coleman

activist lawyer, Benjamin Mako Hill, commoditize, crowdsourcing, Debian, Donald Knuth, dumpster diving, en.wikipedia.org, financial independence, ghettoisation, GnuPG, Hacker Ethic, informal economy, Jacob Appelbaum, Jaron Lanier, Jason Scott: textfiles.com, Jean Tirole, knowledge economy, laissez-faire capitalism, Larry Wall, Louis Pasteur, means of production, Paul Graham, peer-to-peer, pirate software, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, Richard Stallman, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, slashdot, software patent, software studies, Steve Ballmer, Steven Levy, Ted Nelson, The Hackers Conference, the scientific method, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere, web application, web of trust

Equally crucial was that free software production was never easily shackled to a Right versus Left political divide, despite numerous attempts early in its history by its critics to portray it as communist. In an era when identification with Right or Left, conservative or liberal, often functions as a politically paralyzing form of ideological imprisonment, F/OSS has been able to successfully avoid such polarization and thus ghettoization. Even if some hackers write and release free software for political reasons, many developers tend to divorce an official, broadly conceived political stance outside software freedom from their collective laboring (with the exception of free software projects defined primarily by political aspirations). This tight coupling between a particular version of freedom and its instantiation in technology—mediated by licensing within F/OSS—paves the way for certain sociopolitical travels.


Antonio-s-Gun-and-Delfino-s-Dream-True-Tales-of-Mexican-Migration by Unknown

Berlin Wall, centre right, Fall of the Berlin Wall, fear of failure, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, In Cold Blood by Truman Capote, low skilled workers, Mahatma Gandhi, trade route

Mexicans got used to expecting the PRI 184 / CHAPTER SIX government to give them all sorts of things: housing and hospitals, basketball courts and soccer fields, clinics for the elderly and handicapped, eyeglasses for children. On this list was support for the arts. The PRI also discouraged social involvement by the private sector; business’s job was business, and the private sector avidly accepted its ghettoization. There were isolated cases of businessmen helping to build parks or low-income housing. For example, in December , without government help, a coalition of businesses held Mexico’s first nationwide telethon, to raise money for a handicapped children’s clinic—now an annual event. But years of PRI paternalism created an addiction to government aid that many arts groups still haven’t shaken. In Tijuana, even rebel rock bands scrub themselves up and go to the Institute of Culture for money to put on concerts.


pages: 345 words: 105,722

The Hacker Crackdown by Bruce Sterling

Apple II, back-to-the-land, game design, ghettoisation, Haight Ashbury, Howard Rheingold, HyperCard, index card, informal economy, Jaron Lanier, Mitch Kapor, pirate software, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Silicon Valley, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, The Hackers Conference, the scientific method, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review

Contemplating this list is an impressive, almost humbling business. As a cultural artifact, the thing approaches poetry. Underground groups—subcultures—can be distinguished from independent cultures by their habit of referring constantly to the parent society. Undergrounds by their nature constantly must maintain a membrane of differentiation. Funny/distinctive clothes and hair, specialized jargon, specialized ghettoized areas in cities, different hours of rising, working, sleeping.... The digital underground, which specializes in information, relies very heavily on language to distinguish itself. As can be seen from this list, they make heavy use of parody and mockery. It's revealing to see who they choose to mock. First, large corporations. We have the Phortune 500, The Chief Executive Officers, Bellcore, IBM Syndicate, SABRE (a computerized reservation service maintained by airlines).


pages: 366 words: 117,875

Arrival City by Doug Saunders

agricultural Revolution, Ayatollah Khomeini, Berlin Wall, Branko Milanovic, call centre, credit crunch, Deng Xiaoping, desegregation, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Hernando de Soto, Honoré de Balzac, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, informal economy, Jane Jacobs, Kibera, land reform, land tenure, low skilled workers, mass immigration, megacity, microcredit, new economy, Pearl River Delta, pensions crisis, place-making, price mechanism, rent control, Silicon Valley, special economic zone, the built environment, The Chicago School, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban sprawl, white flight, working poor, working-age population

There has long been a tendency to refer to the neighborhoods on the Paris outskirts, and similar neighborhoods across the West, as “immigrant ghettos” or “ethnic enclaves,” and to attribute their failings and eruptions to a perceived racial and ethnic segregation. When you examine them as arrival cities, though, the distinguishing thing about Les Pyramides and its even uglier siblings is not ethnic ghettoization but extreme heterogeneity. The sociologist Loïc Wacquant has built his career on proving that the French banlieues and other “neighbourhoods of relegation” across Europe are not at all segregated in the sense of classic American black ghettos but are, instead, “anti-ghettos,” places that are, in fact, very multi-ethnic—and this, he argues, is precisely the problem: these neighborhoods are places of “advanced marginality” that haven’t been able to form any sort of community at all, ethnic or otherwise.


pages: 399 words: 116,828

When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor by William Julius Wilson

affirmative action, business cycle, citizen journalism, collective bargaining, conceptual framework, declining real wages, deindustrialization, deliberate practice, desegregation, Donald Trump, edge city, ending welfare as we know it, fixed income, full employment, George Gilder, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, Gunnar Myrdal, income inequality, informal economy, jobless men, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, low-wage service sector, manufacturing employment, mass immigration, new economy, New Urbanism, pink-collar, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, school choice, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Chicago School, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban renewal, War on Poverty, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

The trends in western cities were similar to those of the South—declines in the number and proportion of the poor in ghetto census tracts during the 1970s and a substantial increase during the 1980s, including an 80 percent growth in the number of ghetto poverty tracts. 12 The number of such tracts has more than doubled since 1970: Between 1970 and 1990, the prevalence of ghetto tracts increased from 6 percent of the total number of census tracts in the nation’s one hundred largest cities to 13.7 percent of the total (Kasarda 1993b). 13 Paul Jargowsky’s research: Jargowsky (1994). Jargowsky arrived at this figure using a slightly modified measure of ghetto poverty that does not obscure the real degree of ghettoization among blacks who live in census tracts in which a significant proportion of the residents are white. Because of the high level of racial segregation in American cities, most census tracts are nearly all black or all white. However, a growing percentage of tracts include a considerable number of both blacks and whites. Although the poverty rate for a racially mixed census tract represents all the residents of the area, it may obscure the degree of poverty concentration experienced by a particular group.


pages: 434 words: 117,327

Can It Happen Here?: Authoritarianism in America by Cass R. Sunstein

active measures, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airline deregulation, anti-communist, anti-globalists, availability heuristic, business cycle, Cass Sunstein, David Brooks, Donald Trump, Edward Snowden, Estimating the Reproducibility of Psychological Science, failed state, Filter Bubble, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, immigration reform, Isaac Newton, job automation, Joseph Schumpeter, Long Term Capital Management, Nate Silver, Network effects, New Journalism, night-watchman state, obamacare, Potemkin village, random walk, Richard Thaler, road to serfdom, Ronald Reagan, the scientific method, War on Poverty, WikiLeaks, World Values Survey

The unfortunate consequence has been that Hungary and Poland (among other countries) have thrown out the democratic baby along with the neocolonial bathwater. But this is far from being the last word on the subject. To delve into the deeper causes of a widespread public disenchantment with democracy, we should focus not on inequality or the growing gap between rich and poor in liberal-democratic societies, but rather on economic insecurity, in the sense of fear of downward social mobility, and the mutual ghettoization of social classes, a disconnect that makes ordinary citizens feel that they have lost all leverage over their national elites. The Cold War gave economic elites in the West a strong motive to make capitalism seem legitimate in the eyes of ordinary people.39 This became much less true after the Cold War ended. What followed was not simply a widening gap between rich and poor but also, and more important, a shredding of the connective tissue between rich and poor.


pages: 518 words: 49,555

Designing Social Interfaces by Christian Crumlish, Erin Malone

A Pattern Language, Amazon Mechanical Turk, anti-pattern, barriers to entry, c2.com, carbon footprint, cloud computing, collaborative editing, creative destruction, crowdsourcing, en.wikipedia.org, Firefox, game design, ghettoisation, Howard Rheingold, hypertext link, if you build it, they will come, Merlin Mann, Nate Silver, Network effects, Potemkin village, recommendation engine, RFC: Request For Comment, semantic web, SETI@home, Skype, slashdot, social graph, social software, social web, source of truth, stealth mode startup, Stewart Brand, telepresence, The Wisdom of Crowds, web application

What we are seeing is an ever-increasing amount of people experimenting and making mashups with different kinds of social features, interwoven into just about any kind of content or service you can imagine. Some of them are amazingly inventive, and others are downright weird. With all these different opportunities and rehashes of social features, just where should designers be paying attention? The breadth of software being developed for consumers today is only half the story. Opportunities lie with mashups and open software. Areas that traditionally have been ghettoized in traditional web software design are mobile and enterprise. Often forgotten or addressed as an afterthought, these areas provide rich and interesting challenges to creating social experiences. If you want to see the future of interactive interfaces, look to gaming. Game designers have the liberty to experiment and Darwinian competitive pressures. The ideas they come up with and prove out in the market are setting expectations for a large number of people who may eventually become, or may already be, your users.


pages: 406 words: 113,841

The American Way of Poverty: How the Other Half Still Lives by Sasha Abramsky

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, American Legislative Exchange Council, bank run, basic income, big-box store, collective bargaining, deindustrialization, fixed income, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, full employment, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, housing crisis, illegal immigration, immigration reform, income inequality, indoor plumbing, job automation, Kickstarter, Mark Zuckerberg, Maui Hawaii, microcredit, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, Occupy movement, offshore financial centre, payday loans, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Ponzi scheme, Potemkin village, profit motive, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, upwardly mobile, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population, Works Progress Administration

To do so, I began traveling around the country interviewing and photographing people on the economic margins—Harrington’s “economic underworld”—and the environments in which they lived. As the stories accumulated, three things struck me with particular force. The first is the sheer loneliness of poverty, the fact that profound economic hardship pushes people to the psychological and physical margins of society—isolated from friends and relatives; shunted into dilapidated trailer parks, shanties, or ghettoized public housing; and removed from banks and stores, transit systems and cultural institutions. The poor live on society’s scraps—a few dollars in government assistance or charity, donated food, thrift-store clothes. They can afford neither transport to venture out of their communities nor simple luxuries such as movies or a cup of coffee with friends in a café. They cannot afford to vary the routines of their daily lives.


pages: 409 words: 125,611

The Great Divide: Unequal Societies and What We Can Do About Them by Joseph E. Stiglitz

"Robert Solow", accounting loophole / creative accounting, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, agricultural Revolution, Asian financial crisis, banking crisis, Berlin Wall, Bernie Madoff, Branko Milanovic, Bretton Woods, business cycle, capital controls, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Carmen Reinhart, carried interest, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computer age, corporate governance, credit crunch, Credit Default Swap, deindustrialization, Detroit bankruptcy, discovery of DNA, Doha Development Round, everywhere but in the productivity statistics, Fall of the Berlin Wall, financial deregulation, financial innovation, full employment, George Akerlof, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Home mortgage interest deduction, housing crisis, income inequality, income per capita, information asymmetry, job automation, Kenneth Rogoff, Kickstarter, labor-force participation, light touch regulation, Long Term Capital Management, manufacturing employment, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, moral hazard, mortgage debt, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, offshore financial centre, oil shale / tar sands, Paul Samuelson, plutocrats, Plutocrats, purchasing power parity, quantitative easing, race to the bottom, rent-seeking, rising living standards, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, secular stagnation, Silicon Valley, Simon Kuznets, The Chicago School, the payments system, Tim Cook: Apple, too big to fail, trade liberalization, transaction costs, transfer pricing, trickle-down economics, Turing machine, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, urban sprawl, very high income, War on Poverty, Washington Consensus, We are the 99%, white flight, winner-take-all economy, working poor, working-age population

Combine this urban sprawl with inadequate public transportation systems and you have a blueprint for transforming working-class communities into depopulated ghettos. Adding to the problems that would inevitably arise from such poorly designed urban agglomerations is the fact that the Detroit metropolitan area is divided into separate political jurisdictions. The poor are thus not only geographically isolated, but politically ghettoized as well. The result is a separate, poorer inner city with a dearth of resources, made even worse because the industrial plants that had provided the core of the tax base are shut down. The decision to file for Chapter 9 municipal bankruptcy protection was made by Kevyn D. Orr, the nonelected emergency manager appointed by Gov. Rick Snyder, a Republican, to run the city’s finances. The incumbent mayor, Dave Bing, a Democrat, has decided not to seek a second term, which is hardly surprising given that he and other local officials have been left on the sidelines as their city’s future—and the accumulated debts owed its creditors—is being hashed out in court.


pages: 407 words: 121,458

Confessions of an Eco-Sinner: Tracking Down the Sources of My Stuff by Fred Pearce

additive manufacturing, air freight, Berlin Wall, blood diamonds, British Empire, car-free, carbon footprint, clean water, congestion charging, corporate social responsibility, credit crunch, demographic transition, Fall of the Berlin Wall, food miles, ghettoisation, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Isaac Newton, Kibera, Kickstarter, mass immigration, megacity, Nelson Mandela, new economy, oil shale / tar sands, out of africa, peak oil, Pearl River Delta, profit motive, race to the bottom, Shenzhen was a fishing village, Silicon Valley, South China Sea, Steve Jobs, the built environment, urban planning, urban sprawl, women in the workforce

They would revel in the freedom provided by the car to pick and choose their neighbours from across the city. Christopher Alexander, professor of architecture at the University of California, Berkeley, saw neighbourhoods not just as irrelevant, but as ‘military encampments designed to create discipline and rigidity’. The subtext was clear: socialist neighbourhoods bad, capitalist freedom good. But the result of this infatuation was not total freedom, but gridlock, suburban blight, the ghettoization of people without cars, and burgeoning crime and social dislocation in bleak nightmarish urban landscapes. More Clockwork Orange than Broadacre City. Milton Keynes is a British national joke, and Brasilia is surrounded by the favelas it was supposed to replace. As a non-driver, quite at home in London, I despair at the sheer impossibility of getting round many other modern cities without a car.


pages: 464 words: 127,283

Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia by Anthony M. Townsend

1960s counterculture, 4chan, A Pattern Language, Airbnb, Amazon Web Services, anti-communist, Apple II, Bay Area Rapid Transit, Burning Man, business process, call centre, carbon footprint, charter city, chief data officer, clean water, cleantech, cloud computing, computer age, congestion charging, connected car, crack epidemic, crowdsourcing, DARPA: Urban Challenge, data acquisition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, Donald Davies, East Village, Edward Glaeser, game design, garden city movement, Geoffrey West, Santa Fe Institute, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global supply chain, Grace Hopper, Haight Ashbury, Hedy Lamarr / George Antheil, hive mind, Howard Rheingold, interchangeable parts, Internet Archive, Internet of things, Jacquard loom, Jane Jacobs, jitney, John Snow's cholera map, Joi Ito, Khan Academy, Kibera, Kickstarter, knowledge worker, load shedding, M-Pesa, Mark Zuckerberg, megacity, mobile money, mutually assured destruction, new economy, New Urbanism, Norbert Wiener, Occupy movement, off grid, openstreetmap, packet switching, Panopticon Jeremy Bentham, Parag Khanna, patent troll, Pearl River Delta, place-making, planetary scale, popular electronics, RFC: Request For Comment, RFID, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, self-driving car, sharing economy, Silicon Valley, Skype, smart cities, smart grid, smart meter, social graph, social software, social web, special economic zone, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Stuxnet, supply-chain management, technoutopianism, Ted Kaczynski, telepresence, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, too big to fail, trade route, Tyler Cowen: Great Stagnation, undersea cable, Upton Sinclair, uranium enrichment, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Vannevar Bush, working poor, working-age population, X Prize, Y2K, zero day, Zipcar

“There are indeed relevant studies on urban behavior and urban dynamics,” he wrote, “but to identify these is a large and separate task.” With no formal training in urban planning, based solely on his computer simulation, Forrester recommended the demolition not only of slums but of federally subsidized public housing as well, which the model showed became poverty traps for their inhabitants. While the ghettoization of the poor in housing projects is now widely recognized, it was obvious failures like the disastrous Pruitt-Igoe complex in Saint Louis (which was torn down in the 1970s) and painstaking fieldwork by a generation of social scientists that made the case in the end.55 Urban Dynamics was perhaps the most ambitious effort of that generation of computer-based urban simulations. But it came at the tail end of a decade of failures to apply systems analysis to urban problems.


pages: 474 words: 130,575

Surveillance Valley: The Rise of the Military-Digital Complex by Yasha Levine

23andMe, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, Airbnb, AltaVista, Amazon Web Services, Anne Wojcicki, anti-communist, Apple's 1984 Super Bowl advert, bitcoin, borderless world, British Empire, call centre, Chelsea Manning, cloud computing, collaborative editing, colonial rule, computer age, computerized markets, corporate governance, crowdsourcing, cryptocurrency, digital map, don't be evil, Donald Trump, Douglas Engelbart, Douglas Engelbart, drone strike, Edward Snowden, El Camino Real, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, Elon Musk, fault tolerance, George Gilder, ghettoisation, global village, Google Chrome, Google Earth, Google Hangouts, Howard Zinn, hypertext link, IBM and the Holocaust, index card, Jacob Appelbaum, Jeff Bezos, jimmy wales, John Markoff, John von Neumann, Julian Assange, Kevin Kelly, Kickstarter, life extension, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market bubble, Menlo Park, Mitch Kapor, natural language processing, Network effects, new economy, Norbert Wiener, packet switching, PageRank, Paul Buchheit, peer-to-peer, Peter Thiel, Philip Mirowski, plutocrats, Plutocrats, private military company, RAND corporation, Ronald Reagan, Ross Ulbricht, Satoshi Nakamoto, self-driving car, sentiment analysis, shareholder value, side project, Silicon Valley, Silicon Valley startup, Skype, slashdot, Snapchat, speech recognition, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Steven Levy, Stewart Brand, Telecommunications Act of 1996, telepresence, telepresence robot, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Hackers Conference, uber lyft, Whole Earth Catalog, Whole Earth Review, WikiLeaks

He became convinced that the carrot was much less effective than the stick: social programs—things like building roads and health clinics and providing jobs—designed to “buy” hearts and minds simply didn’t work. But harsh, punitive measures did (Jason DeParle, “Daring Research or ‘Social Science Pornography’?: Charles Murray,” New York Times, October 9, 1994). He would apply that logic in the United States to the difficult socioeconomic problems faced by black ghettoized communities. Reducing poverty and inner-city crime—these were not problems that could be solved through welfare and social programs. In fact, anything the government did to support and nudge people in the right direction didn’t work; they had the opposite effect: they only encouraged the very behavior they were aimed at curbing. So, Murray advised the opposite: harsher prison terms and punitive zero-tolerance measures to deter crime as well as abolishing all government social programs, including food stamps, welfare, and the Social Security pension system (“Prison Called Best Treatment for Juvenile Offenders,” Associated Press, November 1, 1979, https://surveillancevalley.com/content/citations /prison-best-treatment-for-juvenile-offenders-associated-press-1-november-1979.png; Charles A.


pages: 504 words: 147,660

In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts: Close Encounters With Addiction by Gabor Mate, Peter A. Levine

addicted to oil, Albert Einstein, Anton Chekhov, corporate governance, epigenetics, ghettoisation, impulse control, longitudinal study, mass immigration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Naomi Klein, phenotype, placebo effect, Rat Park, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), source of truth, twin studies, Yogi Berra

I’ve had a small taste of it, having been stopped by cops on my Hastings Street rounds—once for jaywalking and once for riding my bicycle on the sidewalk. An officer’s tone shifts instantly from curt and contemptuous to polite when he realizes I’m not a Downtown Eastside resident. How utterly helpless I would feel, I have thought at such times, if I didn’t have a respectable address on my driver’s licence; if I lived in a restricted, ghettoized domain where a uniformed and armed force was the omnipresent power; if I depended on substances the police had to suppress and on activities they were obliged to prosecute; if I couldn’t count on reliable friends and family to advocate for me if ever I got into trouble. I have also witnessed officers treat my clients calmly and with kindness, but I know that’s not the face they always turn toward the addict.


pages: 516 words: 159,734

War Without Mercy: PACIFIC WAR by John Dower

anti-communist, Bartolomé de las Casas, British Empire, Charles Lindbergh, colonial rule, European colonialism, ghettoisation, Gunnar Myrdal, land reform, Monroe Doctrine, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Scientific racism, South China Sea, Torches of Freedom, transcontinental railway

At times, the issue thus took on an almost surreal dimension, with criticism of the laws in the United States providing ammunition for the Japanese, which in turn provided further ammunition for the critics of the laws. Where the target was so vulnerable, the Japanese scored well. They informed their Asian audiences not only about the exclusion policy itself, but also about the harassment of Chinese at detention centers (where, a Tokyo broadcast to China declared, they were “practically treated like a class apart from the rest of humanity”), the social pressures that forced Chinese into ghettoized “Chinatowns” in the poorer residential areas, and the discrimination that relegated most of them to “the most menial of occupations, despised and mistreated and at best patronizingly tolerated with a contemptuous humor.”28 One congressman referred to this as “drivel” dished out by “chattering monkeys,” another spoke of “the childish fury of this propaganda,” but virtually no one, including President Roosevelt, denied its potential effectiveness.


pages: 519 words: 155,332

Tailspin: The People and Forces Behind America's Fifty-Year Fall--And Those Fighting to Reverse It by Steven Brill

2013 Report for America's Infrastructure - American Society of Civil Engineers - 19 March 2013, activist fund / activist shareholder / activist investor, affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, airport security, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, asset allocation, Bernie Madoff, Bernie Sanders, Blythe Masters, Bretton Woods, business process, call centre, Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, carried interest, clean water, collapse of Lehman Brothers, collective bargaining, computerized trading, corporate governance, corporate raider, corporate social responsibility, Credit Default Swap, currency manipulation / currency intervention, Donald Trump, ending welfare as we know it, failed state, financial deregulation, financial innovation, future of work, ghettoisation, Gordon Gekko, hiring and firing, Home mortgage interest deduction, immigration reform, income inequality, invention of radio, job automation, knowledge economy, knowledge worker, labor-force participation, laissez-faire capitalism, Mahatma Gandhi, Mark Zuckerberg, mortgage tax deduction, new economy, obamacare, old-boy network, paper trading, performance metric, post-work, Potemkin village, Powell Memorandum, quantitative hedge fund, Ralph Nader, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Bork, Robert Gordon, Robert Mercer, Ronald Reagan, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits, telemarketer, too big to fail, trade liberalization, union organizing, Unsafe at Any Speed, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, working poor

Celebrating the era of the 1950s and 1960s as the unalloyed heyday of infrastructure neglects the damage done to communities that did not have the power or the tools of due process to resist people like Robert Moses. As portrayed in Robert Caro’s classic biography, The Power Broker, Moses was the brilliant but arrogant czar of New York’s infrastructure in the middle of the last century. He developed a massive network of highways, parkways, parks, public housing, and beaches, but he destroyed innumerable neighborhoods and ghettoized the poor in the process. The environmental laws and the court decisions that began to take hold toward the end of his reign, starting with a 1971 Supreme Court ruling blocking a federally funded highway from cutting through a Memphis park, made sense—before they were carried too far and bottled up almost any significant construction. Beginning in the 1980s even routine projects became caught in bureaucracy and legal proceedings, which delayed them, made them more expensive, and contributed to the public’s sense that government could not do anything on time or on budget.


pages: 636 words: 140,406

The Case Against Education: Why the Education System Is a Waste of Time and Money by Bryan Caplan

affirmative action, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, assortative mating, conceptual framework, correlation does not imply causation, deliberate practice, deskilling, disruptive innovation, en.wikipedia.org, endogenous growth, experimental subject, fear of failure, Flynn Effect, future of work, George Akerlof, ghettoisation, hive mind, job satisfaction, Kenneth Arrow, Khan Academy, labor-force participation, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, market bubble, mass incarceration, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Peter Thiel, price discrimination, profit maximization, publication bias, risk tolerance, Robert Gordon, Ronald Coase, school choice, selection bias, Silicon Valley, statistical model, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, The Wisdom of Crowds, trickle-down economics, twin studies, unpaid internship, upwardly mobile, women in the workforce, yield curve, zero-sum game

., 300n89 Schoenhals, Mark, 331n25 schoolcraft as soulcraft, 199 science, knowledge of, 47–48 Scott-Clayton, Judith, 329n33 Segerstrom, Jan, 330n9 selfish return to education, 5, 285; ability and, 145–48, 271–72; college quality and, 149–51; doubts about the guidance offered, 163–64; feelings about school versus work, 153–54; gender and, 153–55; for the Good Student, 130–44 (see also Good Student, calculating the return on education for); guesswork required to calculate, 129–30, 162, 164, 274; identifying all benefits and costs, 128–29; majors and, 147–49; marriage and, 154–58; out-of-pocket costs and, 151–53; practical guidance for prudent students, 160–62; a primer on calculating the return, 125–28; social perspective versus, 124–25; spreadsheets, personalizing, 164; vocational education, applied to, 227–28; workforce participation and, 158–60 Shakespeare, William, 285 sheepskin effects: for advanced degrees, 309n5; as careers progress, 110; criminal activity and, 179–80; distinguishing human capital from signaling with, 269–70; education and crime, 326n55; estimates with explicit degree measures, 308–9n42; estimates with no explicit degree measures, 307n2; for a Good Student, 130–31; marriage and, 156; the master’s degree and, 163; signaling and, 97–102, 121–22, 168 Siddique, Zahra, 306n94 signaling model of education: academic success as labor market signal, 3, 13–14, 26, 263–64, 288; basics of, 14–15; Cautious versus Reasonable scenarios of, 167–69, 183–86, 190, 192–93, 207–8; conformity, 267–68 (see also conformity); criminal activity and, 178–80; earnings premium, human capital/signaling split of (see human capital/signaling split of the earnings premium); economic premium, explanation of, 113–14; employer learning and, 110–13; facts inexplicable without, 26–30; ghettoization of, 16; labor economists versus, 121–23, 270; learning and earning, reconciling the facts of, 39, 70, 94–97; locked-in syndrome of education and, 19–22; malemployment and, 103–8; objections to, 22–26; online education, the problem with, 220–21; personal versus national education and, 114, 117–18; policy to reverse wasteful spending on education (see education policy); productivity and, 167–70; sheepskin effect and, 97–102, 121–22, 168; signaling as “significant fraction” of education, 4; social justice and, 213–15; social return to education and, 165, 183–90 (see also social return to education); solving a great neglected social mystery with, 7; statistical discrimination, special case of, 15, 108–9; test scores and, 119–20; traits that are signaled, 16–19, 266; vocational education and, 226–29 (see also vocational education); workforce participation and, 177 Simmons, Solon, 332n23 Smith, Jeffrey, 322n108 Smith, Nicole, 310n29 Snyder, Howard, 326n56 Snyder, Thomas, 297n3, 314n80, 320n74, 324n19, 324n22, 328n16 Social Desirability Bias, 222–24, 226, 269, 280, 287, 289 socialization: school ethic versus work ethic, 64–66 social justice, signaling and, 213–15 social return to education, 285; by ability, Cautious signaling and, 184–85; by ability, Reasonable signaling and, 186–87; dismal returns and the Educational Drake Equation, 194; doubts that require further study, 192–93; gender and, 190–92; the Good Student, Cautious signaling and, 183–84; majors/skill acquisition and, 190; marital implications, 166; a primer on, 166; selfish perspective versus, 124–25, 165, 272–73; by varied ability, years of education, and signaling share, 187–90; vocational education, applied to, 228–29 social return to education, identifying the factors: from compensation to productivity, 167–70; completion probability, 174; employment, 170; experience, accounting for, 173; health, 171–72; job satisfaction, happiness, and the joy of learning, 170–71; taxes and transfers, 170; tuition and other expenses, 172–73 social return to education, purely social benefits, 174; crime reduction, 177–80, 193; economic growth, 174–75; family ripple effects, quality of children as, 180–82; family size, 182; political participation, 180; workforce participation, 176–77 sociology, discipline of, 97, 121–22, 262, 276, 287, 315n97 Solon, Gary, 315n100 Somin, Ilya, 298n26 Sondheimer, Rachel, 333n41 Soto, Marcelo, 313n69, 313n74 soul: claimed benefits of education for (see nourishing mother, education as); play as beneficial for, 256–59 special education, 172 Spence, Michael, 14, 16, 121 Stanley, Marcus, 328n21 statistical discrimination, 15, 108–9 Stephens, Melvin, 304n37 Stiglitz, Joseph, 14, 16, 323n4 Stinebrickner, Ralph, 315n101 Stinebrickner, Todd, 315n101 Stone, Chad, 317n24 Strayer, Wayne, 296n21, 309n9 Strayhorn, Terrell, 336n22 Strohl, Jeff, 310n29 student debt, 210–11 students: “finish your degree, rest on your laurels,” 98; focus on grades, reason for, 30; learning as an educational benefit for (see learning); rejoicing when classes are canceled, 29–30 subtle learning, 28 Sullivan, Arthur, 96 Sum, Andrew, 325n41 Tabarrok, Alex, 329n47 Taber, Christopher, 302n8, 303n17 Taubman, Paul, 302n9, 323n3 taxation: education and, 273; education tax, objections to, 218–19; libertarian objection to, 215–16; paid by a Good Student, 133–34; social return to education and, 170; workforce participation and, 176 teachers: dubious claims by, 59; shaping or judging students, question of, 30; teaching impractical skills and the old joke about, 287–88; teaching interests and students’ needs, disconnect between, 12–13 Tenn, Steven, 333n41 Terpstra, David, 306n86 Tesch-Romer, Clemens, 301n93 test preparation, 60 thinking skills: college attendance and, 53; college majors and specific kinds of reasoning, 56–58; informal reasoning, effect of education on, 53–54; learning, claims for and reality of, 58–59; as the product of coursework, 50; statistical reasoning and, 54–55; “transfer of learning” as a developmental measure of, 50–52 Thurow, Lester, 10 Toma, Eugenia, 328n20 Toole, John Kennedy, 64 Topel, Robert, 315n101 Torr, Berna, 334n53 Tracy, Joseph, 305n61 transfer of learning, 50–59 transfer programs: the Good Student and, 133–34; social return to education and, 170; workforce participation and, 176–77 transformative education, 259–61 Trostel, Philip, 323n113 Turner, Sarah, 328n27 Twain, Mark, 9, 215 Tyler, John, 303n18, 331n25 Uecker, Jeremy, 252 unemployment: rates by level of education, 92; reduced likelihood for educated workers, 91–92; social return to education and, 170; voluntary, 176 United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 305n72 unpaid internships, 232 usefulness, 32–38, 103, 264 Vaaler, Margaret, 252 value-added research, 120 Vedder, Richard, 306n83 vocational education, 286; child labor and, 233, 236–37; in developing countries, effectiveness of, 330n9; selfish return to, 227–28, 278–79; signaling’s share of the benefits from, 227–29; social returns to, 228–29, 278; traditionalists versus vocationalists, job training and, 233–36 voter turnout, impact of education on, 250–51 vouchers, 216–17, 276 Wagner, Richard, 239 Wales, Terence, 302n9, 323n3 Walker, Ian, 323n113 Warren, John, 331n25 Weiss, Andrew, 243, 323n4 wheat/chaff theory, 79; coursework, significance of, 80; Leno’s promotion of, 84–85; majors, significance of, 80–84; mismatch of job and major, significance of, 84 Wiles, Peter, 23 Willett, John, 303n18 Williams, Robin, 258 Woessmann, Ludger, 314n91, 330n10 Wolf, Alison, 196 Wood, Tom, 310n15 workforce participation, 158–60, 322n112.


pages: 667 words: 149,811

Economic Dignity by Gene Sperling

active measures, Affordable Care Act / Obamacare, autonomous vehicles, basic income, Bernie Sanders, Cass Sunstein, collective bargaining, corporate governance, David Brooks, desegregation, Detroit bankruptcy, Donald Trump, Double Irish / Dutch Sandwich, Elon Musk, employer provided health coverage, Erik Brynjolfsson, Ferguson, Missouri, full employment, gender pay gap, ghettoisation, gig economy, Gini coefficient, guest worker program, Gunnar Myrdal, housing crisis, income inequality, invisible hand, job automation, job satisfaction, labor-force participation, late fees, liberal world order, longitudinal study, low skilled workers, Lyft, Mark Zuckerberg, market fundamentalism, mass incarceration, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, minimum wage unemployment, obamacare, offshore financial centre, payday loans, price discrimination, profit motive, race to the bottom, RAND corporation, randomized controlled trial, Richard Thaler, ride hailing / ride sharing, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Second Machine Age, secular stagnation, shareholder value, Silicon Valley, single-payer health, speech recognition, The Chicago School, The Future of Employment, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Toyota Production System, traffic fines, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, Uber and Lyft, uber lyft, union organizing, universal basic income, War on Poverty, working poor, young professional, zero-sum game

Stern also cites and quotes extensively Michael Tanner, a senior fellow at the libertarian Cato Institute, about how “we’ve been spending more and more money developing more programs, without getting any additional benefit, for over forty years. Maybe we need to re-think the whole approach.” He adds, “According to Tanner, the biggest problem with current anti-poverty programs is that they ‘infantilize’ the poor. ‘We treat poor people like they’re three years old.’ . . . Tanner also says that the welfare system ‘ghettoizes’ the poor. ‘It forces them to live in the one area of town that offers them free public housing, grocery stores that accept food stamps, and doctors who take Medicaid.’” Raising the Floor, 186. Also consider activist Scott Santens, who approvingly cites a misleading Weekly Standard piece to suggest that “basic income is entirely affordable given all the current and hugely wasteful means-tested programs full of unnecessary bureaucracy that can be consolidated into it.”


pages: 641 words: 147,719

The Rough Guide to Cape Town, Winelands & Garden Route by Rough Guides, James Bembridge, Barbara McCrea

affirmative action, Airbnb, blood diamonds, British Empire, Cape to Cairo, carbon footprint, colonial rule, F. W. de Klerk, ghettoisation, haute cuisine, Maui Hawaii, Murano, Venice glass, Nelson Mandela, out of africa, ride hailing / ride sharing, Robert Gordon, Skype, sustainable-tourism, trade route, transfer pricing, young professional

Rumours of their demise abounded in 2017, but everything about these masterful image manipulators, who can be seen on the big screen in Neill Blomkamp’s Chappie, should be taken with a pinch of sout. DJ-mixed South African house manages to cross racial and cultural boundaries, attracting practitioners and fans from all sectors of the country, though it is dominated by black DJs such as DJ Fresh, Glen Lewis, DJ Mbuso, Thibo Tazz, DJ Fosta and Oskido. Meanwhile, South African rap has enjoyed sustained popularity since the early 1990s, remaining mostly ghettoized within the coloured community of the Western Cape apart from the likes of Soweto wunderkind Spoek Mathambo. Heavily influenced by African-American rappers, performers often exude a sense of being “Americans trapped in Africa”, but many mix in Cape slang and mine local life for material. Pioneers of the style were the heavily politicized Prophets of Da City, who included rapper Shaheen Ariefdien.


The Rough Guide to Jamaica by Thomas, Polly,Henzell, Laura.,Coates, Rob.,Vaitilingam, Adam.

buttonwood tree, call centre, centre right, colonial rule, computer age, ghettoisation, jitney, Kickstarter, post-work, Ronald Reagan, Saturday Night Live, sustainable-tourism, trade route

Patterson, it’s designed to appeal to mega-yachts and (as yet nonexistent) small cruise ships, with state-of-the-art docking facilities, elegant landscaped gardens, a pool, and gift shops in pastel-coloured wooden buildings. You’ll also find a Devon House ice-cream parlour here, along with a good restaurant and tour company offices. Perhaps controversially, the entire development is secured behind enormous gates, with security guards vetting all comers; the atmosphere is no doubt refreshing after Port Antonio’s street bustle, but ghettoizing the yachties just seems to reinforce age-old divisions. Errol Flynn Marina, Port Antonio | Port Antonio The largest of the small islands that dot the Portland coast, NAVY ISLAND lies just off the mainland, and is closed to the public. The British Navy used it in the eighteenth century – hence the name – and Captain Bligh landed here in 1793, bringing yet more breadfruit from Tahiti (see p.110).


pages: 777 words: 186,993

Imagining India by Nandan Nilekani

addicted to oil, affirmative action, Airbus A320, BRICs, British Empire, business process, business process outsourcing, call centre, clean water, colonial rule, corporate governance, cuban missile crisis, deindustrialization, demographic dividend, demographic transition, Deng Xiaoping, digital map, distributed generation, farmers can use mobile phones to check market prices, full employment, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, global supply chain, Hernando de Soto, income inequality, informal economy, information asymmetry, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), joint-stock company, knowledge economy, land reform, light touch regulation, LNG terminal, load shedding, low cost airline, Mahatma Gandhi, market fragmentation, mass immigration, Mikhail Gorbachev, Network effects, new economy, New Urbanism, open economy, Parag Khanna, pension reform, Potemkin village, price mechanism, race to the bottom, rent control, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, school vouchers, Silicon Valley, smart grid, special economic zone, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, Thomas L Friedman, Thomas Malthus, transaction costs, trickle-down economics, unemployed young men, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, women in the workforce, working poor, working-age population

The result is a certain cynicism, evident in what a prominent politician said to me when I buttonholed him with some policy ideas: “I don’t see much upside in talking to you—you’re neither good for notes [money] nor votes.” During such conversations I have felt very far away from India’s new optimism and its bustling markets. It is not easy to find common ground—between governments, entrepreneurs, the middle class and the poor—when people’s priorities and incentives are set so wide apart. In fact our ideas for the Indian economy have in recent years become more ghettoized than ever. A different view I have been fortunate to have had a unique perch from where to witness these divisions. I am of course an outsider in India’s politics, but the label also applies to me when it comes to Indian business. Having cofounded and worked in Infosys for twenty-six years, I can call myself an Indian entrepreneur. But as an information technology (IT) company, Infosys always faced challenges different from the rest of the Indian industry.


The power broker : Robert Moses and the fall of New York by Caro, Robert A

Albert Einstein, American Society of Civil Engineers: Report Card, bank run, British Empire, card file, centre right, East Village, friendly fire, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, housing crisis, Internet Archive, invisible hand, Isaac Newton, land reform, Ralph Waldo Emerson, rent control, Right to Buy, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, working poor, Works Progress Administration, young professional

The dispossessed, barred from many areas of the city by their color and their poverty, had no place to go but into the already overcrowded slums—or into "soft" borderline areas that then became slums, so that his "slum clearance programs" created new slums as fast as they were clearing the old. When he built housing for poor people, he built housing bleak, sterile, cheap—expressive of patronizing condescension in every line. And he built it in locations that contributed to the ghettoization of the city, dividing up the city by color and income. And by skewing city expenditures toward revenue-producing services, he prevented the city from reaching out toward its poor and assimilating them, and teaching them how to live in such housing—and the very people for whom he built it reacted with rage and bitterness and ignorance, and defaced it. He built parks and playgrounds with a lavish hand, but they were parks and playgrounds for the rich and the comfortable.

His denial of funds for the extension of mass transit lines into outlying sections of the city and into the suburbs meant that the new homes and apartments there would be occupied only by car-owning families. Whether by design or not, the ultimate effect of Moses' transportation policies would be to help keep the city's poor trapped in their slums. They were in effect policies not only of transportation but of ghettoization, policies with immense social implications. "We knew we had to do something to halt this trend," reformer Leigh Denniston said in a letter-to-the-editor. "And we were asking how best to do it." The answer to all the questions raised about Moses' transportation policies was, of course, mass transportation. The problems involved in moving tens of thousands of commuters into and out of the center city in a couple of peak hours every weekday—problems so unmanageable in terms of highway lanes whose peak capacity was 1,500 cars per hour—were reduced to manageable size by rapid transit lines, a single track of which could carry between 40,000 and 50,000 persons per hour, and could bring them into the city without their cars, so that they wouldn't require parking spaces.

He had, moreover, been fighting Moses for eight years now, and he was well aware he wasn't getting anywhere. His report on the rapid transit reservation might as well have not been written. He resigned. As for the Mumfords and other farseeing planners, Moses treated their predictions of disaster with the disdain he felt they deserved. Opponents who charged that he was unaware of the social implications of his transportation policies—that the ghettoization they caused and the commercial development they prevented on Long Island, for example, was inadvertent—underestimated him. He knew precisely what he was doing. He had formed his own vision of Long Island long ago, and all he was doing now was holding true to it—and that vision did not include poor people or jobs. In a 1945 speech before the Nassau Bar Association, which included most of the county's political leaders, he said: There seems to have been a good deal of sentiment in Nassau in favor of attracting more industry and business into the county.


The Transformation Of Ireland 1900-2000 by Diarmaid Ferriter

anti-communist, Bob Geldof, British Empire, Celtic Tiger, collective bargaining, deliberate practice, edge city, falling living standards, financial independence, ghettoisation, greed is good, hiring and firing, housing crisis, immigration reform, income per capita, land reform, manufacturing employment, moral panic, New Journalism, New Urbanism, offshore financial centre, open economy, postnationalism / post nation state, sensible shoes, the market place, upwardly mobile, urban renewal, wage slave, women in the workforce

Such edifices, particularly on the Northside, had once been highly fashionable and at the hub of commercial activity, which had now moved to the other side of the city; and having purchased them, landlords tended to let individual rooms to families. Paul-Dubois estimated that the percentage of families living in one-room tenements in 1901 was 36, compared to 15 in London, and as little as one in Cork and Belfast.55 Those intent on reform through slum clearance and new construction often found their plans were overshadowed by the desire to contain contagious disease within the slums and the continued ghettoisation of the poor, who were often depicted as being morally as well as materially in dire straits, by both state and charity organisations. On the eve of the new century, the Daily Nation had warned of the need to face up to the slum evil ‘or else punishment neither light nor pleasant will follow as a consequence of their apathy and neglect’.56 There was no shortage of outrage expressed at such conditions in the opening years of the twentieth century and, indeed, there was much analysis, particularly in response to particular episodes and tragedies.


pages: 717 words: 196,908

The Idea of Decline in Western History by Arthur Herman

agricultural Revolution, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, David Attenborough, European colonialism, George Santayana, ghettoisation, hiring and firing, Joan Didion, laissez-faire capitalism, late capitalism, lateral thinking, liberal capitalism, mass immigration, means of production, Menlo Park, Nelson Mandela, Norman Mailer, nuclear winter, plutocrats, Plutocrats, post scarcity, profit motive, road to serfdom, Robert Bork, Scientific racism, Scramble for Africa, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the scientific method, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, transcontinental railway, upwardly mobile

Standard history, according to Molefi Asante, is “killing our children by killing their minds.”77 As such, it forms part of the next step in the white genocidal conspiracy: the myth of integration, which whites believe, according to Chancellor Williams, “will effectively check the alarming development of pride in race, a sense of cultural identity with one’s blood line.” When that fails, whites are forced to fall back on a final line of defense. This is “the Plan,” the mass genocidal extermination of blacks through drugs, ghettoization, violent crime, and AIDS. Since all these social problems take a disproportionate toll on blacks, as Leonard Jeffries points out, they “certainly have to be looked at as part of a larger conspiratorial process.” The Plan provides one more example of the white attempt to prevent the forward march of black vitality through history by using “black lives and psyches as the seemingly endless fodder in a system set up by white males for the benefit of white males.”78 “At the heart of history,” Molfani Karenga writes, “is the struggle against others who threaten human life, freedom, and development,” which means capitalism, racism, fascism, apartheid, and colonialism.79 The black man’s struggle is not a Marxist or Darwinian struggle but a vitalist one.


Lonely Planet London City Guide by Tom Masters, Steve Fallon, Vesna Maric

Boris Johnson, British Empire, centre right, Clapham omnibus, congestion charging, dark matter, discovery of the americas, double helix, East Village, financial independence, first-past-the-post, ghettoisation, haute cuisine, Isaac Newton, John Snow's cholera map, Mahatma Gandhi, market design, Nelson Mandela, place-making, South of Market, San Francisco, Stephen Hawking, transatlantic slave trade, urban planning, urban renewal, Winter of Discontent, young professional

In general I always try to go to the alternative clubs rather than the mainstream ones – London has a first-class underground scene that dates back decades. The best thing about gay London? The diversity of the people and the clubs is the best thing – there’s something for everyone: gay book clubs, gay jazz clubs and even gay choirs. But more importantly the gay scene (particularly the more alternative side of it) manages not to ghettoize itself too much – everyone remains welcome. …and the worst? The gentrification of traditional gay places such as Soho is sad to see, as are the high prices in some bars and the nonacceptance of women and straight people in some more mainstream gay bars and clubs. And how does the lesbian scene fit into that? It’s strange – for years lesbians kept themselves very separate from the male gay scene and then the two began to converge much more, which was a welcome breath of fresh air.


Saving America's Cities: Ed Logue and the Struggle to Renew Urban America in the Suburban Age by Lizabeth Cohen

activist lawyer, affirmative action, Albert Einstein, anti-communist, British Empire, Buckminster Fuller, car-free, charter city, deindustrialization, desegregation, Edward Glaeser, garden city movement, ghettoisation, Henry Ford's grandson gave labor union leader Walter Reuther a tour of the company’s new, automated factory…, hiring and firing, housing crisis, income inequality, indoor plumbing, Jane Jacobs, land reform, megastructure, new economy, New Urbanism, Peter Eisenman, postindustrial economy, race to the bottom, rent control, Robert Gordon, rolodex, Ronald Reagan, the built environment, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban decay, urban planning, urban renewal, Victor Gruen, Vilfredo Pareto, walkable city, War on Poverty, white flight, white picket fence, young professional

REDESIGNING MASS HOUSING During Logue’s time in New Haven and Boston, architects had benefited greatly from the federal government’s investment in urban renewal. Now, with the visibility and resources of the UDC at his disposal, Logue felt he had an even greater opportunity to engage architects in design innovation. At the top of his list stood finding viable alternatives to the high-rise public housing that for years he had dismissed as dehumanizing and ghettoizing. Although he estimated that it might cost 5 to 10 percent more to hire better architects to do good design, Logue said, “I thought it was worth it. And when you look at the public housing that Bob Moses built as against the parks he built, for example, it’s outrageous … He set a [disastrous] national model.”149 Quality design, Logue was confident, could also help “remove the stigma attached to housing built under public assistance programs.”150 The architect Werner Seligmann—architecture professor at Cornell and Harvard in the era of the UDC, later dean of the School of Architecture at Syracuse University, and the designer of a prominent, moderate-income UDC project, Elm Street Housing, in Ithaca—described the dire situation in 1974: “Less than 10 years ago most schools of architecture considered the topic of housing hardly worthy of investigation … This lack of concern explains the few significant housing innovations and dearth of housing models in the United States.”


pages: 901 words: 234,905

The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature by Steven Pinker

affirmative action, Albert Einstein, Alfred Russel Wallace, anti-communist, British Empire, clean water, cognitive dissonance, Columbine, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, Defenestration of Prague, desegregation, epigenetics, Exxon Valdez, George Akerlof, germ theory of disease, ghettoisation, glass ceiling, Hobbesian trap, income inequality, invention of agriculture, invisible hand, Joan Didion, long peace, meta analysis, meta-analysis, More Guns, Less Crime, Murray Gell-Mann, mutually assured destruction, Norman Mailer, Peter Singer: altruism, phenotype, plutocrats, Plutocrats, Potemkin village, prisoner's dilemma, profit motive, QWERTY keyboard, Richard Feynman, Richard Thaler, risk tolerance, Robert Bork, Rodney Brooks, Saturday Night Live, social intelligence, speech recognition, Stanford prison experiment, stem cell, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, the new new thing, theory of mind, Thomas Malthus, Thorstein Veblen, twin studies, ultimatum game, urban renewal, War on Poverty, women in the workforce, Yogi Berra, zero-sum game

A banana is worth more to me in a store down the street than it is in a warehouse a hundred miles away, so I am willing to pay more to the grocer than I would to the importer—even though by “eliminating the middleman” I could pay less per banana. For similar reasons, the importer is willing to charge the grocer less than he would charge me. But because lenders and middlemen do not cause tangible objects to come into being, their contributions are difficult to grasp, and they are often thought of as skimmers and parasites. A recurring event in human history is the outbreak of ghettoization, confiscation, expulsion, and mob violence against middlemen, often ethnic minorities who learned to specialize in the middleman niche.49 The Jews in Europe are the most familiar example, but the expatriate Chinese, the Lebanese, the Armenians, and the Gujeratis and Chettyars of India have suffered similar histories of persecution. One economist in an unusual situation showed how the physical fallacy does not depend on any unique historical circumstance but easily arises from human psychology.


pages: 1,002 words: 276,865

The Great Sea: A Human History of the Mediterranean by David Abulafia

agricultural Revolution, British Empire, colonial rule, David Attenborough, Eratosthenes, ghettoisation, joint-stock company, long peace, mass immigration, out of africa, spice trade, trade route, wikimedia commons, Yom Kippur War

Alongside merchants who came for the metals of Italy, we can soon detect artisans who travelled west to settle in the lands of the barbaroi, knowing that their skills would probably earn them greater esteem than at home, where each was one of many. There are striking parallels in later centuries. Alien traders are an obvious feature of the medieval Mediterranean, where we have the intriguing phenomenon of the ghettoized merchant visiting Islamic or Byzantine territory, enclosed in an inn or fonduk that also functioned as a warehouse, chapel, bakehouse and bath-house, with one inn for each major ‘nation’: Genoese, Venetian, Catalan and so on. The sense that the merchant might be a source of religious contamination and political subversion led the rulers of Egypt to lock the doors of these inns at night-time (the keys being held by Muslims on the outside).


pages: 1,145 words: 310,655

1967: Israel, the War, and the Year That Transformed the Middle East by Tom Segev

affirmative action, anti-communist, Berlin Wall, Boycotts of Israel, British Empire, cuban missile crisis, distributed generation, friendly fire, full employment, ghettoisation, illegal immigration, invisible hand, mass immigration, open borders, Ronald Reagan, Yom Kippur War, young professional

Toward the end of 1966, Eshkol had again invited Chuvakhin to tour the north, and the ambassador once again refused.20 Israel denied the Soviet claims. “Instead of warning the aggressor, they warn the victim,” Eshkol complained. To the assertion that Israel was aligned with “the imperialists” he responded almost with insult: “Israel the liberator, which freed its people from the generations-long bonds of exile and ghettoization; Israel, a victim of pogroms all over the world, that now returns to its homeland after thousands of years; Israel, the first to rid itself of a foreign power when it realized that this power could not fulfill its hopes— we are being driven by imperialism?” But at the end of December 1966, Shlomo Argov at the Israeli embassy in London raised a question that had troubled him for some time: was it possible that Israel was unwittingly becoming a pawn of foreign oil companies?


pages: 1,157 words: 379,558

Ashes to Ashes: America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris by Richard Kluger

air freight, Albert Einstein, California gold rush, cognitive dissonance, corporate raider, desegregation, double entry bookkeeping, family office, feminist movement, full employment, ghettoisation, Indoor air pollution, medical malpractice, Mikhail Gorbachev, plutocrats, Plutocrats, publication bias, Ralph Nader, Ralph Waldo Emerson, RAND corporation, rent-seeking, risk tolerance, Ronald Reagan, selection bias, The Chicago School, the scientific method, Torches of Freedom, trade route, transaction costs, traveling salesman, union organizing, upwardly mobile, urban planning, urban renewal, War on Poverty

At restaurants, even when obeying the separate seating rules, they hid their cigarettes under the table and waved away the smoke to avoid the dirty looks of smoke-sensitive patrons. And at offices and plants, those desperate for a cigarette were disappearing into hallways, stairwells, and rest rooms, hovering outside building entrances, even hunching against outside walls to avoid the raw elements, and if allowed to indulge in a ghettoized quadrant within the cafeteria, some gulped down two or three cigarettes’ worth of smoke within the time normally allotted for one. The Wall Street Journal reported that some executives were finding their path to career advancement impeded by their smoking affliction, which their superiors inclined to view as a symptom of deficient self-control or weak character. But at all levels, smokers sensed the growing animosity.


pages: 1,351 words: 385,579

The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined by Steven Pinker

1960s counterculture, affirmative action, Alan Turing: On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem, Albert Einstein, availability heuristic, Berlin Wall, Bonfire of the Vanities, British Empire, Broken windows theory, business cycle, California gold rush, Cass Sunstein, citation needed, clean water, cognitive dissonance, colonial rule, Columbine, computer age, conceptual framework, correlation coefficient, correlation does not imply causation, crack epidemic, cuban missile crisis, Daniel Kahneman / Amos Tversky, David Brooks, delayed gratification, demographic transition, desegregation, Doomsday Clock, Douglas Hofstadter, Edward Glaeser, en.wikipedia.org, European colonialism, experimental subject, facts on the ground, failed state, first-past-the-post, Flynn Effect, food miles, Francis Fukuyama: the end of history, fudge factor, full employment, George Santayana, ghettoisation, Gini coefficient, global village, Henri Poincaré, Hobbesian trap, humanitarian revolution, impulse control, income inequality, informal economy, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), invention of the printing press, Isaac Newton, lake wobegon effect, libertarian paternalism, long peace, longitudinal study, loss aversion, Marshall McLuhan, mass incarceration, McMansion, means of production, mental accounting, meta analysis, meta-analysis, Mikhail Gorbachev, moral panic, mutually assured destruction, Nelson Mandela, open economy, Peace of Westphalia, Peter Singer: altruism, QWERTY keyboard, race to the bottom, Ralph Waldo Emerson, random walk, Republic of Letters, Richard Thaler, Ronald Reagan, Rosa Parks, Saturday Night Live, security theater, Skype, Slavoj Žižek, South China Sea, Stanford marshmallow experiment, Stanford prison experiment, statistical model, stem cell, Steven Levy, Steven Pinker, The Bell Curve by Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray, The Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith, theory of mind, transatlantic slave trade, Turing machine, twin studies, ultimatum game, uranium enrichment, Vilfredo Pareto, Walter Mischel, WikiLeaks, women in the workforce, zero-sum game

A second mechanism of moral disengagement is gradualism. People can slide into barbarities a baby step at a time that they would never undertake in a single plunge, because at no point does it feel like they are doing anything terribly different from the current norm.290 An infamous historical example is the Nazis’ euthanizing of the handicapped and mentally retarded and their disenfranchisement, harassment, ghettoization, and deportation of the Jews, which culminated in the events referred to by the ultimate euphemism, the Final Solution. Another example is the phasing of decisions in the conduct of war. Material assistance to an ally can morph into military advisors and then into escalating numbers of soldiers, particularly in a war of attrition. The bombing of factories can shade into the bombing of factories near neighborhoods, which can shade into the bombing of neighborhoods.